Science.gov

Sample records for postulated initiating event

  1. The Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) postulated limiting event initial and building source terms

    SciTech Connect

    Restrepo, L F

    1992-08-01

    As part of the update of the Safety analysis Report (SAR) for the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR), operational limiting events under the category of inadvertent withdrawal of an experiment while at power or during a power pulse were determined to be the most limiting event(s) for this reactor. This report provides a summary of the assumptions, modeling, and results in evaluation of: Reactivity and thermal hydraulics analysis to determine the amount of fuel melt or fuel damage ratios; The reactor inventories following the limiting event; A literature review of post NUREG-0772 release fraction experiment results on severe fuel damages; Decontamination factors due to in-pool transport; and In-building transport modeling and building source term analysis.

  2. Risk assessment of K basin twelve-inch drain valve failure from a postulated seismic initiating event

    SciTech Connect

    MORGAN, R.G.

    1999-04-06

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project will transfer metallic SNF from the Hanford 105 K-East and 105 K-West Basins to safe interim storage in the Canister Storage Building in the 200 Area. The initial basis for design, fabrication, installation, and operation of the fuel removal systems was that the basin leak rates which could result from a postulated accident condition would not be excessive relative to reasonable recovery operations. However, an additional potential K Basin water leak path is through the K Basin drain valves. Three twelve-inch drain valves are located in the main basin bays along the north wall. The sumps containing the valves are filled with concrete which covers the drain valve body. Visual observations suggest that only the valve's bonnet and stem are exposed above the basin concrete floor. It was recognized, however, that damage of the drain valve bonnet or stem during a seismic initiating event could provide a potential K Basin water leak path. The objectives of this activity are to: (1) evaluate the risk of damaging the three twelve-inch drain valves located along the north wall of the main basin from a seismic initiating event, and (2) determine the associated potential leak rate from a damaged valve.

  3. Risk assessment of K Basin twelve-inch and four-inch drain valve failure from a postulated seismic initiating event

    SciTech Connect

    MORGAN, R.G.

    1999-06-23

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project will transfer metallic SNF from the Hanford 105 K-East and 105 K-West Basins to safe interim storage in the Canister Storage Building in the 200 Area. The initial basis for design, fabrication, installation, and operation of the fuel removal systems was that the basin leak rate which could result from a postulated accident condition would not be excessive relative to reasonable recovery operations. However, an additional potential K Basin water leak path is through the K Basin drain valves. Three twelve-inch drain valves are located in the main basin bays along the north wall. Five four-inch drain valves are located in the north and south loadout pits (NLOP and SLOP), the weasel pit, the technical viewing pit, and the discharge chute pit. The sumps containing the valves are filled with concrete which covers the drain valve body. Visual observations indicate that only the valve's bonnet and stem are exposed above the basin concrete floor for the twelve-inch drain valve and that much less of the valve's bonnet and stem are exposed above the basin concrete floor for the five four-inch drain valves. It was recognized, however, that damage of the drain valve bonnet or stem during a seismic initiating event could provide a potential K Basin water leak path. The objectives of this analysis are to: (1) evaluate the likelihood of damaging the three twelve-inch drain valves located along the north wall of the main basin and the five four-inch drain valves located in the pits from a seismic initiating event, and (2) determine the likelihood of exceeding a specific consequence (initial leak rate) from a damaged valve. The analysis process is a risk-based uncertainty analysis where each variable is modeled using available information and engineering judgement. The uncertainty associated with each variable is represented by a probability distribution (probability density function). Uncertainty exists because of the inherent randomness

  4. Westinghouse Small Modular Reactor passive safety system response to postulated events

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M. C.; Wright, R. F.

    2012-07-01

    The Westinghouse Small Modular Reactor (SMR) is an 800 MWt (>225 MWe) integral pressurized water reactor. This paper is part of a series of four describing the design and safety features of the Westinghouse SMR. This paper focuses in particular upon the passive safety features and the safety system response of the Westinghouse SMR. The Westinghouse SMR design incorporates many features to minimize the effects of, and in some cases eliminates the possibility of postulated accidents. The small size of the reactor and the low power density limits the potential consequences of an accident relative to a large plant. The integral design eliminates large loop piping, which significantly reduces the flow area of postulated loss of coolant accidents (LOCAs). The Westinghouse SMR containment is a high-pressure, compact design that normally operates at a partial vacuum. This facilitates heat removal from the containment during LOCA events. The containment is submerged in water which also aides the heat removal and provides an additional radionuclide filter. The Westinghouse SMR safety system design is passive, is based largely on the passive safety systems used in the AP1000{sup R} reactor, and provides mitigation of all design basis accidents without the need for AC electrical power for a period of seven days. Frequent faults, such as reactivity insertion events and loss of power events, are protected by first shutting down the nuclear reaction by inserting control rods, then providing cold, borated water through a passive, buoyancy-driven flow. Decay heat removal is provided using a layered approach that includes the passive removal of heat by the steam drum and independent passive heat removal system that transfers heat from the primary system to the environment. Less frequent faults such as loss of coolant accidents are mitigated by passive injection of a large quantity of water that is readily available inside containment. An automatic depressurization system is used to

  5. Supplemental Analysis to Support Postulated Events in Process Hazards Analysis for the HEAF

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, H; Johnson, G

    2001-07-20

    The purpose of this report is to conduct a limit scope risk assessment by generating event trees for the accident scenarios described in table 4-2 of the HEAF SAR, ref 1. Table 4-2 lists the postulated event/scenario descriptions for non-industrial hazards for HEAF. The event tree analysis decomposes accident scenarios into basic causes that appear as branches on the event tree. Bold downward branches indicate paths leading to the accident. The basic causes include conditions, failure of administrative controls (procedural or human error events) or failure of engineered controls (hardware, software or equipment failure) that singly or in combination can cause an accident to occur. Event tree analysis is useful since it can display the minimum number of events to cause an accident. Event trees can address statistical dependency of events such as a sequence of human error events conducted by the same operator. In this case, dependent probabilities are used. Probabilities/frequencies are assigned to each branch. Another example of dependency would be when the same software is used to conduct separate actions such as activating a hard and soft crow bar for grounding detonator circuits. Generally, the first event considered in the event tree describes the annual frequency at which a specific operation is conducted and probabilities are assigned to the remaining branches. An exception may be when the first event represents a condition, then a probability is used to indicate the percentage of time the condition exists. The annual probability (frequency) of the end state leading to the accident scenario in the event tree is obtained by multiplying the branch probabilities together.

  6. Analysis of postulated events for the revised ALMR/PRISM design

    SciTech Connect

    Slovik, G.C.; Van Tuyle, G.J.

    1991-12-31

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is continuing a pre-application review of the 471 MWt, Liquid Metal Reactor, PRISM by General Electric, with Brookhaven National Laboratory providing technical support. The revised design has been evaluated, using the SSC code, for an unscrammed loss of heat sink (ULOHS), an unscrammed loss of flow (ULOF) with and without the Gas Expansion Modules (GEMs), and a 40{cents} unscrammed transient overpower (UTOP) event. The feedback effects for U-27Pu-10Zr metal fuel were modeled in SSC. The ULOHS accident was determined to be a benign event for the design, with the reactor power transitioning down to a decay heat level within 500s. The power during the postulated ULOF events, with the GEMs functioning, transitioned to decay heat levels without fuel damage, and included a 300K margin to sodium saturation. The case without the GEMs had only a 160K margin to sodium saturation and higher fuel temperatures. In addition, the clad was predicted to quickly pass through the eutectic phase (between fuel and clad), and some clad wastage would result. The 40{cents} UTOP was predicted to raise the power to 1.8 rated, which later stabilized near 1.2 times full power. SSC predicted some localized fuel melting for the event, but the significance of this localized damage has not yet been determined. If necessary, the vendor has options to reduce the maximum reactivity insertion below 40{cents}.

  7. Analysis of postulated events for the revised ALMR/PRISM design

    SciTech Connect

    Slovik, G.C.; Van Tuyle, G.J.

    1991-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is continuing a pre-application review of the 471 MWt, Liquid Metal Reactor, PRISM by General Electric, with Brookhaven National Laboratory providing technical support. The revised design has been evaluated, using the SSC code, for an unscrammed loss of heat sink (ULOHS), an unscrammed loss of flow (ULOF) with and without the Gas Expansion Modules (GEMs), and a 40{cents} unscrammed transient overpower (UTOP) event. The feedback effects for U-27Pu-10Zr metal fuel were modeled in SSC. The ULOHS accident was determined to be a benign event for the design, with the reactor power transitioning down to a decay heat level within 500s. The power during the postulated ULOF events, with the GEMs functioning, transitioned to decay heat levels without fuel damage, and included a 300K margin to sodium saturation. The case without the GEMs had only a 160K margin to sodium saturation and higher fuel temperatures. In addition, the clad was predicted to quickly pass through the eutectic phase (between fuel and clad), and some clad wastage would result. The 40{cents} UTOP was predicted to raise the power to 1.8 rated, which later stabilized near 1.2 times full power. SSC predicted some localized fuel melting for the event, but the significance of this localized damage has not yet been determined. If necessary, the vendor has options to reduce the maximum reactivity insertion below 40{cents}.

  8. Initial Events in Bacterial Transcription Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Ruff, Emily F.; Record, M. Thomas; Artsimovitch, Irina

    2015-01-01

    Transcription initiation is a highly regulated step of gene expression. Here, we discuss the series of large conformational changes set in motion by initial specific binding of bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP) to promoter DNA and their relevance for regulation. Bending and wrapping of the upstream duplex facilitates bending of the downstream duplex into the active site cleft, nucleating opening of 13 bp in the cleft. The rate-determining opening step, driven by binding free energy, forms an unstable open complex, probably with the template strand in the active site. At some promoters, this initial open complex is greatly stabilized by rearrangements of the discriminator region between the −10 element and +1 base of the nontemplate strand and of mobile in-cleft and downstream elements of RNAP. The rate of open complex formation is regulated by effects on the rapidly-reversible steps preceding DNA opening, while open complex lifetime is regulated by effects on the stabilization of the initial open complex. Intrinsic DNA opening-closing appears less regulated. This noncovalent mechanism and its regulation exhibit many analogies to mechanisms of enzyme catalysis. PMID:26023916

  9. Longitudinal hydrodynamics from event-by-event Landau initial conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Sen, Abhisek; Gerhard, Jochen; Torrieri, Giorgio; Read, Kenneth; Wong, Cheuk-Yin

    2015-02-02

    Here we investigate three-dimensional ideal hydrodynamic evolution, with Landau initial conditions, incorporating event-by-event variation with many events and transverse density inhomogeneities. We show that the transition to boost-invariant flow occurs too late for realistic setups, with corrections of θ (20%-30%) expected at freeze-out for most scenarios. Moreover, the deviation from boost invariance is correlated with both transverse flow and elliptic flow, with the more highly transversely flowing regions also showing the most violation of boost invariance. Therefore, if longitudinal flow is not fully developed at the early stages of heavy ion collisions, hydrodynamics where boost invariance holds at midrapidity is inadequate to extract transport coefficients of the quark-gluon plasma. We conclude by arguing that developing experimental probes of boost invariance is necessary, and suggest some promising directions in this regard.

  10. Longitudinal hydrodynamics from event-by-event Landau initial conditions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sen, Abhisek; Gerhard, Jochen; Torrieri, Giorgio; Read, Kenneth; Wong, Cheuk-Yin

    2015-02-02

    Here we investigate three-dimensional ideal hydrodynamic evolution, with Landau initial conditions, incorporating event-by-event variation with many events and transverse density inhomogeneities. We show that the transition to boost-invariant flow occurs too late for realistic setups, with corrections of θ (20%-30%) expected at freeze-out for most scenarios. Moreover, the deviation from boost invariance is correlated with both transverse flow and elliptic flow, with the more highly transversely flowing regions also showing the most violation of boost invariance. Therefore, if longitudinal flow is not fully developed at the early stages of heavy ion collisions, hydrodynamics where boost invariance holds at midrapidity ismore » inadequate to extract transport coefficients of the quark-gluon plasma. We conclude by arguing that developing experimental probes of boost invariance is necessary, and suggest some promising directions in this regard.« less

  11. A review for identification of initiating events in event tree development process on nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Riyadi, Eko H.

    2014-09-30

    Initiating event is defined as any event either internal or external to the nuclear power plants (NPPs) that perturbs the steady state operation of the plant, if operating, thereby initiating an abnormal event such as transient or loss of coolant accident (LOCA) within the NPPs. These initiating events trigger sequences of events that challenge plant control and safety systems whose failure could potentially lead to core damage or large early release. Selection for initiating events consists of two steps i.e. first step, definition of possible events, such as by evaluating a comprehensive engineering, and by constructing a top level logic model. Then the second step, grouping of identified initiating event's by the safety function to be performed or combinations of systems responses. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to discuss initiating events identification in event tree development process and to reviews other probabilistic safety assessments (PSA). The identification of initiating events also involves the past operating experience, review of other PSA, failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA), feedback from system modeling, and master logic diagram (special type of fault tree). By using the method of study for the condition of the traditional US PSA categorization in detail, could be obtained the important initiating events that are categorized into LOCA, transients and external events.

  12. A review for identification of initiating events in event tree development process on nuclear power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riyadi, Eko H.

    2014-09-01

    Initiating event is defined as any event either internal or external to the nuclear power plants (NPPs) that perturbs the steady state operation of the plant, if operating, thereby initiating an abnormal event such as transient or loss of coolant accident (LOCA) within the NPPs. These initiating events trigger sequences of events that challenge plant control and safety systems whose failure could potentially lead to core damage or large early release. Selection for initiating events consists of two steps i.e. first step, definition of possible events, such as by evaluating a comprehensive engineering, and by constructing a top level logic model. Then the second step, grouping of identified initiating event's by the safety function to be performed or combinations of systems responses. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to discuss initiating events identification in event tree development process and to reviews other probabilistic safety assessments (PSA). The identification of initiating events also involves the past operating experience, review of other PSA, failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA), feedback from system modeling, and master logic diagram (special type of fault tree). By using the method of study for the condition of the traditional US PSA categorization in detail, could be obtained the important initiating events that are categorized into LOCA, transients and external events.

  13. Gastrointestinal events and association with initiation of treatment for osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Modi, Ankita; Siris, Ethel S; Tang, Jackson; Sajjan, Shiva; Sen, Shuvayu S

    2015-01-01

    Background Preexisting gastrointestinal (GI) events may deter the use of pharmacologic treatment in patients diagnosed with osteoporosis (OP). The objective of this study was to examine the association between preexisting GI events and OP pharmacotherapy initiation among women diagnosed with OP. Methods The study utilized claims data from a large US managed care database to identify women aged ≥55 years with a diagnosis code for OP (index date) during 2002–2009. Patients with a claim for pharmacologic OP treatment in the 12-month pre-index period (baseline) were excluded. OP treatment initiation in the post-index period was defined as a claim for bisphosphonates (alendronate, ibandronate, risedronate, zoledronic acid), calcitonin, raloxifene, or teriparatide. During the post-index period (up to 12 months), GI events were identified before treatment initiation. A time-dependent Cox regression model was used to investigate the likelihood of initiating any OP treatment. Among patients initiating OP treatment, a discrete choice model was utilized to assess the relationship between post-index GI events and likelihood of initiating with a bisphosphonate versus a non-bisphosphonate. Results In total, 65,344 patients (mean age 66 years) were included; 23.7% had a GI event post diagnosis and before treatment initiation. Post-index GI events were associated with a 75% lower likelihood of any treatment initiation (hazard ratio 0.25; 95% confidence interval 0.24–0.26). Among treated patients (n=23,311), those with post-index GI events were 39% less likely to receive a bisphosphonate versus a non-bisphosphonate (odds ratio 0.61; 95% confidence interval 0.54–0.68). Conclusion GI events after OP diagnosis were associated with a decreased likelihood of OP treatment initiation and an increased likelihood of treatment initiation with a non-bisphosphonate versus a bisphosphonate. PMID:26648746

  14. Preliminary Identification of Accident Initiating Events for IFE Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, Lee Charles; Latkowsk, J. F.

    2001-10-01

    This paper presents initial results of a task to identify accident initiating events for inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant designs. Initiating events (IEs) are a fundamental building block of a probabilistic risk assessment; they are the ‘accident starters’ that are analyzed to determine the risks posed to members of the public in the vicinity of the power plant. The IE results for the SOMBRERO design are presented in tabular form. The SOMBRERO design was analyzed since it is representative of dry chamber wall, laser driven designs. This work is used to characterize IFE plant risk and to identify potential design changes that would mitigate the plant risk.

  15. Initial Time Dependence of Abundances in Solar Energetic Particle Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reames, Donald V.; Ny, C. K.; Tylka, A. J.

    1999-01-01

    We compare the initial behavior of Fe/O and He/H abundance ratios and their relationship to the evolution of the proton energy spectra in "small" and "large" gradual solar energetic particle (SEP) events. The results are qualitatively consistent with the behavior predicted by the theory of Ng et al. (1999a, b). He/H ratios that initially rise with time are a signature of scattering by non-Kolmogorov Alfven wave spectra generated by intense beams of shock-accelerated protons streaming outward in large gradual SEP events.

  16. Seismic Initiating Event Analysis For a PBMR Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Van Graan, Henriette; Serbanescu, Dan; Combrink, Yolanda; Coman, Ovidiu

    2004-07-01

    Seismic Initiating Event (IE) analysis is one of the most important tasks that control the level of effort and quality of the whole Seismic Probabilistic Safety Assessment (SPRA). The typical problems are related to the following aspects: how the internal PRA model and its complexity can be used and how to control the number of PRA components for which fragility evaluation should be performed and finally to obtain a manageable number of significant cut-sets for seismic risk quantification. The answers to these questions are highly dependent on the possibility to improve the interface between the internal events analysis and the external events analysis at the design stage. (authors)

  17. Event-by-event hydrodynamics and elliptic flow from fluctuating initial states

    SciTech Connect

    Holopainen, H.; Eskola, K. J.; Niemi, H.

    2011-03-15

    We develop a framework for event-by-event ideal hydrodynamics to study the differential elliptic flow, which is measured at different centralities in Au + Au collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). Fluctuating initial energy density profiles, which here are the event-by-event analogs of the wounded nucleon profiles, are created using a Monte Carlo Glauber model. Using the same event plane method for obtaining v{sub 2} as in the data analysis, we can reproduce both the measured centrality dependence and the p{sub T} shape of charged-particle elliptic flow up to p{sub T}{approx}2 GeV. We also consider the relation of elliptic flow to the initial-state eccentricity using different reference planes and discuss the correlation between the physical event plane and the initial participant plane. Our results demonstrate that event-by-event hydrodynamics with initial-state fluctuations must be accounted for before a meaningful lower limit for viscosity can be obtained from elliptic flow data.

  18. Initiating Events for Multi-Reactor Plant Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Muhlheim, Michael David; Flanagan, George F.; Poore, III, Willis P.

    2014-09-01

    Inherent in the design of modular reactors is the increased likelihood of events that initiate at a single reactor affecting another reactor. Because of the increased level of interactions between reactors, it is apparent that the Probabilistic Risk Assessments (PRAs) for modular reactor designs need to specifically address the increased interactions and dependencies.

  19. Initial overview of disconnection events in Halley's Comet 1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandt, John C.; Randall, Cora E.; Snow, M.; Yi, Y.

    1992-01-01

    We present an initial overview of the disconnection events (DE's) in Comet Halley in 1986. Although disconnection events are arguably the most spectacular of all dynamic comet phenomena, the mechanisms by which they occur are not fully understood. It is generally believed that the solar wind plays a major role in determining when disconnection events occur, but the details of the solar wind/cometary interactions responsible for initiating the tail disconnection are still under debate. The three most widely accepted models are: (1) high speed streams in the solar wind cause the tail to disconnect due to pressure effects; (2) decreased production of cometary ions in a high speed stream allows magnetic field to slip away from the comet; and (3) the tail disconnects after frontside reconnection of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) as the comet crosses a magnetic field sector boundary. We find that the front-side magnetic reconnection model is the best explanation for the DE's we have considered.

  20. Radiological Impact Assessment (RIA) following a postulated accident in PHWRS

    SciTech Connect

    Soni, N.; Kansal, M.; Rammohan, H. P.; Malhotra, P. K.

    2012-07-01

    Radiological Impact Assessment (RIA) following postulated accident i.e Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) with failed Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS), performed as part of the reactor safety analysis of a typical 700 MWe Indian Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor(PHWR). The rationale behind the assessment is that the public needs to be protected in the event that the postulated accident results in radionuclide release outside containment. Radionuclides deliver dose to the human body through various pathways namely, plume submersion, exposure due to ground deposition, inhalation and ingestion. The total exposure dose measured in terms of total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) is the sum of doses to a hypothetical adult human at exclusion zone boundary by all the exposure pathways. The analysis provides the important inputs to decide upon the type of emergency counter measures to be adopted during the postulated accident. The importance of the various pathways in terms of contribution to the total effective dose equivalent(TEDE) is also assessed with respect to time of exposure. Inhalation and plume gamma dose are the major contributors towards TEDE during initial period of accident whereas ingestion and ground shine dose start dominating in TEDE in the extended period of exposure. Moreover, TEDE is initially dominated by I-131, Kr-88, Te-132, I-133 and Sr-89, whereas, as time progresses, Xe-133,I-131 and Te-132 become the main contributors. (authors)

  1. Sensitivity of a Simulated Derecho Event to Model Initial Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei

    2014-05-01

    Since 2003, the MMM division at NCAR has been experimenting cloud-permitting scale weather forecasting using Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Over the years, we've tested different model physics, and tried different initial and boundary conditions. Not surprisingly, we found that the model's forecasts are more sensitive to the initial conditions than model physics. In 2012 real-time experiment, WRF-DART (Data Assimilation Research Testbed) at 15 km was employed to produce initial conditions for twice-a-day forecast at 3 km. On June 29, this forecast system captured one of the most destructive derecho event on record. In this presentation, we will examine forecast sensitivity to different model initial conditions, and try to understand the important features that may contribute to the success of the forecast.

  2. Performance bounds on parallel self-initiating discrete-event

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicol, David M.

    1990-01-01

    The use is considered of massively parallel architectures to execute discrete-event simulations of what is termed self-initiating models. A logical process in a self-initiating model schedules its own state re-evaluation times, independently of any other logical process, and sends its new state to other logical processes following the re-evaluation. The interest is in the effects of that communication on synchronization. The performance is considered of various synchronization protocols by deriving upper and lower bounds on optimal performance, upper bounds on Time Warp's performance, and lower bounds on the performance of a new conservative protocol. The analysis of Time Warp includes the overhead costs of state-saving and rollback. The analysis points out sufficient conditions for the conservative protocol to outperform Time Warp. The analysis also quantifies the sensitivity of performance to message fan-out, lookahead ability, and the probability distributions underlying the simulation.

  3. Serious adverse event reporting in investigator-initiated clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Sophie; Myles, Paul S; Zeps, Nikolajs; Zalcberg, John R

    2016-04-01

    Reporting adverse events (AEs) and serious AEs (SAEs) are practical steps to ensure safety for volunteers and patients in medical research involving medications, treatments and devices. However, the burden and cost of reporting should be proportionate with the public health benefit of this information. Unfortunately, in Australia there is clear evidence of ever-increasing requirements from sponsors and ethics committees to report AEs and SAEs unnecessarily, leading to a decrease in the uptake of research, particularly less well funded investigator-initiated trials. We believe that individual AE reports to ethics committees serve no useful purpose, because in most cases the study group identity (drug exposure) is not known in studies with blinded treatment arms and their value is limited. Pragmatic, investigator-initiated Phase IV clinical trials of post-marketed drugs or devices are needed to understand their role in everyday clinical practice. In this setting, the workload and costs of systematic, complete reporting of all AEs and SAEs (independent of whether these are treatment-related) is wasteful, and mostly unnecessary. A trial data safety and monitoring committee is in the unique position of being able to review safety information according to the blinded treatment arms of the study. This enables safety data to be analysed appropriately and a summary report provided to the trial steering committee, principal investigators and the relevant ethics committees in a meaningful way. Defined trial endpoints do not need to be reported as safety events (because they are being properly monitored and analysed). PMID:27031396

  4. Initial Computations of Vertical Displacement Events with NIMROD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunkers, Kyle; Sovinec, C. R.

    2014-10-01

    Disruptions associated with vertical displacement events (VDEs) have potential for causing considerable physical damage to ITER and other tokamak experiments. We report on initial computations of generic axisymmetric VDEs using the NIMROD code [Sovinec et al., JCP 195, 355 (2004)]. An implicit thin-wall computation has been implemented to couple separate internal and external regions without numerical stability limitations. A simple rectangular cross-section domain generated with the NIMEQ code [Howell and Sovinec, CPC (2014)] modified to use a symmetry condition at the midplane is used to test linear and nonlinear axisymmetric VDE computation. As current in simulated external coils for large- R / a cases is varied, there is a clear n = 0 stability threshold which lies below the decay-index criterion for the current-loop model of a tokamak to model VDEs [Mukhovatov and Shafranov, Nucl. Fusion 11, 605 (1971)]; a scan of wall distance indicates the offset is due to the influence of the conducting wall. Results with a vacuum region surrounding a resistive wall will also be presented. Initial nonlinear computations show large vertical displacement of an intact simulated tokamak. This effort is supported by U.S. Department of Energy Grant DE-FG02-06ER54850.

  5. Factors controlling the initiation of Snowball Earth events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voigt, A.

    2012-12-01

    During the Neoproterozoic glaciations tropical continents were covered by active glaciers that extended down to sea level. To explain these glaciers, the Snowball Earth hypothesis assumes that oceans were completely sea-ice covered during these glaciation, but there is an ongoing debate whether or not some regions of the tropical oceans remained open. In this talk, I will describe past and ongoing climate modelling activities with the comprehensive coupled climate model ECHAM5/MPI-OM that identify and compare factors that control the initiation of Snowball Earth events. I first show that shifting the continents from their present-day location to their Marinoan (635 My BP) low-latitude location increases the planetary albedo, cools the climate, and thereby allows Snowball Earth initiation at higher levels of total solar irradiance and atmospheric CO2. I then present simulations with successively lowered bare sea-ice albedo, disabled sea-ice dynamics, and switched-off ocean heat transport. These simulations show that both lowering the bare sea-ice albedo and disabling sea-ice dynamics increase the critical sea-ice cover in ECHAM5/MPI-OM, but sea-ice dynamics due to strong equatorward sea-ice transport have a much larger influence on the critical CO2. Disabling sea-ice transport allows a state with sea-ice margin at 10 deg latitude by virtue of the Jormungand mechanism. The accumulation of snow on land, in combination with tropical land temperatures below or close to freezing, suggests that tropical land glaciers could easily form in such a state. However, in contrast to aquaplanet simulations without ocean heat transport, there is no sign of a Jormungand hysteresis in the coupled simulations. Ocean heat transport is not responsible for the lack of a Jormungand hysteresis in the coupled simulations. By relating the above findings to previous studies, I will outline promising future avenues of research on the initiation of Snowball Earth events. In particular, an

  6. An Event Driven Phenology Model: Results from initial testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalskyy, V.; Henebry, G.

    2008-12-01

    A new model was developed to simulate land surface phenology and seasonality dynamics based on assimilation of weather data and operational land surface observations. The model was built to establish a much needed interface between boundary layer dynamics represented in weather models and surface observations and the temporal variability captured in series of remotely sensed images. The Event Driven Phenology Model (EDPM) takes advantage of both ground-based weather and climate records and spaceborne sensors to provide retrospective and predictive power. The new model enables phenologies to unfold in response to changing environmental conditions and disturbance events. It also has the ability to ingest contemporaneous discrete external records of land surface dynamics to adjust its output to achieve a better representation of the observed process. The EDPM presents an alternative to contemporary methods such as retrospective curve-fitting (either to time or to a temporal proxy, such as thermal time), long term averages (or climatologies), and phenologies from look-up tables based on land use/land cover or plant functional types. We describe the model and report results of initial testing of the EDPM using level 1 flux tower records from the Mead, Nebraska Ameriflux sites in conjunction with associated MODIS subsets from the Carbon DAAC at ORNL. We assess the EDPM predictions by comparing and contrasting the results with reserved ground records and with outcomes of other phenology models. Finally, we point out prospects for future use of descriptive and prescriptive EDPM capabilities in the work of climate models, production of continuous remote sensing records, and other scientific applications.

  7. Treatment of autoimmune diabetes by inhibiting the initial event.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myung-Shik

    2013-10-01

    Recent papers have shown that the initial event in the pathogenesis of autoimmune type 1 diabetes (T1D) comprises sensing of molecular patterns released from apoptotic β-cells by innate immune receptors such as toll-like receptor (TLR). We have reported that apoptotic β-cells undergoing secondary necrosis called 'late apoptotic' β-cells stimulate dendritic cells (DCs) and induce diabetogenic T cell priming through TLR2. The role of other innate immune receptors such as TLR7 or TLR9 in the initiation of T1D has also been suggested. We hypothesized that TLR2 blockade could inhibit T1D at the initial step of T1D. Indeed, when a TLR2 agonist, Pam3CSK4 was administered chronically, the development of T1D in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice was inhibited. Diabetogenic T cell priming by DCs was attenuated by chronic treatment with Pam3CSK4, indicating DC tolerance. For the treatment of established T1D, immune tolerance alone is not enough because β-cell mass is critically reduced. We employed TLR2 tolerance in conjunction with islet transplantation, which led to reversal of newly established T1D. Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) inhibitors are a new class of anti-diabetic agents that have beneficial effects on β-cells. We investigated whether a combination of DPP4 inhibition and TLR2 tolerization could reverse newly established T1D without islet transplantation. We could achieve normoglycemia by TLR2 tolerization in combination with DPP4 inhibition but not by TLR2 tolerization or DPP4 inhibition alone. β-cell mass was significantly increased by combined treatment with TLR2 tolerization and DPP4 inhibition. These results suggest the possibility that a novel strategy of TLR tolerization will be available for the inhibition or treatment of established T1D when combined with measures increasing critically reduced β-cell mass of T1D patients such as DPP4 inhibition or stem cell technology. PMID:24198744

  8. Nonlinear damage analysis: Postulate and evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leis, B. N.; Forte, T. P.

    1983-01-01

    The objective of this program is to assess the viability of a damage postulate which asserts that the fatigue resistance curve of a metal is history dependent due to inelastic action. The study focusses on OFE copper because this simple model material accentuates the inelastic action central to the damage postulate. Data relevant to damage evolution and crack initiation are developed via a study of surface topography. The effects of surface layer residual stresses are explored via comparative testing as were the effects in initial prestraining. The results of the study very clearly show the deformation history dependence of the fatigue resistance of OFE copper. Furthermore the concept of deformation history dependence is shown to qualitatively explain the fatigue resistance of all histories considered. Likewise quantitative predictions for block cycle histories are found to accurately track the observed results. In this respect the assertion that damage per cycle for a given level of the damage parameter is deformation history dependent appears to be physically justified.

  9. A Simple Lab Exercise Demonstrating Koch's Postulates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulton, Michael M.

    1981-01-01

    Describes a laboratory exercise which applies Koch's Postulates to a plant disease, bacterial speck. Includes an explanation of Koch's Postulate, list of equipment needed, advance preparation, outline of the three-week activity, and variations of the laboratory exercise. (DS)

  10. Initiating Event Rates at U.S. Nuclear Power Plants. 1988 - 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, John A.; Bower, Gordon R.

    2014-02-01

    Analyzing initiating event rates is important because it indicates performance among plants and also provides inputs to several U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) risk-informed regulatory activities. This report presents an analysis of initiating event frequencies at U.S. commercial nuclear power plants since each plant’s low-power license date. The evaluation is based on the operating experience from fiscal year 1988 through 2013 as reported in licensee event reports. Engineers with nuclear power plant experience staff reviewed each event report since the last update to this report for the presence of valid scrams or reactor trips at power. To be included in the study, an event had to meet all of the following criteria: includes an unplanned reactor trip (not a scheduled reactor trip on the daily operations schedule), sequence of events starts when reactor is critical and at or above the point of adding heat, occurs at a U.S. commercial nuclear power plant (excluding Fort St. Vrain and LaCrosse), and is reported by a licensee event report. This report displays occurrence rates (baseline frequencies) for the categories of initiating events that contribute to the NRC’s Industry Trends Program. Sixteen initiating event groupings are trended and displayed. Initiators are plotted separately for initiating events with different occurrence rates for boiling water reactors and pressurized water reactors. p-values are given for the possible presence of a trend over the most recent 10 years.

  11. Optimal Initial Conditions and Stochastic Forcing for Central and East Pacific ENSO Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vimont, D.; Newman, M.; Alexander, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Research on the structure and evolution of individual El Niño / Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events has identified two categories of ENSO event characteristics that can be defined by maximum equatorial SST anomalies centered in the Central Pacific (around the dateline to 150°W; CP events) or in the Eastern Pacific (west of about 150°W; EP events). The distinction between these two events is not just academic: both types of event evolve differently, implying different predictability; the events tend to have different maximum amplitude; and the global teleconnection differs between each type of event. The identification of initial conditions that tend to grow into each type of event will lead to better predictability and better dynamical understanding of individual ENSO event evolution. In this study, we use a linear inverse model framework to (i) calculate optimal initial conditions that lead to CP or EP ENSO events, (ii) identify patterns of stochastic forcing that are responsible for exciting each type of event, and (iii) investigate the relative roles of stochastic forcing and internal dynamics in generating long term variations in CP and EP ENSO event statistics. We target our analysis toward CP or EP ENSO events by constructing a CP or EP norm under which optimal initial conditions are calculated. Results highlight a fundamentally different role for the Pacific Meridional Mode in the initial condition and subsequent evolution of CP vs. EP ENSO events. Analysis of stochastic forcing shows that CP ENSO events evolve via the Seasonal Footprinting Mechanism, in which mid-latitude atmospheric variability associated with the atmospheric North Pacific Oscillation lead to ENSO events through the Pacific Meridional Mode. Finally, variations in ENSO event statistics are investigated using a linear inverse model derived from a long simulation of the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Earth System Model. Variations in stochastic forcing vs. dynamics of

  12. Biologically induced initiation of Neoproterozoic snowball-Earth events

    PubMed Central

    Tziperman, Eli; Halevy, Itay; Johnston, David T.; Knoll, Andrew H.; Schrag, Daniel P.

    2011-01-01

    The glaciations of the Neoproterozoic Era (1,000 to 542 MyBP) were preceded by dramatically light C isotopic excursions preserved in preglacial deposits. Standard explanations of these excursions involve remineralization of isotopically light organic matter and imply strong enhancement of atmospheric CO2 greenhouse gas concentration, apparently inconsistent with the glaciations that followed. We examine a scenario in which the isotopic signal, as well as the global glaciation, result from enhanced export of organic matter from the upper ocean into anoxic subsurface waters and sediments. The organic matter undergoes anoxic remineralization at depth via either sulfate- or iron-reducing bacteria. In both cases, this can lead to changes in carbonate alkalinity and dissolved inorganic pool that efficiently lower the atmospheric CO2 concentration, possibly plunging Earth into an ice age. This scenario predicts enhanced deposition of calcium carbonate, the formation of siderite, and an increase in ocean pH, all of which are consistent with recent observations. Late Neoproterozoic diversification of marine eukaryotes may have facilitated the episodic enhancement of export of organic matter from the upper ocean, by causing a greater proportion of organic matter to be partitioned as particulate aggregates that can sink more efficiently, via increased cell size, biomineralization or increased C∶N of eukaryotic phytoplankton. The scenario explains isotopic excursions that are correlated or uncorrelated with snowball initiation, and suggests that increasing atmospheric oxygen concentrations and a progressive oxygenation of the subsurface ocean helped to prevent snowball glaciation on the Phanerozoic Earth. PMID:21825156

  13. 75 FR 38078 - Manufacturing and Services' Manufacture America Initiative and Events

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... International Trade Administration Manufacturing and Services' Manufacture America Initiative and Events ACTION... manufacturing. SUMMARY: The International Trade Administration's Manufacturing and Services Unit is launching a... government agencies as well as universities. To address these challenges, the Manufacturing and...

  14. Effect of Two Different Methods of Initiating Atomoxetine on the Adverse Event Profile of Atomoxetine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenhill, Laurence L.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Gao, Haitao; Feldman, Peter D.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effects of two different methods for initiating atomoxetine in terms of the incidence of early adverse events. Method: Data on atomoxetine treatment-emergent adverse events in youths, ages 6 to 18 years, were analyzed from five randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, acute-phase studies. Two studies involve…

  15. Lorentzian quantum reality: postulates and toy models.

    PubMed

    Kent, Adrian

    2015-08-01

    We describe postulates for a novel realist version of relativistic quantum theory or quantum field theory in Minkowski space and other background space-times, and illustrate their application with toy models. PMID:26124245

  16. Graded approach for initiating event selection in a facility hazard analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Majumdar, K.; Altenbach, T.

