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Sample records for potato chlorotic stunt

  1. Chlorotic curly stunt: a severe begomovirus disease of bottle gourd in northern India.

    PubMed

    Sohrab, S S; Mandal, B; Ali, A; Varma, A

    2010-06-01

    Bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) an important vegetable crop in India was observed to be affected by a chlorotic curly stunt disease (CCSD) during 2003-2006 in the vegetable growing areas of Delhi and adjoining state of Haryana. The affected plants are severely stunted and bear very small chlorotic and mildly curled leaves. Incidence of the disease varied from 4.7 to 36%. The disease could be easily transmitted by whitefly, Bemisia tabaci but not by sap. The causal virus was found to be a Begomovirus on the basis of whitefly transmission and sequence identity of putative coat protein (CP) and replication initiator protein (Rep) genes. The virus was transmitted to Cucumis sativus, Luffa acutangula, L. cylndrica, Lycopersicon esculentum, Nicotiana tabacum and Praecitrullus fistulosus but not to Citrullus lunatus, Cucumis melo, Cucurbita moschata and Vigna unguiculata. The N-terminal 60 amino acids of CP of the virus had 100% sequence identity with all the isolates of Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV) and two isolates of Squash leaf curl China virus (SLCCV). The full length amino acid sequence of the CP and Rep genes had 100% similarity with ToLCNDV-Svr and -Luffa isolates. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the virus associated with CCSD of bottle gourd belongs to ToLCNDV cluster of the begomoviruses. This is the first record of emergence of a Begomovirus associated severe disease in bottle gourd in India. PMID:23637479

  2. Elimination of chrysanthemum stunt viroid and chrysanthemum chlorotic mottle viroid from infected chrysanthemum by cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Su Min; Naing, Aung Htay; Kim, Haeng-Hoon; Chung, Mi Young; Lim, Ki Byung; Kim, Chang Kil

    2016-07-01

    Chrysanthemum morifolium 'Borami' and 'Secret Pink' showing symptoms of stunt disease caused by chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd) and 'Yellow Cap' showing chlorotic mottle disease caused by chrysanthemum chlorotic mottle viroid (CChMVd) were confirmed to be infected by the respective viroids by using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Real-time PCR results showed that the viroid concentrations in the infected cultivars varied between the different regions of origin (Chilgok, Gumi, and Gyeongsan). We applied a cryopreservation protocol for elimination of CSVd from naturally infected 'Borami' collected from Gumi, showing the lowest concentration of CSVd, by varying several factors such as plant vitrification solutions (PVS2 and PVS3), duration of exposure to liquid nitrogen, shoot-tip size, and low-temperature treatment. The solution (PVS2) and low-temperature treatment were found to be critical factors determining the efficacy of viroid elimination. We optimized the protocol by combining of all resulted optimal factors and tested the applicability of the protocol in 'Borami' collected from Chilgok and Gyeongsan and in 'Secret Pink' from Chilgok, Gumi, and Gyeongsan, which displayed different viroid concentrations. We found that the elimination rates varied depending on the cultivar and region of origin. Similar results were observed when the protocol was applied to eliminate CChMVd from the 'Yellow Cap' collected from the same regions. Finally, we found that nested PCR is more reliable for viroid detection than RT-PCR. Overall, cryopreservation can be used to eliminate viroids from infected chrysanthemums; however, the efficacy depends on genotype and initial viroid concentration. PMID:26315819

  3. Complete Genome Sequences of the Carlavirus Sweet potato chlorotic fleck virus from East Timor and Australia.

    PubMed

    Maina, Solomon; Edwards, Owain R; de Almeida, Luis; Ximenes, Abel; Jones, Roger A C

    2016-01-01

    We present here the first complete genome sequences of Sweet potato chlorotic fleck virus (SPCFV) from sweet potato in Australia and East Timor, and we compare these with four complete SPCFV genomes from South Korea and one from Uganda. The Australian, East Timorese, South Korean, and Ugandan genomes differed considerably from each other. PMID:27231359

  4. Complete Genome Sequences of the Carlavirus Sweet potato chlorotic fleck virus from East Timor and Australia

    PubMed Central

    Maina, Solomon; Edwards, Owain R.; de Almeida, Luis; Ximenes, Abel

    2016-01-01

    We present here the first complete genome sequences of Sweet potato chlorotic fleck virus (SPCFV) from sweet potato in Australia and East Timor, and we compare these with four complete SPCFV genomes from South Korea and one from Uganda. The Australian, East Timorese, South Korean, and Ugandan genomes differed considerably from each other. PMID:27231359

  5. Nucleotide sequence of a chickpea chlorotic stunt virus relative that infects pea and faba bean in China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Cui-Ji; Xiang, Hai-Ying; Zhuo, Tao; Li, Da-Wei; Yu, Jia-Lin; Han, Cheng-Gui

    2012-07-01

    We determined the genome sequence of a new polerovirus that infects field pea and faba bean in China. Its entire nucleotide sequence (6021 nt) was most closely related (83.3% identity) to that of an Ethiopian isolate of chickpea chlorotic stunt virus (CpCSV-Eth). With the exception of the coat protein (encoded by ORF3), amino acid sequence identities of all gene products of this virus to those of CpCSV-Eth and other poleroviruses were <90%. This suggests that it is a new member of the genus Polerovirus, and the name pea mild chlorosis virus is proposed. PMID:22476900

  6. Analysis of watermelon chlorotic stunt virus and tomato leaf curl Palampur virus mixed and pseudo-recombination infections.

    PubMed

    Esmaeili, Maryam; Heydarnejad, Jahangir; Massumi, Hossain; Varsani, Arvind

    2015-12-01

    Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus (WmCSV) and tomato leaf curl Palampur virus (ToLCPMV) are limiting factors for cucurbit production in south and southeastern Iran. ToLCPMV infects all cucurbit crops (except watermelons) whereas WmCSV is somewhat limited to watermelon, causing detrimental effects on fruit production. In a survey, we detected WmCSV in all watermelon growing farms in Fars province (southern Iran). Given that WmCSV and ToLCPMV are present in the same geographical location in Iran, we studied the interaction of two viruses. Co-infection using agroinfectious clones of WmCSV and ToLCPMV caused severe symptoms in watermelon and zucchini in comparison to symptoms observed from individual infections. Interestingly, inoculation of zucchini with WmCSV DNA-A and ToLCPMV DNA-B agroinfectious clones or vice versa produced a viable pseudo-recombinant and induced systemic symptoms. This demonstrates that replication-associated protein of DNA-A of each virus is able to bind to cis elements of the DNA-B molecules of another virus. PMID:26433951

  7. Characterization of a synergistic interaction between two cucurbit-infecting begomoviruses: Squash leaf curl virus and Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus.

    PubMed

    Sufrin-Ringwald, Tali; Lapidot, Moshe

    2011-02-01

    Squash leaf curl virus (SLCV) and Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus (WmCSV) are cucurbit-infecting bipartite begomoviruses. Both viruses are found in the eastern Mediterranean basin but the effects of dual infection of both viruses on melon (Cucumis melo L.) have not been described. 'Arava' melon plants were inoculated in the greenhouse, using whiteflies, with either SLCV, WmCSV, or both. Control plants were exposed to nonviruliferous whiteflies or not exposed at all. Following inoculation, plants were transplanted to a 50-mesh insect-proof nethouse and grown until fruit maturity. The experiment was performed in two melon-growing seasons: spring, transplant in May and harvest in July; and summer, transplant in August and harvest in October. Following inoculation, SLCV-infected melon plants showed mild symptoms that disappeared with time, and there was no effect on plant height. WmCSV-infected plants developed disease symptoms that became more obvious with time, and plants were somewhat shorter than control plants in the spring but not in the summer. SLCV had no effect on yield, regardless of season. WmCSV had no statistically significant effect on yield in the spring but, in the summer, reduced yield by 22%, on average. Dual-inoculated plants showed a synergistic interaction between the two viruses. They developed disease symptoms that were more pronounced than WmCSV alone, with plants being shorter than control plants by 20 to 25% regardless of season. Moreover, the yield of dual-inoculated plants was reduced on average by 21% in the spring and 54% in the summer, and fruit appearance was adversely affected. Dual inoculation did not affect WmCSV DNA level but SLCV DNA level was increased several-fold by the presence of WmCSV. PMID:21219130

  8. Detection of sweet potato virus C, sweet potato virus 2 and sweet potato feathery mottle virus in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Varanda, Carla M R; Santos, Susana J; Oliveira, Mônica D M; Clara, Maria Ivone E; Félix, Maria Rosário F

    2015-06-01

    Field sweet potato plants showing virus-like symptoms, as stunting, leaf distortion, mosaic and chlorosis, were collected in southwest Portugal and tested for the presence of four potyviruses, sweet potato virus C (SPVC), sweet potato virus 2 (SPV2), sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV), sweet potato virus G (SPVG), and the crinivirus sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV). DsRNA fractions were extracted from symptomatic leaves and used as templates in single and multiplex RT-PCR assays using previously described specific primers for each analyzed virus. The amplified reaction products for SPVC, SPV2 and SPFMV were of expected size, and direct sequencing of PCR products revealed that they correspond to the coat protein gene (CP) and showed 98%, 99% and 99% identity, respectively, to those viruses. Comparison of the CP genomic and amino acid sequences of the Portuguese viral isolates recovered here with those of ten other sequences of isolates obtained in different countries retrieved from the GenBank showed very few differences. The application of the RT-PCR assays revealed for the first time the presence of SPVC and SPFMV in the sweet potato crop in Portugal, the absence of SPVG and SPCSV in tested plants, as well as the occurrence of triple virus infections under field conditions. PMID:26104336

  9. Control of sweet potato virus diseases.

    PubMed

    Loebenstein, Gad

    2015-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is ranked seventh in global food crop production and is the third most important root crop after potato and cassava. Sweet potatoes are vegetative propagated from vines, root slips (sprouts), or tubers. Therefore, virus diseases can be a major constrain, reducing yields markedly, often more than 50%. The main viruses worldwide are Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV) and Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV). Effects on yields by SPFMV or SPCSV alone are minor, or but in complex infection by the two or other viruses yield losses of 50%. The orthodox way of controlling viruses in vegetative propagated crops is by supplying the growers with virus-tested planting material. High-yielding plants are tested for freedom of viruses by PCR, serology, and grafting to sweet potato virus indicator plants. After this, meristem tips are taken from those plants that reacted negative. The meristems were grown into plants which were kept under insect-proof conditions and away from other sweet potato material for distribution to farmers after another cycle of reproduction. PMID:25591876

  10. Using Maize chlorotic dwarf virus to explore future frontiers in plant virology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize chlorotic dwarf virus (MCDV) causes a chlorosis and stunting disease of corn throughout the Midwest United States. It is a waikavirus transmitted by the leafhopper Graminella nigrifrons. Although waikaviruses are economically important viruses in corn and rice, little is known about the viru...

  11. Control of continuous irradiation injury on potatoes with daily temperature cycling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tibbitts, T. W.; Bennett, S. M.; Cao, W.

    1990-01-01

    Two controlled-environment experiments were conducted to determine the effects of temperature fluctuations under continuous irradiation on growth and tuberization of two potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars, Kennebec and Superior. These cultivars had exhibited chlorotic and stunted growth under continuous irradiation and constant temperatures. The plants were grown for 4 weeks in the first experiment and for 6 weeks in the second experiment. Each experiment was conducted under continuous irradiation of 400 micromoles per square meter per second of photosynthetic photon flux and included two temperature treatments: constant 18 degrees C and fluctuating 22 degrees C/14 degrees C on a 12-hour cycle. A common vapor pressure deficit of 0.62 kilopascal was maintained at all temperatures. Plants under constant 18 degrees C were stunted and had chlorotic and abscised leaves and essentially no tuber formation. Plants grown under the fluctuating temperature treatment developed normally, were developing tubers, and had a fivefold or greater total dry weight as compared with those under the constant temperature. These results suggest that a thermoperiod can allow normal plant growth and tuberization in potato cultivars that are unable to develop effectively under continuous irradiation.

  12. Rubus Stunt Phytoplasma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rubus stunt is a severe disease that naturally infects only plants in the genus Rubus, and no immune Rubus germplasm has been reported. Apium, Chrysanthemum, Fragaria, and Trifolium species have been used as experimental hosts for Rubus stunt phytoplasma. The disease occurs in wild and cultivated R...

  13. Detection of sweet potato viruses in Yunnan and genetic diversity analysis of the common viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two hundred seventy-nine samples with virus-like symptoms collected from 16 regions in Yunnan Province were tested by RT-PCR/PCR using virus-specific primers for 8 sweet potato viruses. Six viruses, Sweet potato chlorotic fleck virus (SPCFV), Sweet Potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV), Sweet potato ...

  14. Childhood stunting: a global perspective.

    PubMed

    de Onis, Mercedes; Branca, Francesco

    2016-05-01

    Childhood stunting is the best overall indicator of children's well-being and an accurate reflection of social inequalities. Stunting is the most prevalent form of child malnutrition with an estimated 161 million children worldwide in 2013 falling below -2 SD from the length-for-age/height-for-age World Health Organization Child Growth Standards median. Many more millions suffer from some degree of growth faltering as the entire length-for-age/height-for-age z-score distribution is shifted to the left indicating that all children, and not only those falling below a specific cutoff, are affected. Despite global consensus on how to define and measure it, stunting often goes unrecognized in communities where short stature is the norm as linear growth is not routinely assessed in primary health care settings and it is difficult to visually recognize it. Growth faltering often begins in utero and continues for at least the first 2 years of post-natal life. Linear growth failure serves as a marker of multiple pathological disorders associated with increased morbidity and mortality, loss of physical growth potential, reduced neurodevelopmental and cognitive function and an elevated risk of chronic disease in adulthood. The severe irreversible physical and neurocognitive damage that accompanies stunted growth poses a major threat to human development. Increased awareness of stunting's magnitude and devastating consequences has resulted in its being identified as a major global health priority and the focus of international attention at the highest levels with global targets set for 2025 and beyond. The challenge is to prevent linear growth failure while keeping child overweight and obesity at bay. PMID:27187907

  15. Four descriptions: 'Mollicutes'; 'Corn stunt Spiroplasma'; 'Maize bushy stunt phytoplasma'; and, 'Maize redness'

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This work includes four chapters, one describing mollicute pathogens of plants in general, and three describing specific mollicute pathogens of maize. Chapters describe the distribution, diseases, symptoms, vector epidemiology and detection of corn stunt spiroplasma, maize bushy stunt phytoplasma a...

  16. Correlates of stunting among children in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Stunting, is a linear growth retardation, which results from inadequate intake of food over a long period of time that may be worsened by chronic illness. Over a long period of time, inadequate nutrition or its effects could result in stunting. This paper examines the correlates of stunting among children in Ghana using data from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS). Methods The paper uses data from the children recode file of the 2008 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), a nationally representative cross sectional survey conducted in Ghana. A total of 2379 children under five years who had valid anthropometric data were used for the study. Data on the stunting of children were collected by measuring the height of all children under six years of age. A measuring board produced by Shorr Productions was used to obtain the height of the children. Children under 2 years of age were measured lying down on the board while those above 2 years were measured standing. In the DHS data, a z-score is given for the child’s height relative to the age. Both bi-variate and multi-variate statistics are used to examine the correlates of stunting. Results Stunting was common among males than females. Age of child was a significant determinant of stunting with the highest odd of stunting been among children aged 36–47 months. Region was significantly related to stunting. Children from the Eastern Region were more likely to be stunted than children from the Western Region which is the reference group (OR = 1.7 at p < 0.05). Number of children in household was significantly related to stunting. Children in households with 5–8 children were 1.3 times more likely to be stunted compared to those with 1–4 children (p < .05). Mother’s age was a significant predictor of stunting with children whose mothers were aged 35–44 years being more likely to be stunted. Conclusion Culturally appropriate interventions and policies should be put in

  17. The stunting syndrome in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Prendergast, Andrew J; Humphrey, Jean H

    2014-01-01

    Linear growth failure is the most common form of undernutrition globally. With an estimated 165 million children below 5 years of age affected, stunting has been identified as a major public health priority, and there are ambitious targets to reduce the prevalence of stunting by 40% between 2010 and 2025. We view this condition as a ‘stunting syndrome’ in which multiple pathological changes marked by linear growth retardation in early life are associated with increased morbidity and mortality, reduced physical, neurodevelopmental and economic capacity and an elevated risk of metabolic disease into adulthood. Stunting is a cyclical process because women who were themselves stunted in childhood tend to have stunted offspring, creating an intergenerational cycle of poverty and reduced human capital that is difficult to break. In this review, the mechanisms underlying linear growth failure at different ages are described, the short-, medium- and long-term consequences of stunting are discussed, and the evidence for windows of opportunity during the life cycle to target interventions at the stunting syndrome are evaluated. PMID:25310000

  18. The current incidence of viral disease in korean sweet potatoes and development of multiplex rt-PCR assays for simultaneous detection of eight sweet potato viruses.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Hae-Ryun; Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Shin, Jun-Chul; Lee, Ye-Ji; Seo, Jang-Kyun; Lee, Hyeong-Un; Jung, Mi-Nam; Kim, Sun-Hyung; Choi, Hong-Soo

    2014-12-01

    Sweet potato is grown extensively from tropical to temperate regions and is an important food crop worldwide. In this study, we established detection methods for 17 major sweet potato viruses using single and multiplex RT-PCR assays. To investigate the current incidence of viral diseases, we collected 154 samples of various sweet potato cultivars showing virus-like symptoms from 40 fields in 10 Korean regions, and analyzed them by RT-PCR using specific primers for each of the 17 viruses. Of the 17 possible viruses, we detected eight in our samples. Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV) and sweet potato virus C (SPVC) were most commonly detected, infecting approximately 87% and 85% of samples, respectively. Furthermore, Sweet potato symptomless virus 1 (SPSMV-1), Sweet potato virus G (SPVG), Sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV), Sweet potato virus 2 ( SPV2), Sweet potato chlorotic fleck virus (SPCFV), and Sweet potato latent virus (SPLV) were detected in 67%, 58%, 47%, 41%, 31%, and 20% of samples, respectively. This study presents the first documented occurrence of four viruses (SPVC, SPV2, SPCFV, and SPSMV-1) in Korea. Based on the results of our survey, we developed multiplex RT-PCR assays for simple and simultaneous detection of the eight sweet potato viruses we recorded. PMID:25506306

  19. The Current Incidence of Viral Disease in Korean Sweet Potatoes and Development of Multiplex RT-PCR Assays for Simultaneous Detection of Eight Sweet Potato Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Hae-Ryun; Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Shin, Jun-Chul; Lee, Ye-Ji; Seo, Jang-Kyun; Lee, Hyeong-Un; Jung, Mi-Nam; Kim, Sun-Hyung; Choi, Hong-Soo

    2014-01-01

    Sweet potato is grown extensively from tropical to temperate regions and is an important food crop worldwide. In this study, we established detection methods for 17 major sweet potato viruses using single and multiplex RT-PCR assays. To investigate the current incidence of viral diseases, we collected 154 samples of various sweet potato cultivars showing virus-like symptoms from 40 fields in 10 Korean regions, and analyzed them by RT-PCR using specific primers for each of the 17 viruses. Of the 17 possible viruses, we detected eight in our samples. Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV) and sweet potato virus C (SPVC) were most commonly detected, infecting approximately 87% and 85% of samples, respectively. Furthermore, Sweet potato symptomless virus 1 (SPSMV-1), Sweet potato virus G (SPVG), Sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV), Sweet potato virus 2 ( SPV2), Sweet potato chlorotic fleck virus (SPCFV), and Sweet potato latent virus (SPLV) were detected in 67%, 58%, 47%, 41%, 31%, and 20% of samples, respectively. This study presents the first documented occurrence of four viruses (SPVC, SPV2, SPCFV, and SPSMV-1) in Korea. Based on the results of our survey, we developed multiplex RT-PCR assays for simple and simultaneous detection of the eight sweet potato viruses we recorded. PMID:25506306

  20. Analysis of gene functions in Maize chlorotic mottle virus.

    PubMed

    Scheets, Kay

    2016-08-15

    Gene functions of strains of Maize chlorotic mottle virus, which comprises the monotypic genus Machlomovirus, have not been previously identified. In this study mutagenesis of the seven genes encoded in maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) showed that the genes with positional and sequence similarity to their homologs in viruses of related tombusvirid genera had similar functions. p50 and its readthrough protein p111 are the only proteins required for replication in maize protoplasts, and they function at a low level in trans. Two movement proteins, p7a and p7b, and coat protein, encoded on subgenomic RNA1, are required for cell-to-cell movement in maize, and p7a and p7b function in trans. A unique protein, p31, expressed as a readthrough extension of p7a, is required for efficient systemic infection. The 5' proximal MCMV gene encodes a unique 32kDa protein that is not required for replication or movement. Transcripts lacking p32 expression accumulate to about 1/3 the level of wild type transcripts in protoplasts and produce delayed, mild infections in maize plants. Additional studies on p32, p31 and the unique amino-terminal region of p50 are needed to further characterize the life cycle of this unique tombusvirid. PMID:27242072

  1. Sugarcane yield loss due to ratoon stunt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The yield response of recently released CP-cultivars to ratoon stunt has not been determined. Cane and sugar yields of Liefsonia xyli subsp. xyli (Lxx)-infected and healthy sugarcane plants of cultivars that are currently major commercial cultivars that have not been in prior tests as well as former...

  2. Food habits of stunted and non-stunted white perch (Morone americana)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gosch, N.J.C.; Stittie, J.R.; Pope, K.L.

    2010-01-01

    We studied food habits of white perch (Morone americana) from two populations with different stable states (stunted [Branched Oak Lake, Nebraska] and nonstunted [Pawnee Lake, Nebraska]) to determine if change in food habits of white perch is likely to occur in situations where a stunted white perch population is altered to a nonstunted state and vice versa. Three approaches were used to quantitatively describe seasonal (spring = March-May, summer = June-August, autumn = September-November) diets of white perch - 1) frequency of occurrence, 2) percentage of composition by volume, and 3) mean stomach fullness. White perch diets were dominated by cladocerans and dipterans in both reservoirs during all seasons. Fish egg predation was similar between reservoirs, and white perch rarely consumed fishes in either the stunted or the non-stunted population. Shifting a white perch population between stunted and non-stunted states will likely cause little or no change in food habits; fish in both states will primarily consume invertebrates.

