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1

Analysis of a passive ex-vessel core retention device during a postulated core melt event  

SciTech Connect

An assessment has been carried out on the penetration of a molten core into a passive ex-vessel retention device (constructed from MgO). The MELSAC computer code has been developed to model molten UO/sub 2/ penetrating MgO. The model also accounts for the feedback effect of heating-up surrounding structures. The sensitivity of MgO penetration and heating-up of structures to a range of MELSAC input variables was evaluated. The scoping study indicated that the amount of heat that can be rejected to structures above the pool tends to control the penetration of MgO. The installation of a core retention device greatly increases the time at which a molten core would be released from containment. However, structures in the reactor cavity would have to be protected to prevent damage by thermal radiation from the pool surface.

Pratt, W.T.; Gasser, R.D.

1980-01-01

2

Core melt spreading on a reactor containment floor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ex-vessel core melt spreading, cooling and stabilization is proposed for a nuclear power plant containment design. Clearly, the retention and coolability of the decay-heated core debris is very much the focal point in the proposed new and advanced designs so that, in the postulated event of a severe accident, the containment integrity is maintained and the risk of radioactivity

T. N Dinh; M. J Konovalikhin; B. R Sehgal

2000-01-01

3

Investigations on the Melt Gate Ablation by Ex-Vessel Core Melts in the KAPOOL Experiments  

SciTech Connect

In future Light Water Reactors (LWR) containment failure should be prevented even for very unlikely core meltdown sequences with reactor pressure vessel (RPV) failure. In the case of such a postulated core meltdown accident in a future LWR the ex-vessel melt shall be retained and cooled in a special compartment inside the containment to exclude significant radioactive release to the environment. In such a case, a gate has to be designed to allow the melt release from the reactor cavity into the compartment. A series of transient experiments has been performed to investigate the melt gate ablation using iron and alumina melts as a simulant for the corium melt. The results of the KAPOOL tests are analyzed with the HEATING5 code in order to evaluate realistic cases of internally heated corium melts and melt gates with the same theoretical tool. (authors)

Eppinger, Beatrix; Schmidt-Stiefel, Sike; Tromm, Walter [Institut fuer Kern- und Energietechnik, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

2002-07-01

4

Vaporization of core materials in postulated severe light water reactor accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vaporization of core materials other than fission products during a postulated severe light water reactor accident is treated by chemical thermodynamics. The core materials considered were (a) the control rod materials, silver, cadmium, and indium; (b) the structural materials, iron, chromium, nickel, and manganese; (c) cladding material, zirconium and tin; and (d) the fuel, uranium oxide. Thermodynamic data employed

D. Cubicciotti; B. R. Sehgal

1984-01-01

5

Containment response to postulated core meltdown accidents in the fast flux test facility  

SciTech Connect

An assessment is made of the containment margin available in the Fast Flux Test Facility to mitigate the consequences of a postulated failure of in-vessel post-accident heat removal following a hypothetical core disruptive accident. The consequences of a number of assumed meltdown configurations (both in-vessel and ex-vessel) are assessed using the CACECO (CAvty, CEll, COntainment) containment analysis computer code together with currently available melt front penetration models. The sensitivity of the accident scenarios to a number of crucial assumptions is established by scoping studies. It is concluded from both the in-vessel and exvessel analyses that sodium vapor combustion is a major source of reactor containment building (RCB) pressurization. The conditions (a combination of sodium-concrete reaction, pool size, and decay heat level) that most rapidly bring the sodium to boiling, together with those that enhance mass transfer of sodium vapor to the RCB, are the ones that most significantly affect the pressure response.

Gasser, R.D.; Pratt, W.T.

1980-02-01

6

Core-Melt Source Reduction System (COMSORS) to terminate LWR core-melt accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the design, safety, and licensing issues for the next generation of light-water reactors is this: What approach should be used to terminate a reactor core-melt accident and ensure no reactor containment failure in the unlikely event of an accident that results in core debris upon the containment floor The safety concerns are that the debris will (1) melt

C. W. Forsberg; E. C. Beahm; G. W. Parker

1992-01-01

7

Core-Melt Source Reduction System (COMSORS) to terminate LWR core-melt accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the design, safety, and licensing issues for the next generation of light-water reactors is this: What approach should be used to terminate a reactor core-melt accident and ensure no reactor containment failure in the unlikely event of an accident that results in core debris upon the containment floor? The safety concerns are that the debris will (1) melt

C. W. Forsberg; E. C. Beahm; G. W. Parker

1992-01-01

8

Core-melt source reduction system to terminate an LWR core-melt accident  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the design, safety, and licensing issues for the next generation of light water reactors (LWRs) is, [open quotes]What approach should be used to terminate a reactor core-melt accident and ensure no reactor containment failure in the unlikely event of an accident that results in core debris melting through the reactor vessel onto the concrete containment floor [close quotes

C. W. Forsberg; E. C. Beahm; G. W. Parker

1992-01-01

9

MAIN FEATURES OF THE CORE MELT STABILIZATION SYSTEM OF THE EUROPEAN PRESSURIZED WATER REACTOR (EPR)  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the European Pressurized Water Reactor (EPR) a fourth level of defense-in-depth has been introduced to limit the consequences of a postulated severe accident with core melting. This requires to strengthen the containment and to implement measures which can either prevent high loads on the containment structures or mitigate effects of severe accidents in a way to maintain the containment

Dietmar Bittermann; Manfred Fischer; Markus Nie

10

Protective Measures and Regulatory Strategies for Core Melt Accidents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is considering the promulgation of new regulations concerning core-melt accidents (CMAs). An Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, which addresses both degraded and melted cores, has already been issued. These ques...

1982-01-01

11

Fe Melting at the Conditions of the Earth's Core  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since iron is the primary constituent of the Earth's core, understanding its properties at high pressures and temperatures is of great geophysical importance. In particular, its melting temperature, along with those of its alloys, constrains the composition and temperature at the inner-core, outer-core boundary. We present findings on the melting behavior of Fe from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Our description

S. Akber-Knutson; A. van Duin; P. D. Asimow; T. J. Ahrens; W. A. Goddard

2005-01-01

12

Isotope thermometry in melt-affected ice cores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summertime melt at ice core sites can lead to enrichment of isotopic valuesIsotopic enrichment results in overestimation of ice core-derived temperaturesCorrection of isotopic enrichment improves temperature estimates

T. Moran; S. J. Marshall; M. J. Sharp

2011-01-01

13

Ex-vessel core melt stabilization research (ECOSTAR)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The project ECOSTAR (acronym for ex-vessel core melt stabilization research) involves in total 17 organizations from five European countries. The objective of the project is to demonstrate the technical feasibility of core melt mitigation measures outside the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) as well as the validation of a selected set of codes in order to provide the necessary input for

W Steinwarz; W Koller; N Dyllong; W Häfner; C Journeau; J. M Seiler; K Froment; G Cognet; S Goldstein; M Fischer; S Hellmann; M Nie; M Eddi; H Alsmeyer; H.-J Allelein; C Spengler; M Bürger; B. R Sehgal; M. K Koch; T Büscher; Z Alkan; J. B Petrov; M Gaune-Escard; F.-P Weiss; E Altstadt; G Bandini

2003-01-01

14

On backfitting engineering safety features to mitigate core melt accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

In October 1980, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission published its intent to initiate rulemaking, to consider to what extent, if any, nuclear power plants should be designed to deal effectively with degraded core and core melt accidents. This paper focuses on the issues surrounding the proposed rulemaking for consideration of degraded cores. It is intended to provide a short historical perspective,

Kastenberg

1982-01-01

15

Safety research on iodine plateout during postulated HTGR core heatup events  

Microsoft Academic Search

In support of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) studies on the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), an experimental program was conducted for iodine plateout on HTGR primary circuit metals during core heatup conditions. Metal iodine formation and adsorption characteristics were measured primarily for mild steel and to a limited extent for Incoloy 800 and other alloys. Pseudoisopiestic tests indicated quantitative formation of

A. W. Barsell; O. P. Chawla; C. G. Hoot

1980-01-01

16

Use of Molten Core Concrete Interactions in the Melt Stabilization Strategy of the EPR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The EPR is equipped with a core melt stabilization system to prevent basemat attack and melt through in a severe accident with core melting. The basic conceptual idea behind this system is to spread the core melt on a large area located lateral to the reactor pit and to cool it from all sides. Spreading transforms the melt into a

Markus Nie; Manfred Fischer

2006-01-01

17

Ion fractionation and percolation in ice cores with seasonal melting  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the impact that post- depositional change has on ion concentrations in ice cores that suffer limited seasonal melting. We show that the impact in the case of at least one Svalbard ice core is limited to decreasing resolution of signals to about 3 years - a similar accuracy as the best dating can usually provide. We model various

John C. Moore; Aslak Grinsted

18

Investigation of the Core Melt Accident in Light Water Reactors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the thesis the core melt accident, heating up and collapsing of the reactor core were investigated. The most important parameters of influence were found and their effect on the development of the accident were shown. A causal diagram was developed rep...

H. Koerber

1980-01-01

19

Controlling and cooling core melts outside the pressure vessel  

Microsoft Academic Search

For future reactors, the control and cooling of ex-vessel corium melts is under consideration to increase the passive safety features even for very unlikely severe accidents. In this context, different research activities are studying ex-vessel corium behaviour and control, including the implementation of a core cooling device outside the reactor pressure vessel in order to prevent basement erosion and to

H Alsmeyer; G Albrecht; G Fieg; U Stegmaier; W Tromm; H Werle

2000-01-01

20

Reevaluation of the reconstruction of summer temperatures from melt features in Belukha ice cores, Siberian Altai  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a previous study, past summer temperatures were reconstructed from melt features in the Belukha ice core, Siberian Altai. We evaluated the climatic representativeness of net accumulation and melt features by comparing two Belukha ice cores retrieved at neighboring sites by different institutions and dated by different methods. Melt features in both cores showed a significant correlation, but the trends

Sachiko Okamoto; Koji Fujita; Hideki Narita; Jun Uetake; Nozomu Takeuchi; Takayuki Miyake; Fumio Nakazawa; Vladimir B. Aizen; Stanislav A. Nikitin; Masayoshi Nakawo

2011-01-01

21

Termination of light-water reactor core-melt accidents with a chemical core catcher: the core-melt source reduction system (COMSORS)  

SciTech Connect

The Core-Melt Source Reduction System (COMSORS) is a new approach to terminate light-water reactor core melt accidents and ensure containment integrity. A special dissolution glass is placed under the reactor vessel. If core debris is released onto the glass, the glass melts and the debris dissolves into the molten glass, thus creating a homogeneous molten glass. The molten glass, with dissolved core debris, spreads into a wide pool, distributing the heat for removal by radiation to the reactor cavity above or by transfer to water on top of the molten glass. Expected equilibrium glass temperatures are approximately 600 degrees C. The creation of a low-temperature, homogeneous molten glass with known geometry permits cooling of the glass without threatening containment integrity. This report describes the technology, initial experiments to measure key glass properties, and modeling of COMSORS operations.

Forsberg, C.W.; Parker, G.W.; Rudolph, J.C.; Osborne-Lee, I.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kenton, M.A. [Dames and Moore, Westmont, IL (United States)

1996-09-01

22

Theoretical Investigations of the COMET Concept for Ex-Vessel Core Melt Retention  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the very unlikely case of a core melt accident in a nuclear power plant, the reactor pressure vessel could fail and corium melt could be released into the reactor cavity. A threat of the containment integrity could result. As a counter-measure the implementation of a core catcher device into nuclear power plants is envisaged. Such a core catcher concept

Walter Widmann; Manfred Buerger; Guenter Lohnert; Hans Alsmeyer

2004-01-01

23

Water isotopic ratios from a continuously melted ice core sample  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new technique for on-line high resolution isotopic analysis of liquid water, tailored for ice core studies is presented. We build an interface between an Infra Red Cavity Ring Down Spectrometer (IR-CRDS) and a Continuous Flow Analysis (CFA) system. The system offers the possibility to perform simultaneuous water isotopic analysis of ?18O and ?D on a continuous stream of liquid water as generated from a continuously melted ice rod. Injection of sub ?l amounts of liquid water is achieved by pumping sample through a fused silica capillary and instantaneously vaporizing it with 100 % efficiency in a home made oven at a temperature of 170 °C. A calibration procedure allows for proper reporting of the data on the VSMOW scale. We apply the necessary corrections based on the assessed performance of the system regarding instrumental drifts and dependance on humidity levels. The melt rates are monitored in order to assign a depth scale to the measured isotopic profiles. Application of spectral methods yields the combined uncertainty of the system at below 0.1 ‰ and 0.5 ‰ for ?18O and ?D, respectively. This performance is comparable to that achieved with mass spectrometry. Dispersion of the sample in the transfer lines limits the resolution of the technique. In this work we investigate and assess these dispersion effects. By using an optimal filtering method we show how the measured profiles can be corrected for the smoothing effects resulting from the sample dispersion. Considering the significant advantages the technique offers, i.e. simultaneuous measurement of ?18O and ?D, potentially in combination with chemical components that are traditionally measured on CFA systems, notable reduction on analysis time and power consumption, we consider it as an alternative to traditional isotope ratio mass spectrometry with the possibility to be deployed for field ice core studies. We present data acquired in the framework of the NEEM deep ice core drilling project in Greenland, during the 2010 field season.

Gkinis, V.; Popp, T. J.; Blunier, T.; Bigler, M.; Schüpbach, S.; Johnsen, S. J.

2011-06-01

24

Use of Molten Core Concrete Interactions in the Melt Stabilization Strategy of the EPR  

SciTech Connect

The EPR is equipped with a core melt stabilization system to prevent basemat attack and melt through in a severe accident with core melting. The basic conceptual idea behind this system is to spread the core melt on a large area located lateral to the reactor pit and to cool it from all sides. Spreading transforms the melt into a coolable configuration by significantly increasing the melt surface/volume ratio. A fundamental precursor for successful spreading and thus long-term melt stabilization is temporary melt retention in the reactor pit. The purpose of this retention is to decouple the long-term stabilisation from the uncertainties involved in in-vessel processes, RPV failure mode and corresponding melt discharge sequence. Its specific objectives are (i) to accumulate the melt in cases of sequential melt releases and (ii) to unify and to condition the spectrum of in-vessel melt characteristics at the time of and for spreading. Temporary melt retention is based on molten core concrete interactions (MCCI) with sacrificial concrete. The present paper highlights the inherent advantages of using MCCI to achieve the goals of the temporary melt retention and also discusses the corresponding verification with the MCCI code COSACO. (authors)

Nie, Markus; Fischer, Manfred [AREVA NP GmbH, Freyeslebenstr. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

2006-07-01

25

Fission product release from core-concrete melts  

SciTech Connect

Based on measurements with a He-H2O carrier gas, release fraction values for lanthanum, barium, and strontium gaseous fission product species have been obtained from small-scale core-concrete melts at 2150 and 2385K. The sample configuration consisted of a layer of limestone or basaltic concrete granules, a layer of urania fuel granules containing La2O3, BaO, and SrO in solid solution, and a metal layer consisting of a mixture of stainless steel and Zircaloy between the fuel and concrete. The following trends in fission product release fraction values were found: Ba > Sr > La. Release fraction values based on measured release of fuel, cladding, structural, and concrete species are presented.

Tetenbaum, M.; Fink, J.K.; Johnson, C.E.; Ritzman, R.L.

1986-01-01

26

Current Status of Core Degradation and Melt Progression in Severe LWR Accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a summary of the current state of technical knowledge and the principal remaining technical uncertainties regarding\\u000a the processes of core degradation and in-vessel core-melt progression extending up to vessel failure in LWR core-melt accidents,\\u000a including the consequences of core reflooding. The yard stick for considering the significance of the remaining technical\\u000a uncertainties has been estimates of whether

Robert W. Wright

1997-01-01

27

Core Formation by Giant Impacts: Conditions for Intact Melt Region Formation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Among the many effects of high-speed, giant impacts is widescale melting that can potentially trigger catastrophic core formation. If the projectile is sufficiently large, the melt pools to form an intact melt region. The dense phase then segregates from ...

W. B. Tonks H. J. Melosh

1993-01-01

28

Water isotopic ratios from a continuously melted ice core sample  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new technique for on-line high resolution isotopic analysis of liquid water, tailored for ice core studies is presented. We built an interface between a Wavelength Scanned Cavity Ring Down Spectrometer (WS-CRDS) purchased from Picarro Inc. and a Continuous Flow Analysis (CFA) system. The system offers the possibility to perform simultaneuous water isotopic analysis of ?18O and ?D on a continuous stream of liquid water as generated from a continuously melted ice rod. Injection of sub ?l amounts of liquid water is achieved by pumping sample through a fused silica capillary and instantaneously vaporizing it with 100% efficiency in a~home made oven at a temperature of 170 °C. A calibration procedure allows for proper reporting of the data on the VSMOW-SLAP scale. We apply the necessary corrections based on the assessed performance of the system regarding instrumental drifts and dependance on the water concentration in the optical cavity. The melt rates are monitored in order to assign a depth scale to the measured isotopic profiles. Application of spectral methods yields the combined uncertainty of the system at below 0.1‰ and 0.5‰ for ?18O and ?D, respectively. This performance is comparable to that achieved with mass spectrometry. Dispersion of the sample in the transfer lines limits the temporal resolution of the technique. In this work we investigate and assess these dispersion effects. By using an optimal filtering method we show how the measured profiles can be corrected for the smoothing effects resulting from the sample dispersion. Considering the significant advantages the technique offers, i.e. simultaneuous measurement of ?18O and ?D, potentially in combination with chemical components that are traditionally measured on CFA systems, notable reduction on analysis time and power consumption, we consider it as an alternative to traditional isotope ratio mass spectrometry with the possibility to be deployed for field ice core studies. We present data acquired in the field during the 2010 season as part of the NEEM deep ice core drilling project in North Greenland.

Gkinis, V.; Popp, T. J.; Blunier, T.; Bigler, M.; Schüpbach, S.; Kettner, E.; Johnsen, S. J.

2011-11-01

29

Approach to numerical safety guidelines based on a core melt criterion. [PWR; BWR  

Microsoft Academic Search

A plausible approach is proposed for translating a single level criterion to a set of numerical guidelines. The criterion for core melt probability is used to set numerical guidelines for various core melt sequences, systems and component unavailabilities. These guidelines can be used as a means for making decisions regarding the necessity for replacing a component or improving part of

M. A. Azarm; R. E. Hall

1982-01-01

30

Examination of offsite emergency protective measures for core melt accidents. [PWR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evacuation, sheltering followed by population relocation, and iodine prophylaxis are evaluated as offsite public protective measures in response to potential nuclear reactor accidents involving core-melt. Evaluations were conducted using a modified version of the Reactor Safety Study consequence model. Models representing each protective measure were developed and are discussed. Potential PWR core-melt radioactive material releases are separated into two categories,

D. C. Aldrich; P. E. McGrath; D. M. Jr. Ericson; R. B. Jones; N. C. Rasmussen

1978-01-01

31

Reevaluation of past summer temperature reconstruction by melt features in Belukha ice cores, Russian Altai  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past summer temperature has been reconstructed by melt features in Belukha ice core in a previous study. We evaluated a climatic representativeness of isotope, net accumulation and melt feature by comparing two Belukha ice cores retrieved by different institutions and dated by different methods. We find a significant correlation between seasonal changes in stable isotope in precipitation and air temperature.

S. Okamoto; K. Fujita; H. Narita; J. Uetake; N. Takeuchi; T. Miyake; F. Nakazawa; V. Aizen; S. Nikitin; M. Nakawo

2009-01-01

32

Blind Benchmark Calculations for Melt Spreading in the ECOSTAR Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Project ECOSTAR (5. EC Framework Programme) on Ex-Vessel Core Melt Stabilisation Research is oriented towards the analysis and mitigation of severe accident sequences that could occur in the ex-vessel phase of a postulated core melt accident. Spreading of the corium melt on the available basement surface is an important process, which defines the initial conditions for concrete attack and

C. Spengler; H. J. Allelein; J. J. Foit; H. Alsmeyer; B. Spindler; J. M. Veteau; J. Artnik; M. Fischer

2004-01-01

33

Experimental and theoretical investigations on the COMET concept for ex-vessel core melt retention  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the very unlikely case of a core melt accident in a nuclear power plant, the reactor pressure vessel could fail and corium melt could be released into the reactor cavity. Subsequent processes could result in a threat of the containment integrity. As a counter-measure the implementation of a core-catcher device in nuclear power plants is envisaged. Such a core-catcher

Walter Widmann; Manfred Bürger; Günter Lohnert; Hans Alsmeyer; Walter Tromm

2006-01-01

34

CFD analysis of core melt spreading on the reactor cavity floor using ANSYS CFX code  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the very unlikely event of a severe reactor accident involving core melt and reactor pressure vessel failure, it is important to provide an accident management strategy that would allow the molten core material to cool down, resolidify and bring the core debris to a coolable state for Light Water Reactors (LWRs). One approach to achieve a coolable state is

Wan-Sik Yeon; Kwang-Hyun Bang; Youngjo Choi; Yong Soo Kim; Jaegon Lee

35

Melt in the impact breccias from the Eyreville drill cores, Chesapeake Bay impact structure, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The center of the 35.3 Ma Chesapeake Bay impact structure (85 km diameter) was drilled during 2005/2006 in an ICDP-0USGS drilling project. The Eyreville drill cores include polymict impact breccias and associated rocks (1397-01551 m depth). Tens of melt particles from these impactites were studied by optical and electron microscopy, electron microprobe, and microRaman spectroscopy, and classified into six groups: m1—clear or brownish melt, m2—brownish melt altered to phyllosilicates, m3—colorless silica melt, m4—melt with pyroxene and plagioclase crystallites, m5—dark brown melt, and m6—melt with globular texture. These melt types have partly overlapping major element abundances, and large compositional variations due to the presence of schlieren, poorly mixed melt phases, partly digested clasts, and variable crystallization and alteration. The different melt types also vary in their abundance with depth in the drill core. Based on the chemical data, mixing calculations were performed to determine possible precursors of these melt particles. The calculations suggest that most melt types formed mainly from the thick sedimentary section of the target sequence (mainly the Potomac Formation), but an additional crystalline basement (schist/gneiss) precursor is likely for the most abundant melt types m2 and m5. Sedimentary rocks with compositions similar to those of the melt particles are present among the Eyreville core samples. Therefore, sedimentary target rocks were the main precursor of the Eyreville melt particles. However, the composition of the melt particles is not only the result of the precursor composition but also the result of changes during melting and solidification, as well as postimpact alteration, which must also be considered. The variability of the melt particle compositions reflects the variety of target rocks and indicates that there was no uniform melt source. Original heterogeneities, resulting from melting of different target rocks, may be preserved in impactites of some large impact structures that formed in volatile-rich targets, because no large melt body exists, in which homogenization would have taken place.

Bartosova, Katerina; Hecht, Lutz; Koeberl, Christian; Libowitzky, Eugen; Reimold, Wolf Uwe

2011-03-01

36

Contribution of Anticipated Transients Without Scram (ATWS) to core melt at United States nuclear power plants  

SciTech Connect

This report looks at WASH-1400 and several other Probabilistic Risk Assessments (PRAs) and Probabilistic Safety Studies (PSSs) to determine the contribution of Anticipated Transients Without Scram (ATWS) events to the total core melt probability at eight nuclear power plants in the United States. After considering each plant individually, the results are compared from plant to plant to see if any generic conclusions regarding ATWS, or core melt in general, can be made. 8 refs., 34 tabs.

Giachetti, R.T. (Giachetti (Richard T.), Ann Arbor, MI (USA))

1989-09-01

37

High pressure melt ejection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent probabilistic risk assessments have identified the potential for reactor pressure vessel failure while the reactor coolant system is at elevated pressure. The analyses postulate that the blowdown of steam and hydrogen into the reactor cavity will cause the core material to be swept from the cavity region into the containment building. The High Pressure Melt Streaming (HIPS) program is

W. W. Tarbell; J. E. Brockmann; M. Pilch

1983-01-01

38

Convection at the melting point: A thermal history of the earth's core  

Microsoft Academic Search

Higgins and Kennedy (1971) concluded that the Earth's fluid core has a stable stratification if it is at its melting point. Busse (1972) and Elsasser suggested as an alternative that a hydrostatic-isentropic distribution of particulate solid can produce neutral stability in a partially molten core. Here this suggestion is quantified and a determination is made of the efficiency of the

Willem V. R. Malkus

1972-01-01

39

Review of experimental results of light water reactor core melt progression  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on results from integral-effects core melt progression experiments and from the examination of the damaged core of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) reactor which are reviewed to gain insight on key severe accident phenomena. The experiments and the TMI-2 accident represent a wide variety of conditions and physical scales, yet several important phenomena appear to

R. R. Hobbins; D. A. Petti; O. J. Osetek; D. L. Hagrman

1991-01-01

40

Nuclear energy plant with collecting container for melting core masses  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nuclear energy plant with a reactor protecting container in which below the reactor core there is provided a cooled collecting container for molten core masses while cooling pipes are inserted in the wall of the collecting container. The cooling pipes are designed as heat pipes. One end of the pipes is arranged within the region of the inner wall

Katscher

1980-01-01

41

Influence of zircaloy oxidation and melting behavior on core behavior during a severe accident  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of zircaloy oxidation and melting on core temperatures, hydrogen generation, and fission product release is examined. The uncertainties in phenomena important to the modeling of zircaloy oxidation and melting processes including zircaloy oxidation kinetics, hydrogen blanketing, UOâ-zircaloy interactions, and ZrOâ failure are estimated. These uncertainties are then applied to a sensitivity study of a boiloff-initiated severe accident similar

C. M. Allison; D. L. Hagrman; G. A. Berna

1984-01-01

42

Transcrystalline Melt Migration in (Mg,Fe)O Ferropericlase: Implications for Core-Mantle Interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nature of chemical interaction between the mantle and core is an important topic of geochemistry and geophysics. In most of previous studies diffusion-controlled chemical reactions were considered. However, the length scale of diffusion is limited except for certain trace elements, and extensive changes in composition in major element chemistry are not expected by these processes. In this presentation, we report the experimental observations of melt migration in single crystals of (Mg,Fe)O ferropericlase under isothermal conditions. The rate of melt migration is much faster than diffusion-controlled processes and may provide a clue to some observations on the core-mantle-boundary. Single crystals of (Mg,Fe)O were annealed at 1873 K and 5-15 GPa surrounded by MoO2 encapsulated in Mo and Pt double capsule. Under these conditions, MoO2-rich melt was formed and migrated into the single crystals of (Mg,Fe)O. Chemical composition of solid and melt gradually changed through melt migration such that ferropericlase was enriched in MgO and reduced in FeO. Since melt was undersaturated in solid components in our experimental conditions, the chemical potential change caused the melt and solid boundary to move towards the solid. In this situation, the moving interface was morphologically unstable since the supersaturated segment of the solid exists in front of the melt. Melt pockets were eventually trapped in the (Mg,Fe)O single crystal by necking their rear ends down and migrated through it by dissolving Fe-rich ferropericlase at front and precipitating Mg-rich one at rear. Observed speed of melt migration was significantly faster than bulk diffusion of atoms in ferropericlase. The recent experimental results suggest that the Earth's core is undersaturated in oxygen with respect to the FeO content of the bulk mantle (Frost et al., 2010, JGR). Thus, morphological instability in (Mg,Fe)O at the base of the mantle may cause iron-rich core components to migrate upward. The length scale of melt migration is likely constrained by the balance between chemical potential change by mixing and gravitational potential energy change due to the density difference between melt and solid.

Otsuka, K.; Karato, S.

2011-12-01

43

Crystallization of ion clouds in octupole traps: Structural transitions, core melting, and scaling laws  

SciTech Connect

The stable structures and melting properties of ion clouds in isotropic octupole traps are investigated using a combination of semianalytical and numerical models, with a particular emphasis at finite-size scaling effects. Small-size clouds are found to be hollow and arranged in shells corresponding approximately to the solutions of the Thomson problem. The shell structure is lost in clusters containing more than a few thousands of ions, the inner parts of the cloud becoming soft and amorphous. While melting is triggered in the core shells, the melting temperature follows the rule expected for three-dimensional dense particles, with a depression scaling linearly with the inverse radius.

Calvo, F.; Champenois, C.; Yurtsever, E. [LASIM, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1 and CNRS, UMR 5579, 43 Boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918, F69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); PIIM, UMR 6633, Universite de Provence and CNRS, Campus Universitaire de Saint-Jerome C21, F13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Koc University, Rumelifeneriyolu, Sariyer, Istanbul 34450 (Turkey)

2009-12-15

44

Review of the Limerick Generating Station severe accident risk assessment. Review of core-melt frequency  

SciTech Connect

A limited review is performed of the Severe Accident Risk Assessment for the Limerick Generating Station. The review considers the impact on the core-melt frequency of seismic- and fire-initiating events. An evaluation is performed of methodologies used for determining the event frequencies and their impacts on the plant components and structures. Particular attention is given to uncertainties and critical assumptions. Limited requantification is performed for selected core-melt accident sequences in order to illustrate sensitivities of the results to the underlying assumptions.

Azarm, M.A.; Bari, R.A.; Boccio, J.L.; Hanan, N.; Papazoglou, I.A.; Ruger, C.; Shiu, K.; Reed, J.; McCann, M.; Kafka, A.

1984-07-01

45

Melting of iron under Earth's core conditions from diffusion Monte Carlo free energy calculations.  

PubMed

The temperature of Earth's core is a parameter of critical importance to model the thermal structure of Earth. Since the core is mainly made of iron, with a solid liquid boundary (the inner core boundary) at 1220 km from the center of the Earth, the melting temperature of iron at the pressure of the ICB provides constraints on the temperature of the core. These constraints are based either on extrapolations to ICB pressure of experimental measurements, or on theoretical calculations which employed various flavors of quantum mechanics, most notably density functional theory. Significant disagreement between estimates obtained with different methods calls for calculations based on more accurate techniques. Here we used quantum Monte Carlo techniques to compute the free energies of solid and liquid iron at ICB conditions. We obtained an iron melting temperature at 330 GPa of 6900+/-400 K. PMID:19792692

Sola, Ester; Alfè, Dario

2009-08-14

46

Possible reasons of shock melt deficiency in the Bosumtwi drill cores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pre-drilling numerical modeling of the Bosumtwi impact event predicted a 200 m thick coherent melt layer, as well as abundant highly shocked target material within the central part of the crater structure. However, these predictions are in disagreement with data from drill core obtained in 2004-2005. Here I provide a brief overview of previous results and discuss possible reasons behind

N. Artemieva

2007-01-01

47

Melt spreading code assessment, modifications, and application to the EPR core catcher design.  

SciTech Connect

The Evolutionary Power Reactor (EPR) is under consideration by various utilities in the United States to provide base load electrical production, and as a result the design is undergoing a certification review by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The severe accident design philosophy for this reactor is based upon the fact that the projected power rating results in a narrow margin for in-vessel melt retention by external cooling of the reactor vessel. As a result, the design addresses ex-vessel core melt stabilization using a mitigation strategy that includes: (1) an external core melt retention system to temporarily hold core melt released from the vessel; (2) a layer of 'sacrificial' material that is admixed with the melt while in the core melt retention system; (3) a melt plug in the lower part of the retention system that, when failed, provides a pathway for the mixture to spread to a large core spreading chamber; and finally, (4) cooling and stabilization of the spread melt by controlled top and bottom flooding. The overall concept is illustrated in Figure 1.1. The melt spreading process relies heavily on inertial flow of a low-viscosity admixed melt to a segmented spreading chamber, and assumes that the melt mass will be distributed to a uniform height in the chamber. The spreading phenomenon thus needs to be modeled properly in order to adequately assess the EPR design. The MELTSPREAD code, developed at Argonne National Laboratory, can model segmented, and both uniform and nonuniform spreading. The NRC is thus utilizing MELTSPREAD to evaluate melt spreading in the EPR design. MELTSPREAD was originally developed to support resolution of the Mark I containment shell vulnerability issue. Following closure of this issue, development of MELTSPREAD ceased in the early 1990's, at which time the melt spreading database upon which the code had been validated was rather limited. In particular, the database that was utilized for initial validation consisted of: (1) comparison to an analytical solution for the dam break problem, (2) water spreading tests in a 1/10 linear scale model of the Mark I containment by Theofanous et al., and (3) steel spreading tests by Suzuki et al. that were also conducted in a geometry similar to the Mark I. The objective of this work was to utilize the MELTSPREAD code to check the assumption of uniform melt spreading in the EPR core catcher design. As a starting point for the project, the code was validated against the worldwide melt spreading database that emerged after the code was originally written in the very early 1990's. As part of this exercise, the code was extensively modified and upgraded to incorporate findings from these various analytical and experiment programs. In terms of expanding the ability of the code to analyze various melt simulant experiments, the options to input user-specified melt and/or substrate material properties was added. The ability to perform invisicid and/or adiabatic spreading analysis was also added so that comparisons with analytical solutions and isothermal spreading tests could be carried out. In terms of refining the capability to carry out reactor material melt spreading analyses, the code was upgraded with a new melt viscosity model; the capability was added to treat situations in which solid fraction buildup between the liquidus-solidus is non-linear; and finally, the ability to treat an interfacial heat transfer resistance between the melt and substrate was incorporated. This last set of changes substantially improved the predictive capability of the code in terms of addressing reactor material melt spreading tests. Aside from improvements and upgrades, a method was developed to fit the model to the various melt spreading tests in a manner that allowed uncertainties in the model predictions to be statistically characterized. With these results, a sensitivity study was performed to investigate the assumption of uniform spreading in the EPR core catcher that addressed parametric variations in: (1) melt pour mass, (2) melt composition, (3) me

Farmer, M. T .; Nuclear Engineering Division

2009-03-30

48

Centrifuge assisted percolation of Fe-S melts in partially molten peridotite: Time constraints for planetary core formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanism which segregates molten Fe-S into metallic cores of planetary bodies is still not fully understood. Due to the high interfacial energy and wetting angle between Fe-S melts and silicate mantle minerals, the continuous percolative flow of such melts cannot be efficient for the core segregation in planetary bodies. A series of percolation experiments has been realized on a

N. Bagdassarov; G. Solferino; G. J. Golabek; M. W. Schmidt

2009-01-01

49

Centrifuge assisted percolation of Fe–S melts in partially molten peridotite: Time constraints for planetary core formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanism which segregates molten Fe–S into metallic cores of planetary bodies is still not fully understood. Due to the high interfacial energy and wetting angle between Fe–S melts and silicate mantle minerals, the continuous percolative flow of such melts cannot be efficient for the core segregation in planetary bodies. A series of percolation experiments has been realized on a

N. Bagdassarov; G. Solferino; G. J. Golabek; M. W. Schmidt

2009-01-01

50

Effects of control system failures on transients, accidents, and core-melt frequencies at a Babcock and Wilcox pressurized water reactor  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) performed probabilistic risk analyses to develop estimates of core-melt frequency and public risk associated with control system failures in a Babcock and Wilcox pressurized water reactor. PNL also conducted value/impact analyses of proposed control-system modifications. These analyses were based on failure modes and effects previously identified at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These control system failure modes fall into three main scenarios: (1) overfill of the steam generators, progressing to spillover into the steam lines, (2) ICS hand power failure progressing to steam generator dryout, and (3) ICS automatic power failure progressing to steam generator failure. For each of these modes, two failure sequences were postulated. The results of PNL's probabilistic analysis of failure progression to core damage and value/impact analyses of possible resolutions to prevent these failures are presented in this report. 18 refs., 12 tabs.

Bickford, W.E.; Tabatabai, A.S.

1985-12-01

51

Silicate melt inclusions and glasses in lunar soil fragments from the Luna 16 core sample  

USGS Publications Warehouse

More than 2000 fragments were studied microscopically, and electron microprobe analyses were made of 39 selected areas, from a few square mm of polished surface, through 75- to 425-??m fragments of lunar soil from two samples of the Luna 16 core. The silicate melt inclusions and glasses differ in important details from those observed earlier in the Apollo samples. Melt inclusions in olivine contain epitaxially oriented daughter crystals, but also show a similar epitaxy around the outside of the crystals not observed in previous lunar samples. Melt inclusions in ilmenite suggest trapping at successive stages in a differentiation sequence. There is abundant evidence for late-stage silicate liquid immiscibility, with melt compositions similar but not identical to those from Apollo 11 and 12. A comparison of the alkali ratio of any given bulk rock analysis with that of its late-stage, high-silica melt shows gross differences for different rocks. This is pertinent to understanding late-stage differentiation processes. Glass fragments and spherules exhibit a wide range of crystallization textures, reflecting their wide range of compositions and cooling histories. No significant differences were found between the two portions of core examined (Zones A and D). ?? 1972.

Roedder, E.; Weiblen, P. W.

1972-01-01

52

New time-line technique for station blackout core-melt analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Florida Power Corporation (FPC) has developed a new method for analyzing station blackout (SBO) core-melt accidents. This method, created during the recent probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of Crystal River Unit 3 (CR-3), originated from the need to analyze the interactions among the two-train emergency feedwater (EFW) system, station batteries, and diesel generators (DGs) following a loss of off-site power (LOSP)

Stutzke

1986-01-01

53

The lateral extrusion of copper pipes with a lost core of low temperature melting alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the authors report a new bulging process of pipes, which is lateral extrusion with a lost core (LELC) and its application on pipes of C1220 (Cu 99.9wt.%; P 0.04–0.01wt.%). The outline of the process is as follows: first, the cavity of the pipe is filled by liquid of Bi49Pb18Sn12In21 low temperature melting alloy. Then the low temperature

T Ohashi; K Matsui; Y Saotome

2001-01-01

54

The WAIS Melt Monitor: An automated ice core melting system for meltwater sample handling and the collection of high resolution microparticle size distribution data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paleoclimate data are often extracted from ice cores by careful geochemical analysis of meltwater samples. The analysis of the microparticles found in ice cores can also yield unique clues about atmospheric dust loading and transport, dust provenance and past environmental conditions. Determination of microparticle concentration, size distribution and chemical makeup as a function of depth is especially difficult because the particle size measurement either consumes or contaminates the meltwater, preventing further geochemical analysis. Here we describe a microcontroller-based ice core melting system which allows the collection of separate microparticle and chemistry samples from the same depth intervals in the ice core, while logging and accurately depth-tagging real-time electrical conductivity and particle size distribution data. This system was designed specifically to support microparticle analysis of the WAIS Divide WDC06A deep ice core, but many of the subsystems are applicable to more general ice core melting operations. Major system components include: a rotary encoder to measure ice core melt displacement with 0.1 millimeter accuracy, a meltwater tracking system to assign core depths to conductivity, particle and sample vial data, an optical debubbler level control system to protect the Abakus laser particle counter from damage due to air bubbles, a Rabbit 3700 microcontroller which communicates with a host PC, collects encoder and optical sensor data and autonomously operates Gilson peristaltic pumps and fraction collectors to provide automatic sample handling, melt monitor control software operating on a standard PC allowing the user to control and view the status of the system, data logging software operating on the same PC to collect data from the melting, electrical conductivity and microparticle measurement systems. Because microparticle samples can easily be contaminated, we use optical air bubble sensors and high resolution ice core density profiles to guide the melting process. The combination of these data allow us to analyze melt head performance, minimize outer-to-inner fraction contamination and avoid melt head flooding. The WAIS Melt Monitor system allows the collection of real-time, sub-annual microparticle and electrical conductivity data while producing and storing enough sample for traditional Coulter-Counter particle measurements as well long term acid leaching of bioactive metals (e.g., Fe, Co, Cd, Cu, Zn) prior to chemical analysis.

Breton, D. J.; Koffman, B. G.; Kreutz, K. J.; Hamilton, G. S.

2010-12-01

55

Ice core evidence for extensive melting of the greenland ice sheet in the last interglacial.  

PubMed

Evidence from ice at the bottom of ice cores from the Canadian Arctic Islands and Camp Century and Dye-3 in Greenland suggests that the Greenland ice sheet melted extensively or completely during the last interglacial period more than 100 ka (thousand years ago), in contrast to earlier interpretations. The presence of dirt particles in the basal ice has previously been thought to indicate that the base of the ice sheets had melted and that the evidence for the time of original growth of these ice masses had been destroyed. However, the particles most likely blew onto the ice when the dimensions of the ice caps and ice sheets were much smaller. Ice texture, gas content, and other evidence also suggest that the basal ice at each drill site is superimposed ice, a type of ice typical of the early growth stages of an ice cap or ice sheet. If the present-day ice masses began their growth during the last interglacial, the ice sheet from the earlier (Illinoian) glacial period must have competely or largely melted during the early part of the same interglacial period. If such melting did occur, the 6-meter higher-than-present sea level during the Sangamon cannot be attributed to disintegration of the West Antarctic ice sheet, as has been suggested. PMID:17731883

Koerner, R M

1989-05-26

56

Melting curve of iron-silicon alloy to the core-mantle boundary pressure and the thermal structure of the Earth's core  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth's core consists of iron-Ni alloys and 10 wt.% of light elements, such as Si, S, O, C, H. It is composed of the solid inner core and the liquid outer core. Melting relation of the iron alloy is essential to estimate the thermal structure and temperature of the core, since the temperature of the inner core-outer core boundary (ICB) corresponds to the melting temperature of iron alloy at ICB pressure. Furthermore, the temperature of the outer core-mantle boundary (CMB) has to be higher than the melting temperature of iron alloy at CMB pressure. Therefore, the melting temperature of iron alloy at high pressures is significant for estimating the thermal structure of the Earth. In this study, we determined the melting temperature of Fe-17 wt.% Si alloy up to 119 GPa based on change of laser heating efficiency and the texture of the recovered samples using the sided laser heated diamond anvil cell. The measured melting curve of Fe-17 wt.% Si is slightly lower than that of pure Fe and the melting temperature was 3300 K at 120 GPa (CMB pressure). The melting temperature of the alloy is expressed as (P- P0)/a=(Tm/T0)c-1 by Simon's equation , i.e., P0= 0 GPa, Tm= 1500 K, a= 3.54+1.1, and c= 4.53+0.4. In order to clarify the solid phase of Fe-17 wt.% Si, in-situ X-ray diffraction study was also carried out at the BL13A beamline in PF of KEK. The high-pressure, and high-temperature behavior of Fe-17 wt.% Si alloy was investigated up to 96 GPa and 2000 K. Fe-17 wt.% Si has a bcc structure and there was no phase transition in the range of the present experimental pressures and temperatures. By extrapolation of the melting temperature using Simon's equation, the melting temperature of Fe-17 wt.% Si alloy is estimated to be 3300 K at the core-mantle boundary, 135 GPa, and 4000 K at the inner-core boundary around 330 GPa, which may provide the lower bound of the temperatures at CMB and ICB if the light element in the core is silicon.

Asanuma, H.; Ohtani, E.; Sakai, T.; Terasaki, H.; Kamada, S.; Kondo, T.; Kikegawa, T.

2007-12-01

57

Comparison of the effect of hazard and response/fragility uncertainties on core melt probability uncertainty  

SciTech Connect

This report proposes a method for comparing the effects of the uncertainty in probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) input parameters on the uncertainty in the predicted risks. The proposed method is applied to compare the effect of uncertainties in the descriptions of (1) the seismic hazard at a nuclear power plant site and (2) random variations in plant subsystem responses and component fragility on the uncertainty in the predicted probability of core melt. The PRA used is that developed by the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program.

Mensing, R.W.

1985-01-01

58

Interpretation of experimental results from the CORA core melt progression experiments  

SciTech Connect

Data obtained from the CORA bundle heatup and melting experiments, performed at Kernforschungszentrum, Karlsruhe, Germany, are being analyzed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The analysis is being performed as part of a systematic review of core melt progression experiments for the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission to (a) develop an improved understanding of important phenomena occurring during a severe accident, (b) to validate existing severe accident models, and (c) where necessary, develop improved models. An assessment of the variations in damage progression behavior because of variations in test parameters (a) bundle design and size, (b) system pressure, (c) slow cooling of the damaged bundles in argon versus rapid quenching in water, and (d) bundle inlet temperatures and flow rates is provided in the paper. The influence of uncertainties in important test conditions is also discussed. Specific results presented include (a) bundle temperature, (b) the onset and movement of the oxidation front within the bundle, (c) fuel rod ballooning and rod failure, and (d) melt relocation and associated material interactions between bundle components and structures. 12 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs.

Hohorst, J.K.; Allison, C.M.

1991-01-01

59

In-situ rock melting applied to lunar base construction and for exploration drilling and coring on the moon  

SciTech Connect

An excavation technology based upon melting of rock and soil has been extensively developed at the prototype hardware and conceptual design levels for terrestrial conditions. Laboratory and field tests of rock-melting penetration have conclusively indicated that this excavation method is insensitive to rock, soil types, and conditions. Especially significant is the ability to form in-place glass linings or casings on the walls of boreholes, tunnels, and shafts. These factors indicate the unique potential for in situ construction of primary lunar base facilities. Drilling and coring equipment for resource exploration on the moon can also be devised that are largely automated and remotely operated. It is also very likely that lunar melt-glasses will have changed mechanical properties when formed in anhydrous and hard vacuum conditions. Rock melting experiments and prototype hardware designs for lunar rock-melting excavation applications are suggested.

Rowley, J.C.; Neudecker, J.W.

1984-01-01

60

Feasibility study for a containment to resist core-melt accidents  

SciTech Connect

A feasibility study has been performed for a light water reactor containment able to resist even severe accidents by passive means. Upper-bound design loads have been considered for all physically possible scenarios after a core-melt accident as determined by Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe. The essential layout of this containment is presented. Based on the main system features of a German 1,300-MW Convoy reactor type, internal static pressure, hydrogen detonation, failure of the pressure vessel under high pressure, and steam explosion, respectively, have been regarded as well as such external loads as an airplane crash, earthquake, gas explosion, and so forth. The containment can remove the decay heat by purely passive means, and it is believed that the design can be realized at reasonable costs.

Butsch, J.; Schlueter, F.H.; Eibl, J. [Univ. Karlsruhe (Germany). Institut fuer Massivbau

1995-09-01

61

Constraints on core formation from molybdenum solubility in silicate melts at high pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report results from 43 new molybdenum solubility experiments performed in order to test molybdenum's compatibility with the magma ocean hypothesis for core formation. A Walker-type multi-anvil press was used for all experiments and we investigated the pressure range of 2.5-12 GPa and temperature range of 1585-2200 °C. Eight different silicate compositions were also employed. Our data show that increasing temperature causes solubility to increase, whereas pressure has a negligible effect over the range investigated here. In general, increasing silicate melt polymerization causes solubility to decrease; however, the effect of silicate composition is best addressed by looking at the effects of individual oxides versus a universal melt parameter such as NBO/T (ratio of non-bridging oxygens to tetrahedrally coordinated oxygens). From our solubility data, we calculated metal-silicate partition coefficients at infinite iron dilution. Parameterization of our data plus data from the literature shows that there is no discrepancy between partition coefficients determined directly from experiments and those calculated from solubility data, so long as all variables are taken into account, i.e. changes in metal phase composition. Additionally, most of the experiments in the literature were conducted at pressures below 2 GPa, therefore the addition of our high pressure data set makes extrapolations to deep magma ocean conditions more accurate. We determined that the observed mantle abundance of Mo can be explained by both single-stage and multi-stage magma ocean models. Previous siderophile element studies have suggested a wide range of possible single-stage core formation conditions, from 10 to 60 GPa along the peridotite liquidus. Our results narrowed this range by constraining the P-T conditions to 40-54 GPa and 3050-3400 K. Our results also further constrained the multi-stage core formation models by limiting the depth of metal-silicate equilibration during the final impacts of accretion to 31-42% of the core-mantle boundary depth.

Burkemper, Laura K.; Agee, Carl B.; Garcia, Kody A.

2012-06-01

62

Melting of iron-silicon alloy up to the core-mantle boundary pressure: implications to the thermal structure of the Earth's core  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The melting temperature of Fe-18 wt% Si alloy was determined up to 119 GPa based on a change of laser heating efficiency and the texture of the recovered samples in the laser-heated diamond anvil cell experiments. We have also investigated the subsolidus phase relations of Fe-18 wt% Si alloy by the in-situ X-ray diffraction method and confirmed that the bcc phase is stable at least up to 57 GPa and high temperature. The melting curve of the alloy was fitted by the Simon’s equation, P(GPa)/ a = ( T m(K)/ T 0) c , with parameters, T 0 = 1,473 K, a = 3.5 ± 1.1 GPa, and c = 4.5 ± 0.4. The melting temperature of bcc Fe-18 wt% Si alloy is comparable with that of pure iron in the pressure range of this work. The melting temperature of Fe-18 wt% Si alloy is estimated to be 3,300-3,500 K at 135 GPa, and 4,000-4,200 K at around 330 GPa, which may provide the lower bound of the temperatures at the core-mantle boundary and the inner core-outer core boundary if the light element in the core is silicon.

Asanuma, Hidetoshi; Ohtani, Eiji; Sakai, Takeshi; Terasaki, Hidenori; Kamada, Seiji; Kondo, Tadashi; Kikegawa, Takumi

2010-06-01

63

Numerical simulation of turbulent natural convection of oxide heat generating melt in a core catcher at NPP with VVER-1000  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem statement and simulation results are presented concerning turbulent natural convection in a vertical cylindrical\\u000a molten pool with internal heat generation and other parameters (inner Rayleigh number Ra\\u000a i\\u000a ? 1016–1017) corresponding to oxide core melt in a core catcher for NPP with VVER-1000. Commercial code FLUENT 6.3 was used for CFD calculations.\\u000a The results on heat transfer are

A. S. Filippov

2011-01-01

64

Melting behavior of the iron-sulfur system and chemical convection in iron-rich planetary cores  

SciTech Connect

We present experimental data on the high-pressure melting behavior of the Fe-S system from a synchrotron x-ray radiography study using the large volume press, with implications for the role of chemical convection in sulfur-bearing planetary cores. At present, Earth, Mercury and Ganymede are the only three solid bodies in the Solar System that possess intrinsic global magnetic fields. Dynamo simulation reveal that chemical buoyancy force associated with the formation of a solid inner core is critical for sustaining the Earth's magnetic field. Fluid motions in Mercury and Ganymede may be partially driven by chemical buoyancy force as well. The style of chemical convection and its influence on the thermal and chemical state and evolution of iron-rich cores are determined in part by the melting behavior of potential core-forming materials. Sulfur is widely accepted as a candidate light element in iron-rich planetary cores. In order to understand the role of chemical convection in sulfur-bearing cores, we studied the high-pressure melting behavior of Fe-S mixtures containing 9 wt% sulfur using the synchrotron x-ray radiographic method in a large volume press.

Li, J.; Chen, B. (UIUC)

2009-03-26

65

Centrifuge assisted percolation of Fe-S melts in partially molten peridotite: Time constraints for planetary core formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanism which segregates molten Fe-S into metallic cores of planetary bodies is still not fully understood. Due to the high interfacial energy and wetting angle between Fe-S melts and silicate mantle minerals, the continuous percolative flow of such melts cannot be efficient for the core segregation in planetary bodies. A series of percolation experiments has been realized on a partially molten fertile garnet peridotite, employing a centrifuging piston cylinder. A high temperature garnet peridotite with Mg# ~0.90 composed of 60 vol.% olivine, 15 vol.% orthopyroxene, 6 vol.% clinopyroxene and 19 vol.% garnet has been used as the silicate matrix. Peridotite powders with the 100-200 or 20-30 µm grain size were mixed with 5-30 vol.% Fe-S of eutectic composition Fe 70S 30. The aggregates were centrifuged at 500-700 g at temperatures below and above the melting point of the peridotite. The centrifuge experiments revealed a negligible percolation of Fe-S melts through the unmolten peridotite matrix. Only at T > 1260 °C, i.e. above the solidus of the peridotite, and starting with 5 vol.% of Fe 70S 30 the vertical melt gradient achieved 1-2 vol.%/mm. In samples with 15 vol.% Fe 70S 30 the vertical separation achieved 2-2.5 vol.%/mm after 10 h of centrifuging at 500 g. An increase in the degree of partial silicate melting in the peridotite leads to an increase of the Fe-S separation rate from the peridotite matrix. Fe-S contents >10 vol.% cause an increase of the Fe-S melt droplet size and of the effective percolation velocity of Fe-S melt. A threshold dividing fast (>10 cm per year) and slow percolations (<1 mm per year) of Fe -S melt is found around 14-15 vol.% of Fe 70S 30. The experimentally determined permeabilities of Fe-S melt in the unmolten peridotite with 7-10 vol.% of Fe 70S 30 melt are 10 - 18 -10 - 19 m 2, which is 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than the values calculated previously from static experiments. The presence of the silicate melt increases the segregation velocity of Fe-S melt in a partially molten peridotite by more than one order of magnitude with respect to the unmolten peridotite matrix. This could provide an effective segregation of Fe-S melt in a planetary mantle down to 2.5 vol.% of residual Fe-S melt. The extremely slow percolation of Fe-S melt in the absence of the partial silicate melting precludes a scenario of metallic core formation via percolation before temperatures allow a substantial partial melting of mantle silicates in planetary bodies.

Bagdassarov, N.; Solferino, G.; Golabek, G. J.; Schmidt, M. W.

2009-10-01

66

A concept of a small controlled, filtered venting system and an add-on decay heat removal system to mitigate the consequences of core-melt accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Core-melt accidents as modeled in risk studies result in severe consequences to the environment of a nuclear power plant, only if the containment function of the plant is assumed to fail during the accident. To protect the containment function of a pressurized water reactor with double containment during a core-melt accident against the dominant late failure modes, a relief condenser

S. Chakraborty; B. Covelli; P. M. Herttrich

1986-01-01

67

Melting phase relation of FeH x up to 20 GPa: Implication for the temperature of the Earth's core  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-pressure and high-temperature X-ray diffraction experiments on FeH x up to 20 GPa and 1598 K were performed using a Kawai-type multi-anvil apparatus, SPEED-MkII, installed at BL04B1 beam line of SPring-8 synchrotron facility. Iron powder was packed in a container made of NaCl, a very efficient sealing material for hydrogen under high pressure, together with a hydrogen source, LiAlH 4. The temperature of hydrogenation, transition of iron hydride phases, and melting of ?-FeH x were all determined in situ in the pressure range between 10 and 20 GPa. Hydrogen concentration in both ?'- and ?-FeH x phases reached x = 1.0 above 10 GPa. Melting temperatures of ?-FeH were determined to be 1473, 1448 ± 25, 1538 ± 15, 1548 ± 25 and 1585 ± 13 K at 10, 11.5, 15, 18 and 20 GPa, respectively. These temperatures are nearly 700 K lower than that of pure iron under the corresponding pressures. The Clapeyron-slope (d T/d P slope) of the melting curve of ?-FeH is 13 K/GPa, which is significantly smaller than those of other possible core constituents (Fe, FeO, FeS). By extrapolating the ?'-? phase boundary linearly and the melting curve of ?-FeH based on Lindemann's melting law, the triple point of ?'- and ?-FeH and iron hydride melt is located at P = 60 GPa and T = 2000 K. Beyond the triple point, an attempt to construct a melting curve of ?'-FeH by the Lindemann's law using estimated thermal equation of state of ?'-FeH was unsuccessful. Therefore, we decided, instead, to extrapolate the melting curve of ?-FeH beyond the triple point to 135 GPa yielding the melting temperature of FeH ˜ 2600 K at core mantle boundary (CMB). Based on these results, we propose that the temperature of the Earth's outer core could be much lower than current estimates, if the Earth's outer core incorporated significant amounts of hydrogen.