    1998-04-01

    This paper describes a methodology for selecting initiating events or event scenarios for the hazard analysis of a new Department of Energy (DOE) facility at the Nevada Test Site for nuclear explosive operations called the Device Assembly Facility (DAF). The selection process is a very important first step in conducting the hazard analysis for the facility, which in turn may feed into a quantitative risk analysis. A comprehensive risk analysis is dependent on the identification and inclusion of a complete set of initiating events in the analysis model. A systematic and logical method of grading or screening all the potential initiating events satisfies the needs for completeness within the bounds of efficiency and practicality. By applying the graded approach to the selection of the initiating events, the task and hazard analysis was able to focus its attention on only those events having the potential to develop into credible accident scenarios. Resources were concentrated into the understanding of those scenarios, and assuring that adequate positive measures are in place to control the risk associated with them.

  17. Observations of narrow bipolar events reveal how lightning is initiated in thunderstorms

    PubMed Central

    Rison, William; Krehbiel, Paul R.; Stock, Michael G.; Edens, Harald E.; Shao, Xuan-Min; Thomas, Ronald J.; Stanley, Mark A.; Zhang, Yang

    2016-01-01

    A long-standing but fundamental question in lightning studies concerns how lightning is initiated inside storms, given the absence of physical conductors. The issue has revolved around the question of whether the discharges are initiated solely by conventional dielectric breakdown or involve relativistic runaway electron processes. Here we report observations of a relatively unknown type of discharge, called fast positive breakdown, that is the cause of high-power discharges known as narrow bipolar events. The breakdown is found to have a wide range of strengths and is the initiating event of numerous lightning discharges. It appears to be purely dielectric in nature and to consist of a system of positive streamers in a locally intense electric field region. It initiates negative breakdown at the starting location of the streamers, which leads to the ensuing flash. The observations show that many or possibly all lightning flashes are initiated by fast positive breakdown. PMID:26876654

  18. Observations of narrow bipolar events reveal how lightning is initiated in thunderstorms

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Rison, William; Krehbiel, Paul R.; Stock, Michael G.; Edens, Harald E.; Shao, Xuan-Min; Thomas, Ronald J.; Stanley, Mark A.; Zhang, Yang

    2016-02-15

    A long-standing but fundamental question in lightning studies concerns how lightning is initiated inside storms, given the absence of physical conductors. The issue has revolved around the question of whether the discharges are initiated solely by conventional dielectric breakdown or involve relativistic runaway electron processes. Here we report observations of a relatively unknown type of discharge, called fast positive breakdown, that is the cause of high-power discharges known as narrow bipolar events. We find that the breakdown has a wide range of strengths and is the initiating event of numerous lightning discharges. It appears to be purely dielectric in naturemore » and to consist of a system of positive streamers in a locally intense electric field region. It initiates negative breakdown at the starting location of the streamers, which leads to the ensuing flash. The observations show that many or possibly all lightning flashes are initiated by fast positive breakdown.« less

  19. Observations of narrow bipolar events reveal how lightning is initiated in thunderstorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rison, William; Krehbiel, Paul R.; Stock, Michael G.; Edens, Harald E.; Shao, Xuan-Min; Thomas, Ronald J.; Stanley, Mark A.; Zhang, Yang

    2016-02-01

    A long-standing but fundamental question in lightning studies concerns how lightning is initiated inside storms, given the absence of physical conductors. The issue has revolved around the question of whether the discharges are initiated solely by conventional dielectric breakdown or involve relativistic runaway electron processes. Here we report observations of a relatively unknown type of discharge, called fast positive breakdown, that is the cause of high-power discharges known as narrow bipolar events. The breakdown is found to have a wide range of strengths and is the initiating event of numerous lightning discharges. It appears to be purely dielectric in nature and to consist of a system of positive streamers in a locally intense electric field region. It initiates negative breakdown at the starting location of the streamers, which leads to the ensuing flash. The observations show that many or possibly all lightning flashes are initiated by fast positive breakdown.

  20. Observations of narrow bipolar events reveal how lightning is initiated in thunderstorms.

    PubMed

    Rison, William; Krehbiel, Paul R; Stock, Michael G; Edens, Harald E; Shao, Xuan-Min; Thomas, Ronald J; Stanley, Mark A; Zhang, Yang

    2016-01-01

    A long-standing but fundamental question in lightning studies concerns how lightning is initiated inside storms, given the absence of physical conductors. The issue has revolved around the question of whether the discharges are initiated solely by conventional dielectric breakdown or involve relativistic runaway electron processes. Here we report observations of a relatively unknown type of discharge, called fast positive breakdown, that is the cause of high-power discharges known as narrow bipolar events. The breakdown is found to have a wide range of strengths and is the initiating event of numerous lightning discharges. It appears to be purely dielectric in nature and to consist of a system of positive streamers in a locally intense electric field region. It initiates negative breakdown at the starting location of the streamers, which leads to the ensuing flash. The observations show that many or possibly all lightning flashes are initiated by fast positive breakdown. PMID:26876654

  1. Development of transient initiating event frequencies for use in probabilistic risk assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Mackowiak, D.P.; Gentillon, C.D.; Smith, K.L.

    1985-05-01

    Transient initiating event frequencies are an essential input to the analysis process of a nuclear power plant probabilistic risk assessment. These frequencies describe events causing or requiring scrams. This report documents an effort to validate and update from other sources a computer-based data file developed by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) describing such events at 52 United States commercial nuclear power plants. Operating information from the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission on 24 additional plants from their date of commercial operation has been combined with the EPRI data, and the entire data base has been updated to add 1980 through 1983 events for all 76 plants. The validity of the EPRI data and data analysis methodology and the adequacy of the EPRI transient categories are examined. New transient initiating event frequencies are derived from the expanded data base using the EPRI transient categories and data display methods. Upper bounds for these frequencies are also provided. Additional analyses explore changes in the dominant transients, changes in transient outage times and their impact on plant operation, and the effects of power level and scheduled scrams on transient event frequencies. A more rigorous data analysis methodology is developed to encourage further refinement of the transient initiating event frequencies derived herein. Updating the transient event data base resulted in approx.2400 events being added to EPRI's approx.3000-event data file. The resulting frequency estimates were in most cases lower than those reported by EPRI, but no significant order-of-magnitude changes were noted. The average number of transients per year for the combined data base is 8.5 for pressurized water reactors and 7.4 for boiling water reactors.

  2. Risk of Cardiovascular Events Among Patients Initiating Efavirenz-Containing Versus Efavirenz-Free Antiretroviral Regimens.

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt, Lisa; Farr, Amanda M; Johnston, Stephen S; Nkhoma, Ella T

    2016-03-01

    Background.  Efavirenz (EFV), an antiretroviral medication used to treat human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, can increase lipid levels. Because hyperlipidemia is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular (CV) events, this study compared the risk of CV events in patients initiating EFV-containing vs EFV-free antiretroviral regimens. Methods.  Antiretroviral-naive HIV-positive (HIV+) patients ages 18-64 were selected from commercial and Medicaid insurance claims databases. Patients with ≥1 claim for antiretroviral medications between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2013 were classified into 2 cohorts: EFV-containing or EFV-free regimens. Patients were required to have 6 months of continuous enrollment before initiation, with no evidence of a CV event during this time. Patients were observed from initiation until the occurrence of a CV event, disenrollment, or study end. Cardiovascular events were identified through diagnosis or procedure codes for myocardial infarction, stroke, percutaneous coronary intervention, or coronary artery bypass graft. We calculated unadjusted incidence rates (IRs) and fit propensity-score-weighted Cox proportional hazards models. Results.  There were 22 212 patients (11 978 EFV-containing and 10 234 EFV-free) identified in the commercial database and 7400 patients identified (2943 EFV-containing and 4457 EFV-free) in the Medicaid database. Cardiovascular events were rare (commercial IR = 396 per 100 000 person-years; Medicaid IR = 973 per 100 000 person-years). In propensity-score-weighted models, hazards of CV events were significantly lower for EFV-containing regimens in the commercial database (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.68; 95% confidence interval [CI], .49-.93) No significant difference was found in the Medicaid database (HR = 0.83; 95% CI, .58-1.19). Conclusions.  This analysis found no evidence of increased risk of CV events among HIV+ patients initiating EFV-containing regimens. PMID:27186585

  3. Risk of Cardiovascular Events Among Patients Initiating Efavirenz-Containing Versus Efavirenz-Free Antiretroviral Regimens

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblatt, Lisa; Farr, Amanda M.; Johnston, Stephen S.; Nkhoma, Ella T.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Efavirenz (EFV), an antiretroviral medication used to treat human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, can increase lipid levels. Because hyperlipidemia is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular (CV) events, this study compared the risk of CV events in patients initiating EFV-containing vs EFV-free antiretroviral regimens. Methods. Antiretroviral-naive HIV-positive (HIV+) patients ages 18–64 were selected from commercial and Medicaid insurance claims databases. Patients with ≥1 claim for antiretroviral medications between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2013 were classified into 2 cohorts: EFV-containing or EFV-free regimens. Patients were required to have 6 months of continuous enrollment before initiation, with no evidence of a CV event during this time. Patients were observed from initiation until the occurrence of a CV event, disenrollment, or study end. Cardiovascular events were identified through diagnosis or procedure codes for myocardial infarction, stroke, percutaneous coronary intervention, or coronary artery bypass graft. We calculated unadjusted incidence rates (IRs) and fit propensity-score-weighted Cox proportional hazards models. Results. There were 22 212 patients (11 978 EFV-containing and 10 234 EFV-free) identified in the commercial database and 7400 patients identified (2943 EFV-containing and 4457 EFV-free) in the Medicaid database. Cardiovascular events were rare (commercial IR = 396 per 100 000 person-years; Medicaid IR = 973 per 100 000 person-years). In propensity-score-weighted models, hazards of CV events were significantly lower for EFV-containing regimens in the commercial database (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.68; 95% confidence interval [CI], .49–.93) No significant difference was found in the Medicaid database (HR = 0.83; 95% CI, .58–1.19). Conclusions. This analysis found no evidence of increased risk of CV events among HIV+ patients initiating EFV-containing regimens. PMID:27186585

  4. Koch's postulates, carnivorous cows, and tuberculosis today.

    PubMed

    Tabrah, Frank L

    2011-07-01

    With Koch's announcement in 1882 of his work with the tubercle bacillus, his famous postulates launched the rational world of infectious disease and an abrupt social change--strict patient isolation. The postulates, so successful at their inception, soon began to show some problems, particularly with cholera, which clearly violated some of Koch's requirements. Subsequent studies of other diseases and the discovery of entirely new ones have so altered and expanded the original postulates that they now are little but a precious touch of history. The present additions and replacements of the original concepts are skillful changes that several authors have devised to introduce new order into understanding complex viral and prion diseases. In 1988, this knowledge, with the totally rational response of the British population and its cattle industry, was critical in promptly blocking the threatened epidemic of human prion disease. In contrast, the recent upsurge of tuberculosis (TB) in the worldwide AIDS epidemic in developing countries, and the sudden increase in metabolic syndrome in wealthy ones, suggests the need for focused sociobiologic research seeking ways to affect the damaging lifestyle behavior of many less educated populations in both settings. The world awaits an equivalent of Koch's Postulates in sociobiology to explain and possibly avert large self-destructive behaviors. PMID:21886302

  5. Koch's Postulates, Carnivorous Cows, and Tuberculosis Today

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    With Koch's announcement in 1882 of his work with the tubercle bacillus, his famous postulates launched the rational world of infectious disease and an abrupt social change—strict patient isolation. The postulates, so successful at their inception, soon began to show some problems, particularly with cholera, which clearly violated some of Koch's requirements. Subsequent studies of other diseases and the discovery of entirely new ones have so altered and expanded the original postulates that they now are little but a precious touch of history. The present additions and replacements of the original concepts are skillful changes that several authors have devised to introduce new order into understanding complex viral and prion diseases. In 1988, this knowledge, with the totally rational response of the British population and its cattle industry, was critical in promptly blocking the threatened epidemic of human prion disease. In contrast, the recent upsurge of tuberculosis (TB) in the worldwide AIDS epidemic in developing countries, and the sudden increase in metabolic syndrome in wealthy ones, suggests the need for focused sociobiologic research seeking ways to affect the damaging lifestyle behavior of many less educated populations in both settings. The world awaits an equivalent of Koch's Postulates in sociobiology to explain and possibly avert large self-destructive behaviors. PMID:21886302

  6. Development of a tiered screening strategy for a molecular-initiating event: thyroperoxidase inhibition (SOT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adverse outcome pathway (AOP) analyses illustrate that some molecular-initiating events (MIEs) for thyroid disruption, including thyroperoxidase (TPO) inhibition, are not evaluated by current ToxCast/Tox21 high-throughput screening (HTS) assays. A novel HTS assay for TPO inhibiti...

  7. Understanding initiation and termination events in the primary amine-initiated polymerization of NCAs by high-vacuum techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Pickel, Deanna L; Messman, Jamie M

    2010-01-01

    High-vacuum polymerization of -amino acid-N-carboxyanhydrides (NCAs) affords polymers with controlled molecular weights and narrow polydispersities, however a comprehensive study of the end-group composition of the resulting polypeptides has not yet been performed. This reveals crucial information, as the end-groups are indicative of both the polymerization mechanism (i.e., initiation event) as well as the termination pathways. To this end, poly(O-benzyl-L-tyrosine) initiated by 1,6-diaminohexane was synthesized and subsequently characterized by MALDI-TOF MS, NALDI -TOF MS and 13C NMR spectroscopy to ascertain the end-group structure. Polymers were prepared by both high vacuum and glove box techniques in DMF/THF. Preparation of poly(O-benzyl-L-tyrosine) by high vacuum techniques yielded a polymer initiated exclusively by the normal amine mechanism, and termination by reaction with DMF was observed. In contrast, polymers prepared in the glove box were initiated by the normal amine and activated monomer mechanisms, and several termination products are evident. To our knowledge, this is the first rigorous and comparative analysis of the end-group structure, and it demonstrates the advantage of high vacuum techniques for polymerization of NCAs for the preparation of well-defined polypeptides with end-group fidelity.

  8. Postulates for measures of genuine multipartite correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, Charles H.; Grudka, Andrzej; Horodecki, Michal; Horodecki, Ryszard; Horodecki, Pawel

    2011-01-15

    A lot of research has been done on multipartite correlations, but the problem of satisfactorily defining genuine multipartite correlations--those not trivially reducible to lower partite correlations--remains unsolved. In this paper we propose three reasonable postulates which each measure or indicator of genuine multipartite correlations (or genuine multipartite entanglement) should satisfy. We also introduce the concept of degree of correlations, which gives partial characterization of multipartite correlations. Then, we show that covariance does not satisfy two postulates and hence it cannot be used as an indicator of genuine multipartite correlations. Finally, we propose a candidate for a measure of genuine multipartite correlations based on the work that can be drawn from a local heat bath by means of a multipartite state.

  9. Meteorological factors and timing of the initiating event of human parturition.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Emmet; Lim, Courtney; Dobrez, Deborah; Adams, Marci G; Noble, William

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether meteorological factors are associated with the timing of either onset of labor with intact membranes or rupture of membranes prior to labor-together referred to as 'the initiating event' of parturition. All patients delivering at Evanston Hospital after spontaneous labor or rupture of membranes at ≥20 weeks of gestation over a 6-month period were studied. Logistic regression models of the initiating event of parturition using clinical variables (maternal age, gestational age, parity, multiple gestation and intrauterine infection) with and without the addition of meteorological variables (barometric pressure, temperature and humidity) were compared. A total of 1,088 patients met the inclusion criteria. Gestational age, multiple gestation and chorioamnionitis were associated with timing of initiation of parturition (P < 0.01). The addition of meteorological to clinical variables generated a statistically significant improvement in prediction of the initiating event; however, the magnitude of this improvement was small (less than 2% difference in receiver-operating characteristic score). These observations held regardless of parity, fetal number and gestational age. Meteorological factors are associated with the timing of parturition, but the magnitude of this association is small. PMID:20526783

  10. Meteorological factors and timing of the initiating event of human parturition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, Emmet; Lim, Courtney; Dobrez, Deborah; Adams, Marci G.; Noble, William

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether meteorological factors are associated with the timing of either onset of labor with intact membranes or rupture of membranes prior to labor—together referred to as `the initiating event' of parturition. All patients delivering at Evanston Hospital after spontaneous labor or rupture of membranes at ≥20 weeks of gestation over a 6-month period were studied. Logistic regression models of the initiating event of parturition using clinical variables (maternal age, gestational age, parity, multiple gestation and intrauterine infection) with and without the addition of meteorological variables (barometric pressure, temperature and humidity) were compared. A total of 1,088 patients met the inclusion criteria. Gestational age, multiple gestation and chorioamnionitis were associated with timing of initiation of parturition ( P < 0.01). The addition of meteorological to clinical variables generated a statistically significant improvement in prediction of the initiating event; however, the magnitude of this improvement was small (less than 2% difference in receiver-operating characteristic score). These observations held regardless of parity, fetal number and gestational age. Meteorological factors are associated with the timing of parturition, but the magnitude of this association is small.

  11. Determination and verification of the electrodynamic postulates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Philip Jay

    1998-12-01

    The foundation of this research is a set of fundamental postulates from which electromagnetic theories can be derived. This set includes postulates on the following: (i)Velocity of light in vacuum, (ii)Kinematics of source and/or receiver, (iii)Temporal/spacial differentiation. The objective is to demonstrate which particular postulates will be able to correctly formulate a generalized electrodynamic theory based on Galilean relativity, which is consistent with the concept of universal time. This is significant because classical electromagnetic theory, in its current formulation, is inadequate in many regards: (1)Classical electromagnetism does not permit the establishment of universal time. (2)Explanation of crucial experiments is not postulate unique. (3)Quantities in classical electromagnetic theory are not coordinate invariant. (4) Longitudinal forces in current-carrying wires have been observed. (5)Mathematical problems with taking derivatives of functions with multiple-nested dependency. (i)Velocity of light. In current electromagnetic theory it is tacitly assumed (although not always explicitly stated) that the speed of light is always constant in all co-ordinate systems regardless of the motion of the source or receiver. This particular postulate is known as the velocity invariance of light, and is the cornerstone of special relativity. There is very little directly known about the speed of light and the interpretation of indirect experimental data, which does exist, is ambiguous. Even the often cited landmark experiments, with meson decay and atomic clocks in motion, do not prove the constancy of the speed of light. Rather, they only demonstrate that if the speed of light is invariant, then the conclusion that time ``dilates'' and length ``contracts'' as a function of velocity, must necessarily follow. This is just a consequence of the postulate, and does not prove its validity. (ii)Kinematics of source and/or receiver kinematics. is the study of

  12. Estimation of initiating event distribution at nuclear power plants by Bayesian procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Guangming; Chu, T.L.

    1995-12-31

    Initiating events at nuclear power plants such as human errors or components failures may lead to a nuclear accident. The study of the frequency of these events or the distribution of the failure rate is necessary in probabilistic risk assessment for nuclear power plants. This paper presents Bayesian modelling methods for the analysis of the distribution of the failure rate. The method can also be utilized in other related fields especially where the data is sparse. An application of the Bayesian modelling in the analysis of distribution of the time to recover Loss of Off-Site Power ( LOSP) is discussed in the paper.

  13. Modeling a molecular initiating event to population effects: A case study of aromatase inhibition in fathead minnows

    EPA Science Inventory

    An adverse outcome pathway (AOP) conceptually links a molecular initiating event with measureable key events at higher levels of biological organization that ultimately result in an adverse outcome. Development of an AOP requires experimental data and scientific expertise to ide...

  14. Postulated accident scenarios in weapons disassembly

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, S.S.

    1997-06-01

    A very brief summary of three postulated accident scenarios for weapons disassembly is provided in the paper. The first deals with a tetrahedral configuration of four generic pits; the second, an infinite planar array of generic pits with varying interstitial water density; and the third, a spherical shell with internal mass suspension in water varying the size and mass of the shell. Calculations were performed using the Monte Carlo Neutron Photon transport code MCNP4A. Preliminary calculations pointed to a need for higher resolution of small pit separation regimes and snapshots of hydrodynamic processes of water/plutonium mixtures.

  15. Migration Experience and Premarital Sexual Initiation in Urban Kenya: An Event History Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Luke, Nancy; Xu, Hongwei; Mberu, Blessing U.; Goldberg, Rachel E.

    2013-01-01

    Migration during the formative adolescent years can affect important life-course transitions, including the initiation of sexual activity. In this study, we use life history calendar data to investigate the relationship between changes in residence and timing of premarital sexual debut among young people in urban Kenya. By age 18, 64 percent of respondents had initiated premarital sex, and 45 percent had moved at least once between the ages of 12 and 18. Results of the event history analysis show that girls and boys who move during early adolescence experience the earliest onset of sexual activity. For adolescent girls, however, other dimensions of migration provide protective effects, with greater numbers of residential changes and residential changes in the last one to three months associated with later sexual initiation. To support young people’s ability to navigate the social, economic, and sexual environments that accompany residential change, researchers and policymakers should consider how various dimensions of migration affect sexual activity. PMID:23175950

  16. THE FIRST INJECTION EVENT: DIFFERENCES AMONG HEROIN, METHAMPHETAMINE, COCAINE, AND KETAMINE INITIATES

    PubMed Central

    Lankenau, Stephen E.; Wagner, Karla D.; Jackson Bloom, Jennifer; Sanders, Bill; Hathazi, Dodi; Shin, Charles

    2011-01-01

    This article describes how the drug type injected at the first injection event is related to characteristics of the initiate, risk behaviors at initiation, and future drug-using trajectories. A diverse sample (n=222) of young injection drug users (IDUs) were recruited from public settings in New York, New Orleans, and Los Angeles during 2004 and 2005. The sample was between 16 and 29 years old, and had injected ketamine at least once in the preceding two years. Interview data was analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively. Young IDUs initiated with four primary drug types: heroin (48.6%), methamphetamine (20.3%), ketamine (17.1%), and cocaine (14%). Several variables evidenced statistically significant relationships with drug type: age at injection initiation, level of education, region of initiation, setting, mode of administration, patterns of self-injection, number of drugs ever injected, current housing status, and their hepatitis C virus (HCV) status. Qualitative analyses revealed that rationale for injection initiation and subjective experiences at first injection differed by drug type. PMID:21423792

  17. The "Big Bang" in obese fat: Events initiating obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation.

    PubMed

    Wensveen, Felix M; Valentić, Sonja; Šestan, Marko; Turk Wensveen, Tamara; Polić, Bojan

    2015-09-01

    Obesity is associated with the accumulation of pro-inflammatory cells in visceral adipose tissue (VAT), which is an important underlying cause of insulin resistance and progression to diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2). Although the role of pro-inflammatory cytokines in disease development is established, the initiating events leading to immune cell activation remain elusive. Lean adipose tissue is predominantly populated with regulatory cells, such as eosinophils and type 2 innate lymphocytes. These cells maintain tissue homeostasis through the excretion of type 2 cytokines, such as IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, which keep adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) in an anti-inflammatory, M2-like state. Diet-induced obesity is associated with the loss of tissue homeostasis and development of type 1 inflammatory responses in VAT, characterized by IFN-γ. A key event is a shift of ATMs toward an M1 phenotype. Recent studies show that obesity-induced adipocyte hypertrophy results in upregulated surface expression of stress markers. Adipose stress is detected by local sentinels, such as NK cells and CD8(+) T cells, which produce IFN-γ, driving M1 ATM polarization. A rapid accumulation of pro-inflammatory cells in VAT follows, leading to inflammation. In this review, we provide an overview of events leading to adipose tissue inflammation, with a special focus on adipose homeostasis and the obesity-induced loss of homeostasis which marks the initiation of VAT inflammation. PMID:26220361

  18. Quantum mechanics without the projection postulate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bub, Jeffrey

    1992-05-01

    I show that the quantum state ω can be interpreted as defining a probability measure on a subalgebra of the algebra of projection operators that is not fixed (as in classical statistical mechanics) but changes with ω and appropriate boundary conditions, hence with the dynamics of the theory. This subalgebra, while not embeddable into a Boolean algebra, will always admit two-valued homomorphisms, which correspond to the different possible ways in which a set of “determinate” quantities (selected by ω and the boundary conditions) can have values. The probabilities defined by ω (via the Born rule) are probabilities over these two-valued homomorphisms or value assignments. So any universe of interacting systems, including those functioning as measuring instruments, can be modelled quantum mechanically without the projection postulate.

  19. Complex Events Initiated by Individual Spikes in the Human Cerebral Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Komlósi, Gergely; Füle, Miklós; Szabadics, János; Varga, Csaba; Barzó, Pál; Tamás, Gábor

    2008-01-01

    Synaptic interactions between neurons of the human cerebral cortex were not directly studied to date. We recorded the first dataset, to our knowledge, on the synaptic effect of identified human pyramidal cells on various types of postsynaptic neurons and reveal complex events triggered by individual action potentials in the human neocortical network. Brain slices were prepared from nonpathological samples of cortex that had to be removed for the surgical treatment of brain areas beneath association cortices of 58 patients aged 18 to 73 y. Simultaneous triple and quadruple whole-cell patch clamp recordings were performed testing mono- and polysynaptic potentials in target neurons following a single action potential fired by layer 2/3 pyramidal cells, and the temporal structure of events and underlying mechanisms were analyzed. In addition to monosynaptic postsynaptic potentials, individual action potentials in presynaptic pyramidal cells initiated long-lasting (37 ± 17 ms) sequences of events in the network lasting an order of magnitude longer than detected previously in other species. These event series were composed of specifically alternating glutamatergic and GABAergic postsynaptic potentials and required selective spike-to-spike coupling from pyramidal cells to GABAergic interneurons producing concomitant inhibitory as well as excitatory feed-forward action of GABA. Single action potentials of human neurons are sufficient to recruit Hebbian-like neuronal assemblies that are proposed to participate in cognitive processes. PMID:18767905

  20. Initial concepts on energetics and mass releases during nonnuclear explosive events in fuel cycle facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Halverson, M.A.; Mishima, J.

    1986-09-01

    Non-nuclear explosions are one of the initiating events (accidents) considered in the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission study of formal methods for estimating the airborne release of radionuclides from fuel cycle facilities. Methods currently available to estimate the energetics and mass airborne release from the four types of non-nuclear explosive events (fast and slow physical explosions and fast and slow chemical explosions) are reviewed. The likelihood that fast physical explosions will occur in fuel cycle facilities appears to be remote and this type of explosion is not considered. Methods to estimate the consequences of slow physical and fast chemical explosions are available. Methods to estimate the consequences of slow chemical explosions are less well defined.

  1. Antigen presentation events during the initiation of autoimmune diabetes in the NOD mouse.

    PubMed

    Ferris, Stephen T; Carrero, Javier A; Unanue, Emil R

    2016-07-01

    This is a brief summary of our studies of NOD autoimmune diabetes examining the events during the initial stage of the process. Our focus has been on antigen presentation events and the antigen presenting cells (APC) inside islets. Islets of non-diabetic mice contain resident macrophages that are developmentally distinct from those in the inter-acinar stroma. The autoimmune process starts with the entrance of CD4+ T cells together with a burst of a subset of dendritic cells (DC) bearing CD103. The CD103+ DC develop under the influence of the Batf3 transcription factor. Batf3 deficient mice do not develop diabetes and their islets are uninfiltrated throughout life. Thus, the CD103+ DC are necessary for the progression of autoimmune diabetes. The major CD4+ T cell response in NOD are the T cells directed to insulin. In particular, the non-conventional 12-20 segment of the insulin B chain is presented by the class II MHC molecule I-A(g7) and elicits pathogenic CD4+ T cells. We discuss that the diabetic process requires the CD103+ DC, the CD4+ T cells to insulin peptides, and NOD specific I-Ag(7) MHC-II allele. Finally, our initial studies indicate that beta cells transfer insulin containing vesicles to the local APC in a contact-dependent reaction. Live images of beta cells interactions with the APC and electron micrographs of islet APCs also show the transfer of granules. PMID:27021276

  2. Examination of loop-operator-initiated events for the advanced test reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Durney, J.L.; Majumdar, D.

    1989-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory is a unique high-flux test reactor having nine major test positions for irradiation of reactor materials. These test positions contain inpile tubes (IPT) that are connected to external piping and equipment (loops) to provide the high-temperature, high-pressure environment for the testing. The design of the core has intimately integrated the IPTs into the fuel region by means of a serpentine fuel arrangement resulting in a close reactivity coupling between the loop thermal hydraulics and the core. Consequently, operator actions potentially have an impact on the reactor power transients resulting from off-normal conditions in these facilities. This paper examines these operator-initiated events and their consequences. The analysis of loop-operator-initiated events indicates there is no damage to the reactor core even when assuming no operator intervention for mitigation. However, analysis does assume a scram occurs when required by the reactor protection systems.

  3. Event Detection and Location of Earthquakes Using the Cascadia Initiative Dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, E.; Bilek, S. L.; Rowe, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Cascadia subduction zone (CSZ) produces a range of slip behavior along the plate boundary megathrust, from great earthquakes to episodic slow slip and tremor (ETS). Unlike other subduction zones that produce great earthquakes and ETS, the CSZ is notable for the lack of small and moderate magnitude earthquakes recorded. The seismogenic zone extent is currently estimated to be primarily offshore, thus the lack of observed small, interplate earthquakes may be partially due to the use of only land seismometers. The Cascadia Initiative (CI) community seismic experiment seeks to address this issue by including ocean bottom seismometers (OBS) deployed directly over the locked seismogenic zone, in addition to land seismometers. We use these seismic data to explore whether small magnitude earthquakes are occurring on the plate interface, but have gone undetected by the land-based seismic networks. We select a subset of small magnitude (M0.1-3.7) earthquakes from existing earthquake catalogs, based on land seismic data, whose preliminary hypocentral locations suggest they may have occurred on the plate interface. We window the waveforms on CI OBS and land seismometers around the phase arrival times for these earthquakes to generate templates for subspace detection, which allows for additional flexibility over traditional matched filter detection methods. Here we present event detections from the first year of CI deployment and preliminary locations for the detected events. Initial results of scanning the first year of the CI deployment using one cluster of template events, located near a previously identified subducted seamount, include 473 detections on OBS station M08A (~61.6 km offshore) and 710 detections on OBS station J25A (~44.8 km northeast of M08A). Ongoing efforts include detection using additional OBS stations along the margin, as well as determining locations of clusters detected in the first year of deployment.

  4. When the Sky Falls: Performing Initial Assessments of Bright Atmospheric Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooke, William J.; Brown, Peter; Blaauw, Rhiannon; Kingery, Aaron; Moser, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    The 2013 Chelyabinsk super bolide was the first "significant" impact event to occur in the age of social media and 24 hour news. Scientists, used to taking many days or weeks to analyze fireball events, were hard pressed to meet the immediate demands (within hours) for answers from the media, general public, and government officials. Fulfilling these requests forced many researchers to exploit information available from various Internet sources - videos were downloaded from sites like Youtube, geolocated via Google Street View, and quickly analyzed with improvised software; Twitter and Facebook were scoured for eyewitness accounts of the fireball and reports of meteorites. These data, combined with infrasound analyses, enabled a fairly accurate description of the Chelyabinsk event to be formed within a few hours; in particular, any relationship to 2012 DA14 (which passed near Earth later that same day) was eliminated. Results of these analyses were quickly disseminated to members of the NEO community for press conferences and media interviews. Despite a few minor glitches, the rapid initial assessment of Chelyabinsk was a triumph, permitting the timely conveyance of accurate information to the public and the incorporation of social media into fireball analyses. Beginning in 2008, the NASA Meteoroid Environments Office, working in cooperation with Western's Meteor Physics Group, developed processes and software that permit quick characterization - mass, trajectory, and orbital properties - of fireball events. These tools include automated monitoring of Twitter to establish the time of events (the first tweet is usually no more than a few seconds after the fireball), mining of Youtube and all sky camera web archives to locate videos suitable for analyses, use of Google Earth and Street View to geolocate the video locations, and software to determine the fireball trajectory and object orbital parameters, including generation of animations suitable for popular media

  5. Fragile X founder chromosomes in Italy: A few initial events and possible explanation for their heterogeneity

    SciTech Connect

    Chiurazzi, P.; Genuardi, M.; Kozak, L.; Neri, G.

    1996-07-12

    A total of 137 fragile X and 235 control chromosomes from various regions of Italy were haplotyped by analyzing two neighbouring marker microsatellites, FRAXAC1 and DXS548. The number of CGG repeats at the 5{prime} end of the FMR1 gene was also assessed in 141 control chromosomes and correlated with their haplotypes. Significant linkage disequilibrium between some {open_quotes}major{close_quotes} haplotypes and fragile X was observed, while other {open_quotes}minor{close_quotes} haplotypes may have originated by subsequent mutation at the marker microsatellite loci and/or recombination between them. Recent evidence suggests that the initial mechanism leading to CGG instability might consist of rare (10{sup -6/-7}) CGG repeat slippage events and/or loss of a stabilizing AGG via A-to-C transversion. Also, the apparently high variety of fragile X chromosomes may be partly due to the relatively high mutation rate (10{sup -4/-5}) of the microsatellite markers used in haplotyping. Our fragile X sample also showed a higher than expected heterozygosity when compared to the control sample and we suggest that this might be explained by the chance occurrence of the few founding events on different chromosomes, irrespective of their actual frequency in the population. Alternatively, a local mechanism could enhance the microsatellite mutation rate only on fragile X chromosomes, or fragile X mutations might occur more frequently on certain background haplotypes. 59 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Actin Depletion Initiates Events Leading to Granule Secretion at the Immunological Synapse

    PubMed Central

    Ritter, Alex T.; Asano, Yukako; Stinchcombe, Jane C.; Dieckmann, N.M.G.; Chen, Bi-Chang; Gawden-Bone, C.; van Engelenburg, Schuyler; Legant, Wesley; Gao, Liang; Davidson, Michael W.; Betzig, Eric; Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer; Griffiths, Gillian M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) use polarized secretion to rapidly destroy virally infected and tumor cells. To understand the temporal relationships between key events leading to secretion, we used high-resolution 4D imaging. CTLs approached targets with actin-rich projections at the leading edge, creating an initially actin-enriched contact with rearward-flowing actin. Within 1 min, cortical actin reduced across the synapse, T cell receptors (TCRs) clustered centrally to form the central supramolecular activation cluster (cSMAC), and centrosome polarization began. Granules clustered around the moving centrosome within 2.5 min and reached the synapse after 6 min. TCR-bearing intracellular vesicles were delivered to the cSMAC as the centrosome docked. We found that the centrosome and granules were delivered to an area of membrane with reduced cortical actin density and phospholipid PIP2. These data resolve the temporal order of events during synapse maturation in 4D and reveal a critical role for actin depletion in regulating secretion. PMID:25992860

  7. Myosin di-phosphorylation and peripheral actin bundle formation as initial events during endothelial barrier disruption

    PubMed Central

    Hirano, Mayumi; Hirano, Katsuya

    2016-01-01

    The phosphorylation of the 20-kD myosin light chain (MLC) and actin filament formation play a key role in endothelial barrier disruption. MLC is either mono- or di-phosphorylated (pMLC and ppMLC) at T18 or S19. The present study investigated whether there are any distinct roles of pMLC and ppMLC in barrier disruption induced by thrombin. Thrombin induced a modest bi-phasic increase in pMLC and a robust mono-phasic increase in ppMLC. pMLC localized in the perinuclear cytoplasm during the initial phase, while ppMLC localized in the cell periphery, where actin bundles were formed. Later, the actin bundles were rearranged into stress fibers, where pMLC co-localized. Rho-kinase inhibitors inhibited thrombin-induced barrier disruption and peripheral localization of ppMLC and actin bundles. The double, but not single, mutation of phosphorylation sites abolished the formation of peripheral actin bundles and the barrier disruption, indicating that mono-phosphorylation of MLC at either T18 or S19 is functionally sufficient for barrier disruption. Namely, the peripheral localization, but not the degree of phosphorylation, is suggested to be essential for the functional effect of ppMLC. These results suggest that MLC phosphorylation and actin bundle formation in cell periphery are initial events during barrier disruption. PMID:26863988

  8. SILER: Seismic-Initiated events risk mitigation in Lead-cooled Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Forni, M.; De Grandis, S.