  3. The 3.2 Angstrom Resolution Structure of the Polymorphic Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus Ribonucleoprotein Particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speir, Jeffrey Alan

    Structural studies of the polymorphic cowpea chlorotic mottle virus have resulted in high resolution structures for two distinct icosahedral ribonucleoprotein particle conformations dependent upon whether acidic or basic pH conditions prevail. CCMV is stable below pH 6.5, however metal-free particles maintain a 10% increase in hydrodynamic volume at pH >=q 7.5. Identification of this swollen' form of CCMV, which can easily be disrupted with 1M NaCl, led to the first reassembly of an icosahedral virus in vitro from purified viral protein and RNA to form infectious particles, and its assembly has been the subject of biochemical and biophysical investigations for over twenty-five years. Under well defined conditions of pH, ionic strength and divalent metal ion concentration, CCMV capsid protein or capsid protein and RNA will reassemble to form icosahedral particles of various sizes, sheets, tubes, rosettes, and a variety of laminar structures which resemble virion structures from non-related virus families. Analysis of native particles at 3.2A resolution and swollen particles at 28A resolution has suggested that the chemical basis for the formation of polymorphic icosahedral and anisometric structures is: (i) hexamers formed of beta-barrel subunits stabilized by an unusual hexameric parallel beta structure made up of their N-termini, (ii) the location of protein-RNA interactions, (iii) divalent metal cation binding sites that regulate quasi-symmetrical subunit associations, (iv) charge repulsion across the same interfaces when lacking divalent metal ions at basic pH, which induces the formation of sixty 20A diameter portals for RNA release, and (v) a novel, C-terminal-based, subunit dimer assembly unit. The use of C- and N-terminal arms in CCMV has not been observed in other icosahedral RNA virus structures determined at near atomic resolution, however, their detailed interactions and roles in stabilizing the quaternary organization of CCMV are related to that found

  4. Application of plant growth regulators mitigates chlorotic foliar injury by the black pecan aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chlorotic feeding injury by the black pecan aphid, Melanocallis caryaefoliae (Davis) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), to pecan (Carya illinoinensis [Wangenh.] K. Koch) foliage can result in leaf senescence and abscission. The plant growth regulators chlorforfenuron (CPPU), gibberellic acid (GA3) and aminoet...

  5. Strawberry chlorotic fleck: identification and characterization of a novel Closterovirus associated with the disease.

    PubMed

    Tzanetakis, Ioannis E; Martin, Robert R

    2007-03-01

    Chlorotic fleck, a strawberry disease caused by a graft and aphid transmissible agent, was identified more than 45 years ago in Louisiana. Since its discovery there has been no additional information on the agent that causes the disease. The mode of transmission implies that a virus is the causal agent of chlorotic fleck. We identified four closteroviruses in the single chlorotic fleck infected strawberry clone known to exist in the United States. Sequence analysis indicated that two of the viruses are novel and one of them is closely related to members of the Closterovirus genus, the aphid-transmitted viruses in the family Closteroviridae, a feature that is in accordance with the aphid transmissibility of the chlorotic fleck agent. The genome of the novel Closterovirus, designated as Strawberry chlorotic fleck associated virus exceeds 17 kilobases and encodes 10 open reading frames, including the signature closterovirus genes as well as a gene without obvious homologs in the family. RNA folding predicted a pseudoknot structure near the 3' terminus of the virus that may be involved in template recognition by the viral polymerase. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that Strawberry chlorotic fleck associated virus is most closely related to Citrus tristeza virus among sequenced members of the family. Detection protocols have been developed and the virus was detected in several strawberry plants from production fields. PMID:17109984

  6. CDL description of the CDC 6600 stunt box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hertzog, J. B.

    1971-01-01

    The CDC 6600 central memory control (stunt box) is described utilizing CDL (Computer Design Language), block diagrams, and text. The stunt box is a clearing house for all central memory references from the 6600 central and peripheral processors. Since memory requests can be issued simultaneously, the stunt box must be capable of assigning priorities to requests, of labeling requests so that the data will be distributed correctly, and of remembering rejected addresses due to memory conflicts.

  7. Structural transitions in Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liepold, Lars O.; Revis, Jennifer; Allen, Mark; Oltrogge, Luke; Young, Mark; Douglas, Trevor

    2005-12-01

    Viral capsids act as molecular containers for the encapsulation of genomic nucleic acid. These protein cages can also be used as constrained reaction vessels for packaging and entrapment of synthetic cargos. The icosahedral Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) is an excellent model for understanding the encapsulation and packaging of both genomic and synthetic materials. High-resolution structural information of the CCMV capsid has been invaluable for evaluating structure-function relationships in the assembled capsid but does not allow insight into the capsid dynamics. The dynamic nature of the CCMV capsid might play an important role in the biological function of the virus. The CCMV capsid undergoes a pH and metal ion dependent reversible structural transition where 60 separate pores in the capsid open or close, exposing the interior of the protein cage to the bulk medium. In addition, the highly basic N-terminal domain of the capsid, which is disordered in the crystal structure, plays a significant role in packaging the viral cargo. Interestingly, in limited proteolysis and mass spectrometry experiments the N-terminal domain is the first part of the subunit to be cleaved, confirming its dynamic nature. Based on our fundamental understanding of the capsid dynamics in CCMV, we have utilized these aspects to direct packaging of a range of synthetic materials including drugs and inorganic nanoparticles.

  8. Impact of disasters on child stunting in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Gaire, Surya; Delbiso, Tefera Darge; Pandey, Srijana; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2016-01-01

    Background Stunting is a major public health problem that results from inadequate nutritional intake over a long period of time. Disasters have major implications in poor and vulnerable children. The aim of this study was, therefore, to assess the impact of disasters on child stunting in Nepal. Method A sample consisting of 2,111 children aged 6–59 months was obtained from the 2011 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey. We used bivariate and multivariate analyses to examine moderate and severe stunting against disaster, controlling for all possible confounders. Result Out of the total study sample, 43% were stunted (17.1% severely and 25.9% moderately). The final model, after adjusting for confounders, showed that epidemics have no impact on child stunting (adjusted odds ratio [OR] =1.14, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.66, 1.97 and adjusted OR =1.04, 95% CI: 0.66, 1.65 for severe and moderate stunting, respectively). Floods have impact on child stunting (adjusted OR =0.57, 95% CI: 0.31, 0.96 and adjusted OR =0.66, 95% CI: 0.41, 0.94 for severe and moderate stunting, respectively). However, children aged 6–11 months, nonvaccinated children, children of working women, children who live in mountainous areas, and children from the poorest households were more likely to be moderately stunted. Similarly, children aged 36–47 months, Dalit and other ethnic groups, children from rural settings, and children from the poorest households were more likely to be severely stunted. Conclusion This article illustrates the need to rethink about child stunting in Nepal. This study suggests need for further research, integration of disaster data in the Nepal Demography Health Survey, educational interventions, public awareness, promotion of vaccination, and equity in health service delivery. PMID:27354834

  9. Child Stunting is Associated with Low Circulating Essential Amino Acids

    PubMed Central

    Semba, Richard D.; Shardell, Michelle; Sakr Ashour, Fayrouz A.; Moaddel, Ruin; Trehan, Indi; Maleta, Kenneth M.; Ordiz, M. Isabel; Kraemer, Klaus; Khadeer, Mohammed A.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Manary, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Stunting affects about one-quarter of children under five worldwide. The pathogenesis of stunting is poorly understood. Nutritional interventions have had only modest effects in reducing stunting. We hypothesized that insufficiency in essential amino acids may be limiting the linear growth of children. Methods We used a targeted metabolomics approach to measure serum amino acids, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, and other metabolites using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in 313 children, aged 12–59 months, from rural Malawi. Children underwent anthropometry. Findings Sixty-two percent of the children were stunted. Children with stunting had lower serum concentrations of all nine essential amino acids (tryptophan, isoleucine, leucine, valine, methionine, threonine, histidine, phenylalanine, lysine) compared with nonstunted children (p < 0.01). In addition, stunted children had significantly lower serum concentrations of conditionally essential amino acids (arginine, glycine, glutamine), non-essential amino acids (asparagine, glutamate, serine), and six different sphingolipids compared with nonstunted children. Stunting was also associated with alterations in serum glycerophospholipid concentrations. Interpretation Our findings support the idea that children with a high risk of stunting may not be receiving an adequate dietary intake of essential amino acids and choline, an essential nutrient for the synthesis of sphingolipids and glycerophospholipids. PMID:27211567

  10. Ratoon stunting disease of sugarcane: isolation of the causal bacterium.

    PubMed

    Davis, M J; Gillaspie, A G; Harris, R W; Lawson, R H

    1980-12-19

    A small coryneform bacterium was consistently isolated from sugarcane with ratoon stunting disease and shown to be the causal agent. A similar bacterium was isolated from Bermuda grass. Both strains multiplied in sugarcane and Bermuda grass, but the Bermuda grass strain did not incite the symptoms of ratoon stunting disease in sugarcane. Shoot growth in Bermuda grass was retarded by both strains. PMID:17817853

  11. Early Childhood Stunting and Later Fine Motor Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Susan M.; Walker, Susan P.; Grantham-McGregor, Sally; Powell, Christine A.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of early childhood stunting (height for age 2SD or more below reference values) and interventions on fine motor abilities at 11 to 12 years, and the relationship between fine motor abilities and school achievement and intelligence. Method: A cohort of stunted children who had participated in…

  12. Potato Flavor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato is one of the most popular vegetables worldwide and is the most important vegetable crop in the United States, accounting for nearly one-third of per-capita vegetable consumption. Potatoes can be prepared in many ways, including baking, boiling, roasting, frying, and microwaving, allowin...

  13. Clematis Chlorotic Mottle Virus, a novel virus occurring in Clematis in the USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Clematis is a genus of temperate climbing vines that are popular as ornamentals. Samples from domestic and international sources showing symptoms of yellow mottling and veining, chlorotic ring spots, line pattern mosaics, and in some cases flower distortion and discoloration were received at several...

  14. First report of Tomato chlorotic spot virus on Annual Vinca (Catharanthus roseus) in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato chlorotic spot virus was identified in the ornamental crop Catharanthus roseus (commonly known as vinca) in south Florida, the first report of this virus naturally infecting this species. Genetic diversity of the virus was characterized. This report provides an overview of this emerging vir...

  15. Cleavage of Maize chlorotic dwarf virus R78 protein by the viral 3C protease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize chlorotic dwarf virus (MCDV) is a member of the genus Waikavirus and encodes a 389 kDa polyprotein from its 11784 nt genomic RNA. Like many polyprotein-encoding viruses, MCDV contains a 3C-like virus protease that is presumably responsible for maturation cleavages of the polyprotein. However,...

  16. First report of Tomato chlorotic spot virus in tomato, pepper and jimsonweed in Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is the first report of Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) in Puerto Rico. TCSV was detected in tomato, pepper and jimsonweed. This report provides an overview of this virus for growers, extension workers, crop consultants and research and regulatory scientists....

  17. Complete nucleotide sequence of a maize chlorotic mottle virus isolate from Nebraska

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The complete genome of a maize chlorotic mottle virus isolate from Nebraska (MCMV-NE) was cloned and sequenced. The MCMV-NE genome consists of 4,436 nucleotides and shares 99.5% nucleotide sequence identity with an MCMV isolate from Kansas (MCMV-KS). Of 22 polymorphic sites, most resulted from t...

  18. The Nucleotide Sequence of Blackberry chlorotic ringspot and Strawberry necrotic shock viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Small fruit crops were thought to be infected with distinct stains of Tobacco streak virus (TSV) for more than 50 years. Two novel ilarviruses, Blackberry chlorotic ringspot virus (BCRV) and Strawberry necrotic shock virus (SNSV) were found to infect small fruit crops. Using TSV specific molecular ...

  19. First report of Tomato chlorotic spot virus in Hoya wayetii and Schlumbergera truncata (Haw.) Moran

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato chlorotic spot virus was identified in two ornamental crops [Hoya wayetii (commonly known as porcelainflower or waxflower) and Schlumbergera truncata (false Christmas cactus)] in central Florida, the first report of this virus naturally infecting these or other ornamentals anywhere. Genetic d...

  20. The Nucleotide Sequence Of Strawberry Chlorotic Fleck Associated Virus, A Novel Closterovirus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chlorotic fleck, a strawberry disease caused by a graft and aphid transmissible agent(s), was identified more than 45 years ago. The mode of transmission indicated that a virus may be associated with symptoms. A novel closterovirus, in addition to other known strawberry viruses, was identified in th...

  1. First report of the natural occurence of Tomato chlorotic spot virus in peanuts in Haiti

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) was identified in peanut in Haiti. This is the first report of TCSV naturally infecting peanut. Genetic diversity of TCSV was characterized. This report provides an overview of this emerging virus for growers, extension workers, crop consultants and research and...

  2. EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS AND LEAFHOPPER GENDER ON MAIZE CHLOROTIC DWARF VIRUS TRANSMISSION BY GRAMINELLA NIGRIFRONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of temperature, light intensity, day length, atmospheric pressure, and leafhopper gender on the frequency of transmission of Maize chlorotic dwarf virus (MCDV) by Graminella nigrifrons were evaluated. Transmission rates for both male and female leafhoppers progressively increased from 2...

  3. First Report of the Natural Occurence of Tomato chlorotic spot virus in Peanuts in Haiti

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) was identified in peanut in Haiti. This is the first report of TCSV naturally infecting peanut. Genetic diversity of TCSV was characterized. This report provides an overview of this emerging virus for growers, extension workers, crop consultants and research and...

  4. Emergence of Groundnut ringspot virus and Tomato chlorotic spot virus in U.S. vegetable production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Host and geographic ranges, genetic diversity and thrips transmission of Groundnut ringspot virus and Tomato chlorotic spot virus isolates from the U.S. were characterized. This report provides an overview of these viruses for growers, extension workers, crop consultants and research and regulatory...

  5. Introduction to Potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is an introductory chapter on potatoes which gives a brief history of the potato, potato morphology, taxonomy, production statistics, nutritional content, and future prospects for potato research and production. It will appear in a new book entitled Genetics, Genomics, and Breeding of Potato ...

  6. Stunted at 10 Years. Linear Growth Trajectories and Stunting from Birth to Pre-Adolescence in a Rural Bangladeshi Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Svefors, Pernilla; Rahman, Anisur; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte; Khan, Ashraful Islam; Lindström, Emma; Persson, Lars Åke; Ekholm Selling, Katarina

    2016-01-01

    Background Few studies in low-income settings analyse linear growth trajectories from foetal life to pre-adolescence. The aim of this study is to describe linear growth and stunting from birth to 10 years in rural Bangladesh and to analyse whether maternal and environmental determinants at conception are associated with linear growth throughout childhood and stunting at 10 years. Methods and Findings Pregnant women participating in the MINIMat trial were identified in early pregnancy and a birth cohort (n = 1054) was followed with 19 growth measurements from birth to 10 years. Analyses of baseline predictors and mean height-for-age Z-scores (HAZ) over time were modelled using GLMM. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the associations between baseline predictors and stunting (HAZ<-2) at 10 years. HAZ decreased to 2 years, followed by an increase up to 10 years, while the average height-for-age difference in cm (HAD) to the WHO reference median continued to increase up to 10 years. Prevalence of stunting was highest at 2 years (50%) decreasing to 29% at 10 years. Maternal height, maternal educational level and season of conception were all independent predictors of HAZ from birth to pre-adolescence (p<0.001) and stunting at 10 years. The highest probability to be stunted at 10 years was for children born by short mothers (<147.5 cm) (ORadj 2.93, 95% CI: 2.06–4.20), mothers with no education (ORadj 1.74, 95% CI 1.17–2.81) or those conceived in the pre-monsoon season (ORadj 1.94, 95% CI 1.37–2.77). Conclusions Height growth trajectories and prevalence of stunting in pre-adolescence showed strong intergenerational associations, social differentials, and environmental influence from foetal life. Targeting women before and during pregnancy is needed for the prevention of impaired child growth. PMID:26934484

  7. Micronutrients in the treatment of stunting and moderate malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Penny, Mary Edith

    2012-01-01

    Linear growth retardation or stunting may occur with or without low weight-for-age, but in both cases stunted or moderately malnourished children are deficient in micronutrients. Pregnancy and the first 2 years are critical periods. Dietary deficiency of zinc, iron, calcium, and vitamin A are especially common and often occur together. Zinc is essential for adequate growth, and supplements have been shown to increase intrauterine femur length and to prevent stunting. However, in general, supplements which provide a mixture of micronutrients have been more successful in preventing stunting and are simpler to take and distribute. Multiple micronutrients together with energy and macronutrients are also needed for the management of moderate malnutrition. Multiple micronutrients may be delivered as medicinal-like supplements, but may also be combined with food, for instance in milk drinks, in fortified dried cereal mixes used to supplement complementary foods or in lipid nutrition supplements. The latter also provide essential fats necessary for growth. Micronutrient powders for home fortification are effective in preventing anemia, but present combinations do not prevent stunting. Improving the diets of infant and young children is also possible, and increased intake of animal source foods can improve growth. PMID:25825290

  8. Persistence of Only a Minute Viable Population in Chlorotic Microcystis aeruginosa PCC 7806 Cultures Obtained by Nutrient Limitation

    PubMed Central

    de Abreu Meireles, Diogo; Schripsema, Jan; Vetö Arnholdt, Andrea Cristina; Dagnino, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Cultures from the cyanobacterial strain Microcystis aeruginosa PCC 7806 submitted to nutrient limitation become chlorotic. When returned to nutrient rich conditions these cultures regain their green colour. The aim of this study was to verify whether the cells in these cultures could be considered resting stages allowing the survival of periods of nutrient starvation as has been reported for Synechococcus PCC 7942. The experiments with Microcystis were carried out in parallel with Synechococcus cultures to rule out the possibility that any results obtained with Microcystis were due to our particular experimental conditions. The results of the experiments with Synechococcus PCC 7942 cultures were comparable to the reported in the literature. For Microcystis PCC 7806 a different response was observed. Analysis of chlorotic Microcystis cultures by flow cytometry showed that the phenotype of the cells in the population was not homogenous: the amount of nucleic acids was about the same in all cells but only around one percent of the population emitted red autofluorescence indicating the presence of chlorophyll. Monitoring of the reversion of chlorosis by flow cytometry showed that the re-greening was most likely the result of the division of the small population of red autofluorescent cells originally present in the chlorotic cultures. This assumption was confirmed by analysing the integrity of the DNA and the membrane permeability of the cells of chlorotic cultures. Most of the DNA of these cultures was degraded and only the autofluorescent population of the chlorotic cultures showed membrane integrity. Thus, contrary to what has been reported for other cyanobacterial genera, most of the cells in chlorotic Microcystis cultures are not resting stages but dead. It is interesting to note that the red autofluorescent cells of green and chlorotic cultures obtained in double strength ASM-1 medium differ with respect to metabolism: levels of emission of red autofluorescence

  9. Discovery of uncharacterized sugarcane viruses by next generation sequencing technology: the case of Ramu stunt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ramu stunt disease of sugarcane was first reported in Papua New Guinea in the mid 1980's. The disease can reduce sugarcane yields significantly and causes severe stunting and mortality in highly susceptible cultivars. The causal agent of Ramu stunt has been investigated but its characterization has ...

  10. 101 Stunts for Principals to Inspire Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sennett, Frank

    2004-01-01

    Students tend to respond academically when they believe their teachers and administrators are taking a positive personal interest in their education. Many principals and educators often employ motivational stunts as rewards and as learning tools for their K-8 students as one sure way of motivating academic achievement. Frank Sennett's…

  11. Recessive resistance to Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus in melon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV) reduces melon (Cucumis melo L.) fruit quality and yield in many parts of the world. CYSDV and its vector, sweetpotato whitefly (MEAM1 cryptic species of Bemisia tabaci; SPWF) are a devastating combination in the Sonoran Desert areas of California and A...

  12. Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus detected in pigweed in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Samples were collected from pigweed, a species of Amaranth, that were in proximity to virus-infected watermelons in south Florida. No symptoms of virus infection were observed on the weed samples; however, testing by two independent methods found infection by Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus...

  13. Research Priorities on the Relationship between Wasting and Stunting

    PubMed Central

    Khara, Tanya; Dolan, Carmel; Berkley, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Wasting and stunting are global public health problems that frequently co-exist. However, they are usually separated in terms of policy, guidance, programming and financing. Though both wasting and stunting are manifestations of undernutrition caused by disease and poor diet, there are critical gaps in our understanding of the physiological relationship between them, and how interventions for one may affect the other. The aim of this exercise was to establish research priorities in the relationships between wasting and stunting to guide future research investments. Methods and Findings We used the CHNRI (Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative) methodology for setting research priorities in health. We utilised a group of experts in nutrition, growth and child health to prioritise 30 research questions against three criteria (answerability, usefulness and impact) using an online survey. Eighteen of 25 (72%) experts took part and prioritised research directly related to programming, particularly at the public health level. The highest-rated questions were: “Can interventions outside of the 1000 days, e.g. pre-school, school age and adolescence, lead to catch-up in height and in other developmental markers?”; “What timely interventions work to mitigate seasonal peaks in both wasting and stunting?”; and “What is the optimal formulation of ready-to-use foods to promote optimal ponderal growth and also support linear growth during and after recovery from severe acute malnutrition?” There was a high level of agreement between experts, particularly for the highest ranking questions. Conclusions Increased commitment to rigorous evaluations of treatment and prevention interventions at the public health level, addressing questions of the timing of intervention, and the extent to which impacts for both wasting and stunting can be achieved, is needed to inform global efforts to tackle undernutrition and its consequences. PMID:27159235

  14. Saturation-transfer ESR spectroscopy on maleimide spin-labeled cowpea chlorotic mottle virus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vriend, G.; Schilthuis, J. G.; Verduin, B. J. M.; Hemminga, M. A.

    1984-07-01

    One of the two SH groups of the coat protein of Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) was spin-labeled with 3-maleimido-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-l-pyrrolodinyloxyl. Both electron spin resonance and saturation-transfer electron spin resonance spectra were recorded of intact CCMV and CCMV in which the protein subunits are cross-linked with glutaraldehyde. From an analysis of these spectra it follows that the spin label performs a local anisotropic motion with respect to the protein to which it is attached. It is also concluded that no internal protein mobility is present on the ST-ESR timescale.

  15. Complete genome sequence of yam chlorotic necrotic mosaic virus from Dioscorea parviflora.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pengyuan; Peng, Jiejun; Guo, Huachun; Chen, Jianping; Chen, Suiyun; Wang, Jianguang

    2016-06-01

    The complete genome sequence of yam chlorotic necrotic mosaic virus (YCNMV) was determined. It is a monopartite ssRNA 8208 nucleotides in length (excluding the poly(A) tail) and encoding a polyprotein of 2622 amino acids. Sequence analysis showed that the P1 region and some conserved motifs, such as the typical potyvirus aphid-transmission motifs DAG, PTK and KITC, are absent. Phylogenetic analysis based on the complete polyprotein sequences of YCNMV and selected members of the family Potyviridae clearly showed that this virus should be assigned to the genus Macluravirus and suggest that YCNMV is a new member of the genus Macluravirus. PMID:26973231

  16. Characterization and occurrence of squash chlorotic leaf spot virus, a tentative new torradovirus infecting cucurbits in Sudan.

    PubMed

    Lecoq, H; Verdin, E; Tepfer, M; Wipf-Scheibel, C; Millot, P; Dafalla, G; Desbiez, C

    2016-06-01

    During a survey conducted in Sudan in 2012, a virus with spherical particles was isolated from a squash plant showing chlorotic leaf spots. The virus was transmitted mechanically and by two whitefly species, but not by aphids. RT-PCR with generic torradovirus primers yielded a band of expected size from total RNA of a symptomatic plant. Next-generation sequencing confirmed that this is tentatively a new torradovirus, for which we propose the name 'squash chlorotic leaf spot virus'. Using specific RT-PCR primers, the virus was detected in cucurbit samples collected since 1992 at different locations in Sudan. PMID:26935919

  17. Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) infecting Lycopersicon esculentum.