Sakamaki, K.; Takahashi, E.; Nakajima, Y.; Nishihara, Y.; Funakoshi, K.; Suzuki, T.; Fukai, Y.

2009-05-01

68

Aluminum\\/uranium fuel foaming\\/recriticality considerations for production reactor core-melt accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Severe accident studies for the Savannah River production reactors indicate that if coherent fuel melting and relocation occur in the absence of target melting, in-vessel recriticality may be achieved. In this paper, fuel-melt\\/target interaction potential is assessed where fission gas-induced fuel foaming and melt attack on target material are evaluated and compared with available data. Models are developed to characterize

M. L. Hyder; P. G. Ellison; A. W. Cronenberg

1990-01-01

69

A1-U fuel foaming\\/recriticality considerations for production reactor core-melt accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Severe accident studies for the Savannah River production reactors indicate that if coherent fuel melting and relocation occur in the absence of target melting, in-vessel recriticality may be achieved. In this paper, fuel-melt\\/target interaction potential is assessed, where fission gas-induced fuel foaming and melt attach on target material are evaluated and compared with available data. Models are developed to characterize

A. W. Cronenberg; M. L. Hyder; P. G. Ellison

1990-01-01

70

Simulant Melt Experiments on Performance of the In-Vessel Core Catcher  

SciTech Connect

In order to enhance the feasibility of in-vessel retention (IVR) of molten core material during a severe accident for high-power reactors, an in-vessel core catcher (IVCC) was designed and evaluated as part of a joint United States-Korean International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (INERI). The proposed IVCC is expected to increase the thermal margin for success of IVR by providing an “engineered gap” for heat transfer from materials that relocate during a severe accident and potentially serving as a sacrificial material under a severe accident. In this study, LAVA-GAP experiments were performed to investigate the thermal and mechanical performance of the IVCC using the alumina melt as simulant. The LAVAGAP experiments aim to examine the feasibility and sustainability of the IVCC under the various test conditions using 1/8th scale hemispherical test sections. As a feasibility test of the proposed IVCC in this INERI project, the effects of IVCC base steel materials, internal coating materials, and gap size between the IVCC and the vessel lower head were examined. The test results indicated that the internally coated IVCC has high thermal performance compared with the uncoated IVCC. In terms of integrity of the base steel, carbon steel is superior to stainless steel and the effect of bond coat is found to be trivial for the tests performed in this study. The thermal load is mitigated via boiling heat removal in the gap between the IVCC and the vessel lower head. The current test results imply that gaps less than 10mm are not enough to guarantee effective cooling induced by water ingression and steam venting there through. Selection of endurable material and pertinent gap size is needed to implement the proposed IVCC concept into advanced reactor designs.

Kyoung-Ho Kang; Rae-Joon Park; Sang-Baik Kim; K. Y. Suh; F. B. Cheung; J. L. Rempe

2007-09-01

71

Numerical and Experimental Model Studies on Thermal Hydraulic Behavior of FBR Internal Core Catcher Assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Core Catcher is provided as an in-vessel core debris retention device to collect, support, cool and maintain in sub-critical configuration, the generated core debris from fuel melting due to certain postulated Beyond Design Basis Events (BDBE) for Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR). This also acts as a barrier to prevent settling of debris on main vessel and keeps its maximum temperature

Sanjay Kumar Das; Anil Kumar Sharma; A. Jasmin Sudha; G. Punitha; G. Lydia; P. A. Somayajulu; S. S. Murthy; B. Malarvizhi; V. Gopalakrishnan; J. Harvey; N. Kasinathan; M. Rajan

2006-01-01

72

Aluminum/uranium fuel foaming/recriticality considerations for production reactor core-melt accidents  

SciTech Connect

Severe accident studies for the Savannah River production reactors indicate that if coherent fuel melting and relocation occur in the absence of target melting, in-vessel recriticality may be achieved. In this paper, fuel-melt/target interaction potential is assessed where fission gas-induced fuel foaming and melt attack on target material are evaluated and compared with available data. Models are developed to characterize foams for irradiated aluminum-based fuel. Predictions indicate transient foaming, the extent of which is governed by fission gas inventory, heating transient conditions, and bubble coalescence behavior. The model also indicates that metallic foams are basically unstable and will collapse, which largely depends on film tenacity and melt viscosity considerations. For high-burnup fuel, extensive foaming lasting tens of seconds is predicted, allowing molten fuel to contact and cause melt ablation of concentric targets. For low-burnup fuel, contact can not be assured. 9 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

Hyder, M.L.; Ellison, P.G. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (USA)); Cronenberg, A.W. (Engineering Science and Analysis, Albuquerque, NM (USA))

1990-01-01

73

Natural convection model of molten pool penetration into a melting miscible substrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of postulated severe accidents in nuclear reactors have involved consideration of the extent of core-debris-melt penetration into the lighter and miscible concrete substrate below the reactor vessel. It is suggested in this paper that the melting of concrete by an overlying pool of oxidic core material\\/concrete mixture is partially driven by classical liquid-turbulent natural convection, with plumes of molten

Epstein

1993-01-01

74

Using shallow ice coring experiments and melt modelling to determine mass balance of Devon Ice Cap, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combination of shallow ice-coring field experiments and degree-day melt modelling was employed to reconstruct the spatial pattern of mass balance across the Devon Ice Cap. This research is part of a wider program to quantify and to determine the causes of changes in the geometry and mass of the Devon Ice Cap over the last 40 years. In April-May

D. Mair; D. Burgess; M. Sharp

2003-01-01

75

Light Water Reactor Safety Research Program. Semiannual report, October 1982March 1983. [Molten fuel\\/concrete interaction; core melt-coolant interaction; hydrogen detonation (Grand Gulf igniter)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Molten Fuel\\/Concrete Interactions (MFCI) Study investigates the mechanism of concrete erosion by molten core materials, the nature and rate of generation of evolved gases, and the effects on fission product release. The Core Melt\\/Coolant Interactions (CMCI) Study investigates the characteristics of explosive and nonexplosive interactions between molten core materials and concrete, and the probabilities and consequences of such interactions.

Berman

1984-01-01

76

REVIEWS OF TOPICAL PROBLEMS: Universal viscosity growth in metallic melts at megabar pressures: the vitreous state of the Earth's inner core  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental data on and theoretical models for the viscosity of various types of liquids and melts under pressure are reviewed. Experimentally, the least studied melts are those of metals, whose viscosity is considered to be virtually constant along the melting curve. The authors' new approach to the viscosity of melts involves the measurement of the grain size in solidified samples. Measurements on liquid metals at pressures up to 10 GPa using this method show, contrary to the empirical approach, that the melt viscosity grows considerably along the melting curves. Based on the experimental data and on the critical analysis of current theories, a hypothesis of a universal viscosity behavior is introduced for liquids under pressure. Extrapolating the liquid iron results to the pressures and temperatures at the Earth's core reveals that the Earth's outer core is a very viscous melt with viscosity values ranging from 102 Pa s to 1011 Pa s depending on the depth. The Earth's inner core is presumably an ultraviscous (>1011 Pa s) glass-like liquid — in disagreement with the current idea of a crystalline inner core. The notion of the highly viscous interior of celestial bodies sheds light on many mysteries of planetary geophysics and astronomy. From the analysis of the pressure variation of the melting and glass-transition temperatures, an entirely new concept of a stable metallic vitreous state arises, calling for further experimental and theoretical study.

Brazhkin, Vadim V.; Lyapin, A. G.

2000-05-01

77

A1-U fuel foaming/recriticality considerations for production reactor core-melt accidents  

SciTech Connect

Severe accident studies for the Savannah River production reactors indicate that if coherent fuel melting and relocation occur in the absence of target melting, in-vessel recriticality may be achieved. In this paper, fuel-melt/target interaction potential is assessed, where fission gas-induced fuel foaming and melt attach on target material are evaluated and compared with available data. Models are developed to characterize foams for irradiated Al-based fuel. Predictions indicate transient foaming (the extent of which is governed by fission gas inventory), heating transient, and bubble coalescence behavior. The model also indicates that metallic foams are basically unstable and will collapse, which largely depends on film tenacity and melt viscosity. For high-burnup fuel, foams lasting tens of seconds are predicted, allowing molten fuel to contact and cause melt ablation of concentric targets. For low-burnup fuel, contact can not be assured, thus recriticality may be of concern at reactor startup. 8 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

Cronenberg, A.W. (Engineering Science and Analysis, Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Hyder, M.L.; Ellison, P.G. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (USA))

1990-01-01

78

Stratigraphic analysis of an ice core from the Prince of Wales Icefield, Ellesmere Island, Arctic Canada, using digital image analysis: High-resolution density, past summer warmth reconstruction, and melt effect on ice core solid conductivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-resolution (1 mm) stratigraphic information was derived from digital image analysis of an ice core from the Prince of Wales (POW) Icefield, Central Ellesmere Island, Canada. Following careful image processing, a profile of ice core transmitted light was derived from the greyscale images and used to reconstruct high-resolution density variations for the unfractured sections of the core. Images were further classified into infiltration and glacier ice using an automatic thresholding procedure, and were converted to a high-resolution melt percentage index. The mean annual melt percentage over the last 580 years was 9%, and melting occurred in 8 years out of 10. Melting obliterated most of the original depositional sequence, and seasonal density cycles were mostly unrecognizable. The ice core solid conductivity was greater and more variable in melt features than in glacier ice, owing to washout of strong acids by meltwater (elution) and chemical enrichment upon refreezing. This hindered the identification of acid volcanic layers and further compromised dating by annual layer counting. Comparison of the melt record with those from other Arctic ice caps shows that the melt-temperature relationship on POW Icefield is site-specific. We speculate that this is due to the peculiar position of the icefield, which rests on the periphery of the Baffin Bay maritime climate zone, and to the proximity of the North Open Water polynya, which controls snow accumulation variability on the icefield and affects the melt percentage index.

Kinnard, Christophe; Koerner, Roy M.; Zdanowicz, Christian M.; Fisher, David A.; Zheng, Jiancheng; Sharp, Martin J.; Nicholson, Lindsey; Lauriol, Bernard

2008-12-01

79

Relationship Between the Melting Temperature of hcp Iron at ICB Pressure and the Light Impurity Content of Earth's Core  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The table below leads the reader through calculation of the core density deficit starting from the melting temperature (solidus), Tm, at the pressure, P, of the inner core boundary (ICB) (330 GPa). Tm values come from recent data of four sets of authors. Thermal pressure, ? PTH, values were calculated in the author's laboratory. P0 = 330 - PTH is the P corresponding to the volume, V, of iron at Tm, V0 (sol.). P0 yields V0 (sol.) from an equation of state. The volume change of melting, ? Vm, which leads to the liquidus V, V0 (liq.), was determined by the author. The liquidus density, ? 0 (liq.), is higher than the seismic density at 330 GPa by the core density deficit. S wt.% is the amount of sulfur alone that satisfies the core ? deficit. ? Tf is the freezing point depression arising from impurities. %table { \\setlength{\\tabcolsep}{.05truein} \\begin{center} \\begin{tabular}{lcccc} \\multicolumn{5}{l}{ Core density deficit and freezing point depression} multicolumn{5}{l}{calculated from Tm} \\hline Tm (330)& 4800 K& 5850 K& 6700 K& 7500 K \\hline ? PTH& 64.0& 82.0& 97.0& 112\\P0 (330 K)& 266& 248& 233& 218\\V0 (sol.)& 4.25& 4.30& 4.37& 4.43? Vm& .055& .055& .055& .055\\V0 (liq.)& 4.305& 4.355& 4.425& 4.485? (liq.)& 13.09& 12.94& 12.73& 12.48 core ? def.& 7.1& 6& 4& 2.9 S wt.% & 7.3& 6.2& 3.8& 2.5 ? Tf& ~ 330& ~ 300& ~ 200& ~ 150 \\hline \\multicolumn{5}{l}{Units: PTH & P0, GPa; V0 & ? Vm, cm3mol.-1;} multicolumn{5}{l}{? , kg m-3x 103; core ? def., %; ? Tf, K.}\\ } Cosmochemists' estimates of viable amounts of S and Si in the core are most easily satisfied by the core density deficit arising from Tm = 5850 K. High Tm values result in surprisingly high values for Earth's ICB temperature, because ? Tf is low. A large ? PTH results in a low ? Tf.

Anderson, O. L.

2001-12-01

80

Influence of Metal Ion and Polymer Core on the Melt Rheology of Metallosupramolecular Films.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Detailed rheological studies of metallo-supramolecular polymer films in the melt were performed to elucidate the influence of the metal ion and polymer components on their mechanical and structural properties. 4-Oxy-2,6-bis- (10-methylbenzimidazolyl)pyrid...

F. L. Beyer J. J. Wie J. P. Swanson J. R. Kumpfer M. E. Mackay

2012-01-01

81

Rapid Detection of KIT Mutations in Core-Binding Factor Acute Myeloid Leukemia Using High-Resolution Melting Analysis  

PubMed Central

The most frequent KIT mutations reported in core-binding factor acute myeloid leukemia are point mutations and insertions/deletions in exons 17 and 8. The vast majority of KIT mutation detection procedures are time-consuming, costly, or with a high lower limit of detection. High-resolution melting (HRM) is a gene scanning method that combines simplicity and rapid identification of genetic variants. We describe an HRM method for the simultaneous screening of exons 8 and 17 KIT mutations and report the results obtained in 69 core-binding factor acute myeloid leukemia patients. Mutation detection was compared with sequencing as the gold standard. The HRM method used high-resolution melting master reagents (Roche) and the LightCycler 480 (Roche) platform. HRM was reproducible, showed a lower limit of detection of 1%, and discriminated all patients with mutated KIT from controls without false positive or false negative results. Additionally, most of the mutations were differentiated from the other mutations. KIT mutations were present in 15.9% of patients, showing a higher incidence in inv(16) (25.8%) than in t(8;21) (7.9%). The presence of a KIT mutation was associated with a high white blood cell count, and adult patients with an exon 17 mutation had a higher incidence of relapse. These findings verify that HRM is a reliable, rapid, and sensitive method for KIT mutation screening. Furthermore, our study corroborates the unfavorable prognosis associated with exon 17 KIT mutations.

Fuster, Oscar; Barragan, Eva; Bolufer, Pascual; Cervera, Jose; Larrayoz, Maria Jose; Jimenez-Velasco, Antonio; Martinez-Lopez, Joaquin; Valencia, Ana; Moscardo, Federico; Sanz, Miguel Angel

2009-01-01

82

Structural failure analysis of reactor vessels due to molten core debris  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maintaining structural integrity of the reactor vessel during a postulated core melt accident is an important safety consideration in the design of the vessel. This paper addresses the failure predictions of the vessel due to thermal and pressure loadings from the molten core debris depositing on the lower head of the vessel. Different loading combinations were considered based on a

1993-01-01

83

Creep rupture behavior of a PWR lower head in a core-melt accident  

SciTech Connect

Although the Three Mile Island unit 2 (TMI-2) vessel did not fail, code analyses in support of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency TMI-2 Vessel Investigation Project generally predicted creep rupture for these conditions. This fueled speculation that there might be some inherent mechanism not previously recognized that could delay or prevent lower head failure. The most widely held belief is that the relocated melt did not adhere to the lower head; consequently, there should be gaps between the inside surface of the vessel and the relocated melt. These gaps, perhaps widened by temperature-induced creep of the lower head, provide a channel for water intrusion and subsequent quenching of the head, preventing its creep rupture. Therefore, from both accident assessment and accident mitigation considerations, there is a need to understand the mechanism of lower head creep and rupture.

Jeong, Kwang Jin; Lim, Dong Cheol; Hwang, Il Soon [Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of)

1997-12-01

84

Solubility of palladium in silicate melts: Implications for core formation in the Earth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Palladium solubilities in silicate melts of anorthite-diopside-eutectic composition were determined at a wide range of oxygen fugacities, from pure O 2 to f o2 slightly below the iron-wüstite buffer and at temperatures ranging from 1343 to 1472°C. Experiments were performed by heating palladiumloops with silicates inside a gas controlled furnace. Palladium concentrations were determined by neutron activation analysis. Repeated analyses

A. Borisov; H. Palme; B. Spettel

1994-01-01

85

The evaluation of RCS depressurization to prevent core melting in pressure tube reactors (CANDU-type)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pressure tube reactors, especially of the CANDU-type, have a low-pressure vessel calandria – under an internal pressure near atmospheric. The calandria vessel is immersed into the water contained inside a concrete structure – the calandria vault. In the case of accidents with the loss of normal core heat sinks, the moderator inside the calandria (heavy water) could become the ultimate

Stefan Mehedinteanu

2009-01-01

86

A Mechanism for the Suppression of a Steam Explosion in Real Core Melt and Water Interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

TROI experiments have been performed to reveal unsolved issues of a steam explosion by using real core material at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). One of the findings from the TROI experiments is that the results of a fuel coolant interaction (FCI) are strongly dependent on the composition of corium, which is composed of UO2, ZrO2, Zr, and

Ik-Kyu PARK; Jong-Hwan KIM; Beong-Tae MIN; Seong-Wan HONG

2010-01-01

87

Potassium Solubility in Fe-S Melts and Implications for the Earth's Core  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potassium as a radiogenic heat source in the Earth's core has been suggested over 30 years ago but several attempts at experimental confirmation have only yielded ambiguous results. This may have been in part due to severe experimental difficulties caused by volatility of K at high temperature and the ubiquitous solubility of K not only in water but also in

W. van Westrenen; V. Murthy; Y. Fei

2002-01-01

88

Modelling micro-level volume expansion during reactive melt infiltration using non-isothermal unreacted-shrinking core models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reactive melt infiltration is a process used to manufacture silicon carbide fibre-reinforced silicon carbide (SiC/SiC) composites. The present stage of research on reactive infiltration is primarily experimental, wherein complete infiltration is rarely achieved and unreacted silicon still remains in the composite. This paper deals with the micro-modelling aspect of reactive melt infiltration and estimates volume expansion due to mass transfer and reaction for cylindrical fibres. The thickness of the reaction product layer forming the matrix in the composite is determined by using an unreacted-shrinking core (URSC) model for cylindrical geometry in terms of physical parameters (diffusivity of the reactants and temperature) and non-dimensional physical quantities (such as the Sherwood number, Nusselt number and Thiele modulus). The effectiveness factors for the chemical reaction are determined as a function of time for various sets of physical parameters. The amount of volume expansion is found by determining the growth of the radius of the reaction product layer. It is concluded that lower initial temperatures of the solid reactant and higher ratios of heat capacity of reaction product to heat of reaction are favourable for infiltration. Determining the volume expansion in a single particle will later help in determining the transient permeability in a fibre preform during infiltration and also in optimizing this process.

Rajesh, G.; Bhagat, R. B.

1998-11-01

89

Silicate glasses and sulfide melts in the ICDP-USGS Eyreville B core, Chesapeake Bay impact structure, Virginia, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Optical and electron-beam petrography of melt-rich suevite and melt-rock clasts from selected samples from the Eyreville B core, Chesapeake Bay impact structure, reveal a variety of silicate glasses and coexisting sulfur-rich melts, now quenched to various sulfi de minerals (??iron). The glasses show a wide variety of textures, fl ow banding, compositions, devitrifi cation, and hydration states. Electron-microprobe analyses yield a compositional range of glasses from high SiO2 (>90 wt%) through a range of lower SiO2 (55-75 wt%) with no relationship to depth of sample. Some samples show spherical globules of different composition with sharp menisci, suggesting immiscibility at the time of quenching. Isotropic globules of higher interfacial tension glass (64 wt% SiO2) are in sharp contact with lower-surface-tension, high-silica glass (95 wt% SiO2). Immiscible glass-pair composition relationships show that the immiscibility is not stable and probably represents incomplete mixing. Devitrifi cation varies and some low-silica, high-iron glasses appear to have formed Fe-rich smectite; other glass compositions have formed rapid quench textures of corundum, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, magnetite, K-feldspar, plagioclase, chrome-spinel, and hercynite. Hydration (H2O by difference) varies from ~10 wt% to essentially anhydrous; high-SiO2 glasses tend to contain less H2O. Petrographic relationships show decomposition of pyrite and melting of pyrrhotite through the transformation series; pyrite? pyrrhotite? troilite??? iron. Spheres (~1 to ~50 ??m) of quenched immiscible sulfi de melt in silicate glass show a range of compositions and include phases such as pentlandite, chalcopyrite, Ni-As, monosulfi de solid solution, troilite, and rare Ni-Fe. Other sulfi de spheres contain small blebs of pure iron and exhibit a continuum with increasing iron content to spheres that consist of pure iron with small, remnant blebs of Fe-sulfi de. The Ni-rich sulfi de phases can be explained by melting and/or concentrating targetderived Ni without requiring an asteroid impactor source component. The presence of locally unaltered glasses in these rocks suggests that in some rock volumes, isolation from postimpact hydrothermal systems was suffi cient for glass preservation. Pressure and temperature indicators suggest that, on a thin-section scale, the suevites record rapid mixing and accumulation of particles that sustained widely different peak temperatures, from clasts that never exceeded 300 ?? 50 ??C, to the bulk of the glasses where melted sulfi de and unmelted monazite suggest temperatures of 1500 ?? 200 ??C. The presence of coesite in some glass-bearing samples suggests that pressures exceeded ~3 GPa. ?? 2009 Geological Society of America.

Belkin, H. E.; Horton, Jr. , J. W.

2009-01-01

90

Molecular dynamics simulations on the melting, crystallization, and energetic reaction behaviors of Al/Cu core-shell nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using molecular dynamics simulations combined with the embedded atom method potential, we investigate the heating, cooling, and energetic reacting of core-shell structured Al-Cu nanoparticles. The thermodynamic properties and structure evolution during continuous heating and cooling processes are also investigated through the characterization of the total potential energy distribution, mean-square-distance and radial distribution function. Some behaviors related to nanometer scale Cu/Al functional particles are derived that two-way diffusion of Al and Cu atoms, glass phase formation for the fast cooling rate, and the crystal phase formation for the low cooling rate. Two-way atomic diffusion occurs first and causes the melting and alloying. In the final alloying structure, Cu and Al atoms mixed very well except for the outmost shell which has more Al atoms. For the investigation of the thermal stability and energetic reaction properties, our study show that a localized alloying reaction between the Al core and Cu shell is very slow when the initial temperature is lower than 600 K. But a two-stage reaction may occur when the initial temperature is 700 K. The reaction rate is determined by the solid-state diffusion of Al atoms in the Cu shell at the first stage, yet the reaction rate is much faster at the second stage, due to the alloying reaction between the liquid Al core and the Cu shell. At higher temperatures such as 800 K and 900 K, the alloying reaction occurs directly between the liquid Al core and the Cu shell.

Cheng, Xin-Lu; Zhang, Jin-Ping; Zhang, Hong; Zhao, Feng

2013-08-01

91

Black carbon concentrations from a Tibetan Plateau ice core spanning 1843-1982: recent increases due to emissions and glacier melt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Black carbon (BC) deposited on snow and glacier surfaces can reduce albedo and lead to accelerated melt. An ice core recovered from Guoqu glacier on Mt. Geladaindong and analyzed using a Single Particle Soot Photometer provides the first long-term (1843-1982) record of BC concentrations from the Central Tibetan Plateau. The highest concentrations are observed from 1975-1982, which corresponds to a 2.0-fold and 2.4-fold increase in average and median values, respectively, relative to 1843-1940. BC concentrations post-1940 are also elevated relative to the earlier portion of the record. Causes for the higher BC concentrations include increased regional BC emissions and subsequent deposition, and melt induced enrichment of BC, with the melt potentially accelerated due to the presence of BC at the glacier surface. A qualitative comparison of the BC and Fe (used as a dust proxy) records suggests that if changes in the concentrations of absorbing impurities at the glacier surface have influenced recent glacial melt, the melt may be due to the presence of BC rather than dust. Guoqu glacier has received no net ice accumulation since the 1980s, and is a potential example of a glacier where an increase in the equilibrium line altitude is exposing buried high impurity layers. That BC concentrations in the uppermost layers of the Geladaindong ice core are not substantially higher relative to deeper in the ice core suggests that some of the BC that must have been deposited on Guoqu glacier via wet or dry deposition between 1983 and 2005 has been removed from the surface of the glacier, potentially via supraglacial or englacial meltwater.

Jenkins, M.; Kaspari, S.; Kang, S.; Grigholm, B.; Mayewski, P. A.

2013-10-01

92

Melting of Fe and Fe0.9375Si0.0625 at Earth's core pressures studied using ab initio molecular dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The issue of melting of pure iron and iron alloyed with lighter elements at high pressure is critical to the physics of the Earth. The iron melting curve in the relevant pressure range between 3 and 4 Mbar is reasonably well established from the theoretical point of view. However, so far no one attempted a direct atomistic simulation of iron alloyed with light elements. We investigate here the impact of alloying the body-centered cubic (bcc) Fe with Si. We simulate melting of the bcc Fe and Fe0.9375Si0.0625 alloy by ab initio molecular dynamics. The addition of light elements to the hexagonal-close-packed (hcp) iron is known to depress its melting temperature (Tm) . We obtain, in marked contrast, that alloying of bcc Fe with Si does not lead to Tm depression; on the contrary, the Tm slightly increases. This suggests that if Si is a typical impurity in the Earth’s inner core, then the stable phase in the core is bcc rather than hcp.

Belonoshko, Anatoly B.; Rosengren, Anders; Burakovsky, Leonid; Preston, Dean L.; Johansson, Börje

2009-06-01

93

Fission product transport and behavior during two postulated loss of flow transients in the air.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document discusses fission product behavior during two postulated loss-of-flow accidents (leading to high- and low-pressure core degradation, respectively) in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). These transients are designated ATR Transient LCPI5 (high-...

J. P. Adams M. L. Carboneau

1991-01-01

94

A broad Galápagos hotspot melting anomaly and disturbance of the underlying core- mantle boundary: A natural laboratory for studying interaction between the core-mantle boundary and overlying lithosphere?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New evidence from direct isotopic dating of the oceanic hotspot record is suggesting that hotspot melting anomalies might be much broader than commonly inferred from the dimensions of individual seamount chains and aseismic ridges and their associated active `volcanic` hotspots. Such an inference is supported by recent thermo-chemical numerical modelling exploring scenarios where upwelling structures are more irregular in shape and behaviour compared to a classic thermal plume `head-tail` (e.g., Farnetani and Samuel, 2006). New age data from the Galápagos Volcanic Province suggest that it developed via the progression of broad regions of widespread, long-lived and possibly concurrent volcanism resulting from tectonic plate motion over a broad Galápagos hotspot melting anomaly (O'Connor et al., 2007). Seismic imaging of the core-mantle boundary under the Cocos plate shows a 100-km vertical step occurring in an otherwise flat D" shear velocity discontinuity (Thomas et al., 2004, Hutko et al., 2006, Kito et al., 2007). One possible explanation is that folding and piling of a cold subducted slab on reaching the core-mantle boundary might account for this lateral variation in terms of a post-perovskite phase change (Thomas et al., 2004, Hutko et al., 2006, Kito et al., 2007). Low velocities inferred at the edge of this proposed slab material may result from the lateral displacement of a thin hot thermal boundary layer leading to upwelling at the tip of the slab, (Thomas et al., 2004, Hutko et al., 2006, Kito et al., 2007), which in turn might possible be connected to our inferred broad hotspot melting anomaly. The combination of the recent imaging of an anomaly at the D"-discontinuity and the inference of a broad overlying Galápagos hotspot melting anomaly suggest that the Galápagos region is an ideal natural-laboratory for studying the possibility of interaction between the core-mantle boundary and overlying lithosphere.

O'Connor, J. M.; Stoffers, P.; Wijbrans, J. R.; Worthington, T. J.

2007-12-01

95

Quantification of Dead-ice Melting in Ice-Cored Moraines at the High-Arctic Glacier Holmströmbreen, Svalbard  

Microsoft Academic Search

An extensive dead-ice area has developed at the stagnant snout of the Holmströmbreen glacier on Svalbard following its Little Ice Age maximum. Dead-ice appears mainly as ice-cored moraines, ice-cored eskers and ice- cored kames. The most common dead-ice landform is sediment gravity flows on ice-cored slopes surrounding a large ice-walled, moraine-dammed lake. The lake finally receives the sediment from the

A. Schomacker; K. H. Kjaer

2007-01-01

96

Study on severe fuel damage and in-vessel melt progression.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In-vessel core melt progression describes the progression of the state of a reactor core from core uncovery up to reactor vessel melt through in uncovered accidents or through temperature stabilization in accidents recovered by core reflooding. Melt progr...

H. D. Kim S. B. Kim G. J. Lee

1992-01-01

97

A concept of a small controlled, filtered venting system and an add-on decay heat removal system to mitigate the consequences of core-melt accidents  

SciTech Connect

Core-melt accidents as modeled in risk studies result in severe consequences to the environment of a nuclear power plant, only if the containment function of the plant is assumed to fail during the accident. To protect the containment function of a pressurized water reactor with double containment during a core-melt accident against the dominant late failure modes, a relief condenser vent system, if useful or necessary, in combination with an outside spray cooling between the primary steel containment and the secondary concrete containment, is proposed. The outside spray cooling system supports the removal of the decay heat by condensing evaporated sump water at the primary containment shell. Pressure buildup caused by the generated noncondensable gases is effectively limited by the relief condenser vent system located within the primary containment. Thereby, a relatively small flow of the steam-gas mixture in the containment is first guided through a condenser where most of the steam is condensed. The remaining noncondensable gases are then released via a conventional outside filter train in a controlled manner. Safety problems due to hydrogen combustion, which may arise due to the operation of the proposed system, can be prevented by design and operation of the system. By venting, the containment atmosphere is finally inerted.

Chakraborty, S.; Covelli, B.; Herttrich, P.M.

1986-06-01

98

The Lowest ?7Li Yet Recorded in MORB Glasses: The Connection with Oceanic Core Complex Formation, Refractory Rutile-bearing Eclogitic Mantle Sources and Melt Supply  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The region between 12°N and 16°N along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge is known for its prolific development of oceanic core complexes and for a geochemical anomaly centered at ~14°N. We examine the correlation of the geochemical anomaly with a region characterized by low magma supply. Basalt glasses over the geochemical anomaly are unusual in exhibiting E-MORB to T-MORB HIMU-DMM isotopic gradients. The most enriched MORBs exhibit positive Ta and Nb anomalies and negative Th and Pb anomalies that are similar to some OIB basalts. Some more primitive basalts exhibit positive Ti, Sr and Eu anomalies. The center of the geochemical anomaly is characterized by elevated La/Sm ratios that are strongly correlated with Nb/La, Nb/Nb*, Ta/Ta* and Sr, Nd, Pb isotopic anomalies. In addition, we have recently documented a regional anomaly in ?7Li, with the lowest values ever recorded in MORB glasses near the center of the anomaly. We interpret this data to indicate that the mantle source in the 12-16°N region of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge involves subducted slab components including a refractory rutile-bearing eclogitic source that has suffered significant dehydration and a previously depleted mantle source that has undergone an ancient depletion event that results in little melt supply being contributed to the ridge axis. We examine melt supply implications in the context of core complex development and these unusual mantle source characteristics.

Casey, J. F.; Gao, Y.; Benavidez, R.; Dragoi, C.

2010-12-01

99

Koch's postulates, carnivorous cows, and tuberculosis today.  

PubMed

With Koch's announcement in 1882 of his work with the tubercle bacillus, his famous postulates launched the rational world of infectious disease and an abrupt social change--strict patient isolation. The postulates, so successful at their inception, soon began to show some problems, particularly with cholera, which clearly violated some of Koch's requirements. Subsequent studies of other diseases and the discovery of entirely new ones have so altered and expanded the original postulates that they now are little but a precious touch of history. The present additions and replacements of the original concepts are skillful changes that several authors have devised to introduce new order into understanding complex viral and prion diseases. In 1988, this knowledge, with the totally rational response of the British population and its cattle industry, was critical in promptly blocking the threatened epidemic of human prion disease. In contrast, the recent upsurge of tuberculosis (TB) in the worldwide AIDS epidemic in developing countries, and the sudden increase in metabolic syndrome in wealthy ones, suggests the need for focused sociobiologic research seeking ways to affect the damaging lifestyle behavior of many less educated populations in both settings. The world awaits an equivalent of Koch's Postulates in sociobiology to explain and possibly avert large self-destructive behaviors. PMID:21886302

Tabrah, Frank L

2011-07-01

100

Koch's Postulates, Carnivorous Cows, and Tuberculosis Today  

PubMed Central

With Koch's announcement in 1882 of his work with the tubercle bacillus, his famous postulates launched the rational world of infectious disease and an abrupt social change—strict patient isolation. The postulates, so successful at their inception, soon began to show some problems, particularly with cholera, which clearly violated some of Koch's requirements. Subsequent studies of other diseases and the discovery of entirely new ones have so altered and expanded the original postulates that they now are little but a precious touch of history. The present additions and replacements of the original concepts are skillful changes that several authors have devised to introduce new order into understanding complex viral and prion diseases. In 1988, this knowledge, with the totally rational response of the British population and its cattle industry, was critical in promptly blocking the threatened epidemic of human prion disease. In contrast, the recent upsurge of tuberculosis (TB) in the worldwide AIDS epidemic in developing countries, and the sudden increase in metabolic syndrome in wealthy ones, suggests the need for focused sociobiologic research seeking ways to affect the damaging lifestyle behavior of many less educated populations in both settings. The world awaits an equivalent of Koch's Postulates in sociobiology to explain and possibly avert large self-destructive behaviors.