    2012-07-01

    SILER is a Collaborative Project, partially funded by the European Commission, aimed at studying the risk associated to seismic initiated events in Generation IV Heavy Liquid Metal reactors and developing adequate protection measures. The attention is focused on the evaluation of the effects of earthquakes (with particular regards to beyond design seismic events) and to the identification of mitigation strategies, acting both on structures and components design (as well as on the development of seismic isolation devices) which can also have positive effects on economics, leading to an high level of plant design standardization. Attention is also devoted to the identification of plant layout solutions able to avoid risks of radioactive release from both the core and other structures (i.e. the spent fuel storage pools). Specific effort is paid to the development of guidelines and design recommendations for addressing the seismic issue in next generation reactor systems. In addition, consideration will be devoted to transfer the knowledge developed in the project to Generation III advanced systems, in line with the objective of the SNE-TP SRA to support present and future Light Water Reactors and their further development, for which safety issues are key aspects to be addressed. Note, in this respect, that the benefits of base isolation in terms of response to design seismic actions are already widely recognized for Generation III LWRs, along with the possibility of a significant standardization of structural and equipment design. SILER activities started on October 1 st 2011 and are carried out by 18 partners: ENEA (Italy, Coordinator), AREVA NP SAS (France), SCK-CEN (Belgium), FIP Industriale (Italy), MAURER SOHENE (Germany), EC-JRC (Ispra (Italy)), SINTEC (Italy), KTH (Sweden), BOA-BKT (Germany), IDOM (Spain), ANSALDO (Italy), IPUL (Latvia), NUMERIA (Italy), VCE (Austria), SRS (Italy), CEA (France), EA (Spain), NUVIA (France). (authors)

  9. Molecular Insights into Reprogramming-Initiation Events Mediated by the OSKM Gene Regulatory Network

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Mei-Chih; Prigione, Alessandro; Jozefczuk, Justyna; Lichtner, Björn; Wolfrum, Katharina; Haltmeier, Manuela; Flöttmann, Max; Schaefer, Martin; Hahn, Alexander; Mrowka, Ralf; Klipp, Edda; Andrade-Navarro, Miguel A.; Adjaye, James

    2011-01-01

    Somatic cells can be reprogrammed to induced pluripotent stem cells by over-expression of OCT4, SOX2, KLF4 and c-MYC (OSKM). With the aim of unveiling the early mechanisms underlying the induction of pluripotency, we have analyzed transcriptional profiles at 24, 48 and 72 hours post-transduction of OSKM into human foreskin fibroblasts. Experiments confirmed that upon viral transduction, the immediate response is innate immunity, which induces free radical generation, oxidative DNA damage, p53 activation, senescence, and apoptosis, ultimately leading to a reduction in the reprogramming efficiency. Conversely, nucleofection of OSKM plasmids does not elicit the same cellular stress, suggesting viral response as an early reprogramming roadblock. Additional initiation events include the activation of surface markers associated with pluripotency and the suppression of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Furthermore, reconstruction of an OSKM interaction network highlights intermediate path nodes as candidates for improvement intervention. Overall, the results suggest three strategies to improve reprogramming efficiency employing: 1) anti-inflammatory modulation of innate immune response, 2) pre-selection of cells expressing pluripotency-associated surface antigens, 3) activation of specific interaction paths that amplify the pluripotency signal. PMID:21909390

  10. Initial-state fluctuations from midperipheral to ultracentral collisions in an event-by-event transport approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plumari, S.; Guardo, G. L.; Scardina, F.; Greco, V.

    2015-11-01

    We have developed a relativistic kinetic transport approach that incorporates initial-state fluctuations allowing to study the buildup of elliptic flow v2 and high-order harmonics v3, v4, and v5 for a fluid at fixed η /s (T ) . We study the effect of the η /s ratio and its T dependence on the buildup of the vn(pT) for two different beam energies: RHIC for Au+Au at √{s }=200 GeV and LHC for Pb+Pb at √{s }=2.76 TeV . We find that for the two different beam energies considered the suppression of the vn(pT) due to the viscosity of the medium have different contributions coming from the crossover or QGP phase. Our study reveals that only in ultracentral collisions (0 -0.2 %) the vn(pT) have a stronger sensitivity to the T dependence of η /s in the QGP phase and this sensitivity increases with the order of the harmonic n . Moreover, the study of the correlations between the initial spatial anisotropies ɛn and the final flow coefficients vn shows that at LHC energies there is more correlation than at RHIC energies. The degree of correlation increases from peripheral to central collisions, but only in ultracentral collisions at LHC, we find that the linear correlation coefficient C (n ,n )≈1 for n =2 ,3 ,4 , and 5. This suggests that the final correlations in the (vn,vm) space reflect the initial correlations in the (ɛn,ɛm) space.

  11. Initial events in the formation of neuromuscular synapse: rapid induction of acetylcholine release from embryonic neuron.

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Z P; Poo, M M

    1986-01-01

    We have studied the electrical events during the initial phase of nerve-muscle contact in embryonic Xenopus culture. Using a G omega-seal, whole-cell recording method, we monitored the membrane current of a muscle cell continuously while it was manipulated into close proximity of the growth cone of a cocultured spinal neuron. We found a rapid appearance of pulsatile inward currents at the muscle cell after the neurite-muscle contact. These currents were abolished by d-tubocurarine and alpha-bungarotoxin but were unaffected by tetrodotoxin. Both the drug sensitivity and the time course of these currents are similar to that of the spontaneous miniature end-plate currents (MEPCs) resulting from spontaneous release of pulses of acetylcholine (AcCho) from the nerve terminal. Unlike the MEPCs at the mature neuromuscular synapse, these early MEPCs varied greatly in their amplitudes, and there was a gradual increase in the frequency of the MEPCs of larger amplitudes during the first 20 min after the contact. Independent measurement of AcCho concentration near the growth cone by an excised patch of AcCho-sensitive muscle membrane showed that very little AcCho is released from the isolated growth cone, and marked release can be triggered by the contact with a muscle cell or with the excised membrane itself. The induction of release is relatively specific: contact with a neuron or the tip of a clean glass pipette was capable of inducing only a transient release, while persistent release was induced by contacts made with muscle membrane. This contact-dependent AcCho release may be responsible for an early induction of muscle activity and serve as a signal for the establishment of synaptic contact. Images PMID:3462745

  12. History of cardiovascular events and cardiovascular risk factors among patients initiating strontium ranelate for treatment of osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jingbo; Tang, Jackson; Li, Zhiyi; Sajjan, Shiva; O’Regan, Christopher; Modi, Ankita; Sazonov, Vasilisa

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the proportion of osteoporosis patients in whom initiating strontium ranelate treatment, under new EMA guidelines, should be contraindicated because of a history of cardiovascular events or risk for cardiovascular events. Materials and methods This was a retrospective analysis of medical and pharmacy claims using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink database. Patients were included if they had ≥1 prescription of strontium from September 1, 2008 to August 31, 2013, were aged ≥50 as of the index date (the date of the first ever strontium ranelate prescription), and had ≥1 year of medical records pre-index. Cardiovascular events occurring any time pre-index were identified, which included ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, uncontrolled hypertension, and peripheral arterial disease. Cardiovascular risk factors assessed included 1) diabetes or hypertension any time pre-index; 2) hyperlipidemia in the 12 months pre-index; or 3) obesity in the 12 months pre-index. Results A total of 7,474 patients were included: 90.4% were women, with an average age of 76.5 years, and 84.5% used osteoporosis therapy, either bisphosphonates or non-bisphosphonates, prior to strontium initiation. A total of 23.6% of patients experienced ≥1 cardiovascular event prior to strontium initiation; the rate was lower among female patients than in male patients (22.4% vs 35.3%, P<0.01). A total of 45.9% had risk factors for cardiovascular events (without cardiovascular event history). Conclusion More than one-fifth of osteoporosis patients in the UK who used strontium had a cardiovascular event history, and one-half had cardiovascular risk factors prior to strontium initiation. PMID:26604831

  13. Piezoelectric-based event sensing and energy-harvesting power sources for thermal battery initiation in gun-fired munitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastegar, J.; Feng, D.; Pereira, C.

    2014-06-01

    A novel class of piezoelectric-based energy harvesting devices with integrated safety and firing setback event detection electronics and logic circuitry that can be used in gun-fired munitions is presented. In this paper, the application of the device to the development of initiators for thermal reserve batteries in gun-fire munitions is presented. The novel and highly efficient electrical energy collection and storage and event detection and safety electronics used allows the use of a very small piezoelectric element. As a result, such devices can be highly miniaturized for used in small reserve batteries. For thermal battery initiation, when the prescribed firing setback acceleration profile, i.e., the prescribed all-fire condition is detected, a highly efficient charge collection electronic circuitry routes the charges generated by the piezoelectric element of the device to the initiator bridge element, thereby causing the thermal battery pyrotechnic material to be ignited. For munitions powered by thermal reserve batteries, the present initiation device provides a self-powered initiator with full no-fire safety circuitry for protection against accidental drops, transportation vibration, and other similar low amplitude accelerations and/or high amplitude but short duration acceleration events. The device is shown to be readily set to initiate thermal batteries under almost any all-fire conditions. The device can be readily hardened to withstand very high G firing setback accelerations in excess of 100,000 G and the harsh firing environment. The design of prototypes and testing under realistic conditions are presented.

  14. Membrane Binding Events in the Initiation and Propagation Phases of Tissue Factor-initiated Zymogen Activation under Flow*

    PubMed Central

    Haynes, Laura M.; Dubief, Yves C.; Mann, Kenneth G.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the dynamics of zymogen activation when both extrinsic tenase and prothrombinase are assembled on an appropriate membrane. Although the activation of prothrombin by surface-localized prothrombinase is clearly mediated by flow-induced dilutional effects, we find that when factor X is activated in isolation by surface-localized extrinsic tenase, it exhibits characteristics of diffusion-mediated activation in which diffusion of substrate to the catalytically active region is rate-limiting. When prothrombin and factor X are activated coincident with each other, competition for available membrane binding sites masks the diffusion-limiting effects of factor X activation. To verify the role of membrane binding in the activation of factor X by extrinsic tenase under flow conditions, we demonstrate that bovine lactadherin competes for both factor X and Xa binding sites, limiting factor X activation and forcing the release of bound factor Xa from the membrane at a venous shear rate (100 s−1). Finally, we present steady-state models of prothrombin and factor X activation under flow showing that zymogen and enzyme membrane binding events further regulate the coagulation process in an open system representative of the vasculature geometry. PMID:22187432

  15. A proof of von Neumann's postulate in Quantum Mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Conte, Elio

    2010-05-04

    A Clifford algebraic analysis is explained. It gives proof of von Neumann's postulate on quantum measurement. It is of basic significance to explain the problem of quantum wave function reduction in quantum mechanics.

  16. Koch's postulates, microbial dysbiosis and inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Singh, V P; Proctor, S D; Willing, B P

    2016-07-01

    Over the past 20 years, a growing amount of evidence supports the role of microbes and an imbalanced microbiota in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). While many reviews have been written on the microbiota in IBD, few have considered how they fulfil the Koch's postulates. In this review, we consider how the Koch's postulates might be modified so that they can be fulfilled for polymicrobial diseases, and we discuss the progress made to date in fulfilling them. PMID:27179648

  17. Pernicious Residues of Foundational Postulates: Their Impact on Women.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    It has long been recognized that many of the original psychoanalytic views of women were derived from misguided theories. Regrettably, residues of the foundational postulates that informed those theories still persist, assuring a pervasive gender bias even in contemporary psychoanalytic investigations. This contribution describes where those postulates reside, while proposing alternates that could prove far more useful for the theory and practice of our profession. PMID:27337810

  18. Economic Analysis of a Postulated space Tourism Transportation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Allan S.

    2002-01-01

    Design concepts and associated costs were defined for a family of launch vehicles supporting a space tourism endeavor requiring the weekly transport of space tourists to and from an Earth- orbiting facility. The stated business goal for the Space Tourist Transportation System (STTS) element of the proposed commercial space venture was to transport and return ~50 passengers a week to LEO at a cost of roughly 50 K per seat commencing in 2005. This paper summarizes the economic analyses conducted within a broader Systems Engineering study of the postulated concept. Parametric costs were derived using TransCostSystems' (TCS) Cost Engineering Handbook, version 7. Costs were developed as a function of critical system characteristics and selected business scenarios. Various economic strategies directed toward achieving a cost of ~50 K per seat were identified and examined. The study indicated that with a `nominal' business scenario, the initial cost for developing and producing a fully reusable, 2-stage STTS element for a baseline of 46-passengers was about 15.5 B assuming a plausible `commercialization factor' of 0.333. The associated per-seat ticket cost was ~890 K, more than an order of magnitude higher than desired. If the system is enlarged to 104 passengers for better efficiency, the STTS initial cost for the nominal business scenario is increased to about 19.8 B and the per-seat ticket cost is reduced to ~530 K. It was concluded that achieving the desired ticket cost of 50 K per seat is not feasible unless the size of the STTS, and therefore of the entire system, is substantially increased. However, for the specified operational characteristics, it was shown that a system capacity of thousands of passengers per week is required. This implies an extremely high total system development cost, which is not very realistic as a commercial venture, especially in the proposed time frame. These results suggested that ambitious commercial space ventures may have to rely on

  19. Event-Based Surveillance During EXPO Milan 2015: Rationale, Tools, Procedures, and Initial Results

    PubMed Central

    Manso, Martina Del; Caporali, Maria Grazia; Napoli, Christian; Linge, Jens P.; Mantica, Eleonora; Verile, Marco; Piatti, Alessandra; Pompa, Maria Grazia; Vellucci, Loredana; Costanzo, Virgilio; Bastiampillai, Anan Judina; Gabrielli, Eugenia; Gramegna, Maria; Declich, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    More than 21 million participants attended EXPO Milan from May to October 2015, making it one of the largest protracted mass gathering events in Europe. Given the expected national and international population movement and health security issues associated with this event, Italy fully implemented, for the first time, an event-based surveillance (EBS) system focusing on naturally occurring infectious diseases and the monitoring of biological agents with potential for intentional release. The system started its pilot phase in March 2015 and was fully operational between April and November 2015. In order to set the specific objectives of the EBS system, and its complementary role to indicator-based surveillance, we defined a list of priority diseases and conditions. This list was designed on the basis of the probability and possible public health impact of infectious disease transmission, existing statutory surveillance systems in place, and any surveillance enhancements during the mass gathering event. This article reports the methodology used to design the EBS system for EXPO Milan and the results of 8 months of surveillance. PMID:27314656

  20. Event-Based Surveillance During EXPO Milan 2015: Rationale, Tools, Procedures, and Initial Results.

    PubMed

    Riccardo, Flavia; Manso, Martina Del; Caporali, Maria Grazia; Napoli, Christian; Linge, Jens P; Mantica, Eleonora; Verile, Marco; Piatti, Alessandra; Pompa, Maria Grazia; Vellucci, Loredana; Costanzo, Virgilio; Bastiampillai, Anan Judina; Gabrielli, Eugenia; Gramegna, Maria; Declich, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    More than 21 million participants attended EXPO Milan from May to October 2015, making it one of the largest protracted mass gathering events in Europe. Given the expected national and international population movement and health security issues associated with this event, Italy fully implemented, for the first time, an event-based surveillance (EBS) system focusing on naturally occurring infectious diseases and the monitoring of biological agents with potential for intentional release. The system started its pilot phase in March 2015 and was fully operational between April and November 2015. In order to set the specific objectives of the EBS system, and its complementary role to indicator-based surveillance, we defined a list of priority diseases and conditions. This list was designed on the basis of the probability and possible public health impact of infectious disease transmission, existing statutory surveillance systems in place, and any surveillance enhancements during the mass gathering event. This article reports the methodology used to design the EBS system for EXPO Milan and the results of 8 months of surveillance. PMID:27314656

  1. Initiation of Coronal Mass Ejection Event Observed on 2010 November 3: Multi-wavelength Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulay, Sargam; Subramanian, Srividya; Tripathi, Durgesh; Isobe, Hiroaki; Glesener, Lindsay

    2014-10-01

    One of the major unsolved problems in solar physics is that of coronal mass ejection (CME) initiation. In this paper, we have studied the initiation of a flare-associated CME that occurred on 2010 November 3 using multi-wavelength observations recorded by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory and the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager. We report an observation of an inflow structure initially in the 304 Å and the 1600 Å images a few seconds later. This inflow structure was detected as one of the legs of the CME. We also observed a non-thermal compact source concurrent and near co-spatial with the brightening and movement of the inflow structure. The appearance of this compact non-thermal source, brightening, and movement of the inflow structure and the subsequent outward movement of the CME structure in the corona led us to conclude that the CME initiation was caused by magnetic reconnection.

  2. Initiation of coronal mass ejection event observed on 2010 November 3: multi-wavelength perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Mulay, Sargam; Subramanian, Srividya; Tripathi, Durgesh; Isobe, Hiroaki; Glesener, Lindsay

    2014-10-10

    One of the major unsolved problems in solar physics is that of coronal mass ejection (CME) initiation. In this paper, we have studied the initiation of a flare-associated CME that occurred on 2010 November 3 using multi-wavelength observations recorded by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory and the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager. We report an observation of an inflow structure initially in the 304 Å and the 1600 Å images a few seconds later. This inflow structure was detected as one of the legs of the CME. We also observed a non-thermal compact source concurrent and near co-spatial with the brightening and movement of the inflow structure. The appearance of this compact non-thermal source, brightening, and movement of the inflow structure and the subsequent outward movement of the CME structure in the corona led us to conclude that the CME initiation was caused by magnetic reconnection.

  3. Similarities between optimal precursors for ENSO events and optimally growing initial errors in El Niño predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Mu; Yu, Yanshan; Xu, Hui; Gong, Tingting

    2014-02-01

    With the Zebiak-Cane model, the relationship between the optimal precursors (OPR) for triggering the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events and the optimally growing initial errors (OGE) to the uncertainty in El Niño predictions is investigated using an approach based on the conditional nonlinear optimal perturbation. The computed OPR for El Niño events possesses sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) dipole over the equatorial central and eastern Pacific, plus positive thermocline depth anomalies in the entire equatorial Pacific. Based on the El Niño events triggered by the obtained OPRs, the OGE which cause the largest prediction errors are computed. It is found that the OPR and OGE share great similarities in terms of localization and spatial structure of the SSTA dipole pattern over the central and eastern Pacific and the relatively uniform thermocline depth anomalies in the equatorial Pacific. The resemblances are possibly caused by the same mechanism of the Bjerknes positive feedback. It implies that if additional observation instruments are deployed to the targeted observations with limited coverage, they should preferentially be deployed in the equatorial central and eastern Pacific, which has been determined as the sensitive area for ENSO prediction, to better detect the early signals for ENSO events and reduce the initial errors so as to improve the forecast skill.

  4. Radiologically Isolated Syndrome: 5-Year Risk for an Initial Clinical Event

    PubMed Central

    Okuda, Darin T.; Siva, Aksel; Kantarci, Orhun; Inglese, Matilde; Katz, Ilana; Tutuncu, Melih; Keegan, B. Mark; Donlon, Stacy; Hua, Le H.; Vidal-Jordana, Angela; Montalban, Xavier; Rovira, Alex; Tintoré, Mar; Amato, Maria Pia; Brochet, Bruno; de Seze, Jérôme; Brassat, David; Vermersch, Patrick; De Stefano, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Objective To report the 5-year risk and to identify risk factors for the development of a seminal acute or progressive clinical event in a multi-national cohort of asymptomatic subjects meeting 2009 RIS Criteria. Methods Retrospectively identified RIS subjects from 22 databases within 5 countries were evaluated. Time to the first clinical event related to demyelination (acute or 12-month progression of neurological deficits) was compared across different groups by univariate and multivariate analyses utilizing a Cox regression model. Results Data were available in 451 RIS subjects (F: 354 (78.5%)). The mean age at from the time of the first brain MRI revealing anomalies suggestive of MS was 37.2 years (y) (median: 37.1 y, range: 11–74 y) with mean clinical follow-up time of 4.4 y (median: 2.8 y, range: 0.01–21.1 y). Clinical events were identified in 34% (standard error = 3%) of individuals within a 5-year period from the first brain MRI study. Of those who developed symptoms, 9.6% fulfilled criteria for primary progressive MS. In the multivariate model, age [hazard ratio (HR): 0.98 (95% CI: 0.96–0.99); p = 0.03], sex (male) [HR: 1.93 (1.24–2.99); p = 0.004], and lesions within the cervical or thoracic spinal cord [HR: 3.08 (2.06–4.62); p = <0.001] were identified as significant predictors for the development of a first clinical event. Interpretation These data provide supportive evidence that a meaningful number of RIS subjects evolve to a first clinical symptom. An age <37 y, male sex, and spinal cord involvement appear to be the most important independent predictors of symptom onset. PMID:24598783

  5. Development of Simplified Probabilistic Risk Assessment Model for Seismic Initiating Event

    SciTech Connect

    S. Khericha; R. Buell; S. Sancaktar; M. Gonzalez; F. Ferrante

    2012-06-01

    ABSTRACT This paper discusses a simplified method to evaluate seismic risk using a methodology built on dividing the seismic intensity spectrum into multiple discrete bins. The seismic probabilistic risk assessment model uses Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s (NRC’s) full power Standardized Plant Analysis Risk (SPAR) model as the starting point for development. The seismic PRA models are integrated with their respective internal events at-power SPAR model. This is accomplished by combining the modified system fault trees from the full power SPAR model with seismic event tree logic. The peak ground acceleration is divided into five bins. The g-value for each bin is estimated using the geometric mean of lower and upper values of that particular bin and the associated frequency for each bin is estimated by taking the difference between upper and lower values of that bin. The component’s fragilities are calculated for each bin using the plant data, if available, or generic values of median peak ground acceleration and uncertainty values for the components. For human reliability analysis (HRA), the SPAR HRA (SPAR-H) method is used which requires the analysts to complete relatively straight forward worksheets that include the performance shaping factors (PSFs). The results are then used to estimate human error probabilities (HEPs) of interest. This work is expected to improve the NRC’s ability to include seismic hazards in risk assessments for operational events in support of the reactor oversight program (e.g., significance determination process).

  6. Early-time thermal events behind a shock front and their relation to explosive initiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooper, Joe

    2011-06-01

    We consider the role, if any, of vibrational nonequilibrium in the ignition of solid explosives. Our recent theoretical work, as well as several large-scale molecular dynamics studies, all suggest that the initial nonequilibrium induced by a shock wave thermalizes far too quickly to influence shock initiation. In light of this, we examine some of the experimental correlations that have been cited as possible evidence that these nonequilibrium ``up-pumping'' processes may be involved in sensitivity. Particular attention is paid to recent studies of the vibrational anharmonicity and density of states of solid explosives based on temperature dependent Raman spectroscopy. Several authors have described good correlations between these properties and simple ignition tests such as a drop-weight impact. We investigate theoretically whether this correlation is even related to phonon-vibration up-pumping, or whether it is an artifact of unrelated aspects of the molecular decomposition kinetics and thermal transfer that occur during non-shock initiation.

  7. One Hair Postulate for Hawking Radiation as Tunneling Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Hui; Cai, Qing-Yu; Liu, Xu-Feng; Sun, Chang-Pu

    2014-03-01

    For Hawking radiation, treated as a tunneling process, the no-hair theorem of black hole together with the law of energy conservation is utilized to postulate that the tunneling rate only depends on the external qualities (e.g., the mass for the Schwarzschild black hole) and the energy of the radiated particle. This postulate is justified by the WKB approximation for calculating the tunneling probability. Based on this postulate, a general formula for the tunneling probability is derived without referring to the concrete form of black hole metric. This formula implies an intrinsic correlation between the successive processes of the black hole radiation of two or more particles. It also suggests a kind of entropy conservation and thus resolves the puzzle of black hole information loss in some sense.

  8. Summit Fuels Push to Improve High Schools: Money, Initiatives Pledged during Two-Day Event

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Lynn

    2005-01-01

    The nation's governors adjourned their two-day summit on high schools armed with an expanded arsenal of political and financial commitments to prepare all students for success in college and the workplace. But despite the enthusiastic launch of two major initiatives at the February 26-27, 2005 meeting here, observers cautioned that improving…

  9. Infectious Events Prior to Chemotherapy Initiation in Children with Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Portwine, Carol; Mitchell, David; Johnston, Donna; Gillmeister, Biljana; Ethier, Marie-Chantal; Yanofsky, Rochelle; Dix, David; Cellot, Sonia; Lewis, Victor; Price, Victoria; Silva, Mariana; Zelcer, Shayna; Bowes, Lynette; Michon, Bruno; Stobart, Kent; Brossard, Josee; Beyene, Joseph; Sung, Lillian

    2013-01-01

    Background The primary objective was to describe infectious complications in children with acute myeloid leukemia from presentation to the healthcare system to initiation of chemotherapy and to describe how these infections differ depending on neutropenia. Methods We conducted a retrospective, population-based cohort study that included children and adolescents with acute myeloid leukemia diagnosed and treated at 15 Canadian centers. We evaluated infections that occurred between presentation to the healthcare system (for symptoms that led to the diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia) until initiation of chemotherapy. Results Among 328 children, 92 (28.0%) were neutropenic at presentation. Eleven (3.4%) had sterile-site microbiologically documented infection and four had bacteremia (only one Gram negative). Infection rate was not influenced by neutropenia. No child died from an infectious cause prior to chemotherapy initiation. Conclusion It may be reasonable to withhold empiric antibiotics in febrile non-neutropenic children with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia until initiation of chemotherapy as long as they appear well without a clinical focus of infection. Future work could examine biomarkers or a clinical score to identify children presenting with leukemia and fever who are more likely to have an invasive infection. PMID:23637925

  10. Computer simulation of initial events in the biochemical mechanisms of DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, A; Holley, W R

    1993-01-01

    Understanding the systematic and quantitative correlation between the physical events of energy deposition by ionizing radiation and the ensuing chemical and biochemical processes leading to DNA damage is one of the goals in radiation research. Significant progress has been made toward achieving the stated goal by using theoretical modeling techniques. These techniques are strongly dependent on computer simulation procedures. A review of such techniques with details of various stages of simulation development, including a comparison with available experimental data, is presented in this article. PMID:11537895

  11. Computer simulation of initial events in the biochemical mechanisms of DNA damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatterjee, A.; Holley, W. R.

    1993-01-01

    Understanding the systematic and quantitative correlation between the physical events of energy deposition by ionizing radiation and the ensuing chemical and biochemical processes leading to DNA damage is one of the goals in radiation research. Significant progress has been made toward achieving the stated goal by using theoretical modeling techniques. These techniques are strongly dependent on computer simulation procedures. A review of such techniques with details of various stages of simulation development, including a comparison with available experimental data, is presented in this article.

  12. Initial Single Event Effects Testing of the Xilinx Virtex-4 Field Programmable Gate Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Gregory R.; Swift, Gary M.; Carmichael, C.; Tseng, C.

    2007-01-01

    We present initial results for the thin epitaxial Xilinx Virtex-4 Fie ld Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), and compare to previous results ob tained for the Virtex-II and Virtex-II Pro. The data presented was a cquired through a consortium based effort with the common goal of pr oviding the space community with data and mitigation methods for the use of Xilinx FPGAs in space.

  13. A patient-initiated voluntary online survey of adverse medical events: the perspective of 696 injured patients and families

    PubMed Central

    Southwick, Frederick S; Cranley, Nicole M; Hallisy, Julia A

    2015-01-01

    Background Preventable medical errors continue to be a major cause of death in the USA and throughout the world. Many patients have written about their experiences on websites and in published books. Methods As patients and family members who have experienced medical harm, we have created a nationwide voluntary survey in order to more broadly and systematically capture the perspective of patients and patient families experiencing adverse medical events and have used quantitative and qualitative analysis to summarise the responses of 696 patients and their families. Results Harm was most commonly associated with diagnostic and therapeutic errors, followed by surgical or procedural complications, hospital-associated infections and medication errors, and our quantitative results match those of previous provider-initiated patient surveys. Qualitative analysis of 450 narratives revealed a lack of perceived provider and system accountability, deficient and disrespectful communication and a failure of providers to listen as major themes. The consequences of adverse events included death, post-traumatic stress, financial hardship and permanent disability. These conditions and consequences led to a loss of patients’ trust in both the health system and providers. Patients and family members offered suggestions for preventing future adverse events and emphasised the importance of shared decision-making. Conclusions This large voluntary survey of medical harm highlights the potential efficacy of patient-initiated surveys for providing meaningful feedback and for guiding improvements in patient care. PMID:26092166

  14. Effect of initial conditions and of intra-event rainfall intensity variability on shallow landslide triggering return period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peres, David Johnny; Cancelliere, Antonino

    2016-04-01

    Assessment of shallow landslide hazard is important for appropriate planning of mitigation measures. Generally, return period of slope instability is assumed as a quantitative metric to map landslide triggering hazard on a catchment. The most commonly applied approach to estimate such return period consists in coupling a physically-based landslide triggering model (hydrological and slope stability) with rainfall intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curves. Among the drawbacks of such an approach, the following assumptions may be mentioned: (1) prefixed initial conditions, with no regard to their probability of occurrence, and (2) constant intensity-hyetographs. In our work we propose the use of a Monte Carlo simulation approach in order to investigate the effects of the two above mentioned assumptions. The approach is based on coupling a physically based hydrological and slope stability model with a stochastic rainfall time series generator. By this methodology a long series of synthetic rainfall data can be generated and given as input to a landslide triggering physically based model, in order to compute the return period of landslide triggering as the mean inter-arrival time of a factor of safety less than one. In particular, we couple the Neyman-Scott rectangular pulses model for hourly rainfall generation and the TRIGRS v.2 unsaturated model for the computation of transient response to individual rainfall events. Initial conditions are computed by a water table recession model that links initial conditions at a given event to the final response at the preceding event, thus taking into account variable inter-arrival time between storms. One-thousand years of synthetic hourly rainfall are generated to estimate return periods up to 100 years. Applications are first carried out to map landslide triggering hazard in the Loco catchment, located in highly landslide-prone area of the Peloritani Mountains, Sicily, Italy. Then a set of additional simulations are performed

  15. Impact of methionine oxidation as an initial event on the pathway of human prion protein conversion.

    PubMed

    Elmallah, Mohammed I Y; Borgmeyer, Uwe; Betzel, Christian; Redecke, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Prion diseases comprise a group of fatal neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the autocatalytic conversion of the cellular prion protein PrP(C) into the infectious misfolded isoform PrP(Sc). Increasing evidence supports a specific role of oxidative stress in the onset of pathogenesis. Although the associated molecular mechanisms remain to be elucidated in detail, several studies currently suggest that methionine oxidation already detected in misfolded PrP(Sc) destabilizes the native PrP fold as an early event in the conversion pathway. To obtain more insights about the specific impact of surface-exposed methionine residues on the oxidative-induced conversion of human PrP we designed, produced, and comparatively investigated two new pseudosulfoxidation mutants of human PrP 121-231 that comprises the well-folded C-terminal domain. Applying circular dichroism spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering techniques we showed that pseudosulfoxidation of all surface exposed Met residues formed a monomeric molten globule-like species with striking similarities to misfolding intermediates recently reported by other groups. However, individual pseudosulfoxidation at the polymorphic M129 site did not significantly contribute to the structural destabilization. Further metal-induced oxidation of the partly unfolded pseudosulfoxidation mutant resulted in the formation of an oligomeric state that shares a comparable size and stability with PrP oligomers detected after the application of different other triggers for structural conversion, indicating a generic misfolding pathway of PrP. The obtained results highlight the specific importance of methionine oxidation at surface exposed residues for PrP misfolding, strongly supporting the hypothesis that increased oxidative stress could be one causative event for sporadic prion diseases and other neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:24121542

  16. Safely Teaching Koch's Postulates on the Causation of Infectious Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Peter R.

    1990-01-01

    Described is an activity in which the interactions between a parasite and its host may be demonstrated using the relationship between yogurt and two species of bacteria. Background information on Koch's postulates is provided. Materials, laboratory procedures, and results are discussed. (CW)

  17. A Conceptual Derivation of Einstein's Postulates of Special Relativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bearden, Thomas E.

    This document presents a discussion and conceptual derivation of Einstein's postulates of special relativity. The perceptron approach appears to be a fundamentally new manner of regarding physical phenomena and it is hoped that physicists will interest themselves in the concept. (Author)

  18. Initiation, maintenance, and properties of convection in an extreme rainfall event during SCMREX: Observational analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; Luo, Yali; Jou, Ben Jong-Dao

    2014-12-01

    A long-lived mesoscale convective system (MCS) with extreme rainfall over the western coastal region of Guangdong on 10 May 2013 during the Southern China Monsoon Rainfall Experiment (SCMREX) is studied. The environmental conditions are characterized by little convective inhibition, low-lifting condensation level, moderate convective available potential energy and precipitable water, and lack of low-level jets from the tropical ocean. Repeated convective back building and subsequent northeastward "echo training" of convective cells are found during the MCS's development stages. However, the initiation/maintenance factors and organization of convection differ significantly during the earlier and later stages. From midnight to early morning, convection is continuously initiated as southeasterly flows near the surface impinge on the east side of mesoscale mountains near the coastal lines and then moves northeastward, leading to formation of two quasi-stationary rainbands. From early morning to early afternoon, new convection is repeatedly triggered along a mesoscale boundary between precipitation-induced cold outflows and warm air from South China Sea and Gulf of Tokin, resulting in the formation of "band training" of several parallel rainbands that move eastward in a later time, i.e., two scales of "training" of convective elements are found. As the MCS dissipates, a stronger squall line moves into the region from the west and passes over within about 3.5 h, contributing about 10%-15% to the total rainfall amount. It is concluded that terrain, near-surface winds, warm advection from the upstream ocean in the boundary layer, and precipitation-generated cold outflows play important roles in initiating and maintaining the extreme rain-producing MCS.

  19. Alpha/sub 1/ receptor coupling events initiated by methoxy-substituted tolazoline partial agonists

    SciTech Connect

    Wick, P.; Keung, A.; Deth, R.

    1986-03-01

    A series of mono- and dimethyoxy substituted tolazoline derivatives, known to be partial agonists at the alpha/sub 1/ receptor, were compared with the ..cap alpha../sub 1/ selective full agonist phenylephrine (PE) on isolated strips of rabbit aorta Agonist activity was evaluated in contraction, /sup 45/Ca influx, /sup 45/Ca efflux, and /sup 32/P-Phospholipid labelling studies. Maximum contractile responses for the 2-, 3-, and 3, 5- methoxy substituted tolazoline derivatives (10/sup -5/M) were 53.8, 67.6 and 99.7% of the PE (10/sup -5/M) response respectively. These same partial agonists caused a stimulation of /sup 45/Ca influx to the extent of 64, 86, and 95% of the PE response respectively. In /sup 45/Ca efflux studies, (a measure of the intracellular Ca/sup +2/ release) the tolazolines caused: 30%, 63%, and 78% of the PE stimulated level. /sup 32/P-Phosphatidic acid (PA) labelling was measured as an index of PI turnover after ..cap alpha../sub 1/ receptor stimulation. Compared to PE, the 2-, 3-, and 3,5- methoxy substituted tolazoline derivatives caused 22, 46, and 72% PA labelling. The above values are all in reasonable accord with the rank order or agonist activity shown in maximum contractile responses. The results of this investigation suggest that partial agonists stimulate ..cap alpha.. receptor coupling events at a level which is quantitatively comparable to their potencies in causing contraction of arterial smooth muscle.

  20. Ionospheric and Thermospheric Effects During the Initial Radiative Phase of the Bastille Day Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, R. R.; Drob, D. P.; Nicholas, A. C.; Bishop, J.; Picone, J. M.; Thonnard, S. E.; Dymond, K. F.; Budzien, S. A.; Lean, J.; Mariska, J. T.; Huba, J. D.; Joyce, G.; Warren, H. P.; Judge, D. L.

    2001-05-01

    Increases in the solar EUV and X-ray irradiance during a solar flare can produce enhanced ionization and heating in the terrestrial ionosphere. The resulting energetic photoelectrons in turn cause increases in the far ultraviolet (FUV) dayglow (100 - 150 nm). Enhancements of some 50 per cent had previously been detected in OGO-4 nadir-viewing data [C B Opal, Space Research XIII, 797, 1973]. Similar enhancements have now been seen in the FUV limb-viewing dayglow observations from the ARGOS satellite during the Bastille Day flare (July 14, 2000). Because extinction of the FUV dayglow by O2 prevents seeing below 140 km tangent altitude on the limb, increases in the dayglow above that altitude must be caused by the component of the flare spectral irradiance which is deposited there, namely at wavelengths greater than 20 nm. This conclusion is corroborated by the observation of the flare at 30.3 nm made by the SEM instrument on the SOHO satellite. We study this solar-ionospheric connection using a modified version of the NRL solar spectrum as input to the SAMI2 ionospheric model, and also calculate thermospheric heating rates for this event.