    PubMed

    Hafez, El Sayed E; Saber, Ghada A; Fattouh, Faiza A

    2010-01-01

    Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) was detected in tomato crop (Lycopersicon esculentum) in Egypt with characteristic mosaic leaf deformation, stunting, and bushy growth symptoms. TBSV infection was confirmed serologically by ELISA and calculated incidence was 25.5%. Basic physicochemical properties of a purified TBSV Egh isolate were identical to known properties of tombusviruses of isometric 30-nm diameter particles, 41-kDa coat protein and the genome of approximately 4800 nt. This is the first TBSV isolate reported in Egypt. Cloning and partial sequencing of the isolate showed that it is more closely related to TBSV-P and TBSV-Ch than TBSV-Nf and TBSV-S strains of the virus. However, it is distinct from the above strains and could be a new strain of the virus which further confirms the genetic diversity of tombusviruses. PMID:21138066

  18. Insight on Genes Affecting Tuber Development in Potato upon Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) Infection

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Runxuan; Bonar, Nicola; Morris, Jenny; Hedley, Pete E.; Bryan, Glenn J.; Kalantidis, Kriton; Hornyik, Csaba

    2016-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L) is a natural host of Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) which can cause characteristic symptoms on developing plants including stunting phenotype and distortion of leaves and tubers. PSTVd is the type species of the family Pospiviroidae, and can replicate in the nucleus and move systemically throughout the plant. It is not well understood how the viroid can affect host genes for successful invasion and which genes show altered expression levels upon infection. Our primary focus in this study is the identification of genes which can affect tuber formation since viroid infection can strongly influence tuber development and especially tuber shape. In this study, we used a large-scale method to identify differentially expressed genes in potato. We have identified defence, stress and sugar metabolism related genes having altered expression levels upon infection. Additionally, hormone pathway related genes showed significant up- or down-regulation. DWARF1/DIMINUTO, Gibberellin 7-oxidase and BEL5 transcripts were identified and validated showing differential expression in viroid infected tissues. Our study suggests that gibberellin and brassinosteroid pathways have a possible role in tuber development upon PSTVd infection. PMID:26937634

  19. Insight on Genes Affecting Tuber Development in Potato upon Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) Infection.

    PubMed

    Katsarou, Konstantina; Wu, Yun; Zhang, Runxuan; Bonar, Nicola; Morris, Jenny; Hedley, Pete E; Bryan, Glenn J; Kalantidis, Kriton; Hornyik, Csaba

    2016-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L) is a natural host of Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) which can cause characteristic symptoms on developing plants including stunting phenotype and distortion of leaves and tubers. PSTVd is the type species of the family Pospiviroidae, and can replicate in the nucleus and move systemically throughout the plant. It is not well understood how the viroid can affect host genes for successful invasion and which genes show altered expression levels upon infection. Our primary focus in this study is the identification of genes which can affect tuber formation since viroid infection can strongly influence tuber development and especially tuber shape. In this study, we used a large-scale method to identify differentially expressed genes in potato. We have identified defence, stress and sugar metabolism related genes having altered expression levels upon infection. Additionally, hormone pathway related genes showed significant up- or down-regulation. DWARF1/DIMINUTO, Gibberellin 7-oxidase and BEL5 transcripts were identified and validated showing differential expression in viroid infected tissues. Our study suggests that gibberellin and brassinosteroid pathways have a possible role in tuber development upon PSTVd infection. PMID:26937634

  20. Co-infection and disease severity of Ohio Maize dwarf mosaic virus and Maize chlorotic dwarf virus strains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two major maize viruses have been reported in the United States: Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) and Maize chlorotic dwarf virus (MCDV). These viruses co-occur in regions where maize is grown such that co-infections are likely. Co-infection of different strains of MCDV is also observed frequently...

  1. Potato production in Thailand

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato production has increased dramatically in recent years in Thailand. Consumer demand for fresh and processed potatoes has driven this trend. Most potatoes are produced in northern Thailand in either double cropping highland zones or as a single winter crop following rice in lowland regions. Maj...

  2. Colorado potato beetle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Colorado potato beetle (CPB) shifted to the potato crop from native solanaceous weeds in the American West in 1859, and has been a serious pest ever since. CPB is a highly fecund leaf-feeder on potato and eggplant, and often tomatoes, with one to several generations per year. It is the most importa...

  3. POTATO DISEASE RESISTANCE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potential to use systemic acquired resistance for disease control in potato is discussed. The mechanism of how SAR works in plants is described. Potato was found to have high salicylic acid levels in all tissues examined. The defense gene PR-1 was constitutively expressed in potato, in contrast ...

  4. 2008 Volunteer Potato Outlook

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato tubers left in the ground following a potato harvest often over winter in regions with mild winter temperatures resulting in a serious and difficult to manage weed problem in the ensuing crop rotation. Potatoes normally are killed when they reach temperatures below 28° F. Winter soil tempera...

  5. Mineral composition of two populations of leaves - green and iron chlorotic - of the same age all from the same tree

    SciTech Connect

    Procopiou, J.; Wallace, A.

    1981-01-01

    Since carefully washed Fe chlorotic leaves often contain more total Fe on the dry weight basis than do green leaves, a population of leaves of the same age representing chlorotic leaves from each of two lemon trees and green leaves also of the same age and from the same two trees were analyzed individually for mineral elements to determine, especially, the frequency distribution of Fe in the various groups of leaves (n = 47, 48, 71, 48). The chlorotic leaves from one tree had mineral composition typical of lime-induced chlorosis. The chlorotic leaves for this tree were, on the average, higher in P, K, and Fe and lower in Ca than the green leaves. For the other tree the chlorotic leaves appeared to be truly Fe deficient; P was not higher in these leaves but the mean K and Ca showed the same pattern as in the first tree. Zinc was higher in the deficient leaves than in the green ones on this tree which can be expected for true Fe deficiency. Mean zinc levels were below the critical levels. Mean manganese was below the critical level for all groups. The coefficient of variation for each element in each group was usually around 30%. Maximum-minimum data indicated that many individual leaves did not fit the patterns just described. Correlation coefficients indicated that most major patterns were consistent in spite of the variability, although there were some differences. The frequency distribution for each of most elements was much like a normal curve with usually a three-fold range for each of the elements. Many of the Fe-deficient leaves had more Fe than some of the green leaves. Analysis of an individual leaf, therefore, cannot result in accurate description of lime-induced chlorosis.

  6. Cymbidium chlorotic mosaic virus, a new sobemovirus isolated from a spring orchid (Cymbidium goeringii) in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Hideki; Takemoto, Shogo; Maruyama, Kazuyuki; Chiba, Sotaro; Andika, Ida Bagus; Suzuki, Nobuhiro

    2015-08-01

    Cymbidium chlorotic mosaic virus (CyCMV), isolated from a spring orchid (Cymbidium goeringii), was characterized molecularly. CyCMV isometric virions comprise a single, positive-strand RNA genome of 4,083 nucleotides and 30-kDa coat protein. The virus genome contains five overlapping open reading frames with a genomic organization similar to that of sobemoviruses. BLAST searches and phylogenetic analysis revealed that CyCMV is most closely related to papaya lethal yellowing virus, a proposed dicot-infecting sobemovirus (58.8 % nucleotide sequence identity), but has a relatively distant relationship to monocot-infecting sobemoviruses, with only modest sequence identities. This suggests that CyCMV is a new monocot-infecting member of the floating genus Sobemovirus. PMID:26025156

  7. Open defecation and childhood stunting in India: an ecological analysis of new data from 112 districts.

    PubMed

    Spears, Dean; Ghosh, Arabinda; Cumming, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Poor sanitation remains a major public health concern linked to several important health outcomes; emerging evidence indicates a link to childhood stunting. In India over half of the population defecates in the open; the prevalence of stunting remains very high. Recently published data on levels of stunting in 112 districts of India provide an opportunity to explore the relationship between levels of open defecation and stunting within this population. We conducted an ecological regression analysis to assess the association between the prevalence of open defecation and stunting after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Data from the 2011 HUNGaMA survey was used for the outcome of interest, stunting; data from the 2011 Indian Census for the same districts was used for the exposure of interest, open defecation. After adjustment for various potential confounding factors--including socio-economic status, maternal education and calorie availability--a 10 percent increase in open defecation was associated with a 0.7 percentage point increase in both stunting and severe stunting. Differences in open defecation can statistically account for 35 to 55 percent of the average difference in stunting between districts identified as low-performing and high-performing in the HUNGaMA data. In addition, using a Monte Carlo simulation, we explored the effect on statistical power of the common practice of dichotomizing continuous height data into binary stunting indicators. Our simulation showed that dichotomization of height sacrifices statistical power, suggesting that our estimate of the association between open defecation and stunting may be a lower bound. Whilst our analysis is ecological and therefore vulnerable to residual confounding, these findings use the most recently collected large-scale data from India to add to a growing body of suggestive evidence for an effect of poor sanitation on human growth. New intervention studies, currently underway, may shed more

  8. Does zinc deficiency play a role in stunting among primary school children in NE Thailand?

    PubMed

    Gibson, Rosalind S; Manger, Mari Skar; Krittaphol, Woravimol; Pongcharoen, Tippawan; Gowachirapant, Sueppong; Bailey, Karl B; Winichagoon, Pattanee

    2007-01-01

    Stunting in school-age years may result in a decrease in adult size, and thus reduced work capacity and adverse reproductive outcomes. We have compared the mean intakes of energy, protein and selected growth-limiting nutrients in fifty-eight stunted children and 172 non-stunted controls drawn from 567 children aged 6-13 years attending ten rural schools in NE Thailand. Control children were selected randomly after stratifying children by age in each school. Dietary data were calculated from 24-h recalls using nutrient values from Thai food composition data and chemical analysis. Inter-relationships between stunting and sociodemographic, anthropometric and biochemical variables were also examined. Biochemical variables investigated were serum albumin, zinc, ferritin, transferrin receptor and retinol, and iodine in casual urine samples. Significantly more males than females were stunted (males, n 38, 65.5% v. females, n 20. 34.5%: P=0.025). Stunted males had lower mean intakes of energy, protein, calcium, phosphorus and zinc, and a lower mean (95% CI) serum zinc (9.19 (8.53, 9.84) v. 9.70 (8.53, 9.29) micromol/1) than non-stunted males; no other biochemical differences were noted. Stunted males also had a lower mean arm muscle area (P= 0.015), after adjusting for age, than non-stunted males. In conclusion, the lower dietary intakes of the stunted males compared to their non-stunted counterparts may be associated with anorexia and hypogeusia induced by zinc deficiency. Hence, zinc deficiency may be a factor limiting linear growth, especially among boys in NE Thailand, but more research is needed to establish whether other factors also play a role. PMID:17217573

  9. The discovery and eradication of potato spindle tuber viroid in Canada.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rudra P

    2014-12-01

    In 1960s, potato spindle tuber was thought to be a viral disease. In 1971, the agent of the disease was characterised as a low-molecular weight infectious ribonucleic acid (RNA), which was named as 'viroid', specifically Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd)). Since then, more than 30 plant diseases in horticultural and ornamental plants have been shown to be caused by different viroids globally. Viroids are single-stranded RNA, covalently closed circular molecule, without any protein coat. They are the smallest known plant pathogen containing RNA genome ranging from 246 nucleotides (Coconut cadang-cadang viroid) to 399 nucleotides (Chrysanthemum chlorotic mottle viroid). Some viroids are located in the plant cell nucleus (pospiviroids) and others in the chloroplast (avsunviroids). With the recognition of pathogenic nature of viroid, specific detection methodologies were developed, which enabled detection of PSTVd in seed-potato tubers prior to their planting in the field, and thus PSTVd was prevented from spreading the disease. As a result, PSTVd was eradicated from Canada in late 1980s. Viroids similar to PSTVd (Pospiviroid) have been discovered and they are detected in symptomless ornamental plants. Although, PSTVd has been eradicated from Canada, there is a strong possibility of viroid introduction from other plants besides potato and tomato and causing PSTVd like diseases. PMID:25674616

  10. Biology and Genetics of Lettuce Dieback Disease and Lettuce Necrotic Stunt Virus.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lettuce dieback, a new soil-borne disease of lettuce, emerged in the 1990s to cause severe losses for lettuce production in the western United States. The disease is caused by Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) and the recently described tombusvirus, Lettuce necrotic stunt virus (LNSV). The complete ge...

  11. First report of ratoon stunt of sugarcane caused by Leifsonia xyl. subsp. xyli in Pakistan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During a survey of the sugarcane crop in the area of Faisalabad, Sargodha and the Dera Ghazi Khan Division of the Punjab province of Pakistan from 2007 to 2010, symptoms consistent with ratoon stunting, including stunted growth and reddening of the vascular bundles at the nodal regions were observed...

  12. Composition of sulfited potatoes: comparison with fresh and frozen potatoes.

    PubMed

    Chalom, S; Elrezzi, E; Peña, P; Astiarsarán, I; Bello, J

    1995-02-01

    The content in moisture, fat, protein, carbohydrate, fibre and vitamin C was analyzed in three commercial types of potatoes: sulfited (treated with E223), frozen potatoes (pre-fried) and fresh potatoes (not processed). The composition of sulfited potatoes does not usually appear in food composition tables. Our results showed significant differences in the content of carbohydrates and fibre between sulfited and fresh potatoes. The content of vitamin C in sulfited potatoes, which is similar to that of frozen potatoes, was shown to be approximately half of that found in fresh potatoes. PMID:7792261

  13. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    PubMed

    Chetty, Venkateswari J; Narváez-Vásquez, Javier; Orozco-Cárdenas, Martha L

    2015-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is the most common method for the incorporation of foreign genes into the genome of potato as well as many other species in the Solanaceae family. This chapter describes protocols for the genetic transformation of three species of potato: Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum (Desiréé), S. tuberosum subsp. andigenum (Blue potato), and S. tuberosum subsp. andigena using internodal segments as explants. PMID:25416251

  14. Stunting and the Prediction of Lung Volumes Among Tibetan Children and Adolescents at High Altitude.

    PubMed

    Weitz, Charles A; Garruto, Ralph M

    2015-12-01

    This study examines the extent to which stunting (height-for-age Z-scores ≤ -2) compromises the use of low altitude prediction equations to gauge the general increase in lung volumes during growth among high altitude populations. The forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume (FEV1) of 208 stunted and 365 non-stunted high-altitude Tibetan children and adolescents between the ages of 6 and 20 years are predicted using the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANESIII) and the Global Lung Function Initiative (GLF) equations, and compared to observed lung volumes. Stunted Tibetan children show smaller positive deviations from both NHANESIII and GLF prediction equations at most ages than non-stunted children. Deviations from predictions do not correspond to differences in body proportions (sitting heights and chest circumferences relative to stature) between stunted and non-stunted children; but appear compatible with the effects of retarded growth and lung maturation that are likely to exist among stunted children. These results indicate that, before low altitude standards can be used to evaluate the effects of hypoxia, or before high altitude populations can be compared to any other group, it is necessary to assess the relative proportion of stunted children in the samples. If the proportion of stunted children in a high altitude population differs significantly from the proportion in the comparison group, lung function comparisons are unlikely to yield an accurate assessment of the hypoxia effect. The best solution to this problem is to (1) use stature and lung function standards based on the same low altitude population; and (2) assess the hypoxic effect by comparing observed and predicted values among high altitude children whose statures are most like those of children on whom the low altitude spirometric standard is based-preferably high altitude children with HAZ-scores ≥ -1. PMID:26397381

  15. Environmental factors contributing to development of lettuce dieback disease and genomic characterization of lettuce necrotic stunt virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The disease, lettuce dieback, causes severe losses for lettuce production in the western US and is caused by a group of tombusviruses, including both Tomato bushy stunt virus and the newly described lettuce necrotic stunt virus (LNSV). Symptoms include yellowing, necrosis, stunting and death of pla...

  16. Detection by next generation sequencing of a multi-segmented viral genome from sugarcane associated with Ramu stunt disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ramu stunt disease of sugarcane was first reported in Papua New Guinea in the mid 1980's. The disease can reduce sugarcane yields significantly and causes severe stunting and mortality in highly susceptible cultivars. The causal agent of Ramu stunt has been investigated but its characterization has ...

  17. Calcium Ions Modulate the Mechanics of Tomato Bushy Stunt Virus

    PubMed Central

    Llauró, Aida; Coppari, Emilia; Imperatori, Francesca; Bizzarri, Anna R.; Castón, José R.; Santi, Luca; Cannistraro, Salvatore; de Pablo, Pedro J.

    2015-01-01

    Viral particles are endowed with physicochemical properties whose modulation confers certain metastability to their structures to fulfill each task of the viral cycle. Here, we investigate the effects of swelling and ion depletion on the mechanical stability of individual tomato bushy stunt virus nanoparticles (TBSV-NPs). Our experiments show that calcium ions modulate the mechanics of the capsid: the sequestration of calcium ions from the intracapsid binding sites reduces rigidity and resilience in ∼24% and 40%, respectively. Interestingly, mechanical deformations performed on native TBSV-NPs induce an analogous result. In addition, TBSV-NPs do not show capsomeric vacancies after surpassing the elastic limit. We hypothesize that even though there are breakages among neighboring capsomers, RNA-capsid protein interaction prevents the release of capsid subunits. This work shows the mechanical role of calcium ions in viral shell stability and identifies TBSV-NPs as malleable platforms based on protein cages for cargo transportation at the nanoscale. PMID:26200875

  18. Can water, sanitation and hygiene help eliminate stunting? Current evidence and policy implications.

    PubMed

    Cumming, Oliver; Cairncross, Sandy

    2016-05-01

    Stunting is a complex and enduring challenge with far-reaching consequences for those affected and society as a whole. To accelerate progress in eliminating stunting, broader efforts are needed that reach beyond the nutrition sector to tackle the underlying determinants of undernutrition. There is growing interest in how water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) interventions might support strategies to reduce stunting in high-burden settings, such as South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. This review article considers two broad questions: (1) can WASH interventions make a significant contribution to reducing the global prevalence of childhood stunting, and (2) how can WASH interventions be delivered to optimize their effect on stunting and accelerate progress? The evidence reviewed suggests that poor WASH conditions have a significant detrimental effect on child growth and development resulting from sustained exposure to enteric pathogens but also due to wider social and economic mechanisms. Realizing the potential of WASH to reduce stunting requires a redoubling of efforts to achieve universal access to these services as envisaged under the Sustainable Development Goals. It may also require new or modified WASH strategies that go beyond the scope of traditional interventions to specifically address exposure pathways in the first 2 years of life when the process of stunting is concentrated. PMID:27187910

  19. Solanum tuberosum (Potato)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato is the fourth most important food crop worldwide, with high value as a balanced and nutritious food. It is one of the world’s most productive crops. Wild potatoes are native from the southwestern United States to south-central Chile, with centers of species diversity in central Mexico and in ...

  20. λ-Carrageenan Suppresses Tomato Chlorotic Dwarf Viroid (TCDVd) Replication and Symptom Expression in Tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Sangha, Jatinder S; Kandasamy, Saveetha; Khan, Wajahatullah; Bahia, Navratan Singh; Singh, Rudra P; Critchley, Alan T; Prithiviraj, Balakrishnan

    2015-05-01

    The effect of carrageenans on tomato chlorotic dwarf viroid (TCDVd) replication and symptom expression was studied. Three-week-old tomato plants were spray-treated with iota(ɩ)-, lambda(λ)-, and kappa(κ)-carrageenan at 1 g·L-1 and inoculated with TCDVd after 48 h. The λ-carrageenan significantly suppressed viroid symptom expression after eight weeks of inoculation, only 28% plants showed distinctive bunchy-top symptoms as compared to the 82% in the control group. Viroid concentration was reduced in the infected shoot cuttings incubated in λ-carrageenan amended growth medium. Proteome analysis revealed that 16 tomato proteins were differentially expressed in the λ-carrageenan treated plants. Jasmonic acid related genes, allene oxide synthase (AOS) and lipoxygenase (LOX), were up-regulated in λ-carrageenan treatment during viroid infection. Taken together, our results suggest that λ-carrageenan induced tomato defense against TCDVd, which was partly jasmonic acid (JA) dependent, and that it could be explored in plant protection against viroid infection. PMID:26006710

  1. Genome Sequences of Three Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus Isolates from Hawthorns in China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wei; Zheng, Wenyan; Wang, Mei; Li, Xiaohong; Ma, Yue; Dai, Hongyan

    2016-01-01

    The genome sequences of Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) isolates from three accessions of hawthorns (Crataegus pinnatifida) grown at Shenyang Agricultural University were determined using Illumina RNA-seq. To confirm the assembly data from the de novo sequencing, two ACLSV genomic sequences (SY01 and SY02) were sequenced using the Sanger method. The SY01 and SY02 sequences obtained with the Sanger method showed 99.5% and 99.7% nucleotide identity with the transcriptome data, respectively. The genome sequences of the hawthorn isolates SY01, SY02 and SY03 (GenBank accession nos. KM207212, KU870524 and KU870525, respectively) consisted of 7,543, 7,561 and 7,545 nucleotides, respectively, excluding poly-adenylated tails. Sequence analysis revealed that these hawthorn isolates shared an overall nucleotide identity of 82.8-92.1% and showed the highest identity of 90.3% for isolate YH (GenBank accession no. KC935955) from pear and the lowest identity of 67.7% for isolate TaTao5 (GenBank accession no. EU223295) from peach. Hawthorn isolate sequences were similar to those of 'B6 type' ACLSV. The relationship between ACLSV isolates largely depends upon the host species. This represents the first comparative study of the genome sequences of ACLSV isolates from hawthorns. PMID:27519059

  2. Genome Sequences of Three Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus Isolates from Hawthorns in China

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Wenyan; Wang, Mei; Li, Xiaohong; Ma, Yue

    2016-01-01

    The genome sequences of Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) isolates from three accessions of hawthorns (Crataegus pinnatifida) grown at Shenyang Agricultural University were determined using Illumina RNA-seq. To confirm the assembly data from the de novo sequencing, two ACLSV genomic sequences (SY01 and SY02) were sequenced using the Sanger method. The SY01 and SY02 sequences obtained with the Sanger method showed 99.5% and 99.7% nucleotide identity with the transcriptome data, respectively. The genome sequences of the hawthorn isolates SY01, SY02 and SY03 (GenBank accession nos. KM207212, KU870524 and KU870525, respectively) consisted of 7,543, 7,561 and 7,545 nucleotides, respectively, excluding poly-adenylated tails. Sequence analysis revealed that these hawthorn isolates shared an overall nucleotide identity of 82.8–92.1% and showed the highest identity of 90.3% for isolate YH (GenBank accession no. KC935955) from pear and the lowest identity of 67.7% for isolate TaTao5 (GenBank accession no. EU223295) from peach. Hawthorn isolate sequences were similar to those of ‘B6 type’ ACLSV. The relationship between ACLSV isolates largely depends upon the host species. This represents the first comparative study of the genome sequences of ACLSV isolates from hawthorns. PMID:27519059

  3. Preliminary X-ray Data Analysis of Crystalline Hibiscus Chlorotic Ringspot Virus

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, A.; Speir, J; Yuan, Y; Johnson, J; Wong, S

    2009-01-01

    Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV) is a positive-sense monopartite single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the Carmovirus genus of the Tombusviridae family, which includes carnation mottle virus (CarMV). The HCRSV virion has a 30 nm diameter icosahedral capsid with T = 3 quasi-symmetry containing 180 copies of a 38 kDa coat protein (CP) and encapsidates a full-length 3.9 kb genomic RNA. Authentic virus was harvested from infected host kenaf leaves and was purified by saturated ammonium sulfate precipitation, sucrose density-gradient centrifugation and anion-exchange chromatography. Virus crystals were grown in multiple conditions; one of the crystals diffracted to 3Synchrotron .2 A resolution and allowed the collection of a partial data set. The crystal belonged to space group R32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 336.4, c = 798.5 . Packing considerations and rotation-function analysis determined that there were three particles per unit cell, all of which have the same orientation and fixed positions, and resulted in tenfold noncrystallography symmetry for real-space averaging. The crystals used for the structure determination of southern bean mosaic virus (SBMV) have nearly identical characteristics. Together, these findings will greatly aid the high-resolution structure determination of HCRSV.