2011-01-01

101

Petrology of impactites from El'gygytgyn crater: Breccias in ICDP-drill core 1C, glassy impact melt rocks and spherules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AbstractEl'gygytgyn is a 18 km diameter, 3.6 Ma old impact crater in NE Siberia. International Continental Scientific Drilling Program—El'gygytgyn hole 1C was drilled on the frozen crater lake, 2.3 km from the crater center to a final depth of 517 m below the lake floor. Petrographic and geochemical analyses of 26 drill <span class="hlt">core</span> samples, three impact <span class="hlt">melt</span> rocks from the surface, and seven glass spherules from surface deposits outside the crater are used to characterize the impactite inventory at El'gygytgyn. The bottom 98 m of hole 1C intersected monomict brecciated, unshocked, rhyolitic ignimbrite with minor intercalations of polymict breccia and mafic inclusions. These lithologies are overlain by 89 m of polymict breccia whose components occasionally exhibit scarce, low-degree shock metamorphic features. This unit is succeeded by 10 m of suevite that contains about 1 vol% glassy impact <span class="hlt">melt</span> shards <1 cm in size and a low amount of shock metamorphosed lithic clasts. The suevite is capped by a reworked fallout deposit that constitutes a transition over 4 m into lacustrine sedimentation. A higher abundance of shock metamorphosed lithic clasts, and glass spherules, some with Ni-rich spinel and admixture of an ultramafic component, characterize this unit. We tentatively interpret this impactite section as allochthonous breccia in the vicinity of El'gygytgyn's central ring uplift. The geochemical compositions of seven glass spherules from terrace deposits 2 km outside the crater and eight spherules from the reworked fallout deposit in hole 1C show far greater variability than the composition of impact <span class="hlt">melt</span> shards and impact <span class="hlt">melt</span> rocks. Some of these spherules also show strong enrichments in siderophile elements.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wittmann, Axel; Goderis, Steven; Claeys, Philippe; Vanhaecke, Frank; Deutsch, Alexander; Adolph, Leonie</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">102</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989PhDT........53A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Defect-Mediated <span class="hlt">Melting</span> in Colloidal Monolayers.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Polystyrene microspheres placed carefully on the surface of water form ordered structures ranging from weakly interacting gasses to defect-sparse two dimensional solids. These systems are microscopically observable and are ideal for observing defect evolution as the systems <span class="hlt">melt</span>. Using microscopy in combination with image processing techniques the equation of state, defect structures, and the translational and orientational correlation functions are found as the systems <span class="hlt">melt</span> (solidify) when isothermally expanded (compressed). The data are analyzed with the specific intent of examining the validity of the Kosterlitz-Thouless-Halperin-Nelson -Young (KTHNY) theory of two dimensional defect mediated <span class="hlt">melting</span>. In this theory <span class="hlt">melting</span> occurs in a two step continuous process governed by the separation of bound topological defects. The solid first loses its translational order by the unbinding of bound dislocation pairs. This results in an orientationally ordered intermediate phase called the Hexatic that evolves to a true liquid by disclination unbinding. Two particle sizes, 2.88 ?m dia. and 1.01 ?m dia., were examined in this work. The 2.88 ?m system showed evidence of defect mediated <span class="hlt">melting</span> and of an intermediate hexatic phase, in partial accord with the KTHNY theory. However, the loss of orientational order was mediated by the formation of grain boundaries and the predicted disclination unbinding transition was not observed. <span class="hlt">Melting</span> in the 1.01 ?m system appeared to proceed by a weak first order transition. It is suggested that the difference between the two systems is attributable to the <span class="hlt">core</span> energy required to create bound dislocation pairs. From observations on the number and frequency of occurrence of virtual dislocation pairs in these systems, an additional mechanism for dislocation unbinding is <span class="hlt">postulated</span>. Based on a one dimensional description of dislocations, the <span class="hlt">core</span> energy is identified as the rest energy of a soliton solution of a nonlinear displacement field. Using this identification an extended KTHNY model is proposed and it is shown in an approximate fashion how the unbinding mechanism depends on the <span class="hlt">core</span> energy. For large <span class="hlt">core</span> energy the system follows the KTHNY theory, while for small <span class="hlt">core</span> energy virtual dislocation pairs become a dominate factor. It is suggested that the latter condition leads to a first order transition.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Armstrong, Allen Jay</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">103</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21529045"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Postulates</span> for measures of genuine multipartite correlations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A lot of research has been done on multipartite correlations, but the problem of satisfactorily defining genuine multipartite correlations--those not trivially reducible to lower partite correlations--remains unsolved. In this paper we propose three reasonable <span class="hlt">postulates</span> which each measure or indicator of genuine multipartite correlations (or genuine multipartite entanglement) should satisfy. We also introduce the concept of degree of correlations, which gives partial characterization of multipartite correlations. Then, we show that covariance does not satisfy two <span class="hlt">postulates</span> and hence it cannot be used as an indicator of genuine multipartite correlations. Finally, we propose a candidate for a measure of genuine multipartite correlations based on the work that can be drawn from a local heat bath by means of a multipartite state.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bennett, Charles H. [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States); Grudka, Andrzej [Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, University of Gdansk, PL-80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, PL-61-614 Poznan (Poland); Horodecki, Michal; Horodecki, Ryszard [Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, University of Gdansk, PL-80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Horodecki, Pawel [Faculty of Applied Physics and Mathematics, Technical University of Gdansk, PL-80-952 Gdansk (Poland)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">104</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10136699"> <span id="translatedtitle">Status of the MELTSPREAD-1 computer code for the analysis of transient spreading of <span class="hlt">core</span> debris <span class="hlt">melts</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A transient, one dimensional, finite difference computer code (MELTSPREAD-1) has been developed to predict spreading behavior of high temperature <span class="hlt">melts</span> flowing over concrete and/or steel surfaces submerged in water, or without the effects of water if the surface is initially dry. This paper provides a summary overview of models and correlations currently implemented in the code, code validation activities completed thus far, LWR spreading-related safety issues for which the code has been applied, and the status of documentation for the code.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Farmer, M.T.; Sienicki, J.J.; Spencer, B.W.; Chu, C.C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">105</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5581684"> <span id="translatedtitle">Status of the MELTSPREAD-1 computer code for the analysis of transient spreading of <span class="hlt">core</span> debris <span class="hlt">melts</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A transient, one dimensional, finite difference computer code (MELTSPREAD-1) has been developed to predict spreading behavior of high temperature <span class="hlt">melts</span> flowing over concrete and/or steel surfaces submerged in water, or without the effects of water if the surface is initially dry. This paper provides a summary overview of models and correlations currently implemented in the code, code validation activities completed thus far, LWR spreading-related safety issues for which the code has been applied, and the status of documentation for the code.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Farmer, M.T.; Sienicki, J.J.; Spencer, B.W.; Chu, C.C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">106</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998PhDT........62M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Determination and verification of the electrodynamic <span class="hlt">postulates</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The foundation of this research is a set of fundamental <span class="hlt">postulates</span> from which electromagnetic theories can be derived. This set includes <span class="hlt">postulates</span> on the following: (i)Velocity of light in vacuum, (ii)Kinematics of source and/or receiver, (iii)Temporal/spacial differentiation. The objective is to demonstrate which particular <span class="hlt">postulates</span> will be able to correctly formulate a generalized electrodynamic theory based on Galilean relativity, which is consistent with the concept of universal time. This is significant because classical electromagnetic theory, in its current formulation, is inadequate in many regards: (1)Classical electromagnetism does not permit the establishment of universal time. (2)Explanation of crucial experiments is not <span class="hlt">postulate</span> unique. (3)Quantities in classical electromagnetic theory are not coordinate invariant. (4) Longitudinal forces in current-carrying wires have been observed. (5)Mathematical problems with taking derivatives of functions with multiple-nested dependency. (i)Velocity of light. In current electromagnetic theory it is tacitly assumed (although not always explicitly stated) that the speed of light is always constant in all co-ordinate systems regardless of the motion of the source or receiver. This particular <span class="hlt">postulate</span> is known as the velocity invariance of light, and is the cornerstone of special relativity. There is very little directly known about the speed of light and the interpretation of indirect experimental data, which does exist, is ambiguous. Even the often cited landmark experiments, with meson decay and atomic clocks in motion, do not prove the constancy of the speed of light. Rather, they only demonstrate that if the speed of light is invariant, then the conclusion that time ``dilates'' and length ``contracts'' as a function of velocity, must necessarily follow. This is just a consequence of the <span class="hlt">postulate</span>, and does not prove its validity. (ii)Kinematics of source and/or receiver kinematics. is the study of mathematical relationships between point coordinates and their temporal derivatives. All dynamic quantities (those that involve mass) must ultimately be expressed in kinematical terms. In order for physical quantities to be meaningful they must be co-ordinate system independent. This principle will be the basis for developing the dynamic equations of this research. (iii)Temporal and spacial differentiation. Differentiation of multi- variate functions, whose variables are also multiple- nested functions of position and time, in order to obtain the gradient, divergence, curl, and Laplacians, is necessary when the spacial variation of temporal retardation has to be considered. In summary, a painstaking, thorough search into the literature must be done to find experiments whose results can clearly distinguish between <span class="hlt">postulates</span> and actually test the validity of their premise. Additionally, new experiments may have to be designed to supplement this research in order to fulfill its objective. Likewise, a mathematical model must be developed that is consistent with all existing information, and be sufficiently general to predict new, yet undiscovered, phenomena.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mann, Philip Jay</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">107</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48914373"> <span id="translatedtitle">Thirty-seven year mass balance of Devon Ice Cap, Nunavut, Canada, determined by shallow ice <span class="hlt">coring</span> and <span class="hlt">melt</span> modeling</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In April–May 2000, eight boreholes were drilled to ?15–20 m depth on the Devon Ice Cap. 137Cs ? activity profiles of each borehole showed a peak count rate at depth that is associated with fallout from atmospheric thermonuclear weapons testing in 1963. Snow, firn, and ice densities were measured at each <span class="hlt">core</span> site and were used to estimate the average</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Douglas Mair; David Burgess; Martin Sharp</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">108</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999LPI....30.1013H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sulfur Solubility in Silicate <span class="hlt">Melts</span> Saturated with Metal Sulfide at Elevated Pressure and Temperature: Implications for <span class="hlt">Core</span>-Mantle Interactions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The bulk silicate Earth's sulfur content is ~7* higher than the expected sulfur solubility of a silicate liquid. Sulfur-saturated <span class="hlt">core</span>-forming metal segregation event is not supported by the expected and observed S abundances in the Earth's mantle.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Holzheid, A.; Grove, T. L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">109</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/14734506"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Possible Experimental Test of Einstein's Second <span class="hlt">Postulate</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">AS is well known, Einstein's special theory of relativity rests on two <span class="hlt">postulates</span>: (1) the <span class="hlt">postulate</span> of relativity; (2) the <span class="hlt">postulate</span> of constant light velocity, which says1 ``that light is always propagated in empty space with a definite velocity c which is independent of the state of motion of the emitting body''. For the first <span class="hlt">postulate</span> there is much experimental</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Herbert Dingle</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1959-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">110</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFMMR44A..08M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Solubility of Uranium in Fe-S-Si <span class="hlt">Melts</span> at High Pressure and Temperature and at Highly Reducing Conditions: Uranium as a heat source in the Earth's <span class="hlt">Core</span>?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The presence of Uranium and its role as a radioactive heat source in the Earth's Fe-metallic <span class="hlt">core</span> has been controversial (e.g., Wheeler et al., 2006; Bao et al., 2005). We report here on partitioning of U between molten enstatite chondrite and Fe-S-Si <span class="hlt">melts</span> at about 4 log units below the Iron-Wustite oxygen buffer and pressures between 3 and 8 GPa. All experiments were performed at super-liquidus temperatures in the range of 2000- 2400 C. Both the metal and silicates were completely molten, in keeping with the concept of an early global magma ocean. At these pressures and temperatures, the partition coefficient, DU (U concentration in metallic sulfide liquid/U concentration in molten silicate) is in the range of 0.03-0.08. DU is positively correlated with S as observed in prior studies (Bao et al., 2005; Wheeler et al., 2006), but is inversely correlated with Si in metallic liquid. In metal with little or no sulfur, DU is lower by an order of magnitude or more. In the range of our measurements, no strong effect of either T or P on the partition coefficient is observed. U shows no correlation with Ca suggesting that U is not carried via CaS at these highly reducing conditions, as has been suggested (Murrell and Burnett, 1982; Furst et al., 1982). Nor does the U content of metal-sulfide have any discernible dependency on the O content of the metallic liquid. Thus it appears that neither Ca nor O act as carriers or catalytic agents for the entry of U into Fe-S <span class="hlt">melts</span>. Rather, we suggest that the reaction UO2 +2 FeS = US2 +2FeO proceeds to the right at elevated P and T and highly reducing conditions, facilitating the incorporation of U in Fe-S liquids. Assuming that the behavior of DU is not significantly changed at the much higher P and T relevant to the magma ocean, our data permit 0.6-1.8 ppb of U in the <span class="hlt">core</span> with heat production capacity of 0.1-0.3 TW at present, a small fraction of the 6-12 TW total heat flux from the <span class="hlt">core</span> (Buffet, 2003). We conclude that under highly reducing conditions uranium might be incorporated into the Earth's metallic <span class="hlt">core</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Murthy, V.; Draper, D. S.; Agee, C. B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">111</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013M%26PS...48.1296G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Testing the ureilite projectile hypothesis for the El'gygytgyn impact: Determination of siderophile element abundances and Os isotope ratios in ICDP drill <span class="hlt">core</span> samples and <span class="hlt">melt</span> rocks</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The geochemical nature of the impactites from International Continental Scientific Drilling Project—El'gygytgyn lake drill <span class="hlt">core</span> 1C is compared with that of impact <span class="hlt">melt</span> rock fragments collected near the western rim of the structure and literature data. Concentrations of major and trace elements, with special focus on siderophile metals Cr, Co, Ni, and the platinum group elements, and isotope ratios of osmium (Os), were determined to test the hypothesis of an ureilite impactor at El'gygytgyn. Least squares mixing calculations suggest that the upper volcanic succession of rhyolites, dacites, and andesites were the main contributors to the polymict impact breccias. Additions of 2-13.5 vol% of basaltic inclusions recovered from drill <span class="hlt">core</span> intervals between 391.6 and 423.0 mblf can almost entirely account for the compositional differences observed for the bottom of a reworked fallout deposit at 318.9 mblf, a polymict impact breccia at 471.4 mblf, and three impact <span class="hlt">melt</span> rock fragments. However, the measured Os isotope ratios and slightly elevated PGE content (up to 0.262 ng g-1 Ir) of certain impactite samples, for which the CI-normalized logarithmic PGE signature displays a relatively flat (i.e., chondritic) pattern, can only be explained by the incorporation of a small meteoritic contribution. This component is also required to explain the exceptionally high siderophile element contents and corresponding Ni/Cr, Ni/Co, and Cr/Co ratios of impact glass spherules and spherule fragments that were recovered from the reworked fallout deposits and from terrace outcrops of the Enmyvaam River approximately 10 km southeast of the crater center. Mixing calculations support the presence of approximately 0.05 wt% and 0.50-18 wt% of ordinary chondrite (possibly type-LL) in several impactites and in the glassy spherules, respectively. The heterogeneous distribution of the meteoritic component provides clues for emplacement mechanisms of the various impactite units.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Goderis, S.; Wittmann, A.; Zaiss, J.; Elburg, M.; Ravizza, G.; Vanhaecke, F.; Deutsch, A.; Claeys, P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">112</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://dx.doi.org/10.1130/2009.2458(10)"> <span id="translatedtitle">Megablocks and <span class="hlt">melt</span> pockets in the Chesapeake Bay impact structure constrained by magnetic field measurements and properties of the Eyreville and Cape Charles <span class="hlt">cores</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We use magnetic susceptibility and remanent magnetization measurements of the Eyreville and Cape Charles <span class="hlt">cores</span> in combination with new and previously collected magnetic field data in order to constrain structural features within the inner basin of the Chesapeake Bay impact structure. The Eyreville <span class="hlt">core</span> shows the first evidence of several-hundred-meter-thick basement-derived megablocks that have been transported possibly kilometers from their pre-impact location. The magnetic anomaly map of the structure exhibits numerous short-wavelength (<2 km) variations that indicate the presence of magnetic sources within the crater fill. With <span class="hlt">core</span> magnetic properties and seismic reflection and refraction results as constraints, forward models of the magnetic field show that these sources may represent basementderived megablocks that are a few hundred meters thick or <span class="hlt">melt</span> bodies that are a few dozen meters thick. Larger-scale magnetic field properties suggest that these bodies overlie deeper, pre-impact basement contacts between materials with different magnetic properties such as gneiss and schist or gneiss and granite. The distribution of the short-wavelength magnetic anomalies in combination with observations of small-scale (1-2 mGal) gravity field variations suggest that basement-derived megablocks are preferentially distributed on the eastern side of the inner crater, not far from the Eyreville <span class="hlt">core</span>, at depths of around 1-2 km. A scenario where additional basement-derived blocks between 2 and 3 km depth are distributed throughout the inner basin-and are composed of more magnetic materials, such as granite and schist, toward the east over a large-scale magnetic anomaly high and less magnetic materials, such as gneiss, toward the west where the magnetic anomaly is lower-provides a good model fi t to the observed magnetic anomalies in a manner that is consistent with both gravity and seismic-refraction data. ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shah, A. K.; Daniels, D. L.; Kontny, A.; Brozena, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">113</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42007904"> <span id="translatedtitle">Thirty-seven year mass balance of Devon Ice Cap, Nunavut, Canada, determined by shallow ice <span class="hlt">coring</span> and <span class="hlt">melt</span> modeling</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In April-May 2000, eight boreholes were drilled to ~15-20 m depth on the Devon Ice Cap. 137Cs gamma activity profiles of each borehole showed a peak count rate at depth that is associated with fallout from atmospheric thermonuclear weapons testing in 1963. Snow, firn, and ice densities were measured at each <span class="hlt">core</span> site and were used to estimate the average</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Douglas Mair; David Burgess; Martin Sharp</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">114</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/821220"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Melt</span> fracture revisited</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In a previous paper the author and Demay advanced a model to explain the <span class="hlt">melt</span> fracture instability observed when molten linear polymer <span class="hlt">melts</span> are extruded in a capillary rheometer operating under the controlled condition that the inlet flow rate was held constant. The model <span class="hlt">postulated</span> that the <span class="hlt">melts</span> were a slightly compressible viscous fluid and allowed for slipping of the <span class="hlt">melt</span> at the wall. The novel feature of that model was the use of an empirical switch law which governed the amount of wall slip. The model successfully accounted for the oscillatory behavior of the exit flow rate, typically referred to as the <span class="hlt">melt</span> fracture instability, but did not simultaneously yield the fine scale spatial oscillations in the <span class="hlt">melt</span> typically referred to as shark skin. In this note a new model is advanced which simultaneously explains the <span class="hlt">melt</span> fracture instability and shark skin phenomena. The model <span class="hlt">postulates</span> that the polymer is a slightly compressible linearly viscous fluid but assumes no slip boundary conditions at the capillary wall. In simple shear the shear stress {tau}and strain rate d are assumed to be related by d = F{tau} where F ranges between F{sub 2} and F{sub 1} > F{sub 2}. A strain rate dependent yield function is introduced and this function governs whether F evolves towards F{sub 2} or F{sub 1}. This model accounts for the empirical observation that at high shears polymers align and slide more easily than at low shears and explains both the <span class="hlt">melt</span> fracture and shark skin phenomena.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Greenberg, J. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-07-16</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">115</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20837795"> <span id="translatedtitle">A MELCOR Application to Two Light Water Reactor Nuclear Power Plant <span class="hlt">Core</span> <span class="hlt">Melt</span> Scenarios with Assumed Cavity Flooding Action</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The MELCOR 1.8.4 code Bottom Head package has been applied to simulate two reactor cavity flooding scenarios for when the corium material relocates to the lower-plenum region in <span class="hlt">postulated</span> severe accidents. The applications were preceded by a review of two main physical models, which highly impacted the results. A model comparison to available bibliography models was done, which allowed some code modifications on selected default assumptions to be undertaken. First, the corium convective heat transfer to the wall when it becomes liquid was modified, and second, the default nucleate boiling regime curve in a submerged hemisphere was replaced by a new curve (and, to a much lesser extent, the critical heat flux curve was slightly varied).The applications were devoted to two prototypical light water reactor nuclear power plants, a 2700-MW(thermal) pressurized water reactor (PWR) and a 1381-MW(thermal) boiling water reactor (BWR). The main conclusions of the cavity flooding simulations were that the PWR lower-head survivability is extended although it is clearly not guaranteed, while in the BWR sequence the corium seems to be successfully arrested in the lower plenum.Three applications of the CFX 4.4 computational fluid dynamics code were carried out in the context of the BWR scenario to support the first modification of the aforementioned two scenarios for MELCOR.Finally, in the same BWR context, a statistic predictor of selected output parameters as a function of input parameters is presented, which provides reasonable results when compared to MELCOR full calculations in much shorter CPU processing times.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Martin-Fuertes, Francisco; Martin-Valdepenas, Juan Manuel; Mira, Jose; Sanchez, Maria Jesus [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (Spain)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-10-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">116</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/61319750"> <span id="translatedtitle">Vapor transport of fission products in <span class="hlt">postulated</span> severe light water reactor accidents</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A methodology based on chemical thermodynamics has been developed to treat the transport of volatile fission products (FPs) through the <span class="hlt">core</span> and the primary system. The FPs considered are cesium, iodine, tellurium, strontium, and ruthenium, which may pose the major biohazard in <span class="hlt">postulated</span> severe accidents in light water reactors. The vapor transport of FPs depends on the volatilities of the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. Cubicciotti; B. R. Sehgal</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">117</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010GeoJI.181..113P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Crustal structure of a rifted oceanic <span class="hlt">core</span> complex and its conjugate side at the MAR at 5°S: implications for <span class="hlt">melt</span> extraction during detachment faulting and <span class="hlt">core</span> complex formation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present results of a seismic refraction experiment which determines the crustal and upper-mantle structure of an oceanic <span class="hlt">core</span> complex (OCC) and its conjugate side located south of the 5°S ridge-transform intersection at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The <span class="hlt">core</span> complex with a corrugated surface has been split by a change in location of active seafloor spreading, resulting in two massifs on either side of the current spreading axis. We applied a joint tomographic inversion of wide-angle reflected and refracted phases for five intersecting seismic profiles. The obtained velocity models are used to constrain the magmatic evolution of the <span class="hlt">core</span> complex from the analysis of seismic layer 3 and crustal thickness. An abrupt increase of crustal velocities at shallow depth coincides with the onset of the seafloor corrugations at the exposed footwall. The observed velocity structure is consistent with the presence of gabbros directly beneath the corrugated fault surface. The thickness of the high-velocity body is constrained by PmP reflections to vary along and across axis between <3 and 5km. The thickest crust is associated with the central phase of detachment faulting at the higher-elevated northern portion of the massif. Beneath the breakaway of the OCC the crust is 2.5km thick and reveals significantly lower velocities. This implies that the fault initially exhumed low-velocity material overlying the gabbro plutons. In contrast, crust formed at the conjugate side during OCC formation is characterized by an up to 2-km-thick seismic layer 2 overlying a 1.7-km-thick seismic layer 3. Obtained upper-mantle velocities range from 7.3 to 7.9kms-1 and seem to increase with distance from the median valley. However, velocities of 7.3-7.5kms-1 beneath the older portions of the OCC may derive from deep fluid circulation and related hydrothermal alteration, which may likely be facilitated by the subsequent rifting. Our velocity models reveal a strongly asymmetric velocity structure across the ridge axis, associated with the accretion of gabbros into the footwall of the detachment fault and upper-crustal portions concentrated at the conjugate side. Our results do not support a substantial increase in the axial ridge's <span class="hlt">melt</span> supply related to the final phase of detachment faulting. Hence, the footwall rifting at 5°S may be a generic mechanism of detachment termination under very low <span class="hlt">melt</span> conditions, as predicted by recent numerical models of Tucholke et al.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Planert, Lars; Flueh, Ernst R.; Tilmann, Frederik; Grevemeyer, Ingo; Reston, Timothy J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">118</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=DE97612881"> <span id="translatedtitle">Un coeur chaud dans un corps froid. La technologie du four de fusion de demain. (A hot <span class="hlt">core</span> in a cold body. The <span class="hlt">melting</span> furnace technology of tomorrow).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this note we indicate the research conducted by the CEA on the <span class="hlt">melting</span> furnaces used in the vitrification of high level radioactive waste and using induction and cold <span class="hlt">melting</span> pot. (authors). 3 refs. (Atomindex citation 28:014654)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. Jouan R. Boen S. Merlin P. Roux</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">119</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6338967"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modeling of <span class="hlt">core</span> debris-sodium-concrete interactions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The interactions between sodium and concrete in the presence of heat-generating <span class="hlt">core</span> debris resulting from a <span class="hlt">postulated</span> <span class="hlt">core</span> meltdown accident in a sodium-cooled fast reactor are complex yet important phenomena relevant to several key safety issues. In particular, the attack of sodium and of <span class="hlt">core</span> debris on the concrete basemat below the reactor cavity, the generation of hydrogen gas, and the pressurization of the reactor building as a result of the interactions represent, among others, the major sources that provide a challenge to containment integrity. Thus far, no physical model has been developed to describe the nature and the extent of sodium-concrete interactions wth <span class="hlt">core</span> debris present. It is the purpose of this study to provide a complete physical description of the scenario involved in the <span class="hlt">core</span> debris-sodium-concrete interactions, starting from the chemical erosion phase through the molten pool formation phase to the long-term <span class="hlt">melt</span> penetration phase.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cheung, F.B.; Pedersen, D.R.; Nguyen, D.H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">120</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.T33F..01R"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Melt</span> transport - a personal cashing-up</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The flow of fluids through rocks transports heat and material and changes bulk composition. The large-scale chemical differentiation of the Earth is related to flow of partial <span class="hlt">melts</span>. From the perspective of current understanding of tectonic processes, prominent examples of such transport processes are the formation of oceanic crust from ascending basic <span class="hlt">melts</span> at mid-ocean ridges, <span class="hlt">melt</span> segregation involved in the solidification of the Earth's <span class="hlt">core</span>, and dissolution-precipitation creep in subduction channels. Transport and deformation cannot be separated for partially molten aggregates. Permeability is only defined as an instantaneous parameter in the sense that Darcy's law is assumed to be valid; it is not an explicit parameter in the fundamental mechanical conservation laws but can be derived from them in certain circumstances as a result of averaging schemes. The governing, explicit physical properties in the mechanical equations are the shear and bulk viscosities of the solid framework and the fluid viscosity and compressibility. Constraints on the magnitude of these properties are available today from experiments at specific loading configurations, i.e., more or less well constrained initial and boundary conditions. The <span class="hlt">melt</span> pressure remains the least controlled parameter. While the fluid viscosity is often much lower than the solid's the two-phase aggregate may exhibit considerable strength owing to the difficulty of moving the fluid through the branched pore network. The extremes in behavior depend on the time scale of loading, as known from daily live experiences (spounge, Danish coffee-pot, human tissue between neighboring bones). Several theoretical approaches attempted to formulate mechanical constitutive equations for two-phase aggregates. An important issue is the handling of internal variables in these equations. At experimental conditions, grain size, <span class="hlt">melt</span> pocket orientation and crystallographic orientation -prime candidates for internal variables- change considerably and potentially contribute significantly to the total dissipation of the external work. Theoretically founded evolution equations for these internal variables are lacking. In experiments, both the kinetics of grain growth but also the resultant shape of grains is affected by the presence of <span class="hlt">melt</span>. The latter is linked to the alignment of <span class="hlt">melt</span> pockets with the maximum principle stress. Thus, the <span class="hlt">melt</span> redistribution causes direct anisotropy but also indirect through a shape-preferred orientation of solid grains. Notably, the foliation is parallel to the maximum principle stress in contrast to deformation controlled by crystal defects alone. Extremum principles developed for dissipation potentials in the framework of irreversible thermodynamics may allow us to <span class="hlt">postulate</span> evolution equations. Owing to their significant effect on aggregate viscosities understanding the evolution of internal variables is mandatory for substantial large-scale modeling.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Renner, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> 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showDiv("page_8");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">121</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1758347"> <span id="translatedtitle">The medical effects of <span class="hlt">postulated</span> accidental release of radioactive material from Heysham Nuclear Power Station.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The effects of a <span class="hlt">postulated</span> reactor accident at one of the four AGRs at Heysham, NW England, have been studied, assuming a 10% release of the radioactive <span class="hlt">core</span>. Methods used are a computer program TIRION, analysis of the radiation doses from the Chernobyl release of 1986 and the Windscale fire of 1957. Fatal cases predicted are 200 on-site, 3000 within 30 km and 250,000 in the cloud paths over Northern England. The results would suggest the incidence of fatal cancer would increase from roughly 20% to 27% in the <span class="hlt">postulated</span> exposed population of 3.6 million. PMID:1758347</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Oliver, D W</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">122</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21160621"> <span id="translatedtitle">Blind Benchmark Calculations for <span class="hlt">Melt</span> Spreading in the ECOSTAR Project</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Project ECOSTAR (5. EC Framework Programme) on Ex-Vessel <span class="hlt">Core</span> <span class="hlt">Melt</span> Stabilisation Research is oriented towards the analysis and mitigation of severe accident sequences that could occur in the ex-vessel phase of a <span class="hlt">postulated</span> <span class="hlt">core</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span> accident. Spreading of the corium <span class="hlt">melt</span> on the available basement surface is an important process, which defines the initial conditions for concrete attack and for the efficiency of cooling in case of water contact, respectively. The transfer and spreading of the <span class="hlt">melt</span> on the basement is one of the major issues in ECOSTAR. This is addressed here by a spreading code benchmark involving a large-scale spreading experiment that is used for the validation of the existing spreading codes. The corium <span class="hlt">melt</span> is simulated by a mixture of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, SiO{sub 2}, CaO and FeO with a sufficiently wide freezing interval. In the 3-dim benchmark test ECOKATS-1 170 litres of oxide <span class="hlt">melt</span> are poured onto a 3 m by 4 m concrete surface with a low flow rate of about 2 l/s. From the results of an additional 2-dim channel experiment some basic rheological data (e.g. initial viscosity) are obtained in order to minimise the uncertainty in material properties of the <span class="hlt">melt</span>. The participating spreading codes CORFLOW (Framatome ANP/FZK), LAVA (GRS), and THEMA (CEA) differ from each other by their focus of modelling and the assumptions made to simplify the relevant transport equations. In a first step both experiments (3-dim/2-dim) are calculated blindly by the participating codes. This serves for an overall assessment of the codes capabilities to predict the spreading of a <span class="hlt">melt</span> with rather unknown material properties. In a second step the 3-dim experiment ECOKATS-1 is recalculated by the codes with the more precise knowledge of the rheological behaviour of the oxide <span class="hlt">melt</span> in the 2-dim experiment. This, in addition, serves for the validation of the codes' capabilities to predict the spreading of a <span class="hlt">melt</span> with well-known material properties. Based on the benchmark results and taking the specific validation process for each of the three codes applied into account, it is recommended that the spreading issue for reactor safety research be considered closed. (authors)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Spengler, C.; Allelein, H.J. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, Schwertnergasse 1, 50667 Cologne (Germany); Foit, J.J.; Alsmeyer, H. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, P.O. Box 36 40, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Spindler, B.; Veteau, J.M. [CEA, 17, rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France); Artnik, J.; Fischer, M. [Framatome ANP, P.O. Box 32 20, 91050 Erlangen (Germany)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">123</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/19055496"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Melting</span> of Fe and Fe0.9375Si0.0625 at Earth's <span class="hlt">core</span> pressures studied using ab initio molecular dynamics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The issue of <span class="hlt">melting</span> of pure iron and iron alloyed with lighter elements at high pressure is critical to the physics of the Earth. The iron <span class="hlt">melting</span> curve in the relevant pressure range between 3 and 4 Mbar is reasonably well established from the theoretical point of view. However, so far no one attempted a direct atomistic simulation of iron</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Anatoly B. Belonoshko; Anders Rosengren; Leonid Burakovsky; Dean L. Preston; Börje Johansson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">124</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/61211499"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fission product transport and behavior during two <span class="hlt">postulated</span> loss of flow transients in the air</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This document discusses fission product behavior during two <span class="hlt">postulated</span> loss-of-flow accidents (leading to high- and low-pressure <span class="hlt">core</span> degradation, respectively) in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). These transients are designated ATR Transient LCPI5 (high-pressure) and LPP9 (low-pressure). Normally, transients of this nature would be easily mitigated using existing safety systems and procedures. In these analyses, failure of these safety systems was</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. P. Adams; M. L. Carboneau</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">125</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/808399"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of Radiological Consequences of <span class="hlt">Postulated</span> Releases from the IEM Cell</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Interim Examination and Maintenance (IEM) Cell is located inside the Reactor Containment Building (RCB) at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). The IEM Cell is a shielded, hot-cell complex which houses the remotely operated equipment originally designed for the performance of nondestructive examination of <span class="hlt">core</span> components and limited maintenance of reactor plant equipment. The cell is currently being used for preparation and packaging of fueled components into <span class="hlt">Core</span> Component Containers (CCC) for transfer to dry storage. This analysis provides an assessment of radiological consequences onsite and at the site boundary for three bounding <span class="hlt">postulated</span> accident scenarios.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">HIMES, D.A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-11-06</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">126</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48787246"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Melting</span> of Fe–Ni–Si and Fe–Ni–S alloys at megabar pressures: implications for the <span class="hlt">core</span>–mantle boundary temperature</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">High pressure <span class="hlt">melting</span> behavior of three Fe-alloys containing 5 wt% Ni and (1) 10 wt% Si, (2) 15 wt% Si or (3) 12 wt% S was\\u000a investigated up to megabar pressures by in situ X-ray diffraction and laser-heated diamond anvil cell techniques. We observe\\u000a a decrease in <span class="hlt">melting</span> temperature with increasing Si content over the entire investigated pressure range. This</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Guillaume Morard; Denis Andrault; Nicolas Guignot; Julien Siebert; Gaston Garbarino; Daniele Antonangeli</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">127</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22vocational+choices%22&pg=6&id=EJ198888"> <span id="translatedtitle">Holland's Theory of Vocational Choice and <span class="hlt">Postulated</span> Value Dimensions.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The validity of Holland's vocational personality types and their relationship to value dimensions were examined in light of Holland's theory of vocational choice. The results generally supported Holland's <span class="hlt">postulated</span> personality typologies and value dimensions. (Author/JKS)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Laudeman, Kent A.; Griffeth, Paul</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1978-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">128</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://onramp.nsdl.org/eserv/onramp:17106/Melting_Icebergs.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Melting</span> Icebergs</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This formative assessment item uncovers student ideas and misconceptions about <span class="hlt">melting</span> icebergs. It determines if students believe that water levels will rise due to <span class="hlt">melting</span> icebergs. Resources provided will assist teachers. It gives instructional support as well as information for teachers. This probe is aligned to National Science Education Standards (NSES).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fries-Gaither, Jessica</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">129</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://concord.org/stem-resources/melting-ice"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Melting</span> Ice</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Monitor the temperature of a <span class="hlt">melting</span> ice cube and use temperature probes to electronically plot the data on graphs. Investigate what temperature the ice is as it <span class="hlt">melts</span> in addition to monitoring the temperature of liquid the ice is submerged in.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Consortium, The C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-13</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">130</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/mq1861v48485h3l3.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Melting</span> relationships in the system Fe-Feo at high pressures: Implications for the composition and formation of the earth's <span class="hlt">core</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A reconnaissance investigation has been carried out on <span class="hlt">melting</span> relationships in the system Fe-FeO at pressures up to 25 GPa\\u000a and temperatures up to 2200 C using an MA-8 apparatus. Limited studies were also made of the Co-CoO and Ni-NiO systems. In\\u000a the system FeFeO, the rapid exsolution of FeO from liquids during quenching causes some difficulties in interpretation of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Takumi Kato; A. E. Ringwood</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">131</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/51911269"> <span id="translatedtitle">A broad Galápagos hotspot <span class="hlt">melting</span> anomaly and disturbance of the underlying <span class="hlt">core</span>- mantle boundary: A natural laboratory for studying interaction between the <span class="hlt">core</span>-mantle boundary and overlying lithosphere?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">New evidence from direct isotopic dating of the oceanic hotspot record is suggesting that hotspot <span class="hlt">melting</span> anomalies might be much broader than commonly inferred from the dimensions of individual seamount chains and aseismic ridges and their associated active `volcanic` hotspots. Such an inference is supported by recent thermo-chemical numerical modelling exploring scenarios where upwelling structures are more irregular in shape</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. M. O'Connor; P. Stoffers; J. R. Wijbrans; T. J. Worthington</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">132</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/36868923"> <span id="translatedtitle">Expectancy theory prediction of the goal theory <span class="hlt">postulate</span>, \\</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Goal theory <span class="hlt">postulates</span> that harder goals lead to higher performance than do easier goals. The present study tested the prediction, based on expectancy valence theory, that this would be true only if the payoff for succeeding at the harder goal is sufficiently greater than the alternatives to compensate for its greater difficulty. 63 undergraduates were each given an easy and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tamao Matsui; Akinori Okada; Reiji Mizuguchi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">133</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.teachersdomain.org/resource/ean08.sci.ess.earthsys.permafrost/"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Melting</span> Permafrost</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this video adapted from the International Institute for Sustainable Development, see <span class="hlt">melting</span> permafrost and hear Alaska Native peoples and Western scientists discuss its impact on Inuit culture and resources.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Foundation, Wgbh E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-02-26</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">134</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://thedianerehmshow.org/shows/2006-01-06"> <span id="translatedtitle">Arctic <span class="hlt">Melting</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this radio broadcast, a panel of experts joins National Public Radio journalist Diane Rehm to discuss rising temperatures at the North Pole and what the <span class="hlt">melting</span> may mean for the climate, national boundaries, and oil exploration. There is discussion of the 1982 U.N. convention, Law of the Sea, which is guiding new mapping due to arctic <span class="hlt">melting</span> and changing coastlines; and why the decreasing need for Arctic ice-breakers is making oil exploration mapping easier. There is explanation of why the Antarctic may <span class="hlt">melt</span> a couple of decades after the Arctic; why we know sea levels will rise as polar ice <span class="hlt">melts</span>; and why we know humans are causing the <span class="hlt">melting</span>, as opposed to astronomical configurations or other natural causes leading to <span class="hlt">melting</span> cycles. The broadcast is 51 minutes in length, but the discussion about the Arctic starts 32 minutes into the program and lasts 19 minutes. You may listen to the archived broadcast in Windows Media or Real Audio format.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-06-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">135</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.thechildrenstheatre.com/pdfs/2006_frosty_46_math_patterns.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Frosty is <span class="hlt">melting</span>, <span class="hlt">melting</span>, gone!</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this cross-curricular lesson plan students collect data on the time it takes different sized pieces of ice to <span class="hlt">melt</span> in order to predict how long it would take a snowman to <span class="hlt">melt</span>. The lesson is based on a production of "Frosty: A Magical Adventure" by the Children's Theatre to Cincinnati, but the lesson can be completed without seeing the production. The lesson plan includes data recording and prediction sheets as well as suggestions for follow-up questions (PDF format).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">136</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.T42A..04C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Time-Scales of <span class="hlt">Melt</span> Generation in the Ama Drime and Leo Pargil Domes: Quantifying Links Between Mid-Crustal Anatexis and Exhumation in the <span class="hlt">Core</span> of the Himalayan Orogen</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Miocene crustal anatectic events within the <span class="hlt">core</span> of the Himalayan orogen have been implicated by some researchers as a key driver of rapid, large-scale extrusion and exhumation of mid-crustal rocks from beneath the southern margin of the Tibetan plateau. However, it remains unclear whether <span class="hlt">melting</span> is the primary driving force behind exhumation, or whether exhumation, forced by orogen-scale tectonic events, triggers <span class="hlt">melting</span>. Domes exhumed during orogen-parallel extension within the high Himalaya such as Ama Drime Massif (ADM) in southern Tibet and Leo Pargil dome (LPD) in NW India provide a unique opportunity to integrate field, petrologic and geochronologic datasets that link the timing and duration of leucogranite formation to specific structural, thermal and exhumation events. These data also yield detailed knowledge of the temporal- and spatial-scales over which anatexis occurs within the mid-crust. Our data from the ADM, located c. 60km east of Mt. Everest indicate the presence of a relatively simple <span class="hlt">melt</span> chronology that post-dates anatexis in the overlying Greater Himalayan Series (GHS) by 8 - 3 Ma. Initial syn-kinematic <span class="hlt">melting</span> of granitic orthogneiss at granulite-facies Pressure-Temperature (P-T) conditions of 750°C and 0.8GPA occurred at 13 - 12 Ma. This was immediately followed by emplacement of post-kinematic dykes along steep semi-brittle structures at 12-11 Ma. We interpret these data to record rapid <span class="hlt">melt</span>-present exhumation of deep crustal material in the footwall of north-striking normal-fault systems. Exhumation occurred concomitantly with, and is directly related to, orogen-parallel flow that post-dates movement on the South Tibetan Detachment system - Main Central Thrust system. Rocks preserved within the ADM may therefore represent a good analogue for modern <span class="hlt">melt</span> generation that, as argued by some, is potentially occurring beneath the Tibetan plateau today. In contrast, observations from the LPD indicate the presence of multiple (in some cases greater than five) generations of leucogranite at the outcrop-scale. Other key observations include: 1) the density-distribution of leucogranites is heterogeneous throughout the dome; 2) an apparent spread in crystallization ages from c. 26 to 16 Ma; 3) variations in chemical and mineralogical composition of leucogranites; and 4) differences in the timing of leucogranite emplacement relative to major kinematic and metamorphic events. When combined these observations suggest that the LPD has a protracted thermal and structural history with multiple phases of <span class="hlt">melt</span>-generation under differing P-T conditions and kinematic configurations. At the orogen-scale, data from the ADM and LPD imply that Himalayan leucogranites provide key geologic evidence for changes in mid-crustal rheology (effective bulk viscosity) and therefore offer a proxy for estimating crustal strength through time. These data are therefore crucial input into large-scale geodynamic models that attempt to explain spatial and temporal scales of flow in the mid-crust.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cottle, J. M.; Jessup, M. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">137</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EPJC...72.1944F"> <span id="translatedtitle">Superluminality and the equivalence <span class="hlt">postulate</span> of quantum mechanics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An interpretation of the recent results reported by the OPERA collaboration is that neutrinos propagation in vacuum exceeds the speed of light. It has been further been suggested that this interpretation can be attributed to the variation of the particle average speed arising from the Relativistic Quantum Hamilton-Jacobi Equation. I derive an expression for the quantum correction to the instantaneous relativistic velocity in the framework of the relativistic quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation, which is derived from the equivalence <span class="hlt">postulate</span> of quantum mechanics. While the quantum correction does indicate deviations from the classical energy-momentum relation, it does not necessarily lead to superluminal speeds. The quantum correction found herein has a non-trivial dependence on the energy and mass of the particle, as well as on distance travelled. I speculate on other possible observational consequences of the equivalence <span class="hlt">postulate</span> approach.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Faraggi, Alon E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">138</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/447278"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fracture mechanics of a <span class="hlt">postulated</span> crack in ITER vacuum vessel</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A vacuum vessel wall with a <span class="hlt">postulated</span> crack is modeled by using the two-dimensional solid finite elements. The J-integral value, a criterion of fracture mechanics, is calculated to estimate the integrity of the vacuum vessel wall with a <span class="hlt">postulated</span> crack. The analytical results show that the J-integral value of a crack having a quarter depth of the wall width is considerably less than the fracture toughness J{sub IC} when the membrane stress is less than the 0.2% proof stress of the unirradiated material, even if the vacuum vessel is irradiated to 3 dpa. This means that a shallow crack in the vacuum vessel wall does not become critical in the design load. 4 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kurihara, Ryoichi; Ueda, Shuzo; Tada, Eisuke [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Ibaraki (Japan)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-12-31</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">139</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3120994"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Four <span class="hlt">Postulates</span> of Freudian Unconscious Neurocognitive Convergences</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the 1980s, the terms “cognitive unconscious” were invented to denominate a perspective on unconscious mental processes independent from the psychoanalytical views. For several reasons, the two approaches to unconscious are generally conceived as irreducible. Nowadays, we are witnessing a certain convergence between both fields. The aim of this paper consists in examining the four basic <span class="hlt">postulates</span> of Freudian unconscious at the light of neurocognitive sciences. They posit: (1) that some psychological processes are unconsciously performed and causally determine conscious processes, (2) that they are governed by their own cognitive rules, (3) that they set out their own intentions, (4) and that they lead to a conflicting organization of psyche. We show that each of these <span class="hlt">postulates</span> is the subject of empirical and theoretical works. If the two fields refer to more or less similar mechanisms, we propose that their opposition rests on an epistemological misunderstanding. As a conclusion, we promote a conservative reunification of the two perspectives.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Arminjon, Mathieu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">140</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/38411826"> <span id="translatedtitle">Extraversion and Alcohol: Eysenck’s Drug <span class="hlt">Postulate</span> Revisited</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Within the framework of Eysenck’s drug <span class="hlt">postulate</span> alcohol is frequently used as an example for a depressant drug that should shift a person’s position on the extraversion-introversion axis in the direction of lower arousability. However, only little experimental evidence for differential effects of alcohol on extraverts and introverts appears to exist. Therefore, a placebo-controlled study was designed to investigate the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Thomas Rammsayer</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return 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class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> 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<img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">141</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60539312"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fission product transport and behavior during two <span class="hlt">postulated</span> loss-of-flow transients in the Advanced Test Reactor</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The fission product behavior during two <span class="hlt">postulated</span> loss-of-flow accidents (leading to high- and low-pressure <span class="hlt">core</span> degradations) in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) has been analyzed. These transients are designated ATR transients LCP 15 (high pressure) and LPP9 (low pressure). Normally, transients of this nature would be easily mitigated using existing safety systems and procedures. In these analyses, failure of these</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. P. Adams; M. L. Carboneau; D. L. Hagrman</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">142</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/22625"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Melting</span> Objects</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper describes a technique for producing realistic animations of <span class="hlt">melting</span> objects. The work presented here introduces a method that accurately models both thermal flow and the latent heat during the phase change. The mechanism for energy transfer to the model is via both boundary conditions and radiation. Emphasis is made on accurately modelling the solid object and the method</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mark W. Jones</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">143</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=AD730371"> <span id="translatedtitle">Electroslag <span class="hlt">Melting</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The book deals with a method of producing steels and alloys of especially high quality. The history of the creation of the method is described, extensive material concerning investigation of <span class="hlt">melting</span> and crystallization of metals are included, as well as d...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">B. I. Medovar Y. V. Latash</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1971-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">144</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5417623"> <span id="translatedtitle">A model for recovery of a badly degraded <span class="hlt">core</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The hydrogen source term that can be generated in-vessel during a severe accident has a strong implication on the size of the containment of a nuclear reactor. This source term can be generated during the main phases of a <span class="hlt">postulated</span> accident. On the other hand, recovery of an overheated <span class="hlt">core</span> can produce a large hydrogen source term since large amounts of steam can be generated by the quenching process, enabling Zircaloy oxidation in regions that were previously steam starved. An accurate model would provide guidelines on the system response to operator actions to inject water into the <span class="hlt">core</span> at different stages of the accident. A model that attempts to simulate the recovery of a badly degraded <span class="hlt">core</span> has to consider the cooling effect of the water together with the potential to overheat the debris due to oxidation of metallic Zircaloy by the steam. The basic assumption of this model is that the heat transfer rate from a degraded <span class="hlt">core</span> region to the coolant can be related directly to the porosity. The model was applied to the B-loop transient in the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) accident using the <span class="hlt">core</span> conditions just prior to the transient (174 min) as calculated by MAAP. It is shown that, with this model, injection of water into a <span class="hlt">melting</span> <span class="hlt">core</span> could actually save the reactor vessel from being breached. Additionally, the hydrogen generation would not be larger than that without recovery action.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sharon, A.; Henry, R.E.; Wu, Chunder; Hammersley, R.J. (Fauske Associates, Inc., Burr Ridge, IL (USA))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">145</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=DE94002715"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dislocation theory of <span class="hlt">melting</span> for iron, revisited.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Melting</span> point T(sub m) of iron at conditions of the Earth's inner <span class="hlt">core</span> boundary (ICB) has been calculated from dislocation theory of <span class="hlt">melting</span> in metals. Monte Carlo calculations were used to estimate uncertainties introduced by uncertainty in the geophysic...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. P. Poirier T. J. Shankland</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">146</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/61319236"> <span id="translatedtitle">Acoustic detection of <span class="hlt">melt</span> particles</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Reactor Safety Research Department at Sandia National Laboratories is investigating a type of Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA). In this particular type of accident, <span class="hlt">core</span> meltdown occurs while the pressure within the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) is high. If one of the instrument tube penetrations in the lower head fails, <span class="hlt">melt</span> particles stream through the cavity and into the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Costley; R. D. Jr</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">147</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5417203"> <span id="translatedtitle">PRISM reactor system design and analysis of <span class="hlt">postulated</span> unscrammed events</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Key safety characteristics of the PRISM reactor system include the passive reactor shutdown characteristics and the passive shutdown heat removal system, RVACS. While these characteristics are simple in principle, the physical processes are fairly complex, particularly for the passive reactor shutdown. It has been possible to adapt independent safety analysis codes originally developed for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor review, although some limitations remain. In this paper, the analyses of <span class="hlt">postulated</span> unscrammed events are discussed, along with limitations in the predictive capabilities and plans to correct the limitations in the near future. 6 refs., 4 figs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Van Tuyle, G.J.; Slovik, G.C. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Rosztoczy, Z.; Lane, J. (Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">148</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://scout.wisc.edu/Reports/NSDL/PhysSci/2003/ps-031031#TopicInDepth"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Melting</span> Glaciers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Due to the potential disastrous consequences to the environment and to numerous societies, scientists, governments, and civilians are concerned with the growing trend of glacial <span class="hlt">melt</span>. This topic-in-depth explores various geographic regions where this phenomenon has recently been observed. Providing background into the study of glaciology, this report begins with a Web site (1) discussing the unique features of glaciers. The US Army Corps of Engineers offers visitors an insight to glacial properties including their locations, movements, and influences; along with a series educational images. The second site (2) explains the exceptionality of the two hundred sixty six glaciers at Glacier National Park. Through a collection of images, animations, and pictures provided by the National Park Service, users can learn about ice dams, climatic impacts, and the erosive powers of ice and water. The rest of the topic-in-depth discusses findings of glacial <span class="hlt">melting</span> from around the world. NASA (3) addresses the Artic warming's affects on glacier formations. This Web site provides a few animations displaying ice sheet extent and the cracking of icebergs. On a positive note, visitors can learn how the decrease in glaciers has opened up new habitat for some Artic species. The next Web site (4), also by NASA, discusses the findings of a twenty-five year study of Patagonia's glaciers. Educators and students can discover how NASA utilized the Space Shuttle Endeavor to study the entire 17,200 square kilometer region. The site also discusses potential causes of the <span class="hlt">melting</span> in this region, which has contributed to almost ten percent of the global sea-level change from mountain glaciers. As reported by the BBC (5), Dr. Harrison at the University of Oxford has determined that the glaciers in parts of Kazakhstan have been decreasing annually by almost two cubic kilometers between 1955 and 2000. Visitors can learn how the <span class="hlt">melting</span> of these four hundred sixteen glaciers will adversely affect the region's rivers and its water supply. The Taipei Times (6) reports that the Swiss Alpine glacial <span class="hlt">melting</span> has probably intensified due to this summer's record-breaking heat wave. This Web site provides short, intriguing descriptions of consequences of the "rush of <span class="hlt">melt</span> water streaming from the ice wall." Users can learn about predictions in the 1990s that the glaciers would shrink to ten percent of their 1850 size by the end of the twenty first century. In the next Web site (7), the BBC provides a captivating illustration of the effects the Peruvian glacial <span class="hlt">melts</span> may have on tourism, the country's water supply, and more. Students and educators can learn about NASA studies showing cracks in the ice, which could lead to the flooding of large cities. Visitors can also find out how the recent glacier recessions have affected some ancient spiritual traditions. The last site, by the USGS, (8) features excerpts from Myrna Hall and Daniel Fagre's 2003 research paper in BioScience. Visitors can discover the <span class="hlt">melt</span> rate and spatial distributions of glaciers for two possible future climate situations. Providing an amazing animation, users will be amazed by the changes predicted by the model.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Enright, Rachel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">149</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6278872"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of hydrodynamic phenomena in simulant experiments investigating cavity interactions following <span class="hlt">postulated</span> vessel meltthrough</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An analysis of hydrodynamic phenomena in simulant experiments examining aspects of ex-vessel material interactions in a PWR reactor cavity following <span class="hlt">postulated</span> <span class="hlt">core</span> meltdown and localized breaching of the reactor vessel has been carried out. While previous analyses of the tests examined thresholds for the onset of sweepout of fluid from the cavity, the present analysis considers the progression of specific hydrodynamic phenomena involved in the dispersal process: crater formation due to gas jet impingement, radial wave motion and growth, entrainment and transport of liquid droplets, liquid layer formation due to droplet recombination, fluidization of liquid remaining in the cavity, removal of fluidized liquid droplets from the cavity, and the ultimate removal of the remaining liquid layer within the tunnel passageway. Phenomenological models which may be used to predict the phenomena are presented.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sienicki, J.J.; Spencer, B.W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">150</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987PhDT.......109M"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Projection <span class="hlt">Postulate</span> in the Conceptual Structure of Quantum Mechanics.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The projection <span class="hlt">postulate</span> (Luders' rule) is the source of a long standing controversy in the interpretation of the axiomatic foundations of quantum mechanics. In a sense which is made precise in chapter II the projection <span class="hlt">postulate</span> is a mathematical theorem easily derivable within the mathematical (Hilbert space) framework of the theory. This theorem receives a clear and straightforward interpretation if Luders' rule is given only statistical significance. Under the assumption that an interpretation of quantum mechanics has to provide an account of the process of measurement as a change on the state of individual systems, however, additional interpretive assumptions are needed in order to arrive at a satisfactory interpretation of Luders' rule. I show in chapter III that there are serious problems with the usual interpretation by making explicit in a quantum logical (lattice) framework the concept of individual state and minimal disturbance implicit in this view. In chapter IV I show that it is possible to formulate a natural interpretation of Luders' rule as a description of 'dispersion free' state transformations within a semantic framework that takes states of individual systems to be represented by Boolean ultrafilters (what I call B-states), as opposed to the usual approach that takes individual states to be represented by lattice ultrafilters. This lay the ground for the clarification of several interpretive issues in the foundations of quantum mechanics. It is shown that Luders' rule can be justified as a description of individual state transformations (that are ideal in a sense which is made precise in chapter IV) without the need of imposing additional assumptions. The derivation of Luders' rule within the semantic framework of B-states shows an important connection between interpretation that take individual state to be 'relative' to experimental situations and the statistical structure of the theory.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Martinez, Sergio</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">151</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/61232546"> <span id="translatedtitle">Consolidation of zircaloy-4 end crops by induction <span class="hlt">melting</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant is investigating the use of induction <span class="hlt">melting</span> as a method of consolidating Zircaloy-4, a zirconium alloy used in the fabrication of submarine nuclear reactor <span class="hlt">cores</span>. Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) furnished about 4000 lb of typical <span class="hlt">core</span> material, also known as hardware, for use in evaluating induction <span class="hlt">melting</span> as a method of consolidation. Three ingots</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bird</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">152</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10115578"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of <span class="hlt">postulated</span> events for the revised ALMR/PRISM design</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is continuing a pre-application review of the 471 MWt, Liquid Metal Reactor, PRISM by General Electric, with Brookhaven National Laboratory providing technical support. The revised design has been evaluated, using the SSC code, for an unscrammed loss of heat sink (ULOHS), an unscrammed loss of flow (ULOF) with and without the Gas Expansion Modules (GEMs), and a 40{cents} unscrammed transient overpower (UTOP) event. The feedback effects for U-27Pu-10Zr metal fuel were modeled in SSC. The ULOHS accident was determined to be a benign event for the design, with the reactor power transitioning down to a decay heat level within 500s. The power during the <span class="hlt">postulated</span> ULOF events, with the GEMs functioning, transitioned to decay heat levels without fuel damage, and included a 300K margin to sodium saturation. The case without the GEMs had only a 160K margin to sodium saturation and higher fuel temperatures. In addition, the clad was predicted to quickly pass through the eutectic phase (between fuel and clad), and some clad wastage would result. The 40{cents} UTOP was predicted to raise the power to 1.8 rated, which later stabilized near 1.2 times full power. SSC predicted some localized fuel <span class="hlt">melting</span> for the event, but the significance of this localized damage has not yet been determined. If necessary, the vendor has options to reduce the maximum reactivity insertion below 40{cents}.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Slovik, G.C.; Van Tuyle, G.J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-12-31</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">153</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=DE93006790"> <span id="translatedtitle">Coolability of a control rod which has <span class="hlt">melted</span> and foamed in its septifoil channel.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">During a Loss of Control Rod Cooling (LCRC) event, the control rods which are in the affected septifoil can be <span class="hlt">postulated</span> to <span class="hlt">melt</span>. <span class="hlt">Melting</span> of a control rod which has been irradiated creates a special concern since the entrapped gases expand rapidly and ca...