  1. Sensitivity of seasonal weather prediction and extreme precipitation events to soil moisture initialization uncertainty using SMOS soil moisture products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodayar-Pardo, Samiro; Lopez-Baeza, Ernesto; Coll Pajaron, M. Amparo

    Sensitivity of seasonal weather prediction and extreme precipitation events to soil moisture initialization uncertainty using SMOS soil moisture products (1) S. Khodayar, (2) A. Coll, (2) E. Lopez-Baeza (1) Institute for Meteorology and Climate Research, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe Germany (2) University of Valencia. Earth Physics and Thermodynamics Department. Climatology from Satellites Group Soil moisture is an important variable in agriculture, hydrology, meteorology and related disciplines. Despite its importance, it is complicated to obtain an appropriate representation of this variable, mainly because of its high temporal and spatial variability. SVAT (Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere-Transfer) models can be used to simulate the temporal behaviour and spatial distribution of soil moisture in a given area and/or state of the art products such as the soil moisture measurements from the SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) space mission may be also convenient. The potential role of soil moisture initialization and associated uncertainty in numerical weather prediction is illustrated in this study through sensitivity numerical experiments using the SVAT SURFEX model and the non-hydrostatic COSMO model. The aim of this investigation is twofold, (a) to demonstrate the sensitivity of model simulations of convective precipitation to soil moisture initial uncertainty, as well as the impact on the representation of extreme precipitation events, and (b) to assess the usefulness of SMOS soil moisture products to improve the simulation of water cycle components and heavy precipitation events. Simulated soil moisture and precipitation fields are compared with observations and with level-1(~1km), level-2(~15 km) and level-3(~35 km) soil moisture maps generated from SMOS over the Iberian Peninsula, the SMOS validation area (50 km x 50 km, eastern Spain) and selected stations, where in situ measurements are available covering different vegetation cover

  2. Characterization of initial events in bacterial surface colonization by two Pseudomonas species using image analysis.

    PubMed

    Mueller, R F; Characklis, W G; Jones, W L; Sears, J T

    1992-05-01

    The processes leading to bacterial colonization on solid-water interfaces are adsorption, desorption, growth, and erosion. These processes have been measured individually in situ in a flowing system in real time using image analysis. Four different substrata (copper, silicon, 316 stainless-steel and glass) and 2 different bacterial species (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas fluorescens) were used in the experiments. The flow was laminar (Re = 1.4) and the shear stress was kept constant during all experiments at 0.75 N m(-2). The surface roughness varied among the substrata from 0.002 microm (for silicon) to 0.015 microm (for copper). Surface free energies varied from 25.1 dynes cm(-1) for silicon to 31.2 dynes cm(-1) for copper. Cell curface hydrophobicity, reported as hydrocarbon partitioning values, ranged from 0.67 for Ps. fluorescens to 0.97 for Ps. aeruginosa.The adsorption rate coefficient varied by as much as a factor of 10 among the combinations of bacterial strain and substratum material, and was positively correlated with surface free energy, the surface roughness of the substratum, and the hydrophobicity of the cells. The probability of desorption decreased with increasing surface free energy and surface roughness of the substratum. Cell growth was inhibited on copper, but replication of cells overlying an initial cell layer was observed with increased exposure time to the cell-containing bulk water. A mathematical model describing cell accumulation on a substratum is presented. PMID:18600919

  3. Initial conditions for radiation analysis: models of galactic cosmic rays and solar particle events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nymmik, R. A.

    During interplanetary missions the radiation conditions are determined by fluxes of Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) particles and Solar Energetic Particles (SEP). The particle fluxes of these two high-energy radiation components differ fundamentally in energy spectra and have the opposite dependence on solar activity level. One of the key issues, associated with estimating flight conditions for missions to the Moon, various asteroids and Mars, is the relative balance between GCR and SCR, depending on the level of solar activity and the distance to the Sun for both open space conditions and conditions inside the spacecraft. This task can be solved with sufficient accuracy only when using such particle flux models (of the above mentioned radiation sources), which are based on unified parameters, describing the current solar activity level. Such models, employing smoothed Wolf numbers as the initial parameter, were developed at SINP MSU. These models are - the semi-empirical model of GCR fluxes, which has currently been approved as an international standard (ISO 15390), and the probabilistic model of SEP particle fluxes, which is currently under discussion as a draft international standard (ISO DRAFT 15391). The report presents a survey of experimental data on GCR and SEP fluxes in interplanetary space at various solar activity levels, and an analysis of the reliability and completeness of data on these fluxes, provided by various calculation models.

  4. The four postulates of freudian unconscious neurocognitive convergences.

    PubMed

    Arminjon, Mathieu

    2011-01-01

    In the 1980s, the terms "cognitive unconscious" were invented to denominate a perspective on unconscious mental processes independent from the psychoanalytical views. For several reasons, the two approaches to unconscious are generally conceived as irreducible. Nowadays, we are witnessing a certain convergence between both fields. The aim of this paper consists in examining the four basic postulates of Freudian unconscious at the light of neurocognitive sciences. They posit: (1) that some psychological processes are unconsciously performed and causally determine conscious processes, (2) that they are governed by their own cognitive rules, (3) that they set out their own intentions, (4) and that they lead to a conflicting organization of psyche. We show that each of these postulates is the subject of empirical and theoretical works. If the two fields refer to more or less similar mechanisms, we propose that their opposition rests on an epistemological misunderstanding. As a conclusion, we promote a conservative reunification of the two perspectives. PMID:21734896

  5. The Four Postulates of Freudian Unconscious Neurocognitive Convergences

    PubMed Central

    Arminjon, Mathieu

    2011-01-01

    In the 1980s, the terms “cognitive unconscious” were invented to denominate a perspective on unconscious mental processes independent from the psychoanalytical views. For several reasons, the two approaches to unconscious are generally conceived as irreducible. Nowadays, we are witnessing a certain convergence between both fields. The aim of this paper consists in examining the four basic postulates of Freudian unconscious at the light of neurocognitive sciences. They posit: (1) that some psychological processes are unconsciously performed and causally determine conscious processes, (2) that they are governed by their own cognitive rules, (3) that they set out their own intentions, (4) and that they lead to a conflicting organization of psyche. We show that each of these postulates is the subject of empirical and theoretical works. If the two fields refer to more or less similar mechanisms, we propose that their opposition rests on an epistemological misunderstanding. As a conclusion, we promote a conservative reunification of the two perspectives. PMID:21734896

  6. An experimental method to measure initiation events during unstable stress-induced martensitic transformation in a shape memory alloy wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iadicola, M. A.; Shaw, J. A.

    2007-02-01

    An experimental configuration is demonstrated that captures features of the initiation of unstable stress-induced transformation in a shape memory alloy (SMA). The apparatus uses circulating fluids through the grips and a heat sink and thermoelectric devices to control the temperature profile of a specimen within a mechanical testing machine. The configuration can be used to restrict the initiation of phase transformation to a small region of interest of the free length, while permitting full-field optical tracking, infrared imaging, use of laser extensometry, and monitoring of load and extension. In this way, some longstanding difficulties in the measurement of thermo-mechanical phenomena in SMA wire have been resolved. The size of initiation stress peaks can be accurately measured for both transformation directions without changing the wire geometry, the temperature of a region of interest can be selected over a wide range, and imaging can be performed for multiple loading cycles and for events that occur from static to near dynamic rates. The motivation for this work is to produce high quality data for use in calibrating numerical models that study thermo-mechanical coupling during unstable transformation behavior.

  7. Fulfilling Koch's postulates in glycoscience: HCELL, GPS and translational glycobiology.

    PubMed

    Sackstein, Robert

    2016-06-01

    Glycoscience-based research that is performed expressly to address medical necessity and improve patient outcomes is called "translational glycobiology". In the 19th century, Robert Koch proposed a set of postulates to rigorously establish causality in microbial pathogenesis, and these postulates can be reshaped to guide knowledge into how naturally-expressed glycoconjugates direct molecular processes critical to human well-being. Studies in the 1990s indicated that E-selectin, an endothelial lectin that binds sialofucosylated carbohydrate determinants, is constitutively expressed on marrow microvessels, and investigations in my laboratory indicated that human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) uniquely express high levels of a specialized glycoform of CD44 called "hematopoietic cell E-/L-selectin ligand" (HCELL) that functions as a highly potent E-selectin ligand. To assess the role of HCELL in directing HSC migration to marrow, a method called "glycosyltransferase-programmed stereosubstitution" (GPS) was developed to custom-modify CD44 glycans to enforce HCELL expression on viable cell surfaces. Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are devoid of E-selectin ligands, but GPS-based glycoengineering of CD44 on MSCs licenses homing of these cells to marrow in vivo, providing direct evidence that HCELL serves as a "bone marrow homing receptor". This review will discuss the molecular basis of cell migration in historical context, will describe the discovery of HCELL and its function as the bone marrow homing receptor, and will inform on how glycoengineering of CD44 serves as a model for adapting Koch's postulates to elucidate the key roles that glycoconjugates play in human biology and for realizing the immense impact of translational glycobiology in clinical medicine. PMID:26933169

  8. Bridging EUV and White-Light Observations to Inspect the Initiation Phase of a "Two-Stage" Solar Eruptive Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, J. P.; Morgan, H.; Seaton, D. B.; Bain, H. M.; Habbal, S. R.

    2014-12-01

    The initiation phase of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) is a very important aspect of solar physics, as these phenomena ultimately drive space weather in the heliosphere. This phase is known to occur between the photosphere and low corona, where many models introduce an instability and/or magnetic reconnection that triggers a CME, often with associated flaring activity. To this end, it is important to obtain a variety of observations of the low corona to build as clear a picture as possible of the dynamics that occur therein. Here, we combine the EUV imagery of the Sun Watcher using Active Pixel System Detector and Image Processing (SWAP) instrument onboard the Project for Onboard Autonomy (PROBA2) with the white-light imagery of the ground-based Mark-IV K-coronameter (Mk4) at Mauna Loa Solar Observatory (MLSO) to bridge the observational gap that exists between the disk imagery of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and the coronal imagery of the Large Angle Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). Methods of multiscale image analysis were applied to the observations to better reveal the coronal signal while suppressing noise and other features. This allowed an investigation into the initiation phase of a CME that was driven by a rising flux-rope structure from a "two-stage" flaring event underlying an extended helmet streamer. It was found that the initial outward motion of the erupting loop system in the EUV observations coincided with the first X-ray flare peak and led to a plasma pile-up of the white-light CME core material. The characterized CME core then underwent a strong jerk in its motion, as the early acceleration increased abruptly, simultaneously with the second X-ray flare peak. The overall system expanded into the helmet streamer to become the larger CME structure observed in the LASCO coronagraph images, which later became concave-outward in shape

  9. A Postulation of a Concept in Fundamental Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goradia, Shantilal

    2006-10-01

    I am postulating that all fermions have a quantum mouth (Planck size) that radiates a flux density of gravitons as a function of the mass of the particle. Nucleons are not hard balls like light bulbs radiating photons challenging Newtonian concepts of centers and surfaces. The hardball analogy is implicit in coupling constants that compare strong force relative to gravity. The radiating mouth is not localized at the center like a hypothetical point size filament of a light bulb with a hard surface. A point invokes mass of zero volume. It is too precise, inconsistent and illogical. Nothing can be localized with more accuracy that Planck length. Substituting the hard glass bulb surface with flexible plastic surface would clearly make the interacting mouths of particles approach each other as close as possible, but no less than the quantum limit of Planck length. Therefore, surface distance in Newtonian gravity would be a close approximation at particle scale and fits Feynman's road map [1]. My postulation reflected by Fig. 2 of gr-qc/0507130 explains observations of increasing values of coupling constants resulting from decreasing values of Planck length (See physics/0210040 v1). Since Planck length is the fundamental unit of length of nature, its variation can impact our observation of the universe and the evolutionary process.

  10. A Bouc-Wen model compatible with plasticity postulates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charalampakis, A. E.; Koumousis, V. K.

    2009-05-01

    The versatile Bouc-Wen model has been used extensively to describe hysteretic phenomena in various fields of engineering. Nevertheless, it is known that it exhibits displacement drift, force relaxation and nonclosure of hysteretic loops when subjected to short unloading-reloading paths. Consequently, it locally violates Drucker's or Ilyushin's postulate of plasticity. In this study, an effective modification of the model is proposed which eliminates these problems. A stiffening factor is introduced into the hysteretic differential equation which enables the distinction between virgin loading and reloading. Appropriate reversal points are utilized effectively to guide the entire process. It is shown that the proposed modification corrects the nonphysical behavior of the model under short unloading-reloading paths without affecting its response in all other cases. It is further demonstrated that the original and modified model exhibit significantly different response under seismic excitation.

  11. A random spatial network model based on elementary postulates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karlinger, M.R.; Troutman, B.M.

    1989-01-01

    In contrast to the random topology model, this model ascribes a unique spatial specification to generated drainage networks, a distinguishing property of some network growth models. The simplicity of the postulates creates an opportunity for potential analytic investigations of the probabilistic structure of the drainage networks, while the spatial specification enables analyses of spatially dependent network properties. In the random topology model all drainage networks, conditioned on magnitude (number of first-order streams), are equally likely, whereas in this model all spanning trees of a grid, conditioned on area and drainage density, are equally likely. As a result, link lengths in the generated networks are not independent, as usually assumed in the random topology model. -from Authors

  12. Modeling of aircraft unsteady aerodynamic characteristics. Part 1: Postulated models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, Vladislav; Noderer, Keith D.

    1994-01-01

    A short theoretical study of aircraft aerodynamic model equations with unsteady effects is presented. The aerodynamic forces and moments are expressed in terms of indicial functions or internal state variables. The first representation leads to aircraft integro-differential equations of motion; the second preserves the state-space form of the model equations. The formulations of unsteady aerodynamics is applied in two examples. The first example deals with a one-degree-of-freedom harmonic motion about one of the aircraft body axes. In the second example, the equations for longitudinal short-period motion are developed. In these examples, only linear aerodynamic terms are considered. The indicial functions are postulated as simple exponentials and the internal state variables are governed by linear, time-invariant, first-order differential equations. It is shown that both approaches to the modeling of unsteady aerodynamics lead to identical models.

  13. Clustering of monosialyl-Gb5 initiates downstream signalling events leading to invasion of MCF-7 breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    van Slambrouck, Severine; Steelant, Wim F. A.

    2006-01-01

    Invasion is a complex process controlled by secretion and activation of proteases, alteration of integrin levels and GSL (glycosphingolipid) patterns. Differential organization of GSLs with specific membrane proteins and signal transducers in GEMs (GSL-enriched microdomains), initiates signalling events to modify cellular phenotype. Although the GSL monosialyl-Gb5 has been linked with invasion, its functional role in invasion is poorly described and understood. To investigate this problem, we induced the invasion of human breast cancer cells and subsequently explored the underlying mechanism. In the present study, the invasion of human MCF-7 breast cancer cells is highly dependent on clustering of monosialyl-Gb5, and the subsequent activation of monosialyl-Gb5-associated focal adhesion kinase and cSrc in GEM leading to the downstream activation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK). As a result, we observed increased expression levels and activity of matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9, which correlated with decreased expression of integrins α1 and β1. Together these results suggest that the organization of crucial molecules in GEMs of MCF-7 cells is critical for their invasive properties. PMID:16995838

  14. Search for Charmonium States Decaying to J/\\psi\\gamma \\gamma $ Using Initial-State Radiation Events

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.; Barate, R.; Bona, M.; Boutigny, D.; Couderc, F.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; Zghiche, A.; Grauges, E.; Palano, A.; Chen, J.C.; Qi, N.D.; Rong, G.; Wang, P.; Zhu, Y.S.; Eigen, G.; Ofte, I.; Stugu, B.; Abrams, G.S.; /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /Bristol U. /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UCLA /UC, Riverside /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Frascati /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Harvard U. /Heidelberg U. /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Karlsruhe U., EKP /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT, LNS /McGill U. /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /Mt. Holyoke Coll. /Naples U. /INFN, Naples /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /Pennsylvania U. /Perugia U. /INFN, Perugia /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Prairie View A-M /Princeton U. /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DAPNIA, Saclay /South Carolina U. /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Stony Brook /Tennessee U. /Texas U. /Texas U., Dallas /Turin U. /INFN, Turin /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Valencia U., IFIC /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison /Yale U.

    2006-11-30

    We study the processes e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} (J/{psi}{gamma}{gamma}){gamma} and e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} (J/{psi}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}){gamma} where the hard photon radiated from an initial e{sup +}e{sup -} collision with center-of-mass (CM) energy near 10.58 GeV is detected. In the final state J/{psi}{gamma}{gamma} we consider J/{psi}{pi}{sup 0}, J/{psi}{eta}, {chi}{sub c1}{gamma}, and {chi}c{sub 2}{gamma} candidates. The invariant mass of the hadronic final state defines the effective e{sup +}e{sup -} CM energy in each event, so these data can be compared with direct e{sup +}e{sup -} measurements. We report 90% CL upper limits for the integrated cross section times branching fractions of the J/{psi}{gamma}{gamma} channels in the Y (4260) mass region.

  15. Using Molecular Initiating Events to Develop a Structural Alert Based Screening Workflow for Nuclear Receptor Ligands Associated with Hepatic Steatosis.

    PubMed

    Mellor, Claire L; Steinmetz, Fabian P; Cronin, Mark T D

    2016-02-15

    In silico models are essential for the development of integrated alternative methods to identify organ level toxicity and lead toward the replacement of animal testing. These models include (quantitative) structure-activity relationships ((Q)SARs) and, importantly, the identification of structural alerts associated with defined toxicological end points. Structural alerts are able both to predict toxicity directly and assist in the formation of categories to facilitate read-across. They are particularly important to decipher the myriad mechanisms of action that result in organ level toxicity. The aim of this study was to develop novel structural alerts for nuclear receptor (NR) ligands that are associated with inducing hepatic steatosis and to show the vast number of existing data that are available. Current knowledge on NR agonists was extended with data from the ChEMBL database (12,713 chemicals in total) of bioactive molecules and from studying NR ligand-binding interactions within the protein database (PDB, 624 human NR structure files). A computational structural alert based workflow was developed using KNIME from these data using molecular fragments and other relevant chemical features. In total, 214 structural features were recorded computationally as SMARTS strings, and therefore, they can be used for grouping and screening during drug development and hazard assessment and provide knowledge to anchor adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) via their molecular initiating events (MIEs). PMID:26787004

  16. Biologically induced initiation of snowball-Earth events, and the circulations of ice and ocean in a globally glaciated scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPhaden, M. J.; Finn, C.; McEntee, C.; Krause, F.; Harden, J. W.; Rosenbloom, N. A.; Pendall, E.; Alves Jesus Rydin, C.; Krasa, D.; Shrestha, G.; Cavallaro, N.; Kuperberg, J.; Løvholt, F.; Horspool, N.; Cavanaugh, M. A.; Hankin, E. R.; Davis, J. L.; Evans, J. E.; Gurwick, N. P.; Richardson, R. M.; Landau, E. A.; Uhlenbrock, K. M.; Albert, M. R.; Rack, F. R.; Van Wyk de Vries, B.; Giardino, M.; Wiggins, H. V.; Habib, M. A.; Horan, P.; Stover, D. B.; Kuperberg, J.; Koch, D. M.; Jacob, D. J.; Isern, A. R.; Borg, S. G.; Ryabinin, V.; Hik, D.; Winther, J.; McConnell, W. J.; Baerwald, T. J.; Liu, J.; Winter, J. M.; Ruane, A. C.; Rosenzweig, C.; Jacobs, C. A.; Zanzerkia, E. E.; Cummins, P. R.; Harjadi, P.; Widiyantoro, S.; Natawidjaja, D. H.; Netting, R.; Grunsfeld, J. M.; Freilich, M. H.; Green, J. L.; Giles, B. L.; Stammer, D.; Wefer, G.; Lefebvre, A.; Lucarini, V.; Kanzow, T.; Goddard, L.; McCreary, J. P.; Sprintall, J.; Patterson, M.; Manduca, C. A.; Bralower, T. J.; Egger, A. E.; Klimchuk, J. A.; Nave, L. E.; Harden, J. W.; Horan, P.; Koch, D. M.; Laviolette, R.; Frost, G. J.; Middleton, P.; Uhle, M. E.; Gurney, R. J.; Impey, A.; Carroll, M.; Brown, M. E.; Escobar, V. M.; Murphy, F.; Callaghan, S.; Graber, J. R.; Lawford, R. G.; Koike, T.; Cripe, D.; Gundersen, L. C.; Valette-Silver, N. J.; Bohan, M.; Kaye, J. A.; Freilich, M. H.; Volz, S. M.; Friedl, L.; Komar, G.; Jacobberger-Jellison, P. A.; Luce, P.; Torn, M. S.; Baldocchi, D. D.; Agarwal, D.; Biraud, S. C.; Billesbach, D. P.; Humphrey, M.; Law, B. E.; Papale, D.; Wofsy, S. C.; Quadrelli, R.; Wilson, S.; Liverman, D. M.; Liss, P. S.; Killeen, T.; Watson, R.; Zebiak, S. E.; Tang, Q.; Hong, Y.; Chen, D.; Yang, D.; Rumburg, J.; Newmark, J. S.; Giles, B. L.; DeLuca, E.; Hagan, M. E.; Studinger, M.; Jezek, K. C.; Richter-Menge, J.; Lea, P.; Passalacqua, P.; Oskin, M. E.; Crosby, C.; Glennie, C. L.; Lechner, H. N.; Bowman, L. J.; Barton, T.; Uhle, M. E.; Anderson, G. J.; Fountain, D. M.; Hess, J. W.; Harper, H. E.; Gingerich, P. D.; Groffman, P. M.; Weathers, K. C.; Bernhardt, E. S.; SanClements, M.; Loescher, H. W.; Pitelka, L.; Sandgathe, S. A.; Eleuterio, D. P.; Cortinas, J. V.; McElroy, B. J.; Hsu, L.; Kim, W.; Martin, R. L.; Arrowsmith, R.; Hill, M. C.; Freymueller, J. T.; Marks, D. G.; Sztein, E.; Eichelberger, J. C.; Ismail-Zadeh, A.; Gordeev, E.; Myers, M.; Scholl, D. W.; Ackley, S. F.; Schofield, O.; Costa, D. P.; Marin, J. A.; Pilpipenko, V. A.; Vega, P.; Zesta, E.; Stepanova, M. V.; Uozumi, T.; Nolin, A. W.; Sturm, M.; Tziperman, E.; Abbot, D. S.; Ashkenazy, Y.; Gildor, H.; Halevy, I.; Johnston, D. T.; Knoll, A.; Losch, M. J.; Pollard, D.; Schoof, C.; Schrag, D. P.

    2012-12-01

    , Martin Losch, Hezi Gildor, Dan Schrag). References: Eli Tziperman, I. Halevy, D. T. Johnston, A. H. Knoll, and D. P. Schrag. Biologically induced initiation of Neoproterozoic Snowball-Earth events. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 108(37):15091-15096, doi/10.1073/pnas.1016361108, 2011. Eli Tziperman, Dorian Schuyler Abbot, Yosef Ashkenazy, Hezi Gildor, David Pollard, Christian Schoof, and Daniel P. Schrag. Continental constriction and sea ice thickness in a Snowball-Earth scenario. J. Geophys. Res., 117(C05016):doi:10.1029/2011JC007730, 2012. Yosef Ashkenazy et al, in prep. 2012.

  17. Accident progression event tree analysis for postulated severe accidents at N Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Wyss, G.D.; Camp, A.L.; Miller, L.A.; Dingman, S.E.; Kunsman, D.M. ); Medford, G.T. )

    1990-06-01

    A Level II/III probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) has been performed for N Reactor, a Department of Energy (DOE) production reactor located on the Hanford reservation in Washington. The accident progression analysis documented in this report determines how core damage accidents identified in the Level I PRA progress from fuel damage to confinement response and potential releases the environment. The objectives of the study are to generate accident progression data for the Level II/III PRA source term model and to identify changes that could improve plant response under accident conditions. The scope of the analysis is comprehensive, excluding only sabotage and operator errors of commission. State-of-the-art methodology is employed based largely on the methods developed by Sandia for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission in support of the NUREG-1150 study. The accident progression model allows complex interactions and dependencies between systems to be explicitly considered. Latin Hypecube sampling was used to assess the phenomenological and systemic uncertainties associated with the primary and confinement system responses to the core damage accident. The results of the analysis show that the N Reactor confinement concept provides significant radiological protection for most of the accident progression pathways studied.

  18. Cascadia slow slip events and earthquake initiation theories: Hazards research with Plate Boundary Observatory geodetic data (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roeloffs, E. A.; Beeler, N. M.

    2013-12-01

    The relationship of transient slow slip events (SSEs) to great earthquakes is a global focus of intense and critical hazards research. Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) GPS and borehole strainmeter (BSM) networks in the Cascadia forearc provide detailed data that can be compared with simulations predicting how SSEs might evolve as a great earthquake approaches. Cascadia SSEs represent aseismic slip of a few cm in the direction of plate convergence over a period of days or weeks, in a depth range down-dip from the locked zone expected to generate the next great Cascadia subduction earthquake. During an SSE, shear stress borne in the SSE depth range is transferred up-dip at an above-background loading rate. If shear stress on the locked zone is continually accumulating, the daily probability of reaching a threshold failure stress is elevated during an SSE . Alternatively, if dynamic instability is due to rate-weakening fault strength, then SSEs still promote earthquake initiation, but that initiation may be delayed until after the SSE ends, and short-duration SSEs may have negligible effect. In some numerical simulations, great earthquakes could nucleate in the SSE depth range, where effective pressure is assumed to be low. Certain models predict that successive SSEs will slip to increasingly shallower depths, eventually encountering higher effective stress where shear heating can destabilize slip and lead to dynamic rupture. PBO GPS stations have recorded surface deformation from SSEs since inception in 2003; borehole strainmeters (BSMs) have recorded SSE strain signals since 2007. GPS and seismic tremor data show that SSEs reoccur all along the Cascadia subduction zone. An SSE is in progress somewhere in Cascadia much of the time, so the short-term probability increase warranted by a typical SSE is presumably low. We could, however, detect differences among successive SSEs and use criteria informed by the models described above to judge whether a distinctive SSE

  19. A multi-disciplinary assessment of operator action time for mitigating a postulated accident

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, C.D.; Fields, C.C.; Hightower, N.T. III ); Buczek, J.A. ); Jenkins, T.B.; Swanson, P.J. )

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses mitigation of the postulated Loss of Heat Sink Accident for the Savannah River Site K Reactor which requires operator action to place the plant in a water conservation configuration. In August 1991, concerns were raised about the allowances in the safety analyses for operator action times in an unpowered scenario, where several valves would be manually closed. WSRC management conservatively decided to include explicit consideration of a seismic initiator for this scenario, which introduced the additional concern that operator actions could be hindered by tritium from flange leakage. The revised analyses concluded that the powered case documented in the Safety Analysis Report is limiting and that all acceptance criteria are met.

  20. A multi-disciplinary assessment of operator action time for mitigating a postulated accident

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, C.D.; Fields, C.C.; Hightower, N.T. III; Buczek, J.A.; Jenkins, T.B.; Swanson, P.J.

    1992-09-01

    This report discusses mitigation of the postulated Loss of Heat Sink Accident for the Savannah River Site K Reactor which requires operator action to place the plant in a water conservation configuration. In August 1991, concerns were raised about the allowances in the safety analyses for operator action times in an unpowered scenario, where several valves would be manually closed. WSRC management conservatively decided to include explicit consideration of a seismic initiator for this scenario, which introduced the additional concern that operator actions could be hindered by tritium from flange leakage. The revised analyses concluded that the powered case documented in the Safety Analysis Report is limiting and that all acceptance criteria are met.

  1. Deadly Choices™ community health events: a health promotion initiative for urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.

    PubMed

    Malseed, Claire; Nelson, Alison; Ware, Robert; Lacey, Ian; Lander, Keiron

    2014-01-01

    The present study was an evaluation of the effectiveness of Deadly Choices™ community events for improving participants' short-term knowledge of chronic disease and risk factors, and increasing community engagement with local health services. Surveys were completed directly before and after participating in health education activities (pre and post surveys, respectively) assessing knowledge of chronic diseases and risk factors at three Deadly Choices community events and four National Aboriginal and Islander Day Observance Committee (NAIDOC) events in south-east Queensland where Deadly Choices health education activities took place. An audit trail was conducted at two Deadly Choices community events in Brisbane to identify the proportion of participants who undertook a health screen at the event who then followed up for a Medicare-funded health check (MBS item 715) or other appointment at an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander clinic in the local area within 2 months. Results were compared with a sample of participants who attended one Deadly Choices community event but did not complete a health screen. There were 472 community members who completed a pre and post survey. All knowledge scores significantly improved between baseline and follow up. Although based on a small sample, the audit trail results suggest individuals who participated in a health screen at the community day were approximately twice as likely to go back to a clinic to receive a full health check or have an alternative appointment compared with attendees who did not participate in a screen. Community events that include opportunities for health education and health screening are an effective strategy to improve chronic disease health literacy skills and appear to have the potential to increase community engagement with local Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health services. PMID:25262748

  2. Seismic constraints on a large dyking event and initiation of a transform fault zone in Western Gulf of Aden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, AbdulHakim; Doubre, Cecile; Leroy, Sylvie; Perrot, Julie; Audin, Laurence; Rolandone, Frederique; Keir, Derek; Al-Ganad, Ismael; Sholan, Jamal; Khanbari, Khaled; Mohamed, Kassim; Vergne, Jerome; Jacques, Eric; Nercessian, Alex

    2013-04-01

    In November 2010, a large number of events were recorded by the world seismic networks showing important activity occurring along the western part of the Aden Ridge. West of the Shulka El Sheik fracture zone, events in this large seismic swarm (magnitudes above 5) occurred in a complex area, where the change of both the ridge direction and the bathymetry suggest the propagation of the ridge into a continental lithosphere and the influence of the Afar plume. We combine several sets of data from permanent networks and temporary 3C broad stations installed after the beginning of the event along the southern and eastern coasts of Yemen and Djibouti respectively, we located more than 600 earthquakes with magnitudes ranging from 2.5 to 5.6 that occurred during the first months following the first event. The spatial distribution of the main seismicity reveals a very clear N115° -trending alignment, parallel to the mean direction of the en-echelon spreading segments that form the ridge at this longitude. Half of the events, which represent half of the total seismic energy released during the first months, are located in the central third section of the segment. Here several volcanic cones and recent lava flows observed from bathymetric and acoustic reflectivity data during the Tadjouraden cruise (Audin, 1999, Dauteuil et al., 2001) constitute the sea floor. In addition to this main activity, two small groups of events suggest the activiation of landslides into a large fan and the activity in a volcanic area 50 km due east from the main active zone. The time evolution of the seismicity shows several bursts of activity. Some of them are clearly related to sudden activities within the volcanic areas, when others exhibit horizontal migration of the events, with velocity around ˜ 1 km/h. The time-space evolution of the seismicity clearly reveals the intrusion of dykes associated with magma propagation from the crustal magmatic centres into the rift zone. Taking into account

  3. Initial Comparison Between a 3D MHD Model and the HAFv2 Kinematic 3D Model: The October/November 2003 Events from the Sun to 6 AU

    SciTech Connect

    Intriligator, Devrie S.; Detman, Thomas; Fry, Craig D.; Sun Wei; Deehr, Charles; Intriligator, James

    2005-08-01

    A first-generation 3D kinematic, space weather forecasting solar wind model (HAFv2) has been used to show the importance of solar generated disturbances in Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 observations in the outer heliosphere. We extend this work by using a 3D MHD model (HHMS) that, like HAFv2, incorporates a global, pre-event, inhomogeneous, background solar wind plasma and interplanetary magnetic field. Initial comparisons are made between the two models of the solar wind out to 6 AU and with in-situ observations at the ACE spacecraft before and after the October/November 2003 solar events.

  4. An Initial Investigation of the Orbitofrontal Cortex Hyperactivity in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Exaggerated Representations of Anticipated Aversive Events?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ursu, Stefan; Carter, Cameron S.

    2009-01-01

    Orbitofrontal cortical (OFC) dysfunction has been repeatedly involved in obsessive-compulsive disorder, but the precise significance of this abnormality is still unclear. Current neurocognitive models propose that specific areas of the OFC contribute to behavioral regulation by representing the anticipated affective value of future events. This…

  5. An initial investigation of the orbitofrontal cortex hyperactivity in obsessive-compulsive disorder: exaggerated representations of anticipated aversive events?

    PubMed

    Ursu, Stefan; Carter, Cameron S

    2009-08-01

    Orbitofrontal cortical (OFC) dysfunction has been repeatedly involved in obsessive-compulsive disorder, but the precise significance of this abnormality is still unclear. Current neurocognitive models propose that specific areas of the OFC contribute to behavioral regulation by representing the anticipated affective value of future events. This leads to the hypothesis that these OFC areas are hyperactive in patients, reflecting ruminative preoccupation with future aversive events. In experimental situations, such hyperactivity should be triggered by negative affect in response to high likelihood of events such as the conflict between simultaneously active incompatible responses, which can potentially lead to poor task performance. We tested this hypothesis by examining fMRI indices of brain activity of 15 OCD patients and 15 matched controls. Subjects were scanned while performing a cognitive task which involved responding to cues and subsequent probes, and some of the probes elicited response conflict. Relative to controls, the lateral OFC of patients was specifically hyperactive to cues associated with high proportion of subsequent high-conflict probes. The level of OFC hyperactivity correlated directly with the severity of anxiety symptoms. These results support the hypothesis that OCD is characterized by exaggerated OFC representations of anticipated aversive events. PMID:19467363

  6. Ferrocyanide Safety Program: Analysis of postulated energetic reactions and resultant aerosol generation in Hanford Site Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Postma, A.K.; Dickinson, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    This report reviews work done to estimate the possible consequences of postulated energetic reactions in ferrocyanide waste stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site. The issue of explosive reactions was raised in the 1987 Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), where a detonation-like explosion was postulated for the purpose of defining an upper bound on dose consequences for various disposal options. A review of the explosion scenario by the General Accounting Office (GAO) indicated that the aerosol generation and consequent radioactive doses projected for the explosion postulated in the EIS were understated by one to two orders of magnitude. The US DOE has sponsored an extensive study of the hazard posed by uncontrolled exothermic reactions in ferrocyanide waste, and results obtained during the past three years have allowed this hazard to be more realistically assessed. The objective of this report is to summarize the improved knowledge base that now indicates that explosive or vigorous chemical reactions are not credible in the ferrocyanide waste stored in underground tanks. This improved understanding supports the decision not to proceed with further analyses or predictions of the consequences of such an event or with aerosol tests in support of such predictions. 53 refs., 2 tabs.

  7. PRESSURE INTEGRITY OF 3013 CONTAINER UNDER POSTULATED ACCIDENT CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Rawls, G.

    2010-02-01

    A series of tests was carried out to determine the threshold for deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT), structural loading, and structural response of the Department of Energy 3013 storage systems for the case of an accidental explosion of evolved gas within the storage containers. Three experimental fixtures were used to examine the various issues and three mixtures consisting of either stoichiometric hydrogen-oxygen, stoichiometric hydrogen-oxygen with added nitrogen, or stoichiometric hydrogen-oxygen with an added nitrogen-helium mixture were tested. Tests were carried out as a function of initial pressure from 1 to 3.5 bar and initial temperature from room temperature to 150 C. The elevated temperature tests resulted in a slight increase in the threshold pressure for DDT. The elevated temperature tests were performed to ensure the test results were bounding. Because the change was not significant the elevated temperature data are not presented in the paper. The explosions were initiated with either a small spark or a hot surface. Based on the results of these tests under the conditions investigated, it can be concluded that DDT of a stoichiometric hydrogen-oxygen mixture (and mixtures diluted with nitrogen and helium) within the 3013 containment system does not pose a threat to the structural integrity of the outer container.