  4. The complete sequence of soybean chlorotic mottle virus DNA and the identification of a novel promoter.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, A; Verver, J; Shimada, A; Saito, M; Goldbach, R; Van Kammen, A; Miki, K; Kameya-Iwaki, M; Hibi, T

    1989-12-11

    The complete nucleotide sequence of an infectious clone of soybean chlorotic mottle virus (SoyCMV) DNA was determined and compared with those of three other caulimoviruses, cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV), carnation etched ring virus and figwort mosaic virus. The double-stranded DNA genome of SoyCMV (8,175 bp) contained nine open reading frames (ORFs) and one large intergenic region. The primer binding sites, gene organization and size of ORFs were similar to those of the other caulimoviruses, except for ORF I, which was split into ORF Ia and Ib. The amino acid sequences deduced from each ORF showed only short, highly homologous regions in several of the corresponding ORFs of the three other caulimoviruses. A promoter fragment of 378 bp in SoyCMV ORF III showed a strong expression activity, comparable to that of the CaMV 35S promoter, in tobacco mesophyll protoplasts as determined by a beta-glucuronidase assay using electrotransfection. The fragment contained CAAT and TATA boxes but no transcriptional enhancer signal as reported for the CaMV 35S promoter. Instead, it had sequences homologous to a part of the translational enhancer signal reported for the 5'-leader sequence of tobacco mosaic virus RNA. PMID:2602148

  5. Swelling and softening of the cowpea chlorotic mottle virus in response to pH shifts.

    PubMed

    Wilts, Bodo D; Schaap, Iwan A T; Schmidt, Christoph F

    2015-05-19

    Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) forms highly elastic icosahedral protein capsids that undergo a characteristic swelling transition when the pH is raised from 5 to 7. Here, we performed nano-indentation experiments using an atomic force microscope to track capsid swelling and measure the shells' Young's modulus at the same time. When we chelated Ca(2+) ions and raised the pH, we observed a gradual swelling of the RNA-filled capsids accompanied by a softening of the shell. Control experiments with empty wild-type virus and a salt-stable mutant revealed that the softening was not strictly coupled to the swelling of the protein shells. Our data suggest that a pH increase and Ca(2+) chelation lead primarily to a loosening of contacts within the protein shell, resulting in a softening of the capsid. This appears to render the shell metastable and make swelling possible when repulsive forces among the capsid proteins become large enough, which is known to be followed by capsid disassembly at even higher pH. Thus, softening and swelling are likely to play a role during inoculation. PMID:25992732

  6. Swelling and Softening of the Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus in Response to pH Shifts

    PubMed Central

    Wilts, Bodo D.; Schaap, Iwan A.T.; Schmidt, Christoph F.

    2015-01-01

    Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) forms highly elastic icosahedral protein capsids that undergo a characteristic swelling transition when the pH is raised from 5 to 7. Here, we performed nano-indentation experiments using an atomic force microscope to track capsid swelling and measure the shells’ Young’s modulus at the same time. When we chelated Ca2+ ions and raised the pH, we observed a gradual swelling of the RNA-filled capsids accompanied by a softening of the shell. Control experiments with empty wild-type virus and a salt-stable mutant revealed that the softening was not strictly coupled to the swelling of the protein shells. Our data suggest that a pH increase and Ca2+ chelation lead primarily to a loosening of contacts within the protein shell, resulting in a softening of the capsid. This appears to render the shell metastable and make swelling possible when repulsive forces among the capsid proteins become large enough, which is known to be followed by capsid disassembly at even higher pH. Thus, softening and swelling are likely to play a role during inoculation. PMID:25992732

  7. Structural rigidity in the capsid assembly of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hespenheide, B. M.; Jacobs, D. J.; Thorpe, M. F.

    2004-11-01

    The cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) has a protein cage, or capsid, which encloses its genetic material. The structure of the capsid consists of 180 copies of a single protein that self-assemble inside a cell to form a complete capsid with icosahedral symmetry. The icosahedral surface can be naturally divided into pentagonal and hexagonal faces, and the formation of either of these faces has been proposed to be the first step in the capsid assembly process. We have used the software FIRST to analyse the rigidity of pentameric and hexameric substructures of the complete capsid to explore the viability of certain capsid assembly pathways. FIRST uses the 3D pebble game to determine structural rigidity, and a brief description of this algorithm, as applied to body-bar networks, is given here. We find that the pentameric substructure, which corresponds to a pentagonal face on the icosahedral surface, provides the best structural properties for nucleating the capsid assembly process, consistent with experimental observations.

  8. λ-Carrageenan Suppresses Tomato Chlorotic Dwarf Viroid (TCDVd) Replication and Symptom Expression in Tomatoes

    PubMed Central

    Sangha, Jatinder S.; Kandasamy, Saveetha; Khan, Wajahatullah; Bahia, Navratan Singh; Singh, Rudra P.; Critchley, Alan T.; Prithiviraj, Balakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    The effect of carrageenans on tomato chlorotic dwarf viroid (TCDVd) replication and symptom expression was studied. Three-week-old tomato plants were spray-treated with iota(ɩ)-, lambda(λ)-, and kappa(κ)-carrageenan at 1 g·L−1 and inoculated with TCDVd after 48 h. The λ-carrageenan significantly suppressed viroid symptom expression after eight weeks of inoculation, only 28% plants showed distinctive bunchy-top symptoms as compared to the 82% in the control group. Viroid concentration was reduced in the infected shoot cuttings incubated in λ-carrageenan amended growth medium. Proteome analysis revealed that 16 tomato proteins were differentially expressed in the λ-carrageenan treated plants. Jasmonic acid related genes, allene oxide synthase (AOS) and lipoxygenase (LOX), were up-regulated in λ-carrageenan treatment during viroid infection. Taken together, our results suggest that λ-carrageenan induced tomato defense against TCDVd, which was partly jasmonic acid(JA) dependent, and that it could be explored in plant protection against viroid infection. PMID:26006710

  9. Rubus chlorotic mottle virus, a new sobemovirus infecting raspberry and bramble.

    PubMed

    McGavin, W J; Macfarlane, S A

    2009-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of a new member of the unassigned genus Sobemovirus, isolated from raspberry and bramble plants in north east Scotland and given the name Rubus chlorotic mottle virus (RuCMV), was obtained. The virus has a single, positive-strand RNA genome of 3,983 nucleotides and, in common with other sobemoviruses, contains four open reading frames (ORFs) encoding, from 5' to 3', the P1 protein that is likely to be a suppressor of RNA silencing, ORF2a that has homology to serine-proteases, ORF2b that is the probable RNA dependent RNA polymerase, and ORF3 that is the coat protein. ORF2b protein is potentially expressed as a fusion with ORF2a protein by a -1 frameshift at the heptanucleotide sequence UUUAAAC. Phylogenetic analyses showed that RuCMV is a distinct virus not closely related to any of the other sequenced sobemoviruses. Based on the obtained sequence a full-length cDNA copy of RuCMV was cloned and in vitro transcripts derived from this clone were shown to be fully infectious. PMID:18929604

  10. All-atom Multiscale Simulation of Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus Capsid Swelling

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Yinglong; Johnson, John E.; Ortoleva, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    An all-atom multiscale computational modeling approach, Molecular Dynamics/Order Parameter eXtrapolation (MD/OPX), has recently been developed for simulating large bionanosystems. It accelerates MD simulations and addresses rapid atomistic fluctuations and slowly-varying nanoscale dynamics of bionanosystems simultaneously. With modules added to account for water molecules and ions, MD/OPX is applied to simulate the swelling of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) capsid solvated in a host medium in this study. Simulation results show that the N-terminal arms of capsid proteins undergo large deviations from the initial configurations with their length extended quickly during the early stage of capsid swelling. The capsid swelling is a symmetry-breaking process involving local initiation and front propagation. The capsid swelling rate is ~0.25 nm/ns (npn) during early stage of the simulation and propagation of the structural transition across the capsid is roughly 0.6npn. The system conditions that affect swelling of the capsid are analyzed. Prospects for creating a phase diagram for CCMV capsid swelling and using predictions to guide experiments are discussed. PMID:20695471

  11. Multi-country analysis of the effects of diarrhoea on childhood stunting

    PubMed Central

    Checkley, William; Buckley, Gillian; Gilman, Robert H; Assis, Ana MO; Guerrant, Richard L; Morris, Saul S; Mølbak, Kåre; Valentiner-Branth, Palle; Lanata, Claudio F; Black, Robert E

    2008-01-01

    Diarrhoea is an important cause of death and illness among children in developing countries; however, it remains controversial as to whether diarrhoea leads to stunting. We conducted a pooled analysis of nine studies that collected daily diarrhoea morbidity and longitudinal anthropometry to determine the effects of the longitudinal history of diarrhoea prior to 24 months on stunting at age 24 months. Data covered a 20-year period and five countries. We used logistic regression to model the effect of diarrhoea on stunting. The prevalence of stunting at age 24 months varied by study (range 21–90%), as did the longitudinal history of diarrhoea prior to 24 months (incidence range 3.6–13.4 episodes per child-year, prevalence range 2.4–16.3%). The effect of diarrhoea on stunting, however, was similar across studies. The odds of stunting at age 24 months increased multiplicatively with each diarrhoeal episode and with each day of diarrhoea before 24 months (all P < 0.001). The adjusted odds of stunting increased by 1.13 for every five episodes (95% CI 1.07–1.19), and by 1.16 for every 5% unit increase in longitudinal prevalence (95% CI 1.07–1.25). In this assembled sample of 24-month-old children, the proportion of stunting attributed to ≥5 diarrhoeal episodes before 24 months was 25% (95% CI 8–38%) and that attributed to being ill with diarrhoea for ≥2% of the time before 24 months was 18% (95% CI 1–31%). These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that a higher cumulative burden of diarrhoea increases the risk of stunting. PMID:18567626

  12. VOLUNTEER POTATO MANAGEMENT FOR 2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato tubers left in the ground following a potato harvest often over winter in regions with mild winter temperatures resulting in a serious and difficult to manage weed problem in the ensuing crop rotation. Potatoes normally are killed when they reach temperatures below 28° F. Many potato tuber...

  13. A Coronavirus Associated with Runting Stunting Syndrome in Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Hauck, Rüdiger; Gallardo, Rodrigo A; Woolcock, Peter R; Shivaprasad, H L

    2016-06-01

    Runting stunting syndrome (RSS) is a disease condition that affects broilers and causes impaired growth and poor feed conversion because of enteritis characterized by pale and distended small intestines with watery contents. The etiology of the disease is multifactorial, and a large variety of viral agents have been implicated. Here we describe the detection and isolation of an infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) -like coronavirus from the intestines of a flock of 60,000 14-day-old brown/red broiler chicks. The birds showed typical clinical signs of RSS including stunting and uneven growth. At necropsy, the small intestines were pale and distended with watery contents. Histopathology of the intestines revealed increased cellularity of the lamina propria, blunting of villi, and cystic changes in the crypts. Negative stain electron microscopy of the intestinal contents revealed coronavirus particles. Transmission electron microscopy of the intestine confirmed coronavirus in the cytoplasm of enterocytes. Using immunohistochemistry (IHC), IBV antigen was detected in the intestinal epithelial cells as well as in the proventriculus and pancreas. There were no lesions in the respiratory system, and no IBV antigen was detected in trachea, lung, air sac, conjunctiva, and cecal tonsils. A coronavirus was isolated from the intestine of chicken embryos but not from the allantoic sac inoculated with the intestinal contents of the broiler chicks. Sequencing of the S1 gene showed nucleic acid sequence identities of 93.8% to the corresponding region of IBV California 99 and of 85.7% to IBV Arkansas. Nucleic acid sequence identities to other IBV genotypes were lower. The histopathologic lesions in the intestines were reproduced after experimental infection of specific-pathogen-free chickens inoculated in the conjunctiva and nares. Five days after infection, six of nine investigated birds showed enteritis associated with IBV antigen as detected by IHC. In contrast to the field

  14. Complete Genome Sequences of Chrysanthemum Stunt Viroid from a Single Chrysanthemum Cultivar

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hoseong; Jo, Yeonhwa; Yoon, Ju-Yeon; Choi, Seung-Kook

    2015-01-01

    The chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd), a member of the genus Pospiviroid with a single circular RNA genome, infects many chrysanthemum species. Here, we report 25 complete genome sequences of CSVd in a single chrysanthemum cultivar, revealing 20 variants. PMID:26251489

  15. Complete Genome Sequences of Chrysanthemum Stunt Viroid from a Single Chrysanthemum Cultivar.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hoseong; Jo, Yeonhwa; Yoon, Ju-Yeon; Choi, Seung-Kook; Cho, Won Kyong

    2015-01-01

    The chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd), a member of the genus Pospiviroid with a single circular RNA genome, infects many chrysanthemum species. Here, we report 25 complete genome sequences of CSVd in a single chrysanthemum cultivar, revealing 20 variants. PMID:26251489

  16. What would it take to prevent stunted growth in children in sub-Saharan Africa?

    PubMed

    Lartey, Anna

    2015-11-01

    There is increasing agreement among the nutrition community about the use of length/height-for-age as the indicator to monitor the long-term impact of chronic nutritional deficiencies. Stunting, an indicator of linear growth failure, has both long- and short-term consequences affecting growth and development and adult work potential. The number of stunted children in sub-Saharan Africa is expected to increase by 2025 if the current trends remain. Stunting among African children peaks during the complementary feeding period, which coincides with the period when children are no longer on exclusive breastfeeding and infections are frequent. Addressing stunting has become the focus of global efforts. The World Health Assembly in 2012 set a 40 % reduction in the number of stunted children by 2025. To effectively address the issues of stunting in sub-Saharan Africa is it appropriate to examine the issue of what it takes. The WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study (MGRS) conducted in several regions of the world, including Africa has lessons on what it would take to prevent in African children. The children in the MGRS had good socioeconomic background characteristics reflected by years of maternal education and availability of basic amenities, such as potable water and sanitary conditions. The prescription of exclusive breastfeeding, high-quality diversified diets and attention to care were critical factors contributing to healthy growth for the African children. Preventing stunting in sub-Saharan Africa is possible. It requires governments to put in place policies that would create the conducive environment needed. The complex and multiple causes of stunting offer the opportunity to address stunting in a multisectoral and within a food systems approach. The global resolve to make food systems deliver on healthy diet requires all stakeholders to work together to achieve the global goal of reducing stunting. This review highlights the key elements contributing to adequate

  17. Potato Operation: automatic detection of potato diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefebvre, Marc; Zimmerman, Thierry; Baur, Charles; Guegerli, Paul; Pun, Thierry

    1995-01-01

    The Potato Operation is a collaborative, multidisciplinary project in the domain of destructive testing of agricultural products. It aims at automatizing pulp sampling of potatoes in order to detect possible viral diseases. Such viruses can decrease fields productivity by a factor of up to ten. A machine, composed of three conveyor belts, a vision system, a robotic arm and controlled by a PC has been built. Potatoes are brought one by one from a bulk to the vision system, where they are seized by a rotating holding device. The sprouts, where the viral activity is maximum, are then detected by an active vision process operating on multiple views. The 3D coordinates of the sampling point are communicated to the robot arm holding a drill. Some flesh is then sampled by the drill, then deposited into an Elisa plate. After sampling, the robot arm washes the drill in order to prevent any contamination. The PC computer simultaneously controls these processes, the conveying of the potatoes, the vision algorithms and the sampling procedure. The master process, that is the vision procedure, makes use of three methods to achieve the sprouts detection. A profile analysis first locates the sprouts as protuberances. Two frontal analyses, respectively based on fluorescence and local variance, confirm the previous detection and provide the 3D coordinate of the sampling zone. The other two processes work by interruption of the master process.

  18. Stop stunting: improving child feeding, women's nutrition and household sanitation in South Asia.

    PubMed

    Aguayo, Víctor M; Menon, Purnima

    2016-05-01

    The latest available data indicate that 38% of South Asia's children aged 0-59 months are stunted. Such high prevalence combined with the region's large child population explain why South Asia bears about 40% of the global burden of stunting. Recent analyses indicate that the poor diets of children in the first years of life, the poor nutrition of women before and during pregnancy and the prevailing poor sanitation practices in households and communities are important drivers of stunting, most likely because of underlying conditions of women's status, food insecurity, poverty, and social inequalities. With this evidence in mind, UNICEF Regional Office for South Asia convened the Regional Conference: Stop Stunting: Improving Child Feeding, Women's Nutrition, and Household Sanitation in South Asia (New Delhi, November 10-12, 2014). The Conference provided a knowledge-for-action platform with three objectives: (1) share state-of-the-art research findings on the causes of child stunting and its consequences for child growth and development and the sustainable growth and development of nations; (2) discuss better practices and the cost and benefits of scaling up programmes to improve child feeding, women's nutrition, and household sanitation in South Asia; and (3) identify implications for sectoral and cross-sectoral policy, programme, advocacy and research to accelerate progress in reducing child stunting in South Asia. This overview paper summarizes the rationale for the focus on improving child feeding, women's nutrition, and household sanitation as priority areas for investment to prevent child stunting in South Asia. It builds on the invited papers presented at or developed as a follow on to the Stop Stunting Conference. PMID:27187906

  19. Potato plant poisoning - green tubers and sprouts

    MedlinePlus

    Potato plant poisoning occurs when someone eats the green tubers or new sprouts of the potato plant. ... is found throughout the plant, but especially in green potatoes and new sprouts. Never eat potatoes that ...

  20. Low lead levels stunt neuronal growth in a reversible manner.

    PubMed Central

    Cline, H T; Witte, S; Jones, K W

    1996-01-01

    The developing brain is particularly susceptible to lead toxicity; however, the cellular effects of lead on neuronal development are not well understood. The effect of exposure to nanomolar concentrations of lead on several parameters of the developing retinotectal system of frog tadpoles was tested. Lead severely reduced the area and branchtip number of retinal ganglion cell axon arborizations within the optic tectum at submicromolar concentrations. These effects of lead on neuronal growth are more dramatic and occur at lower exposure levels than previously reported. Lead exposure did not interfere with the development of retinotectal topography. The deficient neuronal growth does not appear to be secondary to impaired synaptic transmission, because concentrations of lead that stunted neuronal growth were lower than those required to block synaptic transmission. Subsequent treatment of lead-exposed animals with the chelating agent 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid completely reversed the effect of lead on neuronal growth. These studies indicate that impaired neuronal growth may be responsible in part for lead-induced cognitive deficits and that chelator treatment counteracts this effect. PMID:8790431

  1. Dissecting the mode of maize chlorotic mottle virus transmission (Tombusviridae: Machlomovirus) by Frankliniella williamsi (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    PubMed

    Cabanas, D; Watanabe, S; Higashi, C H V; Bressan, A

    2013-02-01

    Maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) (Tombusviridae: Machlomovirus) has been recorded in Hawaii (Kauai Island) since the early 1990s and has since become one of the most widespread corn viruses in the Hawaiian Islands. In the United States Mainland, MCMV has been reported to be transmitted by six different species of chrysomelid beetles, including the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte. However, none of these beetle species have been reported in Hawaii where the corn thrips, Frankliniella williamsi Hood (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) has been identified to be the main vector. In this study, we developed leaf disk transmission assays and real time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to examine the mode of MCMV transmission by the corn thrips. We showed that thrips transmitted the virus with no evidence for latent periods. Both larvae and adults transmitted the virus for up to 6 d after acquisition, with decreasing rates of transmission as time progressed. There was no evidence that adult thrips that acquired the virus as larvae were competent vectors. Real time reverse-transcription polomerase chain reaction assays showed that viral load was depleted from the vector's body after thrips had access to healthy plant tissue. Depletion of viral load was also observed when thrips matured from larvae to adults. Thrips were able to transmit MCMV after acquisition and inoculation access periods of 3 h. However, transmission efficiency increased with longer acquisition and inoculation access periods. Taken altogether our data suggests that corn thrips transmit MCMV in a semipersistent manner. To our knowledge, this is the first work reporting evidence of a plant virus transmitted semipersistently by thrips. PMID:23448010

  2. Plant Growth Retardation and Conserved miRNAs Are Correlated to Hibiscus Chlorotic Ringspot Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Ruimin; Wan, Zi Yi; Wong, Sek-Man

    2013-01-01

    Virus infection may cause a multiplicity of symptoms in their host including discoloration, distortion and growth retardation. Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV) infection was studied using kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.), a non-wood fiber-producing crop in this study. Infection by HCRSV reduced the fiber yield and concomitant economic value of kenaf. We investigated kenaf growth retardation and fluctuations of four selected miRNAs after HCRSV infection. Vegetative growth (including plant height, leaf size and root development) was severely retarded. From the transverse and radial sections of the mock and HCRSV-infected kenaf stem, the vascular bundles of HCRSV-infected plants were severely disrupted. In addition, four conserved plant developmental and defence related microRNAs (miRNAs) (miR165, miR167, miR168 and miR171) and their respective target genes phabulosa (PHB), auxin response factor 8 (ARF8), argonaute 1 (AGO1) and scarecrow-like protein 1 (SCL1) displayed variation in expression levels after HCRSV infection. Compared with the mock inoculated kenaf plants, miR171 and miR168 and their targets SCL1 and AGO1 showed greater fluctuations after HCRSV infection. As HCRSV upregulates plant SO transcript in kenaf and upregulated AGO1 in HCRSV-infected plants, the expression level of AGO1 transcript was further investigated under sulfite oxidase (SO) overexpression or silencing condition. Interestingly, the four selected miRNAs were also up- or down-regulated upon overexpression or silencing of SO. Plant growth retardation and fluctuation of four conserved miRNAs are correlated to HCRSV infection. PMID:24386476

  3. Adolescents with Mild Stunting Show Alterations in Glucose and Insulin Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    da Luz Santos, Carla Danusa; Clemente, Ana Paula Grotti; Martins, Vinicius José Baccin; Albuquerque, Maria Paula; Sawaya, Ana Lydia

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate glucose and insulin profiles in adolescents with mild stunting and overweight in order to assess the possibility of increased predisposition to diabetes. Subjects and Methods. The study population consisted of 66 pubertal adolescents classified as mildly stunted (height-for-age z scores ≥−2 and <−1) or of normal stature, as well as overweight (body mass index ≥85th percentile) or normal weight. Beta-cell function and insulin resistance were evaluated according to the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA). Results. In the group with mild stunting, glucose, insulin, and HOMA-IR levels were significantly higher in overweight adolescents compared with those of normal weight, whereas HOMA-B levels were significantly lower. Adolescents with mild stunting showed significantly higher accumulations of body and abdominal fat than their normal stature counterparts. Conclusions. The presence of mild stunting was associated with higher levels of glucose and insulin, diminished function of beta cells, and increased insulin resistance. These results reinforce the need for intervention in adolescents with mild stunting. PMID:21318152

  4. Physiological responses in potato plants under continuous irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cao, W.; Tibbitts, T. W.