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. A. Walkowiak</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">154</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.aaai.org/Papers/FLAIRS/2002/FLAIRS02-101.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fusi on of Possi bilistic Knowl edge Base s from a <span class="hlt">Postul</span> ate Point of View</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper proposes a <span class="hlt">postulate</span>-based analysis of the fusion of possibilistic logic bases which are made of pieces of information expressing knowledge associated with certainty degrees. We propose two main sets of <span class="hlt">postulates</span>: one focuses only on plausible conclusions, while the other considers both plausible conclusions and the certainty degrees associated with them. For each rational <span class="hlt">postulate</span>, the class of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Salem Benferhat; Souhila Kaci</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">155</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/55409448"> <span id="translatedtitle">Observability of <span class="hlt">melt</span> geometry from seismic tomographic images</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recent advances in seismic tomography provide us detailed Vp and Vs structures of <span class="hlt">melting</span> regions. Knowing both Vp and Vs structures is of crucial importance to determine porosity and pore geometry independently: when only Vp (or Vs) structure is known, porosity cannot be determined without <span class="hlt">postulating</span> pore geometry and vice versa. We present a simple and useful method to determine</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Y. Takei; J. Nakajima</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">156</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB83119479"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Inductoslag <span class="hlt">Melting</span> Process.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This bulletin summarizes the results of Bureau of Mines research on the development of the inductoslag <span class="hlt">melting</span> process. Inductoslag <span class="hlt">melting</span> is an induction <span class="hlt">melting</span> technique using a segmented, water-cooled, copper crucible. The process was developed as pa...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">P. G. Clites</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">157</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42030568"> <span id="translatedtitle">Probing the <span class="hlt">melt</span> zone of Kilauea Iki lava lake, Kilauea volcano, Hawaii</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">New drilling techniques were recently used to drill and <span class="hlt">core</span> the <span class="hlt">melt</span> zone of Kilauea Iki lava lake to a depth of 93 m. A partial <span class="hlt">melt</span> zone was found to exist at depths between 58 m and 89 m consisting of 40 volume percent <span class="hlt">melt</span>. Downhole seismic shots detonated in and below the <span class="hlt">melt</span> zone resulted in the first</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">H. C. Hardee; J. C. Dunn; R. G. Hills; R. W. Ward</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">158</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.V34C..01H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pb Partitioning Between Sulfide <span class="hlt">Melt</span> and Silicate <span class="hlt">Melt</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The geochemical behavior of Pb in the earth is replete with enigmas and paradoxes. There is no satisfactory "balanced budget" for Pb amongst the various terrestrial reservoirs, and consequently, no consensus understanding of the U-Th-Pb isotope tracer system, or the behavior of Pb during <span class="hlt">melting</span> processes. Most oceanic mantle <span class="hlt">melts</span> have Pb isotopic compositions that are more radiogenic than Earth's Geochron (First Pb paradox), and all have high and relatively constant Ce/Pb or Nd/Pb ratios compared to "bulk silicate earth" (Third Pb paradox). Yet experimental silicate mineral/<span class="hlt">melt</span> partition coefficients for Ce (or Nd) and Pb differ significantly, so that significant fractionations in Ce/Pb should abound among various mantle reservoirs and various <span class="hlt">melting</span> regimes. New insights into the mantle geochemistry of Pb can be achieved by noting that, due to its chalcophilic nature, Pb will be strongly controlled by sulfide phases during <span class="hlt">melting</span> and differentiation processes, as well as possible large scale sequestering of sulfide into the deep mantle or <span class="hlt">core</span> during plate recycling. Here we report results from new experiments on the partitioning of Pb between coexisting sulfide and silicate <span class="hlt">melts</span> at upper mantle conditions, providing a quantitative basis for evaluating the role of sulfide in controlling the geochemical behavior of Pb. Experiments were carried out on a 10:1 mix of natural MORB and FeS, doped with Pb, in a solid-medium piston-cylinder device. Starting materials were placed in a San Carlos olivine-lined Ni capsule, with a solid magnetite-wüstite buffer, that was pressure sealed. Run products are homogeneous basalt glass and spherical sulfide blebs up to 250?m in diameter. Pb was analyzed by laser ablation ICP-MS (100x100?m area rastered with a 40?m spot), using 57Fe as an internal standard. Standards were NIST 611 glass and synthetic FeS doped with 1065 ppm Pb. Matrix effects on Pb/Fe ion production in the silicate and sulfide standards were small (<8%). Major elements were determined by electron microprobe. The sulfide <span class="hlt">melt</span>-silicate <span class="hlt">melt</span> partition coefficient determined for Pb at 1 GPa and 1300°C is 37.7 ± 2.8 (±1 se, all known uncertainties propagated). Assuming a bulk earth peridotite S content of 250 ppm, and corresponding modal sulfide abundance of 0.069 wt.%, nearly 90% of the Pb budget will be contained in the sulfide. We used a non-modal fractional aggregated <span class="hlt">melting</span> model to assess the behavior of the canonical ratios Ce/Pb and Nd/Pb during <span class="hlt">melting</span> of a "bulk earth" peridotite (0-4% garnet facies <span class="hlt">melt</span>, followed by 4- 10% spinel facies <span class="hlt">melt</span>; S saturation in the <span class="hlt">melt</span> was increased from 1000 ppm at start of <span class="hlt">melting</span> to 1400 ppm at 10% <span class="hlt">melt</span>. Resulting modal sulfide abundance decreases from 0.069% at start of <span class="hlt">melting</span> to 0.036% at 10% <span class="hlt">melt</span>). With our 1 GPa partition coefficient, the Nd/Pb ratio of the <span class="hlt">melt</span> is constant within 10% over the whole range of <span class="hlt">melting</span>. More generally, there is always a combination of partition coefficient and initial S values that produces a virtually constant <span class="hlt">melt</span> Nd/Pb ratio, thus satisfying the Hofmann et al. (1986) observation of constant Ce/Pb in all OIB and MORB. Even significant variations in initial S (200-300 ppm) or partition coefficient (30-50) produce less scatter in Nd/Pb (± 20%) than is observed in the oceanic basalt data set. On the other hand, invariant Nd/Pb ratios during <span class="hlt">melting</span> still accurately reflect the initial source ratio, so that the "Third Pb Paradox" is alive and well! This implies that the mantle sources of OIB and MORB are characterized by significant depletions in Pb, likely due to long-term sequestering of Pb-bearing sulfide into the deep mantle or <span class="hlt">core</span>. This process provides an explanation for the "First Pb Paradox" as well.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hart, S.; Gaetani, G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">159</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997Icar..127..408P"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Reevaluation of Impact <span class="hlt">Melt</span> Production</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The production of <span class="hlt">melt</span> and vapor is an important process in impact cratering events. Because significant <span class="hlt">melting</span> and vaporization do not occur in impacts at velocities currently achievable in the laboratory, a detailed study of the production of <span class="hlt">melt</span> and vapor in planetary impact events is carried out with hydrocode simulations. Sandia's two-dimensional axisymmetric hydrocode CSQ was used to estimate the amount of <span class="hlt">melt</span> and vapor produced for widely varying initial conditions: 10 to 80 km/sec for impact velocity, 0.2 to 10 km for the projectile radius. Runs with different materials demonstrate the material dependency of the final result. These results should apply to any size projectile (for given impact velocity and material), since the results can be dynamically scaled so long as gravity is unimportant in affecting the early-time flow. In contrast with the assumptions of previous analytical models, a clear difference in shape, impact-size dependence, and depth of burial has been found between the <span class="hlt">melt</span> regions and the isobaric <span class="hlt">core</span>. In particular, the depth of the isobaric <span class="hlt">core</span> is not a good representation of the depth of the <span class="hlt">melt</span> regions, which form deeper in the target. While near-surface effects cause the computed <span class="hlt">melt</span> region shapes to look like "squashed spheres" the spherical shape is still a good analytical analog. One of the goals of <span class="hlt">melt</span> production studies is to find proper scaling laws to infer <span class="hlt">melt</span> production for any impact event of interest. We tested the point source limit scaling law for <span class="hlt">melt</span> volumes (? = 0.55-0.6) proposed by M. D. Bjorkman and K. A. Holsapple (1987, Int. J. Impact Eng.5, 155-163). Our results indicate that the point source limit concept does not apply to <span class="hlt">melt</span> and vapor production. Rather, <span class="hlt">melt</span> and vapor production follows an energy scaling law (? = 0.67), in good agreement with previous results of T. J. Ahrens and J. D. O'Keefe [1977, in Impact and Explosion Cratering(D. J. Roddy, R. O. Pepin, and R. B. Merrill, Eds.), pp. 639-656, Pergamon Press, Elmsford, NY]. Finally we tested the accuracy of our <span class="hlt">melt</span> production calculation against a terrestrial dataset compiled by R. A. F. Grieve and M. J. Cintala (1992, Meteorities27, 526-538). The hydrocode <span class="hlt">melt</span> volumes are in good agreement with the estimated volumes of that set of terrestrial craters on crystalline basements. At present there is no good model for <span class="hlt">melt</span> production from impact craters on sedimentary targets.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pierazzo, E.; Vickery, A. M.; Melosh, H. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">160</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20995690"> <span id="translatedtitle">Numerical and Experimental Model Studies on Thermal Hydraulic Behavior of FBR Internal <span class="hlt">Core</span> Catcher Assembly</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Core</span> Catcher is provided as an in-vessel <span class="hlt">core</span> debris retention device to collect, support, cool and maintain in sub-critical configuration, the generated <span class="hlt">core</span> debris from fuel <span class="hlt">melting</span> due to certain <span class="hlt">postulated</span> Beyond Design Basis Events (BDBE) for Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR). This also acts as a barrier to prevent settling of debris on main vessel and keeps its maximum temperature within acceptable creep range. Heat transfer by natural convection in the <span class="hlt">core</span> catcher assembly has been assessed numerically and through water experiments using geometrically similar configuration. Resistive heating elements are used in experiment as heat source to simulate debris decay heat on <span class="hlt">core</span> catcher. Series of experiments were carried out for two configurations referred as geometry A and geometry B. The later configuration showed enhanced natural convective heat transfer from the lower plenum of the vessel. Temperatures were monitored at critical positions and compared with numerical evaluation. Numerically evaluated flow fields and isotherms are compared with experimental data for specific steady state temperatures on heat source plate. Numerical results are found to be in good agreement with that obtained from experiments. The combined efforts of numerical and experimental work conclude <span class="hlt">core</span> catcher assembly with geometry B to be more suitable. (authors)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sanjay Kumar Das; Anil Kumar Sharma; Jasmin Sudha, A.; Punitha, G.; Lydia, G.; Somayajulu, P.A.; Murthy, S.S.; Malarvizhi, B.; Gopalakrishnan, V.; Harvey, J.; Kasinathan, N.; Rajan, M. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">161</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/19682638"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Postulational</span> approach to schwarzschild’s exterior solution with application to a class of interior solutions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary  In order to clarify the physical ideas underlying Schwarzschild’s exterior solution, a <span class="hlt">postulational</span> derivation is given that\\u000a does not make use of the field equations. Basically this amounts to replacing two field equations by two <span class="hlt">postulates</span>, one of\\u000a which is a strong version of the principle of equivalence and the other, Newton’s inverse square law. These <span class="hlt">postulates</span> are\\u000a more general</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">F. R. Tangherlini</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1962-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">162</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60478741"> <span id="translatedtitle">Rod bundle thermal-hydraulic and <span class="hlt">melt</span> progression analysis of CORA severe fuel damage experiments</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">An integral, fast-running computational model is developed to simulate the thermal-hydraulic and <span class="hlt">melt</span> progression behavior in a nuclear reactor rod bundle under severe fuel damage conditions. This consists of the submodels for calculating steaming from the <span class="hlt">core</span>, hydrogen formation, heat transfer in and out of the <span class="hlt">core</span>, cooling from <span class="hlt">core</span> spray or injection, and, most importantly, fuel <span class="hlt">melting</span>, relocation, and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Suh</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">163</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6782053"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of boiling regime on <span class="hlt">melt</span> stream breakup in water</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A study has been performed examining the breakup and mixing behavior of an initially coherent stream of high-density <span class="hlt">melt</span> as it flows downward through water. This work has application to the quenching of molten <span class="hlt">core</span> materials as they drain downward during a <span class="hlt">postulated</span> severe reactor accident. The study has included examination of various models of breakup distances based upon interfacial instabilities dominated either by liquid-liquid contact or by liquid-vapor contact. A series of experiments was performed to provide a data base for assessment of the various modeling approaches. The experiments involved Wood's metal (T/sub m/ = 73/sup 0/C, rho = 9.2 g/cm/sup 3/, d/sub j/ = 20 mm) poured into a deep pool of water. The temperature of the water and wood's metal were varied to span the range from single-phase, liquid-liquid contact to the film boiling regime. Experiment results showed that breakup occurred largely as a result of the spreading and entrainment from the leading edge of the jet. However, for streams of sufficient lengths a breakup length could be discerned at which there was no longer a coherent central <span class="hlt">core</span> of the jet to feed the leading edge region. The erosion of the vertical trailing column is by Kelvin-Helmoltz instabilities and related disengagement of droplets from the jet into the surrounding fluid. For conditions of liquid-liquid contact, the breakup length has been found to be about 20 jet diameters; when substantial vapor is produced at the interface due to heat transfer from the jet to the water, the breakup distance was found to range to as high as 50 jet diameters. The former values are close to the analytical prediction of Taylor, whereas the latter values are better predicted by the model of Epstein and Fauske.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Spencer, B.W.; Gabor, J.D.; Cassulo, J.C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">164</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012LPI....43.1072D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Alteration of Impact <span class="hlt">Melts</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this project we study the alteration processes of <span class="hlt">melt</span> rocks, impact <span class="hlt">melt</span> in particular. Experimental analyses, succeeded by mineralogical and geochemical modeling, explain the formation of alterations products, e.g., smectites, saponite, zeolites.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dypvik, H.; Hellevang, H.; Kalleson, E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">165</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.earth-prints.org/bitstream/2122/4906/1/melting_curve_boschi.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">On the <span class="hlt">Melting</span> Curve at High Pressures</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary The asymptotic behaviour of the inclting curves for substances with close- packed structures is analysed by means of Monte Carlo caIculations on model systems of hard spheres. The Kraut--Kennedy <span class="hlt">melting</span> law does not show the correct asymptotic behaviour. On this basis some recent results on the physics of the Earth's <span class="hlt">core</span> are rejected. Higgins & Kennedy (1971) have estimated</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Enzo Boschik</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1974-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">166</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/52679204"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Melting</span> and phase relations in the Fe-C-S-O system at high pressure and temperature</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The physical state of the <span class="hlt">core</span> (liquid outer <span class="hlt">core</span> and solid inner <span class="hlt">core</span>) could provide tight constraint on the <span class="hlt">core</span> temperature if <span class="hlt">melting</span> temperature of <span class="hlt">core</span> materials is precisely determined at high pressure. On the other hand, the density of the Earth's <span class="hlt">core</span> is significantly lower than that of pure iron measured experimentally at high pressure and temperature. The density</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yingwei Fei</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">167</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992JFM...239..429W"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Melting</span> and dissolving</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The different modes of convection which may arise in diffusion-governed <span class="hlt">melting</span> of a pure solid into a binary <span class="hlt">melt</span>, when the interface between the solid and the <span class="hlt">melt</span> is horizontal are investigated. It is shown that, in the dissolving regime, a relatively warm solid may dissolve into a relatively cold liquid. The nature of the convection which may arise as the geometry and the <span class="hlt">melt</span> composition are varied is determined by calculating the difference between the density of the <span class="hlt">melt</span> at the solid interface and the density of the liquid far from the interface. The analysis is generalized by considering binary solid solutions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Woods, Andrew W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">168</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20696266"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Melting</span> of Dense Sodium</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">High-pressure high-temperature synchrotron diffraction measurements reveal a maximum on the <span class="hlt">melting</span> curve of Na in the bcc phase at {approx}31 GPa and 1000 K and a steep decrease in <span class="hlt">melting</span> temperature in its fcc phase. The results extend the <span class="hlt">melting</span> curve by an order of magnitude up to 130 GPa. Above 103 GPa, Na crystallizes in a sequence of phases with complex structures with unusually low <span class="hlt">melting</span> temperatures, reaching 300 K at 118 GPa, and an increased <span class="hlt">melting</span> temperature is observed with further increases in pressure.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gregoryanz, Eugene; Degtyareva, Olga; Hemley, Russell J.; Mao, Ho-kwang [Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 5251 Broad Branch Road N.W., Washington D.C. 20015 (United States); Somayazulu, Maddury [HPCAT, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-05-13</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">169</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA020796"> <span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">Postulated</span> Mechanism that Leads to Materialization and Dematerialization of Matter and to Antigravity.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This report presents a discussion of the <span class="hlt">postulated</span> mechanism that leads to the materialization and dematerialization of matter and to antigravity. The mechanism also explains why an orbital electron does not radiate energy, in contradiction to classical ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">T. E. Bearden</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1975-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">170</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1214771Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">Permeability and 3-Dimensional <span class="hlt">Melt</span> Distribution in Partially Molten Rocks</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Quantitative knowledge of the distribution of small amounts of silicate <span class="hlt">melt</span> in peridotite and of its influence on permeability are critical to our understanding of <span class="hlt">melt</span> migration and segregation processes in the upper mantle, as well as interpretations of the geochemical and geophysical observations at ocean ridges. For a system containing a single solid phase of isotropic interfacial energy, chemical and mechanical equilibrium requires a constant mean curvature of solid-<span class="hlt">melt</span> interfaces and a single dihedral angle. Under these conditions, a simple power-law relationship between permeability, grain size and <span class="hlt">melt</span> fraction, has been derived [e.g., von Bargen and Waff, 1986]. However, microstructural observations on texturally equilibrated, partially molten rocks reveal that the <span class="hlt">melt</span> distribution is more complex than predicted by the isotropic model. Several factors, such as non-hydrostatic stress, anisotropic interfacial energy, or the presence of a second solid phase, will alter the power-law relationship. Better estimates for the permeability of partially molten rock require an accurate assessment of 3-dimensional <span class="hlt">melt</span> distribution at the grain-scale. Existing studies of <span class="hlt">melt</span> distribution, carried out on 2-D slices through experimental charges, have produced divergent models for <span class="hlt">melt</span> distribution at small <span class="hlt">melt</span> fractions. While some studies conclude that small amounts of <span class="hlt">melt</span> are distributed primarily along 3-grain junctions [e.g., Wark et al., 2003], others predict an important role for <span class="hlt">melt</span> distribution along grain boundaries at low <span class="hlt">melt</span> fractions [e.g., Faul 1997]. Using X-ray synchrotron microtomography, we have carried out the first high quality non-destructive imaging of 3-dimensional <span class="hlt">melt</span> distribution in experimentally equilibrated olivine-basalt aggregates [Zhu et al., 2009]. Microtomographic images of <span class="hlt">melt</span> distribution were obtained on 1 mm cylindrical <span class="hlt">cores</span> with <span class="hlt">melt</span> fractions of 0.2, 0.1, and 0.02, at a spatial resolution of 0.7 microns. Textual information such as <span class="hlt">melt</span> channel size and channel connectivity was determined using AVIZO and MATLAB. Our data indicate that as <span class="hlt">melt</span> fraction decreases from 0.2 to 0.02, grain size increases slightly whereas <span class="hlt">melt</span> interconnectivity decreases. Network modeling and the Lattice Boltzmann method provide a quantitative link between the macroscale transport properties and microscale <span class="hlt">melt</span> distribtution. Incorporating our quantitative 3-D <span class="hlt">melt</span> distribution data into these models allow us to simulate <span class="hlt">melt</span> transport and, thereby, calculate the permeability and electrical conductivity of partially molten peridotite, especially at low <span class="hlt">melt</span> fractions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhu, Wen-Lu; Gaetani, Glenn; Fusseis, Florian</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">171</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/61397821"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nuclear reactor <span class="hlt">melt</span>-retention structure to mitigate direct containment heating</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This patent describes a nuclear reactor <span class="hlt">melt</span>-retention structure that functions to retain molten <span class="hlt">core</span> material within a <span class="hlt">melt</span> retention chamber to mitigate the extent of direct containment heating. The structure being adapted to be positioned within or adjacent to a pressurized or boiling water nuclear reactor containment building at a location such that at least a portion of the <span class="hlt">melt</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">N. K. Tutu; T. Ginsberg; J. R. Klages</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">172</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60041426"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dynamic analysis of a <span class="hlt">postulated</span> hydrogen burn in a waste storage tank</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The scope of this paper includes the determination of the structural response of a tank subjected to beyond-design-basis <span class="hlt">postulated</span> hydrogen burn events. The load definition includes characterization of two burn mixtures, one consistent with a burn above the crust and the other consistent with a burn below the crust. Two burn times are <span class="hlt">postulated</span>, a best-estimate one second burn time</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C. J. Moore; A. D. Dyrness; L. J. Julyk; G. L. Fox; D. J. Green</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">173</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10185682"> <span id="translatedtitle">The rock <span class="hlt">melting</span> approach to drilling</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">During the early and mid-1970`s the Los Alamos National Laboratory demonstrated practical applications of drilling and <span class="hlt">coring</span> using an electrically-heated graphite, tungsten, or molybdenum penetrator that <span class="hlt">melts</span> a hole as it is slowly pushed through the rock or soil. The molten material consolidates into a rugged glass lining that prevents hole collapse; minimizes the potential for cross-flow, lost circulation, or the release of hazardous materials without casing operations; and produces no cuttings in porous or low density (<1.7 g/cc) formations. Because there are no drilling fluids required, the rock <span class="hlt">melting</span> approach reduces waste handling, treatment and disposal. Drilling by rock <span class="hlt">melting</span> has been demonstrated to depths up to 30 m in caliche, clay, alluvium, cobbles, sand, basalt, granite, and other materials. Penetrating large cobbles without debris removal was achieved by thermal stress fracturing and lateral extrusion of portions of the rock <span class="hlt">melt</span> into the resulting cracks. Both horizontal and vertical holes in a variety of diameters were drilled in these materials using modular, self-contained field units that operate in remote areas. Because the penetrator does not need to rotate, steering by several simple approaches is considered quite feasible. <span class="hlt">Melting</span> is ideal for obtaining <span class="hlt">core</span> samples in alluvium and other poorly consolidated soils since the formed-in-place glass liner stabilizes the hole, encapsulates volatile or hazardous material, and recovers an undisturbed <span class="hlt">core</span>. Because of the relatively low thermal conductivity of rock and soil materials, the heat-affected zone beyond the <span class="hlt">melt</span> layer is very small, <1 inch thick. Los Alamos has begun to update the technology and this paper will report on the current status of applications and designs for improved drills.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cort, G.E.; Goff, S.J.; Rowley, J.C.; Neudecker, J.W. Jr.; Dreesen, D.S.; Winchester, W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">174</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26638728"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ash <span class="hlt">melting</span> treatment by rotating type surface <span class="hlt">melting</span> furnace</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Results of <span class="hlt">melting</span> treatment of fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerators are described, and safety and an effective use of slag discharged from the <span class="hlt">melting</span> treatment are studied. The fly ash has an average particle size of 22 ?m and a <span class="hlt">melting</span> fluidity point of 1280–1330°C and was able to be <span class="hlt">melted</span> by using a Kubota <span class="hlt">melting</span> furnace without</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sei-ichi Abe; Fumiaki Kambayashi; Masaharu Okada</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">175</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49430283"> <span id="translatedtitle">Recent <span class="hlt">melt</span> rates of Canadian arctic ice caps are the highest in four millennia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">There has been a rapid acceleration in ice-cap <span class="hlt">melt</span> rates over the last few decades across the entire Canadian Arctic. Present <span class="hlt">melt</span> rates exceed the past rates for many millennia. New shallow <span class="hlt">cores</span> at old sites bring their <span class="hlt">melt</span> series up-to-date. The <span class="hlt">melt</span>-percentage series from the Devon Island and Agassiz (Ellesmere Island) ice caps are well correlated with the Devon</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">David Fisher; James Zheng; David Burgess; Christian Zdanowicz; Christophe Kinnard; Martin Sharp; Jocelyne Bourgeois</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">176</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB184815"> <span id="translatedtitle">Inductoslag <span class="hlt">Melting</span> of Titanium.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Techniques were developed for induction <span class="hlt">melting</span> of titanium in a split, water-cooled copper crucible. Calcium fluoride, which was used as an inert slag cover during <span class="hlt">melting</span>, formed an insulating layer of solid slag between the ingot and the crucible wall....</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">P. G. Clites R. A. Beall</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1969-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">177</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/3172572.stm"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Melting</span> Glaciers Threaten Peru</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Thousands of people in the Andes mountains of Peru are having their lives affected in both a practical and cultural way by climate change, which is causing the region's glaciers to <span class="hlt">melt</span>. This document explores the causes of the glacial <span class="hlt">melt</span> and its impacts on the local cultures.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-10-09</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">178</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://learningcenter.nsta.org/product_detail.aspx?id=10.2505/9780873552554.9"> <span id="translatedtitle">Is It <span class="hlt">Melting</span>?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this assessment probe is to elicit students' ideas about the physical process of <span class="hlt">melting</span>. The probe is designed to find out if students recognize <span class="hlt">melting</span> as a change in state from solid to liquid that involves one substance or if they confuse it with other physical changes, such as dissolving, that involve two substances.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Eberle, Francis; Farrin, Lynn; Keeley, Page</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">179</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/53563128"> <span id="translatedtitle">On <span class="hlt">melting</span> icebergs</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">THE feasibility of towing icebergs to their coasts and <span class="hlt">melting</span> them on arrival to provide a supply of fresh water is being studied in various parts of the world. Saudi Arabia, Australia and California1 are amongst those considering such a project. One suggestion for <span class="hlt">melting</span> the icebergs is to run each iceberg aground in water approximately 250m deep, the mean</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Herbert E. Huppert</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1978-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">180</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/912863"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Melting</span> and flowing</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present a fast and stable system for animating materials that <span class="hlt">melt</span>, flow, and solidify. Examples of real-world materials that exhibit these phenomena include <span class="hlt">melting</span> candles, lava flow, the hardening of cement, icicle formation, and limestone deposition. We animate such phenomena by physical simulation of fluids --- in particular the incompressible viscous Navier-Stokes equations with free surfaces, treating solid and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mark Carlson; Peter J. Mucha; R. Brooks Van Horn III; Greg Turk</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return 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href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> </div><!-- page_9 div --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">181</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010fgt..book..385C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Thermodynamics of Glass <span class="hlt">Melting</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">First, a model based on linear algebra is described by which the thermodynamic properties of industrial multi-component glasses and glass <span class="hlt">melts</span> can be accurately predicted from their chemical composition. The model is applied to calculate the heat content of glass <span class="hlt">melts</span> at high temperatures, the standard heat of formation of glasses from the elements, and the vapor pressures of individual oxides above the <span class="hlt">melt</span>. An E-fiber glass composition is depicted as an example. Second, the role of individual raw materials in the <span class="hlt">melting</span> process of E-glass is addressed, with a special focus on the decomposition kinetics and energetic situation of alkaline earth carriers. Finally, the heat of the batch-to-<span class="hlt">melt</span> conversion is calculated. A simplified reaction path model comprising heat turnover, content of residual solid matter, and an approach to batch viscosity is outlined.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Conradt, Reinhard</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">182</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhRvB..87m4103S"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Melting</span> of graphene clusters</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Density-functional tight-binding and classical molecular dynamics simulations are used to investigate the structural deformations and <span class="hlt">melting</span> of planar carbon nanoclusters CN with N=2-55. The minimum-energy configurations for different clusters are used as starting configurations for the study of the temperature effects on the bond breaking and rotation in carbon lines (N<6), carbon rings (5<N<19), and graphene nanoflakes. The larger the rings (graphene nanoflakes) the higher the transition temperature (<span class="hlt">melting</span> point) with ring-to-line (perfect-to-defective) transition structures. The <span class="hlt">melting</span> point was obtained by using the bond energy, the Lindemann criteria, and the specific heat. We found that hydrogen-passivated graphene nanoflakes (CNHM) have a larger <span class="hlt">melting</span> temperature with a much smaller dependence on size. The edges in the graphene nanoflakes exhibit several different metastable configurations (isomers) during heating before <span class="hlt">melting</span> occurs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Singh, Sandeep Kumar; Neek-Amal, M.; Peeters, F. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">183</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48047371"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evidence for high silicic <span class="hlt">melt</span> circulation and metasomatic events in the mantle beneath alkaline provinces: the Na–Fe-augitic green-<span class="hlt">core</span> pyroxenes in the Tertiary alkali basalts of the Cantal massif (French Massif Central)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary  ?Na–Fe augitic green-<span class="hlt">core</span> pyroxenes (hereafter called GCPX) are common in the silica-undersaturated basaltic rocks of many\\u000a magmatic alkaline provinces. In the Cantal massif, green-<span class="hlt">core</span> pyroxenes occur in nearly all the Supracantalian basalts (9.5\\u000a to 2?Ma), in contrast to the Infracantalian basalts (13 to 9.5?Ma) where they are rarely observed. An electron microprobe\\u000a study demonstrates that the GCPX crystallized from evolved</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. Pilet; J. Hernandez; B. Villemant</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">184</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/10140058"> <span id="translatedtitle">A 275 year ice-<span class="hlt">core</span> record from Akademii Nauk ice cap, Severnaya Zemlya, Russian Arctic</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Between 1999 and 2001, a 724 m long ice <span class="hlt">core</span> was drilled on Akademii Nauk, the largest glacier on Severnaya Zemlya, Russian Arctic. The drilling site is located near the summit. The <span class="hlt">core</span> is characterized by high <span class="hlt">melt</span>-layer content. The <span class="hlt">melt</span> layers are caused by <span class="hlt">melting</span> and even by rain during the summer. We present high-resolution data of density, electrical</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Diedrich Fritzsche; Rainer Schütt; Hanno Meyer; Heinz Miller; Frank Wilhelms; Thomas Opel; Lev M. Savatyugin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">185</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EPJST.216..199B"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Melting</span> of a polycrystalline material. <span class="hlt">Melting</span> of real materials</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Calculating the <span class="hlt">melting</span> temperature of a solid with a known model of interaction between atoms is nowadays a comparatively simple task. However, when one simulates a single crystal by molecular dynamics method, it does not normally <span class="hlt">melt</span> at the <span class="hlt">melting</span> temperature. Instead, one has to significantly overheat it. Yet, a real material <span class="hlt">melts</span> at the <span class="hlt">melting</span> point. Here we investigate the impact of the defects and the grain boundaries on <span class="hlt">melting</span>. We demonstrate that defects and grain boundaries have similar impact and make it possible to simulate <span class="hlt">melting</span> in close vicinity of thermodynamic <span class="hlt">melting</span> temperature. We also show that the Z method might be non-applicable in discriminating a stable submelting phase.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Belonoshko, Anatoly B.; Lukinov, Timofei; Burakovsky, Leonid; Preston, Dean L.; Rosengren, Anders</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">186</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/050g23xw7221u28j.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">The fidelity of <span class="hlt">melt</span> inclusions as records of <span class="hlt">melt</span> composition</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A series of experiments created <span class="hlt">melt</span> inclusions in plagioclase and pyroxene crystals grown from a basaltic <span class="hlt">melt</span> at 1,150°C,\\u000a 1.0 GPa to investigate diffusive fractionation during <span class="hlt">melt</span> inclusion formation; additionally, P diffusion in a basaltic <span class="hlt">melt</span>\\u000a was measured at 1.0 GPa. <span class="hlt">Melt</span> inclusions and <span class="hlt">melts</span> within a few 100 microns of plagioclase–<span class="hlt">melt</span> interfaces were analyzed for\\u000a comparison with <span class="hlt">melt</span> compositions far from the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Don R. Baker</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">187</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5465164"> <span id="translatedtitle">Degraded <span class="hlt">core</span> modeling in MELCOR</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A package of phenomenological models has been developed for the MELCOR code system to calculate the thermal response of structures in the <span class="hlt">core</span> and lower plenum of an LWR during a severe accident. This package treats all important modes of heat transfer within the <span class="hlt">core</span>, as well as oxidation, debris formation, and relocation of <span class="hlt">core</span> and structural materials during <span class="hlt">melting</span>, candling, and slumping. Comparison of MELCOR and MARCON calculations for the Browns Ferry BWR primary system shows many areas of agreement during the early stages of <span class="hlt">core</span> heatup and oxidation, but very large differences at later times. Many of these differences are attributed to the effects of candling predicted by MELCOR and the lack of any mechanistic candling or debris relocation models in MARCON. The <span class="hlt">melting</span> and slumping behavior calculated by MELCOR is in qualitative agreement with our current understanding of the processes involved.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Summers, R.M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">188</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000APS..MARB29008Z"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Melting</span> of Silicon Clusters</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">One of the key issues in the study of the growth and properties of nanoparticles is the thermodynamics of such particles. We present the results of our study of <span class="hlt">melting</span> for Sin clusters with n<= 61, using constant energy molecular dynamics simulations based on a non-orthogonal tight-binding Hamiltonian [1]. Our emphasis is placed on the determination, among the tools commonly used to characterize <span class="hlt">melting</span> (namely, pair-distribution function, Lindemann index, average number of bonds per atom, the angular distribution, etc.), which ones are best suited for describing the approach to <span class="hlt">melting</span> of nanoparticles. [1] M. Menon and K.R. Subbaswamy, Phys. Rev. B55, 9231 (1997).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhang, Haifeng; Wu, Shi-Yu; Jayanthi, Chakram</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">189</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981PThPh..66..421K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Lattice Model of Quantum <span class="hlt">Melting</span>. II</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Solid-liquid transition of a many-body Fermi system interacting through a soft <span class="hlt">core</span> potential is studied in classical and quantum regions by using a quantized version of the lattice model proposed by Lennard-Jones and Devonshire. In comparison with the previous results for a Bose system (Prog. Theor. Phys. 64 (1980), 419.), the effect of statistics in the <span class="hlt">melting</span> transition is investigated systematically. It is shown that the Fermi statistics makes the solid phase more stable compared with the Bose statistics. It is also shown that the <span class="hlt">melting</span> curve of a Fermi system has a characteristic structure which is absent in that of a Bose system. We apply our theory to helium 3 and to one component plasma. In the case of helium 3, the obtained phase diagram is qualitatively similar to the experimental result showing <span class="hlt">melting</span> density minimum phenomenon. In the case of one component plasma, the obtained phase diagram shows <span class="hlt">melting</span> density maximum phenomenon in addition to the <span class="hlt">melting</span> temperature maximum phenomenon.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kawamura, H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">190</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60780829"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fundamentals of <span class="hlt">Melt</span>Water Interfacial Transport Phenomena: Improved Understanding for Innovative Safety Technologies in ALWRs</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The interaction and mixing of high-temperature <span class="hlt">melt</span> and water is the important technical issue in the safety assessment of water-cooled reactors to achieve ultimate <span class="hlt">core</span> coolability. For specific advanced light water reactor (ALWR) designs, deliberate mixing of the <span class="hlt">core-melt</span> and water is being considered as a mitigative measure, to assure ex-vessel <span class="hlt">core</span> coolability. The goal of this work is to</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. Anderson; M. Corradini; K. Y. Bank; R. Bonazza; D. Cho</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">191</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7183640"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dislocation theory of <span class="hlt">melting</span> for iron, revisited</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">melting</span> point T[sub m] of iron at conditions of the Earth's inner <span class="hlt">core</span> boundary (ICB) has been calculated from the dislocation theory of <span class="hlt">melting</span> in metals. Monte Carlo calculations were used to estimate uncertainties introduced by uncertainty in the geophysical parameters that are used in the calculations. These calculations take into account the effects of pressure at ICB conditions and of possible freezing point depression resulting from dilution of pure iron in the outer <span class="hlt">core</span>. With this approach T[sub m] of pure [epsilon]-Fe at a pressure of 330 GPa and without freezing point depression is 6160[plus minus]250 K; for a 1000 K freezing point depression it is 6110 K. T[sub m] of pure [gamma]-Fe is 6060 K, a value that is not significantly different. A possible [alpha][prime] phase would <span class="hlt">melt</span> at 5600 K. These values agree with calculated shock wave determinations of T[sub m]. Although calculated T[sub m] of the pure phase is little affected by assumptions about the extent of freezing point depression, the estimated temperature of the inner <span class="hlt">core</span> boundary is lower by the freezing point depression, perhaps 500--1000 K less than T[sub m] of a pure phase. [copyright] 1994 American Institute of Physics</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Poirier, J. (Departement des Geomateriaux, Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)); Shankland, T.J. (Earth and Environmental Sciences Division, MS D443, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 84545 (United States))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-07-10</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">192</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10104198"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dislocation theory of <span class="hlt">melting</span> for iron, revisited</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Melting</span> point T{sub m} of iron at conditions of the Earth`s inner <span class="hlt">core</span> boundary (ICB) has been calculated from dislocation theory of <span class="hlt">melting</span> in metals. Monte Carlo calculations were used to estimate uncertainties introduced by uncertainty in the geophysical parameters that are used in the calculations. These calculations take into account the effects of pressure at ICB conditions and of possible freezing point depression resulting from dilution of pure iron in the outer <span class="hlt">core</span>. With this approach T{sub m} of pure {var_epsilon}-Fe at a pressure of 330 GPa and without freezing point depression is 6160 {plus_minus} 250 K; for a 1000 K freezing point depression it is 6110 K. T{sub m} of pure {gamma}-Fe is 6060 K, a value that is not significantly different. A possible {alpha}{prime} phase would <span class="hlt">melt</span> at 5600 K. These values agree with calculated shock wave determinations of T{sub m}. Although calculated T{sub m} of the pure phase is little affected by assumptions about the extent of freezing point depression, the estimated temperature of the inner <span class="hlt">core</span> boundary is lower by the breezing point depression, perhaps 500--1000 K less than T{sub m} of a pure phase.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Poirier, J.P. [Inst., de Physique du Globe de Paris (France); Shankland, T.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">193</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6376287"> <span id="translatedtitle">Experimental studies on <span class="hlt">melt</span> spreading, bubbling heat transfer, and coolant layer boiling</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Melt</span> spreading studies have been undertaken to investigate the extent to which molten <span class="hlt">core</span> debris may be expected to spread under gravity forces in a BWR drywell geometry. The objectives are to determine the extent of <span class="hlt">melt</span> spreading as a function of <span class="hlt">melt</span> mass,<span class="hlt">melt</span> superheat, and water depth. These studies will enable an objective determination of whether or not <span class="hlt">core</span> debris can spread up to and contact containment structures or boundaries upon vessel failure. Results indicate that the most important variables are the <span class="hlt">melt</span> superheat and the water depth. Studies have revealed five distinct regimes of <span class="hlt">melt</span> spreading ranging from hydrodynamically-limited to heat transfer-limited. A single parameter dimensionless correlation is presented which identified the spreading regime and allows for mechanistic calculation of the average thickness to which the <span class="hlt">melt</span> will spread. 7 refs., 12 figs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Greene, G.A.; Finfrock, C.; Klages, J.; Schwarz, C.E.; Burson, S.B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">194</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=married+AND+in+AND+a+AND+young+AND+age&pg=6&id=ED339927"> <span id="translatedtitle">Affiliation Related to Age, Gender, Identity, and Marital Status: A Confirmatory Study of C. Gilligan's <span class="hlt">Postulate</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Attachment and separation are concepts that depict the struggle within individuals between isolated self and involvement with others. Many authors have written about this struggle in a variety of terms. The theory evaluated by this study was elaborated by C. Gilligan (1982). It <span class="hlt">postulated</span> that there existed two views of life experiences: one based…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Musser, Carolyn Sue</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">195</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=penicillium&id=EJ937429"> <span id="translatedtitle">An Inexpensive and Safe Experiment to Demonstrate Koch's <span class="hlt">Postulates</span> Using Citrus Fruit</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|Citrus fruit (oranges, tangerines, grapefruit or lemons) purchased in a grocery store can be experimentally infected with readily-available sources of "Penicillium digitatum" to demonstrate the four basic steps of Koch's <span class="hlt">postulates</span>, also known as proof of pathogenicity. The mould is isolated from naturally-infected citrus fruit into pure culture…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jakobi, Steven</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">196</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AIPC.1558.1943V"> <span id="translatedtitle">Are the non equilibrium thermodynamics <span class="hlt">postulates</span> necessary in modeling coating formation by drying?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this work it is shown that it is necessary to apply the non equilibrium thermodynamics <span class="hlt">postulates</span> in Fickian multi-component diffusion appearing in coating formation by drying. More specifically, two cases of solvent(s) evaporation from a ternary polymer solution were examined. The first case assumes given diffusion coefficients while in the second case the non-equilibrium thermodynamics <span class="hlt">postulates</span> such as the Onsager Reciprocal Relations (ORR) and the quasi equilibrium <span class="hlt">postulate</span> (Gibbs-Duhem equation) were applied. The coating drying was modeled as a coupled heat and mass problem with a moving boundary. The Galerkin Finite Element method was applied to numerically solve the drying problem. It was shown that the inclusion of quasi equilibrium <span class="hlt">postulates</span> in calculating the ternary diffusion coefficients could explain the discrepancy of negative concentrations in the given diffusion coefficients case observed even if the restrictions of the second thermodynamic law are satisfied. It is believed that this work could have applications such as modeling coating formation by drying.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Verros, George D.; Xentes, George K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">197</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/18895623"> <span id="translatedtitle">A new form of Tsallis distribution based on the probabilistically independent <span class="hlt">postulate</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The current form of Tsallis distribution for a Hamiltonian system with an arbitrary potential is found to represent a simple isothermal situation. This paper finds that the q-exponential of a sum can be applied as the product of the q-exponential based on the probabilistically independent <span class="hlt">postulate</span> employed in nonextensive statistical mechanics. Under this framework, a new form of Tsallis distribution</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jiu-Lin Du</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">198</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=NUREGCR4360V2"> <span id="translatedtitle">Calculational Methods for Analysis of <span class="hlt">Postulated</span> UF6 Releases. Volume 2.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Calculational methods and computer programs for the analysis of source terms for <span class="hlt">postulated</span> releases of UF6 are presented. Required thermophysical properties of UF6, HF, and H2O are described in detail. UF6 reacts with moisture in the ambient environment ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">W. R. Williams</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">199</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=NUREGCR4360V1"> <span id="translatedtitle">Calculational Methods for Analysis of <span class="hlt">Postulated</span> UF6 Releases. Volume 1.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Calculational methods and computer programs for the analysis of source terms for <span class="hlt">postulated</span> releases of UF6 are presented. Required thermophysical properties of UF6, HF, and H2O are described in detail. UF6 reacts with moisture in the ambient environment ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">W. R. Williams</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">200</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=strength+AND+men+AND+women&pg=7&id=ED339927"> <span id="translatedtitle">Affiliation Related to Age, Gender, Identity, and Marital Status: A Confirmatory Study of C. Gilligan's <span class="hlt">Postulate</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|Attachment and separation are concepts that depict the struggle within individuals between isolated self and involvement with others. Many authors have written about this struggle in a variety of terms. The theory evaluated by this study was elaborated by C. Gilligan (1982). It <span class="hlt">postulated</span> that there existed two views of life experiences: one…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Musser, Carolyn Sue</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a 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title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">201</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/61298332"> <span id="translatedtitle">TMI2 accident: <span class="hlt">postulated</span> heat transfer mechanisms and available data base</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In light of the TMI-2 nuclear reactor accident, transient and small LOCA events have been identified as areas of some of the most urgent research needs in light water reactor safety. Of particular interest is the development of the capability to simulate a wide range of <span class="hlt">postulated</span> transient and accident conditions in order to gain insight into measures that can</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. Viskanta; A. K. Mohanty</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">202</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=DE86701676"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of Ingestion Doses from a Range of <span class="hlt">Postulated</span> Magnox Reactor Releases.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An analysis has been carried out of ingestion doses from a range of <span class="hlt">postulated</span> Magnox reactor releases to atmosphere. Calculations were made of the dose to the adult, ten year old child and one year old child, which showed the one year old child to receiv...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. Nair</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">203</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/43170700"> <span id="translatedtitle">An analysis of ingestion doses from a range of <span class="hlt">postulated</span> Magnox reactor releases</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">An analysis was carried out of ingestion doses from a range of <span class="hlt">postulated</span> Magnox reactor releases to atmosphere. Doses to the adult, ten year old child and one year old child were calculated, which showed the one year old child to receive the highest dose. Detailed studies were made of the significance of the ingestion dose to the one year</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. Nair</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">204</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=chlorine&id=EJ717200"> <span id="translatedtitle">Free Radical Halogenation, Selectivity, and Thermodynamics: The Polanyi Principle and Hammond's <span class="hlt">Postulate</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|The underlying ideas of the Polanyi principle and Hammond's <span class="hlt">postulate</span> in relation to the simple free halogenation reactions and their selectivity and thermodynamics is presented. The results indicate that the chlorine atom exhibits a slightly less selectivity in the liquid phase as compared to in the gas phase.|</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Scala, Alfred A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">205</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=DE200315002507"> <span id="translatedtitle">Supplemental Analysis to Support <span class="hlt">Postulated</span> Events in the Process Hazards Analysis for the HEAF.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this report is to conduct a limit scope risk assessment by generating event trees for the accident scenarios described in table 4-2 of the HEAF SAR, ref 1. Table 4-2 lists the <span class="hlt">postulated</span> eventkcenario descriptions for non-industrial hazards...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">H. E. Lambert G. L. Johnson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">206</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=fungi&pg=7&id=EJ558809"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fun Microbiology: Using a Plant Pathogenic Fungus To Demonstrate Koch's <span class="hlt">Postulates</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Describes an experiment using a plant pathogenic fungus in which students learn to follow aseptic techniques, grow and produce spores of a fungus, use a hemacytometer for enumerating spores, prepare serial dilutions, grow and inoculate plants, isolate a pure culture using agar streak plates, and demonstrate the four steps of Koch's <span class="hlt">postulates</span>.…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mitchell, James K.; Orsted, Kathy M.; Warnes, Carl E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">207</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1986STIN...8821435B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Laser surface <span class="hlt">melting</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Laser applications to glazing are discussed. Unlike other methods of producing amorphous metals, laser surface <span class="hlt">melting</span> offers the possibility of covering compact metals with an amorphous layer, which if the appropriate composition is chosen can provide excellent protection against corrosion. The thermal and kinetic principles of solidification were studied. Simulation programs enable correlations between the relevant parameters in rapid solution and those for laser control to be made. Based on these criteria different laser equipments were tested. Corrosion experiments were used to ascertain suitable compositions. Various techniques were developed and tested for coatings suitable for subsequent laser <span class="hlt">melting</span>. Surface <span class="hlt">melting</span> was carried out with various CO2 lasers. Considerable improvement is observed for <span class="hlt">melting</span> with a Nd-YAG (Q switched) laser.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bergmann, Hans Wilhelm; Mordike, Barry L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">208</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/oceanography/activities/73296.html"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Melting</span> ice cubes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Explore how <span class="hlt">melting</span> of ice cubes floating in water is influenced by the salinity of the water. Important oceanographic concepts like density and density driven currents are visualized and can be discussed on the basis of this experiment.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Glessmer, Mirjam</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">209</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PhRvE..79b6608M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Maxwell's macroscopic equations, the energy-momentum <span class="hlt">postulates</span>, and the Lorentz law of force</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We argue that the classical theory of electromagnetism is based on Maxwell’s macroscopic equations, an energy <span class="hlt">postulate</span>, a momentum <span class="hlt">postulate</span>, and a generalized form of the Lorentz law of force. These seven <span class="hlt">postulates</span> constitute the foundation of a complete and consistent theory, thus eliminating the need for actual (i.e., physical) models of polarization P and magnetization M , these being the distinguishing features of Maxwell’s macroscopic equations. In the proposed formulation, P(r,t) and M(r,t) are arbitrary functions of space and time, their physical properties being embedded in the seven <span class="hlt">postulates</span> of the theory. The <span class="hlt">postulates</span> are self-consistent, comply with the requirements of the special theory of relativity, and satisfy the laws of conservation of energy, linear momentum, and angular momentum. One advantage of the proposed formulation is that it sidesteps the long-standing Abraham-Minkowski controversy surrounding the electromagnetic momentum inside a material medium by simply “assigning” the Abraham momentum density E(r,t)×H(r,t)/c2 to the electromagnetic field. This well-defined momentum is thus taken to be universal as it does not depend on whether the field is propagating or evanescent, and whether or not the host medium is homogeneous, transparent, isotropic, dispersive, magnetic, linear, etc. In other words, the local and instantaneous momentum density is uniquely and unambiguously specified at each and every point of the material system in terms of the E and H fields residing at that point. Any variation with time of the total electromagnetic momentum of a closed system results in a force exerted on the material media within the system in accordance with the generalized Lorentz law.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mansuripur, Masud; Zakharian, Armis R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">210</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19391864"> <span id="translatedtitle">Maxwell's macroscopic equations, the energy-momentum <span class="hlt">postulates</span>, and the Lorentz law of force.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We argue that the classical theory of electromagnetism is based on Maxwell's macroscopic equations, an energy <span class="hlt">postulate</span>, a momentum <span class="hlt">postulate</span>, and a generalized form of the Lorentz law of force. These seven <span class="hlt">postulates</span> constitute the foundation of a complete and consistent theory, thus eliminating the need for actual (i.e., physical) models of polarization P and magnetization M , these being the distinguishing features of Maxwell's macroscopic equations. In the proposed formulation, P(r,t) and M(r,t) are arbitrary functions of space and time, their physical properties being embedded in the seven <span class="hlt">postulates</span> of the theory. The <span class="hlt">postulates</span> are self-consistent, comply with the requirements of the special theory of relativity, and satisfy the laws of conservation of energy, linear momentum, and angular momentum. One advantage of the proposed formulation is that it sidesteps the long-standing Abraham-Minkowski controversy surrounding the electromagnetic momentum inside a material medium by simply "assigning" the Abraham momentum density E(r,t)xH(r,t)/c2 to the electromagnetic field. This well-defined momentum is thus taken to be universal as it does not depend on whether the field is propagating or evanescent, and whether or not the host medium is homogeneous, transparent, isotropic, dispersive, magnetic, linear, etc. In other words, the local and instantaneous momentum density is uniquely and unambiguously specified at each and every point of the material system in terms of the E and H fields residing at that point. Any variation with time of the total electromagnetic momentum of a closed system results in a force exerted on the material media within the system in accordance with the generalized Lorentz law. PMID:19391864</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mansuripur, Masud; Zakharian, Armis R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-02-20</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">211</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/55413344"> <span id="translatedtitle">What controls dead-ice <span class="hlt">melting</span> under different climate conditions?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the geological record, hummocky dead-ice moraines represent the final product of the <span class="hlt">melt</span>-out of dead- ice. Processes and rates of dead-ice <span class="hlt">melting</span> in ice-<span class="hlt">cored</span> moraines and at debris-covered glaciers are commonly believed to be governed by climate. Here, backwasting rates from 14 dead-ice areas are assessed in relation to mean annual air temperature, mean summer air temperature, mean annual</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. Schomacker</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">212</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/55233467"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Core</span> formation in silicate bodies</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Differentiation of a body into a metallic <span class="hlt">core</span> and silicate mantle occurs most efficiently if temperatures are high enough to allow at least the metal to <span class="hlt">melt</span> [1], and is enhanced if matrix deformation occurs [2]. Elevated temperatures may occur due to either decay of short-lived radio-isotopes, or gravitational energy release during accretion [3]. For bodies smaller than the Moon,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">F. Nimmo; D. P. O'Brien; T. Kleine</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">213</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40981496"> <span id="translatedtitle">Geothermobarometric evidence for a metamorphic <span class="hlt">core</span> complex in Sinai, Egypt</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Blasband et al. [Geologie en Mijnbouw 76 (1997) 247, J. Geol. Soc. Lond. 157 (2000) 615] <span class="hlt">postulated</span> a metamorphic <span class="hlt">core</span>-complex model for the Wadi Kid area, south Sinai, Egypt. This <span class="hlt">core</span> complex was formed in an extensional setting after gravitational collapse of the East African Orogen in the Late Proterozoic. Arc-accretion was responsible for the closure of the Mozambique Ocean.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">P Brooijmans; B Blasband; S. H White; W. J Visser; P Dirks</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">214</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://geology.case.edu/~hauck/papers/hauck_jgr_2006.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sulfur's impact on <span class="hlt">core</span> evolution and magnetic field generation on Ganymede</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">(1) Analysis of the <span class="hlt">melting</span> relationships of potential <span class="hlt">core</span> forming materials in Ganymede indicate that fluid motions, a requirement for a dynamo origin for the satellite's magnetic field, may be driven, in part, either by iron (Fe) ''snow'' forming below the <span class="hlt">core</span>- mantle boundary or solid iron sulfide (FeS) floating upward from the deep <span class="hlt">core</span>. Eutectic <span class="hlt">melting</span> temperatures and eutectic</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Steven A. Hauck; Jonathan M. Aurnou; Andrew J. Dombard</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">215</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48939010"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sulfur's impact on <span class="hlt">core</span> evolution and magnetic field generation on Ganymede</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Analysis of the <span class="hlt">melting</span> relationships of potential <span class="hlt">core</span> forming materials in Ganymede indicate that fluid motions, a requirement for a dynamo origin for the satellite's magnetic field, may be driven, in part, either by iron (Fe) “snow” forming below the <span class="hlt">core</span>-mantle boundary or solid iron sulfide (FeS) floating upward from the deep <span class="hlt">core</span>. Eutectic <span class="hlt">melting</span> temperatures and eutectic sulfur contents</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Steven A. Hauck; Jonathan M. Aurnou; Andrew J. Dombard</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">216</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49114426"> <span id="translatedtitle">The re-evaluation of the AVR <span class="hlt">melt</span>-wire experiment with specific focus on different modeling strategies and simplifications</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The AVR is a pebble-bed type reactor that operated in Germany for 21 years and was closed down in December 1988. The AVR <span class="hlt">melt</span>-wire experiments, where graphite spheres with <span class="hlt">melt</span> wires of different <span class="hlt">melting</span> temperatures were introduced into the <span class="hlt">core</span>, indicate that measured pebble temperatures significantly exceeded temperatures calculated with the analysis codes available at the time. The reason for</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. Sonat Sen; Carel F. Viljoen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">217</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.V31D0685S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Iron Diffusivity in Water Saturated Rhyolite <span class="hlt">Melt</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have quantified experimentally the bulk chemical diffusivity of iron and the solubility of magnetite in peraluminous, water-saturated rhyolite <span class="hlt">melt</span> at 100 MPa and 800°C by performing experiments in which we equilibrated a single crystal of magnetite with water-saturated rhyolite <span class="hlt">melt</span>. The oxygen fugacity of each run was buffered at nickel-nickel oxide (NNO) and the assemblage was saturated with a 1.8 wt. % NaCl eq. NaCl-KCl- FeCl2-HCl-H2O volatile phase. The experimental charge contained a cylinder of magnetite (activity Fe3O4=1), <span class="hlt">cored</span> from a single crystal of magnetite and placed at the base of a gold capsule, synthetic rhyolite glass placed above the magnetite cylinder and aqueous vapor which occupied the remaining capsule volume. The concentration profiles of FeO (and Na2O, K2O, Al2O3, SiO2 and Cl) in the quenched <span class="hlt">melt</span> (i.e., glass) were measured over a distance of 400 microns beginning at the magnetite-rhyolite interface and moving orthogonally away from this interface into the glass until the concentration of iron fell below the limit of detection. Diffusion profiles were fit by inverting the measured concentrations of iron in the <span class="hlt">melt</span> through the error function and solving for the diffusion coefficient assuming a stationary planar boundary; the near-intersection of the error function regression with the origin justifies this assumption. The calculated bulk chemical diffusivity for iron in H2O- saturated rhyolite is 4 E-10 cm2 sec-1; this measured diffusivity is consistent, albeit one-half to one order of magnitude lower than data for other divalent elements (Ca, Mg, Sn) in rhyolite. The Co value used to fit the diffusion profiles is consistent with published data for the equilibrium concentration of iron in rhyolite <span class="hlt">melt</span> and, thus, the data yield the solubility of iron in water-saturated rhyolite <span class="hlt">melt</span>. The aluminum saturation index (ASI) of the <span class="hlt">melt</span>, hence concentrations of Na2O, K2O and Al2O3, remains essentially constant in the <span class="hlt">melt</span> across the entire measured diffusion length indicating that the bulk diffusivity of iron is not affected by coupled diffusion with these major elements. The chlorine concentration in the <span class="hlt">melt</span>, however, increases markedly toward the magnetite-glass interface. This finding suggests that iron and chlorine are associated strongly in the <span class="hlt">melt</span> and that the presence of iron in the <span class="hlt">melt</span>, owing to magnetite dissolution increases significantly the chlorine "solubility" in the <span class="hlt">melt</span>. The new results constrain the growth and dissolution rates of iron-bearing minerals during the evolution of hydrous felsic <span class="hlt">melt</span>, including magma mixing, and the apparent association of iron and chlorine in the <span class="hlt">melt</span> provides important constraints on the mass transfer of iron, chlorine and other metals, to an exsolved volatile phase and how this impacts the acidity, hence metal-scavenging potential, of the volatile phase.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Simon, A. C.; Bell, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">218</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000APS..DFD.GH004B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Polymer <span class="hlt">Melt</span> Flow Visualization</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Melt</span> flow during injection molding is non-Newtonian, non-isothermal, and unsteady. Software packages for the numerical simulation of such flows are prevalent in the plastics industry, but experimental data for benchmarking and verification of these programs are scarce. To address this situation, an optical access mold has been constructed with a rectangular mold cavity that can be illuminated from the top and bottom and viewed from the side. The mold has been placed in a Cincinnati Milacron VS-33 injection molding machine and has been used to study the flow of polyethylene <span class="hlt">melts</span>. A digital CCD camera was used to record the progress of the <span class="hlt">melt</span> as it filled the cavity from a gate near one of the cavity corners. The digital images were then processed to extract the <span class="hlt">melt</span> front geometry as a function of time. Images of the flowing plastic, and polynomial fits to the <span class="hlt">melt</span> front data for various sets of molding parameters are presented. In addition, the experimental data may be compared to the results of GOMA, a program developed at Sandia that can be used to simulate the flow of non-Newtonian fluids with free and fixed boundaries, if time allows.