  8. Comparison of the initial errors most likely to cause a spring predictability barrier for two types of El Niño events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Ben; Duan, Wansuo

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, the spring predictability barrier (SPB) problem for two types of El Niño events is investigated. This is enabled by tracing the evolution of a conditional nonlinear optimal perturbation (CNOP) that acts as the initial error with the biggest negative effect on the El Niño predictions. We show that the CNOP-type errors for central Pacific-El Niño (CP-El Niño) events can be classified into two types: the first are CP-type-1 errors possessing a sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) pattern with negative anomalies in the equatorial central western Pacific, positive anomalies in the equatorial eastern Pacific, and accompanied by a thermocline depth anomaly pattern with positive anomalies along the equator. The second are, CP-type-2 errors presenting an SSTA pattern in the central eastern equatorial Pacific, with a dipole structure of negative anomalies in the east and positive anomalies in the west, and a thermocline depth anomaly pattern with a slight deepening along the equator. CP-type-1 errors grow in a manner similar to an eastern Pacific-El Niño (EP-El Niño) event and grow significantly during boreal spring, leading to a significant SPB for the CP-El Niño. CP-type-2 errors initially present as a process similar to a La Niña-like decay, prior to transitioning into a growth phase of an EP-El Niño-like event; but they fail to cause a SPB. For the EP-El Niño events, the CNOP-type errors are also classified into two types: EP-type-1 errors and 2 errors. The former is similar to a CP-type-1 error, while the latter presents with an almost opposite pattern. Both EP-type-1 and 2 errors yield a significant SPB for EP-El Niño events. For both CP- and EP-El Niño, their CNOP-type errors that cause a prominent SPB are concentrated in the central and eastern tropical Pacific. This may indicate that the prediction uncertainties of both types of El Niño events are sensitive to the initial errors in this region. The region may represent a common

  9. Members of the NODE (Nanog and Oct4-associated deacetylase) complex and SOX-2 promote the initiation of a natural cellular reprogramming event in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Kagias, Konstantinos; Ahier, Arnaud; Fischer, Nadine; Jarriault, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    Differentiated cells can be forced to change identity, either to directly adopt another differentiated identity or to revert to a pluripotent state. Direct reprogramming events can also occur naturally. We recently characterized such an event in Caenorhabditis elegans, in which a rectal cell switches to a neuronal cell. Here we have used this single-cell paradigm to investigate the molecular requirements of direct cell-type conversion, with a focus on the early steps. Our genetic analyses revealed the requirement of sem-4/Sall, egl-27/Mta, and ceh-6/Oct, members of the NODE complex recently identified in embryonic stem (ES) cells, and of the OCT4 partner sox-2, for the initiation of this natural direct reprogramming event. These four factors have been shown to individually impact on ES cell pluripotency; however, whether they act together to control cellular potential during development remained an open question. We further found that, in addition to acting at the same time, these factors physically associate, suggesting that they could act together as a NODE-like complex during this in vivo process. Finally, we have elucidated the functional domains in EGL-27/MTA that mediate its reprogramming activity in this system and have found that modulation of the posterior HOX protein EGL-5 is a downstream event to allow the initiation of Y identity change. Our data reveal unique in vivo functions in a natural direct reprogramming event for these genes that impact on ES cells pluripotency and suggest that conserved nuclear events could be shared between different cell plasticity phenomena across phyla. PMID:22493276

  10. Members of the NODE (Nanog and Oct4-associated deacetylase) complex and SOX-2 promote the initiation of a natural cellular reprogramming event in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kagias, Konstantinos; Ahier, Arnaud; Fischer, Nadine; Jarriault, Sophie

    2012-04-24

    Differentiated cells can be forced to change identity, either to directly adopt another differentiated identity or to revert to a pluripotent state. Direct reprogramming events can also occur naturally. We recently characterized such an event in Caenorhabditis elegans, in which a rectal cell switches to a neuronal cell. Here we have used this single-cell paradigm to investigate the molecular requirements of direct cell-type conversion, with a focus on the early steps. Our genetic analyses revealed the requirement of sem-4/Sall, egl-27/Mta, and ceh-6/Oct, members of the NODE complex recently identified in embryonic stem (ES) cells, and of the OCT4 partner sox-2, for the initiation of this natural direct reprogramming event. These four factors have been shown to individually impact on ES cell pluripotency; however, whether they act together to control cellular potential during development remained an open question. We further found that, in addition to acting at the same time, these factors physically associate, suggesting that they could act together as a NODE-like complex during this in vivo process. Finally, we have elucidated the functional domains in EGL-27/MTA that mediate its reprogramming activity in this system and have found that modulation of the posterior HOX protein EGL-5 is a downstream event to allow the initiation of Y identity change. Our data reveal unique in vivo functions in a natural direct reprogramming event for these genes that impact on ES cells pluripotency and suggest that conserved nuclear events could be shared between different cell plasticity phenomena across phyla. PMID:22493276

  11. Postulated licensing schedule for an independent spent fuel storage installation

    SciTech Connect

    Ludwick, J.D.

    1982-11-01

    A review of licensing requirements, processes, and anticipated actions for independent spent fuel storage installations (ISFSIs) was conducted in order to develop an estimated schedule and sequence of events for licensing a new ISFSI. This estimate will be useful to potential ISFSI owners in planning for the licensing of their facilities. It is concluded that, although many uncertainties exist with respect to such things as legal appeals, about 29 months are estimated to elapse between license application and license issuance for an ISFSI. This estimate is in reasonable agreement with a previous time estimate for licensing an ISFSI, and, taking into account the special circumstances involved, with the actual licensing schedule for the GE-Morris ISFSI. However, individual portions of the licensing schedule from each case studied sometimes vary significantly.

  12. Relationship between optimal precursory disturbances and optimally growing initial errors associated with ENSO events: Implications to target observations for ENSO prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Junya; Duan, Wansuo

    2016-05-01

    By superimposing initial sea temperature disturbances in neutral years, we determine the precursory disturbances that are most likely to evolve into El Niño and La Niña events using an Earth System Model. These precursory disturbances for El Niño and La Niña events are deemed optimal precursory disturbances because they are more likely to trigger strong ENSO events. Specifically, the optimal precursory disturbance for El Niño exhibits negative sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTAs) in the central-eastern equatorial Pacific. Additionally, the subsurface temperature component exhibits negative anomalies in the upper layers of the eastern equatorial Pacific and positive anomalies in the lower layers of the western equatorial Pacific. The optimal precursory disturbance for La Niña is almost opposite to that of El Niño. The optimal precursory disturbances show that both El Niño and La Niña originate from precursory signals in the subsurface layers of the western equatorial Pacific and in the surface layers of the eastern equatorial Pacific. We find that the optimal precursory disturbances for El Niño and La Niña are particularly similar to the optimally growing initial errors associated with El Niño prediction that have been presented in previous studies. The optimally growing initial errors show that the optimal precursor source areas represent the sensitive areas for target observations associated with ENSO prediction. Combining the optimal precursory disturbances and the optimally growing initial errors for ENSO, we infer that additional observations in these sensitive areas can reduce initial errors and be used to detect precursory signals, thereby improving ENSO predictions.

  13. Recommended plutonium release fractions from postulated fires. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kogan, V.; Schumacher, P.M.

    1993-12-01

    This report was written at the request of EG&G Rocky Flats, Inc. in support of joint emergency planning for the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) by EG&G and the State of Colorado. The intent of the report is to provide the State of Colorado with an independent assessment of any respirable plutonium releases that might occur in the event of a severe fire at the plant. Fire releases of plutonium are of interest because they have been used by EG&G to determine the RFP emergency planning zones. These zones are based on the maximum credible accident (MCA) described in the RFP Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) of 1980, that MCA is assumed to be a large airplane crashing into a RFP plutonium building.The objective of this report was first, to perform a worldwide literature review of relevant release experiments from 1960 to the present and to summarize those findings, and second, to provide recommendations for application of the experimental data to fire release analyses at Rocky Flats. The latter step requires translation between experimental and expected RFP accident parameters, or ``scaling.`` The parameters of particular concern are: quantities of material, environmental parameters such as the intensity of a fire, and the physico-chemical forms of the plutonium. The latter include plutonium metal, bulk plutonium oxide powder, combustible and noncombustible wastes contaminated with plutonium oxide powder, and residues from plutonium extraction processes.

  14. The impact of user- and system-initiated personalization on the user experience at large sports events.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xu; May, Andrew; Wang, Qingfeng

    2016-05-01

    This article describes an experimental study investigating the impact on user experience of two approaches of personalization of content provided on a mobile device, for spectators at large sports events. A lab-based experiment showed that a system-driven approach to personalization was generally preferable, but that there were advantages to retaining some user control over the process. Usability implications for a hybrid approach, and design implications are discussed, with general support for countermeasures designed to overcome recognised limitations of adaptive systems. PMID:26851458

  15. Liquid metal reactions under postulated accident conditions for fission and fusion reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Muhlestein, L.D.

    1980-04-01

    Sodium and lithium reactions are considered in the context of a postulated breach of a coolant boundary. Specific topics addressed are coolant-atmosphere and coolant-material reactions which may contribute to the overall consequence of a postulated accident scenario, and coolant reaction extinguishment and effluent control which may be desirable for containment of the spilled coolant.

  16. [Recurrent deep vein thrombosis and myeloproliferative syndrom: emergence of JAK2 mutation five years after the initial event].

    PubMed

    Salort, A; Seinturier, C; Molina, L; Lévèque, P; Imbert, B; Pernod, G

    2014-05-01

    JAK 2 mutation is the molecular event responsible for 95% of polycythemia cases and 50% of thrombocythemia vera and myelofibrosis cases. It can be used as a tool for the diagnosis of myeloproliferative disorders. We report a case illustrating the fact that a negative result does not definitively eliminate the diagnosis. A 40-year old woman, with a medical history of familial deep vein thrombosis, developed thrombosis of the inferior vena cava with extension to the suprahepatic veins and pulmonary embolism. No constitutional or acquired thrombophilia was diagnosed; search for JAK 2 mutation was negative. The patient was treated with fluindione. Five years later, she relapsed with popliteo-femoral and vena cava deep vein thrombosis. The etiological work-up included a PET scan which revealed diffuse uptake in bones and suspected neoplasic bone marrow invasion. Progenitor cell cultures were positive and JAK 2 mutation was confirmed. The bone marrow aspirate had the cytologic appearance of a myeloproliferative disorder. This case illustrates the fact that JAK 2 mutation can be identified several years after onset of a latent myeloproliferative disorder. Cases with a high clinical likelihood should lead to renewed search for this mutation. Secondary discovery of this mutation can be explained by a higher proportion of mutation expressing clones. PMID:24721000

  17. Initiation and early evolution of the Franklin magmatic event preserved in the 720 Ma Natkusiak Formation, Victoria Island, Canadian Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, Nicole M. B.; Ootes, Luke; Rainbird, Robert H.; Bédard, Jean H.; Cousens, Brian

    2016-03-01

    Our understanding of the onset and evolution of flood basalt volcanism is rooted in the study of the character and internal architecture of its eruptive products. Neoproterozoic continental flood basalts of the ca. 720 Ma Franklin magmatic event are preserved as the Natkusiak Formation and are exposed within the Minto Inlier on Victoria Island, Northwest Territories, Canada. The 200 m volcanic succession evaluated in this study has features similar to those of other continental flood basalt provinces and consists of four volcanic units: a basal unit of laterally discontinuous flows with evidence for lava-sediment interactions, a mafic volcaniclastic deposit emplaced as a mass flow, a quartz-rich volcanic sandstone that records the re-establishment of small river channels, and a unit of thick, high-titanium tholeiitic sheet flows that mark the onset of the main phase of flood volcanism. The basal units show marked lateral thickness variations that imply the existence of paleotopography during their eruption and/or deposition. In addition, two newly discovered volcanic vent complexes within the Natkusiak succession preserve the products of explosive, vent-forming basaltic pyroclastic fall eruptions. Differences in major element geochemistry between the basal and upper basaltic flow units, in conjunction with the lithological characteristics of each volcanic unit, are used to correlate the units on a scale of over 100 km from the south of the Minto Inlier to the north.

  18. Hammond Postulate Mirroring Enables Enantiomeric Enrichment of Phosphorus Compounds via Two Thermodynamically Interconnected Sequential Stereoselective Processes.

    PubMed

    Rajendran, Kamalraj V; Nikitin, Kirill V; Gilheany, Declan G

    2015-07-29

    The dynamic resolution of tertiary phosphines and phosphine oxides was monitored by NMR spectroscopy. It was found that the stereoselectivity is set during the formation of the diastereomeric alkoxyphosphonium salts (DAPS), such that their initial diastereomeric excess (de) limits the final enantiomeric excess (ee) of any phosphorus products derived from them. However, (31)P NMR monitoring of the spontaneous thermal decomposition of the DAPS shows consistent diastereomeric self-enrichment, indicating a higher rate constant for decomposition of the minor diastereomer. This crucial observation was confirmed by reductive trapping of the unreacted enriched DAPS with lithium tri-sec-butylborohydride (commercially distributed as L-Selectride reagent) at different time intervals after the start of reaction, which gives progressively higher ee of the phosphine product with time. It is proposed that the Hammond postulate operates for both formation and decomposition of DAPS intermediate so that the lower rate of formation and faster subsequent collapse of the minor isomer are thermodynamically linked. This kinetic enhancement of kinetic resolution furnishes up to 97% ee product. PMID:26186272

  19. Clonal Analysis in Recurrent Astrocytic, Oligoastrocytic and Oligodendroglial Tumors Implicates IDH1- Mutation as Common Tumor Initiating Event

    PubMed Central

    von Eckardstein, Kajetan; Kiwit, Jürgen; Stockhammer, Florian; Horaczek, Jörn A.; Veelken, Julian; Herold-Mende, Christel; Jeuken, Judith; von Deimling, Andreas; Mueller, Wolf

    2012-01-01

    Background To investigate the dynamics of inter- and intratumoral molecular alterations during tumor progression in recurrent gliomas. Methodology/Principal Findings To address intertumoral heterogeneity we investigated non- microdissected tumor tissue of 106 gliomas representing 51 recurrent tumors. To address intratumoral heterogeneity a set of 16 gliomas representing 7 tumor pairs with at least one recurrence, and 4 single mixed gliomas were investigated by microdissection of distinct oligodendroglial and astrocytic tumor components. All tumors and tumor components were analyzed for allelic loss of 1p/19q (LOH 1p/19q), for TP53- mutations and for R132 mutations in the IDH1 gene. The investigation of non- microdissected tumor tissue revealed clonality in 75% (38/51). Aberrant molecular alterations upon recurrence were detected in 25% (13/51). 64% (9/14) of these were novel and associated with tumor progression. Loss of previously detected alterations was observed in 36% (5/14). One tumor pair (1/14; 7%) was significant for both. Intratumoral clonality was detected in 57% (4/7) of the microdissected tumor pairs and in 75% (3/4) of single microdissected tumors. 43% (3/7) of tumor pairs and one single tumor (25%) revealed intratumoral heterogeneity. While intratumoral heterogeneity affected both the TP53- mutational status and the LOH1p/19q status, all tumors with intratumoral heterogeneity shared the R132 IDH1- mutation as a common feature in both their microdissected components. Conclusions/Significance The majority of recurrent gliomas are of monoclonal origin. However, the detection of divertive tumor cell clones in morphological distinct tumor components sharing IDH1- mutations as early event may provide insight into the tumorigenesis of true mixed gliomas. PMID:22844452

  20. How a Small Change in Retinal Leads to G-Protein Activation: Initial Events Suggested by Molecular Dynamics Calculations

    PubMed Central

    Crozier, Paul S.; Stevens, Mark J.; Woolf, Thomas B.

    2010-01-01

    Rhodopsin is the prototypical G-protein coupled receptor, coupling light activation with high efficiency to signaling molecules. The dark-state X-ray structures of the protein provide a starting point for consideration of the relaxation from initial light activation to conformational changes that may lead to signaling. In this study we create an energetically unstable retinal in the light activated state and then use molecular dynamics simulations to examine the types of compensation, relaxation, and conformational changes that occur following the cis–trans light activation. The results suggest that changes occur throughout the protein, with changes in the orientation of Helices 5 and 6, a closer interaction between Ala 169 on Helix 4 and retinal, and a shift in the Schiff base counterion that also reflects changes in sidechain interactions with the retinal. Taken together, the simulation is suggestive of the types of changes that lead from local conformational change to light-activated signaling in this prototypical system. PMID:17109408

  1. A Mechanistic Study of a-Amino Acid-N-Carboxy Anhydride Polymerization: Comparing Initiation and Termination Events in High Vacuum and Traditional Polymerization Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Pickel, Deanna L; Politakos, Nikolaos; Avgeropoulos, Apostolos; Messman, Jamie M

    2009-01-01

    High-vacuum polymerization of -amino acid-N-carboxyanhydride (NCAs) affords polymers with controlled molecular weights and narrow polydispersities, however a comprehensive study of the end-group composition of the resulting poly(amino acid)s has not yet been performed. This reveals crucial information, as the end-groups are indicative of both the polymerization mechanism (i.e., initiation event) as well as the termination pathways. To this end, poly(O-benzyl-L-tyrosine) initiated by 1,6-diaminohexane was synthesized and subsequently characterized by MALDI-TOF MS, NALDI -TOF MS and 13C NMR spectroscopy to ascertain the end-group structure. Polymers were prepared by both high vacuum and glove box techniques in DMF/THF. Preparation of poly(O-benzyl-L-tyrosine) by high vacuum techniques yielded a polymer initiated exclusively by the normal amine mechanism, and termination by reaction with DMF was observed. In contrast, polymers prepared in the glove box were initiated by the normal amine and activated monomer mechanisms, and several termination products are evident. To our knowledge, this is the first rigorous and comparative analysis of the end-group structure, and it demonstrates the advantage of high vacuum techniques for polymerization of NCAs for the preparation of well-defined poly(amino acid)s with end-group fidelity.

  2. Mechanistic analysis of the suppressed convective anomaly precursor associated with the initiation of primary MJO events over the tropical Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yong, Yangyang; Mao, Jiangyu

    2016-02-01

    A primary Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) event is one with no immediately preceding MJO event. Most primary MJO events initiating over the tropical Indian Ocean are preceded by a local suppressed convective anomaly (SCA). Based on daily outgoing longwave radiation and atmospheric circulation reanalysis data, composite analyses are performed to reveal the dynamical and thermodynamical mechanisms responsible for the generation of the precursor SCA associated with anomalous descending motion. During the developing stage, before the maximum SCA, the anomalous descending motion in the upper troposphere is dynamically forced by anomalous convergence over the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean. The anomalous convergent winds result from changes in subtropical circulation structures forced by extratropical disturbances in association with equatorward advection of positive potential vorticity. In the lower troposphere, the anomalous stable boundary layer with a strong thermal inversion is the dominant factor leading to descending motion. The sea surface temperature (SST) perturbations in the tropical Indian Ocean are an external forcing that generates the SCA through surface energy exchange. The negative SST anomalies in the northwestern portion of the tropical Indian Ocean act as a heat sink to cool the lower-tropospheric atmosphere, forcing strong descending motion and forming an anomalous anticyclone north of the equator. Meanwhile, the positive SST anomalies in the southeastern portion act as a heat source that forces anomalous divergent westerlies and northwesterlies toward the warmer SST area. Thus, anomalous descending motion is induced around the equator.

  3. Measuring trauma and stressful events in childhood and adolescence among patients with first-episode psychosis: initial factor structure, reliability, and validity of the Trauma Experiences Checklist.

    PubMed

    Cristofaro, Sarah L; Cleary, Sean D; Ramsay Wan, Claire; Broussard, Beth; Chapman, Colby; Haggard, Patrick J; Jananeh, Sara; Myers, Neely L; Compton, Michael T

    2013-12-15

    Past trauma and stressful events, especially in childhood and adolescence, are common among individuals with serious mental illnesses like schizophrenia. Traumatic experiences are thought to be a socio-environmental risk factor not only for poorer outcomes, but also potentially for the onset of these disorders. Because improved measurement tools are needed, we developed and studied, among 205 first-episode psychosis patients, the factor structure, internal consistency reliability, and initial validity of the Trauma Experiences Checklist (TEC), our measure of trauma and stressful events during childhood/adolescence. We assessed validity of subscales using correlations with Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form, Parental Harsh Discipline, Violence Exposure, and TEC-Informant Version scores. Exploratory factor analysis resulted in two internally consistent subscales (Cronbach's α=0.79 and 0.80, respectively), interpersonal abuse and family stress, and violence, death, and legal involvement. Scores from the former subscale were substantially associated with CTQ-SF physical, emotional, and sexual abuse (r=0.42-0.57, all p<0.001) and Violence Exposure (r=0.49, p<0.001). On the other hand, violence, death, and legal involvement scores were most highly correlated with Violence Exposure (r=0.49, p<0.001), and not with most CTQ-SF subscales. The TEC is a potentially useful tool in assessing diverse traumatic life events across various social contexts during childhood and adolescence. PMID:23850437

  4. Joint longitudinal hurdle and time-to-event models: an application related to viral load and duration of the first treatment regimen in patients with HIV initiating therapy.

    PubMed

    Brilleman, Samuel L; Crowther, Michael J; May, Margaret T; Gompels, Mark; Abrams, Keith R

    2016-09-10

    Shared parameter joint models provide a framework under which a longitudinal response and a time to event can be modelled simultaneously. A common assumption in shared parameter joint models has been to assume that the longitudinal response is normally distributed. In this paper, we instead propose a joint model that incorporates a two-part 'hurdle' model for the longitudinal response, motivated in part by longitudinal response data that is subject to a detection limit. The first part of the hurdle model estimates the probability that the longitudinal response is observed above the detection limit, whilst the second part of the hurdle model estimates the mean of the response conditional on having exceeded the detection limit. The time-to-event outcome is modelled using a parametric proportional hazards model, assuming a Weibull baseline hazard. We propose a novel association structure whereby the current hazard of the event is assumed to be associated with the current combined (expected) outcome from the two parts of the hurdle model. We estimate our joint model under a Bayesian framework and provide code for fitting the model using the Bayesian software Stan. We use our model to estimate the association between HIV RNA viral load, which is subject to a lower detection limit, and the hazard of stopping or modifying treatment in patients with HIV initiating antiretroviral therapy. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27027882

  5. Initial Results on the Meteoritic Component of new Sediment Cores Containing Deposits of the Eltanin Impact Event

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kyte, Frank T.; Gersonde, Rainer; Kuhn, Gerhard

    2002-01-01

    The late Pliocene impact of the Eltanin asteroid is the only known asteroid impact in a deep- ocean (-5 km) basin . This was first discovered in 1981 as an Ir anomaly in sediment cores collected by the USNS Eltanin in 1965. In 1995, Polarstern expedition ANT XII/4 made the first geological survey of the suspected impact region. Three sediment cores sampled around the San Martin seamounts (approx. 57.5 S, 91 W) contained well-preserved impact deposits that include disturbed ocean sediments and meteoritic impact ejecta. The latter is composed of shock-melted asteroidal materials and unmelted meteorites. In 2001, the FS Polarstern returned to the impact area during expedition ANT XVIIU5a. At least 16 cores were recovered that contain ejecta deposits. These cores and geophysical data from the expedition can be used to map the effects of the impact over a region of about 80,000 square km. To date we have measured Ir concentrations in sediments from seven of the new cores and preliminary data should be available for a few more by the time of the meeting. Our initial interpretation of these data is that there is a region in the vicinity of the San Martin Seamounts comprising at least 20,000 square km in which the average amount of meteoritic material deposited was more than 1 g per square cm. This alone is enough material to support a 500 m asteroid. Beyond this is a region of about 60,000 square km, mostly to the north and west, where the amount of ejecta probably averages about 0.2 g per square cm. Another 400 km to the east, USNS Eltanin core E10-2 has about 0.05 g per square cm, so we know that ejecta probably occurs across more than a million square km of ocean floor. A key to future exploration of this impact is to find evidence of the ejecta at more sites distant from the seamounts. We currently have almost no data from regions to the west or south of the San Martin seamounts.

  6. MACCS usage at Rocky Flats Plant for consequence analysis of postulated accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Foppe, T.L.; Peterson, V.L.

    1993-10-01

    The MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS) has been applied to the radiological consequence assessment of potential accidents from a non-reactor nuclear facility. MACCS has been used in a variety of applications to evaluate radiological dose and health effects to the public from postulated plutonium releases and from postulated criticalities. These applications were conducted to support deterministic and probabilistic accident analyses for safety analyses for safety analysis reports, radiological sabotage studies, and other regulatory requests.

  7. [A matter of methods: the historicity of Koch's postulates 1840-2000].

    PubMed

    Gradmann, Christoph

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses the historical origins and the popularity of 'Koch's Postulates'. In 1884 Friedrich Löffler wrote down the well-known three steps of isolation, cultivation and inoculation as conditions for establishing the existence of a pathogen. These postulates are frequently invoked in textbooks of medical history. Yet they seem to have had little relevance in medical research. Their assumed inventor, Robert Koch, produced numerous variations in his own methodology. However, underlying his work was a sort of trivial ontology of diseases which rendered an experimental reconstruction of human pathologies in animal models practical and meaningful. There were many ways to pursue this end. Koch usually limited his discussion to practical questions related to the course that investigations had to take, while matters of principle were only treated implicitly in his writings. Löffler's achievement was to popularise Koch's views in his postulates. Given that, it is not surprising that the countless references to Koch's postulates which one finds in the 20th century usually refer to the spirit rather than the literal meaning of the postulates. For example, proponents of virology or molecular medicine devise variations of Koch's postulates that serve to relate their own work to Koch's bacteriology. The latter is perceived as the origin of modern experimental medicine. The nature of such references is less historical than anecdotal: referring to a historical object that did not exist as such, these references produce ex traditione credentials for experimental medicine. PMID:18839931

  8. The elasticity of hydrological forecast skill with respect to initial conditions and meteorological forcing for two major flood events in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thober, Stephan; Wood, Andy; Samaniego, Luis; Clark, Martyn; Kumar, Rohini; Zink, Matthias

    2014-05-01

    Major flood events are causing severe socio-economic damages. In Germany alone, the havoc wreaked by the 2002 and 2013 floods along the Elbe and Danube river amounted to more than 11 bn EUR. Highly skilled hydrological forecasts can help to mitigate such damages. Among several factors, these hydrological forecasts are strongly dependent on the initial conditions of the land surface at the beginning of the forecast period and the forecast skill of the meteorological forcing. Prior research has investigated how uncertainties of the initial conditions and meteorological forcing impact hydrological forecasts. In these studies, uncertainty is investigated by coupling an ensemble of basin initial conditions (e.g., snow, soil moisture) with an ensemble of meteorological forecasts (e.g., precipitation). However, most previous hydrological predictability studies focus on seasonal forecasts (e.g., forecasts of June-July-August flow volume, initialized on April 1st), and neglect the errors in meteorological forecasts at lead times from 1-14 days. In this study, an error growth model is proposed to investigate hydrological predictability at lead times of 1-14 days. This error growth model calculates a time-dependent weighted average between the perfect forecast and a stochastic perturbation of this. The time-dependent weights are derived from a logistic function. This error growth model thus attributes high weights to the perfect forecast for short lead times (e.g., less than five days) and low weights for longer lead times (e.g., more than five days). For longer lead times, more weight is given to the stochastic perturbation of the forecast and, hence, the ensemble spread is larger for these lead times resembling a higher uncertainty. Analogous to the error growth model, the initial conditions are calculated as a weighted average between the perfect condition and a historic condition of the land surface. The proposed framework is tested in Germany for the 2002 and 2013 flood

  9. Preliminary analysis of the postulated changes needed to achieve rail cask handling capabilities at selected light water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Konzek, G.J.

    1986-02-01

    Reactor-specific railroad and crane information for all LWRs in the US was extracted from current sources of information. Based on this information, reactors were separated into two basic groups consisting of reactors with existing, usable rail cask capabilities and those without these capabilities. The latter group is the main focus of this study. The group of reactors without present rail cask handling capabilities was further separated into two subgroups consisting of reactors considered essentially incapable of handling a large rail cask of about 100 tons and reactors where postulated facility changes could result in rail cask handling capabilities. Based on a selected population of 127 reactors, the results of this assessment indicate that usable rail cask capabilities exist at 83 (65%) of the reactors. Twelve (27%) of the remaining 44 reactors are deemed incapable of handling a large rail cask without major changes, and 32 reactors are considered likely candidates for potentially achieving rail cask handling capabilities. In the latter group, facility changes were postulated that would conceptually enable these reactors to handle large rail casks. The estimated cost per plant of required facility changes varied widely from a high of about $35 million to a low of <$0.3 million. Only 11 of the 32 plants would require crane upgrades. Spur track and right-of-way costs would apparently vary widely among sites. These results are based on preliminary analyses using available generic cost data. They represent lower bound values that are useful for developing an initial assessment of the viability of the postulated changes on a system-wide basis, but are not intended to be absolute values for specific reactors or sites.

  10. Whole-genome sequencing of multiple myeloma from diagnosis to plasma cell leukemia reveals genomic initiating events, evolution, and clonal tides

    PubMed Central

    Egan, Jan B.; Shi, Chang-Xin; Tembe, Waibhav; Christoforides, Alexis; Kurdoglu, Ahmet; Sinari, Shripad; Middha, Sumit; Asmann, Yan; Schmidt, Jessica; Braggio, Esteban; Keats, Jonathan J.; Fonseca, Rafael; Bergsagel, P. Leif; Craig, David W.; Carpten, John D.

    2012-01-01

    The longitudinal evolution of a myeloma genome from diagnosis to plasma cell leukemia has not previously been reported. We used whole-genome sequencing (WGS) on 4 purified tumor samples and patient germline DNA drawn over a 5-year period in a t(4;14) multiple myeloma patient. Tumor samples were acquired at diagnosis, first relapse, second relapse, and end-stage secondary plasma cell leukemia (sPCL). In addition to the t(4;14), all tumor time points also shared 10 common single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) on WGS comprising shared initiating events. Interestingly, we observed genomic sequence variants that waxed and waned with time in progressive tumors, suggesting the presence of multiple independent, yet related, clones at diagnosis that rose and fell in dominance. Five newly acquired SNVs, including truncating mutations of RB1 and ZKSCAN3, were observed only in the final sPCL sample suggesting leukemic transformation events. This longitudinal WGS characterization of the natural history of a high-risk myeloma patient demonstrated tumor heterogeneity at diagnosis with shifting dominance of tumor clones over time and has also identified potential mutations contributing to myelomagenesis as well as transformation from myeloma to overt extramedullary disease such as sPCL. PMID:22529291

  11. Whole-genome sequencing of multiple myeloma from diagnosis to plasma cell leukemia reveals genomic initiating events, evolution, and clonal tides.

    PubMed

    Egan, Jan B; Shi, Chang-Xin; Tembe, Waibhav; Christoforides, Alexis; Kurdoglu, Ahmet; Sinari, Shripad; Middha, Sumit; Asmann, Yan; Schmidt, Jessica; Braggio, Esteban; Keats, Jonathan J; Fonseca, Rafael; Bergsagel, P Leif; Craig, David W; Carpten, John D; Stewart, A Keith

    2012-08-01

    The longitudinal evolution of a myeloma genome from diagnosis to plasma cell leukemia has not previously been reported. We used whole-genome sequencing (WGS) on 4 purified tumor samples and patient germline DNA drawn over a 5-year period in a t(4;14) multiple myeloma patient. Tumor samples were acquired at diagnosis, first relapse, second relapse, and end-stage secondary plasma cell leukemia (sPCL). In addition to the t(4;14), all tumor time points also shared 10 common single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) on WGS comprising shared initiating events. Interestingly, we observed genomic sequence variants that waxed and waned with time in progressive tumors, suggesting the presence of multiple independent, yet related, clones at diagnosis that rose and fell in dominance. Five newly acquired SNVs, including truncating mutations of RB1 and ZKSCAN3, were observed only in the final sPCL sample suggesting leukemic transformation events. This longitudinal WGS characterization of the natural history of a high-risk myeloma patient demonstrated tumor heterogeneity at diagnosis with shifting dominance of tumor clones over time and has also identified potential mutations contributing to myelomagenesis as well as transformation from myeloma to overt extramedullary disease such as sPCL. PMID:22529291

  12. An Inexpensive and Safe Experiment to Demonstrate Koch's Postulates Using Citrus Fruit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakobi, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Citrus fruit (oranges, tangerines, grapefruit or lemons) purchased in a grocery store can be experimentally infected with readily-available sources of "Penicillium digitatum" to demonstrate the four basic steps of Koch's postulates, also known as proof of pathogenicity. The mould is isolated from naturally-infected citrus fruit into pure culture…

  13. Free Radical Halogenation, Selectivity, and Thermodynamics: The Polanyi Principle and Hammond's Postulate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scala, Alfred A.

    2004-01-01

    The underlying ideas of the Polanyi principle and Hammond's postulate in relation to the simple free halogenation reactions and their selectivity and thermodynamics is presented. The results indicate that the chlorine atom exhibits a slightly less selectivity in the liquid phase as compared to in the gas phase.

  14. Sequence-based identification of microbial pathogens: a reconsideration of Koch's postulates.

    PubMed Central

    Fredericks, D N; Relman, D A

    1996-01-01

    Over 100 years ago, Robert Koch introduced his ideas about how to prove a causal relationship between a microorganism and a disease. Koch's postulates created a scientific standard for causal evidence that established the credibility of microbes as pathogens and led to the development of modern microbiology. In more recent times, Koch's postulates have evolved to accommodate a broader understanding of the host-parasite relationship as well as experimental advances. Techniques such as in situ hybridization, PCR, and representational difference analysis reveal previously uncharacterized, fastidious or uncultivated, microbial pathogens that resist the application of Koch's original postulates, but they also provide new approaches for proving disease causation. In particular, the increasing reliance on sequence-based methods for microbial identification requires a reassessment of the original postulates and the rationale that guided Koch and later revisionists. Recent investigations of Whipple's disease, human ehrlichiosis, hepatitis C, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, and Kaposi's sarcoma illustrate some of these issues. A set of molecular guidelines for establishing disease causation with sequence-based technology is proposed, and the importance of the scientific concordance of evidence in supporting causal associations is emphasized. PMID:8665474

  15. 76 FR 43356 - Evaluations of Explosions Postulated To Occur at Nearby Facilities and on Transportation Routes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    ...The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC or the Commission) is issuing for public comment draft regulatory guide (DG), DG-1270, ``Evaluations of Explosions Postulated to Occur at Nearby Facilities and on Transportation Routes Near Nuclear Power Plants''. This draft regulatory guide describes for applicants and licensees of nuclear power reactors some methods and assumptions the NRC's staff......

  16. A Postulated Mechanism That Leads to Materialization and Dematerialization of Matter and to Antigravity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bearden, Thomas E.

    This document presents a discussion of the postulated mechanism that leads to the materialization and dematerialization of matter and to antigravity. The mechanism also explains why an orbital electron does not radiate energy, in contradiction to classical electromagnetic theory. One of the paradoxes of special relativity is explained. A new model…

  17. Research and Postulates Related to a Behavioristic Theory of Career Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewens, William P.

    The postulates for the behavioristic theory of career development are based on ideas that emerged from a systems analysis of career education. The systems analysis was structured to reflect the following definition of career education: Career education is composed of all the planned and incidental learning experiences of the individual that…

  18. Fun Microbiology: Using a Plant Pathogenic Fungus To Demonstrate Koch's Postulates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, James K.; Orsted, Kathy M.; Warnes, Carl E.

    1997-01-01

    Describes an experiment using a plant pathogenic fungus in which students learn to follow aseptic techniques, grow and produce spores of a fungus, use a hemacytometer for enumerating spores, prepare serial dilutions, grow and inoculate plants, isolate a pure culture using agar streak plates, and demonstrate the four steps of Koch's postulates.…

  19. Application of a postulate based control theory for an artificial arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobsen, S. C.; Jerard, R. B.

    1975-01-01

    The biocontroller, remnant of the natural arm, and feedback elements must be considered in designing a controller for an above elbow artificial arm for amputees. This fundamental postulate is used to derive equations for developing the controller, which is shown in block diagrams.