    1991-01-01

    The physiological responses of four potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars to continuous irradiation were determined in a controlled environment. Under a constant 18C and a constant photoperiod of 470 micromoles s-1 m-2 of photosynthetic photon flux, 'Denali' and 'Haig' grew well and produced large plant and tuber dry weights when harvested 56 days after transplanting. 'Kennebec' and 'Superior' were severely stunted, producing only 10% of the plant dry matter produced by 'Denali' and 'Haig'. The differences in leaf chlorophyll concentration and stomatal conductance were not consistent between these two groups of cultivars. The leaf net CO2 assimilation rates in 'Kennebec' and 'Superior' were lower, and intercellular CO2 partial pressures were higher than in 'Denali' and 'Haig'. These results indicate that inhibition of net CO2 assimilation in 'Kennebec' and 'Superior' was not due to a limiting amount of chlorophyll or to CO2 in the leaf tissues. Concentrations of starch in leaflets of 'Kennebec' and 'Superior' plants were only 10% of those in 'Denali' and 'Haig' plants, although soluble sugar concentrations were similar in the four cultivars. Therefore, the lower net CO2 assimilation rates in stunted 'Kennebec' and 'Superior' plants were not associated with an excess carbohydrate accumulation in the leaves.

  5. First report of a natural infection by Mexican papita viroid and tomato chlorotic dwarf viroid on greenhouse tomatoes in Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In early 2008, tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum) grown in a large greenhouse facility located near Mexico City, Mexico exhibited general stunting, leaf chlorosis on top of the diseased plant and later turned to bronzing or purpling with reduced-size fruits. Bioassay demonstrated the mechanical t...

  6. Development and growth of potato tubers in microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, M. E.; Croxdale, J. L.; Tibbitts, T. W.; Goins, G.; Brown, C. S.; Wheeler, R. M.

    A potato explant consisting of a leaf, its axillary bud, and a small segment of stem will develop a tuber in 10-14 days when grown on earth. The tubers develop from the axillary buds and accumulate starch derived from sugars produced through photosynthesis and/or mobilized from leaf tissue. Potato explants were harvested and maintained in the Astroculture^TM unit, a plant growth chamber designed for spaceflight. The unit provides an environment with controlled temperature, humidity, CO_2 level, light intensity, and a nutrient delivery system. The hardware was loaded onto the space shuttle Columbia 24 hours prior to the launch of the STS-73 mission. Explant leaf tissue appeared turgid and green for the first 11 days of flight, but then became chlorotic and eventually necrotic by the end of the mission. The same events occurred to ground control explants with approximately the same timing. At the end of the 16-day mission, tubers were present on each explant. The size and shape of the space-grown tubers were similar to the ground-control tubers. The arrangement of cells in the tuber interior and at the exterior in the periderm was similar in both environments. Starch and protein were present in the tubers grown in space and on the ground. The range in starch grain size was similar in tubers from both environments, but the distribution of grains into size classes differed somewhat, with the space-grown tubers having more small grains than the ground control tubers. Proteinaceous crystals were found in tubers formed in each condition.

  7. Longitudinal Analysis of the Intestinal Microbiota in Persistently Stunted Young Children in South India

    PubMed Central

    Dinh, Duy M.; Ramadass, Balamurugan; Kattula, Deepthi; Sarkar, Rajiv; Braunstein, Philip; Tai, Albert; Wanke, Christine A.; Hassoun, Soha; Kane, Anne V.; Naumova, Elena N.; Kang, Gagandeep; Ward, Honorine D.

    2016-01-01

    Stunting or reduced linear growth is very prevalent in low-income countries. Recent studies have demonstrated a causal relationship between alterations in the gut microbiome and moderate or severe acute malnutrition in children in these countries. However, there have been no primary longitudinal studies comparing the intestinal microbiota of persistently stunted children to that of non-stunted children in the same community. In this pilot study, we characterized gut microbial community composition and diversity of the fecal microbiota of 10 children with low birth weight and persistent stunting (cases) and 10 children with normal birth weight and no stunting (controls) from a birth cohort every 3 months up to 2 years of age in a slum community in south India. There was an increase in diversity indices (P <0.0001) with increasing age in all children. However, there were no differences in diversity indices or in the rates of their increase with increasing age between cases and controls. The percent relative abundance of the Bacteroidetes phylum was higher in stunted compared to control children at 12 months of age (P = 0.043). There was an increase in the relative abundance of this phylum with increasing age in all children (P = 0.0380) with no difference in the rate of increase between cases and controls. There was a decrease in the relative abundance of Proteobacteria (P = 0.0004) and Actinobacteria (P = 0.0489) with increasing age in cases. The microbiota of control children was enriched in probiotic species Bifidobacterium longum and Lactobacillus mucosae, whereas that of stunted children was enriched in inflammogenic taxa including those in the Desulfovibrio genus and Campylobacterales order. Larger, longitudinal studies on the compositional and functional maturation of the microbiome in children are needed. PMID:27228122

  8. Longitudinal Analysis of the Intestinal Microbiota in Persistently Stunted Young Children in South India.

    PubMed

    Dinh, Duy M; Ramadass, Balamurugan; Kattula, Deepthi; Sarkar, Rajiv; Braunstein, Philip; Tai, Albert; Wanke, Christine A; Hassoun, Soha; Kane, Anne V; Naumova, Elena N; Kang, Gagandeep; Ward, Honorine D

    2016-01-01

    Stunting or reduced linear growth is very prevalent in low-income countries. Recent studies have demonstrated a causal relationship between alterations in the gut microbiome and moderate or severe acute malnutrition in children in these countries. However, there have been no primary longitudinal studies comparing the intestinal microbiota of persistently stunted children to that of non-stunted children in the same community. In this pilot study, we characterized gut microbial community composition and diversity of the fecal microbiota of 10 children with low birth weight and persistent stunting (cases) and 10 children with normal birth weight and no stunting (controls) from a birth cohort every 3 months up to 2 years of age in a slum community in south India. There was an increase in diversity indices (P <0.0001) with increasing age in all children. However, there were no differences in diversity indices or in the rates of their increase with increasing age between cases and controls. The percent relative abundance of the Bacteroidetes phylum was higher in stunted compared to control children at 12 months of age (P = 0.043). There was an increase in the relative abundance of this phylum with increasing age in all children (P = 0.0380) with no difference in the rate of increase between cases and controls. There was a decrease in the relative abundance of Proteobacteria (P = 0.0004) and Actinobacteria (P = 0.0489) with increasing age in cases. The microbiota of control children was enriched in probiotic species Bifidobacterium longum and Lactobacillus mucosae, whereas that of stunted children was enriched in inflammogenic taxa including those in the Desulfovibrio genus and Campylobacterales order. Larger, longitudinal studies on the compositional and functional maturation of the microbiome in children are needed. PMID:27228122

  9. Tomato chlorotic leaf distortion virus, a new bipartite begomovirus infecting Solanum lycopersicum and Capsicum chinense in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Zambrano, Karla; Geraud-Pouey, Francis; Chirinos, Doris; Romay, Gustavo; Marys, Edgloris

    2011-12-01

    Virus isolate T217L was obtained from a diseased tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plant showing leaf deformation and chlorotic mottle symptoms near Maracaibo in the state of Zulia, Venezuela. Full-length DNA-A and DNA-B molecules of T217L were cloned and sequenced. The genome organization of T217L was identical to the bipartite genomes of other begomoviruses described from the Americas. Characteristic disease symptoms were reproduced in S. lycopersicum and Capsicum annum plants inoculated using the cloned viral DNA-A and DNA-B components, confirming disease aetiology. A sequence analysis of DNA-A showed that the T217L isolate has the highest sequence identity (84%) with sida yellow mosaic Yucatan virus (SiYMYuV), sida golden mosaic Honduras virus (SiGMHV) and bean dwarf mosaic virus (BDMV) isolates. This is less than the 89% identity in the DNA-A component that has been defined as the threshold value for the demarcation of species in the genus Begomovirus. The molecular data show that isolate T217L belongs to a novel tentative begomovirus species, for which the name tomato chlorotic leaf distortion virus is proposed. TCLDV was also detected in symptomatic C. chinense plants growing near the T217L-infected plant. PMID:21853328

  10. Chlorotic feeding injury by the black pecan aphid (hemiptera: aphididae) to pecan foliage promotes aphid settling and nymphal development.

    PubMed

    Cottrell, Ted E; Wood, Bruce W; Ni, Xinzhi

    2009-04-01

    The nature of the interaction between the black pecan aphid, Melanocallis caryaefoliae (Davis) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and the chlorosis it causes to foliage of its pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch)] host is poorly understood. Laboratory experiments were conducted on the settling behavior of the black pecan aphid, when provided chlorotic pecan leaf discs resulting from previous black pecan aphid feeding and nonchlorotic leaf discs, under a normal photoperiod and constant dark. Additionally, aphid development from the first instar to the adult stage was examined when nymphs were either allowed to feed on the same leaf disc or moved daily to a new, nondamaged, same age leaf disc. After 24 h, a significantly higher percentage of black pecan aphids settled on chlorotic than on nonchlorotic leaf discs, regardless of photoperiod. When starting from the first instar, nymphs that were prevented from inducing leaf chlorosis by moving daily to new, same-age leaf discs took approximately 5 d longer to complete development, had a shorter body length, and had higher mortality than when aphids remained on the same leaf disc. These results show that black pecan aphid-induced leaf chlorosis plays an important role in the interaction of the black pecan aphid with its pecan host. PMID:19389290

  11. Potato Science for the Poor, International Potato Center

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cultivated potato of world commerce, Solanum tuberosum, is one of the primary crops worldwide, forming a basic food and source of primary income for many societies. Wild and cultivated potatoes form the germplasm base for international breeding efforts to improve potato in the face of variety o...

  12. Bandages of boiled potato peels.

    PubMed

    Patil, A R; Keswani, M H

    1985-08-01

    The use of potato peels as a dressing for burn wounds has been reported previously. A technique of preparing bandage rolls with boiled potato peels is now presented, which makes dressing of a burn wound more convenient. PMID:4041947

  13. Achieving sustainable cultivation of potatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Every phase of the production cycle impacts the sustainability of potato. Potato physiology determines how genetically encoded developmental attributes interact with local environmental conditions as modified through agricultural practice to produce a perishable crop. In this chapter we highlight ho...

  14. Managing deficit irrigation for potatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inadequate water availability, particularly at certain growth stages, has negative impact on the yield and quality of potato tubers. Tuber quality is important for processing potatoes to meet the marketability standards. The Pacific Northwest (PNW) of the US is a major potato production region of pr...

  15. The potato psyllid genome project

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato psyllid (Bactericera cockerelli) is a Hemipteran pest of solanaceous plants and limits potato and tomato production by the transmission of Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum. Genomic information on the potato psyllid is limited but is vital in developing appropriate management strategi...

  16. Continuous `stunted' outbursts detected from the cataclysmic variable KIC 9202990 using Kepler data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsay, Gavin; Hakala, Pasi; Wood, Matt A.; Howell, Steve B.; Smale, Alan; Still, Martin; Barclay, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Based on early Kepler data, Østensen et al. found that KIC 9202990 showed a 4-h and a two-week photometric period. They suggested the 4-h period was a signature of an orbital period; the longer period was possibly due to precession of an accretion disc and KIC 9202990 was a cataclysmic variable with an accretion disc which is always in a bright state (a nova-like system). Using the full Kepler data set on KIC 9202990 which covers 1421 d (Quarter 2-17), and includes 1-min cadence data from the whole of Quarters 5 and 16, we find that the 4-h period is stable and therefore a signature of the binary orbital period. In contrast, the 10-12 d period is not stable and shows an amplitude between 20 and 50 per cent. This longer period modulation is similar to those nova-like systems which show `stunted' outbursts. We discuss the problems that a precessing disc model has in explaining the observed characteristics and indicate why we favour a stunted outburst model. Although such stunted events are considered to be related to the standard disc instability mechanism, their origin is not well understood. KIC 9202990 shows the lowest amplitude and shortest period of continuous stunted outburst systems, making it an ideal target to better understand stunted outbursts and accretion instabilities in general.

  17. First report of Tomato chlorotic spot virus in scarlet eggplant (Solanum aethiopicum) and American black nightshade (Solanum americanum) in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) was identified in the vegetable crop scarlet eggplant and the weed American black nightshade in south Florida. This is the first report of TCSV naturally infecting these plant species in the U.S. Genetic diversity of TCSV was characterized. This report provides ...

  18. Survey of apple chlorotic leaf spot virus and apple stem grooving virus occurrence in Korea and frequency of mixed infections in apple

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to the absence of knowledge of the distribution of Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV) and Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) in apples in Korea, we carried out a survey for these viruses in Gyeongsang and Chungcheong provinces in 2014. A total of 65 samples were collected and tested by RT-PCR...

  19. Development of a rapid diagnostic assay for the detection of tomato chlorotic dwarf viroid based on isothermal reverse-transcription-recombinase polymerase amplification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A molecular diagnostic assay utilizing reverse transcription-recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA) at an isothermal constant temperature of 39 °C and target-specific primers and probe were developed for the rapid, sensitive, and specific detection of tomato chlorotic dwarf viroid (TCDVd) in ...

  20. Potato transformation and potato cyst nematode infection on potato plantlets in tissue culture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    These two protocols describe the methods for generating transgenic potato plants and for evaluating potato cyst nematode (Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida) infection on potato plantlets in tissue culture. These methods are useful tools that can be used in the study of the interactions between ...

  1. Active thermography for potato characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Sheng-Jen; Sun, Chih-Chen

    2008-03-01

    This paper describes the design of a semi-automated heating and scanning system and analytic method for potato characterization. Potatoes are heated using lamps in a heating chamber and then transferred on a movable fixture to an imaging chamber. A non-linear model was designed to predict which potatoes have excessive sugar defects and the model was evaluated with good results. Results from this research will benefit potato growers and manufacturers/producers of potato-based products such as chips and fries.

  2. Stunt Barbie - A Laboratory Practicum Combining Constant Velocity and Constant Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertting, Scott

    2011-04-01

    In preparing to teach the advanced physics course at my high school, I found it useful to work through the end-of-chapter problems in the book used by the advanced class. A problem on motion in one dimension involved a stunt woman in free fall from a tree limb onto a horse running beneath her.2 The problem presents a connected learning opportunity for students because it requires the use of the constant velocity model xf = v*t + xi and the constant acceleration model yf = ½* g* t2 + vyi* t + yi (where g = 9.8 m/s/s) to solve it. I named the stunt woman Barbie and created an activity titled "Stunt Barbie."

  3. Relationship between gene responses and symptoms induced by Rice grassy stunt virus

    PubMed Central

    Satoh, Kouji; Yoneyama, Kaori; Kondoh, Hiroaki; Shimizu, Takumi; Sasaya, Takahide; Choi, Il-Ryong; Yoneyama, Koichi; Omura, Toshihiro; Kikuchi, Shoshi

    2013-01-01

    Rice grassy stunt virus (RGSV) is a serious threat to rice production in Southeast Asia. RGSV is a member of the genus Tenuivirus, and it induces leaf yellowing, stunting, and excess tillering on rice plants. Here we examined gene responses of rice to RGSV infection to gain insight into the gene responses which might be associated with the disease symptoms. The results indicated that (1) many genes related to cell wall synthesis and chlorophyll synthesis were predominantly suppressed by RGSV infection; (2) RGSV infection induced genes associated with tillering process; (3) RGSV activated genes involved in inactivation of gibberellic acid and indole-3-acetic acid; and (4) the genes for strigolactone signaling were suppressed by RGSV. These results suggest that these gene responses to RGSV infection account for the excess tillering specific to RGSV infection as well as other symptoms by RGSV, such as stunting and leaf chlorosis. PMID:24151491

  4. The Potential Role of Mycotoxins as a Contributor to Stunting in the SHINE Trial.

    PubMed

    Smith, Laura E; Prendergast, Andrew J; Turner, Paul C; Mbuya, Mduduzi N N; Mutasa, Kuda; Kembo, George; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J

    2015-12-15

    Children in developing countries experience multiple exposures that are harmful to their growth and development. An emerging concern is frequent exposure to mycotoxins that contaminate a wide range of staple foods, including maize and groundnuts. Three mycotoxins are suspected to contribute to poor child health and development: aflatoxin, fumonisin, and deoxynivalenol. We summarize the evidence that mycotoxin exposure is associated with stunting, and propose that the causal pathway may be through environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) and disturbance of the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) axis. The objectives of this substudy are to assess the relationship between agricultural and harvest practices and mycotoxin exposure; to evaluate associations between mycotoxin exposure and child stunting; and to investigate EED as a potential pathway linking mycotoxin exposure to child stunting, to inform potential areas for intervention. PMID:26602301

  5. The Potential Role of Mycotoxins as a Contributor to Stunting in the SHINE Trial

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Laura E.; Prendergast, Andrew J.; Turner, Paul C.; Mbuya, Mduduzi N. N.; Mutasa, Kuda; Kembo, George; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J.

    2015-01-01

    Children in developing countries experience multiple exposures that are harmful to their growth and development. An emerging concern is frequent exposure to mycotoxins that contaminate a wide range of staple foods, including maize and groundnuts. Three mycotoxins are suspected to contribute to poor child health and development: aflatoxin, fumonisin, and deoxynivalenol. We summarize the evidence that mycotoxin exposure is associated with stunting, and propose that the causal pathway may be through environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) and disturbance of the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) axis. The objectives of this substudy are to assess the relationship between agricultural and harvest practices and mycotoxin exposure; to evaluate associations between mycotoxin exposure and child stunting; and to investigate EED as a potential pathway linking mycotoxin exposure to child stunting, to inform potential areas for intervention. PMID:26602301

  6. [Stunting and emaciation in children under 5 in distinct regions and strata in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Rivera-Dommarco, J; González-Cossío, T; Flores, M; Hernández-Avila, M; Lezana, M A; Sepúlveda-Amor, J

    1995-01-01

    Data from a National Nutrition Survey conducted in 1988 in a probability sample of 13,236 households and 17,426 children under five, representative at the national level and for four regions (North, Center, South, and Mexico City), were analyzed. Risks for wasting and stunting and odds ratios were obtained by region, by district according to proportion of indigenous population and by level of urbanization, by level of education of both parents, by gender, and by various combinations of the former strata. A high risk of stunting and a low risk of wasting were found. The risk of stunting is greater in predominantly indigenous and rural districts, in the South and Center, and in families of mothers with low education and poor housing conditions. The results can be used for food and nutrition policy planning and for targeting nutrition intervention programs. PMID:7618120

  7. Similarities between Stunted Outbursts in Nova-like Cataclysmic Variables and Outbursts in Ordinary Dwarf Novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honeycutt, R. K.

    2001-04-01

    Stunted outbursts have been reported in old novae and nova-like cataclysmic variables by Honeycutt, Robertson, and Turner. These 0.4-1 mag outbursts were concluded to be either mass transfer events or disk outbursts similar to dwarf nova eruptions, but seen under unusual conditions. Honeycutt, Robertson, and Turner did not have enough evidence to favor either of these possibilities. This paper uses additional long-term photometry and analysis to argue that the similarities of these stunted outbursts to dwarf nova eruptions are now so numerous that the dwarf nova outburst choice is strongly favored. The similarities discussed here include the range of outburst spacings, the coherence and stability of the outbursts, and the presence of isolated outburst/dip pairs. As part of this discussion we note the presence of unexpectedly stable clocks over 9 years for the repetition interval of dwarf nova outbursts in SY Cnc and of stunted outbursts in FY Per.

  8. Prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of stunting and thinness among Pakistani primary school children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Child growth is internationally recognized as an important indicator of nutritional status and health in populations. Child under-nutrition is estimated to be the largest contributor to global burden of disease, and it clusters in South Asia but literature on under-nutrition among school-aged children is difficult to find in this region. The study aimed to assess the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of stunting and thinness among Pakistani primary school children. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted with a representative multistage cluster sample of 1860 children aged 5-12 years in Lahore, Pakistan. Stunting (< -2 SD of height-for-age z-score) and thinness (< -2 SD of BMI-for-age z-score) were defined using the World Health Organization reference 2007. Chi-square test was used as the test of trend. Logistic regression was used to quantify the independent predictors of stunting and thinness and adjusted odds ratios (aOR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were obtained. Linear regression was used to explore the independent determinants of height- and BMI-for-age z-scores. Statistical significance was considered at P < 0.05. Results Eight percent (95% CI 6.9-9.4) children were stunted and 10% (95% CI 8.7-11.5) children were thin. Stunting and thinness were not significantly associated with gender. Prevalence of stunting significantly increased with age among both boys and girls (both P < 0.001) while thinness showed significant increasing trend with age among boys only (P = 0.034). Significant correlates of stunting included age > 8 years, rural area and urban area with low SES, low-income neighborhoods, lower parental education, more siblings, crowded housing and smoking in living place (all P < 0.001). Significant correlates of thinness included rural area and urban area with low SES, low-income neighborhoods and lower parental education (all P < 0.001), and age > 10 years (P = 0.003), more siblings (P = 0.016) and

  9. Consumption of animal source foods and dietary diversity reduce stunting in children in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Malnutrition in children is a major public health concern. This study aimed to determine the association between dietary diversity and stunting, underweight, wasting, and diarrhea and that between consumption of each specific food group and these nutritional and health outcomes among children. Methods A nationally representative household survey of 6209 children aged 12 to 59 months was conducted in Cambodia. We examined the consumption of food in the 24 hours before the survey and stunting, underweight, wasting, and diarrhea that had occurred in the preceding 2 weeks. A food variety score (ranging from 0 to 9) was calculated to represent dietary diversity. Results Stunting was negatively associated with dietary diversity (adjusted odd ratios [ORadj] 0.95, 95% confident interval [CI] 0.91-0.99, P = 0.01) after adjusting for socioeconomic and geographical factors. Consumption of animal source foods was associated with reduced risk of stunting (ORadj 0.69, 95% CI 0.54-0.89, P < 0.01) and underweight (ORadj 0.74, 95% CI 0.57-0.96, P = 0.03). On the other hand, the higher risk of diarrhea was significantly associated with consumption of milk products (ORadj 1.46, 95% CI 1.10-1.92, P = 0.02) and it was significantly pronounced among children from the poorer households (ORadj 1.85, 95% CI 1.17-2.93, P < 0.01). Conclusions Consumption of a diverse diet was associated with a reduction in stunting. In addition to dietary diversity, animal source food was a protective factor of stunting and underweight. Consumption of milk products was associated with an increase in the risk of diarrhea, particularly among the poorer households. Both dietary diversity and specific food types are important considerations of dietary recommendation. PMID:23866682

  10. Effect of micronutrient supplementation on diarrhoeal disease among stunted children in rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Chhagan, Meera K; Van den Broeck, Jan; Luabeya, Kany-Kany Angelique; Mpontshane, Nontobeko; Tucker, Katherine L; Bennish, Michael L