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bress, Thomas; Dowling, David</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">219</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/290875"> <span id="translatedtitle">Calculation of SY tank annulus continuous air monitor readings after <span class="hlt">postulated</span> leak scenarios</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The objective of this work was to determine whether or not a continuous air monitor (CAM) monitoring the annulus of one of the SY Tanks would be expected to alarm after three <span class="hlt">postulated</span> leak scenarios. Using data and references provided by Lockheed Martin`s Tank Farm personnel, estimated CAM readings were calculated at specific times after the <span class="hlt">postulated</span> scenarios might have occurred. Potential CAM readings above background at different times were calculated for the following leak scenarios: Leak rate of 0.01 gal/min; Leak rate of 0.03 gal/min (best estimate of the maximum probable leak rate from a single-shell tank); and Leak of 73 gal (equivalent to a {1/4}-in. leak on the floor of the annulus). The equation used to make the calculations along with descriptions and/or explanations of the terms are included, as is a list of the assumptions and/or values used for the calculations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kenoyer, J.L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">220</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6484621"> <span id="translatedtitle">Supplementary documentation for an Environmental Impact Statement regarding the Pantex Plant: dispersion analysis for <span class="hlt">postulated</span> accidents</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This report documents work performed in support of preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) regarding the Department of Energy (DOE) Pantex Plant near Amarillo, Texas. The report covers the calculation of atmospheric dispersion and deposition of plutonium following <span class="hlt">postulated</span> nonnuclear detonations of nuclear weapons. Downwind total integrated air concentrations and ground deposition values for each <span class="hlt">postulated</span> accident are presented. The model used to perform these calculations is the DIFOUT model, developed at Sandia National Laboratories in conjunction with Operation Roller Coaster, a field experiment involving sampling and measurements of nuclear material dispersed by four detonations. The DIFOUT model is described along with the detonation cloud sizes, aerosol parameters, and meteorological data used as input data. A verification study of the DIFOUT model has also been performed; the results are presented.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dewart, J.M.; Bowen, B.M.; Elder, J.C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return 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showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">221</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/27652661"> <span id="translatedtitle">A new form of Tsallis distribution based on the probabilistically independent <span class="hlt">postulate</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The current form of Tsallis distribution for a Hamiltonian system with an\\u000aarbitrary potential is found to represent a simple isothermal situation. In\\u000athis letter, the q-exponential of a sum can be applied as the product of the\\u000aq-exponential based on the probabilistically independent <span class="hlt">postulate</span> employed in\\u000anonextensive statistical mechanics. Under this framework, a new form of Tsallis\\u000adistribution is</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Du Jiulin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">222</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006PhRvB..74k5403A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Small sodium clusters that <span class="hlt">melt</span> gradually: <span class="hlt">Melting</span> mechanisms in Na30</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The meltinglike transition of Na30 is studied by orbital-free density-functional molecular dynamics simulations. The potential energy surface of Na30 is sampled by simulated annealing and regular quenchings performed along the dynamical trajectories. Both the ground-state structure and low-energy structural excitations are found to exhibit substantial polyicosahedral ordering. The most relevant feature of the potential energy landscape for the <span class="hlt">melting</span> problem is the existence of many different structural isomers within an energy range of 1meV /atom, resembling that of a glassy system (yet the structures have a high symmetry). The liquid phase is accessed gradually, with some isomerizations observed at a temperature as low as 30K , while <span class="hlt">melting</span> can be considered complete above approximately 200K . The different dynamical mechanisms that allow the smooth opening of phase space available to the system as a function of temperature are identified and discussed. They can be classified in two different categories: (a) those that allow the exploration of isomers similar to the ground state, involving mainly surface isomerizations and surface <span class="hlt">melting</span>, and leaving the structure of the cluster <span class="hlt">core</span> unchanged; and (b) those associated with a more substantial structural change, more similar to the usual solid-solid phase transition in bulk phases; the structure of the cluster <span class="hlt">core</span> changes only in this second type of transition. Mechanism (a) results in surface <span class="hlt">melting</span> of the corresponding isomer upon heating; at that stage, mechanism (b) acts to transfer some excess energy from the surface to the <span class="hlt">core</span> region, so that the surface <span class="hlt">melting</span> is transiently avoided. Even in the fully developed liquid state, there are important differences from the bulk liquid due to the presence of the surface.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Aguado, Andrés; López, José M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">223</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://itsisu.diy.concord.org/activities/1465"> <span id="translatedtitle">Concord Consortium: <span class="hlt">Melting</span> Ice</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This activity combines a hands-on lab with a computer simulation, as students investigate and graph the changing temperature of a <span class="hlt">melting</span> ice cube. In the first step, learners use a sensor to monitor temperature as ice <span class="hlt">melts</span> in a cup of water. In the second step, the ice cube is <span class="hlt">melted</span> in a cup of salt water. Interactive graphs allow easy plotting of Temperature vs. Time. The activity concludes with a simulation of the atomic structure of a hot liquid and a cold liquid. Click "Withdraw the Barrier" and watch the changing kinetic energy of the cold liquid particles as they mix with the hot liquid. This item is part of the Concord Consortium, a nonprofit research and development organization dedicated to transforming education through technology.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">224</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.teachersdomain.org/resource/ipy07.sci.ess.watcyc.lpmeltingice/"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Melting</span> Sea Ice</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This activity uses a mix of multimedia resources and hands-on activities to support a storyline of investigation into <span class="hlt">melting</span> sea ice. The lesson begins with a group viewing of a video designed to get students to consider both the local and global effects of climate change. The class then divides into small groups for inquiry activities on related topics followed by a presentation of the findings to the entire class. A final class discussion reveals a more complex understanding of both the local and global impacts of <span class="hlt">melting</span> sea ice.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Domain, Wgbh E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">225</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMMR44A..04F"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Melting</span> of Peridotite to 140 GPa (Invited)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Melting</span> phase relations and major elements partitioning have been determined for a fertile peridotite (KLB-1) between 36 and 140 GPa. The experiments were conducted in diamond-anvil cells at the high-pressure beamline ID27 of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) so as to use clear in situ <span class="hlt">melting</span> criterion and to determine phase relationships from X-ray diffraction. Focused ion beam (FIB) sections of the recovered diamond-anvil cell samples were further investigated at the nano-scale by scanning and analytical transmission electron microscopy to check <span class="hlt">melting</span>/crystallization sequences as well as variations of phase composition with temperature and pressure. Our results show that Mg-perovskite is the liquidus phase above 50 GPa, whereas ferropericlase is the solidus phase. Our results also yield strong constraints on the solidus curve of the lower mantle, which is measured at 4180 ± 150 K at <span class="hlt">core</span> mantle boundary pressure. Since this value matches estimated mantle geotherms, molten regions may exist at the base of the present-day mantle. <span class="hlt">Melting</span> phase relations and element partitioning data show that the produced liquids could be dense and host many incompatible elements at the base of the mantle. The data also allow us to constrain the way the putative magma ocean would have crystallized.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fiquet, G.; Auzende, A.; Siebert, J.; Corgne, A.; Bureau, H.; Ozawa, H.; Garbarino, G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">226</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=einstein&pg=2&id=EJ925096"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Light-Velocity <span class="hlt">Postulate</span>: The Essential Difference between the Theories of Lorentz-Poincare and Einstein</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|Einstein, who had already developed the light-quantum theory, knew the inadequacy of Maxwell's theory in the microscopic sphere. Therefore, in writing his paper on special relativity, he had to set up the light-velocity <span class="hlt">postulate</span> independently of the relativity <span class="hlt">postulate</span> in order to make the electromagnetic foundation of physics compatible with…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Abiko, Seiya</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">227</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=electromagnetic+AND+radiation&pg=3&id=EJ925096"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Light-Velocity <span class="hlt">Postulate</span>: The Essential Difference between the Theories of Lorentz-Poincare and Einstein</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Einstein, who had already developed the light-quantum theory, knew the inadequacy of Maxwell's theory in the microscopic sphere. Therefore, in writing his paper on special relativity, he had to set up the light-velocity <span class="hlt">postulate</span> independently of the relativity <span class="hlt">postulate</span> in order to make the electromagnetic foundation of physics compatible with…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Abiko, Seiya</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">228</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60159484"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ferrocyanide Safety Program: Analysis of <span class="hlt">postulated</span> energetic reactions and resultant aerosol generation in Hanford Site Waste Tanks</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This report reviews work done to estimate the possible consequences of <span class="hlt">postulated</span> energetic reactions in ferrocyanide waste stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site. The issue of explosive reactions was raised in the 1987 Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), where a detonation-like explosion was <span class="hlt">postulated</span> for the purpose of defining an upper bound on dose consequences for various disposal options.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. K. Postma; D. R. Dickinson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">229</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=genetic+AND+codes&pg=5&id=ED206181"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Concept of <span class="hlt">Core</span> Language and the Notional-Rhetorical Approach to Second Language Teaching.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|This paper focuses on the mechanism by which the successful learner acquires a second language. The author <span class="hlt">postulates</span> a <span class="hlt">core</span> language, the common <span class="hlt">core</span> of the speaker's native and target languages, and states that the second language becomes an extension of this common <span class="hlt">core</span>. Whatever language-specific features are added while acquiring the second…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chellappan, K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">230</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1510807C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Carbonatitic glasses and <span class="hlt">melts</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We perform first-principles molecular dynamics (MD) calculations to study C-bearing <span class="hlt">melts</span> along the T=3000K isotherm up to high pressure. Then we use the <span class="hlt">melts</span> to study the quenched glasses. We consider pure forsteritic compositions, atomic C-, CO2- and MgCO3- bearing compositions. We discuss in detail the behavior of the glass structure under compression and the changes in coordination polyhedra, and we compare the glasses to the equivalent high-temperature <span class="hlt">melts</span>. We use several thermodynamic paths to obtain the glasses: (i) instantaneous quench at P=0GPa, then coldly compress, (ii) instantaneous quench at various high pressures and (iii) quench in 1K/MD step at various high pressures. Differences in glass structure and in equations of state develop between the different paths. They become larger at high pressure and are smoothed out by annealing. All glasses exhibit increase in Si-O and C-O coordination numbers, but at a smaller rate than the <span class="hlt">melts</span>. Important structural rearrangements develop in all glasses around V/V0 compression of about 0.7.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cohen, Ronald E.; Caracas, Razvan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">231</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/55600793"> <span id="translatedtitle">How do crystals <span class="hlt">melt</span>?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Direct atomistic simulation of the <span class="hlt">melting</span> of crystalline substances is discussed. Atomistic modeling is in the form of molecular-dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations and is a method of studying the cooperative and individual behavior of a system of atoms under well-prescribed conditions. Through the use of interatomic interaction potentials and border conditions, simulations can be made to represent the physical</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Simon R. Phillpot; Sidney Yip; Dieter Wolf</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">232</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.nbclearn.com/climate/cuecard/52577"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Melting</span> Mountain Glaciers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The world's glaciers are shrinking at alarming rates, and many scientists believe it is due to changes in climate. Dr. Lonnie Thompson of Ohio State University and Dr. Douglas Hardy of UMass-Amherst discuss glaciers and how they <span class="hlt">melt</span>, and pay special attention to Africa's tallest mountain, Mt. Kilimanjaro. "Changing Planet" is produced in partnership with the National Science Foundation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Learn, Nbc</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-10-07</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">233</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.bookrags.com/research/freezing-and-melting-woes-01/"> <span id="translatedtitle">Freezing and <span class="hlt">Melting</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This article tells how the freezing point of a substance is also its <span class="hlt">melting</span> point. The energy of the substance's molecules changes with temperature, thus with changes in state. Also described is how freezing points can be lowered, or depressed, by adding a substance.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">234</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/vis/a010000/a010500/a010503/Melting_Seas_appletv_1280x720.m4v"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Melting</span> Ice Rising Seas</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This NASA video presents animations, photos and footage of <span class="hlt">melting</span> polar ice as a result of climate change, the resulting sea-level rise, and selected consequences of that rise. Excellent animations, interviews with scientists, and clear step-by-step explanations provide a solid introduction to one facet of sea level rise and its consequences.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Noaa</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">235</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6770643"> <span id="translatedtitle">Thermal-hydraulic studies on molten <span class="hlt">core</span>-concrete interactions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This report discusses studies carried out in connection with light water power reactor accidents. Recent assessments have indicated that the consequences of molten-<span class="hlt">core</span> concrete interactions dominate the considerations of severe accidents. The two areas of interest that have been investigated are interlayer heat and mass transfer and liquid-liquid boiling. Interlayer heat and mass transfer refers to processes that occur within a <span class="hlt">core</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span> between the stratified, immiscible phases of <span class="hlt">core</span> oxides and metals. Liquid-liquid boiling refers to processes that occur at the <span class="hlt">melt</span>-concrete on <span class="hlt">melt</span>-coolant interface. (JDH)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Greene, G.A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">236</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57626679"> <span id="translatedtitle">Particle Effects on Penetration and Solidification of Flowing Mixed <span class="hlt">Melts</span> on Metal Structures</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In severe-accident analyses of liquid-metal-cooled reactors, assessing the relocation and solidification of disrupted <span class="hlt">core</span> materials is of importance. We investigate here the fundamental characteristics of these behaviors in flowing <span class="hlt">melt</span> mixed with solid particles under various conditions. To simulate the <span class="hlt">melts</span>, we use a low-<span class="hlt">melting</span>-point metal (viz., Bi-Sn-In alloy) mixed with various concentrations of copper and bronze as solid particles;</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yu HASEGAWA; Shinya NAKAYAMA; Koji MORITA; Tatsuya MATSUMOTO; Werner Maschek</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">237</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/348238"> <span id="translatedtitle">Partial-<span class="hlt">melt</span> electrical conductivity: Influence of <span class="hlt">melt</span> composition</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The electrical conductivity of a partial <span class="hlt">melt</span> is influenced by many factors, including <span class="hlt">melt</span> conductivity, crystalline conductivity, and <span class="hlt">melt</span> fraction, each of which is influenced by temperature. We have performed measurements of bulk conductivity as a function of temperature of an Fo{sub 80}-basalt partial <span class="hlt">melt</span> between 684{degree} and 1244{degree}C at controlled oxygen fugacity. <span class="hlt">Melt</span> fraction and composition variations with temperature calculated using <span class="hlt">MELTS</span> [Ghiorso and Sack, 1995] indicate that the effect on <span class="hlt">melt</span> conductivity of changing <span class="hlt">melt</span> composition is balanced by changes in temperature (T). Thus bulk conductivity as a function of T or <span class="hlt">melt</span> fraction in this system can be calculated assuming a constant <span class="hlt">melt</span> conductivity. The bulk conductivity is well modeled by simple parallel calculations, by the Hashin-Shtrikman upper bound, or by Archie{close_quote}s law ({sigma}{sub partial <span class="hlt">melt</span>}/{sigma}{sub <span class="hlt">melt</span>}=C{sub 1}X{sub m}{sup n}). We estimate apparent values of the Archie{close_quote}s law parameters between 1150{degree} and 1244 {degree}C as C{sub 1}=0.73{plus_minus}0.02 and n=0.98{plus_minus}0.01. Estimates of the permeability of the system are obtained by using an electrical conductivity-critical scale length relationship and range from {approximately}10{sup {minus}14} to 10{sup {minus}18} m{sup 2}, comparing favorably with previously published values. {copyright} 1999 American Geophysical Union</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Roberts, J.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California (United States); Tyburczy, J.A. [Department of Geology, Arizona State University, Tempe (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">238</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23215297"> <span id="translatedtitle">High pressure <span class="hlt">melting</span> of lithium.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">melting</span> curve of lithium between ambient pressure and 64 GPa is measured by detection of an abrupt change in its electrical resistivity at <span class="hlt">melting</span> and by visual observation. Here we have used a quasi-four-point resistance measurement in a diamond anvil cell and measured the resistance of lithium as it goes through <span class="hlt">melting</span>. The resistivity near <span class="hlt">melting</span> exhibits a well documented sharp increase which allowed us to pinpoint the <span class="hlt">melting</span> transition from ambient pressure to 64 GPa. Our data show that lithium <span class="hlt">melts</span> clearly above 300 K in all pressure regions and its <span class="hlt">melting</span> behavior adheres to the classical model. Moreover, we observed an abrupt increase in the slope of the <span class="hlt">melting</span> curve around 10 GPa. The onset of this increase fits well to the linear extrapolation of the lower temperature bcc-fcc phase boundary. PMID:23215297</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schaeffer, Anne Marie J; Talmadge, William B; Temple, Scott R; Deemyad, Shanti</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-11-02</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">239</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6434146"> <span id="translatedtitle">SAS4A: A computer model for the analysis of hypothetical <span class="hlt">core</span> disruptive accidents in liquid metal reactors</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">To ensure that the public health and safety are protected under any accident conditions in a Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR), many accidents are analyzed for their potential consequences. The SAS4A code system, described in this paper, provides such an analysis capability, including the ability to analyze low probability events such as the Hypothetical <span class="hlt">Core</span> Disruptive Accidents (HCDAs). The SAS4A code system has been designed to simulate all the events that occur in a LMFBR <span class="hlt">core</span> during the initiating phase of a Hypothetical <span class="hlt">Core</span> Disruptive Accident. During such <span class="hlt">postulated</span> accident scenarios as the Loss-of-Flow and Transient Overpower events, a large number of interrelated physical phenomena occur during a relatively short time. These phenomena include transient heat transfer and hydrodynamic events, coolant boiling and fuel and cladding <span class="hlt">melting</span> and relocation. During to the strong neutronic feedback present in a nuclear reactor, these events can significantly influence the reactor power. The SAS4A code system is used in the safety analysis of nuclear reactors, in order to estimate the energetic potential of very low probability accidents. The results of SAS4A simulations are also used by reactor designers in order to build safer reactors and eliminate the possibility of any accident which could endanger the public safety.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tentner, A.M.; Birgersson, G.; Cahalan, J.E.; Dunn, F.E.; Kalimullah; Miles, K.J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">240</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=DE00758108"> <span id="translatedtitle">SCDAP/RELAP5 Modeling of Movement of <span class="hlt">Melted</span> Material through Porous Debris in Lower Head.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A model is described for the movement of <span class="hlt">melted</span> metallic material through a ceramic porous debris bed. The model is designed for the analysis of severe accidents in LWRs, wherein <span class="hlt">melted</span> <span class="hlt">core</span> plate material may slump onto the top of a porous bed of relocat...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">L. J. Siefken E. A. Harvego</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">241</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/219260"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modeling and analyses of <span class="hlt">postulated</span> UF{sub 6} release accidents in gaseous diffusion plant</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Computer models have been developed to simulate the transient behavior of aerosols and vapors as a result of a <span class="hlt">postulated</span> accident involving the release of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) into the process building of a gaseous diffusion plant. UF{sub 6} undergoes an exothermic chemical reaction with moisture (H{sub 2}O) in the air to form hydrogen fluoride (HF) and radioactive uranyl fluoride (UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}). As part of a facility-wide safety evaluation, this study evaluated source terms consisting of UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} as well as HF during a <span class="hlt">postulated</span> UF{sub 6} release accident in a process building. In the <span class="hlt">postulated</span> accident scenario, {approximately}7900 kg (17,500 lb) of hot UF{sub 6} vapor is released over a 5 min period from the process piping into the atmosphere of a large process building. UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} mainly remains as airborne-solid particles (aerosols), and HF is in a vapor form. Some UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} aerosols are removed from the air flow due to gravitational settling. The HF and the remaining UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} are mixed with air and exhausted through the building ventilation system. The MELCOR computer code was selected for simulating aerosols and vapor transport in the process building. MELCOR model was first used to develop a single volume representation of a process building and its results were compared with those from past lumped parameter models specifically developed for studying UF{sub 6} release accidents. Preliminary results indicate that MELCOR predicted results (using a lumped formulation) are comparable with those from previously developed models.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kim, S.H.; Taleyarkhan, R.P.; Keith, K.D.; Schmidt, R.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Carter, J.C. [J.C. Carter Associates, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dyer, R.H. [Dyer Enterprises, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">242</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/353300"> <span id="translatedtitle">Thermal response of a can handling unit (CHU) to a <span class="hlt">postulated</span> plutonium hydride burn</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A series of analyses were performed to support the design of the Can Handling Unit (CHU). The subject analyses focused on determining the time to repressurize a subatmospheric storage can containing plutonium metal versus the initial hole size and the transient thermal response to a <span class="hlt">postulated</span> chemical reaction of 150 grams of plutonium hydride. Limiting the amount of gaseous reactants either by inerting the CHU or using a very small hole size for the initial opening appears to be a viable method of controlling the rate of the exothermic chemical reactions and system temperatures.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Crea, B.A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-05-21</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">243</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21301480"> <span id="translatedtitle">QUANTUM CHEMICAL PREDICTIONS OF THE PROPERTIES OF KNOWN AND <span class="hlt">POSTULATED</span> NEUTRAL INTERSTELLAR MOLECULES</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In order to make new predictions for chemical rate coefficients for ion-molecule reactions, quantum chemical calculations were performed for about 200 neutral molecules with up to 12 atoms that are known or <span class="hlt">postulated</span> to be present in interstellar or circumstellar sources. After optimizing equilibrium structures, dipole moment and dipole polarizability components were computed using the finite field approach. Properties were computed at the RCCSD(T) level with basis sets as large as aug-cc-pVTZ, depending upon the size of the molecule. Comparisons are made to existing experimental data, which are quite limited in the case of dipole polarizabilities.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Woon, David E. [Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Herbst, Eric [Departments of Physics, Astronomy and Chemistry, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)], E-mail: davidewoon@gmail.com, E-mail: herbst@mps.ohio-state.edu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">244</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=DE94010031"> <span id="translatedtitle">Consolidation of zircaloy-4 end crops by induction <span class="hlt">melting</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant is investigating the use of induction <span class="hlt">melting</span> as a method of consolidating Zircaloy-4, a zirconium alloy used in the fabrication of submarine nuclear reactor <span class="hlt">cores</span>. Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) furnished about 4000 lb of ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">E. L. Bird</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">245</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21072784"> <span id="translatedtitle">Simeco Tests in a <span class="hlt">Melt</span> Stratified Pool</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the last phase of the <span class="hlt">core</span> degradation, an oxidic <span class="hlt">melt</span> pool of mainly UO{sub 2}; ZrO{sub 2}, and unoxidized Zircaloy and stain-less steel will form in the lower head of the RPV (Theofanous et al., 1996). A molten metal layer (composed mainly of Fe and Zr) will rest on the top of the crust of the oxidic pool. A thin oxidic crust layer of frozen <span class="hlt">core</span> material is formed on the vessel's inside wall. In this bounding configuration, thermal loads to the RPV walls are determined by natural convection heat transfer driven by internal heat sources. Decay heat from fission products is assumed to be generated uniformly within the oxidic pool and generally no heat generation is considered in the upper metallic layer. For example, in a hypothetical severe accident scenario for an AP600-like reactor, the following values can be expected: volumetric heat generation Q{sub v} {approx} 1 MW/m{sup 3}, volume of the oxidic pool V {approx} 10 m{sup 3}, radius R = 2 m, temperatures in the oxidic pool T {approx} 2700 deg. C, temperatures in the metal layer T {approx} 2000 deg. C, maximum depth ratio of the metal layer to the oxidic pool L{sub 12} {approx} 0:3, properties of the oxidic pool, depending on <span class="hlt">melt</span> composition, as characterized by the Prandtl number, Pr {approx} 0:6, properties of the metallic layer Pr < 0:1, the intensity of convective motion, as characterized by the Rayleigh number, Ra {approx} 10{sup 15} - 10{sup 16} (Theofanous et al., 1996). The time scale of <span class="hlt">core</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span> pool formation is estimated as 1/2 to 1 hour (Sehgal, 1999). Indeed, these estimates could vary, depending very much on the accident scenario and the type of reactor. (authors)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gubaidullin, A.A.; Sehgal, B.R. [Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Drottning Kristinas vaeg 33 A, 100 44, Stockholm (Sweden)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">246</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6165797"> <span id="translatedtitle">Quantum mechanics of cluster <span class="hlt">melting</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present here prototype studies of the effects of quantum mechanics on the <span class="hlt">melting</span> of clusters. Using equilibrium path integral methods, we examine the <span class="hlt">melting</span> transition for small rare gas clusters. Argon and neon clusters are considered. We find the quantum-mechanical effects on the <span class="hlt">melting</span> and coexistence properties of small neon clusters to be appreciable.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Beck, T.L.; Doll, J.D.; Freeman, D.L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-05-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">247</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=melting&id=EJ838181"> <span id="translatedtitle">Thermodynamics of Oligonucleotide Duplex <span class="hlt">Melting</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|<span class="hlt">Melting</span> temperatures of oligonucleotides are useful for a number of molecular biology applications, such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Although <span class="hlt">melting</span> temperatures are often calculated with simplistic empirical equations, application of thermodynamics provides more accurate <span class="hlt">melting</span> temperatures and an opportunity for students to apply…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schreiber-Gosche, Sherrie; Edwards, Robert A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">248</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.agu.org/journals/jb/v073/i006/JB073i006p02209/JB073i006p02209.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Attenuation in Partially <span class="hlt">Melted</span> Material</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Expressions for the complex moduli are derived for two models that simulate the structure of partially <span class="hlt">melted</span> material. In one model, isolated lens-shaped inclusions of <span class="hlt">melt</span> form the liquid phase, whereas in the other model the liquid phase is a continuous film of <span class="hlt">melt</span> surrounding approximately spherical solid grains. The response of the two models to propagating waves is found</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. B. Walsh</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1968-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">249</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26599492"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Melt</span> quenching and coolability by water injection from below: Co-injection of water and non-condensable gas</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The interaction and mixing of high-temperature <span class="hlt">melt</span> and water is the important technical issue in the safety assessment of water-cooled reactors to achieve ultimate <span class="hlt">core</span> coolability. For specific advanced light water reactor (ALWR) designs, deliberate mixing of the <span class="hlt">core</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span> and water is being considered as a mitigative measure, to assure ex-vessel <span class="hlt">core</span> coolability. The goal of our work is</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dae H. Cho; Richard J. Page; Sherif H. Abdulla; Mark H. Anderson; Helge B. Klockow; Michael L. Corradini</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">250</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5051952"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of radiation doses from operation of <span class="hlt">postulated</span> commercial spent fuel transportation systems: Main report</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This report contains a system study of estimated radiation doses to the public and workers resulting from the transport of spent fuel from commercial nuclear power reactors to a geologic repository. The report contains a detailed breakdown of activities and a description of time/distance/dose-rate estimates for each activity within the system. Collective doses are estimated for each of the major activities at the reactor site, in transit, and at the repository receiving facility. Annual individual doses to the maximally exposed individuals or groups of individuals are also estimated. A total of 17 alternatives and subalternatives to the <span class="hlt">postulated</span> reference transportation system are identified, conceptualized, and their dose-reduction potentials and costs estimated. Resulting ratios of ..delta..cost/..delta..collective system dose for each alternative relative to the <span class="hlt">postulated</span> reference transportation system are given. Most of the alternatives evaluated are estimated to provide both cost and dose reductions. Major reductions in transportation system dose and cost are estimated to result from using higher-capacity rail and truck casks, and particularly when replacing legalweight truck casks with ''advanced design'' overweight truck casks. The greatest annual dose reduction to the highest exposed individual workers (i.e., at the repository) is estimated to be achieved by using remote handling equipment for the cask handling operations at the repository. Additional shielding is also effective in reducing doses to both radiation workers at the reactor and repository and to transport workers. 69 refs., 36 figs., 156 tabs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schneider, K.J.; Hostick, C.J.; Ross, W.A.; Peterson, R.W.; Smith, R.I.; Stiles, D.L.; Daling, P.M.; Weakley, S.A.; Grinde, R.B.; Young, J.R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">251</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22549025"> <span id="translatedtitle">In vitro cultured Neoparamoeba perurans causes amoebic gill disease in Atlantic salmon and fulfils Koch's <span class="hlt">postulates</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Amoebic gill disease (AGD) in marine farmed Atlantic salmon is of growing concern worldwide and remains a significant health issue for salmon growers in Australia. Until now the aetiological agent, Neoparamoeba perurans, has not been amenable to in vitro culture and therefore Koch's <span class="hlt">postulates</span> could not be fulfilled. The inability to culture the amoeba has been a limiting factor in the progression of research into AGD and required the maintenance of an on-going laboratory-based infection to supply infective material. Culture methods using malt yeast agar with sea water overlaid and subculturing every 3-4 days have resulted in the establishment of a clonal culture of N. perurans, designated clone 4. Identity of the amoeba was confirmed by PCR. After 70 days in culture clone 4 infected Atlantic salmon, causing AGD, and was re-isolated from the infected fish. Diagnosis was confirmed by histology and the infectious agent identified by PCR and in situ hybridisation using oligonucleotide primers and probes previously developed and specific to N. perurans. This study has fulfilled Koch's <span class="hlt">postulates</span> for N. perurans as a causative agent of AGD and illustrates its free-living and parasitic nature. PMID:22549025</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Crosbie, P B B; Bridle, A R; Cadoret, K; Nowak, B F</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-24</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">252</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://seagrant.uaf.edu/news/04ASJ/05.14.04permafrost.html"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Melting</span> Beneath Our Feet</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This radio broadcast discusses how permafrost (permanently frozen ground) in Alaska and the Arctic has been <span class="hlt">melting</span>, and what the potential consequences might be. These include damage to many engineering structures and coastlines and the release of gases into the atmosphere which may compound the problem of climate warming. About two-thirds of Alaska is covered by permafrost and a recent report says a higher priority should be given to studying it. The clip is about 4 minutes in length.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">253</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://audio.scienceupdate.com/060815_sciup_melt.mp3"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Melting</span> Ice Caps</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">From the remote village of Gambell, Alaska, listener Bob Woolf can see the polar ice <span class="hlt">melting</span>, and emailed us to ask if global warming would ever become irreversible. According to senior scientist Warren Washington of the National Center for Atmospheric Research, it probably already is, at least for the short term. That's because the greenhouse gases that are in the atmosphere now can last for decades or even centuries.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Science Update (AAAS;)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-08-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">254</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUSM.M42A..04S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Oceans of Water in the Earth's <span class="hlt">core</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">While the debate on the chemical composition of the outer <span class="hlt">core</span> continues unabated, it is essential that we consider water as an important <span class="hlt">core</span> substance for the reasons that it is abundant and suitably light to decrease the density and <span class="hlt">melting</span> temperature of iron. Furthermore, if water is indeed stored in the <span class="hlt">core</span>, it should provide a suitable source for water in the mantle and affect the dynamics of <span class="hlt">melting</span> everywhere. We have conducted several experiments to understand the iron-water chemistry at high pressure and temperatures. Several studies aimed at demonstrating the formation of hydrides at high pressures have clearly established that iron hydride forms stably at pressures from a few to 7.5 GPa both in the Fe-H2 and the Fe-H2O systems, which has led to the important proposal of including water (and thereby hydrogen and oxygen) in the <span class="hlt">core</span>. The information on temperature effect on these systems is available to 1800 K at low pressures. With this work, we have extended the P and T range of the previous studies on iron-water reaction to nearly 85 GPa and 2000 K respectively. We used various types of diamond-anvil cells which include Mao-Bell cell for single side laser heating or for wire heating and Merrill-Basett design for double-side laser heating. In addition to experiments with laser heating, we have also conducted experiments in Mao-Bell cells with external heating. In all experiments reported here, in situ x-ray data were collected on heated samples at GSECARS and at ESRF. In presence of excess iron, which was the case for all experiments with direct wetting of iron with water in the externally heated cells, we invariably found the three phases, Fe, iron hydride and wuestite. In presence of brucite or water and MgO, we can demonstrate that <span class="hlt">melting</span> of the hydride and the FeO component of wuestite occurred at a rather low temperature of 1525 K or less. The following inferences can be drawn based on the experimental results: a) iron-hydride stability extends to high pressures (~85 GPa) and temperatures (~1800 K) and therefore it could form in a primitive iron <span class="hlt">core</span> and become a part of the <span class="hlt">melt</span> if temperature exceeds the <span class="hlt">melting</span> temperature (~2000 K) at the outer-<span class="hlt">core</span> press, and b) in the system iron-water, the hydride phase cannot exist without wuestite and therefore both hydrogen and oxygen components will be part of the <span class="hlt">melt</span> in the outer <span class="hlt">core</span>. An additional important result is that we could not determine the influence of water on direct <span class="hlt">melting</span> of iron because of the hydride and oxide reactions that preceded <span class="hlt">melting</span>. Wuestite (FexO) or ferropericlase (a solid solution between periclase and wuestite) <span class="hlt">melted</span> below 1525 K in presence of water. Wuestite is estimated to be present in abundance in the mantle and could be an important constituent of the primitive earth forming by direct reaction between iron and water. Although in this experiment, we can only ascertain that Fe was first oxidized and then <span class="hlt">melted</span>, it does give us an estimate of the possible effect of water on the <span class="hlt">melting</span> of Fe. According to Boehler, dry FeO <span class="hlt">melts</span> at a temperature of ~2500 K at a pressure of 35 GPa. Thus water reduced the <span class="hlt">melting</span> temperature of the pure phase by close to 1000 K. If the <span class="hlt">melting</span> temperature of iron is similarly reduced in a fluid saturated system, the effect could be large; in a less saturated system it may lower the <span class="hlt">melting</span> by a few hundred degrees. If even a percent of water in the <span class="hlt">core</span> will amount to ten times more water than that present in the oceans.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Saxena, S. K.; Dubrovinsky, L.; Rekhi, S.; Wang, Z.; Shen, G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">255</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/45915966"> <span id="translatedtitle">Earth science: An inner <span class="hlt">core</span> slip-sliding away</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">An ingenious proposal holds that Earth's inner <span class="hlt">core</span> is solidifying in the western hemisphere and <span class="hlt">melting</span> in the east. The process is consequent on, and reinforces, its easterly slippage - or translation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Michael I. Bergman</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">256</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=HEDLSA981"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Postulated</span> Accident Conditions for Air Cleaning Systems and Radiological Dose Assessments for Containment Options.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ambient conditions and performance requirements for emergency air cleaning systems applicable to commercial LMFBR plants were studied. The focus of this study centered on aerosol removal under hypothetical <span class="hlt">core</span> disruptive accident conditions. Effort compl...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. K. Hilliard A. K. Postma</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1975-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">257</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60340006"> <span id="translatedtitle">Investigation of activity release during light water reactor <span class="hlt">core</span> meltdown</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A test facility was developed for the determination of activity release and of aerosol characteristics under realistic light water reactor <span class="hlt">core</span> <span class="hlt">melting</span> conditions. It is composed of a high-frequency induction furnace, a ThOâ crucible system, and a collection apparatus consisting of membrane and particulate filters. Thirty-gram samples of a representative <span class="hlt">core</span> material mixture (corium) were <span class="hlt">melted</span> under air, argon, or</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">H. Albrecht; V. Matschoss; H. Wild</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1978-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">258</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/7243977"> <span id="translatedtitle">A multi-disciplinary assessment of operator action time for mitigating a <span class="hlt">postulated</span> accident</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This report discusses mitigation of the <span class="hlt">postulated</span> Loss of Heat Sink Accident for the Savannah River Site K Reactor which requires operator action to place the plant in a water conservation configuration. In August 1991, concerns were raised about the allowances in the safety analyses for operator action times in an unpowered scenario, where several valves would be manually closed. WSRC management conservatively decided to include explicit consideration of a seismic initiator for this scenario, which introduced the additional concern that operator actions could be hindered by tritium from flange leakage. The revised analyses concluded that the powered case documented in the Safety Analysis Report is limiting and that all acceptance criteria are met.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Morgan, C.D.; Fields, C.C.; Hightower, N.T. III (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)); Buczek, J.A. (ABB Government Services, Inc. (United States)); Jenkins, T.B.; Swanson, P.J. (Concord Associates, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">259</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10177696"> <span id="translatedtitle">A multi-disciplinary assessment of operator action time for mitigating a <span class="hlt">postulated</span> accident</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This report discusses mitigation of the <span class="hlt">postulated</span> Loss of Heat Sink Accident for the Savannah River Site K Reactor which requires operator action to place the plant in a water conservation configuration. In August 1991, concerns were raised about the allowances in the safety analyses for operator action times in an unpowered scenario, where several valves would be manually closed. WSRC management conservatively decided to include explicit consideration of a seismic initiator for this scenario, which introduced the additional concern that operator actions could be hindered by tritium from flange leakage. The revised analyses concluded that the powered case documented in the Safety Analysis Report is limiting and that all acceptance criteria are met.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Morgan, C.D.; Fields, C.C.; Hightower, N.T. III [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Buczek, J.A. [ABB Government Services, Inc. (United States); Jenkins, T.B.; Swanson, P.J. [Concord Associates, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">260</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24062431"> <span id="translatedtitle">Existence of an information unit as a <span class="hlt">postulate</span> of quantum theory.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Does information play a significant role in the foundations of physics? Information is the abstraction that allows us to refer to the states of systems when we choose to ignore the systems themselves. This is only possible in very particular frameworks, like in classical or quantum theory, or more generally, whenever there exists an information unit such that the state of any system can be reversibly encoded in a sufficient number of such units. In this work, we show how the abstract formalism of quantum theory can be deduced solely from the existence of an information unit with suitable properties, together with two further natural assumptions: the continuity and reversibility of dynamics, and the possibility of characterizing the state of a composite system by local measurements. This constitutes a set of <span class="hlt">postulates</span> for quantum theory with a simple and direct physical meaning, like the ones of special relativity or thermodynamics, and it articulates a strong connection between physics and information. PMID:24062431</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Masanes, Lluís; Müller, Markus P; Augusiak, Remigiusz; Pérez-García, David</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-23</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return 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class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return 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title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">261</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pulseplanet.com/dailyprogram/dailies.php?POP=3390"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Melting</span> Polar Icecap: Intro</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This two-minute sound segment introduces the problem of the <span class="hlt">melting</span> of the polar ice cap. A picture is beginning to emerge of a polar icecap that is both thinning and shrinking as a result of either a normal climate fluctuation or global warming. This site is from an archive of a daily radio program called Pulse of the Planet, which provides its listeners with a portrait of Planet Earth, tracking the rhythms of nature, culture and science worldwide and blending interviews and extraordinary natural sound. The site also provides a written transcript of the broadcast.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-02-25</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">262</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993spma.rept..205E"> <span id="translatedtitle">Advances in plasma <span class="hlt">melting</span> technology</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The quest for 'defect-free' high performance metals has benefited from the expansion of plasma hearth <span class="hlt">melting</span> capacity. 'Skull' <span class="hlt">melting</span> in water-cooled copper containers under an inert gas atmosphere allows elimination of ceramic and refractory metal inclusions when <span class="hlt">melting</span> reactive metals and superalloys, while retaining the input alloy content. The interactions of operating variables such as furnace pressure, nature of gas, arc current and heat input pattern with product properties such as homogeneity, grain size, and inclusions are described. By proper process control, plasma hearth <span class="hlt">melting</span> has been qualified as one of only two processes suitable for particularly demanding rotating grade engine parts made of titanium alloy. Costs of plasma hearth <span class="hlt">melting</span> are less than with electron beam. Extension of plasma processing to other alloys is being actively pursued. Powder production is currently practical with plasma <span class="hlt">melting</span> and bottom pouring to make powder. Some speculations on future trends in materials and operating temperatures are offered.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Eschenbach, R.; Hoffelner, W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">263</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/945774"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Melting</span> of Ice under Pressure</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">melting</span> of ice under pressure is investigated with a series of first principles molecular dynamics simulations. In particular, a two-phase approach is used to determine the <span class="hlt">melting</span> temperature of the ice-VII phase in the range of 10 to 50 GPa. Our computed <span class="hlt">melting</span> temperatures are consistent with existing diamond anvil cell experiments. We find that for pressures between 10 to 40 GPa, ice <span class="hlt">melts</span> as a molecular solid. For pressures above {approx}45 GPa there is a sharp increase in the slope of the <span class="hlt">melting</span> curve due to the presence of molecular dissociation and proton diffusion in the solid, prior to <span class="hlt">melting</span>. The onset of significant proton diffusion in ice-VII as a function of increasing temperature is found to be gradual and bears many similarities to that of a type-II superionic solid.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schwegler, E; Sharma, M; Gygi, F; Galli, G</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-07-31</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">264</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18809909"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Melting</span> of ice under pressure.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">melting</span> of ice under pressure is investigated with a series of first-principles molecular dynamics simulations. In particular, a two-phase approach is used to determine the <span class="hlt">melting</span> temperature of the ice-VII phase in the range of 10-50 GPa. Our computed <span class="hlt">melting</span> temperatures are consistent with existing diamond anvil cell experiments. We find that for pressures between 10 and 40 GPa, ice <span class="hlt">melts</span> as a molecular solid. For pressures above approximately 45 Gpa, there is a sharp increase in the slope of the <span class="hlt">melting</span> curve because of the presence of molecular dissociation and proton diffusion in the solid before <span class="hlt">melting</span>. The onset of significant proton diffusion in ice-VII as a function of increasing temperature is found to be gradual and bears many similarities to that of a type-II superionic solid. PMID:18809909</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schwegler, Eric; Sharma, Manu; Gygi, François; Galli, Giulia</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-09-22</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">265</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009APS..DFD.MS004W"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Melt</span> Conduit Instability</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Very long conduits of <span class="hlt">melt</span>, (lava tubes, magma conduits, glacial drainage tubes) exist in many locations. An idealized model and its stability is analyzed to answer ``how far can the fluid flow and remain liquid''? Laboratory experiments show that when a liquid flows in a pipe with the boundary temperature below freezing, a tubular drainage conduit is surrounded by solidified material. When the flow rate into the pipe is set below a fixed value, the tube freezes shut. As flow rate is gradually changed downward toward the freezing value, pressure change across the pipe rises to a maximum, a result that is not in accord with previous theory. A theoretical model allows for a change in radius in the flow direction (similar to some previous injection molding studies), with a mixed pressure-flux upstream boundary condition. Linear stability analyses of this and a simplified model indicate that: (i) for fixed flux, the tube can be infinitely long with minimum pressure as flux is varied; (ii) for fixed pressure drop across the tube, this minimum determines a maximum length; (iii) for the mixed pressure-flux condition, a stable tube exceeds this length. This is a possible explanation for the previously unexplained experimental pressure maximum near freezing. Therefore, distance traveled by <span class="hlt">melt</span> within the earth might be very sensitive to the conditions that govern upstream pressure and flow rate.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Whitehead, John; Holmes-Cerfon, Miranda</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">266</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/809743"> <span id="translatedtitle">DWPF <span class="hlt">Melt</span> Cell Crawler</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">On December 2, 2002, Remote and Specialty Equipment Systems (RSES) of the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) was requested to build a remotely operated crawler to assist in cleaning the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) <span class="hlt">melt</span> cell floor of glass, tools, and other debris. The crawler was to assist a grapple and vacuum system in cleaning the cell. The crawler was designed to push glass and debris into piles so that the grapple could pick up the material and place it in waste bins. The crawler was also designed to maneuver the end of the vacuum hose, if needed. In addition, the crawler was designed to clean the area beneath the cell worktable that was inaccessible to the grapple and vacuum system. Originally, the system was to be ready for deployment by December 17. The date was moved up to December 12 to better utilize the available time for clean up. The crawler was designed and built in 10 days and completed cleaning the <span class="hlt">melt</span> cell in 8 days. Due to initial problems with the grapple and vacuum system, the crawler completed essentially all of the cleanup tasks by itself. The crawler also cleaned an area on the west side of the cell that was not initially slated for cleaning.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ward, C.R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-04-08</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">267</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=11679"> <span id="translatedtitle">DUBLIN <span class="hlt">CORE</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Dublin <span class="hlt">Core</span> is a metadata element set intended to facilitate discovery of electronic resources. It was originally conceived for author-generated descriptions of Web resources, and the Dublin <span class="hlt">Core</span> has attracted broad ranging international and interdisciplinary support. The cha...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">268</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/23306896"> <span id="translatedtitle">Structure of <span class="hlt">melt</span>-blown mesophase pitch-based carbon fiber</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Mesophase pitch-based short carbon fibers prepared by the <span class="hlt">melt</span> blown method exhibited diameters 6 to 16 ?m distributed along the filament. The transverse surfaces of the thicker and thinner parts of the filament were very different. The thicker part showed a skin\\/<span class="hlt">core</span> texture where very thick and long domains run parallel to the <span class="hlt">core</span> while the thinner one had a</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fumitaka Watanabe; Yozo Korai; Isao Mochida; Yoshiyuki Nishimura</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">269</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60363765"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Melting</span> temperature and thermal conductivity of irradiated (U,Pu)O[sub 2] fuel</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Both <span class="hlt">melting</span> temperature and thermal conductivity are important physical properties to evaluate the thermal behavior of fast breeder reactor (FBR) fuel. <span class="hlt">Core</span> design for commercialization of the FBR has to realize high burnup, a long refueling interval, and high power density conditions. This means that the internal conversion ratio of the <span class="hlt">core</span> fuel becomes high and depression of the linear</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kazuya Yamamoto; Takashi Hirosawa; Katsunori Yoshikawa; Katsuhumi Morozumi; Nomura; Shigeo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">270</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26598864"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Core</span> loss during a severe accident (COLOSS)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">core</span> loss during a severe accident (COLOSS) project is a 3-year shared-cost action which started in February 2000. The project is concerned with the consequences that <span class="hlt">core</span> degradation, occurring under severe accident conditions, may have on H2 production, <span class="hlt">melt</span> generation and the source term. Unresolved in-vessel risk-relevant issues are studied, through a large number of experiments such as (a)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">B Adroguer; P Chatelard; J. P Van Dorsselaere; C Duriez; N Cocuaud; L Bellenfant; D Bottomley; V Vrtilkova; K Mueller; W Hering; C Homann; W Krauss; A Miassoedov; M Steinbrück; J Stuckert; Z Hozer; G Bandini; J Birchley; T. v Berlepsch; M Buck; J. A. F Benitez; E Virtanen; S Marguet; G Azarian; H Plank; M Veshchunov; Y Zvonarev; A Goryachev</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">271</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26597551"> <span id="translatedtitle">In-vessel coolability and retention of a <span class="hlt">core</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The efficacy of external flooding of a reactor vessel as a severe accident management strategy is assessed for an AP600-like reactor design. The overall approach is based on the risk oriented accident analysis methodology (ROAAM) and the assessment includes consideration of bounding scenarios and sensitivity studies, as well as arbitrary parametric evaluations that allow for the delineation of the failure</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">T. G. Theofanous; C. Liu; S. Additon; S. Angelini; O. Kymäläinen; T. Salmassi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">272</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUSMDI31A..06P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Viscosity of Earth's Outer <span class="hlt">Core</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The viscosity of Earth's outer liquid <span class="hlt">core</span> is a fundamental property of great importance in modelling Earth's magnetic field and in many other branches of geophysics and geochemistry. Accurate measurements of viscosity in the F-layer at the bottom of the outer <span class="hlt">core</span> are provided by the reduction of rotational splitting of the two equatorial translational modes of the inner <span class="hlt">core</span>, observed with a network of superconducting gravimeters. Independent values are given by the prograde and retrograde modes which differ by about 10%, with a mean value of 1.243× 1011 Pa· s. At the top of the outer <span class="hlt">core</span>, the viscosity has been measured by the free decays found, for both the retrograde and prograde Free <span class="hlt">Core</span> Nutations, in the VLBI nutation series provided by Goddard Space Flight Center and the United States Naval Observatory. The four values range just over a factor of two, with a mean value of 2,448 Pa· s. Recently, viscosities ranging from 1011 Pa· s at the bottom of the liquid outer <span class="hlt">core</span> to 102 Pa· s at the top have been found by Arrhenius extrapolation of laboratory measurements (Brazhkin, JETP Lett. 68, 502, 1998). We report here the results of a similar extrapolation along the <span class="hlt">melting</span> temperature curve between our measured boundary values to obtain a viscosity profile for the entire outer liquid <span class="hlt">core</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Palmer, A.; Smylie, D. E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">273</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ApPhA.tmp..538S"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Melt</span> pool dynamics during selective electron beam <span class="hlt">melting</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Electron beam <span class="hlt">melting</span> is a promising additive manufacturing technique for metal parts. Nevertheless, the process is still poorly understood making further investigations indispensable to allow a prediction of the part's quality. To improve the understanding of the process especially the beam powder interaction, process observation at the relevant time scale is necessary. Due to the difficult accessibility of the building area, the high temperatures, radiation and the very high scanning speeds during the <span class="hlt">melting</span> process the observation requires an augmented effort in the observation equipment. A high speed camera in combination with an illumination laser, band pass filter and mirror system is suitable for the observation of the electron beam <span class="hlt">melting</span> process. The equipment allows to observe the <span class="hlt">melting</span> process with a high spatial and temporal resolution. In this paper the adjustment of the equipment and results of the lifetime and the oscillation frequencies of the <span class="hlt">melt</span> pool for a simple geometry are presented.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Scharowsky, T.; Osmanlic, F.; Singer, R. F.; Körner, C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">274</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PhDT.......184C"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Melting</span> phenomena in polymer blending</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study is focused on understanding of the <span class="hlt">melting</span> process of polymer blends during blending. Four topics are addressed in this thesis: <span class="hlt">melting</span> behavior of polymer blends in an extruder, heat transfer between a solid polymer pellet and polymer <span class="hlt">melt</span>; rheological properties of polymer <span class="hlt">melt</span> suspensions; and morphology development of polymer blends during <span class="hlt">melting</span>. A barrel sliding mechanism and a perturbation method was used to investigate the <span class="hlt">melting</span> behavior of polypropylene (PP) and polystyrene (PS) blends in the extruder. It was found that the <span class="hlt">melting</span> process in the extruder could be divided into three distinct regions. Most of <span class="hlt">melting</span> occurred in the transition region mainly due to mechanical energy input. Friction between solid polymer pellets played a critical role in converting mechanical energy into heat. The location of the transition region for each process could be determined from the on-line visualization results, temperature and pressure profiles, and the perturbation signals. A representative heat transfer coefficient between a solid polymer pellet and another polymer <span class="hlt">melt</span> under shear flow was obtained as 250W/m2 · K through numerical simulations. The dynamics of thermocouple used in the experiment was captured using a first order process approximation. A good match was achieved between the simulation and experiment after taking the thermocouple dynamics into account. Suspensions of ethylene acrylate copolymer (EAC) <span class="hlt">melt</span> with PS beads were used to study rheological properties of polymer flow during extrusion. It was found that deformation of PS beads under high local shear stress could result in the decrease of the relative viscosity with increasing volume fraction. On-line visualization in a TSE showed an "erosion" mechanism for polycarbonate (PC) drop deformation and breakup in polyethylene (PE) <span class="hlt">melt</span>. This "erosion" mechanism was also found from corresponding numerical simulations. Stress peaks at the interface from simulation result could explain the "erosion" mechanism.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chen, Hongbing</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">275</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/975674"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Melting</span> and spheroidization of hexagonal boron nitride in a microwave-powered, atmospheric pressure nitrogen plasma `</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have developed a method for producing spherically-shaped, hexagonal phase boron nitride (hBN) particles of controlled diameter in the 10-100 micron size range. Specifically, platelet-shaped hBN particles are passed as an aerosol through a microwave-generated, atmospheric pressure, nitrogen plasma. In the plasma, agglomerates formed by collisions between input hBN particles, <span class="hlt">melt</span> and forms spheres. We <span class="hlt">postulate</span> that this unprecedented process takes place in the unique environment of a plasma containing a high N-atom concentration, because in such an environment the decomposition temperature can be raised above the <span class="hlt">melting</span> temperature. Indeed, given the following relationship [1]: BN{sub (condensed)} {leftrightarrow} B{sub (gas)} + N{sub (gas)}. Standard equilibrium thermodynamics indicate that the decomposition temperature of hBN is increased in the presence of high concentrations of N atoms. We <span class="hlt">postulate</span> that in our plasma system the N atom concentration is high enough to raise the decomposition temperature above the (undetermined) <span class="hlt">melting</span> temperature. Keywords Microwave plasma, boron nitride, <span class="hlt">melting</span>, spherical, thermodynamics, integrated circuit package.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gleiman, S. S. (Seth S.); Phillips, J. (Jonathan)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">276</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/61327341"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Core</span> tests help prevent formation damage in horizontal wells</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Simulating drilling mud invasion in <span class="hlt">cores</span> helped determine and eliminate the damaging effects of various mud systems prior to the drilling of a horizontal well in Canada. Formation damage is highly reservoir specific. General damage classifications according to rock and fluid type can be <span class="hlt">postulated</span>, but specific tests are necessary to evaluate precisely the primary potential mechanisms of damage for</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">T. Beatty; B. Hebner; R. Hiscock; D. B. Bennion</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">277</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/61316400"> <span id="translatedtitle">A model for recovery of a badly degraded <span class="hlt">core</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The hydrogen source term that can be generated in-vessel during a severe accident has a strong implication on the size of the containment of a nuclear reactor. This source term can be generated during the main phases of a <span class="hlt">postulated</span> accident. On the other hand, recovery of an overheated <span class="hlt">core</span> can produce a large hydrogen source term since large amounts</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. Sharon; R. E. Henry; Chunder Wu; R. J. Hammersley</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">278</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008APS..MARJ40001B"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">melting</span> curve of MgSiO3 perovskite from ab initio molecular dynamics using the coexistience method</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Despite its importance in understanding such things as the crystallisation of the Earth's mantle from a magma ocean or the existence of <span class="hlt">melt</span> in the current mantle, the <span class="hlt">melting</span> temperature of the lower mantle phase MgSiO3 perovskite is poorly know. Estimates of its <span class="hlt">melting</span> temperature at the <span class="hlt">core</span>-mantle-boundary range from 5400 K to over 8000 K. We have used, therefore, ab initio molecular dynamics simulations to predict its <span class="hlt">melting</span> temperature throughout the Earth's mantle using the coexistence method. We used 900 atoms (a 3x3x5 super-cell) with atoms in one half of the super-cell <span class="hlt">melted</span> and the other half solid. Both halves are thermalised to the desired temperature individually. We then turned off the thermalisation and allowed the system to evolve in an NVE simulation, using DFT forces calculated within the GGA. Those systems which were too hot <span class="hlt">melted</span> within 10 ps. Those which didn't remained with both solid and <span class="hlt">melt</span> coexisting in the super-cell for over 25 ps. These where assumed to be either on the <span class="hlt">melting</span> curve of just below it. Our results agree well with the higher temperature <span class="hlt">melting</span> curves found experimentally, and we predict a <span class="hlt">melting</span> temperature of about 6500 K at the <span class="hlt">core</span>-mantle boundary. We will also present results on simulating the <span class="hlt">melting</span> temperature of the MgO-MgSiO3 binary.