  20. Maxwell's macroscopic equations, the energy-momentum postulates, and the Lorentz law of force.

    PubMed

    Mansuripur, Masud; Zakharian, Armis R

    2009-02-01

    We argue that the classical theory of electromagnetism is based on Maxwell's macroscopic equations, an energy postulate, a momentum postulate, and a generalized form of the Lorentz law of force. These seven postulates constitute the foundation of a complete and consistent theory, thus eliminating the need for actual (i.e., physical) models of polarization P and magnetization M , these being the distinguishing features of Maxwell's macroscopic equations. In the proposed formulation, P(r,t) and M(r,t) are arbitrary functions of space and time, their physical properties being embedded in the seven postulates of the theory. The postulates are self-consistent, comply with the requirements of the special theory of relativity, and satisfy the laws of conservation of energy, linear momentum, and angular momentum. One advantage of the proposed formulation is that it sidesteps the long-standing Abraham-Minkowski controversy surrounding the electromagnetic momentum inside a material medium by simply "assigning" the Abraham momentum density E(r,t)xH(r,t)/c2 to the electromagnetic field. This well-defined momentum is thus taken to be universal as it does not depend on whether the field is propagating or evanescent, and whether or not the host medium is homogeneous, transparent, isotropic, dispersive, magnetic, linear, etc. In other words, the local and instantaneous momentum density is uniquely and unambiguously specified at each and every point of the material system in terms of the E and H fields residing at that point. Any variation with time of the total electromagnetic momentum of a closed system results in a force exerted on the material media within the system in accordance with the generalized Lorentz law. PMID:19391864

  1. Timing of Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation after a First AIDS-Defining Event: Temporal Changes in Clinical Attitudes in the ICONA Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Cingolani, Antonella; Cozzi-Lepri, Alessandro; Ammassari, Adriana; Mussini, Cristina; Ursitti, Maria Alessandra; Caramello, Pietro; Angarano, Gioacchino; Bonfanti, Paolo; De Luca, Andrea; Mura, Maria Stella; Girardi, Enrico; Antinori, Andrea; Monforte, Antonela D'Arminio

    2014-01-01

    Background Time of starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) after diagnosis of specific AIDS-defining event (ADE) is a crucial aspect. Objectives of this study were to evaluate if in patients diagnosed with ADE the time to ART initiation may vary according to year of diagnosis and type of ADE. Methods All HIV+ persons diagnosed with an ADE over the 6 months prior to or after enrolment in the Icona Foundation study cohort and while ART-naive were grouped according to type of diagnosis: Those with ADE requiring medications interacting with ART [group A], those with ADE treatable only with ART [B] and other ADE [C]. Survival analysis by Kaplan-Meier was used to estimate the percentage of people starting ART, overall and after stratification for calendar period and ADE group. Multivariable Cox regression model was used to investigate association between calendar year of specific ADE and time to ART initiation. Results 720 persons with first ADE were observed over 1996–2013 (group A, n = 171; B, n = 115; C, n = 434). By 30 days from diagnosis, 27% (95% CI: 22–32) of those diagnosed in 1996–2000 had started ART vs. 32% (95% CI: 24–40) in 2001–2008 and 43% (95% CI: 33–47) after 2008 (log-rank p = 0.001). The proportion of patients starting ART by 30 days was 13% (95% CI 7–19), 40% (95% CI: 30–50) and 38% (95% CI 33–43) in ADE groups A, B and C (log-rank p = 0.0001). After adjustment for potential confounders, people diagnosed after 2008 remained at increased probability of starting ART more promptly than those diagnosed in 1996–1999 (AHR 1.72 (95% CI 1.16–2.56). Conclusions In our “real-life” setting, the time from ADE to ART initiation was significantly shorter in people diagnosed in more recent years, although perhaps less prompt than expected. PMID:24587081

  2. Effect of Microgravity on Early Events of Biological Nitrogen Fixation in Medicago Truncatula: Initial Results from the SyNRGE Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stutte, Gary W.; Roberts, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    SyNRGE (Symbiotic Nodulation in a Reduced Gravity Environment) was a sortie mission on STS-135 in the Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC) hardware to study the effect of microgravity on a plant-microbe symbiosis resulting in biological nitrogen fixation. Medicago truncatula, a model species of the legume family, was inoculated with its bacterial symbiont, Sinorhizobium meliloti, to observe early events associated with infection and nodulation in Petri Dish Fixation Units (PDFUs). Two sets of experiments were conducted in orbit and in 24-hour delayed ground controls. Experiment one was designed to determine if S. meliloti infect M. truncatula and initiate physiological changes associated with nodule formation. Roots of five-day-old M. truncatula cultivar Jemalong A17 (Enodll::gus) were inoculated 24 hr before launch with either S. meliloti strain 1021 or strain ABS7 and integrated into BRIC-PDFU hardware placed in a 4 C Cold Bag for launch on Atlantis. Inoculated plants and uninoculated controls were maintained in the dark at ambient temperature in the middeck of STS-135 for 11 days before fixation in RNAlater(tM) by crew activation of the PDFU. Experiment two was designed to determine if microgravity altered the process of bacterial infection and host plant nodule formation. Seeds of two M. truncatula cultivar Jemalong A17 lines, the Enodll::gus used in experiment 1, and SUNN, a super-nodulating mutant of A17, were germinated on orbit for 11 days in the middeck cabin and returned to Earth alive inside of BRIC-PDFU's at 4 C. S. meliloti strains 1021 and ABS7 were cultivated separately in broth culture on orbit and also returned to Earth alive. After landing, flight- and groundgrown plants and bacteria were transferred from BRIC-PDFU's into Nunc(tm) 4-well plates for reciprocity crosses. Rates of plant growth and nodule development on Buffered Nodulation Medium (lacking nitrogen) were measured for 14 days. Preliminary analysis' of Experiment 1 confirms that

  3. Translating Koch’s Postulates to Identify Matrix Metalloproteinase Roles in Post-Myocardial Infarction Remodeling: The Cardiac Metalloproteinase Actions (CarMA) Postulates

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Rugmani Padmanabhan; de Castro Brás, Lisandra E.; Jin, Yu-Fang; Lindsey, Merry L.

    2014-01-01

    The first matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) was described in 1962; and since the 1990’s, cardiovascular research has focused on understanding how MMPs regulate many aspects of cardiovascular pathology from atherosclerosis formation to myocardial infarction and stroke. While much information has been gleaned by these past reports, to a large degree MMP cardiovascular biology remains observational, with few studies homing in on cause and effect relationships. Koch’s postulates were first developed in the 19th century as a way to establish microorganism function and were modified in the 20th century to include methods to establish molecular causality. In this review, we outline the concept for establishing a similar approach to determine causality in terms of MMP functions. We use left ventricular remodeling post-myocardial infarction as an example, but this approach will have broad applicability across both the cardiovascular and MMP fields. PMID:24577966

  4. Acute deep brain stimulation in the thalamic reticular nucleus protects against acute stress and modulates initial events of adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Magdaleno-Madrigal, Víctor Manuel; Pantoja-Jiménez, Christopher Rodrigo; Bazaldúa, Adrián; Fernández-Mas, Rodrigo; Almazán-Alvarado, Salvador; Bolaños-Alejos, Fernanda; Ortíz-López, Leonardo; Ramírez-Rodriguez, Gerardo Bernabé

    2016-11-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is used as an alternative therapeutic procedure for pharmacoresistant psychiatric disorders. Recently the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) gained attention due to the description of a novel pathway from the amygdala to this nucleus suggesting that may be differentially disrupted in mood disorders. The limbic system is implicated in the regulation of these disorders that are accompanied by neuroplastic changes. The hippocampus is highly plastic and shows the generation of new neurons, process affected by stress but positively regulated by antidepressant drugs. We explored the impact of applying acute DBS to the TRN (DBS-TRN) in male Wistar rats exposed to acute stress caused by the forced-swim Porsolt's test (FST) and on initial events of hippocampal neurogenesis. After the first session of forced-swim, rats were randomly subdivided in a DBS-TRN and a Sham group. Stimulated rats received 10min of DBS, thus the depressant-like behavior reflected as immobility was evaluated in the second session of forced-swim. Locomotricity was evaluated in the open field test. Cell proliferation and doublecortin-associated cells were quantified in the hippocampus of other cohorts of rats. No effects of electrode implantation were found in locomotricity. Acute DBS-TRN reduced immobility in comparison to the Sham group (p<0.001). DBS-TRN increased cell proliferation (Ki67 or BrdU-positive cells; p=0.02, p=0.02) and the number of doublecortin-cells compared to the Sham group (p<0.02). Similar effects were found in rats previously exposed to the first session of forced-swim. Our data could suggest that TRN brain region may be a promising target for DBS to treat intractable depression. PMID:27435420

  5. Events surrounding the initiation of puberty with long term subcutaneous pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone in a female patient with Kallman's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Seibel, M M; Claman, P; Oskowitz, S P; McArdle, C; Weinstein, F G

    1985-09-01

    An 18-yr-old woman with primary amenorrhea, anosmia, and total lack of secondary sexual development was treated for 230 days using sc pulsatile GnRH. GnRH testing with 100 micrograms, sc, initially revealed a peak FSH to LH ratio greater than 1. After 28 days of treatment, this ratio had reversed. A dosage of 20 micrograms/2 h for 200 days resulted in a LH to FSH ratio greater than 2. Widening the interval to 20 micrograms/3 h significantly lowered LH, but not FSH, levels. Increasing the frequency to 20 micrograms/90 min again increased the LH to FSH ratio. Twenty-four-hour testing revealed a sleep-entrained PRL rise both during and after GnRH therapy, but no sleep-entrained rise in LH. Ultrasound monitoring revealed cyclic changes in ovarian diameter at 30- to 60-day intervals that coincided with cyclic increases in LH and estradiol. The uterine fundus doubled in length between days 50 and 110 of treatment. The patient progressed from Tanner pubic hair and breast stage I to stage II during treatment, which was terminated due to an allergic reaction to GnRH. This study provides the first report of hormonal and ultrasound events surrounding puberty induction with GnRH in the female. We conclude widening the interval of GnRH administration can reduce LH levels while maintaining FSH levels, cyclic changes in ovarian diameter, LH, and estradiol occur before menarche, and although pulsatile GnRH provides a fascinating model for the study of puberty in the female, the chronicity of therapy needed and its potential for allergic reaction make this method of inducing puberty suboptimal. PMID:3926811

  6. A test of Hebb's postulate at identified synapses which mediate classical conditioning in Aplysia.

    PubMed

    Carew, T J; Hawkins, R D; Abrams, T W; Kandel, E R

    1984-05-01

    In 1949, D. O. Hebb proposed a novel mechanism for producing changes in the strength of synapses that could account for associative learning. According to Hebb , the strength of a synapse might increase when the use of that synapse contributes to the generation of action potentials in a postsynaptic neuron. Thus, an essential feature of this postulate is that action potentials must occur in both a postsynaptic cell and a presynaptic cell for associative synaptic changes to occur. We have directly tested Hebb 's postulate in Aplysia at identified synapses which are known to exhibit a temporally specific increase in efficacy during a cellular analogue of differential conditioning. We find that the mechanism postulated by Hebb is neither necessary nor sufficient to produce the associative change in synaptic strength that underlies conditioning in Aplysia. In contrast, impulse activity in the presynaptic cell must be paired with facilitatory input, supporting the hypothesis that the temporal specificity of classical conditioning in Aplysia can be accounted for by activity-dependent amplification of presynaptic facilitation. PMID:6726327

  7. The Light-Velocity Postulate: The Essential Difference between the Theories of Lorentz-Poincare and Einstein

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abiko, Seiya

    2005-01-01

    Einstein, who had already developed the light-quantum theory, knew the inadequacy of Maxwell's theory in the microscopic sphere. Therefore, in writing his paper on special relativity, he had to set up the light-velocity postulate independently of the relativity postulate in order to make the electromagnetic foundation of physics compatible with…

  8. Analysis of Radiological Consequences of Postulated Releases from the IEM Cell

    SciTech Connect

    HIMES, D.A.

    2002-11-06

    The Interim Examination and Maintenance (IEM) Cell is located inside the Reactor Containment Building (RCB) at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). The IEM Cell is a shielded, hot-cell complex which houses the remotely operated equipment originally designed for the performance of nondestructive examination of core components and limited maintenance of reactor plant equipment. The cell is currently being used for preparation and packaging of fueled components into Core Component Containers (CCC) for transfer to dry storage. This analysis provides an assessment of radiological consequences onsite and at the site boundary for three bounding postulated accident scenarios.

  9. Analysis of radiation doses from operation of postulated commercial spent fuel transportation systems: Main report

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, K.J.; Hostick, C.J.; Ross, W.A.; Peterson, R.W.; Smith, R.I.; Stiles, D.L.; Daling, P.M.; Weakley, S.A.; Grinde, R.B.; Young, J.R.

    1987-11-01

    This report contains a system study of estimated radiation doses to the public and workers resulting from the transport of spent fuel from commercial nuclear power reactors to a geologic repository. The report contains a detailed breakdown of activities and a description of time/distance/dose-rate estimates for each activity within the system. Collective doses are estimated for each of the major activities at the reactor site, in transit, and at the repository receiving facility. Annual individual doses to the maximally exposed individuals or groups of individuals are also estimated. A total of 17 alternatives and subalternatives to the postulated reference transportation system are identified, conceptualized, and their dose-reduction potentials and costs estimated. Resulting ratios of ..delta..cost/..delta..collective system dose for each alternative relative to the postulated reference transportation system are given. Most of the alternatives evaluated are estimated to provide both cost and dose reductions. Major reductions in transportation system dose and cost are estimated to result from using higher-capacity rail and truck casks, and particularly when replacing legalweight truck casks with ''advanced design'' overweight truck casks. The greatest annual dose reduction to the highest exposed individual workers (i.e., at the repository) is estimated to be achieved by using remote handling equipment for the cask handling operations at the repository. Additional shielding is also effective in reducing doses to both radiation workers at the reactor and repository and to transport workers. 69 refs., 36 figs., 156 tabs.

  10. A Rare Occurrence of Simultaneous Venous and Arterial Thromboembolic Events – Lower Limb Deep Venous Thrombosis and Pulmonary Thromboembolism as Initial Presentation in Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Kutiyal, Aditya S.; Dharmshaktu, Pramila; Kataria, Babita; Garg, Abhilasha

    2016-01-01

    The development of acute myeloid leukemia has been attributed to various factors, including hereditary, radiation, drugs, and certain occupational exposures. The association between malignancy and venous thromboembolism events is well established. Here, we present a case of a 70-year-old Indian man who had presented with arterial and venous thrombosis, and the patient was later diagnosed with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). In our case, the patient presented with right lower limb deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary thromboembolism four months prior to the diagnosis of APL. Although thromboembolic event subsequent to the diagnosis of malignancy, and especially during the chemotherapy has been widely reported, this prior presentation with simultaneous occurrence of both venous and arterial thromboembolism has rarely been reported. We take this opportunity to state the significance of a complete medical evaluation in cases of recurrent or unusual thrombotic events. PMID:26949347

  11. Events during eucaryotic rRNA transcription initiation and elongation: Conversion from the closed to the open promoter complex requires nucleotide substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Bateman, E.; Paule, M.R.

    1988-05-01

    Chemical footprinting and topological analysis were carried out on the Acanthamoeba castellanii rRNA transcription initiation factor (TIF) and RNA polymerase I complexes with DNA during transcription initiation and elongation. The results show that the binding of TIF and polymerase to the promoter does not alter the supercoiling of the DNA template and the template does not become sensitive to modification by diethylpyro-carbonate, which can identify melted DNA regions. Thus, in contrast to bacterial RNA polymerase, the eucaryotic RNA polymerase I-promoter complex is in a closed configuration preceding addition of nucleotides in vitro. Initiation and 3'-O-methyl CTP-limited translocation by RNA polymerase I results in separation of the polymerase-TIF footprints, leaving the TIF footprint unaltered. In contrast, initiation and translocation result in a significant change in the conformation of the polymerase-DNA complex, culminating in an unwound DNA region of at least 10 base pairs.

  12. Fritz Zwicky's Postulate of Freedom from Prejudice Considered from the Standpoint of the Theory of Knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, Markus

    What can we say about unprejudiced thinking as postulated by Ritz Zwicky? Freedom from prejudice in opposition to stamped by theory. How does knowledge come about? Through sense perception and thought. The phenomenon is always mediated by organs, respectively by technical instruments. Which conclusion can we draw from this fact? Is the organ of knowledge by which we know nature a part of nature? Can the dialectic materialism explain the processes of human consciousness? What is the fundamental difference between think and perceive? Has human consciousness only a share in nature or also in the spiritual world? The role of the observer in the Copenhagen interpretation. Is the quantum theory applicable to psychic phenomena?

  13. OVERVIEW OF MODULAR HTGR SAFETY CHARACTERIZATION AND POSTULATED ACCIDENT BEHAVIOR LICENSING STRATEGY

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, Sydney J

    2014-06-01

    This report provides an update on modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) accident analyses and risk assessments. One objective of this report is to improve the characterization of the safety case to better meet current regulatory practice, which is commonly geared to address features of today s light water reactors (LWRs). The approach makes use of surrogates for accident prevention and mitigation to make comparisons with LWRs. The safety related design features of modular HTGRs are described, along with the means for rigorously characterizing accident selection and progression methodologies. Approaches commonly used in the United States and elsewhere are described, along with detailed descriptions and comments on design basis (and beyond) postulated accident sequences.

  14. Estimation of Downstream Cesium Concentrations Following a Postulated PAR Pond Dam Break

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, K.F.

    2002-07-08

    Following a postulated PAR Pond dam break, some of the PAR Pond sediment including the cesium could be eroded and be transported downstream to the Savannah River through the Lower Three Runs Creek. Studies showed that most of the eroded sediment including the cesium would deposit in the Lower Three Runs Creek and the remainder would discharge to the Savannah River from the mouth of Lower Three Runs Creek. A WASP5 model was developed to simulate the eroded sediment and cesium transport from the Lower Three Runs Creek mouth to the Atlantic coast. The dissolved cesium concentrations at the Highway 301 bridge and near the City of Savannah Industrial and Domestic Water Supply Plant are 30 and 27 pCi/l, respectively. The concentrations at both locations are less than the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking water standard of 200 pCi/l.

  15. Fission product transport and behavior during two postulated loss of flow transients in the air

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, J.P.; Carboneau, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    This document discusses fission product behavior during two postulated loss-of-flow accidents (leading to high- and low-pressure core degradation, respectively) in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). These transients are designated ATR Transient LCPI5 (high-pressure) and LPP9 (low-pressure). Normally, transients of this nature would be easily mitigated using existing safety systems and procedures. In these analyses, failure of these safety systems was assumed so that core degradation and fission product release could be analyzed. A probabilistic risk assessment indicated that the probability of occurrence for these two transients is of the order of 10{sup {minus}5 }and 10{sup {minus}7} per reactor year for LCP15 and LPP9, respectively.

  16. Fission product transport and behavior during two postulated loss of flow transients in the air

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, J.P.; Carboneau, M.L.

    1991-12-31

    This document discusses fission product behavior during two postulated loss-of-flow accidents (leading to high- and low-pressure core degradation, respectively) in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). These transients are designated ATR Transient LCPI5 (high-pressure) and LPP9 (low-pressure). Normally, transients of this nature would be easily mitigated using existing safety systems and procedures. In these analyses, failure of these safety systems was assumed so that core degradation and fission product release could be analyzed. A probabilistic risk assessment indicated that the probability of occurrence for these two transients is of the order of 10{sup {minus}5 }and 10{sup {minus}7} per reactor year for LCP15 and LPP9, respectively.

  17. Existence of an information unit as a postulate of quantum theory

    PubMed Central

    Masanes, Lluís; Müller, Markus P.; Augusiak, Remigiusz; Pérez-García, David

    2013-01-01

    Does information play a significant role in the foundations of physics? Information is the abstraction that allows us to refer to the states of systems when we choose to ignore the systems themselves. This is only possible in very particular frameworks, like in classical or quantum theory, or more generally, whenever there exists an information unit such that the state of any system can be reversibly encoded in a sufficient number of such units. In this work, we show how the abstract formalism of quantum theory can be deduced solely from the existence of an information unit with suitable properties, together with two further natural assumptions: the continuity and reversibility of dynamics, and the possibility of characterizing the state of a composite system by local measurements. This constitutes a set of postulates for quantum theory with a simple and direct physical meaning, like the ones of special relativity or thermodynamics, and it articulates a strong connection between physics and information. PMID:24062431

  18. Existence of an information unit as a postulate of quantum theory.

    PubMed

    Masanes, Lluís; Müller, Markus P; Augusiak, Remigiusz; Pérez-García, David

    2013-10-01

    Does information play a significant role in the foundations of physics? Information is the abstraction that allows us to refer to the states of systems when we choose to ignore the systems themselves. This is only possible in very particular frameworks, like in classical or quantum theory, or more generally, whenever there exists an information unit such that the state of any system can be reversibly encoded in a sufficient number of such units. In this work, we show how the abstract formalism of quantum theory can be deduced solely from the existence of an information unit with suitable properties, together with two further natural assumptions: the continuity and reversibility of dynamics, and the possibility of characterizing the state of a composite system by local measurements. This constitutes a set of postulates for quantum theory with a simple and direct physical meaning, like the ones of special relativity or thermodynamics, and it articulates a strong connection between physics and information. PMID:24062431

  19. The initial errors that induce a significant "spring predictability barrier" for El Niño events and their implications for target observation: results from an earth system model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Wansuo; Hu, Junya

    2015-08-01

    The National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Earth System Model is used to study the "spring predictability barrier" (SPB) problem for El Niño events from the perspective of initial error growth. By conducting perfect model predictability experiments, we obtain two types of initial sea temperature errors, which often exhibit obvious season-dependent evolution and cause a significant SPB when predicting the onset of El Niño events bestriding spring. One type of initial errors possesses a sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) pattern with negative anomalies in the central-eastern equatorial Pacific, plus a basin-wide dipolar subsurface temperature anomaly pattern with negative anomalies in the upper layers of the eastern equatorial Pacific and positive anomalies in the lower layers of the western equatorial Pacific. The other type consists of an SSTA component with positive anomalies over the southeastern equatorial Pacific, plus a large-scale zonal dipole pattern of the subsurface temperature anomaly with positive anomalies in the upper layers of the eastern equatorial Pacific and negative anomalies in the lower layers of the central-western equatorial Pacific. Both exhibit a La Niña-like evolving mode and cause an under-prediction for Niño-3 SSTA of El Niño events. For the former initial error type, the resultant prediction errors grow in a manner similar to the behavior of the growth phase of La Niña; while for the latter initial error type, they experience a process that is similar to El Niño decay and transition to a La Niña growth phase. Both two types of initial errors cause negative prediction errors of Niño-3 SSTA for El Niño events. The prediction errors for Niño-3 SSTA are mainly due to the contribution of initial sea temperature errors in the large-error-related regions in the upper layers of the eastern tropical Pacific and/or in the lower layers of the western tropical Pacific. These regions may represent ``sensitive areas'' for El

  20. The initial errors that induce a significant "spring predictability barrier" for El Niño events and their implications for target observation: results from an earth system model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Wansuo; Hu, Junya

    2016-06-01

    The National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Earth System Model is used to study the "spring predictability barrier" (SPB) problem for El Niño events from the perspective of initial error growth. By conducting perfect model predictability experiments, we obtain two types of initial sea temperature errors, which often exhibit obvious season-dependent evolution and cause a significant SPB when predicting the onset of El Niño events bestriding spring. One type of initial errors possesses a sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) pattern with negative anomalies in the central-eastern equatorial Pacific, plus a basin-wide dipolar subsurface temperature anomaly pattern with negative anomalies in the upper layers of the eastern equatorial Pacific and positive anomalies in the lower layers of the western equatorial Pacific. The other type consists of an SSTA component with positive anomalies over the southeastern equatorial Pacific, plus a large-scale zonal dipole pattern of the subsurface temperature anomaly with positive anomalies in the upper layers of the eastern equatorial Pacific and negative anomalies in the lower layers of the central-western equatorial Pacific. Both exhibit a La Niña-like evolving mode and cause an under-prediction for Niño-3 SSTA of El Niño events. For the former initial error type, the resultant prediction errors grow in a manner similar to the behavior of the growth phase of La Niña; while for the latter initial error type, they experience a process that is similar to El Niño decay and transition to a La Niña growth phase. Both two types of initial errors cause negative prediction errors of Niño-3 SSTA for El Niño events. The prediction errors for Niño-3 SSTA are mainly due to the contribution of initial sea temperature errors in the large-error-related regions in the upper layers of the eastern tropical Pacific and/or in the lower layers of the western tropical Pacific. These regions may represent ``sensitive areas'' for El

  1. The initial errors that induce a significant "spring predictability barrier" for El Niño events and their implications for target observation: results from an earth system model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Junya; Duan, Wansuo

    2016-04-01

    The National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Earth System Model (CESM) is used to study the "spring predictability barrier" (SPB) problem for El Niño events from the perspective of initial error growth. By conducting perfect model predictability experiments, we obtain two types of initial sea temperature errors, which often exhibit obvious season-dependent evolution and cause a significant SPB when predicting the onset of El Niño events bestriding spring. One type of initial errors possesses a sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) pattern with negative anomalies in the central-eastern equatorial Pacific, plus a basin-wide dipolar subsurface temperature anomaly pattern with negative anomalies in the upper layers of the eastern equatorial Pacific and positive anomalies in the lower layers of the western equatorial Pacific. The other type consists of an SSTA component with positive anomalies over the southeastern equatorial Pacific, plus a large-scale zonal dipole pattern of the subsurface temperature anomaly with positive anomalies in the upper layers of the eastern equatorial Pacific and negative anomalies in the lower layers of the central-western equatorial Pacific. Both exhibit a La Niña-like evolving mode and cause an under-prediction for Niño-3 SSTA of El Niño events. For the former initial error type, the resultant prediction errors grow in a manner similar to the behavior of the growth phase of La Niña; while for the latter initial error type, they experience a process that is similar to El Niño decay and transition to a La Niña growth phase. Both two types of initial errors cause negative prediction errors of Niño-3 SSTA for El Niño events. The prediction errors for Niño-3 SSTA are mainly due to the contribution of initial sea temperature errors in the large-error-related regions in the upper layers of the eastern tropical Pacific and/or in the lower layers of the western tropical Pacific. These regions may represent ''sensitive

  2. Damage initiation and propagation assessed from stress-induced microseismic events during a mine-by test in the Opalinus Clay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Gonidec, Y.; Sarout, J.; Wassermann, J.; Nussbaum, C.

    2014-07-01

    We report in this paper an original analysis of microseismic events (MSEs) induced by an excavation operation in the clay environment of the Mont Terri underground rock laboratory. In order to identify the MSEs with confidence, we develop a restrictive but efficient multistep method for filtering the recorded events. We deduce the spatial distribution and processes associated with the excavation-induced damage from the spatial location and focal mechanisms of the MSEs. We observe an asymmetric geometry of the excavation damaged zone around the excavated gallery, without notable microseismic activity in the sandy facies sidewall, in contrast with the shaly facies sidewall where a first burst of events is recorded, followed by two smaller bursts: one locates ahead of the excavation front and is associated with a dominant double-couple component, suggesting bedding plane reworking, that is, shear fracture mode, and the MSEs of the other cluster inside the shaly sidewall of the gallery, with a dominant compensated linear vector dipole component, suggesting extensive cracking. We identify and discuss four major factors that seem to control the MSEs source mechanisms: lithology, geometry of the geological features, gallery orientation and direction of the main compressive stress.

  3. Comparative Proteomic and Biochemical Analyses Reveal Different Molecular Events Occurring in the Process of Fiber Initiation between Wild-Type Allotetraploid Cotton and Its Fuzzless-Lintless Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Yuan; Zhang, Bing; Dong, Chun-Juan; Du, Ying; Jiang, Lin; Liu, Jin-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    To explore lint fiber initiation-related proteins in allotetraploid cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), a comparative proteomic analysis was performed between wild-type cotton (Xu-142) and its fuzzless-lintless mutant (Xu-142-fl) at five developmental time points for lint fiber initiation from -3 to +3 days post-anthesis (dpa). Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) combined with mass spectrometry (MS) analyses, 91 differentially accumulated protein (DAP) species that are related to fiber initiation were successfully identified, of which 58 preferentially accumulated in the wild-type and 33 species in the fl mutant. These DAPs are involved in various cellular and metabolic processes, mainly including important energy/carbohydrate metabolism, redox homeostasis, amino acid and fatty acid biosynthesis, protein quality control, cytoskeleton dynamics, and anthocyanidin metabolism. Further physiological and biochemical experiments revealed dynamic changes in the carbohydrate flux and H2O2 levels in the cotton fiber initiation process. Compared with those in the fl mutant, the contents of glucose and fructose in wild-type ovules sharply increased after anthesis with a relatively higher rate of amino acid biosynthesis. The relative sugar starvation and lower rate of amino acid biosynthesis in the fl mutant ovules may impede the carbohydrate/energy supply and cell wall synthesis, which is consistent with the proteomic results. However, the H2O2 burst was only observed in the wild-type ovules on the day of anthesis. Cotton boll injection experiments in combination with electron microscope observation collectively indicated that H2O2 burst, which is negatively regulated by ascorbate peroxidases (APx), plays an important role in the fiber initiation process. Taken together, our study demonstrates a putative network of DAP species related to fiber initiation in cotton ovules and provides a foundation for future studies on the specific functions of these proteins in fiber

  4. Closed-system postulates for predicting waste-package performance in a geological repository

    SciTech Connect

    Pigford, T.H.; Chambre, P.L.

    1986-03-01

    In a recent paper we reviewed the need for reliable theory and experiment in making long-term predictions of waste performance in a geologic repository. We discussed uncertainties in postulated techniques of applying closed-system laboratory leach data to predicting the dissolution of waste solids in a geologic repository, and we discussed the use of mass-transfer analysis to unify theory and experiment and to provide a clear theoretical basis for long-term prediction. Comments on our recent paper by Drs. P.B. Macedo and C.J. Montrose provide a welcome opportunity to clarify several issues related to predicting waste performance. Their comments help illustrate the need for reliable and sound theories for predicting waste performance in the long-term future, and they help focus the fundamental differences between waste dissolution in laboratory leach experiments and dissolution in a repository. To aid better understanding and resolution of the differences between mass transfer in the closed systems considered by Macedo et al. and others and mass transfer in the open systems of waste repositories considered in our mass transfer analysis, we comment here in some detail.

  5. Analysis of pressurization of plutonium oxide storage vials during a postulated fire

    SciTech Connect

    Laurinat, J.; Kesterson, M.; Hensel, S.

    2015-02-10

    The documented safety analysis for the Savannah River Site evaluates the consequences of a postulated 1000 °C fire in a glovebox. The radiological dose consequences for a pressurized release of plutonium oxide powder during such a fire depend on the maximum pressure that is attained inside the oxide storage vial. To enable evaluation of the dose consequences, pressure transients and venting flow rates have been calculated for exposure of the storage vial to the fire. A standard B vial with a capacity of approximately 8 cc was selected for analysis. The analysis compares the pressurization rate from heating and evaporation of moisture adsorbed onto the plutonium oxide contents of the vial with the pressure loss due to venting of gas through the threaded connection between the vial cap and body. Tabulated results from the analysis include maximum pressures, maximum venting velocities, and cumulative vial volumes vented during the first 10 minutes of the fire transient. Results are obtained for various amounts of oxide in the vial, various amounts of adsorbed moisture, different vial orientations, and different surface fire exposures.

  6. The unique Leishmania EIF4E4 N-terminus is a target for multiple phosphorylation events and participates in critical interactions required for translation initiation.

    PubMed

    de Melo Neto, Osvaldo P; da Costa Lima, Tamara D C; Xavier, Camila C; Nascimento, Larissa M; Romão, Tatiany P; Assis, Ludmila A; Pereira, Mariana M C; Reis, Christian R S; Papadopoulou, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) recognizes the mRNA cap structure and, together with eIF4G and eIF4A, form the eIF4F complex that regulates translation initiation in eukaryotes. In trypanosomatids, 2 eIF4E homologues (EIF4E3 and EIF4E4) have been shown to be part of eIF4F-like complexes with presumed roles in translation initiation. Both proteins possess unique N-terminal extensions, which can be targeted for phosphorylation. Here, we provide novel insights on the Leishmania infantum EIF4E4 function and regulation. We show that EIF4E4 is constitutively expressed throughout the parasite development but is preferentially phosphorylated in exponentially grown promastigote and amastigote life stages, hence correlating with high levels of translation. Phosphorylation targets multiple serine-proline or threonine-proline residues within the N-terminal extension of EIF4E4 but does not require binding to the EIF4E4's partner, EIF4G3, or to the cap structure. We also report that EIF4E4 interacts with PABP1 through 3 conserved boxes at the EIF4E4 N-terminus and that this interaction is a prerequisite for efficient EIF4E4 phosphorylation. EIF4E4 is essential for Leishmania growth and an EIF4E4 null mutant was only obtained in the presence of an ectopically provided wild type gene. Complementation for the loss of EIF4E4 with several EIF4E4 mutant proteins affecting either phosphorylation or binding to mRNA or to EIF4E4 protein partners revealed that, in contrast to other eukaryotes, only the EIF4E4-PABP1 interaction but neither the binding to EIF4G3 nor phosphorylation is essential for translation. These studies also demonstrated that the lack of both EIF4E4 phosphorylation and EIF4G3 binding leads to a non-functional protein. Altogether, these findings further highlight the unique features of the translation initiation process in trypanosomatid protozoa. PMID:26338184

  7. Temporal sequence of events during the initiation process in Escherichia coli deoxyribonucleic acid replication: roles of the dnaA and dnaC gene products and ribonucleic acid polymerase.

    PubMed Central

    Zyskind, J W; Deen, L T; Smith, D W

    1977-01-01

    Three thermosensitive deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) initiation mutants of Escherichia coli exposed to the restrictive temperature for one to two generations were examined for the ability to reinitiate DNA replication after returning to the permissive temperature in the presence of rifampin, chloramphenicol, or nalidixic acid. Reinitiation in the dnaA mutant was inhibited by rifampin but not by chloramphenicol, whereas renitiation was not inhibited by rifampin but not by chloramphenicol, whereas reinitiation was not inhibited in two dnaC mutants by either rifampin or chloramphenicol. To observe the rifampin inhibition, the antibiotic must be added at least 10 min before return to the permissive temperature. The rifampin inhibition of reinitiation was not observed when a rifampin-resistant ribonucleic acid ((RNA) polymerase gene was introduced into the dnaA mutant, demonstrating that RNA polymerase synthesizes one or more RNA species required for the initation of DNA replication (origin-RNA). Reinitiation at 30 degrees C was not inhibited by streptolydigin in a stretolydigin-sensitive dnaA muntant. Incubation in the presence of nalidixic acid prevented subsequent reinitiation in the dnaC28 mutant but did not inhibit reinitiation in the dnaA5 muntant. These results demonstrate that the dnaA gene product acts before or during the synthesis of an origin-RNA, RNA polymerase synthesizes this origin RNA, and the dnaC gene product is involved in a step after this RNA synthesis event. Furthermore, these results suggest that the dnaC gene product is involved in the first deoxyribounucleotide polymerization event wheareas the dnaA gene product acts prior to this event. A model is presented describing the temporal sequence of events that occur during initiation of a round of DNA replication, based on results in this and the accompanying paper. PMID:321429

  8. Age influences initial dose and compliance to imatinib in chronic myeloid leukemia elderly patients but concomitant comorbidities appear to influence overall and event-free survival.

    PubMed

    Breccia, Massimo; Luciano, Luigiana; Latagliata, Roberto; Castagnetti, Fausto; Ferrero, Dario; Cavazzini, Francesco; Trawinska, Malgorzata Monica; Annunziata, Mario; Stagno, Fabio; Tiribelli, Mario; Binotto, Gianni; Crisà, Elena; Musto, Pellegrino; Gozzini, Antonella; Cavalli, Laura; Montefusco, Enrico; Iurlo, Alessandra; Russo, Sabina; Cedrone, Michele; Rossi, Antonella Russo; Pregno, Patrizia; Endri, Mauro; Spadea, Antonio; Molica, Matteo; Giglio, Gianfranco; Celesti, Francesca; Sorà, Federica; Storti, Sergio; D'Addosio, Ada; Cambrin, Giovanna Rege; Isidori, Alessandro; Sica, Simona; Abruzzese, Elisabetta; Speccha, Giorgina; Rosti, Gianantonio; Alimena, Giuliana

    2014-10-01

    We applied Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) stratification on a large cohort of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) very elderly patients (>75 years) treated with imatinib, in order to observe the impact of concomitant diseases on both compliance and outcome. One hundred and eighty-one patients were recruited by 21 Italian centers. There were 95 males and 86 females, median age 78.6 years (range 75-93.6). According to Sokal score, 106 patients were classified as intermediate risk and 55 as high risk (not available in 20 patients). According to CCI stratification, 71 patients had score 0 and 110 a score ≥ 1. Imatinib standard dose was reduced at start of therapy (200-300 mg/day) in 68 patients independently from the evaluation of baseline comorbidities, but based only on physician judgement: 43.6% of these patients had score 0 compared to 34% of patients who had score ≥ 1. Significant differences were found in terms of subsequent dose reduction (39% of patients with score 0 compared to 53% of patients with score ≥ 1) and in terms of drug discontinuation due to toxicity (35% of patients with score 0 vs 65% of patients with score ≥ 1). We did not find significant differences as regards occurrence of hematologic side effects, probably as a consequence of the initial dose reduction: 39% of patients with score 0 experienced grade 3/4 hematologic toxicity (most commonly anemia) compared to 42% of patients with score ≥ 1. Independently from the initial dose, comorbidities again did not have an impact on development of grade 3/4 non-hematologic side effects (most commonly skin rash, muscle cramps and fluid retention): 62% of patients with score 0 compared to 52.5% of patients with score ≥ 1. Notwithstanding the reduced dose and the weight of comorbidities we did not find significant differences but only a trend in terms of efficacy: 66% of patients with score 0 achieved a CCyR compared to 54% of patients with score ≥ 1. Comorbidities appeared to have an impact on

  9. A Solution NMR Investigation into the Early Events of Amelogenin Nanosphere Self-Assembly Initiated with Sodium Chloride or Calcium Chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Buchko, Garry W.; Tarasevich, Barbara J.; Bekhazi, Jacky G.; Snead, Malcolm L.; Shaw, Wendy J.

    2008-12-08

    Using solution-state NMR spectroscopy, new insights into the early intermolecular interactions stabilizing amelogenin supramolecular assembly and the potential role of calcium ions have been discovered. Two-dimensional 1H-15N spectra were recorded for 15N-labeled amelogenin as a function of increasing Ca2+ concentration starting from monomeric conditions. Evidence for protein-protein interactions were observed between residues E18 and E40 in the N-terminus. At higher Ca2+ concentrations there was concurrent involvement of residues in both the N- (Y12-Q56) and the C-terminus (Q144-T171). Neither specific residues nor their stepwise interaction have previously been identified in the initial stages of nanosphere assembly.

  10. Dynamical response of multi-patch, flux-based models to the input of infected people: Epidemic response to initiated events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rho, Young-Ah; Liebovitch, Larry S.; Schwartz, Ira B.

    2008-07-01

    The time course of an epidemic can be modeled using the differential equations that describe the spread of disease and by dividing people into “patches” of different sizes with the migration of people between these patches. We used these multi-patch, flux-based models to determine how the time course of infected and susceptible populations depends on the disease parameters, the geometry of the migrations between the patches, and the addition of infected people into a patch. We found that there are significantly longer lived transients and additional “ancillary” epidemics when the reproductive rate R is closer to 1, as would be typical of SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) and bird flu, than when R is closer to 10, as would be typical of measles. In addition we show, both analytical and numerical, how the time delay between the injection of infected people into a patch and the corresponding initial epidemic that it produces depends on R.