    2008-01-01

    Background The efficacy of zinc combined with vitamin A or multiple micronutrients in preventing diarrhoea is unclear in African countries with high prevalence of HIV-exposed children. Potential modifying factors such as stunting need addressing. Objective To determine whether adding zinc, or zinc plus multiple micronutrients, to vitamin A reduces diarrhoea incidence, and whether this differs between strata of stunted or HIV-infected children. Methods We analyzed data from a randomized, controlled double-blinded trial (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00156832) of prophylactic micronutrient supplementation to children aged 6–24 months. Three cohorts of children: 32 HIV-infected children, 154 HIV-uninfected children born to HIV-infected mothers, and 187 uninfected children born to HIV-uninfected mothers, received vitamin A, vitamin A plus zinc, or multiple micronutrients that included vitamin A and zinc. The main outcome was incidence of diarrhoea. Poisson regression was used in intent-to-treat analyses. Stratified analyses followed testing for statistical interaction between intervention and stunting. Results We observed no significant differences in overall diarrhoea incidence among treatment arms. Stunting modified this effect with stunted HIV-uninfected children having significantly lower diarrhoea incidence if supplemented with zinc or multiple micronutrients compared to vitamin A alone (2.04 and 2.23 vs 3.92 episodes/year respectively, P=0.024). No meaningful sub-group analyses could be done in the cohort of HIV-infected children. Conclusion Compared with vitamin A alone, supplementation with zinc, and with zinc and multiple micronutrients, reduced diarrhoea morbidity in stunted rural South African children. Efficacy of zinc supplementation in HIV-infected children needs confirmation in studies that represent the spectrum of disease severity and age groups. PMID:19174830

  11. Potato genetics, genomics, and applications

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Potato has a variety of reproductive uniquenesses besides its clonal propagation by tubers. These traits are controlled by a different kind of genetic control. The reproductive information has been applied to enable interspecific hybridization to enhance valuable traits, such as disease and pest resistances, from the tuber-bearing Solanum gene pool. While progress has been made in potato breeding, many resources have been invested due to the requirements of large populations and long time frame. This is not only due to the general pitfalls in plant breeding, but also due to the complexity of polyploid genetics. Tetraploid genetics is the most prominent aspect associated with potato breeding. Genetic maps and markers have contributed to potato breeding, and genome information further elucidates questions in potato evolution and supports comprehensive potato breeding. Challenges yet remain on recognizing intellectual property rights to breeding and germplasm, and also on regulatory aspects to incorporate modern biotechnology for increasing genetic variation in potato breeding. PMID:25931980

  12. Epidemiology of Cheerleading Stunt-Related Injuries in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Shields, Brenda J.; Fernandez, Soledad A.; Smith, Gary A.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Context: Cheerleading-related injuries are on the rise. To date, no epidemiologic studies of cheerleading stunt-related injuries have been published. Objective: To describe and compare cheerleading stunt-related injuries by type of cheerleading team (All Star, college, high school, middle school, or recreation league) and event (practice, pep rally, athletic event, or cheerleading competition). Design: Prospective injury surveillance study. Setting: Participant exposure and injury data were collected from US cheerleading teams via the Cheerleading RIO (Reporting Information Online) surveillance tool. Patients or Other Participants: Athletes from enrolled cheerleading teams who participated in official, organized cheerleading practices, pep rallies, athletic events, or cheerleading competitions. Main Outcome Measure(s): The numbers, types, and rates of cheerleading stunt-related injuries during a 1-year period (2006–2007) are reported. Results: Stunt-related injuries accounted for 60% (338/567) of the injuries sustained by US cheerleaders who participated in the study and 96% (22/23) of the concussions and closed head injuries (CHIs) reported during the study. Collegiate cheerleaders were more likely to sustain a concussion or CHI than were cheerleaders on other types of teams (P  =  .02, odds ratio  =  3.10, 95% confidence interval  =  1.20, 8.06). Most injuries occurred while the cheerleader was spotting or basing another cheerleader (34%, 115/338), and these injuries comprised 32% (51/161) of all stunt-related strains and sprains. Four cheerleaders (1.2%, 4/335) were admitted to the hospital, and 9 cheerleaders (2.7%, 9/335) required surgery. Conclusions: Cheerleading stunts pose an increased risk for injury, especially in terms of sustaining a concussion or CHI. Spotters and bases were most likely to be injured during the performance of cheerleading stunts and were at risk for sustaining strain and sprain injuries. The ankle, lower back

  13. 7 CFR 947.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Potatoes. 947.5 Section 947.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU... Definitions § 947.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown within the...

  14. 7 CFR 947.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 947.12 Section 947.12 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND... Definitions § 947.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified...

  15. 7 CFR 1207.306 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 1207.306 Section 1207.306 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1207.306 Potatoes. Potatoes means any or all...

  16. 7 CFR 1207.306 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Potatoes. 1207.306 Section 1207.306 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1207.306 Potatoes. Potatoes means any or all...

  17. 7 CFR 947.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 947.12 Section 947.12 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND... Definitions § 947.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified...

  18. 7 CFR 946.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Potatoes. 946.5 Section 946.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown...

  19. 7 CFR 947.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 947.5 Section 947.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU... Definitions § 947.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown within the...

  20. 7 CFR 1207.306 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Potatoes. 1207.306 Section 1207.306 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1207.306 Potatoes. Potatoes means any or all...

  1. 7 CFR 947.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Potatoes. 947.5 Section 947.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU... Definitions § 947.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown within the...

  2. 7 CFR 1207.306 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Potatoes. 1207.306 Section 1207.306 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1207.306 Potatoes. Potatoes means any or all...

  3. 7 CFR 947.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 947.12 Section 947.12 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND... Definitions § 947.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified...

  4. 7 CFR 947.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 947.12 Section 947.12 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND... Definitions § 947.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified...

  5. 7 CFR 1207.306 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Potatoes. 1207.306 Section 1207.306 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1207.306 Potatoes. Potatoes means any or all...

  6. 7 CFR 947.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Potatoes. 947.5 Section 947.5 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU... Definitions § 947.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown within the...

  7. 7 CFR 947.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Potatoes. 947.5 Section 947.5 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU... Definitions § 947.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown within the...

  8. 7 CFR 946.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Potatoes. 946.5 Section 946.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown...

  9. 7 CFR 946.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Potatoes. 946.5 Section 946.5 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown...

  10. 7 CFR 947.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 947.12 Section 947.12 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND... Definitions § 947.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified...

  11. 7 CFR 946.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Potatoes. 946.5 Section 946.5 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown...

  12. 7 CFR 946.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 946.5 Section 946.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown...

  13. Synergistic Effects of Mutations and Nanoparticle Templating in the Self-Assembly of Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus Capsids

    PubMed Central

    Aniagyei, Stella E.; Kennedy, Chelsea J.; Stein, Barry; Willits, Deborah A.; Douglas, Trevor; Young, Mark J.; De, Mrinmoy; Rotello, Vincent M.; Srisathiyanarayanan, D.; Kao, C. Cheng; Dragnea, Bogdan

    2009-01-01

    A study of the in vitro nanoparticle-templated assembly of a mutant of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus lacking most of the N-terminal domain (residues 4–37), NΔ34, is presented. Mutant empty proteins assemble into empty capsids with a much broader distribution of sizes than the wild-type virus. This increased flexibility in the assembly outcomes is known to be detrimental for the assembly process in the presence of molecular polyanions. However, when rigid polyanionic cores are used, such as nanoparticles, the assembly process is restored and virus-like particles form. Moreover, the breadth of the nanoparticle-templated capsid size distribution becomes comparable with the wild-type virus size distribution. PMID:19090695

  14. Infectious clones of the crinivirus cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus are competent for plant systemic infection and vector transmission.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yan; Shi, Yajuan; Gu, Qinsheng; Yan, Fengming; Sun, Xinyan; Li, Honglian; Chen, Linlin; Sun, Bingjian; Wang, Zhenyue

    2016-06-01

    Cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus (CCYV), a recently identified bipartite crinivirus, causes economic losses in cucurbit plants. CCYV is naturally transmitted only by whitefly Bemisia tabaci. Here we constructed full-length cDNA clones of CCYV (RNA1 and RNA2) fused to the T7 RNA polymerase promoter and the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. CCYV replicated and accumulated efficiently in Cucumis sativus protoplasts transfected with in vitro transcripts. Without RNA2, RNA1 replicated efficiently in C. sativus protoplasts. Agroinoculation with the infectious cDNA clones of CCYV resulted in systemic infection in the host plants of C. sativus and Nicotiana benthamiana. Virus derived from the infectious clones could be transmitted between cucumber plants by vector whiteflies. This system will greatly enhance the reverse genetic studies of CCYV gene functions. PMID:26982585

  15. Spina bifida and potatoes.

    PubMed

    Clarke, C A; McKendrick, O M; Sheppard, P M

    1973-08-01

    The results of a retrospective survey of the dietetic and other habits of the mothers of 83 children with spina bifida (mostly schoolchildren with meningomyelocele) were compared with 85 carefully matched controls. The survey was particularly concerned with the consumption of or contact with potatoes by the mothers. No significant differences were found in the amount of potatoes eaten as reported by the mothers (mean for spina bifida group 3.60 1b (1630 g), and for controls 3.98 1b (1800 g) per week). Of the seven other comparisons associated with potatoes only one (obtaining them from the chip shop or restaurant) was significant, the mothers of the children with spina bifida being more likely to obtain some of them from this source.When examining other aspects of diet it was found that the mothers of spina bifida children reported a lower consumption of a number of important foods, though the deficiency was not significant in any instance. These mothers were also significantly more likely to have been prescribed drugs other than iron and vitamins early in pregnancy and to have reported a wider variety of illnesses.The results in general do not support the hypothesis that the quantity of potatoes taken is important. They do lend support to the view that poor dietary habits are associated with a higher incidence of spina bifida irrespective of social class. Furthermore, general ill health in the mother may be implicated. PMID:4579291

  16. Potato tuber dormancy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The date that potato tubers begin to sprout must be carefully managed to maximize crop value. Spouting of fresh, chip and fry processing tubers during storage can decrease crop value, increase water loss and pressure bruising, and may promote pathogen entry. A lack of uniform sprouting in seed potat...

  17. The phenomenon of stunting as the core problem in a community based, multisectoral project in northern Peru.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, J J; Echeverría, F R; Hewel-Herrmann, P

    1991-03-01

    In a nutrition and health project in the countryside of the Highlands of Northern Peru, an anthropometric study was conducted on 306 pre-school children. The results showed a primarily stunted, but not wasted, population in which the process of stunting started after the first 6 months of life, with a modest linear progression over all age-groups. However, the rates of stunted children increased dramatically between the ages of 6 months and 2 years. Evidence with regard to the social dimension of the problem of becoming stunted was revealed by the significant differences between rates of stunted children according to the degree of community participation in their home villages. PMID:2052861

  18. A new expanded host range of Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus includes three agricultural crops.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV) was identified in the fall of 2006 affecting cucurbit production in the Imperial Valley of California, the adjacent Yuma, AZ region, as well as nearby Sonora, Mexico. There was nearly universal infection of fall melon crops in 2006 and 2007, and late,...

  19. Evaluation of Onion Genotypes for Resistance to Stunting Caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG 8

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 35 onion genotypes was evaluated for resistance to onion stunting caused by Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group 8 (AG-8) under temperature-controlled greenhouse conditions (15 ± 1oC) in 2013. Each onion genotype was planted in a cone-tainer with and without inoculation with R. solani AG ...

  20. Recessive resistance to Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus in melon TGR 1551

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV) reduces melon (Cucumis melo L.) fruit quality and yield in many parts of the world. Host plant resistance of melon to CYSDV is a high priority for sustainable melon production in affected production areas. High-level resistance to CYSDV exhibited by TG...

  1. INHERITANCE OF RESISTANCE TO RATOON STUNTING DISEASE AND IMPLICATIONS FOR SELECTIN IN FLORIDA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ratoon Stunting Disease (RSD) (caused by Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli (Davis et al.) Evtushenko et al.) may impart major economic yield losses in sugarcane, particularly in ratoon crops. Although control may be obtained by mechanical sanitation and the use of disease-free seed-cane, genetic resistance...

  2. Effect of deep vs. shallow tillage on onion stunting and onion bulb yield, 2012

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A field experiment was conducted at a site inoculated with R. solani AG 8 at the Oregon State University Hermiston Agricultural Research and Extension Center in Hermiston, OR to determine the effect of plowing (deep tillage) vs. rototilling (shallow tillage) on onion stunting caused by R. solani AG ...

  3. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on onion growth and onion stunting caused by Rhizoctonia solani, 2013.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A preliminary study was conducted in a greenhouse (15 ± 1oC, with supplemental lights for 12 h/day) to determine the role of AMF on onion growth and for reducing the severity of onion stunting, using a commercial AMF inoculant, BioTerra Plus, that contains 104 propagules/g (ppg) of Glomus intraradic...

  4. Stunting of onion caused by Rhizoctonia spp. isolated from the Columbia Basin of Oregon and Washington

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During 2009 and 2010, 45 isolates of Rhizoctonia spp. were recovered from onion bulb crops in the semi-arid Columbia Basin of Oregon and Washington, in which patches of severely stunted onion plants developed following rotation with winter cereal cover crops. Characterization of isolates recovered f...

  5. Stunted patches in onion bulb crops in Oregon and Washington: Etiology and yield loss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onion stunting caused by Rhizoctonia spp. is an important soilborne disease in the Columbia Basin of Oregon and Washington. From 2010 to 2013, 251 isolates of Rhizoctonia or Rhizoctonia-like spp. were obtained from soil and onion plant samples collected from Oregon and Washington. Sequence analysis ...

  6. 78 FR 60222 - Safety Zone; Motion Picture Stunt Work and Filming; Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    ...-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: ] Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal... Picture Production; Chicago, IL in the Federal Register (78 FR 20241). Because this motion picture... the stunt work, pyrotechnics, low-flying helicopter, and other hazards involved in the filming of...

  7. Stunt Barbie--A Laboratory Practicum Combining Constant Velocity and Constant Acceleration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertting, Scott

    2011-01-01

    In preparing to teach the advanced physics course at my high school, I found it useful to work through the end of chapter problems in the book used by the advanced class. A problem on motion in one dimension involved a stunt woman in free fall from a tree limb onto a horse running beneath her. The problem presents a connected learning opportunity…

  8. Potential New Sources of Genetic Resistance in Melon to Cucurbit Yellow Stunting Disorder Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV) emerged as a new pathogen on Fall melons (Cucumis melo L.) in the western U.S. and Mexico in 2006, recurred in 2007, and is now firmly established in the region. Replicated, naturally infected field tests of genetically diverse melon cultigens were eva...

  9. [Significance of the urine strip test in case of stunted growth].

    PubMed

    Bertholet-Thomas, A; Llanas, B; Servais, A; Bendelac, N; Goizet, C; Choukroun, G; Novo, R; Decramer, S

    2015-07-01

    Observation of stunted growth in children usually leads the general practitioner to refer the patient to endocrinologists or gastroenterologists. In most cases, after a complementary check-up, the diagnosis is made and treatment is initiated. However, certain cases remain undiagnosed, particularly renal etiologies, such as proximal tubulopathy. The urine strip test at the initial check-up would be an easy and inexpensive test to avoid delayed diagnosis. The aim of the present paper is to increase general physicians' and pediatricians' awareness of the significance of questioning the parents and using the urine strip test for any child presenting stunted growth. We report a patient case of a 20-month-old child admitted to the emergency department for severe dehydration. He had displayed stunted growth since the age of 5 months and showed a negative etiologic check-up at 9 months of age. Clinical examination at admission confirmed stunted growth with loss of 2 standard deviations and signs of dehydration with persistent diuresis. Skin paleness, ash-blond hair, and signs of rickets were also observed and the urine strip test showed positive pads for glycosuria and proteinuria. Polyuria and polydipsia were also revealed following parents' questioning, suggesting proximal tubulopathy (Fanconi syndrome). Association of stunted growth, rickets, polyuria and polydipsia, glycosuria (without ketonuria and normal glycemia), and proteinuria suggest nephropathic cystinosis. Ophthalmic examination showed cystine deposits in the cornea. The semiotic diagnosis of nephropathic cystinosis was confirmed by leukocyte cystine concentrations and genetic investigations. This case report clearly illustrates the significance of the urine strip test to easily and quickly concentrate the diagnosis of stunted growth on a renal etiology (glycosuria, proteinuria), especially on proximal tubulopathy for which the most frequent cause is nephropathic cystinosis. Specificity of nephropathic

  10. Childhood stunting and the metabolic syndrome components in young adults from a Brazilian birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Grillo, L P; Gigante, D P; Horta, B L; de Barros, F C F

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between stunting in the second year of life and metabolic syndrome components in early adulthood among subjects who have been prospectively followed-up since birth, in a city in Southern Brazil. Subjects/Methods: In 1984, we attempted to follow-up the entire cohort; the subjects were examined and their mothers interviewed. Stunting was defined by a length-for-age Z-score 2 s.d. or more below the mean, in accordance with the World Health Organization reference. Between 2004 and 2005, we again tried to follow the entire cohort; during this period the subjects were evaluated for the following metabolic syndrome components: high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, random blood glucose, waist circumference and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Family income at the time of the baby's birth, asset index, mother's education, mother's smoking during pregnancy and duration of breastfeeding were considered possible confounders. Linear regression was used in the unadjusted and adjusted analyses. Results: Among men, stunting was inversely associated with triglycerides (β=−11.90, confidence interval (CI)=−22.33 to −1.48) and waist circumference (β=−4.29, CI=−5.62 to −2.97), whereas for women stunting was negatively related to HDL-cholesterol (β=−4.50, CI=−6.47 to −2.52), triglycerides (β=−9.61, CI=−17.66 to −1.56) and waist circumference (β=−1.14, CI=−4.22 to −1.02). However, after controlling for confounding variables, these associations vanished. Conclusions: The findings suggest that stunting in childhood is not associated with metabolic syndrome components in young adults. PMID:26733042

  11. Relationships between Wasting and Stunting and Their Concurrent Occurrence in Ghanaian Preschool Children.

    PubMed

    Saaka, Mahama; Galaa, Sylvester Zackaria

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The main aim of the study was to assess the magnitude of concurrent wasting and stunting among Ghanaian preschool children. Secondly, we investigated the relationship between wasting and stunting as well as factors associated with these conditions. Methods. This paper is based on reanalysis of anthropometric and other relevant data which was collected in the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. The data set consisted of 2,720 preschool children aged 0-59 months. We conducted three-step moderated hierarchical multiple regression analyses to determine independent predictors and moderators of height-for-age Z-score. Results. Nationally, the prevalence of concurrent wasting and stunting among children aged 0-59 months was low at 1.4% but it varied geographically with the Upper East Region having the highest prevalence of 3.2% (95% CI: 1.7-5.8). Children who had low weight-for-height Z-scores were at a higher risk of linear growth retardation (stunting) especially among children aged less than three years. A 1-unit increase in weight-for-height Z-score (WHZ) was associated with 0.07 standard units' increase in height-for-age Z-score (HAZ) [β = 0.071 (95% CI: 0.03, 0.15)]. Conclusions. The study results suggest that weight-for-height relates to linear growth but this relationship is moderated by age of child. Stunting and wasting share some common risk factors. Therefore, measures to prevent wasting may positively influence linear growth. PMID:27379184

  12. Relationships between Wasting and Stunting and Their Concurrent Occurrence in Ghanaian Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Galaa, Sylvester Zackaria

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The main aim of the study was to assess the magnitude of concurrent wasting and stunting among Ghanaian preschool children. Secondly, we investigated the relationship between wasting and stunting as well as factors associated with these conditions. Methods. This paper is based on reanalysis of anthropometric and other relevant data which was collected in the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. The data set consisted of 2,720 preschool children aged 0–59 months. We conducted three-step moderated hierarchical multiple regression analyses to determine independent predictors and moderators of height-for-age Z-score. Results. Nationally, the prevalence of concurrent wasting and stunting among children aged 0–59 months was low at 1.4% but it varied geographically with the Upper East Region having the highest prevalence of 3.2% (95% CI: 1.7–5.8). Children who had low weight-for-height Z-scores were at a higher risk of linear growth retardation (stunting) especially among children aged less than three years. A 1-unit increase in weight-for-height Z-score (WHZ) was associated with 0.07 standard units' increase in height-for-age Z-score (HAZ) [β = 0.071 (95% CI: 0.03, 0.15)]. Conclusions. The study results suggest that weight-for-height relates to linear growth but this relationship is moderated by age of child. Stunting and wasting share some common risk factors. Therefore, measures to prevent wasting may positively influence linear growth. PMID:27379184

  13. Time trends in socioeconomic inequalities in stunting prevalence: analyses of repeated national surveys

    PubMed Central

    Restrepo-Méndez, María Clara; Barros, Aluísio JD; Black, Robert E; Victora, Cesar G

    2016-01-01

    Objective Much is known about national trends in child undernutrition, but there is little information on how socioeconomic inequalities are evolving over time. We aimed to assess socioeconomic inequalities in stunting prevalence over time. Setting Nationally representative household surveys from 25 low and middle income countries. Design We selected nationally representative surveys carried out since the mid-1990s for which information was available on asset indices and on child anthropometry. We identified twenty-five countries which had at least two surveys over an interval of 10 or more years, totaling 87 surveys. Stunting prevalence was calculated according to wealth quintiles. Absolute and relative inequalities were calculated, and time trends were obtained by regression. Results National prevalence declined significantly in 22 of the 25 countries. In 18 out of 25 countries, relative reductions among the rich than among the poor. Overall, there was no indication that inequalities improved. Striking examples are Nepal, with a 17·0 percent points decline in stunting per decade, but where inequalities increased sharply, and Brazil where stunting fell by 6·7 percent points and inequalities were all but eliminated. Conclusions Global progress in reducing stunting has not been accompanied by improved equity, but countries varied markedly in how successful they were in reducing prevalence among the poorest children. It is important to document how some countries were able to reduce inequalities, so that these lessons can be used to foster global progress, particularly in light of the increased importance of within-country inequalities in the post-2015 agenda. PMID:25521530

  14. Continuous and emerging challenges of Potato virus Y in potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato virus Y (PVY) is one of the oldest known plant viruses, and yet in the past 20 years it emerged in the U.S. as a relatively new and very serious problem in potato. The virus exists as a complex of strains that induce a wide variety of foliar and tuber symptoms leading to yield reduction and l...

  15. The contribution of traditional potato breeding to scientific potato improvement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conventional potato breeding refers to development of new cultivars from sexual crosses followed by clonal propagation and selection. Nearly all new varieties of potato still emerge from this process free from modern technologies of gene insertion. Conventional breeding remains the most important ...

  16. The naming of Potato virus Y strains infecting potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato virus Y (PVY) strain groups are based on host-response and resistance-gene interactions. The strain groups PVYO, PVYC and PVYN are well-established for the isolates infecting potato in the field. A switch in the emphasis from host response to nucleotide sequence differences in the virus genom...

  17. Susceptibility of selected potato varieties to zebra chip potato disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zebra chip (ZC), an emerging and serious disease of potato has caused millions of dollars in losses to the potato industry in the United States, Mexico, Central America, and New Zealand. The disease has recently been associated with a previously undescribed species of liberibacter tentatively named ...