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brodholt, John</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">279</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/61256464"> <span id="translatedtitle">Natural convection phenomena in a nuclear power plant during a <span class="hlt">postulated</span> TMLB' accident</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">After the TMI (Three Mile Island) accident, there has been significant interest in analyzing and understanding the phenomena that may occur in a PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) accident which may lead to partial or total <span class="hlt">core</span> meltdown and degradation. Natural convection is one of the important phenomena. In the present paper the results of two numerical simulations of (1) four-loop</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">H. M. Domanus; R. C. Schmitt; W. T. Sha; V. L. Shah; J. T. Han</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">280</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/561142"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modeling of residual stresses in <span class="hlt">core</span> shroud structures</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A BWR <span class="hlt">core</span> shroud is a cylindrical shell that surrounds the reactor <span class="hlt">core</span>. Feedwater for the reactor is introduced into the annulus between the reactor vessel wall and the shroud. The shroud separates the feedwater from the cooling water flowing up through the reactor <span class="hlt">core</span>. The shroud also supports the top guide which provides lateral support to the fuel assemblies and maintains <span class="hlt">core</span> geometry during operational transients and <span class="hlt">postulated</span> accidents to permit control rod insertion and provides the refloodable volume needed to ensure safe shutdown and cooling of the <span class="hlt">core</span> during <span class="hlt">postulated</span> accident conditions. <span class="hlt">Core</span> shrouds were fabricated from welded Type 304 or 304L stainless steel plates and are supported at the top and bottom by forged ring support structures. In 1990, cracking was reported in the <span class="hlt">core</span> shroud of a non-U.S. BWR. The cracks were located in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of a circumferential <span class="hlt">core</span> shroud weld. Subsequent inspections in U.S. BWRs have revealed the presence of numerous flaw indications in some BWR <span class="hlt">core</span> shrouds, primarily in weld HAZs. In several instances, this cracking was quite extensive, with the cracks extending 75% or more around the circumference of some welds. However, because the applied stresses on the shroud are low during operation and <span class="hlt">postulated</span> accidents and because of the high fracture toughness of stainless steel, adequate structural margins can be preserved even in the presence of extensive cracking. Although assessments by the USNRC staff of the potential significance of this cracking have shown that <span class="hlt">core</span> shroud cracking does not pose a high degree of risk in the short term, the staff concluded that the cracking was a safety concern for the long term because of the uncertainties associated with the behavior of <span class="hlt">core</span> shrouds with complete 360{degrees} through-wall cracks under accident conditions and because it could eliminate a layer of defense-in-depth.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhang, J.; Dong, P.; Brust, F.W.; Mayfield, M.; McNeil, M.; Shack, W.J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First 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showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">281</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22melting%22&pg=4&id=EJ605986"> <span id="translatedtitle">Beyond the <span class="hlt">Melting</span> Pot Reconsidered.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Discusses the 1963 book, "Beyond the <span class="hlt">Melting</span> Pot," which suggested that eventually the problem of different ethnicities in the U.S. would be resolved and society would become one <span class="hlt">melting</span> pot. Examines how changes in immigration and economic structures have affected the issue, noting the devastating effect of the dominant culture's denigration of…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Anderson, Elijah</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">282</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/k245171920412l16.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Water solubility in aluminosilicate <span class="hlt">melts</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have compiled water solubility data for a wide range of natural and synthetic aluminosilicate <span class="hlt">melts</span> in a search for correlations between <span class="hlt">melt</span> composition and solubility. The published data reveal some interesting systematics. For example, molar water solubility increases with decreasing silica content in binary and pseudobinary silicates, and much higher solubilities are associated with alkali systems compared to alkaline</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Paul F. McMillan; John R. Holloway</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">283</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=melting&pg=4&id=EJ605986"> <span id="translatedtitle">Beyond the <span class="hlt">Melting</span> Pot Reconsidered.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|Discusses the 1963 book, "Beyond the <span class="hlt">Melting</span> Pot," which suggested that eventually the problem of different ethnicities in the U.S. would be resolved and society would become one <span class="hlt">melting</span> pot. Examines how changes in immigration and economic structures have affected the issue, noting the devastating effect of the dominant culture's denigration of…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Anderson, Elijah</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">284</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=422834"> <span id="translatedtitle">Tissue Receptor for Cholera Exotoxin: <span class="hlt">Postulated</span> Structure from Studies with GM1 Ganglioside and Related Glycolipids</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">By a double-diffusion precipitation-in-gel technique, isolated cholera toxin as well as its natural toxoid were shown to be fixed and precipitated by the ganglioside GM1 but not by any of the related glycolipids GM3, GM2, GM1-GlcNAc, GD1a, GD1b, GT1, globoside, GA1, and tetrahexoside-GlcNAc. Twenty-five nanograms of GM1 was enough to give a precipitation line with 1.2 ?g of toxin, whereas about 50 ng was required with this amount of toxoid. GM1 also inactivated the toxin in the ileal loop as well as in the intradermal models in rabbits. A 1: 1 molar ratio of ganglioside to toxin was found limiting, e.g., 100 pg of GM1 could inactivate 5 ng (about 50 blueing doses) of isolated toxin. GM1 inactivated crude toxin (culture fil rate) with the same efficiency as isolated toxin, and the inactivating capacity of GM1 was unaffected by mixing with other gangliosides, indicating the specificity in the reaction between GM1 and toxin. The other glycolipids tested did not inactivate toxin except GD1a and GA1 which did so with approximately 1,000 times less efficiency than GM1. This identified the portion Gal ? GalNAc [Formula: see text] as the critical region in GM1 for toxin fixation, and it is <span class="hlt">postulated</span> that this may be the tissue receptor structure for the cholera toxin. Images</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Holmgren, J.; Lonnroth, I.; Svennerholm, L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1973-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">285</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5712896"> <span id="translatedtitle">Closed-system <span class="hlt">postulates</span> for predicting waste-package performance in a geological repository</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In a recent paper we reviewed the need for reliable theory and experiment in making long-term predictions of waste performance in a geologic repository. We discussed uncertainties in <span class="hlt">postulated</span> techniques of applying closed-system laboratory leach data to predicting the dissolution of waste solids in a geologic repository, and we discussed the use of mass-transfer analysis to unify theory and experiment and to provide a clear theoretical basis for long-term prediction. Comments on our recent paper by Drs. P.B. Macedo and C.J. Montrose provide a welcome opportunity to clarify several issues related to predicting waste performance. Their comments help illustrate the need for reliable and sound theories for predicting waste performance in the long-term future, and they help focus the fundamental differences between waste dissolution in laboratory leach experiments and dissolution in a repository. To aid better understanding and resolution of the differences between mass transfer in the closed systems considered by Macedo et al. and others and mass transfer in the open systems of waste repositories considered in our mass transfer analysis, we comment here in some detail.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pigford, T.H.; Chambre, P.L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">286</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=AD782164"> <span id="translatedtitle">Measurement of <span class="hlt">Melting</span> Point, Normal Spectral Emittance (at <span class="hlt">Melting</span> Point) and Electrical Resistivity (near <span class="hlt">Melting</span> Point) of Some Refractory Alloys.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A subsecond duration pulse heating method is used to measure the <span class="hlt">melting</span> point, normal spectral emittance (at the <span class="hlt">melting</span> point, corresponding to 650 nm), and electrical resistivity (near the <span class="hlt">melting</span> point, corresponding to 650 nm), and electrical resisti...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. Cezairliyan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1973-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">287</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/al1054.photos.046338p/"> <span id="translatedtitle">24. A <span class="hlt">CORE</span> WORKER DISPLAYS THE <span class="hlt">CORE</span> BOX AND <span class="hlt">CORES</span> ...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p class="result-summary">24. A <span class="hlt">CORE</span> WORKER DISPLAYS THE <span class="hlt">CORE</span> BOX AND <span class="hlt">CORES</span> FOR A BRASS GATE VALVE BODY MADE ON A <span class="hlt">CORE</span> BOX, CA. 1950. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">288</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998APS..MAR.W1402S"> <span id="translatedtitle">How size dispersity induces <span class="hlt">melting</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Using molecular dynamics simulation, we study a novel way of <span class="hlt">melting</span> a two-dimensional Lennard-Jones solid. The <span class="hlt">melting</span> is driven, not by the temperature or density, but by introducing disorder in the form of size dispersity in the constituent particles. Depending on the density of the system, <span class="hlt">melting</span> takes place either continuously through an intermediate ``hexatic'' phase or by a sharp first order transitionfootnote M. R. Sadr-Lahijany, P. Ray and H. E. Stanley, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 3206 (1997).. We also explore the defects in the solid that arise because of the size mismatch of the particles. We find defects--including ``disclinations'' and ``dislocations''--the creation and proliferation of which cause the solid to <span class="hlt">melt</span>. The results of our defect analysis are consistent with the classic KTNHY theory of temperature-driven <span class="hlt">melting</span>. Further, we find that the mobility and the dynamics of the defects play a crucial role in determining the order of the transition.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sadr-Lahijany, M. Reza; Ray, Purusattam; Stanley, H. Eugene</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">289</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10105545"> <span id="translatedtitle">Iron--what is <span class="hlt">melt</span>?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">melting</span> point of iron reported from a variety of phenomena observed in the laser-heated diamond-anvil-cell (DAC) and in shock wave studies differs widely. Although three groups of investigators, observing the same phenomena in the DAC are in good agreement to about 40 GPa, they disagree significantly with other measurements of <span class="hlt">melting</span> point based on observation of different phenomena in the DAC. These latter data are in substantial agreement with some of the reported <span class="hlt">melting</span> temperatures from two groups of investigators who measured temperature along the Hugoniot. However, a third group of investigators observe a sound velocity discontinuity along the Hugoniot and calculate a significantly lower temperature for <span class="hlt">melting</span>. <span class="hlt">Melting</span> point determination in iron is subject to the interpretation of physical phenomena, experimental errors which are probably larger than estimated, and perhaps undetected chemical reactions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Duba, A.G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">290</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004PhRvE..69f6123P"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Melting</span> of polydisperse hard disks</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">melting</span> of a polydisperse hard-disk system is investigated by Monte Carlo simulations in the semigrand canonical ensemble. This is done in the context of possible continuous <span class="hlt">melting</span> by a dislocation-unbinding mechanism, as an extension of the two-dimensional hard-disk <span class="hlt">melting</span> problem. We find that while there is pronounced fractionation in polydispersity, the apparent density-polydispersity gap does not increase in width, contrary to 3D polydisperse hard spheres. The point where the Young’s modulus is low enough for the dislocation unbinding to occur moves with the apparent <span class="hlt">melting</span> point, but stays within the density gap, just like for the monodisperse hard-disk system. Additionally, we find that throughout the accessible polydispersity range, the bound dislocation-pair concentration is high enough to affect the dislocation-unbinding <span class="hlt">melting</span> as predicted by Kosterlitz, Thouless, Halperin, Nelson, and Young.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pronk, Sander; Frenkel, Daan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">291</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001PhST...98...77L"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Melting</span> Dynamics in Thermal and Stress Driven Coulomb Clusters</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The microscopic dynamical responses of a two dimensional circular Coulomb cluster to thermal excitations and to the external force along a narrow band through its center are studied. The strong competition between the cirular boundary and the inner domain with triagular lattice leads to the nonuniform <span class="hlt">melting</span> of the cluster. With the increasing temperature, the surface particles exhibit anisotropic motions along the circular shells. No abrupt <span class="hlt">melting</span> transition is observed for the outer region. The intrinsic defects around the domain boundary initiate the continuous <span class="hlt">core</span> <span class="hlt">melting</span> transition and also the fluidization under the external stress. The fluidization shows a non equilibrium second order transition with stick-slip type motion at the transition point.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lai, Ying-Ju; Juan, Wen-Tau; I, Lin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">292</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/53741655"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">melting</span> curve of MgSiO3 perovskite from ab initio molecular dynamics using the coexistience method</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Despite its importance in understanding such things as the crystallisation of the Earth's mantle from a magma ocean or the existence of <span class="hlt">melt</span> in the current mantle, the <span class="hlt">melting</span> temperature of the lower mantle phase MgSiO3 perovskite is poorly know. Estimates of its <span class="hlt">melting</span> temperature at the <span class="hlt">core</span>-mantle-boundary range from 5400 K to over 8000 K. We have used, therefore,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">John Brodholt</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">293</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42769320"> <span id="translatedtitle">Partial <span class="hlt">melting</span> and <span class="hlt">melt</span> segregation in footwall units within the contact aureole of the Sudbury Igneous Complex (North and East Ranges, Sudbury structure), with implications for their relationship to footwall Cu–Ni–PGE mineralization</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We performed detailed field and drill <span class="hlt">core</span> mapping of partial <span class="hlt">melting</span> features and felsic rocks (footwall granophyres, FWGRs) representing segregated and crystallized partial <span class="hlt">melts</span> within the contact aureole of the Sudbury Igneous Complex (SIC) in the 1.85 Ga Sudbury impact structure. Our results, derived from mapping within the North (Windy Lake, Foy, Wisner areas) and East Ranges (Skynner, Frost areas) of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Attila Péntek; Ferenc Molnár; David H. Watkinson; Peter C. Jones; Aberra Mogessie</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">294</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/544173"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ash <span class="hlt">melting</span> treatment by rotating type surface <span class="hlt">melting</span> furnace</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Results of <span class="hlt">melting</span> treatment of fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerators are described, and safety and an effective use of slag discharged from the <span class="hlt">melting</span> treatment are studied. The fly ash has an average particle size of 22 {micro}m and a <span class="hlt">melting</span> fluidity point of 1280--1330 C and was able to be <span class="hlt">melted</span> by using a Kubota <span class="hlt">melting</span> furnace without any additives. Eighty-eight percent of the fly ash was turned to slag and 12% to dust, which contained a lot of heavy metals such as Pb and Zn. Dioxins in the supplied fly ash were 10 ng TEQ/g, originally, and 99.98% was decomposed by the <span class="hlt">melting</span> treatment. Dioxin concentrations of slag, fly ash and flue gas from the <span class="hlt">melting</span> treatment were 0.00, 0.00 and 0.25 ng TEQ/m{sup 3} N, respectively. A leaching test was conducted to confirm the safety of slag. Leaching level of heavy metals from slag was significantly lower than compared to those of bottom and fly ashes from municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerators. It was found that leaching is influenced by pH and the specific surface area of the materials. Furthermore, using slag as a ceramic material, slag was ground and burned at a relatively low temperature (900--1100 C) into a ceramic with strength equal to or more than that of general ceramic tiles.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Abe, Seiichi; Kambayashi, Fumiaki; Okada, Masaharu [Kubota Corp., Naniwa, Osaka (Japan). Environmental Plant Div.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-12-31</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">295</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.agu.org/pubs/sample_articles/cr/2001JB001707/2001JB001707.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Physical properties of the P96 ice <span class="hlt">core</span> from Penny Ice Cap, Baffin Island, Canada, and derived climatic records</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ice <span class="hlt">cores</span> from nonpolar environments are being developed as valuable paleoclimatic resources. However, the recognition of a climatic signal and the development of timescales in those ice <span class="hlt">cores</span> are both difficult due to heavy summer <span class="hlt">melting</span>. A 177.91-m-long ice <span class="hlt">core</span> (P96) was drilled in such a high-<span class="hlt">melt</span> area from Penny Ice Cap, Baffin Island, Canada, in 1996. The <span class="hlt">core</span> covers</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Junichi Okuyama; Hideki Narita; Takeo Hondoh; Roy M. Koerner</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">296</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/mineralogy/activities/MinEx13XtalMeltDiopsideAnorthite.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">Crystallization and <span class="hlt">Melting</span> of Diopside - Anorthite</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This short exercise introduces students to phase diagrams that have a eutectic and a peritectic. After learning about such phase diagrams, students answer questions about <span class="hlt">melt</span> composition, temperature, cooling and <span class="hlt">melting</span>, crystalization, and <span class="hlt">melt</span>:crystal ratios.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Perkins, Dexter</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">297</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10131134"> <span id="translatedtitle">Consequences of tritium release to water pathways from <span class="hlt">postulated</span> accidents in a DOE production reactor</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A full-scale PRA of a DOE production reactor has been completed that considers full release of tritium as part of the severe accident source term. Two classes of <span class="hlt">postulated</span> reactor accidents, a loss-of-moderator pumping accident and a loss-of-coolant accident, are used to bound the expected dose consequence from liquid pathway release. Population doses from the radiological release associated with the two accidents are compared for aqueous discharge and atmospheric release modes. The expectation values of the distribution of possible values for the societal effective dose equivalent to the general public, given a tritium release to the atmosphere, is 2.8 person-Sv/PBq (9.9 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} person-rem/Ci). The general public drinking water dose to downstream water consumers is 6.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}2} person-Sv/Pbq (2.4 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} person-rem/Ci) for aqueous releases to the surface streams eventually reaching the Savannah River. Negligible doses are calculated for freshwater fish and saltwater invertebrate consumption, irrigation, and recreational use of the river, given that an aqueous release is assumed to occur. Relative to the balance of fission products released in a hypothetical severe accident, the tritium-related dose is small. This study suggests that application of regional models (1610 km radius) will indicate larger dose consequences from short-term tritium release to the atmosphere than from comparable tritium source terms to water pathways. However, the water pathways assessment is clearly site-specific, and the overall aqueous dose will be dependent on downstream receptor populations and uses of the river.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">O`Kula, K.R.; Olson, R.L.; Hamby, D.M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-12-31</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">298</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JChEd..86..644S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Thermodynamics of Oligonucleotide Duplex <span class="hlt">Melting</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Melting</span> temperatures of oligonucleotides are useful for a number of molecular biology applications, such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Although <span class="hlt">melting</span> temperatures are often calculated with simplistic empirical equations, application of thermodynamics provides more accurate <span class="hlt">melting</span> temperatures and an opportunity for students to apply rigorous thermodynamic analysis to an important biochemical problem. Because the stacking of base pairs on top of one another is a significant factor in the energetics of oligonucleotide <span class="hlt">melting</span>, several investigators have applied van't Hoff analysis to <span class="hlt">melting</span> temperature data using a nearest-neighbor model and have obtained entropies and enthalpies for the stacking of bases. The present article explains how the equilibrium constant for the dissociation of strands from double-stranded oligonucleotides can be expressed in terms of the total strand concentration and thus how the total strand concentration influences the <span class="hlt">melting</span> temperature. It also presents a simplified analysis based on the entropies and enthalpies of stacking that is manually tractable so that students can work examples to help them understand the thermodynamics of oligonucleotide <span class="hlt">melting</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schreiber-Gosche, Sherrie; Edwards, Robert A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">299</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17734137"> <span id="translatedtitle">Circulation and <span class="hlt">melting</span> beneath the ross ice shelf.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Thermohaline observations in the water column beneath the Ross Ice Shelf and along its terminal face show significant vertical stratification, active horizontal circulation, and net <span class="hlt">melting</span> at the ice shelf base. Heat is supplied by seawater that moves southward beneath the ice shelf from a central warm <span class="hlt">core</span> and from a western region of high salinity. The near-freezing Ice Shelf Water produced flows northward into the Ross Sea. PMID:17734137</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jacobs, S S; Gordon, A L; Ardai, J L</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1979-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">300</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/details.jsp?query_id=0&page=0&ostiID=5443830"> <span id="translatedtitle">Apparatus for controlling molten <span class="hlt">core</span> debris. [LMFBR</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Disclosed is an apparatus for containing, cooling, diluting, dispersing and maintaining subcritical the molten <span class="hlt">core</span> debris assumed to <span class="hlt">melt</span> through the bottom of a nuclear reactor pressure vessel in the unlikely event of a <span class="hlt">core</span> meltdown. The apparatus is basically a sacrificial bed system which includes an inverted conical funnel, a <span class="hlt">core</span> debris receptacle including a spherical dome, a spherically layered bed of primarily magnesia bricks, a cooling system of zig-zag piping in graphite blocks about and below the bed and a cylindrical liner surrounding the graphite blocks including a steel shell surrounded by firebrick. Tantalum absorber rods are used in the receptacle and bed. 9 claims, 22 figures.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Golden, M.P.; Tilbrook, R.W.; Heylmun, N.F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1977-07-19</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' 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id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a 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showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">301</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/details.jsp?query_id=0&page=0&ostiID=862886"> <span id="translatedtitle">Apparatus for controlling molten <span class="hlt">core</span> debris</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Apparatus for containing, cooling, diluting, dispersing and maintaining subcritical the molten <span class="hlt">core</span> debris assumed to <span class="hlt">melt</span> through the bottom of a nuclear reactor pressure vessel in the unlikely event of a <span class="hlt">core</span> meltdown. The apparatus is basically a sacrificial bed system which includes an inverted conical funnel, a <span class="hlt">core</span> debris receptacle including a spherical dome, a spherically layered bed of primarily magnesia bricks, a cooling system of zig-zag piping in graphite blocks about and below the bed and a cylindrical liner surrounding the graphite blocks including a steel shell surrounded by firebrick. Tantalum absorber rods are used in the receptacle and bed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Golden, Martin P. (Trafford, PA); Tilbrook, Roger W. (Monroeville, PA); Heylmun, Neal F. (Pittsburgh, PA)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1977-07-19</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">302</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6893261"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Melting</span> of iron-aluminide alloys</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">melting</span> of Fe{sub 3}Al-based alloys at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and commercial vendors is described. The <span class="hlt">melting</span> processes evaluated includes are <span class="hlt">melting</span>, air-induction <span class="hlt">melting</span> (AIM), vacuum-induction <span class="hlt">melting</span> (VIM), and electroslag remelting (ESR). The quality of the ingots studied are base on internal soundness and the surface finish obtained. The ingots were analyzed for recovery of various elements during <span class="hlt">melting</span>. The impurity levels observed in the alloys by various <span class="hlt">melting</span> processes were compared. Recommendations are made for viable processes for commercial <span class="hlt">melting</span> of these alloys. 1 ref., 5 figs., 3 tabs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sikka, V.K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">303</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985JOM....37k..29F"> <span id="translatedtitle">Electrical Conductivity of Cryolite <span class="hlt">Melts</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper proposes an equation for the electrical conductivity of multicomponent cryolite-based mixtures. The equation is based on a physical model which assumes that the conductivity is proportional to the number density of the effective electric charges in the <span class="hlt">melt</span>. The various authors in the available literature show a great discrepancy in conductivity data of cryolite-based <span class="hlt">melts</span>. The equation based on the physical model enables determination of which set of data is preferable. Special consideration in this respect is given to the influence of magnesium flouride and lithium flouride additions to the <span class="hlt">melt</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fellner, P.; Grjotheim, K.; Kvande, H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">304</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/638217"> <span id="translatedtitle">Plasma arc <span class="hlt">melting</span> of zirconium</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Zirconium, like some other refractory metals, has an undesirable sensitivity to interstitials such as oxygen. Traditionally, zirconium is processed by electron beam <span class="hlt">melting</span> to maintain minimum interstitial contamination. Electron beam <span class="hlt">melted</span> zirconium, however, does not respond positively to mechanical processing due to its large grain size. The authors undertook a study to determine if plasma arc <span class="hlt">melting</span> (PAM) technology could be utilized to maintain low interstitial concentrations and improve the response of zirconium to subsequent mechanical processing. The PAM process enabled them to control and maintain low interstitial levels of oxygen and carbon, produce a more favorable grain structure, and with supplementary off-gassing, improve the response to mechanical forming.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tubesing, P.K.; Korzekwa, D.R.; Dunn, P.S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-12-31</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">305</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhyB..419...40A"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Melting</span> of metals under pressure</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Lindemann's formula of <span class="hlt">melting</span> is extended in terms of bulk modulus and Grüneisen parameter to study the pressure dependence of <span class="hlt">melting</span> temperature, Tm(P) of metals. The formalism is applied to study Tm(P) of noble and transition metals, di-, tri- and tetravalent (Ag, Au, Cu, Mn, Mg, Zn, CD, In, Pb and Al) metals over a wide range of pressures up to 12 GPa. The computed <span class="hlt">melting</span> temperatures of the metals under pressure using our semi-empirical relation is in good agreement with the experimental data.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Arafin, S.; Singh, R. N.; George, A. K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">306</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987JGR....92.9135C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Polar basal <span class="hlt">melting</span> on Mars</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The potential importance of basal <span class="hlt">melting</span> on Mars is illustrated through the discussion of four examples: (1) the origin of the major polar reentrants, (2) the removal and storage of an ancient Martian ice sheet, (3) the mass balance of the polar terrains, and (4) the possibility of basal <span class="hlt">melting</span> at temperate latitudes. This analysis suggests that the process of basal <span class="hlt">melting</span> may play a key role in understanding the evolution of the Martian polar terrains and the long-term climatic behavior of water on Mars.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Clifford, S. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">307</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2438373"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evidence for fractional crystallization of wadsleyite and ringwoodite from olivine <span class="hlt">melts</span> in chondrules entrained in shock-<span class="hlt">melt</span> veins</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Peace River is one of the few shocked members of the L-chondrites clan that contains both high-pressure polymorphs of olivine, ringwoodite and wadsleyite, in diverse textures and settings in fragments entrained in shock-<span class="hlt">melt</span> veins. Among these settings are complete olivine porphyritic chondrules. We encountered few squeezed and flattened olivine porphyritic chondrules entrained in shock-<span class="hlt">melt</span> veins of this meteorite with novel textures and composition. The former chemically unzoned (Fa24–26) olivine porphyritic crystals are heavily flattened and display a concentric intergrowth with Mg-rich wadsleyite of a very narrow compositional range (Fa6–Fa10) in the <span class="hlt">core</span>. Wadsleyite <span class="hlt">core</span> is surrounded by a Mg-poor and chemically stark zoned ringwoodite (Fa28–Fa38) belt. The wadsleyite–ringwoodite interface denotes a compositional gap of up to 32 mol % fayalite. A transmission electron microscopy study of focused ion beam slices in both regions indicates that the wadsleyite <span class="hlt">core</span> and ringwoodite belt consist of granoblastic-like intergrowth of polygonal crystallites of both ringwoodite and wadsleyite, with wadsleyite crystallites dominating in the <span class="hlt">core</span> and ringwoodite crystallites dominating in the belt. Texture and compositions of both high-pressure polymorphs are strongly suggestive of formation by a fractional crystallization of the olivine <span class="hlt">melt</span> of a narrow composition (Fa24–26), starting with Mg-rich wadsleyite followed by the Mg-poor ringwoodite from a shock-induced <span class="hlt">melt</span> of olivine composition (Fa24–26). Our findings could erase the possibility of the resulting unrealistic time scales of the high-pressure regime reported recently from other shocked L-6 chondrites.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Miyahara, Masaaki; El Goresy, Ahmed; Ohtani, Eiji; Nagase, Toshiro; Nishijima, Masahiko; Vashaei, Zahra; Ferroir, Tristan; Gillet, Philippe; Dubrovinsky, Leonid; Simionovici, Alexandre</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">308</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/19942724"> <span id="translatedtitle">DERIVATION OF THE CPT THEOREM AND THE CONNECTION BETWEEN SPIN AND STATISTICS FROM <span class="hlt">POSTULATES</span> OF THE S-MATRIX THEORY</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The CPT theorem (G. Luders, Kgl. Danske Videnskab. Selskab Mat.-fys. ; Medd., 28: No. 5(1954)) and the normal connection between spin and statistics are ; consequences of <span class="hlt">postulates</span> of the S-matrix approach to elementary particle ; physics. These are weaker than those of field theory. Neither local fields nor ; any reference to space-time points are used. Quantum commutation relations</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Henry Stapp</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1962-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">309</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60678072"> <span id="translatedtitle">Projecting an energy-efficient California. [Effect of <span class="hlt">postulated</span> program of mandatory conservation standards for buildings and appliances</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The effects on California electricity consumption of a <span class="hlt">postulated</span> program of mandatory energy conservation standards for building construction and for appliances are calculated. The model sums demands disaggregated by end use in the residential and commercial sectors; for industry a simplified econometric model is used. The potential for growth and conservation is evaluated for each end use, subject to the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. B. Goldstein; A. H. Rosenfeld</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1975-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">310</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60022844"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of FFTF response to hypothetical earthquake with <span class="hlt">postulated</span> primary piping leak and cooling by natural circulation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The predicted response of the FFTF to a hypothetical earthquake plus a <span class="hlt">postulated</span> primary pipe leak with subsequent reliance on natural circulation cooling to demonstrate the independence of the primary loops under these conditions is studied. The most pessimistic leak location was selected on the basis of consideration of a sodium spray to maximize the cell gas pressure. The analyses</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">T. B. McCall; G. R. Franz</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1979-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">311</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981GeoRL...8.1211H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Probing the <span class="hlt">melt</span> zone of Kilauea Iki Lava Lake, Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">New drilling techniques were recently used to drill and <span class="hlt">core</span> the <span class="hlt">melt</span> zone of Kilauea Iki lava lake to a depth of 93 m. A partial <span class="hlt">melt</span> zone was found to exist at depths between 58 m and 89 m consisting of 40 volume percent <span class="hlt">melt</span>. Downhole seismic shots detonated in and below the <span class="hlt">melt</span> zone resulted in the first in situ measurements of seismic velocity directly through a well characterized partial <span class="hlt">melt</span> zone. Periodic seismic sources were used to effectively penetrate the highly fractured hydrothermal zone of the lava lake crust. Low velocity P-wave layers (? 2.0 km/s) were found at the surface, at 40 m depth, and at 90 m depth. Thermal convective experiments in the <span class="hlt">melt</span> zone resulted in the first controlled in situ measurements of the interaction of water with a basaltic <span class="hlt">melt</span> zone. Transient energy rates of 900 kW (980 kW/m²) and steady rates of 85 kW (93 kW/m²) were observed. The full water recovery (100%), high downhole steam temperatures (670 C), and high energy transfer rates (93 to 980 kW/m²) observed in these thermal experiments are consistent with a closed cavity model where the injected water/steam directly contacted basaltic <span class="hlt">melt</span> or near <span class="hlt">melt</span>. In addition to understanding lava lakes, these seismic and thermal experiments have applications for the location of magma bodies in the crust and for the efficient extraction of energy from these bodies.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hardee, H. C.; Dunn, J. C.; Hills, R. G.; Ward, R. W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">312</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=N9121339"> <span id="translatedtitle">Containerless Processing of Undercooled <span class="hlt">Melts</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">All practical solidification processes involve some level of <span class="hlt">melt</span> undercooling. Usually in bulk liquids crystallization is initiated at a heterogeneous nucleation site at low undercooling. The realization of appreciable levels of liquid undercooling requi...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. H. Perepezko</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">313</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.agu.org/journals/jb/v080/i011/JB080i011p01444/JB080i011p01444.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Melt</span> squirt in the asthenosphere</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The interpretation of the seismic low-velocity zone as a region of partially molten rock is extended to explain the transient displacements following the 1946 Nankaido earthquake. Three partial <span class="hlt">melt</span> models are considered to account for the observed time constant of 3-5 years: large-scale diffusion of <span class="hlt">melt</span> through a porous matrix can decay over thousands to billions of years and is</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gerald Mavko; Amos Nur</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1975-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">314</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/940312"> <span id="translatedtitle">Scaleable Clean Aluminum <span class="hlt">Melting</span> Systems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The project entitled 'Scaleable Clean Aluminum <span class="hlt">Melting</span> Systems' was a Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADAs) between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Secat Inc. The three-year project was initially funded for the first year and was then canceled due to funding cuts at the DOE headquarters. The limited funds allowed the research team to visit industrial sites and investigate the status of using immersion heaters for aluminum <span class="hlt">melting</span> applications. Primary concepts were proposed on the design of furnaces using immersion heaters for <span class="hlt">melting</span>. The proposed project can continue if the funding agency resumes the funds to this research. The objective of this project was to develop and demonstrate integrated, retrofitable technologies for clean <span class="hlt">melting</span> systems for aluminum in both the Metal Casting and integrated aluminum processing industries. The scope focused on immersion heating coupled with metal circulation systems that provide significant opportunity for energy savings as well as reduction of <span class="hlt">melt</span> loss in the form of dross. The project aimed at the development and integration of technologies that would enable significant reduction in the energy consumption and environmental impacts of <span class="hlt">melting</span> aluminum through substitution of immersion heating for the conventional radiant burner methods used in reverberatory furnaces. Specifically, the program would couple heater improvements with furnace modeling that would enable cost-effective retrofits to a range of existing furnace sizes, reducing the economic barrier to application.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Han, Q.; Das, S.K. (Secat, Inc.)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-02-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">315</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=DE96008578"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modeling and analysis framework for <span class="hlt">core</span> damage propagation during flow-blockage-initiated accidents in the Advanced Neutron Source reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper describes modeling and analysis to evaluate the extent of <span class="hlt">core</span> damage during flow blockage events in the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) reactor planned to be built at ORNL. Damage propagation is <span class="hlt">postulated</span> to occur from thermal conduction betwee...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. H. Kim R. P. Taleyarkhan S. Navarro-Valenti V. Georgevich</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">316</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60674227"> <span id="translatedtitle">CORTAP: a coupled neutron kinetics-heat transfer digital computer program for the dynamic simulation of the high temperature gas cooled reactor <span class="hlt">core</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">CORTAP (<span class="hlt">Core</span> Transient Analysis Program) was developed to predict the dynamic behavior of the High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGR) <span class="hlt">core</span> under normal operational transients and <span class="hlt">postulated</span> accident conditions. CORTAP is used both as a stand-alone component simulation and as part of the HTGR nuclear steam supply (NSS) system simulation code ORTAP. The <span class="hlt">core</span> thermal neutronic response is determined by</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1977-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">317</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.V33A2029Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">Quantitative characterization of 3-dimensional <span class="hlt">melt</span> distribution in partially molten olivine-basalt aggregates using X-ray synchrotron microtomography</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Quantitative knowledge of the distribution of small amounts of silicate <span class="hlt">melt</span> in peridotite and of its influence on permeability are critical to our understanding of <span class="hlt">melt</span> migration and segregation processes in the upper mantle. Estimates for the permeability of partially molten rock require 3D <span class="hlt">melt</span> distribution at the grain-scale. Existing studies of <span class="hlt">melt</span> distribution, carried out on 2D slices through experimental charges, have produced divergent models for <span class="hlt">melt</span> distribution at small <span class="hlt">melt</span> fractions. While some studies conclude that small amounts of <span class="hlt">melt</span> are distributed primarily along triple junctions [e.g., Wark et al., 2003], others predict an important role for <span class="hlt">melt</span> distribution along grain boundaries at low <span class="hlt">melt</span> fractions [e.g., Faul 1997]. Using X-ray synchrotron microtomography, we have obtained the first high quality non-destructive imaging of 3D <span class="hlt">melt</span> distribution in olivine-basalt aggregates. Textually equilibrated partially molten samples consisting of magnesian olivine plus 2, 5, 10, or 20% primitive basalt were synthesized at 1.5 GPa and 1350°C in experiments lasting 264-336 hours. Microtomographic images of <span class="hlt">melt</span> distribution were obtained on cylindrical <span class="hlt">cores</span>, 1 mm in diameter, at a spatial resolution of 1 micron. Textual information such as <span class="hlt">melt</span> channel size, dihedral angle and channel connectivity was then quantified using AVIZO and MATLAB. Our results indicate that as <span class="hlt">melt</span> fraction decreases, <span class="hlt">melt</span> becomes increasingly distributed along 3 grain junctions, in agreement with theoretical predictions. We do not find significant amounts of <span class="hlt">melt</span> along grain boundaries at low <span class="hlt">melt</span> fractions. We found that the true dihedral angle ranges from 50 to 70°, in agreements with results using 2D microcopy. Comparison between the samples provides a quantitative characterization of how <span class="hlt">melt</span> fraction affects <span class="hlt">melt</span> distribution including connectivity. The geometrical data have been incorporated into our network model to obtain macroscale transport properties for partially molten dunite. Results from this tomographic study thus provide constraints on rates of <span class="hlt">melt</span> migration and <span class="hlt">melt</span> extraction within the partially molten regions beneath ocean ridges. Fig 1. <span class="hlt">Melt</span> channels in an olivine-basalt sample with 10 vol% <span class="hlt">melt</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhu, W.; Gaetani, G. A.; Fusseis, F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">318</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49708959"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modeling diffusive dissolution in silicate <span class="hlt">melts</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Here empirical models for calculating self-diffusion coefficients and diffusion matrices are combined with <span class="hlt">MELTS</span>, a thermodynamic model for silicate minerals and <span class="hlt">melts</span>, to estimate diffusive dissolution rates, interface <span class="hlt">melt</span> compositions and <span class="hlt">melt</span> diffusivities. Simulations of olivine dissolution experiments in basalt show that the overall model is capable of accurately reproducing diffusive dissolution rates, and the resulting diffusion profiles, over a</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Conel M. O’D. Alexander</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">319</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999AdSpR..24.1417N"> <span id="translatedtitle">Observation of Marangoni convection in a half-zone silicon <span class="hlt">melt</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Marangoni flows in a half-zone silicon bridge under highly super-critical conditions are observed by using a X-ray radiography with Zirconium-<span class="hlt">core</span> tracers. The flow structure changes from <span class="hlt">melting</span> process of silicon to cylindrical half-zone. The tracer during the <span class="hlt">melting</span> process fluctuated between positions separated by 90-degree azimuthal angles. The tracer in the cylindrical bridge tends to stay positions with 180-degree azimuthal angles. This observation is thought to reveal asymmetric temperature distribution in the silicon half-zone <span class="hlt">melt</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nakamura, Shin; Hibiya, Taketoshi; Imaishi, Nobuyuki; Yoda, Shin-ichi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">320</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992pcmo.work...15B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Experimental determination of the solubility of iridium in silicate <span class="hlt">melts</span>: Preliminary results</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Little is known of the geochemical behavior of iridium. Normally this element is taken to be chalcophile and/or siderophile so that during planetary differentiation processes, e.g., <span class="hlt">core</span> formation, iridium is extracted from silicate phases into metallic phases. Experimental determination of the metal/silicate partition coefficient of iridium is difficult simply because it is so large. Also there are no data on the solubility behavior of iridium in silicate <span class="hlt">melts</span>. With information on the solubility of iridium in silicate <span class="hlt">melts</span> it is possible, in combination with experimental data for Fe-Ir alloys, to calculate the partition coefficient between a metallic phase and a silicate <span class="hlt">melt</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Borisov, Alexander; Dingwell, Donald B.; Oneill, Hugh St. C.; Palme, Herbert</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img 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href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">321</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001PhRvE..64a5601L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Defects and particle motions in the nonuniform <span class="hlt">melting</span> of a two-dimensional Coulomb cluster</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The defect excitation and nonuniform <span class="hlt">melting</span> of a two-dimensional Coulomb cluster with 300 charged particles (interacting with 1/r type force) in a uniform neutralizing background are studied numerically. Intrinsic defects exist around the outer circular shells surrounding the inner triangular lattice. They are the source regions for anisotropic particle thermal vibrations and then cyclic hoppings with the increasing temperature. It leads to the nonuniform <span class="hlt">melting</span> associated with the thermal motion of intrinsic defects, and then the thermal excitation of dislocation pairs and disclinations. The intrinsic defect free center <span class="hlt">core</span> has the highest <span class="hlt">melting</span> temperature. It shows the sequential losses of translational and then orientational orders.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lai, Ying-Ju; I, Lin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">322</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013CPL...564...41W"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evolutions of lamellar structure during <span class="hlt">melting</span> and solidification of Fe9577 nanoparticle from molecular dynamics simulations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A structural evolution during solidification and <span class="hlt">melting</span> processes of nanoparticle Fe9577 was investigated from MD simulations. A perfect lamellar structure, consisting alternately of fcc and hcp layers, was obtained from solidification process. A structural heredity of early embryo is proposed to explain the structural preference of solidification. Defects were found inside the solid <span class="hlt">core</span> and play the same role as surface premelting on <span class="hlt">melting</span>. hcp was found more stable than fcc in high temperature. The difference between <span class="hlt">melting</span> and solidification points can be deduced coming fully from the overcoming of thermodynamic energy barrier, instead of kinetic delay of structural relaxation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wu, Yongquan; Shen, Tong; Lu, Xionggang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">323</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.2447K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Frictional <span class="hlt">melting</span> and stick-slip behavior in volcanic conduits</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Dome-building eruptions have catastrophic potential, with dome collapse leading to devastating pyroclastic flows with almost no precursory warning. During dome growth, the driving forces of the buoyant magma may be superseded by controls along conduit margins; where brittle fracture and sliding can lead to formation of lubricating cataclasite and gouge. Under extreme friction, pseudotachylyte may form at the conduit margin. Understanding the conduit margin processes is vital to understanding the continuation of an eruption and we <span class="hlt">postulate</span> that pseudotachylyte generation could be the underlying cause of stick-slip motion and associated seismic "drumbeats", which are so commonly observed at dome-building volcanoes. This view is supported by field evidence in the form of pseudotachylytes identified in lava dome products at Soufrière Hills (Montserrat) and Mount St. Helens (USA). Both eruptions were characterised by repetitive, periodic seismicity and lava spine extrusion of highly viscous magma. High velocity rotary shear (HVR) experiments demonstrate the propensity for <span class="hlt">melting</span> of the andesitic and dacitic material (from Soufrière Hills and Mount St. Helens respectively) at upper conduit stress conditions (<10 MPa). Starting from room temperature, frictional <span class="hlt">melting</span> of the magmas occurs in under 1 s (<< 1 m) at 1.5 m/s (a speed that is achievable during stick-slip motion). At lower velocities <span class="hlt">melting</span> occurs comparatively later due to dissipation of heat from the slip zone (e.g. 8-15 m at 0.1 m/s). Hence, given the ease with which <span class="hlt">melting</span> is achieved in volcanic rocks, and considering the high ambient temperatures in volcanic conduits, frictional <span class="hlt">melting</span> may thus be an inevitable consequence of viscous magma ascent. The shear resistance of the slip zone during the experiment is also monitored. Frictional <span class="hlt">melting</span> induces a higher resistance to sliding than rock on rock, and viscous processes control the slip zone properties. Variable-rate HVR experiments which mimic rapid velocity fluctuations in stick-slip behavior demonstrate velocity-weakening behavior of <span class="hlt">melt</span>, with a tendency for unstable slip. During ascent, magma may slip and undergo <span class="hlt">melting</span> along the conduit margin. In the process the shear resistance of the slip zone is increased, acting as a viscous brake halting slip (the "stick" of stick-slip motion). Sufficient buoyancy-driven pressures from ascending magma below eventually overcome resistance to produce a rapid slip event (the "slip") along the <span class="hlt">melt</span>-bearing slip zone, which is temporarily lubricated due to velocity-weakening. New magma below experiences the same slip event more slowly (as the magma decompresses) to produce a viscous brake and the process is repeated. This allows a fixed spatial locus that explains the repetitive drumbeat seismicity and the occurrence of "families" of similar seismic events. We conclude that stick-slip motion in volcanic conduits is a self-driving, frictional-<span class="hlt">melt</span>-regulated force common to many dome building volcanoes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kendrick, Jackie Evan; Lavallee, Yan; Hirose, Takehiro; di Toro, Giulio; Hornby, Adrian Jakob; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Dingwell, Donald Bruce</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">324</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.V13D2055U"> <span id="translatedtitle">Thermodynamic modeling of mantle <span class="hlt">melting</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Partial <span class="hlt">melting</span> is an important process for both material fractionation and cooling of the Earth. Thermodynamic modeling is a powerful approach to describe the phase relation, mass balance and energy balance during <span class="hlt">melting</span>. In this study, new energy minimization algorism, the Gibbs free energy and mass balance equations expressed in appropriate forms for the minimization, and the associated thermodynamic parameters are provided to make straightforward descriptions of energy and mass balances between silicate liquid and minerals during mantle <span class="hlt">melting</span>. Thermodynamic equilibrium state of the system at constant temperature, pressure and bulk composition is determined by calculating compositions, fractions and assemblage of the phases to minimize total Gibbs free energy of the system. Algorism to minimize total Gibbs free energy of multi-component <span class="hlt">melt</span>-absent and <span class="hlt">melt</span>-present systems including solid solution has been developed in this study. The new algorism calculates gradient of total Gibbs free energy of the system with respect to any tiny perturbations on molar contents of liquid and solid end-members (i.e. dissolution, solidification or phase transition) under the constraint of a constant bulk composition. Revised molar contents of solid and liquid end-members are determined along the steepest gradient of the total Gibbs free energy of the system at each calculation step. Minimum of the Gibbs free energy of the system is found where the total Gibbs free energy of the system increases with respect to any tiny perturbation on molar contents of liquid and solid end-members in the system. The new energy minimization algorism has been applied to a natural system involving olivine, clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene, spinel and silicate liquid at 1 GPa. Compositional space of SiO2-Al2O3-FeO-Fe3O4-MgO-CaO has been investigated to describe mantle <span class="hlt">melting</span>. Molar Gibbs free energy of silicate liquid end-member is expressed in appropriate formulation for the minimization. In this formulation, parameter "dCp" (difference of molar specific heat between a liquid end-member and corresponding solid end-member) is defined to describe specific heat of each liquid end-member. Previously reported temperatures and enthalpies of <span class="hlt">melting</span> of solid end-members can be utilized to calculate molar Gibbs free energies of liquid end-members in this formulation. dCp’s and compressibilities of liquid end-members have been calibrated with compositions of silicate liquid and minerals in previously reported high-pressure <span class="hlt">melting</span> experiments and thermodynamic properties of rock forming minerals. The thermodynamic model predicts relationship between bulk composition, temperature, phase fractions and phase assemblages, including <span class="hlt">melting</span> degree during partial <span class="hlt">melting</span> of mantle peridotite, remarkably well.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ueki, K.; Iwamori, H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">325</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005GeCoA..69.4733C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Compositions of group IVB iron meteorites and their parent <span class="hlt">melt</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The concentrations of P, V, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Ga, Ge, As, Mo, Ru, Rh, Pd, W, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, and Au in the group IVB iron meteorites Cape of Good Hope, Hoba, Skookum, Santa Clara, Tawallah Valley, Tlacotepec, and Warburton Range have been measured by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The data were fitted to a model of fractional crystallization of the IVB parent body <span class="hlt">core</span>, from which the composition of the parent <span class="hlt">melt</span> and metal/<span class="hlt">melt</span> distribution coefficients for each element in the system were determined, for a chosen value of D(Ni). Relative to Ni and chondritic abundances, the parent <span class="hlt">melt</span> was enriched in refractory siderophiles, with greatest enrichment of 5× chondritic in the most refractory elements, and was strongly volatile-depleted, down to 0.00014× chondritic in Ge. Comparison to an equilibrium condensation sequence from a gas of solar composition indicates that no single temperature satisfactorily explains the volatility trend in the IVB parent <span class="hlt">melt</span>; a small (<1%) complement of ultrarefractory components added to metal that is volatile-depleted but otherwise has nearly chondritic abundances (for Fe, Co and Ni) best explains the volatility trend. In addition to this volatility processing, which probably occurred in a nebular setting, there was substantial oxidation of the metal in the IVB parent body, leading to loss of Fe and other moderately siderophile elements such as Cr, Ga, and W, and producing the high Ni contents that are observed in the IVB irons. By assuming that the entire IVB parent body underwent a similar chemical history as its <span class="hlt">core</span>, the composition of the silicate that is complementary to the IVB parent <span class="hlt">melt</span> was also estimated, and appears to be similar to that of the angrite parent.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Campbell, Andrew J.; Humayun, Munir</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">326</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/53017739"> <span id="translatedtitle">Continuous online field deployable high precision and high resolution water isotope analysis from ice <span class="hlt">cores</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">One of the most important features of ice <span class="hlt">cores</span> as climate and atmospheric paleoarchives is their potential for high temporal resolution. The measurement of chemical impurities in ice <span class="hlt">cores</span> that fully exploits this high resolution has become standard with the advent of Continuous Flow Analysis (CFA) from continuously <span class="hlt">melted</span> ice <span class="hlt">core</span> segments, often performed in the field. Meanwhile, the measurement</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vasileios Gkinis; Trevor Popp; Sigfus Johnsen; Thomas Blunier; Christopher Stowasser; Ernesto Kettner</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">327</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57626729"> <span id="translatedtitle">Thermal properties of Three Mile Island Unit 2 <span class="hlt">core</span> debris and simulated debris</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Thermal properties of molten and mixed <span class="hlt">core</span> materials are required to be known for effective analysis of <span class="hlt">core</span> damage in severe accidents at nuclear power plants. The specific heat capacity, thermal expansion coefficient, thermal diffusivity, and <span class="hlt">melting</span> temperature were measured or estimated on the <span class="hlt">core</span> debris samples of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) reactor and simulated debris (SIMDEBRIS),</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fumihisa Nagase; Hiroshi Uetsuka</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">328</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/839461"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fundamentals of <span class="hlt">Melt</span>-Water Interfacial Transport Phenomena: Improved Understanding for Innovative Safety Technologies in ALWRs</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The interaction and mixing of high-temperature <span class="hlt">melt</span> and water is the important technical issue in the safety assessment of water-cooled reactors to achieve ultimate <span class="hlt">core</span> coolability. For specific advanced light water reactor (ALWR) designs, deliberate mixing of the <span class="hlt">core-melt</span> and water is being considered as a mitigative measure, to assure ex-vessel <span class="hlt">core</span> coolability. The goal of this work is to provide the fundamental understanding needed for <span class="hlt">melt</span>-water interfacial transport phenomena, thus enabling the development of innovative safety technologies for advanced LWRs that will assure ex-vessel <span class="hlt">core</span> coolability. The work considers the ex-vessel coolability phenomena in two stages. The first stage is the <span class="hlt">melt</span> quenching process and is being addressed by Argonne National Lab and University of Wisconsin in modified test facilities. Given a quenched <span class="hlt">melt</span> in the form of solidified debris, the second stage is to characterize the long-term debris cooling process and is being addressed by Korean Maritime University in via test and analyses. We then address the appropriate scaling and design methodologies for reactor applications.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. Anderson; M. Corradini; K.Y. Bank; R. Bonazza; D. Cho</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-04-26</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">329</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6435838"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Core</span> breaker</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This patent describes a continuous mining machine having at least a pair of horizontally spaced and aligned rotatable cutter drums, an improved <span class="hlt">core</span> breaker operatively associated with the cutter drums and comprising: an arcuate fixed support disposed between the drums; an elongated bit holder fixed to and extending outwardly from the support; the holder structure having a series of longitudinally spaced, <span class="hlt">core</span> breaker bit accommodating apertures extending therethrough; each aperture being defined by a smaller diameter outer bore, a larger diameter inner bore and a shoulder extending generally normal to the aperture axis separating the bores; and a bit element and expansion ring assembly disposed in operative association with the cutter drums, accommodated in each aperture.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Morgan, V.B.; Mc Kinney, J.F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-06-02</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">330</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JGRC..117.6003L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Rapid barotropic sea level rise from ice sheet <span class="hlt">melting</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Sea level rise associated with idealized Greenland and Antarctic ice sheet <span class="hlt">melting</span> events is examined using a global coupled ocean sea-ice model that has a free surface formulation and thus can simulate fast barotropic motions. The perturbation experiments follow the Coordinated Ocean-ice Reference Experiment (<span class="hlt">CORE</span>) version III. All regions of the global ocean experience a sea level rise within 7-8 days of the initialization of a polar meltwater input of 0.1 Sv (1 Sv ? 106 m3 s-1). The fast adjustment contrasts sharply with the slower adjustment associated with the smaller steric sea level evolution that is also connected with <span class="hlt">melt</span> events. The global mean sea level rises by 9 mm yr-1 when this forcing is applied either from Greenland or Antarctica. Nevertheless, horizontal inter-basin gradients in sea level remain. For climate adaption in low-lying coastal and island regions, it is critical that the barotropic sea level signal associated with <span class="hlt">melt</span> events is taken into consideration, as it leads to a fast sea level rise from <span class="hlt">melting</span> ice sheets for the bulk of the global ocean. A linear relation between sea level rise and global meltwater input is further supported by experiments in which idealized <span class="hlt">melting</span> occurs only in a region east or west of the Antarctic Peninsula, and when <span class="hlt">melting</span> rates are varied between 0.01 Sv and 1.0 Sv. The results indicate that in ocean models that do not explicitly represent the barotropic signal, the barotropic component of sea level rise can be added off-line to the simulated steric signal.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lorbacher, K.; Marsland, S. J.; Church, J. A.; Griffies, S. M.; Stammer, D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">331</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18825292"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Melting</span> and freezing of water in cylindrical silica nanopores.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Freezing and <span class="hlt">melting</span> of H(2)O and D(2)O in the cylindrical pores of well-characterized MCM-41 silica materials (pore diameters from 2.5 to 4.4 nm) was studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and (1)H NMR cryoporometry. Well-resolved DSC <span class="hlt">melting</span> and freezing peaks were obtained for pore diameters down to 3.0 nm, but not in 2.5 nm pores. The pore size dependence of the <span class="hlt">melting</span> point depression DeltaT(m) can be represented by the Gibbs-Thomson equation when the existence of a layer of nonfreezing water at the pore walls is taken into account. The DSC measurements also show that the hysteresis connected with the phase transition, and the <span class="hlt">melting</span> enthalpy of water in the pores, both vanish near a pore diameter D* approximately equal to 2.8 nm. It is concluded that D* represents a lower limit for first-order <span class="hlt">melting</span>/freezing in the pores. The NMR spin echo measurements show that a transition from low to high mobility of water molecules takes place in all MCM-41 materials, including the one with 2.5 nm pores, but the transition revealed by NMR occurs at a higher temperature than indicated by the DSC <span class="hlt">melting</span> peaks. The disagreement between the NMR and DSC transition temperatures becomes more pronounced as the pore size decreases. This is attributed to the fact that with decreasing pore size an increasing fraction of the water molecules is situated in the first and second molecular layers next to the pore wall, and these molecules have slower dynamics than the molecules in the <span class="hlt">core</span> of the pore. PMID:18825292</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jähnert, S; Vaca Chávez, F; Schaumann, G E; Schreiber, A; Schönhoff, M; Findenegg, G H</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-08-13</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">332</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24141723"> <span id="translatedtitle">Eutectic <span class="hlt">melting</span> in metal borohydrides.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A series of monometallic borohydrides and borohydride eutectic mixtures have been investigated during thermal ramping by mass spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and photography. Mixtures of LiBH4-NaBH4, LiBH4-KBH4, LiBH4-Mg(BH4)2, LiBH4-Ca(BH4)2, LiBH4-Mn(BH4)2, NaBH4-KBH4, and LiBH4-NaBH4-KBH4 all displayed <span class="hlt">melting</span> behaviour below that of the monometallic phases (up to 167 °C lower). Generally, each system behaves differently with respect to their physical behaviour upon <span class="hlt">melting</span>. The molten phases can exhibit colour changes, bubbling and in some cases frothing, or even liquid-solid phase transitions during hydrogen release. Remarkably, the eutectic <span class="hlt">melt</span> can also allow for hydrogen release at temperatures lower than that of the individual components. Some systems display decomposition of the borohydride in the solid-state before <span class="hlt">melting</span> and certain hydrogen release events have also been linked to the adverse reaction of samples with impurities, usually within the starting reagents, and these may also be coupled with bubbling or frothing of the ionic <span class="hlt">melt</span>. PMID:24141723</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Paskevicius, Mark; Ley, Morten B; Sheppard, Drew A; Jensen, Torben R; Buckley, Craig E</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-21</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">333</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26600224"> <span id="translatedtitle">SCDAP\\/RELAP5 application to CANDU6 fuel channel analysis under <span class="hlt">postulated</span> LLOCA\\/LOECC conditions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Using SCDAP\\/RELAP5 (RELAP\\/SCDAPSIM Mod 3.4), a model with <span class="hlt">postulated</span> boundary conditions has been developed to simulate the evolution of the fuel channel in a CANada Deuterium Uranium reactor type (CANDU6) during a large loss of coolant accident (LLOCA) with a coincidence of a loss of emergency cooling (LOECC). The accident simulation is initiated from the steady-state flow regime and different</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. Mladin; D. Dupleac; I. Prisecaru</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">334</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.apsnet.org/edcenter/k-12/teachersguide/brownrot/Pages/default.aspx"> <span id="translatedtitle">Who Done It? Or what's that brown fuzzy stuff on my plum? (Koch's <span class="hlt">Postulates</span> for Proof of Pathogenicity)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This resource demonstrates how plant pathologists and microbiologists determine what pathogens cause disease in plants or animals. In this lab students will learn about Kochs <span class="hlt">Postulates</span>, the critical steps used to prove that a particular microbe is the cause of a specific disease in a host organism (plant or animal). This lesson is suitable for grades 7-12 and does not require the purchase or maintenance of special cultures. A simplified exercise, without cultures, to demonstrate the Germ Theory also is described.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Claudia A. Jasalavich (Nashua, NH ;); Gail L. Schumann (University of Massachusetts, Amherst;)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-11-28</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">335</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/119875"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ferrocyanide Safety Program: Analysis of <span class="hlt">postulated</span> energetic reactions and resultant aerosol generation in Hanford Site Waste Tanks</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This report reviews work done to estimate the possible consequences of <span class="hlt">postulated</span> energetic reactions in ferrocyanide waste stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site. The issue of explosive reactions was raised in the 1987 Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), where a detonation-like explosion was <span class="hlt">postulated</span> for the purpose of defining an upper bound on dose consequences for various disposal options. A review of the explosion scenario by the General Accounting Office (GAO) indicated that the aerosol generation and consequent radioactive doses projected for the explosion <span class="hlt">postulated</span> in the EIS were understated by one to two orders of magnitude. The US DOE has sponsored an extensive study of the hazard posed by uncontrolled exothermic reactions in ferrocyanide waste, and results obtained during the past three years have allowed this hazard to be more realistically assessed. The objective of this report is to summarize the improved knowledge base that now indicates that explosive or vigorous chemical reactions are not credible in the ferrocyanide waste stored in underground tanks. This improved understanding supports the decision not to proceed with further analyses or predictions of the consequences of such an event or with aerosol tests in support of such predictions. 53 refs., 2 tabs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Postma, A.K. [G and P Consulting, Inc., Dallas, OR (United States); Dickinson, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">336</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFMMR31B..04N"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Core</span> formation in silicate bodies</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Differentiation of a body into a metallic <span class="hlt">core</span> and silicate mantle occurs most efficiently if temperatures are high enough to allow at least the metal to <span class="hlt">melt</span> [1], and is enhanced if matrix deformation occurs [2]. Elevated temperatures may occur due to either decay of short-lived radio-isotopes, or gravitational energy release during accretion [3]. For bodies smaller than the Moon, <span class="hlt">core</span> formation happens primarily due to radioactive decay. The Hf-W isotopic system may be used to date <span class="hlt">core</span> formation; <span class="hlt">cores</span> in some iron meteorites and the eucrite parent body (probably Vesta) formed within 1 My and 1-4~My of solar system formation, respectively [4]. These formation times are early enough to ensure widespread <span class="hlt">melting</span> and differentiation by 26Al decay. Incorporation of Fe60 into the <span class="hlt">core</span>, together with rapid early mantle solidification and cooling, may have driven early dynamo activity on some bodies [5]. Iron meteorites are typically depleted in sulphur relative to chondrites, for unknown reasons [6]. This depletion contrasts with the apparently higher sulphur contents of <span class="hlt">cores</span> in larger planetary bodies, such as Mars [7], and also has a significant effect on the timing of <span class="hlt">core</span> solidification. For bodies of Moon-size and larger, gravitational energy released during accretion is probably the primary cause of <span class="hlt">core</span> formation [3]. The final stages of accretion involve large, stochastic collisions [8] between objects which are already differentiated. During each collision, the metallic <span class="hlt">cores</span> of the colliding objects merge on timescales of a few hours [9]. Each collision will reset the Hf-W isotopic signature of both mantle and <span class="hlt">core</span>, depending on the degree to which the impactor <span class="hlt">core</span> re-equilibrates with the mantle of the target [10]. The re-equilibration efficiency depends mainly on the degree to which the impactor emulsifies [11], which is very uncertain. Results from N-body simulations [8,12] suggest that significant degrees of re- equilibration are required [4,10]. Re-equilibration is also suggested by mantle siderophile abundances [13], though simple partitioning models do not capture the likely complex P,T evolution during successive giant impacts. The timescale of Martian <span class="hlt">core</span> formation is currently uncertain (0-10 My) [14], though it is clear that Martian <span class="hlt">core</span> formation ended before that of the Earth. [1] Stevenson, in Origin of the Earth, 1990. [2] Groebner and Kohlstedt, EPSL 2006. [3] Rubie et al., Treatise Geophys. 