  11. miR-21 Might be Involved in Breast Cancer Promotion and Invasion Rather than in Initial Events of Breast Cancer Development.

    PubMed

    Petrović, Nina

    2016-04-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is a heterogeneous disease that develops into a large number of varied phenotypes. One of the features used in its classification and therapy selection is invasiveness. MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) is considered to be an important element of BC invasiveness, and miR-21 levels are frequently increased in different tumor types compared with normal tissue, including the breast. Experimental and literature research has highlighted that miR-21 was always significantly elevated in every study that included invasive breast carcinomas compared with healthy breast tissue. The main goal of this research was to specify the predominant role of miR-21 in the different phases of BC pathogenesis, i.e. whether it was involved in the early (initiation), later (promotion), or late (propagation, progression) phases. Our second goal was to explain the roles of miR-21 targets in BC by an in silico approach and literature review, and to associate the importance of miR-21 with particular phases of BC pathogenesis through the action of its target genes. Analysis has shown that changes in miR-21 levels might be important for the later and/or late phases of breast cancerogenesis rather than for the initial early phases. Targets of miR-21 (TIMP3, PDCD4, PTEN, TPM1 and RECK) are also primarily involved in BC promotion and progression, especially invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis. miR-21 expression levels could perhaps be used in conjunction with the standard diagnostic parameters as an indicator of BC presence, and to indicate a phenotype likely to show early invasion/metastasis detection and poor prognosis. PMID:26891730

  12. Assessment of potential doses to workers during postulated accident conditions at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hoover, M.D.; Farrell, R.F.; Newton, G.J.

    1995-12-01

    The recent 1995 WIPP Safety Analysis Report (SAR) Update provided detailed analyses of potential radiation doses to members of the public at the site boundary during postulated accident scenarios at the U.S. Department of Energy`s Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The SAR Update addressed the complete spectrum of potential accidents associated with handling and emplacing transuranic waste at WIPP, including damage to waste drums from fires, punctures, drops, and other disruptions. The report focused on the adequacy of the multiple layers of safety practice ({open_quotes}defense-in-depth{close_quotes}) at WIPP, which are designed to (1) reduce the likelihood of accidents and (2) limit the consequences of those accidents. The safeguards which contribute to defense-in-depth at WIPP include a substantial array of inherent design features, engineered controls, and administrative procedures. The SAR Update confirmed that the defense-in-depth at WIPP is adequate to assure the protection of the public and environment. As a supplement to the 1995 SAR Update, we have conducted additional analyses to confirm that these controls will also provide adequate protection to workers at the WIPP. The approaches and results of the worker dose assessment are summarized here. In conformance with the guidance of DOE Standard 3009-94, we emphasize that use of these evaluation guidelines is not intended to imply that these numbers constitute acceptable limits for worker exposures under accident conditions. However, in conjunction with the extensive safety assessment in the 1995 SAR Update, these results indicate that the Carlsbad Area Office strategy for the assessment of hazards and accidents assures the protection of workers, members of the public, and the environment.

  13. Consequences of tritium release to water pathways from postulated accidents in a DOE production reactor

    SciTech Connect

    O`Kula, K.R.; Olson, R.L.; Hamby, D.M.

    1991-12-31

    A full-scale PRA of a DOE production reactor has been completed that considers full release of tritium as part of the severe accident source term. Two classes of postulated reactor accidents, a loss-of-moderator pumping accident and a loss-of-coolant accident, are used to bound the expected dose consequence from liquid pathway release. Population doses from the radiological release associated with the two accidents are compared for aqueous discharge and atmospheric release modes. The expectation values of the distribution of possible values for the societal effective dose equivalent to the general public, given a tritium release to the atmosphere, is 2.8 person-Sv/PBq (9.9 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} person-rem/Ci). The general public drinking water dose to downstream water consumers is 6.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}2} person-Sv/Pbq (2.4 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} person-rem/Ci) for aqueous releases to the surface streams eventually reaching the Savannah River. Negligible doses are calculated for freshwater fish and saltwater invertebrate consumption, irrigation, and recreational use of the river, given that an aqueous release is assumed to occur. Relative to the balance of fission products released in a hypothetical severe accident, the tritium-related dose is small. This study suggests that application of regional models (1610 km radius) will indicate larger dose consequences from short-term tritium release to the atmosphere than from comparable tritium source terms to water pathways. However, the water pathways assessment is clearly site-specific, and the overall aqueous dose will be dependent on downstream receptor populations and uses of the river.

  14. Consequences of tritium release to water pathways from postulated accidents in a DOE production reactor

    SciTech Connect

    O'Kula, K.R.; Olson, R.L.; Hamby, D.M.

    1991-01-01

    A full-scale PRA of a DOE production reactor has been completed that considers full release of tritium as part of the severe accident source term. Two classes of postulated reactor accidents, a loss-of-moderator pumping accident and a loss-of-coolant accident, are used to bound the expected dose consequence from liquid pathway release. Population doses from the radiological release associated with the two accidents are compared for aqueous discharge and atmospheric release modes. The expectation values of the distribution of possible values for the societal effective dose equivalent to the general public, given a tritium release to the atmosphere, is 2.8 person-Sv/PBq (9.9 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} person-rem/Ci). The general public drinking water dose to downstream water consumers is 6.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}2} person-Sv/Pbq (2.4 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} person-rem/Ci) for aqueous releases to the surface streams eventually reaching the Savannah River. Negligible doses are calculated for freshwater fish and saltwater invertebrate consumption, irrigation, and recreational use of the river, given that an aqueous release is assumed to occur. Relative to the balance of fission products released in a hypothetical severe accident, the tritium-related dose is small. This study suggests that application of regional models (1610 km radius) will indicate larger dose consequences from short-term tritium release to the atmosphere than from comparable tritium source terms to water pathways. However, the water pathways assessment is clearly site-specific, and the overall aqueous dose will be dependent on downstream receptor populations and uses of the river.

  15. Implications of dairy systems on enteric methane and postulated effects on total greenhouse gas emission.

    PubMed

    Fredeen, A; Juurlink, S; Main, M; Astatkie, T; Martin, R C

    2013-11-01

    The effects of feeding total mixed ration (TMR) or pasture forage from a perennial sward under a management intensive grazing (MIG) regimen on grain intake and enteric methane (EM) emission were measured using chambers. Chamber measurement of EM was compared with that of SF6 employed both within chamber and when cows grazed in the field. The impacts of the diet on farm gate greenhouse gas (GHG) emission were also postulated using the results of existing life cycle assessments. Emission of EM was measured in gas collection chambers in Spring and Fall. In Spring, pasture forage fiber quality was higher than that of the silage used in the TMR (47.5% v. 56.3% NDF; 24.3% v. 37.9% ADF). Higher forage quality from MIG subsequently resulted in 25% less grain use relative to TMR (0.24 v. 0.32 kg dry matter/kg milk) for MIG compared with TMR. The Fall forage fiber quality was still better, but the higher quality of MIG pasture was not as pronounced as that in Spring. Neither yield of fat-corrected milk (FCM) which averaged 28.3 kg/day, nor EM emission which averaged 18.9 g/kg dry matter intake (DMI) were significantly affected by diet in Spring. However, in the Fall, FCM from MIG (21.3 kg/day) was significantly lower than that from TMR (23.4 kg/day). Despite the differences in FCM yield, in terms of EM emission that averaged 21.9 g/kg DMI was not significantly different between the diets. In this study, grain requirement, but not EM, was a distinguishing feature of pasture and confinement systems. Considering the increased predicted GHG emissions arising from the production and use of grain needed to boost milk yield in confinement systems, EM intensity alone is a poor predictor of the potential impact of a dairy system on climate forcing. PMID:23896042

  16. Numerical simulation of an initial tsunami waveform based on sea-level data inversion: case study for the Shicotan event of the 4th October 1994

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voronina, T.

    2012-04-01

    The recent disaster of Japanese tsunami in March 2011, which caused nearly 16,000 deaths and estimated at US35-billion to US40-billion the insured cost, served as a last wake-up call to world community. Since then, the development of technology of an early warning system including methods for forecasting in real-time the tsunami waves propagation has provided a way to mitigate the adverse impacts of future tsunamis. The development of tsunami simulation models makes it possible to identify regions at tsunami risk. One of the most important issues of the tsunami modeling is gaining some insight of a tsunami source - the case in hand is the tsunami wave generated by the sea surface deformation. The latter is presumed to be equal to the co-seismic vertical displacement of the sea floor. This paper proposes an approach to recover initial tsunami waveform in tsunami source area based on the inversion of remote measurements of sea-level data. This inverse problem is treated as an ill-posed problem of hydrodynamic inversion with tsunami tide gauge records. Tsunami wave propagation is considered within the scope of the linear shallow-water theory. The direct problem is approximated by a finite-difference technique. The ill-posed inverse problem of recovering initial tsunami waveform is regularized by means of a least square inversion using the truncated SVD approach. The numerical simulating yields the so-called r-solution. The algorithm is verified with bathymetry data of the Sea of Okhotsk, synthetic and real records. In this paper, we make an attempt to answer the following questions: (1) How accurately can a tsunami source be recovered using recordings at a given tide gauge network? (2) Is it possible to improve the quality of recovering a tsunami source by distinguishing the "most informative" part of the given observation system? For answering these questions, we have carried out a series of numerical experiments. Based on the characteristics of a given tide gauges

  17. Measurements of e+e-→K+K-η, K+K-π0, and Ks0K±π∓ cross sections using initial state radiation events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubert, B.; Bona, M.; Boutigny, D.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Prudent, X.; Tisserand, V.; Zghiche, A.; Tico, J. Garra; Grauges, E.; Lopez, L.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; Abrams, G. S.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D. N.; Button-Shafer, J.; Cahn, R. N.; Groysman, Y.; Jacobsen, R. G.; Kadyk, J. A.; Kerth, L. T.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Kukartsev, G.; Lopes Pegna, D.; Lynch, G.; Mir, L. M.; Orimoto, T. J.; Osipenkov, I. L.; Ronan, M. T.; Tackmann, K.; Tanabe, T.; Wenzel, W. A.; Del Amo Sanchez, P.; Hawkes, C. M.; Watson, A. T.; Koch, H.; Schroeder, T.; Walker, D.; Asgeirsson, D. J.; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T.; Fulsom, B. G.; Hearty, C.; Mattison, T. S.; McKenna, J. A.; Barrett, M.; Khan, A.; Saleem, M.; Teodorescu, L.; Blinov, V. E.; Bukin, A. D.; Druzhinin, V. P.; Golubev, V. B.; Onuchin, A. P.; Serednyakov, S. I.; Skovpen, Yu. I.; Solodov, E. P.; Todyshev, K. Yu.; Bondioli, M.; Curry, S.; Eschrich, I.; Kirkby, D.; Lankford, A. J.; Lund, P.; Mandelkern, M.; Martin, E. C.; Stoker, D. P.; Abachi, S.; Buchanan, C.; Gary, J. W.; Liu, F.; Long, O.; Shen, B. C.; Vitug, G. M.; Zhang, L.; Paar, H. P.; Rahatlou, S.; Sharma, V.; Berryhill, J. W.; Campagnari, C.; Cunha, A.; Dahmes, B.; Hong, T. M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Richman, J. D.; Beck, T. W.; Eisner, A. M.; Flacco, C. J.; Heusch, C. A.; Kroseberg, J.; Lockman, W. S.; Schalk, T.; Schumm, B. A.; Seiden, A.; Wilson, M. G.; Winstrom, L. O.; Chen, E.; Cheng, C. H.; Fang, F.; Hitlin, D. G.; Narsky, I.; Piatenko, T.; Porter, F. C.; Andreassen, R.; Mancinelli, G.; Meadows, B. T.; Mishra, K.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Blanc, F.; Bloom, P. C.; Chen, S.; Ford, W. T.; Hirschauer, J. F.; Kreisel, A.; Nagel, M.; Nauenberg, U.; Olivas, A.; Smith, J. G.; Ulmer, K. A.; Wagner, S. R.; Zhang, J.; Gabareen, A. M.; Soffer, A.; Toki, W. H.; Wilson, R. J.; Winklmeier, F.; Altenburg, D. D.; Feltresi, E.; Hauke, A.; Jasper, H.; Merkel, J.; Petzold, A.; Spaan, B.; Wacker, K.; Klose, V.; Kobel, M. J.; Lacker, H. M.; Mader, W. F.; Nogowski, R.; Schubert, J.; Schubert, K. R.; Schwierz, R.; Sundermann, J. E.; Volk, A.; Bernard, D.; Bonneaud, G. R.; Latour, E.; Lombardo, V.; Thiebaux, Ch.; Verderi, M.; Clark, P. J.; Gradl, W.; Muheim, F.; Playfer, S.; Robertson, A. I.; Watson, J. E.; Xie, Y.; Andreotti, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bozzi, C.; Calabrese, R.; Cecchi, A.; Cibinetto, G.; Franchini, P.; Luppi, E.; Negrini, M.; Petrella, A.; Piemontese, L.; Prencipe, E.; Santoro, V.; Anulli, F.; Baldini-Ferroli, R.; Calcaterra, A.; de Sangro, R.; Finocchiaro, G.; Pacetti, S.; Patteri, P.; Peruzzi, I. M.; Piccolo, M.; Rama, M.; Zallo, A.; Buzzo, A.; Contri, R.; Lo Vetere, M.; Macri, M. M.; Monge, M. R.; Passaggio, S.; Patrignani, C.; Robutti, E.; Santroni, A.; Tosi, S.; Chaisanguanthum, K. S.; Morii, M.; Wu, J.; Dubitzky, R. S.; Marks, J.; Schenk, S.; Uwer, U.; Bard, D. J.; Dauncey, P. D.; Flack, R. L.; Nash, J. A.; Panduro Vazquez, W.; Tibbetts, M.; Behera, P. K.; Chai, X.; Charles, M. J.; Mallik, U.; Cochran, J.; Crawley, H. B.; Dong, L.; Eyges, V.; Meyer, W. T.; Prell, S.; Rosenberg, E. I.; Rubin, A. E.; Gao, Y. Y.; Gritsan, A. V.; Guo, Z. J.; Lae, C. K.; Denig, A. G.; Fritsch, M.; Schott, G.; Arnaud, N.; Béquilleux, J.; D'Orazio, A.; Davier, M.; Grosdidier, G.; Höcker, A.; Lepeltier, V.; Le Diberder, F.; Lutz, A. M.; Pruvot, S.; Rodier, S.; Roudeau, P.; Schune, M. H.; Serrano, J.; Sordini, V.; Stocchi, A.; Wang, L.; Wang, W. F.; Wormser, G.; Lange, D. J.; Wright, D. M.; Bingham, I.; Burke, J. P.; Chavez, C. A.; Fry, J. R.; Gabathuler, E.; Gamet, R.; Hutchcroft, D. E.; Payne, D. J.; Schofield, K. C.; Touramanis, C.; Bevan, A. J.; George, K. A.; di Lodovico, F.; Sacco, R.; Cowan, G.; Flaecher, H. U.; Hopkins, D. A.; Paramesvaran, S.; Salvatore, F.; Wren, A. C.; Brown, D. N.; Davis, C. L.; Allison, J.; Barlow, N. R.; Barlow, R. J.; Chia, Y. M.; Edgar, C. L.; Lafferty, G. D.; West, T. J.; Yi, J. I.; Anderson, J.; Chen, C.; Jawahery, A.; Roberts, D. A.; Simi, G.; Tuggle, J. M.; Dallapiccola, C.; Hertzbach, S. S.; Li, X.; Moore, T. B.; Salvati, E.; Saremi, S.; Cowan, R.; Dujmic, D.; Fisher, P. H.; Koeneke, K.; Sciolla, G.; Spitznagel, M.; Taylor, F.; Yamamoto, R. K.; Zhao, M.; Zheng, Y.; McLachlin, S. E.; Patel, P. M.; Robertson, S. H.; Lazzaro, A.; Palombo, F.; Bauer, J. M.; Cremaldi, L.; Eschenburg, V.; Godang, R.; Kroeger, R.; Sanders, D. A.; Summers, D. J.; Zhao, H. W.; Brunet, S.; Côté, D.; Simard, M.; Taras, P.; Viaud, F. B.; Nicholson, H.; de Nardo, G.; Fabozzi, F.; Lista, L.; Monorchio, D.; Sciacca, C.; Baak, M. A.; Raven, G.; Snoek, H. L.; Jessop, C. P.; Knoepfel, K. J.; Losecco, J. M.; Benelli, G.; Corwin, L. A.; Honscheid, K.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Morris, J. P.; Rahimi, A. M.; Regensburger, J. J.; Sekula, S. J.; Wong, Q. K.; Blount, N. L.; Brau, J.; Frey, R.; Igonkina, O.; Kolb, J. A.; Lu, M.; Rahmat, R.; Sinev, N. B.; Strom, D.; Strube, J.; Torrence, E.; Gagliardi, N.; Gaz, A.; Margoni, M.; Morandin, M.; Pompili, A.; Posocco, M.; Rotondo, M.; Simonetto, F.; Stroili, R.; Voci, C.; Ben-Haim, E.; Briand, H.; Calderini, G.; Chauveau, J.; David, P.; Del Buono, L.; de La Vaissière, Ch.; Hamon, O.; Leruste, Ph.; Malclès, J.; Ocariz, J.; Perez, A.; Prendki, J.; Gladney, L.; Biasini, M.; Covarelli, R.; Manoni, E.; Angelini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Carpinelli, M.; Cenci, R.; Cervelli, A.; Forti, F.; Giorgi, M. A.; Lusiani, A.; Marchiori, G.; Mazur, M. A.; Morganti, M.; Neri, N.; Paoloni, E.; Rizzo, G.; Walsh, J. J.; Biesiada, J.; Elmer, P.; Lau, Y. P.; Lu, C.; Olsen, J.; Smith, A. J. S.; Telnov, A. V.; Baracchini, E.; Bellini, F.; Cavoto, G.; Del Re, D.; di Marco, E.; Faccini, R.; Ferrarotto, F.; Ferroni, F.; Gaspero, M.; Jackson, P. D.; Mazzoni, M. A.; Morganti, S.; Piredda, G.; Polci, F.; Renga, F.; Voena, C.; Ebert, M.; Hartmann, T.; Schröder, H.; Waldi, R.; Adye, T.; Castelli, G.; Franek, B.; Olaiya, E. O.; Roethel, W.; Wilson, F. F.; Emery, S.; Escalier, M.; Gaidot, A.; Ganzhur, S. F.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Kozanecki, W.; Vasseur, G.; Yèche, Ch.; Zito, M.; Chen, X. R.; Liu, H.; Park, W.; Purohit, M. V.; White, R. M.; Wilson, J. R.; Allen, M. T.; Aston, D.; Bartoldus, R.; Bechtle, P.; Claus, R.; Coleman, J. P.; Convery, M. R.; Dingfelder, J. C.; Dorfan, J.; Dubois-Felsmann, G. P.; Dunwoodie, W.; Field, R. C.; Glanzman, T.; Gowdy, S. J.; Graham, M. T.; Grenier, P.; Hast, C.; Innes, W. R.; Kaminski, J.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kim, H.; Kim, P.; Kocian, M. L.; Leith, D. W. G. S.; Li, S.; Luitz, S.; Luth, V.; Lynch, H. L.; Macfarlane, D. B.; Marsiske, H.; Messner, R.; Muller, D. R.; Nelson, S.; O'Grady, C. P.; Ofte, I.; Perazzo, A.; Perl, M.; Pulliam, T.; Ratcliff, B. N.; Roodman, A.; Salnikov, A. A.; Schindler, R. H.; Schwiening, J.; Snyder, A.; Su, D.; Sullivan, M. K.; Suzuki, K.; Swain, S. K.; Thompson, J. M.; Va'Vra, J.; Wagner, A. P.; Weaver, M.; Wisniewski, W. J.; Wittgen, M.; Wright, D. H.; Yarritu, A. K.; Yi, K.; Young, C. C.; Ziegler, V.; Burchat, P. R.; Edwards, A. J.; Majewski, S. A.; Miyashita, T. S.; Petersen, B. A.; Wilden, L.; Ahmed, S.; Alam, M. S.; Bula, R.; Ernst, J. A.; Pan, B.; Saeed, M. A.; Wappler, F. R.; Zain, S. B.; Spanier, S. M.; Wogsland, B. J.; Eckmann, R.; Ritchie, J. L.; Ruland, A. M.; Schilling, C. J.; Schwitters, R. F.; Izen, J. M.; Lou, X. C.; Ye, S.; Bianchi, F.; Gallo, F.; Gamba, D.; Pelliccioni, M.; Bomben, M.; Bosisio, L.; Cartaro, C.; Cossutti, F.; Della Ricca, G.; Lanceri, L.; Vitale, L.; Azzolini, V.; Lopez-March, N.; Martinez-Vidal, F.; Milanes, D. A.; Oyanguren, A.; Albert, J.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bhuyan, B.; Hamano, K.; Kowalewski, R.; Nugent, I. M.; Roney, J. M.; Sobie, R. J.; Harrison, P. F.; Ilic, J.; Latham, T. E.; Mohanty, G. B.; Band, H. R.; Chen, X.; Dasu, S.; Flood, K. T.; Hollar, J. J.; Kutter, P. E.; Pan, Y.; Pierini, M.; Prepost, R.; Wu, S. L.; Neal, H.

    2008-05-01

    This paper reports measurements of processes: e+e-→γKS0K±π∓, e+e-→γK+K-π0, e+e-→γϕη, and e+e-→γϕπ0. The initial-state radiated photon allows to cover the hadronic final state in the energy range from thresholds up to ≈4.6GeV. The overall size of the data sample analyzed is 232fb-1, collected by the BABAR detector running at the PEP-II e+e- storage ring. From the Dalitz plot analysis of the KS0K±π∓ final state, moduli, and relative phase of the isoscalar and the isovector components of the e+e-→KK*(892) cross section are determined. Parameters of ϕ and ρ recurrences are also measured, using a global fitting procedure which exploits the interconnection among amplitudes, moduli, and phases of the e+e-→KS0K±π∓, K+K-π0, ϕη final states. The cross section for the OZI-forbidden process e+e-→ϕπ0, and the J/ψ branching fractions to KK*(892) and K+K-η are also measured.

  18. Associations of Inflammatory Markers with AIDS and non-AIDS Clinical Events after Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy: AIDS Clinical Trials Group A5224s, a substudy of ACTG A5202

    PubMed Central

    McComsey, Grace A; Kitch, Douglas; Sax, Paul E; Tierney, Camlin; Jahed, Nasreen C; Melbourne, Kathleen; Ha, Belinda; Brown, Todd T; Bloom, Anthony; Fedarko, Neal; Daar, Eric S

    2013-01-01

    Background The association of inflammatory biomarkers with clinical events after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation is unclear. Methods A5202 randomized 1857 treatment-naive subjects to abacavir/lamivudine or tenofovir-DF/emtricitabine with efavirenz or atazanavir/ritonavir. Substudy A5224s measured inflammatory biomarkers on subjects with available plasma from baseline and weeks 24 or 96. An exploratory analysis of the association of hsCRP, IL-6, sTNF-RI, sTNF-RII, TNF-α, sVCAM-1, and sICAM-1 with times to AIDS and to non-AIDS events used Cox proportional hazards models. Results Analysis included 244 subjects; 85% male, 48% white non-Hispanic, with median age 39 years, HIV-1 RNA 4.6 log10 copies/mL, and CD4 240 cells/μL. Overall, 13 AIDS events (9 opportunistic infections; 3 AIDS-cancers, 1 recurrent bacterial pneumonia) and 18 non-AIDS events (6 diabetes, 4 cancers, 3 cardiovascular, 5 pneumonias) occurred. Higher baseline IL-6, sTNF-RI, sTNF-RII, and sICAM-1 were significantly associated with increased risk of AIDS-defining events. Adjustment for baseline HIV-1 RNA did not change results, while adjusting for baseline CD4 count left only sTNF-RI and sICAM-1 significantly associated with increased risk. Time-updated values of IL-6, sTNFR-I and II, and sICAM-1 were also associated with an increased risk. For non-AIDS events, only higher baseline hsCRP was significantly associated with increased risk, while higher IL-6 was marginally associated with higher risk. Analyses of time-updated biomarker values showed TNF-α to be significantly associated with increased risk, even after adjustment for ART, and CD4 count or HIV-1 RNA. Conclusion Higher levels of several inflammatory biomarkers were independently associated with increased risk of AIDS and non-AIDS events. PMID:24121755

  19. DNA cleavage within the MLL breakpoint cluster region is a specific event which occurs as part of higher-order chromatin fragmentation during the initial stages of apoptosis.

    PubMed Central

    Stanulla, M; Wang, J; Chervinsky, D S; Thandla, S; Aplan, P D

    1997-01-01

    A distinct population of therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia (t-AML) is strongly associated with prior administration of topoisomerase II (topo II) inhibitors. These t-AMLs display distinct cytogenetic alterations, most often disrupting the MLL gene on chromosome 11q23 within a breakpoint cluster region (bcr) of 8.3 kb. We recently identified a unique site within the MLL bcr that is highly susceptible to DNA double-strand cleavage by classic topo II inhibitors (e.g., etoposide and doxorubicin). Here, we report that site-specific cleavage within the MLL bcr can be induced by either catalytic topo II inhibitors, genotoxic chemotherapeutic agents which do not target topo II, or nongenotoxic stimuli of apoptotic cell death, suggesting that this site-specific cleavage is part of a generalized cellular response to an apoptotic stimulus. We also show that site-specific cleavage within the MLL bcr can be linked to the higher-order chromatin fragmentation that occurs during the initial stages of apoptosis, possibly through cleavage of DNA loops at their anchorage sites to the nuclear matrix. In addition, we show that site-specific cleavage is conserved between species, as specific DNA cleavage can also be demonstrated within the murine MLL locus. Lastly, site-specific cleavage during apoptosis can also be identified at the AML1 locus, a locus which is also frequently involved in chromosomal rearrangements present in t-AML patients. In conclusion, these results suggest the potential involvement of higher-order chromatin fragmentation which occurs as a part of a generalized apoptotic response in a mechanism leading to chromosomal translocation of the MLL and AML1 genes and subsequent t-AML. PMID:9199342

  20. Probabilities of Natural Events Occurring at Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, J.C.

    2001-07-17

    This report documents the comprehensive evaluation of probability models of natural events which are applicable to Savannah River Plant. The probability curves selected for these natural events are recommended to be used by all SRP/SRL safety analysts. This will ensure a consistency in analysis methodology for postulated SAR incidents involving natural phenomena.

  1. Russian Military and Security Forces: A Postulated Reaction to a Nuclear Detonation

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, D

    2005-04-29

    In this paper, we will examine how Russia's military and security forces might react to the detonation of a 10-kiloton nuclear weapon placed next to the walls surrounding the Kremlin. At the time of this 'big bang,' Putin is situated outside Moscow and survives the explosion. No one claims responsibility for the detonation. No other information is known. Numerous variables will determine how events ultimately unfold and how the military and security forces will respond. Prior to examining these variables in greater detail, it is imperative to elucidate first what we mean by Russia's military and security forces.

  2. Postulated Vasoactive Neuropeptide Autoimmunity in Fatigue-Related Conditions: A Brief Review and Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Staines, Donald R.

    2006-01-01

    Disorders such as chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and gulf war syndrome (GWS) are characterised by prolonged fatigue and a range of debilitating symptoms of pain, intellectual and emotional impairment, chemical sensitivities and immunological dysfunction. Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) surprisingly may have certain features in common with these conditions. Post-infection sequelae may be possible contributing factors although ongoing infection is unproven. Immunological aberration may prove to be associated with certain vasoactive neuropeptides (VN) in the context of molecular mimicry, inappropriate immunological memory and autoimmunity. Adenylate cyclase-activating VNs including pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) act as hormones, neurotransmitters, neuroregulators, immune modulators and neurotrophic substances. They and their receptors are potentially immunogenic. VNs are widely distributed in the body particularly in the central and peripheral nervous systems and have been identified in the gut, adrenal gland, blood cells, reproductive system, lung, heart and other tissues. They have a vital role in maintaining cardio-respiratory function, thermoregulation, memory, concentration and executive functions such as emotional responses including social cues and appropriate behaviour. They are co-transmitters for a number of neurotransmitters including acetylcholine and gaseous transmitters, are potent immune regulators with primarily anti-inflammatory activity, and have a significant role in protection of the nervous system against toxic assault as well as being important in the maintenance of homeostasis. This paper describes a biologically plausible mechanism for the development of certain fatigue-related syndromes based on loss of immunological tolerance to these VNs or their receptors following infection, other events or de novo resulting in significant

  3. Kinetics of olfactory responses might largely depend on the odorant-receptor interaction and the odorant deactivation postulated for flux detectors.

    PubMed

    Kaissling, Karl-Ernst

    2013-11-01

    Experimental data together with modeling of pheromone perireceptor and receptor events in moths (Bombyx mori, Antheraea polyphemus) suggest that the kinetics of olfactory receptor potentials largely depend on the association of the odorant with the neuronal receptor molecules and the deactivation of the odorant accumulated around the receptor neuron. The first process could be responsible for the reaction times (mean about 400 ms) of the nerve impulses at threshold. The second process has been postulated for flux detectors such as olfactory sensilla of moths. The odorant deactivation could involve a modification of the pheromone-binding protein (PBP) that "locks" the pheromone inside the inner binding cavity of the protein. The model combines seemingly contradictory functions of the PBP such as pheromone transport, protection of the pheromone from enzymatic degradation, pheromone deactivation, and pheromone-receptor interaction. Model calculations reveal a density of at least 6,000 receptor molecules per µm(2) of neuronal membrane. The volatile decanoyl-thio-1,1,1-trifluoropropanone specifically blocks pheromone receptor neurons, probably when bound to the PBP and by competitive binding to the receptor molecules. The shallow dose-response curve of the receptor potential and altered response properties observed with pheromone derivatives or after adaptation may indicate shortened opening of ion channels. PMID:23563709

  4. Environmental consequences of postulated plutonium releases from Exxon Nuclear MOFP, Richland, Washington, as a result of severe natural phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Jamison, J.D.; Watson, E.C.

    1980-02-01

    Potential environmental consequences in terms of radiation dose to people are presented for postulated plutonium releases caused by severe natural phenomena at the Exxon Nuclear Company Mixed Oxide Fabrication Plant (MOFP), Richland, Washington. The severe natural phenomena considered are earthquakes, tornadoes, high straight-line winds, and floods. Maximum plutonium deposition values are given for significant locations around the site. All important potential exposure pathways are examined. The most likely 50-year committed dose equivalents are given for the maximum-exposed individual and the population within a 50-mile radius of the plant. The maximum plutonium deposition values most likely to occur offsite are also given.

  5. Initial Molecular Response at 3 Months May Predict Both Response and Event-Free Survival at 24 Months in Imatinib-Resistant or -Intolerant Patients With Philadelphia Chromosome–Positive Chronic Myeloid Leukemia in Chronic Phase Treated With Nilotinib

    PubMed Central

    Branford, Susan; Kim, Dong-Wook; Soverini, Simona; Haque, Ariful; Shou, Yaping; Woodman, Richard C.; Kantarjian, Hagop M.; Martinelli, Giovanni; Radich, Jerald P.; Saglio, Giuseppe; Hochhaus, Andreas; Hughes, Timothy P.; Müller, Martin C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The association between initial molecular response and longer-term outcomes with nilotinib was examined. Patients and Methods Patients with imatinib-resistant or -intolerant chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase from the phase II nilotinib registration study with available postbaseline BCR-ABL1 transcript assessments were included (N = 237). Results BCR-ABL1 transcript levels (International Scale [IS]) at 3 months correlated with complete cytogenetic response (CCyR) by 24 months. Patients with BCR-ABL1 (IS) of > 1% to ≤ 10% at 3 months with nilotinib had higher cumulative incidence of CCyR by 24 months than patients with BCR-ABL1 (IS) of > 10% (53% v 16%). BCR-ABL1 (IS) at 3 months predicted major molecular response (MMR) by 24 months. Cumulative incidence of MMR by 24 months for patients with BCR-ABL1 (IS) of > 0.1% to ≤ 1%, > 1% to ≤ 10%, and > 10% was 65%, 27%, and 9%, respectively. These differences were observed for patients with or without baseline BCR–ABL1 mutations and for those with imatinib resistance or intolerance. Estimated event-free survival (EFS) rates at 24 months decreased with higher transcript levels at 3 months; patients with BCR-ABL1 (IS) of ≤ 1% had an estimated 24-month EFS rate of 82%, compared with 70% for patients with BCR-ABL1 (IS) of > 1% to ≤ 10% and 48% for patients with BCR-ABL1 (IS) of > 10%. Conclusion Patients with BCR-ABL1 (IS) of > 10% at 3 months had a lower cumulative incidence of CCyR and MMR and lower rates of EFS versus patients with BCR-ABL1 (IS) of ≤ 10%. Prospective studies may determine whether close monitoring or alternative therapies are warranted for patients with minimal initial molecular response. PMID:23109697

  6. Observations and Modeling of Composition of Upper Troposphere/Lower Stratosphere (UTILS): Isentropic Mixing Events and Morphology of HNO3 as Observed by HIRDLS and Comparison with Results from Global Modeling Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriquez, J. M.; Douglass, A.R.; Yoshida, Y.; Strahan, S.; Duncan, B.; Olsen, M.; Gille, J.; Yudin, V.; Nardi, B.

    2008-01-01

    isentropic exchange of air masses between the tropical upper troposphere and mid-latitude lowermost stratosphere (the so-called "middle world") is an important pathway for stratospheric-tropospheric exchange. A seasonal, global view of this process has been difficult to obtain, in part due to the lack of the vertical resolution in satellite observations needed to capture the laminar character of these events. Ozone observations at a resolution of about 1 km from the High Resolution Dynamic Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) on NASA's Aura satellite show instances of these intrusions. Such intrusions should also be observable in HN03 observations; however, the abundances of nitric acid could be additionally controlled by chemical processes or incorporation and removal into ice clouds. We present a systematic examination of the HIRDLS data on O3 and HNO3 to determine the seasonal and spatial characteristics of the distribution of isentropic intrusions. At the same time, we compare the observed distributions with those calculated by the Global Modeling Initiative combined tropospheric-stratospheric model, which has a vertical resolution of about I km. This Chemical Transport Model (CTM) is driven by meteorological fields obtained from the GEOS-4 system of NASA/Goddard Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO), for the Aura time period, at a vertical resolution of about 1 km. Such comparison brings out the successes and limitations of the model in representing isentropic stratospheric-tropospheric exchange, and the different processes controlling HNO3 in the UTAS.

  7. Development of a phenomena identification and ranking table for a postulated double-ended guillotine break in a production reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, R.G.; Wilson, G.E.; Ortiz, M.G. ); Griggs, D.P. )

    1989-11-01

    In the wake of the Chernobyl accident, production reactors in the United States have come under increasing scrutiny with respect to safe operation. Because of additional design features, the U.S. reactors are considered inherently more safe than was the Chernobyl design. However, demonstration of their safety margins is required. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has developed a generic methodology (code scaling, applicability, and uncertainty (CSAU)) to quantify the uncertainty in computer codes used to license commercial light water reactors. At the process level, the method is generic to any application that relies on computer code simulations to determine safe operating margins. The CSAU is being applied to a postulated double-ended guillotine break (DEGB) in a U.S. Department of Energy production reactor. The first three steps of the method, producing phenomena identification and ranking tables (PIRTs), have been completed to identify phenomena that are important to the postulated accident. The selected scenario is the hypothesized, but limiting, DEGB in the Savannah River site L reactor.

  8. Event Perception

    PubMed Central

    Radvansky, Gabriel; Zacks, Jeffrey M.

    2012-01-01

    Events are central elements of human experience. Formally, they can be individuated in terms of the entities that compose them, the features of those entities, and the relations amongst entities. Psychologically, representations of events capture their spatiotemporal location, the people and objects involved, and the relations between these elements. Here, we present an account of the nature of psychological representations of events and how they are constructed and updated. Event representations are like images in that they are isomorphic to the situations they represent. However, they are like models or language in that they are constructed of components rather than being holistic. Also, they are partial representations that leave out some elements and abstract others. Representations of individual events are informed by schematic knowledge about general classes of events. Event representations are constructed in a process that segments continuous activity into discrete events. The construction of a series of event representations forms a basis for predicting the future, planning for that future, and imagining alternatives. PMID:23082236

  9. Initial Results on Soil Moisture in Relation to Timing of Snowpack, Temperature, and Heavy Vs. Moderate Rain Events from a New Soil Monitoring Network in the Southern Rocky Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osenga, E. C.; Schnissel, J.; Katzenberger, J.