  18. Habitat manipulation in potato affects colorado potato beetle dispersal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased vegetational diversity in agricultural fields may alter the movement of pests into or within a field. Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlienata) is a devastating pest of potatoes world-wide that has developed resistance to insecticides, creating a need for alternate management stra...

  19. 21 CFR 102.41 - Potato chips made from dried potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potato chips made from dried potatoes. 102.41... Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.41 Potato chips made from dried potatoes. (a) The common or usual name of the food product that resembles and is of the same composition as potato chips, except that it...

  20. 21 CFR 102.41 - Potato chips made from dried potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potato chips made from dried potatoes. 102.41... Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.41 Potato chips made from dried potatoes. (a) The common or usual name of the food product that resembles and is of the same composition as potato chips, except that it...

  1. 21 CFR 102.41 - Potato chips made from dried potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potato chips made from dried potatoes. 102.41... Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.41 Potato chips made from dried potatoes. (a) The common or usual name of the food product that resembles and is of the same composition as potato chips, except that it...

  2. 21 CFR 102.41 - Potato chips made from dried potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potato chips made from dried potatoes. 102.41... Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.41 Potato chips made from dried potatoes. (a) The common or usual name of the food product that resembles and is of the same composition as potato chips, except that it...

  3. 21 CFR 102.41 - Potato chips made from dried potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potato chips made from dried potatoes. 102.41... Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.41 Potato chips made from dried potatoes. (a) The common or usual name of the food product that resembles and is of the same composition as potato chips, except that it...

  4. Hybrid origins of cultivated potatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild and cultivated potatoes, Solanum section Petota, is taxonomically difficult, partly because of interspecific hybridization at both the diploid and polyploid levels. The taxonomy of cultivated potatoes is particularly controversial. With DNA sequence data of the GBSSI (waxy) gene we here infer r...

  5. Potato Phytonutrient Analysis and Engineering

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potatoes have the highest per capita consumption of any vegetable, a fact which emphasizes their potential to be a key dietary source of health-promoting compounds. Only a fraction of the genetic diversity available in potato wild-species has been incorporated into modern cultivars. LCMS analysis of...

  6. Acrylamide in processed potato products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trace amounts of acrylamide are found in many foods cooked at high temperatures. Acrylamide in processed potato products is formed from reducing sugars and asparagine and is a product of the Maillard reaction. Processed potato products including fries and chips are relatively high in acrylamide comp...

  7. Breeding for Potato Nutrition Enhancement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato is a starchy tuber. This simple statement hides the fact that potato also is rich in phytonutrients. Variation in chemical composition and concentration is quite broad in the natural diversity available in the germplasm. Some of these phytonutrients are visually very dramatic. Anthocyanin...

  8. Leafhopper and psyllid pests of potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leafhoppers and psyllids are important pests of potato worldwide. These insects cause damage to potato by direct feeding or by acting as vectors of potato pathogens. Economically important leafhoppers that attack potato include Empoasca fabae, Macrosteles fascifrons, and Circulifer tenellus. E. faba...

  9. Application and evaluation of entomopathogens in potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    More than 290 million metric tons of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) are produced throughout the world annually. Potato production ranks fourth among agricultural crops, after wheat, maize, and rice. A large number of insect pests affect potatoes. Worldwide, the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa ...

  10. VOLUNTEER POTATO MANAGEMENT AND OUTLOOK FOR 2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato tubers left in the ground following a potato harvest often over winter in regions with mild winter temperatures resulting in a serious and difficult to manage weed problem in the ensuing crop rotation. Potatoes normally are killed when they reach temperatures below 28° F. Many potato tuber...

  11. 7 CFR 948.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Potatoes. 948.5 Section 948.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means and includes all varieties of Irish...

  12. 7 CFR 953.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 953.5 Section 953.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN SOUTHEASTERN STATES Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 953.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish...

  13. 7 CFR 946.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 946.12 Section 946.12 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes...

  14. 7 CFR 948.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Potatoes. 948.5 Section 948.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means and includes all varieties of Irish...

  15. 7 CFR 948.6 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 948.6 Section 948.6 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.6 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes or seed means any...

  16. 7 CFR 948.6 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 948.6 Section 948.6 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.6 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes or seed means any...

  17. 7 CFR 946.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 946.12 Section 946.12 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes...

  18. 7 CFR 948.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Potatoes. 948.5 Section 948.5 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means and includes all varieties of Irish...

  19. 7 CFR 953.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Potatoes. 953.5 Section 953.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN SOUTHEASTERN STATES Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 953.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish...

  20. 7 CFR 946.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 946.12 Section 946.12 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes...

  1. 7 CFR 953.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Potatoes. 953.5 Section 953.5 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN SOUTHEASTERN STATES Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 953.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish...

  2. 7 CFR 948.6 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 948.6 Section 948.6 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.6 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes or seed means any...

  3. 7 CFR 948.6 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 948.6 Section 948.6 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.6 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes or seed means any...

  4. 7 CFR 946.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 946.12 Section 946.12 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes...

  5. 7 CFR 953.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Potatoes. 953.5 Section 953.5 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN SOUTHEASTERN STATES Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 953.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish...

  6. 7 CFR 948.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Potatoes. 948.5 Section 948.5 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means and includes all varieties of Irish...

  7. 7 CFR 948.6 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 948.6 Section 948.6 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.6 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes or seed means any...

  8. 7 CFR 953.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Potatoes. 953.5 Section 953.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN SOUTHEASTERN STATES Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 953.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish...

  9. 7 CFR 948.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 948.5 Section 948.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means and includes all varieties of Irish...

  10. 7 CFR 946.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 946.12 Section 946.12 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes...

  11. miRNA: A Novel Link Between Rice Ragged Stunt Virus and Oryza sativa.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yingying; Chen, Xiong; Yang, Fang; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Wanhong

    2016-06-01

    Rice ragged stunt disease caused leads to severe loss of rice yield. Recently, rice ragged stunt virus (RRSV) were found to be increasingly common in rice-growing regions of China and Vietnam. RRSV may cause problem by interacting with microRNAs (miRNAs) of host cells and the mechanism is not clear yet. In this study we identified 11 miRNAs in response to RRSV infection and predicted their possible targets to viral RNA segments (S1-S10) through the bioinformatics analysis. Interestingly, we found that Osa-miR-168b might bind to both the CDS region and 3'UTR of S5 and S8 and target eEF-1A to inhibit the activity of host cells to facilitate RRSV replication. These results suggest that miRNAs may be a potential target for developing rice against RRSV infection. PMID:27570315

  12. Management of corn leafhopper (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) and corn stunt disease in sweet corn using reflective mulch.

    PubMed

    Summers, C G; Stapleton, J J

    2002-04-01

    Plastic reflective mulches significantly reduced populations of corn leafhopper, Dalbulus maidis (DeLong & Wolcott), adults and the incidence of corn stunt disease caused by Spiroplasma kunkelii (CSS) in late planted sweet corn (Zea mays L.). The reflective mulches were more effective than were either foliar or soil applied insecticides in managing both the leafhopper and the pathogen it transmits. Yields of marketable ears were 1.5 to 2 times greater in reflective mulch plots than from fallow plots. This was due to larger ears (individual ear weight and length) rather than an increase in the number of ears. The use of reflective mulches provides an alternative strategy to insecticides in the management of both D. maidis and corn stunt disease. Such a strategy may prove useful to growers in Latin America and to limited resource growers and organic growers in the United States who wish to grow corn without the use of insecticides. PMID:12020008

  13. Continuous and emerging challenges of Potato virus Y in potato.

    PubMed

    Karasev, Alexander V; Gray, Stewart M

    2013-01-01

    Potato virus Y (PVY) is one of the oldest known plant viruses, and yet in the past 20 years it emerged in the United States as a relatively new and very serious problem in potato. The virus exists as a complex of strains that induce a wide variety of foliar and tuber symptoms in potato, leading to yield reduction and loss of tuber quality. PVY has displayed a distinct ability to evolve through accumulation of mutations and more rapidly through recombination between different strains, adapting to new potato cultivars across different environments. Factors behind PVY emergence as a serious potato threat are not clear at the moment, and here an attempt is made to analyze various properties of the virus and its interactions with potato resistance genes and with aphid vectors to explain this recent PVY spread in potato production areas. Recent advances in PVY resistance identification and mapping of corresponding genes are described. An updated classification is proposed for PVY strains that takes into account the most current information on virus molecular genetics, serology, and host reactivity. PMID:23915135

  14. Maternal autonomy is inversely related to child stunting in Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Shroff, Monal; Griffiths, Paula; Adair, Linda; Suchindran, Chirayath; Bentley, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Child stunting, an outcome of chronic undernutrition, contributes to poor quality of life, morbidity and mortality. In South Asia, the low status of women is thought to be one of the primary determinants of undernutrition across the lifespan. Low female status can result in compromised health outcomes for women, which in turn are related to lower infant birthweight and may affect the quality of infant care and nutrition. Maternal autonomy (defined as a woman's personal power in the household and her ability to influence and change her environment) is likely an important factor influencing child care and ultimately infant and child health outcomes. To examine the relationship between maternal autonomy and child stunting in Andhra Pradesh, India, we analysed data from National Family Health Survey (NFHS)-2. We used cross-sectional demographic, health and anthropometric information for mothers and their oldest child <36 months (n = 821) from NFHS-2. The main explanatory variables of autonomy are presented by four dimensions - decision making, permission to travel, attitude towards domestic violence and financial autonomy - constructed using seven binary variables. Logistic regression models were used to test associations between indicators of female autonomy and the risk of having a stunted child. Women with higher autonomy {indicated by access to money [odds ratio (OR) = 0.731; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.546, 0.981] and freedom to choose to go to the market [OR = 0.593; 95% CI 0.376, 0.933]} were significantly less likely to have a stunted child, after controlling for household socio-economic status and mother's education. In this south Indian state, two dimensions of female autonomy have an independent effect on child growth, suggesting the need for interventions that increase women's financial and physical autonomy. PMID:19161545

  15. Prevalence and determinants of child undernutrition and stunting in semiarid region of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Correia, Luciano Lima; Silva, Anamaria Cavalcante e; Campos, Jocileide Sales; Andrade, Francisca Maria de Oliveira; Machado, Márcia Maria Tavares; Lindsay, Ana Cristina; Leite, Álvaro Jorge Madeiro; Rocha, Hermano Alexandre Lima; da Cunha, Antonio José Ledo Alves

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the evolution in the prevalence and determinants of malnutrition in children in the semiarid region of Brazil. METHODS Data were collected from two cross-sectional population-based household surveys that used the same methodology. Clustering sampling was used to collect data from 8,000 families in Ceará, Northeastern Brazil, for the years 1987 and 2007. Acute undernutrition was calculated as weight/age < -2 standard deviation (SD); stunting as height/age < -2 SD; wasting as weight/height < -2 SD. Data on biological and sociodemographic determinants were analyzed using hierarchical multivariate analyses based on a theoretical model. RESULTS A sample of 4,513 and 1,533 children under three years of age, in 1987 and 2007, respectively, were included in the analyses. The prevalence of acute malnutrition was reduced by 60.0%, from 12.6% in 1987 to 4.7% in 2007, while prevalence of stunting was reduced by 50.0%, from 27.0% in 1987 to 13.0% in 2007. Prevalence of wasting changed little in the period. In 1987, socioeconomic and biological characteristics (family income, mother’s education, toilet and tap water availability, children’s medical consultation and hospitalization, age, sex and birth weight) were significantly associated with undernutrition, stunting and wasting. In 2007, the determinants of malnutrition were restricted to biological characteristics (age, sex and birth weight). Only one socioeconomic characteristic, toilet availability, remained associated with stunting. CONCLUSIONS Socioeconomic development, along with health interventions, may have contributed to improvements in children’s nutritional status. Birth weight, especially extremely low weight (< 1,500 g), appears as the most important risk factor for early childhood malnutrition. PMID:24789633

  16. Infection by Intestinal Parasites, Stunting and Anemia in School-Aged Children from Southern Angola

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Dinamene; Atouguia, Jorge; Fortes, Filomeno; Guerra, António

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Intestinal parasites are responsible for morbidity in children worldwide, especially in low income countries. In the present study we determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and explore its association with anemia and stunting in school-aged children. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from September to October 2010 enrolling 328 children attending the primary school in Lubango, the second largest city after the capital Luanda. Stool samples were collected for parasite detection through microscopy and molecular identification of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar. Stunting was assessed using the z-scores of height for age and hemoglobin concentration was determined using a portable hemoglobin analyzing system. Results The global prevalence of pathogenic intestinal parasites was 44.2%, the most common being Ascaris lumbricoides (22.0%), Giardia lamblia (20.1%) and Hymenolepis nana (8.8%). Molecular detection revealed that 13.1% of the children carried E. dispar and 0.3% were infected with E. histolytica. The prevalence of stunting (mild to severe) was 41.5%. Stunting was more frequent in older children (p = 0.006, OR = 1.886), while anemia was more frequent in younger children (p = 0.005, OR = 2.210). The prevalence of anemia was 21.6%, and we found a significant association with infection by H. nana (p = 0.031, OR = 2.449). Conclusions This is one of the few published studies reporting intestinal parasites infection, nutritional status and anemia in children from Angola. Furthermore, the present work highlights the importance of regular intestinal parasites screening in children. PMID:26371758

  17. Recilia banda Kramer (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), a vector of Napier stunt phytoplasma in Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obura, Evans; Midega, Charles A. O.; Masiga, Daniel; Pickett, John A.; Hassan, Mohamed; Koji, Shinsaku; Khan, Zeyaur R.

    2009-10-01

    Napier grass ( Pennisetum purpureum) is the most important fodder crop in smallholder dairy production systems in East Africa, characterized by small zero-grazing units. It is also an important trap crop used in the management of cereal stemborers in maize in the region. However, production of Napier grass in the region is severely constrained by Napier stunt disease. The etiology of the disease is known to be a phytoplasma, 16SrXI strain. However, the putative insect vector was yet unknown. We sampled and identified five leafhopper and three planthopper species associated with Napier grass and used them as candidates in pathogen transmission experiments. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), based on the highly conserved 16S gene, primed by P1/P6-R16F2n/R16R2 nested primer sets was used to diagnose phytoplasma on test plants and insects, before and after transmission experiments. Healthy plants were exposed for 60 days to insects that had fed on diseased plants and acquired phytoplasma. The plants were then incubated for another 30 days. Nested PCR analyses showed that 58.3% of plants exposed to Recilia banda Kramer (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) were positive for phytoplasma and developed characteristic stunt disease symptoms while 60% of R. banda insect samples were similarly phytoplasma positive. We compared the nucleotide sequences of the phytoplasma isolated from R. banda, Napier grass on which these insects were fed, and Napier grass infected by R. banda, and found them to be virtually identical. The results confirm that R. banda transmits Napier stunt phytoplasma in western Kenya, and may be the key vector of Napier stunt disease in this region.

  18. Potatoes in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Astroculture is a suite of technologies used to produce and maintain a closed controlled environment for plant growth. The two most recent missions supported growth of potato, dwarf wheat, and mustard plants and provided scientists with the first opportunity to conduct true plant research in space. Light emitting diodes have particular usefulness for plant growth lighting because they emit a much smaller amount of radiant heat than do conventional lighting sources and because they have potential of directing a higher percentage of the emitted light onto plants surfaces. Furthermore, the high output LED's have emissions in the 600-700 nm waveband, which is of highest efficiency for photosynthesis by plants.

  19. Structural Transitions and Energy Landscape for Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus Capsid Mechanics from Nanomanipulation in Vitro and in Silico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kononova, Olga; Snijder, Joost; Brasch, Melanie; Cornelissen, Jeroen; Dima, Ruxandra I.; Marx, Kenneth A.; Wuite, Gijs J. L.; Roos, Wouter H.; Barsegov, Valeri

    2013-10-01

    Physical properties of capsids of plant and animal viruses are important factors in capsid self-assembly, survival of viruses in the extracellular environment, and their cell infectivity. Virus shells can have applications as nanocontainers and delivery vehicles in biotechnology and medicine. Combined AFM experiments and computational modeling on sub-second timescales of the indentation nanomechanics of Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus (CCMV) capsid show that the capsid's physical properties are dynamic and local characteristics of the structure, which depend on the magnitude and geometry of mechanical input. Surprisingly, under large deformations the CCMV capsid transitions to the collapsed state without substantial local structural alterations. The enthalpy change in this deformation state dH = 11.5 - 12.8 MJ/mol is mostly due to large-amplitude out-of-plane excitations, which contribute to the capsid bending, and the entropy change TdS = 5.1 - 5.8 MJ/mol is mostly due to coherent in-plane rearrangements of protein chains, which result in the capsid stiffening. Dynamic coupling of these modes defines the extent of elasticity and reversibility of capsid mechanical deformation. This emerging picture illuminates how unique physico-chemical properties of protein nanoshells help define their structure and morphology, and determine their viruses' biological function.

  20. Emergence of Groundnut ringspot virus and Tomato chlorotic spot virus in Vegetables in Florida and the Southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Webster, Craig G; Frantz, Galen; Reitz, Stuart R; Funderburk, Joseph E; Mellinger, H Charles; McAvoy, Eugene; Turechek, William W; Marshall, Spencer H; Tantiwanich, Yaowapa; McGrath, Margaret T; Daughtrey, Margery L; Adkins, Scott

    2015-03-01

    Groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV) and Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) are two emerging tospoviruses in Florida. In a survey of the southeastern United States, GRSV and TCSV were frequently detected in solanaceous crops and weeds with tospovirus-like symptoms in south Florida, and occurred sympatrically with Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) in tomato and pepper in south Florida. TSWV was the only tospovirus detected in other survey locations, with the exceptions of GRSV from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) in South Carolina and New York, both of which are first reports. Impatiens (Impatiens walleriana) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) were the only non-solanaceous GRSV and/or TCSV hosts identified in experimental host range studies. Little genetic diversity was observed in GRSV and TCSV sequences, likely due to the recent introductions of both viruses. All GRSV isolates characterized were reassortants with the TCSV M RNA. In laboratory transmission studies, Frankliniella schultzei was a more efficient vector of GRSV than F. occidentalis. TCSV was acquired more efficiently than GRSV by F. occidentalis but upon acquisition, transmission frequencies were similar. Further spread of GRSV and TCSV in the United States is possible and detection of mixed infections highlights the opportunity for additional reassortment of tospovirus genomic RNAs. PMID:25317844

  1. Effects of multivitamin-multimineral supplementation on appetite of stunted young Beninese children.

    PubMed

    Dossa, R A M; Ategbo, E A D; van Raaij, J M A; de Graaf, C; Hautvast, J G A J

    2002-10-01

    In the developing world, food intake of young children is often insufficient for growth. Reduced appetite due to several factors including micronutrient deficiencies might be an explanation. We hypothesized that a multivitamin-multimineral supplementation will improve appetite of stunted children in south of Benin. Multivitamin-multimineral supplements (VITALIA-tablets) contain 11 vitamins and 8 minerals. Stunted children (Ht/Age Z score < -2) of 17-32 months old were randomly assigned to multivitamin-multimineral (n = 48) or placebo (n = 53) group. Supplementation was daily and supervised throughout 6 weeks. Knee-heel length, length, weight, arm circumference and appetite were assessed once a week for the three weeks preceding and the three weeks following the six-week intervention period. Growth was additionally assessed 4 months after intervention. Each appetite test day, morbidity data and mother's report on child's appetite throughout the preceding day were recorded. Reported appetite, intake of test food and knee-heel length increased after supplementation in both groups (p < 0.05), but were not different between groups. Growth was similar 4 months after the intervention. Morbidity was comparable in both groups before as well as after supplementation. We conclude that 6-week multivitamin-multimineral supplementation alone failed to improve appetite and growth of stunted young children. PMID:12354679

  2. [Risk factors of stunting in preschool children: a case-control study].

    PubMed

    Pedraza, Dixis Figueroa; de Menezes, Tarciana Nobre

    2014-05-01

    This article seeks to establish risk factors for mild and moderate stunting among preschool children attending public daycare centers. It involves a case-control study with 67 pairs of children. Cases defined as children with height/age between -1 and -2 Z-scores were paired with controls between -1 Z-score and the median, while cases with height/age < -2 Z-scores were paired with controls with height/age > median to +1 Z-score. The sex and age of the child was used for pairing purposes. The final model of hierarchical multivariate analysis indicated a greater chance of stunting in the following groups of preschoolers: family income < 1/2 Minimum Wage, squatted/courtesy house, number of individuals in the household ≥ 6, maternal age at child's birth < 20 years, low maternal stature, incomplete immunization program, low birth weight. Stunting is determined by adverse socioeconomic conditions and the characteristics of children reflecting health care (maternal height and child variables). PMID:24897214

  3. The costs of stunting in South Asia and the benefits of public investments in nutrition.

    PubMed

    Shekar, Meera; Dayton Eberwein, Julia; Kakietek, Jakub

    2016-05-01

    South Asia is home to the largest number of stunted children worldwide: 65 million or 37% of all South Asian children under 5 were stunted in 2014. The costs to society as a result of stunting during childhood are high and include increased mortality, increased morbidity (in childhood and later as adults), decreased cognitive ability, poor educational outcomes, lost earnings and losses to national economic productivity. Conversely, investing in nutrition provides many benefits for poverty reduction and economic growth. This article draws from analyses conducted in four sub-Saharan countries to demonstrate that investments in nutrition can also be very cost-effective in South Asian countries. Specifically, the analyses demonstrate that scaling up a set of 10 critical nutrition-specific interventions is highly cost-effective when considered as a package. Most of the interventions are also very cost-effective when considered individually. By modelling cost-effectiveness of different scale-up scenarios, the analysis offers insights into ways in which the impact of investing in nutrition interventions can be maximized under budget constraints. Rigorous estimations of the costs and benefits of nutrition investments, similar to those reported here for sub-Saharan countries, are an important next step for all South Asian countries in order to drive political commitment and action and to enhance allocative efficiency of nutrition resources. PMID:27187915

  4. Recovery from stunting and cognitive outcomes in young children: evidence from the South African Birth to Twenty Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Casale, D; Desmond, C

    2016-04-01

    In this study we analyse the implications for cognitive function of recovery from stunting in early childhood. More specifically, we test whether children who met the definition for stunted at age 2, but not at age 5, perform better in cognitive tests than children who remain stunted over this period. The sample is drawn from the Birth to Twenty Cohort Study, a prospective data set of children born in 1990 in urban South Africa. The measure of cognitive function that we use is based on the Revised Denver Prescreening Developmental Questionnaire implemented when the children were age 5. We employ multivariate regression in the analysis to control for child-specific characteristics, socio-economic status, the home environment and caregiver inputs. We find that recovery from stunting is not uncommon among young children in our sample. However, children who recover from stunting by age 5 still perform significantly worse on cognitive tests than children who do not experience early malnutrition, and almost as poorly as children who remain stunted. These findings suggest that the timing of nutritional inputs in the early years is key in a child's cognitive development, with implications for school readiness and achievement. PMID:26399543

  5. Growth and tuberization of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) under continuous light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, R. M.; Tibbitts, T. W.