2007. [4] Kleine et al., GCA submitted. [5] Weiss et al., LPSC 39, 2008. [6] Keil and Wilson, EPSL 1993 [7] Wanke and Dreibus, PTRSL, 1984. [8] Agnor et al. Icarus 1999 [9] Canup and Asphaug, Nature 2001 [10] Nimmo and Agnor, EPSL 2006. [11] Rubie et al., EPSL 2003 [12] O'Brien et al, Icarus 2006 [13] Righter, AREPS 2003. [14] Nimmo and Kleine, Icarus 2007.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nimmo, F.; O'Brien, D. P.; Kleine, T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">337</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17055433"> <span id="translatedtitle">Role of the sigma factor in transcription initiation in the absence of <span class="hlt">core</span> RNA polymerase.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Sigma factors (sigmas) are bacterial transcription factors that bind <span class="hlt">core</span> RNA polymerase (RNAP) and direct transcription initiation at cognate promoter sites. However, most of their functions have been investigated in the context of RNAP. This has made the exact function of sigma, and the importance of <span class="hlt">core</span> RNAP in modulating sigma function, ambiguous. Here we identify a Bacillus subtilis mutant sigma(A) that is independently capable of specific binding and <span class="hlt">melting</span> of the promoter DNA. Interestingly, specific and independent promoter binding of sigma is sufficient for the temperature- and Mg(2+)-independent <span class="hlt">melting</span> of promoter DNA around the transcription start site, in contrast to the temperature- and Mg(2+)-dependent <span class="hlt">melting</span> by RNAP around the promoter -10 element. Thus <span class="hlt">core</span> RNAP is able to negatively modulate the sigma-initiated <span class="hlt">melting</span> of the transcription start site and, by sensing the changes in temperature and Mg(2+) concentration, to regulate the efficiency of promoter -10 <span class="hlt">melting</span>. PMID:17055433</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hsu, Hsin-Hsien; Chung, Kuei-Min; Chen, Tsung-Ching; Chang, Ban-Yang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-10-20</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">338</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012M%26PS...47..330S"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Melt</span> inclusions in augite from the nakhlite meteorites: A reassessment of nakhlite parental <span class="hlt">melt</span> and implications for petrogenesis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The nakhlites, a subgroup of eight clinopyroxenites thought to come from a single geological unit at the Martian surface, show <span class="hlt">melt</span> inclusions in augite and olivine. In contrast to olivine-hosted <span class="hlt">melt</span> inclusions, augite-hosted <span class="hlt">melt</span> inclusions are not surrounded by fractures, and are thus considered preferential candidates for reconstructing parent liquid compositions. Furthermore, two types of augite-hosted <span class="hlt">melt</span> inclusion have been defined and characterized in four different nakhlites (Northwest Africa [NWA] 817, Nakhla, Governador Valadares, and NWA 998): Type-I isolated inclusions in augite <span class="hlt">cores</span> that contain euhedral to subhedral augite, Ti-magnetite, and pigeonite plus silica-rich glass and a gas bubble; Type-II microinclusions that form trails crosscutting host augite crystals. Fast-heating experiments were performed on selected pristine primary augite-hosted <span class="hlt">melt</span> inclusions from these four samples. Of these, only data from Nakhla were considered robust for reconstruction of a nakhlite parental magma composition (NPM). Based upon careful petrographic selection and consideration of iron-magnesium ratios, our data are used to propose an NPM, which is basaltic (49.1 wt% SiO2), of high Ca/Al (1.95), and K2O-poor (0.32 wt%). Thermodynamic modeling at an oxygen fugacity one log unit below the QFM buffer using the <span class="hlt">MELTS</span> and PETROLOG programs implies that Mg-rich olivine was not a liquidus phase for this composition. Our analysis is used to suggest that olivine megacrysts found in the nakhlites are unlikely to have coprecipitated with augite, and thus may have been introduced during or subsequent to accumulation in the magma chamber, possibly from more evolved portions of the same chamber.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sautter, Violaine; Toplis, Michael J.; Lorand, Jean-Pierre; Macri, Michele</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">339</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.V53A2236R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Oxygen and silicon partitioning between molten iron and silicate <span class="hlt">melts</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Earth’s <span class="hlt">core</span> is mainly composed of a Fe-Ni alloy. The <span class="hlt">core</span> density deficit compared to the density of pure iron requires the presence of light elements in addition to Fe and Ni. Si and O are among the likely candidates. Previous experimental studies have focused on the system Fe-(Mg, Fe)O to interpret the behavior of oxygen in iron <span class="hlt">melts</span>, (Mg,Fe)O being used as a proxy for the silicate phase. In this study, we investigated directly the partitioning of oxygen and silicon between molten iron and silicate <span class="hlt">melts</span>. We used 2 starting materials, prepared by mixing Fe and FeO, MgO and SiO2 in different proportions. Experiments were performed in MgO capsules at 2, 7, 14, and 21 GPa at temperatures of 2273, 2573, and 2873 K, using piston cylinder and multi-anvil presses. Recovered samples were analyzed with an electron microprobe. The partition coefficients of oxygen and silicon between metal and silicate were determined as a function of pressure, temperature and oxygen fugacity. The measured data are used with literature data to parameterize thermodynamically the partitioning of oxygen and silicon. The derived relationships reveal significant influence of oxygen fugacity on the partitioning of oxygen and silicon. Silicon partitioning depends more strongly on pressure than temperature, and the inverse is observed for oxygen. if the observed trends are valid at higher pressures, considering continuous <span class="hlt">core</span> segregation under progressively oxidizing conditions as recently proposed, the <span class="hlt">core</span> would contain about 8 wt% Si and less than 0.5 wt% O. In this case, Si would be the main contributor to the light element budget in the <span class="hlt">core</span>. In comparison, for a single-stage scenario at oxygen fugacity of IW-2 and equilibration pressure of 40 GPa, the <span class="hlt">core</span> would only contain about 2 wt% Si and 1 wt% O.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ricolleau, A.; Fei, Y.; Siebert, J.; Corgne, A.; Badro, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">340</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhRvD..88f5012J"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hadron <span class="hlt">melting</span> and QCD thermodynamics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We study in this paper mechanisms of hadron <span class="hlt">melting</span> based on the spectral representation of hadronic quantum channels, and examine the hadron-width dependence of the pressure. The findings are applied to a statistical hadron model of QCD thermodynamics, where hadron masses are distributed by the Hagedorn model and a uniform mechanism for producing hadron widths is assumed. According to this model the hadron–quark-gluon plasma transition occurs at T?200–250MeV, and the numerically observable Tc=156MeV crossover temperature is relevant for the onset of the hadron <span class="hlt">melting</span> process.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jakovác, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" 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<a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">341</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/55689345"> <span id="translatedtitle">Synthetic Ice <span class="hlt">Core</span> Modeling on the Prince of Wales Icefield, Ellesmere Island, Canada</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We compare delta 18O values modeled using a spatially-calibrated, two source region Rayleigh distillation model developed for the Prince of Wales Icefield, Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, Canada against measured delta 18O values from two ice <span class="hlt">core</span> sites on the icefield. The sites are <span class="hlt">melt</span>-affected to different degrees, with a low-<span class="hlt">melt</span> site (FC) experiencing limited amounts of <span class="hlt">melting</span> in warm summers and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">T. Moran; S. J. Marshall</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">342</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.V24B..07W"> <span id="translatedtitle">Partial <span class="hlt">Melting</span> of Deeply-Subducted Eclogite: Implications for <span class="hlt">Melt</span> Transport, Rheology, and Decratonization (Invited)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report textural and geochronological data from <span class="hlt">melts</span> derived from deeply-subducted eclogite in the Sulu orogen, China that are similar in composition and age to <span class="hlt">melts</span> thought to be responsible for the thermo-chemical erosion of the root of the North China craton. Successive stages of partial <span class="hlt">melting</span> are preserved from initial grain boundary <span class="hlt">melting</span> to small pockets of <span class="hlt">melt</span> accumulation in pressure shadow areas, which then aggregate to form <span class="hlt">melt</span> channels and dykes that transported large volumes of magma from the <span class="hlt">melting</span> region to higher in the lithosphere. This is the direct evidence from outcrop scale indicating partial <span class="hlt">melting</span> from the deeply subducted eclogite. This has important implications for interpreting seismic signals and the rheological structure and mechanical behaviour of the deep crust, the interaction between deformation and magmatic processes, and <span class="hlt">melt</span> transportation proceses in deeply subducted lithosphere. Partial <span class="hlt">melting</span> of eclogite from deeply subducted oceanic or lower continental crust may be an important process in determining the mechanical behavior of subducted lithosphere and its rapid exhumation, for flow of deep crustal material, and for destruction of cratonic roots. Field photos and sketches showing the partial <span class="hlt">melting</span> process: I. Early stage of partial <span class="hlt">melting</span>, finger shaped <span class="hlt">melts</span> start to aggregate within the hinge of the isoclinal eclogite fold; II. Medium stage of partial <span class="hlt">melting</span>, <span class="hlt">melt</span> channels interlayered and flowing surrounding the sheared folded eclogite; III. Mature stage of partial <span class="hlt">melting</span>, <span class="hlt">melt</span> aggregates into larger scale and form the felsic <span class="hlt">melt</span> as a dyke.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wang, L.; Kusky, T. M.; Zong, K.; Guo, L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">343</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/55323414"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Melting</span> properties of iron alloys at high pressure determined by in situ X-ray diffraction</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">It is well established that the Earth's liquid outer <span class="hlt">core</span> is less dense than a pure Fe-Ni liquid alloy. The so-called ``<span class="hlt">core</span> density deficit'' is currently estimated around 5-10 wt % 1 and is attributed to the presence of light elements dissolved in an iron-rich liquid alloy. <span class="hlt">Melting</span> temperature of pure Fe can be largely affected by the addition of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">G. Morard; D. Andrault; N. Guignot; D. Antonangeli; J. Siebert; G. Garbarino</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">344</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=AD643146"> <span id="translatedtitle">Gasb Prepared from Nonstoichiometric <span class="hlt">Melts</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Gallium antimonide single crystals were prepared from <span class="hlt">melts</span> ranging in composition from nearly stoichiometric to Sb/Ga atom ratios of about 3/1. P-type GaSb and, by suitable impurity additions, n-type GaSb have been produced with superior electrical prope...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">F. J. Reid R. D. Baxter S. E. Miller</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1966-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">345</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011CoMP..161..497S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Transcrystalline <span class="hlt">melt</span> migration in clinopyroxene</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Glass inclusions in clinopyroxene phenocrysts from La Sommata (Vulcano Island, Aeolian Arc) were reheated and submitted to a sustained thermal gradient. Each remelted inclusion undergoes a transient textural and chemical reequilibration and concomitantly begins to migrate along a crystallographic direction, at a small angle with the thermal gradient. The completion of morphological evolution requires a characteristic time that is governed by chemical diffusion. Chemical reequilibration results in the formation of a colored halo that delineates the former location and shape of the inclusion after it has migrated away. Transcrystalline migration proceeds by dissolution of the host clinopyroxene ahead and precipitation astern. Its rate is not limited by Fick's law, but by the crystal-<span class="hlt">melt</span> interface kinetics. Clinopyroxene dissolution and growth are slower than for olivine in similar conditions but obey the same analytical law, which can be transposed to equally or more sluggish <span class="hlt">melting</span> or crystallization events in nature. When a gas bubble is initially present, it responds to elastic forces by quickly shifting toward the cold end of the inclusion, where it soon becomes engulfed as an isolated fluid inclusion in the reprecipitated crystal. This study confirms that transcrystalline <span class="hlt">melt</span> migration, beside its possible implications for small-scale <span class="hlt">melt</span> segregation and fluid-inclusion generation in the Earth's mantle, provides an experimental access to interfacial kinetic laws in near-equilibrium conditions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sonzogni, Yann; Provost, Ariel; Schiano, Pierre</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">346</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA432066"> <span id="translatedtitle">Polymer Nanocomposites by <span class="hlt">Melt</span> Processing.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The objective of this project was to establish the basic principles of formation of polymer-organoclay nanocomposites by <span class="hlt">melt</span> processing techniques and their performance. The key issue is to exfoliate, or disperse, the clay platelets in the polymer so tha...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. R. Paul</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">347</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://antoine.frostburg.edu/chem/senese/101/solutions/faq/why-salt-melts-ice.shtml"> <span id="translatedtitle">Why does salt <span class="hlt">melt</span> ice?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This tutorial on the chemical interaction between salt and ice explains how molecules on the surface of the ice escape into the water (<span class="hlt">melting</span>), and how molecules of water are captured on the surface of the ice (freezing). It was created by the Chemistry Department at Frostburg State University (no, really).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Senese, Fred</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">348</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.cs.indiana.edu/svp/4297581/FID1/m97052961.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Intelligent control of cupola <span class="hlt">melting</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The cupola is a furnace used for <span class="hlt">melting</span> steel scrap, cast iron scrap, and ferroalloys to produce cast iron. Its main energy source is coal coke. It is one of the oldest methods of producing cast iron, and it remains the dominate method because of its simplicity and low fuel cost. Cupolas range in size from 18 inches to 13</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">E. D. Larsen; D. E. Clark; K. L. Moore; P. E. King</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">349</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012espc.conf..783C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Differentiation and <span class="hlt">melting</span> of Rhea</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Thermal history of Rhea from the beginning of accretion is investigated. Large scale <span class="hlt">melting</span> of the satellite's matter and gravitational differentiation of silicates from ices are considered. The results indicate that the partial differentiation of the matter of the satellite's interior is possible only for narrow range of parameter.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Czechowski, L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">350</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998LPICo.957R...2B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Osmium Solubility in Silicate <span class="hlt">Melts</span>: New Efforts and New Results</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In a recent paper, Borisov and Palme reported the first experimental results on the partitioning of Os between metal (Ni-rich OsNi alloys) and silicate <span class="hlt">melt</span> of anorthite-diopside eutectic composition at 1400 C and 1 atm total pressure and and at function of O2 from 10-8 to 10-12 atm. Experiments were done by equilibrating OsNi metal loops with silicate <span class="hlt">melt</span>. Metal and glass were analyzed separately by INAA. D(sup 0s) ranged from 106 to 107, which is inconsistent with <span class="hlt">core</span>/ mantle equilibrium for HSEs and favors the late veneer hypothesis. Unfortunately, there was practically no function of O2 dependence of Os partitioning, and the scatter of experimental results was quite serious, so the formation of Os nuggets was suspected. This new set of experiments was specifically designed to avoid of at least minimize the nugget problem</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Borisov, A.; Walker, R. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">351</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.irsn.fr/fr/larecherche/information_scientifique/publications_documentation/bdd_publi/documents/coloss_pub_ned_2003.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">CORE</span> LOSS DURING A SEVERE ACCIDENT (COLOSS)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The COLOSS project is a 3-year shared-cost action which started in February 2000. The project is concerned with the consequences that <span class="hlt">core</span> degradation, occurring under Severe Accident conditions, may have on H2 production, <span class="hlt">melt</span> generation and the source term. Unresolved in-vessel risk-relevant issues are studied, through a large number of experiments such as a) UO2 and MOX dissolution by molten</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">B. Adroguer; P. Chatelard; J. P. Van Dorsselaere; C. Duriez; N. Cocuaud; L. Bellenfant; D. Bottomley; V. Vrtilkova; K. Mueller; W. Hering; C. Homann; W. Krauss; A. Miassoedov; M. Steinbrück; J. Stuckert; Z. Hozer; G. Bandini; J. Birchley; M. Buck; J. A. F. Benitez; E. Virtanen; S. Marguet; G. Azarian; H. Plank; M. Veshchunov; Y. Zvonarev; A. Goryachev</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">352</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.8252O"> <span id="translatedtitle">Redox viscometry of ferropicrite <span class="hlt">melt</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The rheology governs the dynamics of magmas at all scales (i.e. partial <span class="hlt">melting</span>, magmatic chamber emplacement, lava flow behavior). It is also a fundamental constraint on volcanic morphology and landforms. Most terrestrial volcanic flows have moderate iron contents up to 10 wt% but some basalts show contain up to 16 wt%. These ferropicrites range from the Archean to recent, typically forming thin isolated flows near the base of thick lava piles in large igneous provinces, are not well understood. Although ferropicrites are rare on Earth's surface they are believed to be abundant on Mars. Analyses of Martian rocks (from remote sensing data, in situ measurements and meteorite analyses) display up to 20 wt% FeO. Studying these compositions will help to constrain the physical nature and evolution of the volcanism on Mars. The influence of iron on the structure and properties of magmatic <span class="hlt">melts</span>, remains controversial. Simple system investigations indicate an as yet insufficiently parameterized influence of the oxidation state of iron on the rheology and other properties of silicate <span class="hlt">melts</span>. The dependence of shear viscosity on the oxidation state of ferrosilicate <span class="hlt">melts</span> has been measured using the concentric cylinder method and a gas mixing furnace. Previously, two different simple Fe-bearing systems have been studied: (i) anorthite-diopside eutectic composition (AnDi) with variable amount of Fe (up to 20 wt%) as a basalt analog and (ii) sodium disilicate (NS2) with up to 30 wt % Fe. Two natural compositions have been previously investigated, a phonolite and a pantellerite. Here, the compositional range has been extended to the more complex ferropicrite composition using the Adirondack class rock, a typical martian basalt (with low Al content and Fe up to 18,7 wt%). The experimental procedure involves a continuous measurement of viscosity at constant temperature during stepwise reduction state. The <span class="hlt">melt</span> is reduced by flowing CO2 and then successively reducing mixtures of CO2-CO. The composition and oxidation state of the <span class="hlt">melt</span> is monitored by obtaining a <span class="hlt">melt</span> sample after each redox equilibrium step. The <span class="hlt">melts</span> are sampled by dipping an alumina rod into the sample and drawing out a drop of liquid, which is then plunged into water for quenching. The resulting glasses are analyzed by electron microprobe, and the volumetric potassium dichromate titration is employed to determine FeO content. So far we observed a very low viscosity for high iron content samples and a decrease of the viscosity with increasing Fe content. Moreover, the viscosity of all <span class="hlt">melts</span> investigated to date decreases with <span class="hlt">melt</span> reduction. The viscosity decrease is, in general, a nonlinear function of oxidation state expressed as Fe2+/Fetot and can be fitted using logarithmic equation. The range of viscosity is compared to previous experimental studies and will help to understand morphological observations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Oryaëlle Chevrel, Magdalena; Potuzak, Marcel; Dingwell, Donald B.; Hess, Kai-Uwe</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">353</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/14899"> <span id="translatedtitle">Volatilization of Fission Products from Metallic <span class="hlt">Melts</span> in the <span class="hlt">Melt</span>-Dilute Treatment Technology Development for Al-Based DOE Spent Nuclear Fuels</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">melt</span>-dilute treatment technology is being developed to facilitate the ultimate disposition of highly enriched Al-Base DOE spent nuclear fuels in a geologic repository such as that proposed for Yucca Mountain. Currently, approximately 28 MTHM is expected to be returned to the Savannah River Site from domestic and foreign research reactors. The <span class="hlt">melt</span>-dilute treatment technology will <span class="hlt">melt</span> the fuel assemblies to reduce their volume and alloys them with depleted uranium to isotopically dilute the 235U concentration. The resulting alloy is cast into a form for long term geologic repository storage. Benefits accrued from the <span class="hlt">melt</span>-dilute process include the potential for significant volume reduction; reduced criticality potential, and proliferation concerns. A critical technology element in the development of the <span class="hlt">melt</span>-dilute process is the development of offgas system requirements. The volatilization of radioactive species during the <span class="hlt">melting</span> stage of the process primarily constitutes the offgas in this process. Several of the species present following irradiation of a fuel assembly have been shown to be volatile or semi-volatile under reactor <span class="hlt">core</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span>-down conditions. Some of the key species that have previously been studied are krypton, iodine, and cesium. All of these species have been shown to volatilize during <span class="hlt">melting</span> experiments however, the degree to which they are released is highly dependent upon atmosphere, fuel burnup, temperature, and fuel composition. With this in mind an analytical and experimental program has been undertaken to assess the volatility and capture of species under the <span class="hlt">melt</span>-dilute operating conditions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Adams, T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-11-18</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">354</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.9122C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Differentiation, mineralogy and <span class="hlt">melting</span> of Rhea</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Rhea is a medium sized icy satellite (MIS) of Saturn. It is built of mixtures of rocks and ices. The rocky component is believed to be of chondritic composition. The main component of ices is frozen H2O. Initially Rhea was built from a homogenous mixture of those two components. After accretion the temperature of the satellites increased that allowed for the separation of rocky component from the ices. During this differentiation the high density silicate grains sink in the liquid, eventually forming the central <span class="hlt">core</span>. The low density matter forms an upper layer. Analysis of the Doppler data acquired by the Cassini spacecraft yields the mass of Rhea and its gravity field with unprecedented accuracy - Iess, et al., 2007, Icarus 190, 585-593. Eventually they conclude: "The one model that fits the gravity data and is self-consistent […] is an "almost undifferentiated" Rhea, in which a very large uniform <span class="hlt">core</span> is surrounded by a relatively thin ice shell containing no rock at all". In the present paper we try to find explanation of these observations by thermal model of evolution. Comparing to our previous models, we include here also the influence of the chemical reactions. Our numerical model is based on the parameterized theory of convection combined with FDM (Finite Difference Method). The approach is based on the 1 dimensional equation of the heat transfer in spherical coordinates. The model includes sources and sinks of the heat: radiogenic heat resulting from the decay of isotopes, latent heat of <span class="hlt">melting</span>, latent heat of solidification, and chemical reactions. The heat of accretion is included as initial temperature of the accreted layer. The heat transported by convection is included by multiplying the coefficient of the heat conduction in the considered layer by the Nusselt number. We found that partial differentiation followed by uprising of light component is consistent with observations of gravity and surface of Rhea if silicate density is high (i.e. 3500 kg/m3). However, our calculation indicates that partial <span class="hlt">melting</span> is possible only for narrow range of parameters. It makes possible to determine the time of accretion of Rhea. Without consideration of chemical reaction the time from forming CAI to the end of accretion is probably from 2.9 to 4.1 My. However, if chemical reactions are included the age cannot be determined with the same precision because the observational data are in agreement with the fully differentiated model.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Czechowski, Leszek; Losiak, Anna</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">355</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6152356"> <span id="translatedtitle">Lower <span class="hlt">core</span> support assembly defueling plans and tools</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Prior to February 1985 it was the accepted technical opinion that little or no fuel <span class="hlt">melting</span> had occurred in the TMI-2 <span class="hlt">core</span> during the accident of March 28, 1979. However, at this time a camera was inserted between the <span class="hlt">core</span> support cylinder and the reactor vessel wall. This camera was inserted into the vessel down to the vicinity of the lower head. Large rough pieces of corium were observed. The largest of which was approximately 8 inches across. Most of the lower head of the reactor vessel appeared full of rubble. This observation demonstrated that the material in the reactor vessel lower head did not pass through the steam generators with the reactor coolant water and deposit in the lower head due to passing through a region of low velocity. Instead, the rubble material in the lower head would have to have come directly from the <span class="hlt">core</span> region above the lower head and the most likely transport method was that the <span class="hlt">core</span> had <span class="hlt">melted</span> and the <span class="hlt">core</span> material flowed to its present resting place. <span class="hlt">Core</span> <span class="hlt">melting</span> and its impact on the reactor vessel lower internals and the reactor lower head must therefore be seriously considered. In order to defuel in lower head and remove large solidified pieces of corium a large hole would have to be made through the lower <span class="hlt">core</span> support assembly (LCSA) to provide access to the lower head. This report describes the cutting planning, the cutting tools, the defueling tools and the methods of disposition of the cut pieces.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ryan, R.F.; Blumberg, R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">356</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB268490"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Gallium <span class="hlt">Melting</span>-Point Standard.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This Special Publication contains a series of papers published in Clinical Chemistry concerning the Bureau's temperature measurement system, the gallium <span class="hlt">melting</span>-point as a thermometric fixed-point, how the gallium <span class="hlt">melting</span>-point fits into the measurement s...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">B. W. Mangum D. D. Thornton</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1977-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">357</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.P14A..07P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Water Storage and Early Hydrous <span class="hlt">Melting</span> of the Martian Mantle</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present an experimental investigation of a water-saturated analogue of the Martian mantle at low temperature (700-920°C) and high pressure (4-7GPa) using a multi-anvil apparatus. The results of this study are used to explore the role of water in the early chemical differentiation of the planet, and to further our understanding of the near-solidus behavior in planetary mantle compositions at high pressure. Water has a significant effect on the temperature of <span class="hlt">melting</span> and therefore, on accretion and subsequent differentiation processes. Results show that the wet solidus reaction, located at ~800°C, remains at that temperature between 4GPa and 7GPa. The Martian primitive mantle can store significant amounts of water in hydrous minerals stable near the solidus. Humite minerals and phase E represent the most abundant hydrated minerals stable under pressure. The amount of water that can be stored in the mantle and mobilized during <span class="hlt">melting</span> ranges from 1 to up to 4wt% at the wet solidus. Hydrous <span class="hlt">melt</span> has also been analyzed in an experiment at 920°C and 5.2GPa and is roughly andesitic, consistent with the findings of others that partial <span class="hlt">melting</span> of peridotite produces high silica <span class="hlt">melts</span>. Based on our experimental data and considering both impact and radioactive heat sources, we propose a thermal model of Mars accretion. We assume that Mars formed very rapidly (3.6 Myr or less according to recent studies) and accreted initially from a mix of chondrites (85%H, 11%CV, 4%CI) that contain a bulk water content of 1.1 wt.% H2O. Because Mars accreted quickly and early in solar system history, 26Al decay played an important role in the thermal evolution of the planet. We found that at 20% of its present mass (corresponding to ~60% of its size), the planet is cool enough to retain the water stored in hydrous minerals. At 30% (~70% of its size), <span class="hlt">melting</span> starts at -but is not limited to- a shallow depth (1-3GPa) and water can still be bound in crystalline solids. The critical stage is at 50% (~80% of its size), where Mars is now above the wet and dry solidi with most of its interior <span class="hlt">melted</span>. Water allows <span class="hlt">melting</span> to occur earlier in the accretion process and the presence of water promotes the formation of a significant amount of <span class="hlt">melt</span>, contrasting with dry accretion scenarios. Interestingly, the 50 % accretion step matches with the time estimated for <span class="hlt">core</span> formation by recent Hf/W isotopic studies [1]. Therefore, we suggest that water may have promoted early <span class="hlt">core</span> formation on Mars and rapidly extended <span class="hlt">melting</span> over a large portion of Mars interior. [1] Dauphas, N., Pourmand, A., 2011. Hf-W-Th evidence for rapid growth of Mars and its status as a planetary embryo. Nature, 473, doi:10.1038/nature10077.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pommier, A.; Grove, T. L.; Charlier, B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">358</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6234645"> <span id="translatedtitle">Preliminary analysis of the <span class="hlt">postulated</span> changes needed to achieve rail cask handling capabilities at selected light water reactors</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Reactor-specific railroad and crane information for all LWRs in the US was extracted from current sources of information. Based on this information, reactors were separated into two basic groups consisting of reactors with existing, usable rail cask capabilities and those without these capabilities. The latter group is the main focus of this study. The group of reactors without present rail cask handling capabilities was further separated into two subgroups consisting of reactors considered essentially incapable of handling a large rail cask of about 100 tons and reactors where <span class="hlt">postulated</span> facility changes could result in rail cask handling capabilities. Based on a selected population of 127 reactors, the results of this assessment indicate that usable rail cask capabilities exist at 83 (65%) of the reactors. Twelve (27%) of the remaining 44 reactors are deemed incapable of handling a large rail cask without major changes, and 32 reactors are considered likely candidates for potentially achieving rail cask handling capabilities. In the latter group, facility changes were <span class="hlt">postulated</span> that would conceptually enable these reactors to handle large rail casks. The estimated cost per plant of required facility changes varied widely from a high of about $35 million to a low of <$0.3 million. Only 11 of the 32 plants would require crane upgrades. Spur track and right-of-way costs would apparently vary widely among sites. These results are based on preliminary analyses using available generic cost data. They represent lower bound values that are useful for developing an initial assessment of the viability of the <span class="hlt">postulated</span> changes on a system-wide basis, but are not intended to be absolute values for specific reactors or sites.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Konzek, G.J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">359</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.apsnet.org/edcenter/K-12/TeachersGuide/BrownRot/Pages/default.aspx"> <span id="translatedtitle">Who Done It? Or what's that brown fuzzy stuff on my plum?: Koch's <span class="hlt">Postulates</span> for Proof of Pathogenicity</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this lab, learners explore Koch's <span class="hlt">Postulates</span>, the critical step used to prove that a particular microbe is the cause of a specific disease in a host organism (plant or animal). This is accomplished by examining the brown fuzzy stuff (a fungal pathogen) growing on a plum and experimentally showing, step by step, whether or not it is the cause of the observed disease. This lesson guide includes background information, instructions for leading a simplified (less time intensive) demonstration of the Germ Theory, study questions and answers, suggestions for additional experiments, and supplemental information and references. Adult supervision recommended.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jasalavich, Claudia A.; Schumann, Gail L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">360</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48918275"> <span id="translatedtitle">The 800 year long ion record from the Lomonosovfonna (Svalbard) ice <span class="hlt">core</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present a high-resolution record of water-soluble ion chemistry from a 121 m ice <span class="hlt">core</span> spanning about 800 years. The <span class="hlt">core</span> is well dated to 2\\/3 depth using cycle counting and reference horizons and a simple but close fitting model for the lower 1\\/3 of the <span class="hlt">core</span>. This <span class="hlt">core</span> suffers from modest seasonal <span class="hlt">melt</span>, and so we present concentration data</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Teija Kekonen; John Moore; Paavo Perämäki; Robert Mulvaney; Elisabeth Isaksson; Veijo Pohjola</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous 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showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">361</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.V23D0660S"> <span id="translatedtitle">U-Pb SHRIMP investigation of the timing and duration of <span class="hlt">melt</span> production and migration in a Pacific margin gneiss dome, Fosdick Mountains, Antarctica</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Massive diatexite and extensive interconnected leucosome networks in the Fosdick Mountains gneiss dome, Antarctica, offer the means to study processes of <span class="hlt">melt</span> extraction from source rocks, migration through 1000s meters of crustal section, and coalescence into large tabular bodies. High temperature (HT) metamorphism and migmatite dome development occurred in a transcurrent setting during Cretaceous breakup of Gondwana's active margin. In order to address the absolute timing and duration these events we carried out SHRIMP U-Pb analyses of zircon from structurally constrained leucogranite and of titanite from syntectonic diorite sills. Thus far our data-set includes six samples: a) 3 equigranular unfoliated monzogranite leucosomes within normal- and dextral-sense shear bands from sites spanning deepest to highest structural levels; b) a discordant porphyritic leucosome vein cutting diatexite, which contains euhedral Crd; and c) hornblende diorite forming sills that cut folds and fabric in host gneisses. One shear band sample was collected from the wide dextral strike slip shear zone at Mt Richardson, newly identified as an exhumation structure for the dome. The four leucosome samples all contain sub- to euhedral Kfs with interstitial quartz and all yield bipyramidal, elongate zircon grains with oscillatory zoning evident under CL imaging; features indicative of crystallization from <span class="hlt">melt</span>. Titanite in late syntectonic diorite sills occurs as coarse subhedral interlocking grains with a simple internal structure, indicating an igneous paragenesis. Dates reported here are the weighted means of 206U/238Pb ages for coherent zircon populations. U-Pb titanite ages were acquired to determine emplacement ages for the diorite sills. The oldest result comes from the porphyritic vein, which gives an age of 365.4 ±2.7 Ma (n=13). This closely postdates a U- Pb SHRIMP result of 375 Ma (n=16) acquired previously for an orthogneiss within the dome. Of the shear band leucosomes, one from low levels in the disrupted diatexite <span class="hlt">core</span> of the dome yields an age of 114.8 ±1.1 Ma (n=11) for a moderate-U growth zone (medium gray in CL) interpreted as constraining the youngest zircon development. In the eastern Fosdick Mtns, a sample from the higher structural level, Mt Richardson shear zone gives 102.4 ±0.7 Ma(n=14). The remaining shear band cuts gneisses exhibiting solid-state fabrics at the highest structural level: limited analyses give 96.1± 1.4 Ma (n=5). Titanite results are 99.7±0.9 Ma and 96.7±1.0 Ma. The contrasting results from porphyritic vein and shear bands suggest two stages of anatexis in the dome. We <span class="hlt">postulate</span> that the U-Pb results from shear bands indicate a 9 m.y. duration for the Cretaceous stage of <span class="hlt">melt</span> generation and deformation-enhanced migration in the dome between 115-96 Ma. The finding of younger U-Pb zircon ages at successively higher structural levels may be attributable to migration of <span class="hlt">melt</span> into exhumation structures or variations in thermal structure due to dome emplacement. Late mafic sills and the high level <span class="hlt">melt</span>-filled shear band provide a younger limit of 99-96 Ma on <span class="hlt">melt</span>-present deformation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Siddoway, C. S.; Fanning, C.; Kruckenberg, S. C.; Fadrhonc, S. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">362</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUSM.V31A..02H"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Role of Shear Deformation in <span class="hlt">Core</span> Formation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The problem of understanding the formation of metallic <span class="hlt">cores</span> in terrestrial planets has received renewed interest recently. Electrical conductivity tests indicate that iron sulfide <span class="hlt">melt</span> in an olivine matrix forms an interconnected network only if the <span class="hlt">melt</span> fraction exceeds ?>0.05. Recent plastic deformation experiments on aggregates of solid olivine containing an iron sulfide <span class="hlt">melt</span> with ?>0.05 demonstrate that, in response to an applied shear stress, a metallic <span class="hlt">melt</span> can segregate from the silicate matrix by grain-boundary percolation through an interconnected network to form <span class="hlt">melt</span>-rich bands. This segregation occurs despite the non-wetting behavior of the metallic <span class="hlt">melt</span>, that is, despite the fact that the dihedral angle, ?, is greater than 60°. However, the average dihedral angle of a <span class="hlt">melt</span>-solid interface decreases as oxygen fugacity increases. Hence, systematically varying the oxygen fugacity of the olivine-iron sulfide system alters the wetting characteristics. Previous plastic deformation experiments were performed in an experimental geometry that limited shear strains to ? ? 5 and led to low-pressure regions at either end of the sample as well as in the grooves of the simple-shear pistons. In torsion, much larger shear strains can be attained, and no geometry- dependent low-pressure regions develop in the sample that would permit <span class="hlt">melt</span> to escape from the sample. Experiments are underway to investigate the relationship between the oxygen fugacity and the formation and evolution of metallic <span class="hlt">melt</span>-rich bands. In this talk, we report the results of a series of high-strain torsion experiments on samples of olivine + iron sulfide <span class="hlt">melt</span> performed in torsion in which the sample sleeve (either Fe or Ni) buffers the oxygen fugacity and thus controls the dihedral angle and associated grain-scale <span class="hlt">melt</span> distribution.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hustoft, J. W.; Kohlstedt, D. L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">363</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/61301727"> <span id="translatedtitle">Zircaloy-steam interactions during nuclear-fuel-rod heatup and <span class="hlt">melting</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Research by the nuclear industry and regulating agencies has shown that the oxidation and <span class="hlt">melting</span> of the Zircaloy cladding of nuclear fuel rods has a dominant influence upon the behavior of a reactor <span class="hlt">core</span> during a severe accident like TMI-2. The work presented in this dissertation addresses three important aspects of that research. First, the influence of Zircaloy oxidation and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Allison</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">364</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60114380"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nuclear reactor <span class="hlt">melt</span>-retention structure to mitigate direct containment heating</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A light water nuclear reactor <span class="hlt">melt</span>-retention structure to mitigate the extent of direct containment heating of the reactor containment building. The structure includes a retention chamber for retaining molten <span class="hlt">core</span> material away from the upper regions of the reactor containment building when a severe accident causes the bottom of the pressure vessel of the reactor to fail and discharge such</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Narinder K. Tutu; Theodore Ginsberg; John R. Klages</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">365</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49564719"> <span id="translatedtitle">Thermal, physico-chemical and rheological boundary layers in multi-component oxidic <span class="hlt">melt</span> spreads</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the unlikely case of a severe accident in a nuclear reactor, the <span class="hlt">core</span> material could <span class="hlt">melt</span> and form a molten mixture named corium. The CEA has undertaken a large program to improve knowledge on corium behaviour. An experiment in which 17 kg of simulant corium — mainly made of hafnon, zircon, silica and wüstite — at more than 2</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Christophe Journeau; François Sudreau; Jean-Marie Gatt; Gérard Cognet</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">366</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/sciencecinema/product.biblio.jsp?osti_id=1047692"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Melt</span>-spinning (Materials Preparation Center)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/sciencecinema/">ScienceCinema</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Melt</span>-spinning is a method used for producing amorphous ribbon, which can then be converted to powder. The quality of the ribbon is controlled by several processing factors. This video shows the <span class="hlt">melt</span> stream, <span class="hlt">melt</span> pool, and ribbon formation in slow motion.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">367</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.cs.sunysb.edu/%7Evislab/papers/melting.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Melting</span> and flowing in multiphase environment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper presents a method to simulate the <span class="hlt">melting</span> and flowing phenomena with different materials in multiple phases. In such a multiphase environment, solid objects are <span class="hlt">melted</span> because of heating and the <span class="hlt">melted</span> liquid flows while interacting with the ambient air flow. Our simulation is based on a modified lattice Boltzmann method (LBM), where the fluid dynamics of the air</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ye Zhao; Lujin Wang; Feng Qiu; Arie E. Kaufman; Klaus Mueller</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">368</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.andrill.org/flexhibit/flexhibit/materials/activities/Activity5C-HowDoesMeltingIceAffectSeaLevel.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">How Does <span class="hlt">Melting</span> Ice Affect Sea Level?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this activity, students investigate how sea levels might rise when ice sheets and ice caps <span class="hlt">melt</span> by constructing a pair of models and seeing the effects of ice <span class="hlt">melt</span> in two different situations. Students should use their markers to predict the increase of water in each box before the ice <span class="hlt">melts</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dahlman, Luann; Andrill</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">369</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/12571051"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Melting</span>, freezing, and coalescence of gold nanoclusters</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present a detailed molecular-dynamics study of the <span class="hlt">melting</span>, freezing, and coalescence of gold nanoclusters within the framework of the embedded-atom method. Concerning <span class="hlt">melting</span>, we find the process first to affect the surface (``premelting''), then to proceed inwards. The curve for the <span class="hlt">melting</span> temperature vs cluster size is found to agree reasonably well with predictions of phenomenological models based on</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Laurent J. Lewis; Pablo Jensen; Jean-Louis Barrat</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">370</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22095922"> <span id="translatedtitle">Direct writing by way of <span class="hlt">melt</span> electrospinning.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Melt</span> electrospun fibers of poly(?-caprolactone) are accurately deposited using an automated stage as the collector. Matching the translation speed of the collector to the speed of the <span class="hlt">melt</span> electrospinning jet establishes control over the location of fiber deposition. In this sense, <span class="hlt">melt</span> electrospinning writing can be seen to bridge the gap between solution electrospinning and direct writing additive manufacturing processes. PMID:22095922</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brown, Toby D; Dalton, Paul D; Hutmacher, Dietmar W</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-11-18</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">371</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/19226569"> <span id="translatedtitle">High-Pressure <span class="hlt">Melting</span> of Molybdenum</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">melting</span> curve of the body-centered cubic (bcc) phase of Mo has been determined for a wide pressure range using both direct abinitio molecular dynamics simulations of <span class="hlt">melting</span> as well as a phenomenological theory of <span class="hlt">melting</span>. These two methods show very good agreement. The simulations are based on density functional theory within the generalized gradient approximation. Our calculated equation of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. B. Belonoshko; S. I. Simak; A. E. Kochetov; B. Johansson; L. Burakovsky; D. L. Preston</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">372</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013APS..MARY31008G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Theory of Chiral Block Copolymer <span class="hlt">Melts</span>: Mesoscopic Helicity from Inter-Segment Twist</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We study the effects of chirality at the segment scale on the thermodynamics of block copolymer <span class="hlt">melts</span> using self consistent field theory. In linear diblock <span class="hlt">melts</span> where segments of one block prefer a twisted, or cholesteric, texture, we show that <span class="hlt">melt</span> assembly is critically sensitive to the ratio of random coil size to the preferred pitch of cholesteric twist. For weakly-chiral <span class="hlt">melts</span> (large pitch), mesophases remain achiral, while below a critical value of pitch, two mesocopically chiral phases are stable: an undulated lamellar phase; and a phase of hexagonally-ordered helices. We show that the non-linear sensitivity of meso-scale chiral order to preferred pitch derives specifically from the geometric and thermodynamic coupling of the helical mesodomain shape to the twisted packing of chiral segments within the <span class="hlt">core</span>, giving rise to a second-order cylinder-to-helix transition.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Grason, Gregory; Zhao, Wei; Russell, Thomas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">373</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PlST...10..344Y"> <span id="translatedtitle">Application of In-Flight <span class="hlt">Melting</span> Technology by RF Induction Thermal Plasmas to Glass Production</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An innovative in-flight glass <span class="hlt">melting</span> technology with induced thermal plasmas was developed for the purpose of energy conservation and environmental protection. Two-dimensional modeling was used to simulate the thermofluid fields in the plasma torch. The in-flight <span class="hlt">melting</span> behavior of glass raw material was investigated by various analysis methods. Results showed that the plasma temperature was up to 10000 K with a maximum velocity over 30 m/s, which made it possible to <span class="hlt">melt</span> the granulated glass raw material within milliseconds. The carbonates in the raw material decomposed completely and the compounds in the raw material attainted 100% vitrification during the in-flight time from the nozzle exit to substrate. The particle <span class="hlt">melting</span> process is similar to the unreacted-<span class="hlt">core</span> shrinking model.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yao, Yaochun; M. Hossain, M.; Watanabe, T.; Funabiki, F.; Yano, T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">374</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/46962324"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Melt</span> Vibration Improved <span class="hlt">Melt</span> Flow Behavior and Mechanical Properties of High Density Polyethylene</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A pulse pressure was superimposed on the <span class="hlt">melt</span> flow resulting in <span class="hlt">melt</span> vibration. With application of the <span class="hlt">melt</span> vibration technology, the <span class="hlt">melt</span> flow behavior and mechanical properties of high?density polyethylene were studied. For vibration?assisted extrusion (VAE) at constant vibration pressure amplitude, the viscosity decreases sharply with increasing vibration frequency, and also does so when increasing vibration pressure amplitude for VAE</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Youbing Li; Jing Chen; Kaizhi Shen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">375</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/474914"> <span id="translatedtitle">COMSORS: A light water reactor chemical <span class="hlt">core</span> catcher</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">Core-Melt</span> Source Reduction System (COMSORS) is a new approach to terminate lightwater reactor (LWR) <span class="hlt">core-melt</span> accidents and ensure containment integrity. A special dissolution glass made of lead oxide (PbO) and boron oxide (B{sub 2}O{sub 3}) is placed under the reactor vessel. If molten <span class="hlt">core</span> debris is released onto the glass, the following sequence happens: (1) the glass absorbs decay heat as its temperature increases and the glass softens; (2) the <span class="hlt">core</span> debris dissolves into the molten glass; (3) molten glass convective currents create a homogeneous high-level waste (HLW) glass; (4) the molten glass spreads into a wider pool, distributing the heat for removal by radiation to the reactor cavity above or transfer to water on top of the molten glass; and (5) the glass solidifies as increased surface cooling area and decreasing radioactive decay heat generation allows heat removal to exceed heat generation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Forsberg, C.W.; Parker, G.W.; Rudolph, J.C.; Osborne-Lee, I.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Chemical Technology Div.; Kenton, M.A. [Creare Inc., Hanover, NH (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-02-24</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">376</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009APS..SHK.J2003D"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Melting</span> curve of molecular hydrogen</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">More than 70 years ago Wigner and Huntington predicted that at sufficiently high pressures hydrogen will become an atomic metallic solid. Metallic hydrogen has not yet been observed at pressures exceeding 3 Mbar at low temperatures. Recent calculations predict a maximum in the <span class="hlt">melting</span> line of hydrogen. Extrapolations to higher pressures suggest that metallic hydrogen may be a liquid at T=0 K with interesting quantum properties. Confining hydrogen at elevated temperatures is challenging as hydrogen tends to diffuse out of the cell. Combination of static pressure techniques with dynamic temperature variations can be used to suppress the diffusion of the sample out of the pressure cell. We have extended the <span class="hlt">melting</span> line of hydrogen and observed the predicted peak and shall discuss this, the unusual properties of hydrogen, and it's various phases.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Deemyad, Shanti</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">377</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AIPC..927..165M"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Melting</span> And Purification Of Niobium</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The aspects involved in the purification of niobium in Electron Beam Furnaces will be outlined and correlated with practical experience accumulated over 17 years of continuously producing high purity niobium metal and niobium-zirconium ingots at CBMM, meeting the needs for a wide range of uses. This paper also reports some comments regarding raw material requirements, the experience on cold hearth operation <span class="hlt">melting</span> niobium and the production of large grains niobium ingots by CBMM with some comments of their main characteristics.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Moura, Hernane R. Salles; de Moura, Lourenço</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">378</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/39924608"> <span id="translatedtitle">Centrifugal pneumatic disintegration of <span class="hlt">melts</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">UDC 621.762.224 In the manufacture of metal powders extensive use is made of the pneumatic method [1] of atomizing <span class="hlt">melts</span> with compressed gas streams. However, even at considerable specific rates of flow (--0.5--1 NTP m 3 per 1 kg of product) and high pressures (-1.5--2 MPa) of the gas (often an expensive inert gas which is in short supply) it</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sh. M. Sheikhaliev; O. A. Ivanov; S. A. Areshkin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">379</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/55529735"> <span id="translatedtitle">Electrolysis of simulated lunar <span class="hlt">melts</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Electrolysis of molten lunar soil or rock is examined as an attractive means of wresting useful raw materials from lunar rocks. It requires only hat to <span class="hlt">melt</span> the soil or rock and electricity to electrolyze it, and both can be developed from solar power. The conductivities of the simple silicate diopside, Mg CaSi2O6 were measured. Iron oxide was added to</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. H. Lewis; D. J. Lindstrom; L. A. Haskin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">380</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/m7p60684tl578543.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Walks, walls, wetting, and <span class="hlt">melting</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">New results concerning the statistics of, in particular,p random walkers on a line whose paths do not cross are reported, extended, and interpreted. A general mechanism yielding phase transitions in one-dimensional or linear systems is recalled and applied to various wetting and <span class="hlt">melting</span> phenomena in (d=2)-dimensional systems, including fluid films and p×1 commensurate adsorbed phases, in which interfaces and domain</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Michael E. Fisher</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">381</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60689212"> <span id="translatedtitle">NON-<span class="hlt">MELT</span> PROCESSING OF \\</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the last decade, a considerable effort has been made to develop new methods for producing low cost titanium and titanium powders. The Armstrong process is a new method of producing titanium powder via reducing TiCl4 vapor in molten sodium. The process is scalable, and can be used to produce pre-alloyed powders. Non-<span class="hlt">melt</span> processing and powder metallurgy approaches are economically</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">William H Peter; Craig A Blue; Scorey Clive; Bill Ernst; John McKernan; Jim Kiggans; John D Rivard; Charlie Yu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">382</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JCAP...10..017K"> <span id="translatedtitle">String <span class="hlt">melting</span> in a photon bath</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We compute the decay rate of a metastable cosmic string in contact with a thermal bath by finding the instanton solution. The new feature is that this decay rate is found in the context of non thermal scalar fields in contact with a thermal bath of photons. In general, to make topologically unstable strings stable, one can couple them to such a bath. The resulting plasma effect creates metastable configurations which can decay from the false vacuum to the true vacuum. In our specific set-up, the instanton computation is realized for the case of two out-of-equilibrium complex scalar fields: one is charged and coupled to the photon field, and the other is neutral. New effects coming from the thermal bath of photons make the radius of the nucleated bubble and most of the relevant physical quantities temperature-dependent. However, the temperature appears in a different way than in the purely thermal case, where all scalar fields are in thermal equilibrium. As a result of the tunneling, the <span class="hlt">core</span> of the initial string <span class="hlt">melts</span> while bubbles of true vacuum expand at the speed of light.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Karouby, Johanna</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">383</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/52564540"> <span id="translatedtitle">The effect of <span class="hlt">melt</span> removal by aerodynamic shear on <span class="hlt">melt</span>-through of metal plates</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Theoretical models are constructed for <span class="hlt">melt</span>-through of metal plates under intense one-dimensional heating and tangential airflow. The limiting cases of complete <span class="hlt">melt</span> retention and complete <span class="hlt">melt</span> removal are modeled by energy balances at the instant of <span class="hlt">melt</span>-through, using the heat-balance integral method. The resulting semianalytical formulas agree well with computer solutions of one-dimensional, nonsteady heat conduction for <span class="hlt">melting</span> and vaporizing</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">N. H. Kemp</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1977-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">384</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1009013"> <span id="translatedtitle">Structural Investigation of Fe-Ni-S and Fe-Ni-Si <span class="hlt">Melts</span> by High-temperature Fluorescence XAFS Measurements</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Iron-nickel (Fe-Ni) alloy is regarded as the most abundant constituent of Earth's <span class="hlt">core</span>, with an amount of 5.5 wt% Ni in the <span class="hlt">core</span> based on geochemical and cosmochemical models. The structural role of nickel in liquid Fe-Ni alloys with light elements such as S or Si is poorly understood, largely because of the experimental difficulties of high-temperature <span class="hlt">melts</span>. Recently, we have succeeded in acquiring Ni K-edge fluorescence x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectra of Fe-Ni-S and Fe-Ni-Si <span class="hlt">melts</span> and alloys. Different structural environment of Ni atoms in Fe-Ni-S and Fe-Ni-Si <span class="hlt">melts</span> is observed, supporting the effect of light elements in Fe-Ni <span class="hlt">melts</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Manghnani, M.; Hong, X.; Newville, M.; Balogh, J. (Hawaii); (UC)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">385</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6462204"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Melting</span> of foaming batches: Nuclear waste glass</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A simple model is presented for the rate of <span class="hlt">melting</span> of a batch blanket in an electric glassmelting furnace. The <span class="hlt">melting</span> process is assumed to be jointly controlled by the heat transfer from the pool of molten glass and the batch-to-glass conversion kinetics. Factors affecting the <span class="hlt">melting</span> rate in the conversion-controlled regime are discussed. Attention is paid to gas evolution from redox reactions in waste glass batches and component accumulation within the blanket. It is suggested that the high rate of the blanket-free <span class="hlt">melting</span> in a mechanically agitated furnace is made possible by increasing the rate of <span class="hlt">melt</span> surface renewal. 27 refs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hrma, P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">386</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/931727"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Melting</span> and Premelting of Carbon Nanotubes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report results of molecular dynamics simulations of <span class="hlt">melting</span> and premelting of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). We found that the traditional critical Lindemann parameter for <span class="hlt">melting</span> of bulk crystals is not valid for SWNTs. Using the much smaller critical Lindemann parameter for <span class="hlt">melting</span> of nanoparticles as a criterion, we show that the <span class="hlt">melting</span> temperature of perfect SWNTs is 4800K. We further show that Stone-Wales defects in a SWNT significantly reduce the <span class="hlt">melting</span> temperature of atoms around the defects, resulting in premelting of SWNTs at 2600K.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhang, Kaiwang [Xiangtan University, Xiangtan Hunan, China; Stocks, George Malcolm [ORNL; Zhong, Jianxin [ORNL</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">387</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1979PNAS...76..101A"> <span id="translatedtitle">DNA Sequencing and <span class="hlt">Melting</span> Curve</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The dependence of DNA absorbance (for light at about 260 nm) on temperature is related to a specific DNA sequence structure in the vicinity of DNA thermal denaturation (the so-called DNA <span class="hlt">melting</span> or coiling). A straightforward analysis of the experimental DNA <span class="hlt">melting</span> curve allows us to determine the lengths, the A+T content, and the location in DNA of certain domains. In the case of a specific DNA fragmentation, the order of fragments in DNA can be learned from this analysis, nondestructively and quickly, without fractionating the fragments and other methods of fragmentation. If the DNA nucleotide sequence is known except for some sites and uncertain portions, the analysis determines these sites and the accuracy of the sequence at the portions. This information may complement exact methods of DNA sequencing. The proposed analysis is applied to bacteriophage ? X174, whose <span class="hlt">melting</span> curve is known. The results are compared to and found to be in an excellent agreement with the known ? X174 nucleotide sequence.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Azbel, M. Ya</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1979-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">388</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/911361"> <span id="translatedtitle">SCDAP/RELAP5 Modeling of Movement of <span class="hlt">Melted</span> Material Through Porous Debris in Lower Head</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A model is described for the movement of <span class="hlt">melted</span> metallic material through a ceramic porous debris bed. The model is designed for the analysis of severe accidents in LWRs, wherein <span class="hlt">melted</span> <span class="hlt">core</span> plate material may slump onto the top of a porous bed of relocated <span class="hlt">core</span> material supported by the lower head. The permeation of the <span class="hlt">melted</span> <span class="hlt">core</span> plate material into the porous debris bed influences the heatup of the debris bed and the heatup of the lower head supporting the debris. A model for mass transport of <span class="hlt">melted</span> metallic material is applied that includes terms for viscosity and turbulence but neglects inertial and capillary terms because of their small value relative to gravity and viscous terms in the momentum equation. The relative permeability and passability of the porous debris are calculated as functions of debris porosity, particle size, and effective saturation. An iterative numerical solution is used to solve the set of nonlinear equations for mass transport. The effective thermal conductivity of the debris is calculated as a function of porosity, particle size, and saturation. The model integrates the equations for mass transport with a model for the two-dimensional conduction of heat through porous debris. The integrated model has been implemented into the SCDAP/RELAP5 code for the analysis of the integrity of LWR lower heads during severe accidents. The results of the model indicate that <span class="hlt">melted</span> <span class="hlt">core</span> plate material may permeate to near the bottom of a 1m deep hot porous debris bed supported by the lower head. The presence of the relocated <span class="hlt">core</span> plate material was calculated to cause a 12% increase in the heat flux on the external surface of the lower head.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Siefken, Larry James; Harvego, Edwin Allan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">389</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/758108"> <span id="translatedtitle">SCDAP/RELAP5 modeling of movement of <span class="hlt">melted</span> material through porous debris in lower head</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A model is described for the movement of <span class="hlt">melted</span> metallic material through a ceramic porous debris bed. The model is designed for the analysis of severe accidents in LWRs, wherein <span class="hlt">melted</span> <span class="hlt">core</span> plate material may slump onto the top of a porous bed of relocated <span class="hlt">core</span> material supported by the lower head. The permeation of the <span class="hlt">melted</span> <span class="hlt">core</span> plate material into the porous debris bed influences the heatup of the debris bed and the heatup of the lower head supporting the debris. A model for mass transport of <span class="hlt">melted</span> metallic material is applied that includes terms for viscosity and turbulence but neglects inertial and capillary terms because of their small value relative to gravity and viscous terms in the momentum equation. The relative permeability and passability of the porous debris are calculated as functions of debris porosity, particle size, and effective saturation. An iterative numerical solution is used to solve the set of nonlinear equations for mass transport. The effective thermal conductivity of the debris is calculated as a function of porosity, particle size, and saturation. The model integrates the equations for mass transport with a model for the two-dimensional conduction of heat through porous debris. The integrated model has been implemented into the SCDAP/RELAP5 code for the analysis of the integrity of LWR lower heads during severe accidents. The results of the model indicate that <span class="hlt">melted</span> <span class="hlt">core</span> plate material may permeate to near the bottom of a 1m deep hot porous debris bed supported by the lower head. The presence of the relocated <span class="hlt">core</span> plate material was calculated to cause a 12% increase in the heat flux on the external surface of the lower head.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">L. J. Siefken; E. A. Harvego</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-04-02</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">390</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/501519"> <span id="translatedtitle">Late-phase <span class="hlt">melt</span> progression experiment: MP-2. Results and analysis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In-pile experiments addressing late-phase processes in Light Water Reactors (LWRs) were performed in the Annular <span class="hlt">Core</span> Research Reactor (ACRR) at Sandia National Laboratories. <span class="hlt">Melt</span> Progression (MP) experiments were designed to provide information to develop and verify computer models for analysis of LWR <span class="hlt">core</span> damage in severe accidents. Experiments examine the formation and motion of ceramic molten pools in disrupted reactor <span class="hlt">core</span> regions. The MP-2 experiment assembly consisted of: (1) a rubble bed of enriched UO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2} simulating severely disrupted reactor <span class="hlt">core</span> regions, (2) a ceramic/metallic crust representing blockage formed by early phase <span class="hlt">melting</span>, relocation, and refreezing of <span class="hlt">core</span> components, and (3) an intact rod stub region that remained in place below the blockage region. The test assembly was fission heated in the central cavity of the ACRR at an average rate of about 0.2 KA, reaching a peak molten pool temperature around 3400 K. <span class="hlt">Melting</span> of the debris bed ceramic components was initiated near the center of the bed. The molten material relocated downward, refreezing to form a ceramic crust near the bottom of the rubble bed. As power levels were increased, the crust gradually remelted and reformed at progressively lower positions in the bed until late in the experiment when it penetrated into and attacked the ceramic/metallic blockage. The metallic components of the blockage region <span class="hlt">melted</span> and relocated to the bottom of the intact rod stub region before the ceramic <span class="hlt">melt</span> penetrated the blockage region from above. The ceramic pool penetrated halfway into the blockage region by the end of the experiment. Measurements of thermal response and material relocation are compared to the results of the computer simulations. Postexperiment examination of the assembly with the associated material interactions and metallurgy are also discussed in detail with the analyses and interpretation of results. 