    2014-12-01

    The Roaring Fork Valley (RFV) in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado is comprised of a diversity of ecosystems occurring within a single watershed. From one end of the valley to the other, the landscape undergoes an over 1500m gain in elevation, creating a unique opportunity for comparison of conditions in different habitats of close geographic proximity. Interested in comparing the ecological responses of these different habitats in the context of rising global temperatures, the Aspen Global Change Institute (AGCI) partnered with City of Aspen, Pitkin Country Open Space and Trails, and the Aspen Center for Environmental Studies to install soil monitoring stations at multiple elevations within the watershed. Soil moisture was identified as the primary indicator for monitoring because there is a dearth of local soil moisture data, and soil moisture plays a vital role in plant survival and correlates closely with precipitation and air temperature. Additionally, as precipitation regimes shift in the future, there is a need to better understand the interplay between vegetative water availability during the critical early growing season and timing, areal extent, and depth of snowpack. Two initial soil monitoring stations were installed in undeveloped, montane ecosystems of the Roaring Fork Watershed in 2012. Each station measures air temperature; relative humidity; rainfall; and soil moisture at 5, 20, and 52 cm depths. Two additional soil monitoring stations are being established over the summer of 2014, and additional stations within the Roaring Fork soil moisture network are planned for future years. Early data from the existing sites indicate the importance of timing of snowmelt in maintaining soil moisture through the early dry months of summer and dissimilarity between the impact of moderate and heavy rain events on soil moisture at different depths. These data have implications for restoration, management, and planning for local ecosystems and have significance for

  10. Comparative Reaction Diagrams for the SN2 Reaction Formulated According to the Leffler Analysis and the Hammond Postulate.

    PubMed

    Haddon, Robert C; Tian, Ziqi; Jiang, De-En

    2016-05-01

    The Hammond Postulate and the Leffler analysis have provided a cornerstone in the understanding of reaction processes in organic chemistry for over 60 years, yet quantitative applications of these methodologies over the range of reactions envisaged in the original works remain elusive. In the present paper, we analyze a series of SN2 reactions in three solvents that lead to endothermic and exothermic reaction processes, and we show that within the hybridization reaction coordinate the SN2 reaction is fully consistent with both treatments. We give new presentations of the reaction energies as a function of reaction progress, which allow the generation of unified reaction coordinate diagrams that show a linear relationship between the hybridization metric of reaction progress and the relative energies of the stationary points on the potential surface as a function of structure and solvent as originally envisaged by Leffler and Hammond. PMID:27064935

  11. Potential health risks from postulated accidents involving the Pu-238 RTG on the Ulysses solar exploration mission

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, M. ); Nelson, R.C. ); Bollinger, L. ); Hoover, M.D. ); Templeton, W. ); Anspaugh, L. )

    1991-01-01

    Potential radiation impacts from launch of the Ulysses solar exploration experiment were evaluated using eight postulated accident scenarios. Lifetime individual dose estimates rarely exceeded 1 mrem. Most of the potential health effects would come from inhalation exposures immediately after an accident, rather than from ingestion of contaminated food or water, or from inhalation of resuspended plutonium from contaminated ground. For local Florida accidents (that is, during the first minute after launch), an average source term accident was estimated to cause a total added cancer risk of up to 0.2 deaths. For accidents at later times after launch, a worldwide cancer risk of up to three cases was calculated (with a four in a million probability). Upper bound estimates were calculated to be about 10 times higher.

  12. Potential health risks from postulated accidents involving the Pu-238 RTG (radioisotope thermoelectric generator) on the Ulysses solar exploration mission

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, M. ); Nelson, R.C. ); Bollinger, L. ); Hoover, M.D. . Inhalation Toxicology Research Inst.); Templeton, W. ); Anspaugh, L. (Lawren

    1990-11-02

    Potential radiation impacts from launch of the Ulysses solar exploration experiment were evaluated using eight postulated accident scenarios. Lifetime individual dose estimates rarely exceeded 1 mrem. Most of the potential health effects would come from inhalation exposures immediately after an accident, rather than from ingestion of contaminated food or water, or from inhalation of resuspended plutonium from contaminated ground. For local Florida accidents (that is, during the first minute after launch), an average source term accident was estimated to cause a total added cancer risk of up to 0.2 deaths. For accidents at later times after launch, a worldwide cancer risk of up to three cases was calculated (with a four in a million probability). Upper bound estimates were calculated to be about 10 times higher. 83 refs.

  13. Potential health risks from postulated accidents involving the Pu-238 RTG on the Ulysses solar exploration mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, Marvin; Hoover, Mark D.; Nelson, Robert C.; Templeton, William; Bollinger, Lance; Anspaugh, Lynn

    1991-01-01

    Potential radiation impacts from launch of the Ulysses solar exploration experiment were evaluated using eight postulated accident scenarios. Lifetime individual dose estimates rarely exceeded 1 mrem. Most of the potential health effects would come from inhalation exposures immediately after an accident, rather than from ingestion of contaminated food or water, or from inhalation of resuspended plutonium from contaminated ground. For local Florida accidents (that is, during the first minute after launch), an average source term accident was estimated to cause a total added cancer risk of up to 0.2 deaths. For accidents at later time after launch, a worldwide cancer risk of up to three cases was calculated (with a four in a million probability). Upper bound estimates were calculated to be about 10 times higher.

  14. Potential health risks from postulated accidents involving the Pu-238 RTG (Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator) on the Ulysses solar exploration mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, M.; Nelson, R. C.; Bollinger, L.; Hoover, M. D.

    1990-11-01

    Potential radiation impacts from launch of the Ulysses solar exploration experiment were evaluated using eight postulated accident scenarios. Lifetime individual dose estimates rarely exceeded 1 mrem. Most of the potential health effects would come from inhalation exposures immediately after an accident, rather than from ingestion of contaminated food or water, or from inhalation of resuspended plutonium from contaminated ground. For local Florida accidents (that is, during the first minute after launch), an average source term accident was estimated to cause a total added cancer risk of up to 0.2 deaths. For accidents at later times after launch, a worldwide cancer risk of up to three cases was calculated (with a four in a million probability). Upper bound estimates were calculated to be about 10 times higher.

  15. Investigation of reactions postulated to occur during inhibition of ribonucleotide reductases by 2′-azido-2′-deoxynucleotides

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Thao P.; Sobczak, Adam J.; Mebel, Alexander M.; Chatgilialoglu, Chryssostomos; Wnuk, Stanislaw F.

    2012-01-01

    Model 3′-azido-3′-deoxynucleosides with thiol or vicinal dithiol substituents at C2′ or C5′ were synthesized to study reactions postulated to occur during inhibition of ribonucleotide reductases by 2′-azido-2′-deoxynucleotides. Esterification of 5′-(tert-butyldiphenylsilyl)-3′-azido-3′-deoxyadenosine and 3′-azido-3′-deoxythymidine (AZT) with 2,3-S-isopropylidene-2,3-dimercaptopropanoic acid or N-Boc-S-trityl-L-cysteine and deprotection gave 3′-azido-3′-deoxy-2′-O-(2,3-dimercaptopropanoyl or cysteinyl)adenosine and the 3′-azido-3′-deoxy-5′-O-(2,3-dimercaptopropanoyl or cysteinyl)thymidine analogs. Density functional calculations predicted that intramolecular reactions between generated thiyl radicals and an azido group on such model compounds would be exothermic by 33.6-41.2 kcal/mol and have low energy barriers of 10.4-13.5 kcal/mol. Reduction of the azido group occurred to give 3′-amino-3′-deoxythymidine, which was postulated to occur with thiyl radicals generated by treatment of 3′-azido-3′-deoxy-5′-O-(2,3-dimercaptopropanoyl)thymidine with 2,2′-azobis-(2-methyl-2-propionamidine) dihydrochloride. Gamma radiolysis of N2O-saturated aqueous solutions of AZT and cysteine produced 3′-amino-3′-deoxythymidine and thymine most likely by both radical and ionic processes. PMID:22711937

  16. Symmetrizing the symmetrization postulate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    York, Michael

    2000-11-01

    Reasonable requirements of (a) physical invariance under particle permutation and (b) physical completeness of state descriptions [1], enable us to deduce a Symmetric Permutation Rule(SPR): that by taking care with our state descriptions, it is always possible to construct state vectors (or wave functions) that are purely symmetric under pure permutation for all particles, regardless of type distinguishability or spin. The conventional exchange antisymmetry for two identical half-integer spin particles is shown to be due to a subtle interdependence in the individual state descriptions arising from an inherent geometrical asymmetry. For three or more such particles, however, antisymmetrization of the state vector for all pairs simultaneously is shown to be impossible and the SPR makes observably different predictions, although the usual pairwise exclusion rules are maintained. The usual caveat of fermion antisymmetrization—that composite integer spin particles (with fermionic constituents) behave only approximately like bosons—is no longer necessary.

  17. Technical basis document for external events

    SciTech Connect

    OBERG, B.D.

    2003-03-22

    This document supports the Tank Farms Documented Safety Analysis and presents the technical basis for the frequencies of externally initiated accidents. The consequences of externally initiated events are discussed in other documents that correspond to the accident that was caused by the external event. The external events include aircraft crash, vehicle accident, range fire, and rail accident.

  18. 17 CFR 10.84 - Initial decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Post Hearing Procedures; Initial Decisions § 10.84 Initial decision. (a) When initial decision is... its own docket for review or stayed the effective date of the decision. In the event that the...

  19. 17 CFR 10.84 - Initial decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Post Hearing Procedures; Initial Decisions § 10.84 Initial decision. (a) When initial decision is... its own docket for review or stayed the effective date of the decision. In the event that the...

  20. 17 CFR 10.84 - Initial decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Post Hearing Procedures; Initial Decisions § 10.84 Initial decision. (a) When initial decision is... its own docket for review or stayed the effective date of the decision. In the event that the...

  1. 17 CFR 10.84 - Initial decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Post Hearing Procedures; Initial Decisions § 10.84 Initial decision. (a) When initial decision is... its own docket for review or stayed the effective date of the decision. In the event that the...

  2. Event shape engineering with ALICE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrin, A.

    2013-05-01

    The strong fluctuations in the initial energy density of heavy-ion collisions allow an efficient selection of events corresponding to a specific initial geometry. For such "shape engineered events", the elliptic flow coefficient, v2, of unidentified charged particles, pions and (anti-)protons in Pb-Pb collisions at sNN=2.76 TeV is measured by the ALICE collaboration. v2 obtained with the event plane method at mid-rapidity, |η|<0.8, is reported for different collision centralities as a function of transverse momentum, pT, out to pT=20 GeV/c. The measured v2 for the shape engineered events is significantly larger or smaller than the average which demonstrates the ability to experimentally select events with the desired shape of the initial spatial asymmetry.

  3. The postulations á la D’Alembert and á la Cauchy for higher gradient continuum theories are equivalent: a review of existing results

    PubMed Central

    Seppecher, P.

    2015-01-01

    In order to found continuum mechanics, two different postulations have been used. The first, introduced by Lagrange and Piola, starts by postulating how the work expended by internal interactions in a body depends on the virtual velocity field and its gradients. Then, by using the divergence theorem, a representation theorem is found for the volume and contact interactions which can be exerted at the boundary of the considered body. This method assumes an a priori notion of internal work, regards stress tensors as dual of virtual displacements and their gradients, deduces the concept of contact interactions and produces their representation in terms of stresses using integration by parts. The second method, conceived by Cauchy and based on the celebrated tetrahedron argument, starts by postulating the type of contact interactions which can be exerted on the boundary of every (suitably) regular part of a body. Then it proceeds by proving the existence of stress tensors from a balance-type postulate. In this paper, we review some relevant literature on the subject, discussing how the two postulations can be reconciled in the case of higher gradient theories. Finally, we underline the importance of the concept of contact surface, edge and wedge s-order forces. PMID:26730215

  4. Fulfilling Koch's postulates for beet curly top Iran virus and proposal for consideration of new genus in the family Geminiviridae.

    PubMed

    Heydarnejad, Jahangir; Keyvani, Nahid; Razavinejad, Sara; Massumi, Hossain; Varsani, Arvind

    2013-02-01

    Beet curly top Iran virus (BCTIV) is a divergent geminivirus with biological properties similar to those of curtoviruses; however, the virus is distinct from curtoviruses phylogenetically and in its genome organisation. The replication-associated protein is phylogenetically more closely related to those of mastreviruses than to those of curtoviruses whereas the capsid protein shares high amino acid sequence identity (77-83 %) with those of curtoviruses. The 17 BCTIV genomes from Iran share ~77 % pairwise nucleotide sequence identity with spinach curly top Arizona virus (SCTAV) from Arizona, USA, which was characterised recently. To demonstrate the infectivity of the monopartite BCTIV genome and to fulfil Koch's postulates, an infectious clone was constructed using a dimer of the full-length genome of an isolate from this study - BCTIV-[IR:Neg:B33P:Sug:08]. Agroinoculation with the cloned DNA resulted in the efficient infection of 74 % of sugar beet plants, which resulted in curly top symptoms. The curly top infection of agroinoculated plants was successfully transmitted to 80 % of healthy sugar beet plants by the natural BCTIV vector, Circulifer haematoceps. Since BCTIV and SCTAV share <62 % pairwise nucleotide sequence identity with all other geminiviruses and have unique genome architectures and properties, and since this is coupled with phylogenetic support at the full-genome level and that of it proteins, we propose that they should be re-classified as members of a new genus, "Becurtovirus", in the family Geminiviridae. PMID:23081676

  5. Complex Event Recognition Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzgerald, William A.; Firby, R. James

    2009-01-01

    Complex Event Recognition Architecture (CERA) is the name of a computational architecture, and software that implements the architecture, for recognizing complex event patterns that may be spread across multiple streams of input data. One of the main components of CERA is an intuitive event pattern language that simplifies what would otherwise be the complex, difficult tasks of creating logical descriptions of combinations of temporal events and defining rules for combining information from different sources over time. In this language, recognition patterns are defined in simple, declarative statements that combine point events from given input streams with those from other streams, using conjunction, disjunction, and negation. Patterns can be built on one another recursively to describe very rich, temporally extended combinations of events. Thereafter, a run-time matching algorithm in CERA efficiently matches these patterns against input data and signals when patterns are recognized. CERA can be used to monitor complex systems and to signal operators or initiate corrective actions when anomalous conditions are recognized. CERA can be run as a stand-alone monitoring system, or it can be integrated into a larger system to automatically trigger responses to changing environments or problematic situations.

  6. Extreme Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nott, Jonathan

    2006-04-01

    The assessment of risks posed by natural hazards such as floods, droughts, earthquakes, tsunamis or cyclones, is often based on short-term historical records that may not reflect the full range or magnitude of events possible. As human populations grow, especially in hazard-prone areas, methods for accurately assessing natural hazard risks are becoming increasingly important. In Extreme Events Jonathan Nott describes the many methods used to reconstruct such hazards from natural long-term records. He demonstrates how long-term (multi-century to millennial) records are essential in gaining a realistic understanding of the variability of natural hazards, and how short-term historical records can often misrepresent the likely risks associated with natural hazards. This book will form a useful resource for students taking courses covering natural hazards and risk assessment. It will also be valuable for urban planners, policy makers and non-specialists as a guide to understanding and reconstructing long-term records of natural hazards. Explains mechanisms that cause extreme events and discusses their prehistoric records Describes how to reconstruct long-term records of natural hazards in order to make accurate risk assessments Demonstrates that natural hazards can follow cycles over time and do not occur randomly

  7. Ex Vivo and In Vivo Mice Models to Study Blastocystis spp. Adhesion, Colonization and Pathology: Closer to Proving Koch's Postulates

    PubMed Central

    Ajjampur, Sitara S. R.; Png, Chin Wen; Chia, Wan Ni; Zhang, Yongliang; Tan, Kevin S. W.

    2016-01-01

    Blastocystis spp. are widely prevalent extra cellular, non-motile anerobic protists that inhabit the gastrointestinal tract. Although Blastocystis spp. have been associated with gastrointestinal symptoms, irritable bowel syndrome and urticaria, their clinical significance has remained controversial. We established an ex vivo mouse explant model to characterize adhesion in the context of tissue architecture and presence of the mucin layer. Using confocal microscopy with tissue whole mounts and two axenic isolates of Blastocystis spp., subtype 7 with notable differences in adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells (IEC), isolate B (ST7-B) and isolate H (more adhesive, ST7-H), we showed that adhesion is both isolate dependent and tissue trophic. The more adhesive isolate, ST7-H was found to bind preferentially to the colon tissue than caecum and terminal ileum. Both isolates were also found to have mucinolytic effects. We then adapted a DSS colitis mouse model as a susceptible model to study colonization and acute infection by intra-caecal inoculation of trophic Blastocystis spp.cells. We found that the more adhesive isolate ST7-H was also a better colonizer with more mice shedding parasites and for a longer duration than ST7-B. Adhesion and colonization was also associated with increased virulence as ST7-H infected mice showed greater tissue damage than ST7-B. Both the ex vivo and in vivo models used in this study showed that Blastocystis spp. remain luminal and predominantly associated with mucin. This was further confirmed using colonic loop experiments. We were also successfully able to re-infect a second batch of mice with ST7-H isolates obtained from fecal cultures and demonstrated similar histopathological findings and tissue damage thereby coming closer to proving Koch’s postulates for this parasite. PMID:27508942

  8. Fulfillment of Koch’s postulates and partial host range of Septoria lepidii Desm., a fungal pathogen for potential biological control of hoary cress (Lepidium spp.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have fulfilled Koch’s postulates and conducted host range tests with Septoria lepidii Desm. on five geographical accessions of hoary cress. Host range results showed the fungus specific to Lepidium spp. and damaging to hoary cress. This fungus is potentially an important biological control agent ...

  9. Research Initiatives

    Cancer.gov

    This page provides detailed information about currently funded RFA initiatives both led by DCCPS, and those led by other NIH Institutes and Centers (I/Cs) that include DCCPS as a partner. Each initiative includes a table of funded grants and a map that shows the location of funded institutions.

  10. Reactivity initiated accident test series Test RIA 1-4

    SciTech Connect

    Martinson, Z.R.; El-Genk, M.S.; Fukuda, S.K.; LaPointe, R.E.; Osetek, D.J.

    1980-05-01

    The Reactivity Initiated Accident (RIA) Test RIA 1-4, the first 9-rod fuel rod bundle RIA Test to be performed at BWR hot startup conditions, was completed on April 16, 1980. The test was performed in the Power Burst Facility (PBF). Objective for Test RIA 1-4 was to provide information regarding loss-of-coolable fuel rod geometry following a RIA event for a peak fuel enthalpy equivalent to the present licensing criteria of 280 cal/g. The most severe RIA is the postulated Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) control rod drop during reactor startup. Therefore the test was conducted at BWR hot startup coolant conditions (538 K, 6.45 MPa, 0.8 1/sec). The test sequence began with steady power operation to condition the fuel, establish a short-lived fission product inventory, and calibrate the calorimetric measurements and core power chambers, neutron flux and gamma flux detectors. The test train was removed from the in-pile tube (IPT) to replace one of the fuel rods with a nominally identical irradiated rod and twelve flux wire monitors. A 2.8 ms period power burst was then performed. Coolant flow measurements were made before and after the power burst to characterize the flow blockage that occurred as a result of fuel rod failure.

  11. A Decade of Child-Initiated Family Violence: Comparative Analysis of Child-Parent Violence and Parricide Examining Offender, Victim, and Event Characteristics in a National Sample of Reported Incidents, 1995-2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Jeffrey A.; Krienert, Jessie L.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines 11 years (1995-2005) of National Incident Based Reporting System data comparing victim, offender, and incident characteristics for two types of child-initiated family violence: child-parent violence (CPV) and parricide. The objective is to better understand the victim-offender relationship for CPV and parricide and to…

  12. Events diary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-01-01

    as Imperial College, the Royal Albert Hall, the Royal College of Art, the Natural History and Science Museums and the Royal Geographical Society. Under the heading `Shaping the future together' BA2000 will explore science, engineering and technology in their wider cultural context. Further information about this event on 6 - 12 September may be obtained from Sandra Koura, BA2000 Festival Manager, British Association for the Advancement of Science, 23 Savile Row, London W1X 2NB (tel: 0171 973 3075, e-mail: sandra.koura@britassoc.org.uk ). Details of the creating SPARKS events may be obtained from creating.sparks@britassoc.org.uk or from the website www.britassoc.org.uk . Other events 3 - 7 July, Porto Alegre, Brazil VII Interamerican conference on physics education: The preparation of physicists and physics teachers in contemporary society. Info: IACPE7@if.ufrgs.br or cabbat1.cnea.gov.ar/iacpe/iacpei.htm 27 August - 1 September, Barcelona, Spain GIREP conference: Physics teacher education beyond 2000. Info: www.blues.uab.es/phyteb/index.html

  13. Discourse Updating after Reading a Counterfactual Event

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Vega, Manuel; Urrutia, Mabel

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the temporal course of discourse updating after reading counterfactual events. To test the accessibility to discourse information, readers were asked to identify probes related to initial events in the text, previous to the counterfactual, or probes related to the critical counterfactual events. Experiment 1 showed that 500 ms…

  14. On the origin of life event.

    PubMed

    Mosqueira, F G

    1988-01-01

    On the assumption of a uniform sample space probability hypothesis it is estimated a maximum number of polypeptides (or other kind of polymers) that could be synthesized in the prebiotic Earth. Besides, on the basis of five premises that are postulated as indispensable requirements for the origin of a living system, under the constraints of a protein-nucleic acid chemistry, it is concluded categorically that the origin of life event could not be the result of unbiased polymerization phenomena. On the contrary, biased and specific patterns of polymerization had to be an essential component in this fundamental event. Finally, several theories on the origin of life and complementary concepts like hypercyclic organization and self-organization phenomena in dissipative structures are discussed in the light of the conclusions arrived at in this work. PMID:3368217

  15. Characterization of cell cycle events during the onset of sporulation in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, P M; Errington, J

    1995-01-01

    To elucidate the process of asymmetric division during sporulation of Bacillus subtilis, we have measured changes in cell cycle parameters during the transition from vegetative growth to sporulation. Because the propensity of B. subtilis to grow in chains of cells precludes the use of automated cell-scanning devices, we have developed a fluorescence microscopic method for analyzing cell cycle parameters in individual cells. From the results obtained, and measurements of DNA replication fork elongation rates and the escape time of sporulation from the inhibition of DNA replication, we have derived a detailed time scale for the early morphological events of sporulation which is mainly consistent with the cell cycle changes expected following nutritional downshift. The previously postulated sensitive stage in the DNA replication cycle, beyond which the cell is unable to sporulate without a new cell cycle, could represent a point in the division cycle at which the starved cell cannot avoid attaining the initiation mass for DNA replication and thus embarking on another round of the cell cycle. The final cell cycle event, formation of the asymmetric spore septum, occurs at about the time in the cell cycle at which the uninduced cell would have divided centrally, in keeping with the view that spore septation is a modified version of vegetative division. PMID:7608062

  16. Discovering Event Evidence Amid Massive, Dynamic Datasets

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, Robert M; Potok, Thomas E

    2007-01-01

    Automated event extraction remains a very difficult challenge requiring information analysts to manually identify key events of interest within massive, dynamic data. Many techniques for extracting events rely on domain specific natural language processing or information retrieval techniques. As an alternative, this work focuses on detecting events based on identifying event characteristics of interest to an analyst. An evolutionary algorithm is developed as a proof of concept to demonstrate this approach. Initial results indicate that this approach represents a feasible approach to identifying critical event information in a massive data set with no apriori knowledgeof the data set.

  17. SCB initiator

    DOEpatents

    Bickes, Jr., Robert W.; Renlund, Anita M.; Stanton, Philip L.

    1994-01-01

    A detonator for high explosives initiated by mechanical impact includes a cylindrical barrel, a layer of flyer material mechanically covering the barrel at one end, and a semiconductor bridge ignitor including a pair of electrically conductive pads connected by a semiconductor bridge. The bridge is in operational contact with the layer, whereby ignition of said bridge forces a portion of the layer through the barrel to detonate the explosive. Input means are provided for igniting the semiconductor bridge ignitor.

  18. SCB initiator

    DOEpatents

    Bickes Jr., Robert W.; Renlund, Anita M.; Stanton, Philip L.

    1994-11-01

    A detonator for high explosives initiated by mechanical impact includes a cylindrical barrel, a layer of flyer material mechanically covering the barrel at one end, and a semiconductor bridge ignitor including a pair of electrically conductive pads connected by a semiconductor bridge. The bridge is in operational contact with the layer, whereby ignition of said bridge forces a portion of the layer through the barrel to detonate the explosive. Input means are provided for igniting the semiconductor bridge ignitor.

  19. Lessons from the Chelyabinsk event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emel'Yanenko, Vacheslav V.

    2016-01-01

    Recent investigations on small asteroids, initiated by the Chelyabinsk event, are reviewed. New estimates of the terrestrial impact rate, importance of Sun-grazing conditions in the evolution of near-Earth objects, and problems associated with dangerous objects approaching the Earth from the Sun direction are discussed.

  20. Creating Special Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deLisle, Lee

    2009-01-01

    "Creating Special Events" is organized as a systematic approach to festivals and events for students who seek a career in event management. This book looks at the evolution and history of festivals and events and proceeds to the nuts and bolts of event management. The book presents event management as the means of planning, organizing, directing,…

  1. [Emergency drills and exercises to prepare the initial response and countermeasures for a disaster: an evacuation simulation for the hospital's outpatient blood collection room in the event of an earthquake].

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Makoto; Nakao, Hiroyuki; Morita, Kazuharu; Sone, Shinji; Masuda, Akiko; Yatomi, Yutaka

    2013-12-01

    In case of a disaster, the clinical laboratory's departmental staff is not only responsible for recovery efforts of routine work and the continuation of emergency tests, but also for protecting patients against both dangers and possible risks in the blood collecting room and physiology laboratory. For this reason, we decided to participate in an emergency drill, which focuses on the initial response to a disaster, specifically evacuation procedures and the cessation of phlebotomy operations. Since there were no existing manuals regarding disasters in our blood collection room, we first made a draft disaster plan. Additionally, since we were absolute beginners with regard to training and had inadequate knowledge of disaster countermeasures, we conducted theoretical simulations in advance. We decided to explain the evacuation details and had each participant in the exercise perform their own role in accordance with our scenario. Furthermore, we asked the participants to discuss the effectiveness of the training and seek out ways to improve our manuals. Although this was the first practice for the blood collection room, we were able to achieve our first goal by raising awareness of disaster prevention activities. The precautions against disaster that eliminate accidents require an immense amount of time and effort. Thus, it is necessary to continue training in order to increase the staffs awareness of disaster defense and to continue to improve our skills in the future. PMID:24605543

  2. The Advanced Photon Source event system

    SciTech Connect

    Lenkszus, F.R.; Laird, R.

    1995-12-31

    The Advanced Photon Source, like many other facilities, requires a means of transmitting timing information to distributed control system 1/0 controllers. The APS event system provides the means of distributing medium resolution/accuracy timing events throughout the facility. It consists of VME event generators and event receivers which are interconnected with 10OMbit/sec fiber optic links at distances of up to 650m in either a star or a daisy chain configuration. The systems event throughput rate is 1OMevents/sec with a peak-to-peak timing jitter down to lOOns depending on the source of the event. It is integrated into the EPICS-based A.PS control system through record and device support. Event generators broadcast timing events over fiber optic links to event receivers which are programmed to decode specific events. Event generators generate events in response to external inputs, from internal programmable event sequence RAMS, and from VME bus writes. The event receivers can be programmed to generate both pulse and set/reset level outputs to synchronize hardware, and to generate interrupts to initiate EPICS record processing. In addition, each event receiver contains a time stamp counter which is used to provide synchronized time stamps to EPICS records.

  3. Environmental consequences of postulated radionuclide releases from the Battelle Memorial Institute Columbus Laboratories JN-1b Building at the West Jefferson site as a result of severe natural phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Jamison, J.D.; Watson, E.C.

    1982-02-01

    Potential environmental consequences in terms of radiation dose to people are presented for postulated radionuclide releases caused by severe natural phenomena at the Battelle Memorial Institute Columbus Laboratories JN-1b Building at the West Jefferson site. The severe natural phenomena considered are earthquakes, tornadoes, and high straight-line winds. Maximum radioactive material deposition values are given for significant locations around the site. All important potential exposure pathways are examined. The most likely 50-year committed dose equivalents are given for the maximum-exposed individual and the population within a 50-mile radius of the plant. The maximum radioactive material deposition values likely to occur offsite are also given. The most likely calculated 50-year collective committed dose equivalents are all much lower than the collective dose equivalent expected from 50 years of exposure to natural background radiation and medical x-rays. The most likely maximum residual plutonium contamination estimated to be deposited offsite following the events are well below the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) proposed guideline for plutonium in the general environment of 0.2 ..mu..Ci/m/sup 2/. The likely maximum residual contamination from beta and gamma emitters are far below the background produced by fallout from nuclear weapons tests in the atmosphere.

  4. Modeling and analysis framework for core damage propagation during flow-blockage-initiated accidents in the Advanced Neutron Source reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S.H.; Taleyarkhan, R.P.; Navarro-Valenti, S.; Georgevich, V.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes modeling and analysis to evaluate the extent of core damage during flow blockage events in the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) reactor planned to be built at ORNL. Damage propagation is postulated to occur from thermal conduction between dmaged and undamaged plates due to direct thermal contact. Such direct thermal contact may occur beause of fuel plate swelling during fission product vapor release or plate buckling. Complex phenomena of damage propagation were modeled using a one-dimensional heat transfer model. A parametric study was done for several uncertain variables. The study included investigating effects of plate contact area, convective heat transfer coefficient, thermal conductivity on fuel swelling, and initial temperature of the plate being contacted by the damaged plate. Also, the side support plates were modeled to account for their effects of damage propagation. Results provide useful insights into how variouss uncertain parameters affect damage propagation.

  5. Assessment of a large break loss of coolant accident scenario requiring operator action to initiate safety injection

    SciTech Connect

    Grendys, R.C.; Nissley, M.E.; Baker, D.C.

    1996-11-01

    As part of the licensing basis for a nuclear power plant, the acceptability of the Emergency Core Cooling Systems (ECCS) following a postulated Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) as described in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 10, Chapter 1, Part 50.46, must be verified. The LOCA analysis is performed with an acceptable ECCS Evaluation Model and results must show compliance with the 10 CFR 50.46 acceptance criteria. Westinghouse Electric Corporation performs Large and Small Break LOCA and LOCA-related analyses to support the licensing basis of various nuclear power plants and also performs evaluations against the licensing basis analyses as required. Occasionally, the need arises for the holder of an operating license of a nuclear power plant to submit a Licensee Event Report (LER) to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) for any event of the type described in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10, Chapter 1, Part 50.73. To support the LER, a Justification for Past Operation (JPO) may be performed to assess the safety consequences and implications of the event based on previous operating conditions. This paper describes the work performed for the Large Break LOCA to assess the impact of an event discovered by Florida Power and Light and reported in LER-94-005-02. For this event, it was determined that under certain circumstances, operator action would have been required to initiate safety injection (SI), thus challenging the acceptability of the ECCS. This event was specifically addressed for the Large Break LOCA by using an advanced thermal hydraulic analysis methodology with realistic input assumptions.

  6. Postulating that our neurological models for musculoskeletal support, movement, and emotional expression come from archetypal forms in early organisms.

    PubMed

    Appleton, John A

    2006-01-01

    The ability for humans, in principle, to almost effortlessly support themselves against gravity, to move with grace, and to express themselves in subtle and beautiful ways is amazing, given the number of moveable joints, variety of obstacles and intentions, and possible emotions to express. The actual mechanics are obviously astonishing but the models for these activities, in origin, must be simple. The basic hypotheses concerning these models are the following: The neurological model for the control of our musculoskeletal system is a simple support system from early organisms. This model involves a complementary relationship between the dorsal and ventral surfaces. There are three functionally distinct parts of the body, though not visually observable. These parts, named here "the director, motor, and rudder segments," are functionally distinct in optimal posture and movement. Healthy balance, posture, and movement result from their relatively independent yet coordinated actions. Forms of locomotion used by early organisms: peristalsis, lateral undulation, and dorsal-ventral undulation are present in us yet. Four frozen phases of the dorsal-ventral wave, for example, constitute four distinct postural and personality styles. I present these hypotheses together in this short paper as an introduction to a new illustration-dependent way to conceive some of our psychophysical realities. The hypotheses came from efforts to develop mental imagery to assist students in learning the Alexander technique (AT). In addition, a little known theory concerning four basic emotions and personality types, called the Fusion Theory, provided an initial concept of personality types. Four fixed postural patterns that I observed in teaching AT linked well to this personality typology. There is research that supports the use of mental imagery to affect change in body use, mostly in the sports and dance fields, but none exists addressing the specific imagery derived from these hypotheses

  7. Event-by-Event Elliptic Flow Fluctuations from PHOBOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wosiek, B.; Alver, B.; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Chai, Z.; Chetluru, V.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; Gburek, T.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Harnarine, I.; Hauer, M.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Khan, N.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Li, W.; Lin, W. T.; Loizides, C.; Manly, S.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Reed, C.; Richardson, E.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Sagerer, J.; Seals, H.; Sedykh, I.; Smith, C. E.; Stankiewicz, M. A.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sukhanov, A.; Szostak, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Vaurynovich, S. S.; Verdier, R.; Veres, G. I.; Walters, P.; Wenger, E.; Willhelm, D.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Woźniak, K.; Wyngaardt, S.; Wysłouch, B.

    2009-04-01

    Recently PHOBOS has focused on the study of fluctuations and correlations in particle production in heavy-ion collisions at the highest energies delivered by the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). In this report, we present results on event-by-event elliptic flow fluctuations in (Au+Au) collisions at sqrt {sNN}=200 GeV. A data-driven method was used to estimate the dominant contribution from non-flow correlations. Over the broad range of collision centralities, the observed large elliptic flow fluctuations are in agreement with the fluctuations in the initial source eccentricity.

  8. Assessing Special Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neff, Bonita Dostal

    Special events defined as being "newsworthy events" are becoming a way of American life. They are also a means for making a lot of money. Examples of special events that are cited most frequently are often the most minor of events; e.g., the open house, the new business opening day gala, or a celebration of some event in an organization. Little…

  9. Sweepoviruses Cause Disease in Sweet Potato and Related Ipomoea spp.: Fulfilling Koch's Postulates for a Divergent Group in the Genus Begomovirus

    PubMed Central

    Márquez-Martín, Belén; Moriones, Enrique; Navas-Castillo, Jesús

    2011-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) and related Ipomoea species are frequently infected by monopartite begomoviruses (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae), known as sweepoviruses. Unlike other geminiviruses, the genomes of sweepoviruses have been recalcitrant to rendering infectious clones to date. Thus, Koch's postulates have not been fullfilled for any of the viruses in this group. Three novel species of sweepoviruses have recently been described in Spain: Sweet potato leaf curl Lanzarote virus (SPLCLaV), Sweet potato leaf curl Spain virus (SPLCSV) and Sweet potato leaf curl Canary virus (SPLCCaV). Here we describe the generation of the first infectious clone of an isolate (ES:MAL:BG30:06) of SPLCLaV. The clone consisted of a complete tandem dimeric viral genome in a binary vector. Successful infection by agroinoculation of several species of Ipomoea (including sweet potato) and Nicotiana benthamiana was confirmed by PCR, dot blot and Southern blot hybridization. Symptoms observed in infected plants consisted of leaf curl, yellowing, growth reduction and vein yellowing. Two varieties of sweet potato, ‘Beauregard’ and ‘Promesa’, were infected by agroinoculation, and symptoms of leaf curl and interveinal loss of purple colouration were observed, respectively. The virus present in agroinfected plants was readily transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci to I. setosa plants. The progeny virus population present in agroinfected I. setosa and sweet potato plants was isolated and identity to the original isolate was confirmed by sequencing. Therefore, Koch's postulates were fulfilled for the first time for a sweepovirus. PMID:22073314

  10. Event Segmentation Ability Uniquely Predicts Event Memory

    PubMed Central

    Sargent, Jesse Q.; Zacks, Jeffrey M.; Hambrick, David Z.; Zacks, Rose T.; Kurby, Christopher A.; Bailey, Heather R.; Eisenberg, Michelle L.; Beck, Taylor M.

    2013-01-01

    Memory for everyday events plays a central role in tasks of daily living, autobiographical memory, and planning. Event memory depends in part on segmenting ongoing activity into meaningful units. This study examined the relationship between event segmentation and memory in a lifespan sample to answer the following question: Is the ability to segment activity into meaningful events a unique predictor of subsequent memory, or is the relationship between event perception and memory accounted for by general cognitive abilities? Two hundred and eight adults ranging from 20 to 79 years old segmented movies of everyday events and attempted to remember the events afterwards. They also completed psychometric ability tests and tests measuring script knowledge for everyday events. Event segmentation and script knowledge both explained unique variance in event memory above and beyond the psychometric measures, and did so as strongly in older as in younger adults. These results suggest that event segmentation is a basic cognitive mechanism, important for memory across the lifespan. PMID:23942350