    1986-01-01

    The growth and tuberization of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) maintained for 6 weeks under four different regimes of continuous irradiance were compared to plants given 12 hours light and 12 hours dark. Treatments included: (a) continuous photosynthetic photon flux of 200 micromoles per square meter per second cool-white fluorescent (CWF); (b) continuous 400 micromoles per square meter per second CWF; (c) 12 hours 400 micromoles per square meter per second CWF plus 12 hours dim CWF at 5 micromoles per square meter per second; (d) 12 hours [400] micromoles per square meter per second CWF plus 12 hours dim incandescent (INC) at 5 micromoles per square meter per second and a control treatment of 12 hours light at 400 micromoles per square meter per second CWF and 12 hours dark. The study included five cultivars ranging from early- to late-season types: 'Norland,' 'Superior,''Norchip,' 'Russet Burbank,' and 'Kennebec,' Tuber development progressed well under continuous irradiation at 400 micromoles per square meter per second and under 12 hours irradiance and 12 hours dark, while tuber development was suppressed in all other light treatments. Continuous irradiation at 200 or 400 micromoles per square meter per second resulted in severe stunting and leaf malformation on 'Superior' and 'Kennebec' plants, but little or no injury and vigorous shoot growth in the other cultivars. No injury or stunting were apparent under 12-dim light or 12-dark treatments. Plants given 12 hours dim INC showed significantly greater stem elongation but less total biomass than plants in other treatments. The continuous light encouraged shoot growth over tuber growth but this trend was overridden by providing a high irradiance level. The variation among cultivars for tolerance to continuous lighting indicates that potato may be a useful species for photoinhibition studies.

  6. Potato Tuber Callus

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Roy; Varns, Jerry L.; Miller, Karon A.; Talley, Eugene A.

    1976-01-01

    Callus was initiated from explants of tubers of the Norchip cultivar of Solanum tuberosum L. and grown on medium with a single carbon source and without addition of coconut milk, protein hydrolysate, or amino acid. Callus samples were harvested at intervals and compared to mature tubers for which there was good biochemical knowledge. The amino acid spectrum, the glycoalkaloid content, and the properties of the isolated invertase and sucrose synthetase were similar in callus and in tuber. Significantly the level of sucrose synthetase varied with the age of the developing callus just as it did with the age of the developing tuber. Of greater significance, levels of reducing sugars and invertase varied with the age of developing callus and also with time and temperature of storage after the callus has ceased growth. Similar changes occur in intact tubers. Callus and tuber biochemistry differed in the amount of deposited starch and in the absence of potato invertase inhibitor. PMID:16659698

  7. Analysis of anisotropic spin-label motion in saturation-transfer ESR spectra of spin-labeled cowpea chlorotic mottle virus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemminga, M. A.; Faber, A. J.

    A saturation-transfer ESR study is carried out on maleimide spin-labeled cowpea chlorotic mottle virus dissolved in various glycerol-water systems. The saturation-transfer ESR spectra were analyzed by comparing them with reference spectra of isotropically reorienting spin labels. The results are interpreted in terms of the overall motion of the virus particle, described by an isotropic rotational correlation time τR, and a local anisotropic spin-label motion with rotational correlation times τ| and τ⊥.

  8. Measuring Poverty in Southern India: A Comparison of Socio-Economic Scales Evaluated against Childhood Stunting

    PubMed Central

    Kattula, Deepthi; Venugopal, Srinivasan; Velusamy, Vasanthakumar; Sarkar, Rajiv; Jiang, Victoria; S., Mahasampath Gowri; Henry, Ankita; Deosaran, Jordanna Devi; Muliyil, Jayaprakash; Kang, Gagandeep

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Socioeconomic status (SES) scales measure poverty, wealth and economic inequality in a population to guide appropriate economic and public health policies. Measurement of poverty and comparison of material deprivation across nations is a challenge. This study compared four SES scales which have been used locally and internationally and evaluated them against childhood stunting, used as an indicator of chronic deprivation, in urban southern India. Methods A door-to-door survey collected information on socio-demographic indicators such as education, occupation, assets, income and living conditions in a semi-urban slum area in Vellore, Tamil Nadu in southern India. A total of 7925 households were categorized by four SES scales—Kuppuswamy scale, Below Poverty Line scale (BPL), the modified Kuppuswamy scale, and the multidimensional poverty index (MDPI) and the level of agreement compared between scales. Logistic regression was used to test the association of SES scales with stunting. Findings The Kuppuswamy, BPL, MDPI and modified Kuppuswamy scales classified 7.1%, 1%, 5.5%, and 55.3% of families as low SES respectively, indicating conservative estimation of low SES by the BPL and MDPI scales in comparison with the modified Kuppuswamy scale, which had the highest sensitivity (89%). Children from low SES classified by all scales had higher odds of stunting, but the level of agreement between scales was very poor ranging from 1%-15%. Conclusion There is great non-uniformity between existing SES scales and cautious interpretation of SES scales is needed in the context of social, cultural, and economic realities. PMID:27490200

  9. Agrobacterium-mediated inoculation of chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium) plants with chrysanthemum stunt viroid.

    PubMed

    Nabeshima, Tomoyuki; Doi, Motoaki; Hosokawa, Munetaka

    2016-08-01

    Agroinfiltration was tested as a method of inoculation of chrysanthemum plants with chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd). Binary vectors harboring dimeric CSVd sequences in sense and antisense orientations were constructed, and Agrobacterium transfected with these binary vectors was infiltrated into chrysanthemum leaves. Northern blotting and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that local infection was established within 7 days and systemic infection within 20 days. CSVd polarities showed no difference in infectivity. This study showed that agroinfiltration of chrysanthemum plants is an easy, rapid, and cost-effective method for CSVd inoculation. PMID:27155239

  10. Higher potato intake associated with hypertension risk.

    PubMed

    2016-06-29

    The aim of three US prospective longitudinal cohort studies was to determine whether a higher intake of baked or boiled potatoes, French fries or chips and mashed potatoes was associated with incidence of hypertension. PMID:27353785

  11. Effects of plastic mulch on potato growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Northern China is a major potato production region, and water-saving measures that can enhance both potato yield and quality play an important role in this region due to general water shortages. Plastic mulch has been used as an effective water-saving measure for potato cultivation in China. This ch...

  12. Maximizing the nutritional potential of potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As the most eaten vegetable in the United States, potatoes have tremendous potential to be a valuable source of vitamins and phytonutrients in the diet. Potato is the only tuber amongst all the world’s major food crops, most of which are grains or roots. Potatoes are already known to be a good sour...

  13. Potato production in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potatoes have been a staple in the American diet for almost 250 years. The United States is the world's fifth biggest producer, behind China, India, the Russian Federation, and the Ukraine. Potatoes in the United States are grown in nearly every state. Idaho produces approximately 1/3 of all potatoe...

  14. Acoustic Measurement of Potato Cannon Velocity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtney, Michael; Courtney, Amy

    2007-01-01

    Potato cannon velocity can be measured with a digitized microphone signal. A microphone is attached to the potato cannon muzzle, and a potato is fired at an aluminum target about 10 m away. Flight time can be determined from the acoustic waveform by subtracting the time in the barrel and time for sound to return from the target. The potato…

  15. Sustainable potato production: global case studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is grown in over 100 countries throughout the world. As a staple food, potato is the fourth most important crop after rice, wheat, and maize, and has historically contributed to food and nutrition security in the world. Global interest in potato increased sharply in 200...

  16. Potato Types: Their Characteristics and Uses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlista, Alexander D.

    1997-01-01

    Presents material for a talk and demonstration about the relationship of potato types to their different uses by consumers and processors. Includes background information for the instructor and discussions to accompany classroom exercises. Discusses the history of the potato, potato types and external characteristics, and internal characteristics…

  17. Maximizing the Phytonutrient Content of Potatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We are exploring to what extent the rich genetic diversity of potatoes can be used to maximize the nutritional potential of potatoes. Metabolic profiling is being used to screen potatoes for genotypes with elevated amounts of vitamins and phytonutrients. Substantial differences in phytonutrients am...

  18. Potato psyllid genome and metagenome project

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato psyllid (Bactericera cockerelli) is a Hemipteran pest of solanaceous plants and limits potato and tomato production by the transmission of Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum. Genomic information on the potato psyllid is limited but is vital in developing appropriate management strategi...

  19. Diversity of potato genetic resources

    PubMed Central

    Machida-Hirano, Ryoko

    2015-01-01

    A considerable number of highly diverse species exist in genus Solanum. Because they can adapt to a broad range of habitats, potato wild relatives are promising sources of desirable agricultural traits. Potato taxonomy is quite complex because of introgression, interspecific hybridization, auto- and allopolyploidy, sexual compatibility among many species, a mixture of sexual and asexual reproduction, possible recent species divergence, phenotypic plasticity, and the consequent high morphological similarity among species. Recent researchers using molecular tools have contributed to the identification of genes controlling several types of resistance as well as to the revision of taxonomical relationships among potato species. Historically, primitive forms of cultivated potato and its wild relatives have been used in breeding programs and there is still an enormous and unimaginable potential for discovering desirable characteristics, particularly in wild species Different methods have been developed to incorporate useful alleles from these wild species into the improved cultivars. Potato germplasm comprising of useful alleles for different breeding objectives is preserved in various gene banks worldwide. These materials, with their invaluable information, are accessible for research and breeding purposes. Precise identification of species base on the new taxonomy is essential for effective use of the germplasm collection. PMID:25931978

  20. Structural Transitions and Energy Landscape for Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus Capsid Mechanics from Nanomanipulation in Vitro and in Silico

    PubMed Central

    Kononova, Olga; Snijder, Joost; Brasch, Melanie; Cornelissen, Jeroen; Dima, Ruxandra I.; Marx, Kenneth A.; Wuite, Gijs J.L.; Roos, Wouter H.; Barsegov, Valeri

    2013-01-01

    Physical properties of capsids of plant and animal viruses are important factors in capsid self-assembly, survival of viruses in the extracellular environment, and their cell infectivity. Combined AFM experiments and computational modeling on subsecond timescales of the indentation nanomechanics of Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus capsid show that the capsid’s physical properties are dynamic and local characteristics of the structure, which change with the depth of indentation and depend on the magnitude and geometry of mechanical input. Under large deformations, the Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus capsid transitions to the collapsed state without substantial local structural alterations. The enthalpy change in this deformation state ΔHind = 11.5–12.8 MJ/mol is mostly due to large-amplitude out-of-plane excitations, which contribute to the capsid bending; the entropy change TΔSind = 5.1–5.8 MJ/mol is due to coherent in-plane rearrangements of protein chains, which mediate the capsid stiffening. Direct coupling of these modes defines the extent of (ir)reversibility of capsid indentation dynamics correlated with its (in)elastic mechanical response to the compressive force. This emerging picture illuminates how unique physico-chemical properties of protein nanoshells help define their structure and morphology, and determine their viruses’ biological function. PMID:24138865

  1. Evidence-based evolution of an integrated nutrition-focused agriculture approach to address the underlying determinants of stunting.

    PubMed

    Haselow, Nancy J; Stormer, Ame; Pries, Alissa

    2016-05-01

    Despite progress in reducing hunger and malnutrition since the 1990s, many still suffer from undernutrition and food insecurity, particularly women and young children, resulting in preterm birth, low birthweight and stunting, among other conditions. Helen Keller International (HKI) has addressed malnutrition and household food insecurity through implementation of an Enhanced Homestead Food Production (EHFP) programme that increases year-round availability and intake of diverse micronutrient-rich foods and promotes optimal nutrition and hygiene practices among poor households. This paper reviews the evolution and impact of HKI's EHFP programme and identifies core components of the model that address the underlying determinants of stunting. To date, evaluations of EHFP have shown impact on food production, consumption by women and children and household food security. Sale of surplus produce has increased household income, and the use of a transformative gender approach has empowered women. EHFP has also realized nutrition improvements in many project sites. Results from a randomized control trial (RCT) in Baitadi district, Nepal showed a significant improvement in a range of practices known to impact child growth, although no impact on stunting. Additional non-RCT evaluations in Kailali district of Nepal, demonstrated a 10.5% reduction in stunting and in the Chittagong Hill Tracts in Bangladesh, revealed an 18% decrease in stunting. Based on evidence, the EHFP has evolved into an integrated package that includes agriculture, nutrition, water/hygiene/sanitation, linkages to health care, women's empowerment, income generation and advocacy. Closing the stunting gap requires long-term exposure to targeted multi-sectoral solutions and rigorous evaluation to optimize impact. PMID:27187913

  2. The family as a determinant of stunting in children living in conditions of extreme poverty: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Hortensia; Pérez-Cuevas, Ricardo; Sandoval, Araceli; Castillo, Raúl; Santos, José Ignacio; Doubova, Svetlana V; Gutiérrez, Gonzalo

    2004-01-01

    Background Malnutrition in children can be a consequence of unfavourable socioeconomic conditions. However, some families maintain adequate nutritional status in their children despite living in poverty. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether family-related factors are determinants of stunting in young Mexican children living in extreme poverty, and whether these factors differ between rural or urban contexts. Methods A case-control study was conducted in one rural and one urban extreme poverty level areas in Mexico. Cases comprised stunted children aged between 6 and 23 months. Controls were well-nourished children. Independent variables were defined in five dimensions: family characteristics; family income; household allocation of resources and family organisation; social networks; and child health care. Information was collected from 108 cases and 139 controls in the rural area and from 198 cases and 211 controls in the urban area. Statistical analysis was carried out separately for each area; unconditional multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to obtain the best explanatory model for stunting. Results In the rural area, a greater risk of stunting was associated with father's occupation as farmer and the presence of family networks for child care. The greatest protective effect was found in children cared for exclusively by their mothers. In the urban area, risk factors for stunting were father with unstable job, presence of small social networks, low rate of attendance to the Well Child Program activities, breast-feeding longer than six months, and two variables within the family characteristics dimension (longer duration of parents' union and migration from rural to urban area). Conclusions This study suggests the influence of the family on the nutritional status of children under two years of age living in extreme poverty areas. Factors associated with stunting were different in rural and urban communities. Therefore, developing and

  3. Understanding Child Stunting in India: A Comprehensive Analysis of Socio-Economic, Nutritional and Environmental Determinants Using Additive Quantile Regression

    PubMed Central

    Fenske, Nora; Burns, Jacob; Hothorn, Torsten; Rehfuess, Eva A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Most attempts to address undernutrition, responsible for one third of global child deaths, have fallen behind expectations. This suggests that the assumptions underlying current modelling and intervention practices should be revisited. Objective We undertook a comprehensive analysis of the determinants of child stunting in India, and explored whether the established focus on linear effects of single risks is appropriate. Design Using cross-sectional data for children aged 0–24 months from the Indian National Family Health Survey for 2005/2006, we populated an evidence-based diagram of immediate, intermediate and underlying determinants of stunting. We modelled linear, non-linear, spatial and age-varying effects of these determinants using additive quantile regression for four quantiles of the Z-score of standardized height-for-age and logistic regression for stunting and severe stunting. Results At least one variable within each of eleven groups of determinants was significantly associated with height-for-age in the 35% Z-score quantile regression. The non-modifiable risk factors child age and sex, and the protective factors household wealth, maternal education and BMI showed the largest effects. Being a twin or multiple birth was associated with dramatically decreased height-for-age. Maternal age, maternal BMI, birth order and number of antenatal visits influenced child stunting in non-linear ways. Findings across the four quantile and two logistic regression models were largely comparable. Conclusions Our analysis confirms the multifactorial nature of child stunting. It emphasizes the need to pursue a systems-based approach and to consider non-linear effects, and suggests that differential effects across the height-for-age distribution do not play a major role. PMID:24223839

  4. Community-Based Health Financing and Child Stunting in Rural Rwanda

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chunling; Mejía-Guevara, Iván; Hill, Kenneth; Farmer, Paul; Subramanian, S. V.; Binagwaho, Agnes

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We analyzed the likelihood of rural children (aged 6–24 months) being stunted according to whether they were enrolled in Mutuelles, a community-based health-financing program providing health insurance to rural populations and granting them access to health care, including nutrition services. Methods We retrieved health facility data from the District Health System Strengthening Tool and calculated the percentage of rural health centers that provided nutrition-related services required by Mutuelles’ minimum service package. We used data from the 2010 Rwanda Demographic and Health Survey and performed multilevel logistic analysis to control for clustering effects and sociodemographic characteristics. The final sample was 1061 children. Results Among 384 rural health centers, more than 90% conducted nutrition-related campaigns and malnutrition screening for children. Regardless of poverty status, the risk of being stunted was significantly lower (odds ratio = 0.60; 95% credible interval = 0.41, 0.83) for Mutuelles enrollees. This finding was robust to various model specifications (adjusted for Mutuelles enrollment, poverty status, other variables) or estimation methods (fixed and random effects). Conclusions This study provides evidence of the effectiveness of Mutuelles in improving child nutrition status and supported the hypothesis about the role of Mutuelles in expanding medical and nutritional care coverage for children. PMID:26562109

  5. Rethinking policy perspectives on childhood stunting: time to formulate a structural and multifactorial strategy.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, S V; Mejía-Guevara, Iván; Krishna, Aditi

    2016-05-01

    Stunting and chronic undernutrition among children in South Asia remain a major unresolved global health issue. There are compelling intrinsic and moral reasons to ensure that children attain their optimal growth potential facilitated via promotion of healthy living conditions. Investments in efforts to ensure that children's growth is not faltered also have substantial instrumental benefits in terms of cognitive and economic development. Using the case of India, we critique three prevailing approaches to reducing undernutrition among children: an over-reliance on macroeconomic growth as a potent policy instrument, a disproportionate focus on interpreting undernutrition as a demand-side problem and an over-reliance on unintegrated single-factorial (one at a time) approaches to policy and research. Using existing evidence, we develop a case for support-led policy approach with a focus on integrated and structural factors to addressing the problem of undernutrition among children in India. Key messages Eliminating child undernutrition is important from an intrinsic perspective and offers considerable instrumental benefits to individual and society. Evidence suggests that an exclusive reliance on a growth-mediated strategy to eliminate stunting needs to be reconsidered, suggesting the need for a substantial support-led strategy. Interpreting and addressing undernutrition as a demand-side problem with proximal single-factorial interventions is futile. There is an urgent need to develop interventions that address the broader structural and upstream causes of child undernutrition. PMID:27187918

  6. Stunt or elongate? Two opposite strategies by which rice adapts to floods.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Keisuke; Hattori, Yoko; Ashikari, Motoyuki

    2010-05-01

    Expansion of habitat is important for the perpetuation of species. In particular, plants which are sedentary must evolve specialized functions to adapt itself to new environment. Deepwater rice is cultivated mainly in the lowland areas of South and Southeast Asia that are flooded during the rainy season. The internodes of deepwater rice elongates in response to increasing water level to keep its leaves above the water surface and avoid anoxia. This elongation is stimulated by ethylene-regulated genes, Snorkel1 and Snorkel2. In contrast, when a flash flood occurs at the seedling stage, submergence-tolerant rice, which carries Submergence-1A, remains stunted and survives in water for a few weeks to avoid the energy consumption associated with plant elongation, and restarts its growth using its conserved energy after the water recedes. Interestingly, both Snorkel genes and Submergence-1A encode ethylene-responsive factor-type transcription factor and are connected to gibberellin biosynthesis or signal transduction. However, deepwater and submergence-tolerant rice seem to have opposite flooding response; namely, escape by elongation or remain stunted under water until flood recedes. PMID:20354754

  7. The principles and practices of nutrition advocacy: evidence, experience and the way forward for stunting reduction.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, David; Haider, Rukhsana; Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Mangasaryan, Nune; Mwadime, Robert; Sarkar, Satyajit

    2013-09-01

    Advocacy represents an intervention into complex, dynamic and highly contextual socio-political systems, in which strategies and tactics must be adjusted on a continual basis in light of rapidly changing conditions, reactions from actors and feedback. For this reason, the practice of advocacy is often considered more art than science. However, capacities and practices for advocacy can be strengthened by sharing and analysing experiences in varying contexts, deriving general principles and learning to adapt these principles to new contexts. Nutrition is a particular context for advocacy, but to date, there has been little systematic analysis of experiences. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate and draw lessons from the practice of nutrition advocacy, especially in relation to stunting and complementary feeding, and suggest ways to strengthen capacities and practices in the future. The strategies and tactics, achievements and lessons learnt are described for three case studies: Uganda, Vietnam and Bangladesh. These cases, and experience from elsewhere, demonstrate that concerted, well-planned and well-implemented advocacy can bring significant achievements, even in short period of time. In light of the global and national attention being given to stunting reduction through the SUN (Scaling Up Nutrition) movement and other initiatives, there is now a need for much stronger investments in strategic and operational capacities for advocacy, including the human, organisational and financial resources for the advocacy and strategic communication themselves, as well as for monitoring and evaluation, supportive research and institutional capacity-building. PMID:24074320

  8. Breakfast omission and cognitive performance of normal, wasted and stunted schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    López, I; de Andraca, I; Perales, C G; Heresi, E; Castillo, M; Colombo, M

    1993-08-01

    This study focuses on the effects of breakfast omission on cognitive performance. We studied 279 children from low socioeconomic level background ranging in age from 8 years 7 months to 10 years 11 months, categorized nutritionally as: normal, wasted or stunted. Evaluation comprised three cognitive tasks designed to be applied with a microcomputer. Assessment took place in their natural setting, after a mean of 14 h of overnight fasting, some having received a standard breakfast at random while the remaining children continued a fasting situation. We found no consistent association between study condition and performance in short-term visual memory, problem solving and attention tasks in any of the three nutritional groups. Stunted children showed significantly lower scores in the attention test irrespective of having received breakfast or not. These results suggest that given a motivating short-term task and maintaining routine conditions, missing breakfast does not affect the accuracy of the cognitive performance of children. Nutritionally affected children did not show a particular vulnerability to the fasting condition, but did show a specific cognitive deficit. PMID:8404789

  9. Iron-Folic Acid Supplementation During Pregnancy Reduces the Risk of Stunting in Children Less Than 2 Years of Age: A Retrospective Cohort Study from Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Nisar, Yasir Bin; Dibley, Michael J.; Aguayo, Victor M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of antenatal iron-folic acid (IFA) supplementation on child stunting in Nepalese children age <2 years. A retrospective cohort study design was used, in which a pooled cohort of 5235 most recent live births 2 years prior to interview from three Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys (2001, 2006 and 2011) was analysed. The primary outcome was stunting in children age <2 years. The main exposure variable was antenatal IFA supplementation. Multivariate Poisson regression analysis was performed. In our sample, 31% and 10% of Nepalese children age <2 years were stunted and severely stunted, respectively. The adjusted relative risk of being stunted was 14% lower in children whose mothers used IFA supplements compared to those whose mothers did not use (aRR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.77–0.97). Additionally, the adjusted relative risk of being stunted was significantly reduced by 23% when antenatal IFA supplementation was started ≤6 months with ≥90 IFA supplements used during pregnancy (aRR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.64–0.92). Antenatal IFA supplementation significantly reduced the risk of stunting in Nepalese children age <2 years. The greatest impact on the risk reduction of child stunting was when IFA supplements were started ≤6 months with ≥90 supplements were used. PMID:26828515

  10. Rhizoctonia spp. dynamics and optimal timing of glyphosate application to cereal cover crops to manage onion stunting in Washington and Oregon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onion stunting or bare patch caused by Rhizoctonia spp. is an economically important disease in sandy soils of the Columbia Basin of Oregon and Washington. Patches of stunted onions develop where cover crops of wheat or barley are killed with a herbicide spray prior to spring planting of onion seed....