16 refs., 206 figs., 24 tabs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gasser, R.D.; Gauntt, R.O.; Bourcier, S.C. [and others</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">391</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004APS..MAR.C1015X"> <span id="translatedtitle">Double Reversible <span class="hlt">Melting</span> of Isotactic Polystyrene</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Quasi-isothermal temperature modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC) has been used to study the reversible crystallization and <span class="hlt">melting</span> of isotactic polystyrene (iPS). IPS was cold crystallized at 140 °C or 170 °C until completion of crystallization, then heated from below the glass transition (Tg) to above the <span class="hlt">melting</span> point (Tm) using step-wise temperature increase, with small amplitude temperature oscillation for 20 min. at each step. Reversible heat capacity measurements reveal existence of a small amount of locally reversible <span class="hlt">melting</span> and crystallization. We observe two small reversible <span class="hlt">melting</span> peaks for iPS samples cold crystallized either at the lower or at the higher temperature. The reversible <span class="hlt">melting</span> peaks are located on the higher temperature side of two major endothermic peaks (Tm1 and Tm2) seen in regular (non-modulated) scanning calorimetry. In quasi-isothermal TMDSC, the portion of the crystallized chain with lower thermal stability <span class="hlt">melts</span> first, and the molecules that are attached to these chains <span class="hlt">melt</span> at the higher temperature end of the correspondent population. These portions demonstrate locally reversible <span class="hlt">melting</span> and show a tiny reversible <span class="hlt">melting</span> peak associated with the lower temperature endothermic peak (at Tm1). Molecules attached to the portion of chain with higher thermal stability (having higher <span class="hlt">melting</span> temperature) show their reversible <span class="hlt">melting</span> peak in association with the higher temperature endothermic peak (at Tm2).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Xu, Hui; Cebe, Peggy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">392</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/554203"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Melting</span> by temperature-modulated calorimetry</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Well-crystallized macromolecules <span class="hlt">melt</span> irreversibly due to the need of molecular nucleation, while small molecules <span class="hlt">melt</span> reversibly as long as crystal nuclei are present to assist crystallization. Furthermore, imperfect crystals of low-molar-mass polymers may have a sufficiently small region of metastability between crystallization and <span class="hlt">melting</span> to show a reversing heat-flow component due to <span class="hlt">melting</span> of poor crystals followed by crystallization of imperfect crystals which have insufficient time to perfect before the modulation switches to heating and <span class="hlt">melts</span> the imperfect crystals. Many metals, in turn. <span class="hlt">melt</span> sharply and reversibly as long as nuclei remain after <span class="hlt">melting</span> for subsequent crystallization during the cooling cycle. Their analysis is complicated, however, due to thermal conductivity limitations of the calorimeters. Polymers of sufficiently high molar mass, finally, show a small amount of reversible. local <span class="hlt">melting</span> that may be linked to partial <span class="hlt">melting</span> of individual molecules. Experiments by temperature-modulated calorimetry and model calculations are presented. The samples measured included poly(ethylene terephthalate)s, poly(ethylene oxide)s, and indium. Two unsolved problems that arose from this research involve the origin of a high, seemingly stable, reversible heat capacity of polymers in the <span class="hlt">melting</span> region, and a smoothing of <span class="hlt">melting</span> and crystallization into a close-to-elliptical Lissajous figure in a heat-flow versus sample-temperature plot.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wunderlich, B.; Okazaki, Iwao; Ishikiriyama, Kazuhiko; Boller, A. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">393</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17733504"> <span id="translatedtitle">Devon island ice cap: <span class="hlt">core</span> stratigraphy and paleoclimate.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Valuable paleoclimatic information can be gained by studying the distribution of <span class="hlt">melt</span> layers in deep ice <span class="hlt">cores</span>. A profile representing the percentage of ice in <span class="hlt">melt</span> layers in a <span class="hlt">core</span> drilled from the Devon Island ice cap plotted against both time and depth shows that the ice cap has experienced a period of very warm summers since 1925, following a period of colder summers between about 1600 and 1925. The earlier period was coldest between 1680 and 1730. There is a high correlation between the <span class="hlt">melt</span>-layer ice percentage and the mass balance of the ice cap. The relation between them suggests that the ice cap mass balance was zero (accumulation equaled ablation) during the colder period but is negative in the present warmer one. There is no firm evidence of a present cooling trend in the summer conditions on the ice cap. A comparison with the <span class="hlt">melt</span>-layer ice percentage in <span class="hlt">cores</span> from the other major Canadian Arctic ice caps shows that the variation of summer conditions found for the Devon Island ice cap is representative for all the large ice caps for about 90 percent of the time. There is also a good correlation between <span class="hlt">melt</span>-layer percentage and summer sea-ice conditions in the archipelago. This suggests that the search for the northwest passage was influenced by changing climate, with the 19th-century peak of the often tragic exploration coinciding with a period of very cold summers. PMID:17733504</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Koerner, R M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1977-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">394</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1986JCrGr..75..401L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Garnet <span class="hlt">melt</span> viscosity, surface tension and drainage</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Good surface morphology and layer uniformity of LPE-grown Bi YIG films are favored by fast <span class="hlt">melt</span> removal after growth. Three flux modifying oxides: MoO3, V2O3, and WO3 are compared with respect to their effect on viscosity, surface tension and <span class="hlt">melt</span> drainage. All three oxides increased the viscosities of Bi-garnet <span class="hlt">melts</span>, but the viscosities and drainage times of V2O3 and MoO3 modified <span class="hlt">melts</span> were smaller than those of WO3 modified <span class="hlt">melts</span>. The liquid-gas surface tension was found to be temperature independent. The drainage process was strongly temperature dependent, 40 to 60 kcal/mol, whereas the viscosities of <span class="hlt">melts</span> had activation energies of 11 to 16 kcal/mol. Contact angles of 16 + or - 2 deg were measured on frozen <span class="hlt">melt</span> drops.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Luther, L. C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">395</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMMR23A2003M"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Melting</span> properties of iron alloys at high pressure determined by in situ X-ray diffraction</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">It is well established that the Earth’s liquid outer <span class="hlt">core</span> is less dense than a pure Fe-Ni liquid alloy. The so-called “<span class="hlt">core</span> density deficit” is currently estimated around 5-10 wt % 1 and is attributed to the presence of light elements dissolved in an iron-rich liquid alloy. <span class="hlt">Melting</span> temperature of pure Fe can be largely affected by the addition of light elements. In the case of S, depression for the eutectic point at ambient pressure is almost 30%. On the contrary, Si does not significantly affect pure Fe <span class="hlt">melting</span>, at least at ambient pressure. As a matter of fact, the <span class="hlt">melting</span> temperature depression (?Tm) can be tracked as a function of pressure and related with the light element content. Comparison between <span class="hlt">melting</span> properties of alloys and temperature profile calculated for the Earth’s interior can thus help discriminating between the different light elements suggested to be present in the Earth’s <span class="hlt">core</span>. The <span class="hlt">melting</span> properties of several alloys of high geophysical interest 2 were investigated up to megabar pressures: Fe-5%wtNi-15%wtSi ; Fe-5%wtNi-12%wtS ; Fe-10%wtO ; Fe-2%wtC. Scrupulous attention in the synthesis and characterization of the starting material is fundamental to accurately control the chemical composition in the laser-heated spot. The appearance of a diffuse signal around 30 nm-1 has been used to determine the onset of <span class="hlt">melting</span> as in previous experiments 3,4. This data set provides new insights on the <span class="hlt">melting</span> curve of iron and on the effect of each specific element on the <span class="hlt">melting</span> temperature depression. Accordingly, the temperature of the Inner Outer <span class="hlt">Core</span> Boundary can be look at as a function of the Outer <span class="hlt">core</span> composition. References 1 O.L. Anderson and D.G. Isaak, Phys. Earth Plan. Int. 131, 19 (2002). 2 J.P. Poirier, Phys. Earth Planet. Inter. 85, 319 (1994). 3 G. Morard, C. Sanloup, G. Fiquet et al., Earth Planet. Sc. Lett. 263 (1-2), 128 (2007). 4 G. Morard, D. Andrault, N. Guignot et al., Earth Planet. Sc. Lett. 272 (3-4), 620 (2008).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Morard, G.; Andrault, D.; Guignot, N.; Antonangeli, D.; Siebert, J.; Garbarino, G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">396</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=DE82021764"> <span id="translatedtitle">CHAP-2 Heat-Transfer Analysis of the Fort St. Vrain Reactor <span class="hlt">Core</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Los Alamos National Laboratory is developing the Composite High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Analysis Program (CHAP) to provide advanced best-estimate predictions of <span class="hlt">postulated</span> accidents in gas-cooled reactor plants. The CHAP-2 reactor-<span class="hlt">core</span> model us...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. F. Kotas K. R. Stroh</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">397</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/39974348"> <span id="translatedtitle">Economic and geonomic space: Some theoretical considerations in the case of urban <span class="hlt">core</span> symbiosis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper an attempt will be made to explore Perroux' concepts of economic space and geonomic space. The existance of interrelationships between these two concepts is often <span class="hlt">postulated</span>, but has seldom been systematically examined. When economic and physical planners work in collaboration, this lack of theoretical development is a handicap. In studying urban <span class="hlt">cores</span>, it is necessary to emphasize</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. G. Lambooy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1973-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">398</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1213401T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Is formation segregation <span class="hlt">melts</span> in basaltic lava flows a viable analogue to <span class="hlt">melt</span> generation in basaltic systems?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Pahoehoe sheet lobes commonly exhibit a three-fold structural division into upper crust, <span class="hlt">core</span> and lower crust, where the <span class="hlt">core</span> corresponds to the liquid portion of an active lobe sealed by crust. Segregations are common in pahoehoe lavas and are confined to the <span class="hlt">core</span> of individual lobes. Field relations and volume considerations indicate that segregation is initiated by generation of volatile-rich <span class="hlt">melt</span> at or near the lower crust to <span class="hlt">core</span> boundary via in-situ crystallization. Once buoyant, the segregated <span class="hlt">melt</span> rises through the <span class="hlt">core</span> during last stages of flow emplacement and accumulates at the base of the upper crust. The segregated <span class="hlt">melt</span> is preserved as vesicular and aphyric, material within well-defined vesicle cylinders and horizontal vesicle sheets that make up 1-4% of the total lobe volume. We have undertaken a detailed sampling and chemical analysis of segregations and their host lava from three pahoehoe flow fields; two in Iceland and one in the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG). The Icelandic examples are: the olivine-tholeiite Thjorsa lava (24 cubic km) of the Bardarbunga-Veidivotn volcanic system and mildly alkalic Surtsey lavas (1.2 cubic km) of the Vestmannaeyjar volcanic system. The CRBG example is the tholeiitic ‘high-MgO group' Levering lava (>100? cubic km) of the N2 Grande Ronde Basalt. The thicknesses of the sampled lobes ranges from 2.3 to 14 m and each lobe feature well developed network of segregation structures [1,2,3]. Our whole-rock analyses show that the segregated <span class="hlt">melt</span> is significantly more evolved than the host lava, with enrichment factors of 1.25 (Thjorsa) to 2.25 (Surtsey) for incompatible trace elements (Ba, Zr). Calculations indicate that the segregation <span class="hlt">melt</span> was formed by 20 to 50% closed-system fractional crystallization of plagioclase (plus minor pyroxene and/or olivine). A more striking feature is the whole-rock composition of the segregations. In the olivine-tholeiite Thjorsa lava the segregations exhibit quartz tholeiite composition that is identical to the magma compositions produced by the nearby Grimsvotn and Kverkfjoll volcanic systems during the Holocene. The Surtsey segregations have whole-rock composition remarkably similar to the FeTi basalts from adjacent Katla volcanic system, whereas the segregations of the Levering flow are identical to the ‘low-MgO group' basalts of the CRBG. Is this a coincidence or does volatile induced liquid transfer, as inferred for the formation of the segregations, play an important role in magma differentiation in basaltic systems? [1]Thordarson & Self The Roza Member, Columbia River Basalt Group. J Geophys Res - Solid Earth [2] Sigmarsson, et al, 2009. Segregations in Surtsey lavas (Iceland). In Studies in Volcanology: The Legacy of George Walker. Special Publication of IAVCEI No 3. [3] Hartley & Thordarson, 2009, <span class="hlt">Melt</span> segregations in a Columbia River Basalt lava flow. Lithos</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Thordarson, Thorvaldur; Sigmarsson, Olgeir; Hartley, Margaret E.; Miller, Jay</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">399</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60331307"> <span id="translatedtitle">CHAP2 heat-transfer analysis of the Fort St. Vrain reactor <span class="hlt">core</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Los Alamos National Laboratory is developing the Composite High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Analysis Program (CHAP) to provide advanced best-estimate predictions of <span class="hlt">postulated</span> accidents in gas-cooled reactor plants. The CHAP-2 reactor-<span class="hlt">core</span> model uses the finite-element method to initialize a two-dimensional temperature map of the Fort St. Vrain (FSV) <span class="hlt">core</span> and its top and bottom reflectors. The code generates a finite-element mesh,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. F. Kotas; K. R. Stroh</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">400</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60278673"> <span id="translatedtitle">Parallel channel effects and long-term cooling during emergency <span class="hlt">core</span> cooling in a BWR\\/4</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The effectiveness of the <span class="hlt">core</span> spray cooling system and the low pressure coolant injection system during a design basis accident in a boiling water nuclear reactor (BWR) was investigated. This investigation considered a BWR\\/4 with both intact and broken jet pumps during the short-term and long-term <span class="hlt">core</span> cooling of a <span class="hlt">postulated</span> loss of coolant accident (LOCA). The experiments were performed</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fakory</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return 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<a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">401</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PNL3683"> <span id="translatedtitle">Environmental Consequences of <span class="hlt">Postulated</span> Plutonium Releases from General Electric Company Vallecitos Nuclear Center, Vallecitos, California, as a Result of Severe Natural Phenomena.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Potential environmental consequences in terms of radiation dose to people are presented for <span class="hlt">postulated</span> plutonium releases caused by severe natural phenomena at the General Electric Company Vallecitos Nuclear Center, Vallecitos, California. The severe natu...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. D. Jamison E. C. Watson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">402</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMMR31A2204T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Possible Role of Hydrogen in the Earth <span class="hlt">Core</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Possible role of hydrogen in the Earth <span class="hlt">core</span> has been discussed by Stevenson (1977) and demonstrated experimentally by Fukai (1984), Okuchi (1997) and others. Planetary theory proposes a possibility of hydrogen incorporation in Earth's magma ocean from ambient solar nebula gas (Ikoma & Genda 2005, Genda & Ikoma 2008). More recently, migration of snow line during planet formation was examined (Min et al., 2010; Oka et al, 2011) and it was proposed that the Earth building material originally contained abundant water as ice and hydrous minerals. Therefore, it is very important to investigate the fate of water in the planet building process and clarify the role of hydrogen in the planetary <span class="hlt">core</span>. Using SPring-8 synchrotron (NaCl capsule, LiAlH4 as hydrogen source), we determined the <span class="hlt">melting</span> curve of FeH up to 20 GPa under hydrogen saturated conditions (Sakamaki, Takahashi et al, 2009). Observed <span class="hlt">melting</span> point is below 1300C and has a very small dT/dP slope. By extrapolating the <span class="hlt">melting</span> curve using Lindeman's law, we proposed that hydrogen could lower the <span class="hlt">melting</span> temperature of the Earth <span class="hlt">core</span> by more than 1500K than current estimate. Here we report our new experiments using SPring-8 synchrotron (single crystal diamond capsule, water as hydrogen source). Hydrogen concentration and <span class="hlt">melting</span> temperature of FeHx that coexists with hydrous mantle minerals were determined at 15-20GPa and 1000-1600C. We show that 1) hydrogen concentration in FeHx at 1000C, coexisting with hydrous-B and ringwoodite is approximately X=0.6. 2) Upon heating, hydrous-B decomposes and hydrogen strongly partitions into FeHx (X=0.8~1.0) than ringwoodite. 3) FeHx that coexists with ringwoodite <span class="hlt">melts</span> between ~1300C (solidus) and ~1600C (liquidus). Combined our new experiments with those by Sakamaki et al (2009) and Shibazaki et al (2009), partitioning of hydrogen between proto-<span class="hlt">core</span> and primitive mantle is discussed. We propose that >90% of water in the source material may have entered the Earth <span class="hlt">core</span>. Given large hydrogen concentration in the Earth <span class="hlt">core</span>, temperature of the outermost <span class="hlt">core</span> could be as low as that of lower mantle adiabat. Presence of the light element-rich layer at the top 300km layer of the outer <span class="hlt">core</span> (Helffrich & Kaneshima, 2010) may be easily understood if there is no temperature gap between the <span class="hlt">core</span> and the lower mantle.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Takahashi, E.; Imai, T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">403</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.igsoc.org/annals/47/a47a024.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Berkner Island (Antarctica) ice-<span class="hlt">core</span> drilling project</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We describe a project to retrieve a 948 m deep ice <span class="hlt">core</span> from Berkner Island, Antarctica. Using relatively lightweight logistics and a small team, the drilling operation over three austral summer seasons used electromechanical drilling technology, described in detail, from a covered shallow pit and a fluid-filled borehole. A basal temperature well below pressure-<span class="hlt">melting</span> point meant that no drilling problems</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Robert Mulvaney; Olivier Alemany; Philippe Possenti</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">404</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5757204"> <span id="translatedtitle">Probing the <span class="hlt">melt</span> zone of Kilauea Iki lava lake, Kilauea volcano, Hawaii</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">New drilling techniques were recently used to drill and <span class="hlt">core</span> the <span class="hlt">melt</span> zone of Kilauea Iki lava lake to a depth of 93 m. A partial <span class="hlt">melt</span> zone was found to exist at depths between 58 m and 89 m consisting of 40 volume percent <span class="hlt">melt</span>. Downhole seismic shots detonated in and below the <span class="hlt">melt</span> zone resulted in the first in situ measurements of seismic velocity directly through well characterized partial <span class="hlt">melt</span> zone. Periodic seismic sources were used to effectively penetrate the highly fractured hydrothermal zone of the lava lake crust. Low velocity P-wave layers (< or =2.0 km/s) were found at the surface, at 40 m depth, and at 90 m depth. Thermal convective experiments in the <span class="hlt">melt</span> zone resulted in the first controlled in situ measurements of the interaction of water with a basaltic <span class="hlt">melt</span> zone. Transient energy rates of 900 kW (980 kW/m/sup 2/) and steady rates of 85 kW (93 kW/m/sup 2/) were observed. The full water recovery (100%), high downhole steam temperatures (670 C), and high energy transfer rates (93 to 980 kW/m/sup 2/) observed in these thermal experiments are consistent with a closed cavity model where the injected water/steam directly contacted basaltic <span class="hlt">melt</span> or near <span class="hlt">melt</span>. In addition to understanding lava lakes, these seismic and thermal experiments have applications for the location of magma bodies in the crust and for the efficient extraction of energy from these bodies.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hardee, H.C.; Dunn, J.C.; Hills, R.G.; Ward, R.W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">405</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57621835"> <span id="translatedtitle">Thermal-Hydraulics in Uncovered <span class="hlt">Core</span> of Light Water Reactor in Severe <span class="hlt">Core</span> Damage Accident, (IV)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Analysis of the TMI-2 <span class="hlt">core</span> damage behavior has been performed with the SEFDAN code. The scope of the analysis is by the time of restarting the reactor coolant pump RCP-2B at 2 h 54 min into the accident. The analysis indicates that fuel temperature would have reached the <span class="hlt">melting</span> point of UO2 in the upper-most part of the most central</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fumiya TANABE; Tohru SUDA</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">406</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUSM.V51A..09R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Electrical Conductivity and Tomographic Imaging of Olivine-FeS Partial-<span class="hlt">Melts</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The presence, distribution, and composition of <span class="hlt">melt</span> affect the physical properties of polycrystalline ultramafic rock and are important to our interpretation of the Earth's lower crust and upper mantle, and to our understanding of planetary <span class="hlt">core</span> formation via liquid-metal segregation. A key issue in models of planetary <span class="hlt">core</span> formation is the interconnectness of molten iron-sulfides in contact with silicates at high temperature and pressure. Olivine-FeS partial-<span class="hlt">melts</span> are also considered to be possible explanations for anomalously high conductivity regions beneath mountain ranges such as the Pyrenees and Andes. The interconnectivity and tortuosity of the <span class="hlt">melt</span> phase, in combination with the properties of the individual <span class="hlt">melt</span> and crystal phases, have bearing on the extractability of the <span class="hlt">melt</span>, and on the rheology, and electrical conductivity of the bulk material. We have begun an integrated study of the electrical conductivity-texture-permeability relationships of olivine-sulfide partial-<span class="hlt">melt</span> samples. Olivine-sulfide partial-<span class="hlt">melts</span> containing 0, 1, 3, 6, and 10% by weight non-wetting compositions (Fe64S36) and wetting compositions (Fe34S19Ni47+O2) in a San Carlos olivine matrix (Fo91) have been synthesized in a piston cylinder apparatus at 1250 C and 1 to 2 GPa. Electrical conductivity measurements of the partial-<span class="hlt">melt</span> and the individual <span class="hlt">melt</span> and crystalline phases have been performed in a 1-atmosphere gas-mixing furnace up to 1400 C. Additional measurements in solid medium-pressure apparatus (D-DIA, piston cylinder) have begun. Samples are characterized using X-ray microtomographic (XRCT) performed at the Advanced Light Source with spatial resolution approaching 2 microns. Determination of the 3-D structure and interconnectedness of the <span class="hlt">melt</span> phase, combined with the electrical conductivity measurements have been used to estimate the permeability of the mixtures at various experimental conditions. Results indicate sulfur fugacity is an important parameter controlling the wettability and interconnectivity of the <span class="hlt">melt</span> phase. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract W-7405-ENG-48 and supported specifically by Laboratory Directed Research and Development funding</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Roberts, J.; Mei, S.; Ryerson, R.; Kinney, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">407</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990snps.symp....6G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Potential health risks from <span class="hlt">postulated</span> accidents involving the Pu-238 RTG (Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator) on the Ulysses solar exploration mission</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Potential radiation impacts from launch of the Ulysses solar exploration experiment were evaluated using eight <span class="hlt">postulated</span> accident scenarios. Lifetime individual dose estimates rarely exceeded 1 mrem. Most of the potential health effects would come from inhalation exposures immediately after an accident, rather than from ingestion of contaminated food or water, or from inhalation of resuspended plutonium from contaminated ground. For local Florida accidents (that is, during the first minute after launch), an average source term accident was estimated to cause a total added cancer risk of up to 0.2 deaths. For accidents at later times after launch, a worldwide cancer risk of up to three cases was calculated (with a four in a million probability). Upper bound estimates were calculated to be about 10 times higher.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Goldman, M.; Nelson, R. C.; Bollinger, L.; Hoover, M. D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">408</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6251642"> <span id="translatedtitle">Potential health risks from <span class="hlt">postulated</span> accidents involving the Pu-238 RTG (radioisotope thermoelectric generator) on the Ulysses solar exploration mission</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Potential radiation impacts from launch of the Ulysses solar exploration experiment were evaluated using eight <span class="hlt">postulated</span> accident scenarios. Lifetime individual dose estimates rarely exceeded 1 mrem. Most of the potential health effects would come from inhalation exposures immediately after an accident, rather than from ingestion of contaminated food or water, or from inhalation of resuspended plutonium from contaminated ground. For local Florida accidents (that is, during the first minute after launch), an average source term accident was estimated to cause a total added cancer risk of up to 0.2 deaths. For accidents at later times after launch, a worldwide cancer risk of up to three cases was calculated (with a four in a million probability). Upper bound estimates were calculated to be about 10 times higher. 83 refs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Goldman, M. (California Univ., Davis, CA (USA)); Nelson, R.C. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA)); Bollinger, L. (Air Force Inspection and Safety Center, Kirtland AFB, NM (USA)); Hoover, M.D. (Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (USA). Inhalation Toxicology Research Inst.); Templeton, W. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Anspaugh, L. (Lawren</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-11-02</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">409</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=47233"> <span id="translatedtitle">Application of physical organic chemistry to engineered mutants of proteins: Hammond <span class="hlt">postulate</span> behavior in the transition state of protein folding.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Transition states in protein folding may be analyzed by linear free-energy relationships (LFERs) analogous to the Brønsted equation for changes in reactivity with changes in structure. There is an additional source of LFERs in protein folding: the perturbation of the equilibrium and rate constants by denaturants. These LFERs give a measure of the position of the transition state along the reaction coordinate. The transition state for folding/unfolding of barnase has been analyzed by both types of LFERs: changing the structure by protein engineering and perturbation by denaturants. The combination has allowed the direct monitoring of Hammond <span class="hlt">postulate</span> behavior of the transition state on the reaction pathway. Movement of the transition state has been found and analyzed to give further details of the order of events in protein folding.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Matouschek, A; Fersht, A R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">410</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010E%26PSL.300..264H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modelling <span class="hlt">melting</span> rates in upwelling mantle</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Upwelling regions of the mantle can undergo partial <span class="hlt">melting</span> as a result of decompression. Many models for the dynamics of these regions have largely ignored the actual <span class="hlt">melting</span> process or have prescribed a uniform <span class="hlt">melting</span> rate proportional to the upwelling velocity. This paper uses a simple model for an upwelling column to calculate the <span class="hlt">melting</span> rate from conservation principles. The model rock comprises two chemical components, and is assumed to be in thermodynamic equilibrium. For idealized linear phase constraints the <span class="hlt">melting</span> rate can be calculated analytically, and is found to be proportional to the average upwelling velocity of both the matrix and <span class="hlt">melt</span>.A secondary aim is to discuss reactive instabilities; the model predicts that the one dimensional state will be linearly stable, whereas previous models have suggested that reactive infiltration instability should occur. This is argued to be a result of the ‘background’ <span class="hlt">melting</span> rate which has not usually been fully accounted for, but which has a stabilizing effect. The model here can also be applied to a column in which some <span class="hlt">melt</span> is already present, and in that case it does exhibit a channeling instability. It is concluded that accounting for <span class="hlt">melt</span> production consistently in mid-ocean ridge models is important when assessing the likely modes of <span class="hlt">melt</span> transport.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hewitt, Ian J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">411</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFM.P12A0491M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Heat Transport by <span class="hlt">Melt</span> Segregation in Io</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Silicate volcanism is well established at Io, adding to the curiosity of Jupiter's innermost large satellite. It is clear that a balance between tidal heating and convective heat transport in Io results in a stable equilibrium with internal temperatures are somewhat above the solidus, because dissipation is still increasing as the solidus is crossed. As the rocks of Io's mantle begin to <span class="hlt">melt</span>, an interconnected network of <span class="hlt">melt</span> forms, allowing the less dense <span class="hlt">melt</span> to percolate upwards. In steady state, this <span class="hlt">melt</span> is replaced by a slower flow of solid downward. The net result of this segregation is the transport of latent heat with the <span class="hlt">melt</span>, which eventually is deposited at the surface. Quantitative solution of the equations of <span class="hlt">melt</span> transport coupled to tidal heating rates derived from a layered, Maxwell-viscoelastic model of Io reveal that the heat transported by <span class="hlt">melt</span> segregation overwhelms (and shuts down) convective heat transport in Io's mantle when <span class="hlt">melt</span> fractions exceed a few percent. This leads to a new heat balance in Io, which predicts maximum <span class="hlt">melt</span> fractions less than 20%, and interior temperatures near the solidus. Since the solidus temperature increases with pressure, the deep mantle is probably convecting. Combining parameterized convection models with <span class="hlt">melt</span> segregation heat transport and a parameterization of heat-pipe transport in the lithosphere allows the calculation of Io's internal temperatures consistent with the surface heat flow.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Moore, W. B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">412</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JGRE..117.0H12P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Impact <span class="hlt">melt</span> in small lunar highland craters</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Impact <span class="hlt">melt</span> deposits have been identified in small, simple impact craters within the lunar highlands. Such deposits are rare, but have been observed in craters as small as 170 m diameter. The <span class="hlt">melt</span> occurs as well-defined pools on the crater floor, as well as veneers on the inner crater wall and stringers of material extending over the rim and away from the crater. Model calculations indicate that the amount of <span class="hlt">melt</span> formed in craters 100-2000 m diameter would amount to a few to ˜106 m3, representing <1% of the crater volume. Thus, significant, visible impact <span class="hlt">melt</span> deposits would not be expected in such small craters as most of the <span class="hlt">melt</span> material that was formed would be ejected. Variations in the properties of the projectile or the target cannot account for the amount of observed <span class="hlt">melt</span>; the amount of <span class="hlt">melt</span> produced is largely insensitive to such variations. Rather, we suggest that these small <span class="hlt">melt</span>-containing craters represent near-vertical impacts in which the axes of <span class="hlt">melting</span> and <span class="hlt">melt</span> motion are essentially straight down, toward the base of the transient cavity. For a given event energy under vertical impact conditions, the volume of <span class="hlt">melt</span> produced would be greater than in an oblique impact and the momentum of the material would be directed vertically downward with minimal lateral momentum such that most of the <span class="hlt">melt</span> is retained within the crater interior. Since vertical impacts are relatively rare, such small craters with visible, interior <span class="hlt">melt</span> deposits are rare. While we focus here on the highlands, such craters also occur on the maria.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Plescia, J. B.; Cintala, M. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">413</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA....14242K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Retrieving original <span class="hlt">melt</span> compositions in migmatites</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The final textures and mineral modes of anatectic migmatites are affected by four successive processes: (i) prograde partial <span class="hlt">melting</span> and small-scale segregation into <span class="hlt">melt</span>-rich domains and restitic domains; (ii) partial <span class="hlt">melt</span> extraction; (iii) partial retrograde reactions (back reaction) between in situ crystallizing <span class="hlt">melt</span> and the restite; (iv) crystallization of remaining <span class="hlt">melt</span> at the water-saturated solidus, releasing volatiles (Kriegsman, 2001). These processes are investigated using mass balance calculations in the KFMASH chemical system. Starting from a fixed bulk composition, fluid-absent <span class="hlt">melting</span> reactions are considered along an isobaric heating path, followed by mineral-<span class="hlt">melt</span> reactions during isobaric cooling (path 1), and uplift (path 2). Variables in the model are the restite fraction X and the <span class="hlt">melt</span> fraction Y involved in back reaction, the <span class="hlt">melt</span> fraction Z extracted from the system, and the <span class="hlt">melt</span> fraction 1-Y-Z crystallized in situ at the water-saturated solidus. Incongruent phases are considered to be part of the restite. To facilitate calculations, mineral and <span class="hlt">melt</span> compositions are taken to be constant. It is shown that melanosome, leucosome, and mesosome compositions generally do not show linear compositional trends in a closed system. Instead, mesosome, neosome, protolith and <span class="hlt">melt</span> compositions lie on a hyperplane and form linear trends in any compositional diagram. Several methods are proposed to retrieve the <span class="hlt">melt</span> composition from neosome and mesosome compositions. Applications to natural examples (dataset of Ashworth, 1976; and our new data from SW Finland) strengthen the migmatite-to-granite connection which may notably be obscured by the back reaction process. References: Kriegsman, L.M., 2001, Lithos 56, 75-96 Ashworth, J.R., 1976. Mineralogical Magazine 40, 661-682</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kriegsman, L. M.; Nyström, A. I.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">414</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA383818"> <span id="translatedtitle">Banner <span class="hlt">Core</span> Simulation Interface.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Banner <span class="hlt">Core</span> Simulation Interface tool has been developed by Rome Laboratory to support the Banner <span class="hlt">Core</span> program in evaluating Bistatic Radar Systems. This document provides a summary of the objectives of the Banner <span class="hlt">Core</span> program, the software capabiliti...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">L. Mabius</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">415</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5448981"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Melt</span> spinning study. Final report</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Containerless processing of materials provides an excellent opportunity to study nucleation phenomena and produce unique materials, primarily through the formation of metastable phases and deep undercoolings. Deep undercoolings can be readily achieved in falling drops of molten material. Extended solute solubilities and greatly refined microstructures can also be obtained in containerless processing experiments. The Drop Tube Facility at Marshall Space Flight Center has played an important role in enhancing that area of research. Previous experiments performed in the Drop Tube with refractory metals have shown very interesting microstructural changes associated with deep undercoolings. It is apparent also that the microstructure of the deep undercooled species may be changing due to the release of the latent heat of fusion during recalescence. For scientific purposes, it is important to be able to differentiate between the microstructures of the two types of metallic species. A review of the literature shows that although significant advances have been made with respect to the engineering aspects of rapid solidification phenomena, there is still much to be learned in terms of understanding the basic phenomena. The two major ways in which rapid solidification processing provides improved structures and hence improved properties are: (1) production of refined structures such as fine dendrites and eutectics, and (2) production of new alloy compositions, microstructures, and phases through extended solid solubility, new phase reaction sequences, and the formation of metallic-glass microstructures. The objective of this work has been to determine the optimal methodology required to extract this excess energy without affecting the thermo-physical parameters of the under-cooled <span class="hlt">melt</span>. In normal containerless processing experiments recalescence occurs as the <span class="hlt">melt</span> returns toward the <span class="hlt">melting</span> point in order to solidify.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Workman, G.L.; Rathz, T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">416</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5703178"> <span id="translatedtitle">An idealized transient model for <span class="hlt">melt</span> dispersal from reactor cavities during pressurized <span class="hlt">melt</span> ejection accident scenarios</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The direct Containment Heating (DCH) calculations require that the transient rate at which the <span class="hlt">melt</span> is ejected from the reactor cavity during hypothetical pressurized <span class="hlt">melt</span> ejection accident scenarios be calculated. However, at present no models, that are able to predict the available <span class="hlt">melt</span> dispersal data from small scale reactor cavity models, are available. In this report, a simple idealized model of the <span class="hlt">melt</span> dispersal process within a reactor cavity during a pressurized <span class="hlt">melt</span> ejection accident scenario is presented. The predictions from the model agree reasonably well with the integral data obtained from the <span class="hlt">melt</span> dispersal experiments using a small scale model of the Surry reactor cavity. 17 refs., 15 figs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tutu, N.K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">417</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010APS..MARW36004O"> <span id="translatedtitle">Quantum <span class="hlt">melting</span> of spin ice</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A quantum <span class="hlt">melting</span> of the spin ice is proposed for pyrochlore-lattice magnets Pr2TM2O7 (TM =Ir, Zr, and Sn). The quantum pseudospin-1/2 model is derived from the strong-coupling perturbation of the f-p electron transfer in the basis of atomic non-Kramers magnetic doublets. The ground states are characterized by a cooperative ferroquadrupole and pseudospin chirality in the cubic unit cell, forming a magnetic analog of smectic liquid crystals. Then, pinch points observed in spin correlations for dipolar spin-ice systems are replaced with the minima. The relevance to experiments is discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Onoda, Shigeki; Tanaka, Yoichi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">418</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://epic.awi.de/Publications/Fri2001c.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">A new deep ice <span class="hlt">core</span> from Akademii Nauk ice cap, Severnaya Zemlya, Eurasian Arctic: first results</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The paper presents first results from the upper 54 m of a 723.91 m ice <span class="hlt">core</span> drilled on Akademii Nauk ice cap, Severnaya Zemlya, Eurasian Artctic, in 1999-2001, supplemented by data from shallow ice <span class="hlt">cores</span>. The glacier's peculiarity is the infiltration and refreezing of <span class="hlt">melting</span> water, which changes the original isotopic and chemical signals. Therefore, stratigraphical observations in these ice</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Diedrich Fritzsche; Frank Wilhelms; Lev M. Savatyugin; Jean Francis Pinglot; Hanno Meyer; Hans-Wolfgang Hubberten; Heinz Miller</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">419</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60335242"> <span id="translatedtitle">The influence of <span class="hlt">core</span> degradation phenomena on in-vessel fission product behavior during severe accidents</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In-vessel <span class="hlt">core</span> degradation phenomena influence where fission products will be located and in what chemical forms they will exist and with what materials they will be associated at the time the lower vessel fails in an unmitigated accident sequence. Fission products released from the reactor vessel during the in-vessel phase of <span class="hlt">core</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span> progression in a severe reactor accident can</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. R. Hobbins; D. J. Osetek; D. A. Petti; D. L. Hagrman</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">420</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60485229"> <span id="translatedtitle">Direct containment heating experiments in Zion Nuclear Power Plant geometry using prototype <span class="hlt">core</span> materials</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Risk studies of U.S. nuclear power plants have focused attention on low probability, beyond design basis, severe accidents. These accidents involve a <span class="hlt">core</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span>, relocation to the vessel lower head, failure of the lower head, and release to the containment. The release of the molten <span class="hlt">core</span> material (corium) to the containment can produce thermal or pressure loadings that pose a</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. L. Binder; L. M. McUmber; B. W. Spencer</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">421</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17095697"> <span id="translatedtitle">Transcrystalline <span class="hlt">melt</span> migration and Earth's mantle.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Plate tectonics and volcanism involve the formation, migration, and interaction of magma and gas. Experiments show that <span class="hlt">melt</span> inclusions subjected to a thermal gradient migrate through olivine crystals, under the kinetic control of crystal-<span class="hlt">melt</span> interface mechanisms. Exsolved gas bubbles remain fixed and eventually separate from the <span class="hlt">melt</span>. Scaled to thermal gradients in Earth's mantle and geological times, our results account for the grain-scale segregation of primitive <span class="hlt">melts</span>, reinterpret CO2-rich fluid inclusions as escaped from <span class="hlt">melt</span>, and question the existence of a free, deeply percolating fluid phase. <span class="hlt">Melt</span> migration experiments also allow us to quantify crystal growth kinetics at very low undercoolings in conditions appropriate to many natural systems. PMID:17095697</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schiano, Pierre; Provost, Ariel; Clocchiatti, Roberto; Faure, François</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-11-10</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">422</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JPhCS.114a2031J"> <span id="translatedtitle">450 kW plasma <span class="hlt">melting</span> system</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Plasma <span class="hlt">melting</span> technology can be used to meet the scrap recycle needs of reactive metals, superalloys and refractory materials such as titanium, zirconium and uranium alloys. Fabrication involving these reactive metals, share the common problem of generating a large amount of scrap where both low and high density inclusions become highly prevalent. Plasma <span class="hlt">melting</span> technology can be used for re-<span class="hlt">melting</span>, refining and production of premium grade metal ingot. 450kW multi-torch plasma <span class="hlt">melting</span> furnace is developed and commissioned by Laser & Plasma Technology Division for the re-<span class="hlt">melting</span> and refining of metals and scraps under controlled environment. This paper presents the vacuum system design for 450 kW plasma <span class="hlt">melting</span> furnace. The efficacy of vacuum system in cold condition is also tested and the results are included in the paper. The vacuum feed through design for the plasma torch handling mechanism is also discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jha, M. N.; Sahashrabuddhe, S. N.; Murthy, P. S. S.; Bapat, A. V.; Das, A. K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">423</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.V31D2562B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Short wavelength vertical fluctuations of the <span class="hlt">melting</span> regime in the suboceanic <span class="hlt">melting</span> region</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Modelling of mantle residua cpx REE patterns allow recognizing short wavelenght vertical variability of the porosity regime of a <span class="hlt">melting</span> region differing from that deriving after <span class="hlt">melt</span> focusing processes ultimately leading to dunitic channelling of the mantle section. A trace element detailed study of residual clinopyroxenes from the ultraslow eastern SWIR section shows compositional trends crosscutting the expected partial <span class="hlt">melting</span> trends at the typical kilometre lenghtscale. In the REE compositional space these trends appear as pattern rotations around a mid-point. Open-system <span class="hlt">melting</span> modelling reveals the intensity of the rotation and the position of the pivot element depending mainly on the ratio between input/output <span class="hlt">melt</span> flux and on the enrichment of the percolating <span class="hlt">melt</span> with respect to the depleted screen. We derived two important indications on the process: first some regions experience near-batch <span class="hlt">melting</span>, i.e. <span class="hlt">melt</span> accumulation with very low output <span class="hlt">melt</span> flux, in regions soon after the grt/sp transition. This observations suggest permeability barriers to occur in the main <span class="hlt">melting</span> region possibly due to porosity consumption by <span class="hlt">melt</span>/rock reaction enhanced by grt breakdown energy competition. Consequently <span class="hlt">melt</span> stagnation processes similar to those described for the plagioclase facies may act in the spinel field portion of the <span class="hlt">melting</span> region. Second: we attest the presence of enriched <span class="hlt">melts</span> delivered to the spinel field region. These <span class="hlt">melts</span> may derive from very low degrees of <span class="hlt">melting</span> in the garnet field of a DMM source or by consumption of an enriched heterogeneity with a lower <span class="hlt">melting</span> point than the surrounding mantle.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brunelli, D.; Seyler, M.; Paganelli, E.; Barbieri, E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">424</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/484517"> <span id="translatedtitle">Intelligent control of cupola <span class="hlt">melting</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The cupola is a furnace used for <span class="hlt">melting</span> steel scrap, cast iron scrap, and ferroalloys to produce cast iron. Its main energy source is coal coke. It is one of the oldest methods of producing cast iron, and it remains the dominate method because of its simplicity and low fuel cost. Cupolas range in size from 18 inches to 13 feet in diameter, and can produce up to 100 tons per hour of cast iron. Although cupola <span class="hlt">melting</span> has a long history, automatic control has been elusive because the process has been poorly understood. Most foundries rely on the intuition of experienced operators to make control decisions. The purpose of this work, which has been underway for three years of an anticipated four year program, is to develop a controller for the cupola using intelligent and conventional control methods. The project is a cooperative effort between the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, the Department of Energy Albany Research Center, Idaho State University, and the American Foundrymen`s Society.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Larsen, E.D.; Clark, D.E. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Moore, K.L. [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States); King, P.E. [Department of Energy, Albany, OR (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">425</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40932007"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pressure dependence of viscosity of rhyolitic <span class="hlt">melts</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Viscosity of silicate <span class="hlt">melts</span> is a critical property for understanding volcanic and igneous processes in the Earth. We investigate the pressure effect on the viscosity of rhyolitic <span class="hlt">melts</span> using two methods: indirect viscosity inference from hydrous species reaction in <span class="hlt">melts</span> using a piston cylinder at pressures up to 2.8GPa and direct viscosity measurement by parallel-plate creep viscometer in an internally-heated</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hejiu Hui; Youxue Zhang; Zhengjiu Xu; Piero Del Gaudio; Harald Behrens</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">426</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/10329719"> <span id="translatedtitle">Crystal Growth from the <span class="hlt">Melt</span>: A Review</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper reviews four aspects of crystal growth theory: the nature of the rate-controlling process, the mechanism controlling molecular attachment onto the growing crystal surface, the nature of the crystal-<span class="hlt">melt</span> interface, and the stability of planar interfaces relative to cellular interfaces. The rate-controlling process may be diffusion in the <span class="hlt">melt</span>, heat flow, or the reaction at the crystal-<span class="hlt">melt</span> interface. Diffusion</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. Jeuss Knrpnrnrcr</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">427</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/l13n0q8072441u24.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Experimental deformation of partially-<span class="hlt">melted</span> granite</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">An account is given of the experimental deformation of partially-<span class="hlt">melted</span> granite with <span class="hlt">melt</span> fractions up to 25% at 800 °C and 300 MPa confining pressure in constant strainrate tests between 10-3 and 10-6 S-1, creep tests and cycling tests. Microscopic study reveals that under these conditions most of the uniform deformation prior to macroscopic shear failure is accomplished by <span class="hlt">melt</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">I. van der Molen; M. S. Paterson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1979-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">428</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011GGG....12.AC13B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Geochemical variations at intraplate hot spots caused by variable <span class="hlt">melting</span> of a veined mantle plume</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Three-dimensional geodynamic models of plume-lithosphere interaction were used to explore the causes of spatial patterns of magmatic compositions at intraplate hot spots. The models couple mantle flow, heat transfer, and the <span class="hlt">melting</span> of multiple components present in the mantle as small blobs or veins with different solidi and composition. Predicted magma compositions evolve from having a strong signature from the deepest-<span class="hlt">melting</span> component in the early stages of volcanism to a strong signature from the shallowest-<span class="hlt">melting</span> component in the later stages. This compositional trend arises by progressive <span class="hlt">melt</span> extraction of the different components and a horizontal displacement of their <span class="hlt">melting</span> zones due to shear flow associated with plate motion. When three or more components are present, the composition of a volcano evolves along arrays in isotope space that trend toward mixed compositions of the components rather than the components themselves. Models explain the average Pb isotope trends in the Hawaiian Scientific Drilling Program <span class="hlt">core</span> at Mauna Kea volcano. Observed scatter about the average trends and the distinction between the Kea and Loa subchains are explained by spatial variability in the relative proportions of the components in the mantle. Monte Carlo simulations show that linear Pb isotope arrays are unlikely to originate from nonsystematic, binary mixing if the scale of the magma capture zone is much larger than the scale of isotopic heterogeneity. However, systematic sampling by progressive <span class="hlt">melt</span> extraction naturally generates such linear arrays if the capture zone is large compared to the scale of heterogeneity.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bianco, Todd Anthony; Ito, Garrett; van Hunen, Jeroen; Ballmer, Maxim D.; Mahoney, John J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">429</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1027689"> <span id="translatedtitle">NREL Scientists Reveal Origin of Diverse <span class="hlt">Melting</span> Behaviors of Aluminum Nanoclusters (Fact Sheet)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Research reveals active role of cluster symmetries on the size-sensitive, diverse <span class="hlt">melting</span> behaviors of metallic nanoclusters, providing insight to understanding phase changes of nanoparticles for thermal energy storage. Unlike macroscopic bulk materials, intermediate-sized nanoclusters with around 55 atoms inherently exhibit size-sensitive <span class="hlt">melting</span> changes: adding just a single atom to a nanocluster can cause a dramatic change in <span class="hlt">melting</span> behavior. Microscopic understanding of thermal behaviors of metal nanoclusters is important for nanoscale catalysis and thermal energy storage applications. However, it is a challenge to obtain a structural interpretation at the atomic level from measured thermodynamic quantities such as heat capacity. Using ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, scientists at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) revealed a clear correlation between the diverse <span class="hlt">melting</span> behaviors of aluminum nanoclusters and cluster <span class="hlt">core</span> symmetries. These simulations reproduced, for the first time, the size-sensitive heat capacities of aluminum nanoclusters, which exhibit several distinctive shapes associated with the diverse <span class="hlt">melting</span> behaviors of the clusters. The size-dependent, diverse <span class="hlt">melting</span> behaviors of the aluminum clusters are attributed to the reduced symmetry (from Td {yields} D2d {yields} Cs) with increasing the cluster sizes and can be used to help design thermal storage materials.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Not Available</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">430</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EPJD...67...64V"> <span id="translatedtitle">Molecular dynamics simulation of <span class="hlt">melting</span> of fcc Lennard-Jones nanoparticles</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Melting</span> of fcc Lennard-Jones (LJ) nanoparticles is studied by heating up models from low temperature toward liquid phase using molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Atomic mechanism of <span class="hlt">melting</span> is analyzed via temperature dependence of potential energy, heat capacity, analysis of the spatio-temporal arrangements of liquidlike atoms occurred during the heating process. Moreover, radial distribution function (RDF), mean-squared displacement (MSD) of atoms and radial density profile are also used for deeper analyzing <span class="hlt">melting</span>. Surface <span class="hlt">melting</span> is under much attention. We also analyze the evolution of structure of nanoparticles upon heating via the global order parameter Q6 and Honeycutt-Andersen (HA) analysis. We find previously unreported information as follows. At temperature far below a <span class="hlt">melting</span> point, a quasi-liquid layer containing both liquidlike and solidlike atoms occurs in the surface shell of nanoparticles unlike that thought in the past. Further heating leads to the formation of a purely liquid layer at the surface and homogeneous occurrence/growth of liquidlike atoms throughout the interior of nanoparticles. <span class="hlt">Melting</span> proceeds further via two different mechanisms: homogeneous one in the interior and propagation of liquid front from the surface into the <span class="hlt">core</span> leading to fast collapse of crystalline matrix.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Van Sang, Le; Van Hoang, Vo; Thi Thuy Hang, Nguyen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">431</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013E%26PSL.365..253H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hydrogen concentration in plagioclase as a hygrometer of arc basaltic <span class="hlt">melts</span>: Approaches from <span class="hlt">melt</span> inclusion analyses and hydrous <span class="hlt">melting</span> experiments</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The partition coefficients of hydrogen between plagioclase and basaltic <span class="hlt">melt</span> were determined by two approaches. For the first part of this study, plagioclase-hosted <span class="hlt">melt</span> inclusions in mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) from the Rodriguez Triple Junction in the Indian Ocean were analyzed. The hydrogen concentration in plagioclase is less than 60 wt ppm water, and the average H2O concentration in <span class="hlt">melt</span> inclusions is 0.3 wt%. Therefore, the apparent partition coefficient of hydrogen between plagioclase and <span class="hlt">melt</span> is ?0.01 on a molar basis. For the second part of this study, hydrous <span class="hlt">melting</span> experiments of arc basaltic magma were performed at 0.35 GPa using an internally-heated pressure vessel at f?NNO+3. The starting material was hydrous basaltic glass with H2O ranging from 0.8 to 5.5 wt%. A grain of Ca-rich plagioclase (?1 mg) and 10 mg of powdered basaltic glass were sealed in a Au80Pd20 alloy capsule, and then kept at near the crystallization temperature of plagioclase as a liquidus phase to attain an equilibrium of hydrogen between plagioclase and <span class="hlt">melt</span>. Combining the results of these two parts of this study, we formulated two linear equations to correlate the hydrogen concentration in plagioclase and the H2O concentration in <span class="hlt">melt</span>. When H2O in <span class="hlt">melt</span> is ?1 wt%,hydrogen in plagioclase (wt ppm water)?80×H2O in <span class="hlt">melt</span> (wt%).When H2O in <span class="hlt">melt</span> is?4 wt%,hydrogen in plagioclase (wt ppm water)?40×H2O in <span class="hlt">melt</span> (wt%).Hydrogen concentration in plagioclase lies between two equations when H2O in <span class="hlt">melt</span> ranges from 1 to 4 wt%. In accordance with these formulations, the partition coefficients of hydrogen between plagioclase and basaltic <span class="hlt">melt</span> switches from 0.01±0.005 under H2O-poor conditions (?100 wt ppm water in plagioclase, ?1 wt% H2O in <span class="hlt">melt</span>) to 0.005±0.001 under H2O-rich conditions (?150 wt ppm water in plagioclase, ?4 wt% H2O in <span class="hlt">melt</span>). Such switches of hydrogen partitioning with an increase in H2O can be related to change of the atomic site for hydrogen in the crystal structure of plagioclase.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hamada, Morihisa; Ushioda, Masashi; Fujii, Toshitsugu; Takahashi, Eiichi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">432</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/22639497"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Melting</span> point elevation in compatible polymer blends</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary An expression is presented which relates the experimentally observed <span class="hlt">melting</span> point depression in crystallizable, compatible polymer blends to changes in lamellar thickness and thermodynamic considerations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. Runt; P. B. Rim; S. E. Howe</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">433</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMDI41A1929N"> <span id="translatedtitle">Si and O partitioning between <span class="hlt">core</span> metal and lower mantle minerals during <span class="hlt">core</span> formation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In addition to Fe and Ni, the Earth’s <span class="hlt">core</span> contains light alloying elements (e.g., H, C, O, Si, and/or S) in order to explain the 10% <span class="hlt">core</span> density deficit (e.g., Birch, 1964, JGR). Experimental data on the partitioning behavior of siderophile elements such as Ni and Co between liquid Fe and mantle minerals indicate that equilibration between <span class="hlt">core</span>-forming metal and a silicate magma ocean likely occurred at lower-mantle pressures (e.g., Li and Agee, 1996 Nature). If <span class="hlt">core</span>-mantle differentiation has occurred under such conditions, significant quantities of O or Si could have entered the <span class="hlt">core</span>. At these conditions the nature of the dominant light element in the <span class="hlt">core</span> will depend strongly on the oxygen fugacity at which equilibration occurred. High pressure experiments were carried out at 25 GPa and 2400-2950 K using a Kawai-type multi-anvil apparatus in order to investigate the partitioning of Si and O between liquid Fe and (Mg,Fe)SiO3 perovskite (Pv), silicate <span class="hlt">melt</span>, and (Mg,Fe)O ferropericlace (Fp). Starting materials consisting of metallic Fe (+-Si) and olivine (Fo70-95) were contained in single-crystal MgO capsules. Over the oxygen fugacity range IW-0.5 to -3, the Si molar partition coefficient D* (= [Si]metal /[Si]silicate) between metal and Pv increases linearly with decreasing oxygen fugacity at a fixed given temperature. The partition coefficient between metal and silicate <span class="hlt">melt</span> is of a similar magnitude but is less dependent on the oxygen fugacity. The obtained oxygen distribution coefficient Kd (= [Fe]metal[O]metal /[FeO]Fp) is in agreement with that determined in the Fe-Fp binary system (Asahara et al., 2007 EPSL) below the silicate liquidus temperature. In contrast, a correlation between the O partitioning and Si concentration in Fe is observed above 2700 K where liquid metal coexists with silicate <span class="hlt">melt</span> + Fp. With an increasing concentration of Si in the liquid metal, O partitioning into Fp is strongly enhanced. Five atomic% Si in the metal reduces the metal-silicate O partition coefficient by about 1 order magnitude. Near the base of a deep magma ocean where pressures exceed 20 GPa, liquid metal could have coexisted with silicate <span class="hlt">melt</span>, Pv, and Fp. Our results show that Si would readily partitioned into <span class="hlt">core</span>-forming metal from both perovskite and silicate liquid at a relevant oxygen fugacity (e.g., IW-2). Simultaneously, the Si solubility would hinder the dissolution of O in the liquid metal. This implies that the presence of Si in liquid metal must be included in models of O partitioning.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nakajima, Y.; Frost, D. J.; Rubie, D. C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">434</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5611875"> <span id="translatedtitle">TMI-2 <span class="hlt">core</span> damage: a summary of present knowledge</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Extensive fuel damage (oxidation and fragmentation) has occurred and the top approx. 1.5 m of the center portion of the TMI-2 <span class="hlt">core</span> has relocated. The fuel fragmentation extends outward to slightly beyond one-half the <span class="hlt">core</span> radius in the direction examined by the CCTV camera. While the radial extent of <span class="hlt">core</span> fragmentation in other directions was not directly observed, control and spider drop data and in-<span class="hlt">core</span> instrument data suggest that the <span class="hlt">core</span> void is roughly symmetrical, although there are a few indications of severe fuel damage extending to the <span class="hlt">core</span> periphery. The <span class="hlt">core</span> material fragmented into a broad range of particle sizes, extending down to a few microns. APSR movement data, the observation of damaged fuel assemblies hanging unsupported from the bottom of the reactor upper plenum structure, and the observation of once-molten stainless steel immediately above the active <span class="hlt">core</span> indicate high temperatures (up to at least 1720 K) extended to the very top of the <span class="hlt">core</span>. The relative lack of damage to the underside of the plenum structure implies a sharp temperature demarcation at the <span class="hlt">core</span>/plenum interface. Filter debris and leadscrew deposit analyses indicate extensive high temperature <span class="hlt">core</span> materials interaction, <span class="hlt">melting</span> of the Ag-In-Cd control material, and transport of particulate control material to the plenum and out of the vessel.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Owen, D.E.; Mason, R.E.; Meininger, R.D.; Franz, W.A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">435</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013M%26PSA..76.5297P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Impact <span class="hlt">Melt</span> Volumes for Simple Lunar Craters: Implications for <span class="hlt">Melt</span> Production</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">LRO LOLA data allow estimates of the volume of impact <span class="hlt">melt</span> produced during the formation of simple lunar craters. Those estimates provide constraints and validation of theoretical models of <span class="hlt">melt</span> production.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Plescia, J. B.; Barnouin, O. S.; Cintala, M. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">436</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.6188F"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Melting</span> and phase relations in the Fe-C-S-O system at high pressure and temperature</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The physical state of the <span class="hlt">core</span> (liquid outer <span class="hlt">core</span> and solid inner <span class="hlt">core</span>) could provide tight constraint on the <span class="hlt">core</span> temperature if <span class="hlt">melting</span> temperature of <span class="hlt">core</span> materials is precisely determined at high pressure. On the other hand, the density of the Earth's <span class="hlt">core</span> is significantly lower than that of pure iron measured experimentally at high pressure and temperature. The density deficit in the <span class="hlt">core</span> (both liquid outer <span class="hlt">core</span> and solid inner <span class="hlt">core</span>) provides inside into the chemistry of the <span class="hlt">core</span>, suggesting that the <span class="hlt">core</span> must contain several weight percent of one or more light elements (lighter than iron) in addition to Fe-Ni alloy. Sulfur (S), carbon (C), and oxygen (O) are the prominent candidates among the proposed light elements, because of their high solar abundance and strong chemical affinity for Fe. Determining the effect of pressure on <span class="hlt">melting</span> relations in the Fe-S, Fe-C, and Fe-O binary systems and multi-component system is crucial for understanding the chemistry, temperature, and evolution of planetary <span class="hlt">cores</span>. There has been significant progress in determining the <span class="hlt">melting</span> relations in the system Fe-FeS at high pressure, using multi-anvil apparatus and laser-heating diamond-anvil cell. These studies have revealed new iron-sulfur compounds (Fe3S2, Fe2S, and Fe3S) stable at high pressures, change of <span class="hlt">melting</span> relations, and pressure effect on eutectic temperature and composition. The behaviors of the Fe-C and Fe-O systems have also been experimentally investigated recently. Experimental data in the Fe-C-S-O system at high pressure have just emerged. In parallel, there are high-quality data on density measurements of solid and liquid phases at high pressure and temperature. In this study, I present recent advances in experimental techniques and <span class="hlt">melting</span> relations in the Fe-C-S-O system. The emphasis will be on the need to develop thermodynamic models by synthesis of thermochemical, thermophysical, and phase equilibrium data. The systematic approach provides a better understanding of the correlation between physical state and composition with different thermal models of the planetary <span class="hlt">cores</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fei, Yingwei</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">437</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11677073"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Melt</span> pelletization in high shear mixer using a hydrophobic <span class="hlt">melt</span> binder: influence of some apparatus and process variables.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The effects of process conditions and the apparatus variables on the granulometric characteristics of a formulation containing a hydrophobic binder (stearic acid), lactose and paracetamol prepared by <span class="hlt">melt</span> pelletization process were investigated in a 10-litre high shear mixer. The factors under investigation were: impeller speed, massing time, type of impeller blades and presence of the deflector and their reciprocal interactions. Two granule characteristics were analysed: the percentage of aggregates larger than 3000 microm (Y(1)) and the yield of the 2000-microm pellet size fraction (Y(2)). In order to estimate simultaneously the above-mentioned factors, a particular experimental design was adopted, that allowed the reduction of the number of trials from 378 to 35 and took into consideration other uncontrolled factors with the aid of a block variable. Using the <span class="hlt">postulated</span> model, we found the optimal operating conditions to minimize Y(1) and increase Y(2) by selecting the type of impeller, and by using an impeller speed lower than 300 rpm, a massing time of 8-9 min and by not using the deflector. Finally, the validity of the adopted strategy has been proved with an additional check point. PMID:11677073</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Voinovich, D; Moneghini, M; Perissutti, B; Franceschinis, E</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">438</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/27054197"> <span id="translatedtitle">Superalloy <span class="hlt">Melting</span> in an ac Electroslag Remelt Furnace with Automatic <span class="hlt">Melt</span> Control and rms Current Regulation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A stationary mold-ingot bottom withdrawal ac consumable electrode electroslag furnace with electrode change capability has been installed for <span class="hlt">melting</span> superalloys at Teledyne-Allvac. The furnace, which utilizes <span class="hlt">melt</span> voltage and rms current regulation for automatic <span class="hlt">melt</span> control and its operation are described. The stationary mold-ingot bottom withdrawal and auto-<span class="hlt">melt</span> control concepts have proven successful and solution hardening superalloys are in routine</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Frank Elliott; Eugene L. Danjou; Raymond C. Blackmond</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1976-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">439</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/23262848"> <span id="translatedtitle">In situ atomic force microscopy of the <span class="hlt">melting</span> of <span class="hlt">melt</span>-crystallized polyethylene</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">High temperature AFM is used to observe the <span class="hlt">melting</span> of polyethylene lamellae crystallized from the <span class="hlt">melt</span> in situ in real-time. Both oriented and un-oriented samples are observed. The <span class="hlt">melting</span> of shish–kebab structures, including revealing the bare oriented shish, is achieved. Lamellae are observed to <span class="hlt">melt</span> from their edges, and this is proposed to be due to the inherent higher mobility</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. K. Hobbs</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">440</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/39660396"> <span id="translatedtitle">Anhydrous partial <span class="hlt">melting</span> of an iron-rich mantle II: primary <span class="hlt">melt</span> compositions at 15 kbar</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Primary <span class="hlt">melt</span> and coexisting mineral compositions, at increasing degrees of partial <span class="hlt">melting</span> at 15 kbar, were determined for an iron-rich martian mantle composition, DW. The composition of primary <span class="hlt">melts</span> near the solidus was determined with basalt-peridotite sandwich experiments. In order to evaluate the approach of the liquids to equilibrium with a DW mantle assemblage, experiments were also performed to establish</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Constance M. Bertka; John R. Holloway</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> </div><!-- page_22 div --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("p