Science.gov

Sample records for potato seed production

  1. Seed potato production system in Japan, starting from foundation seed of potato.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Tsukasa; Oohori, Hidemiki; Tajima, Kazuyuki

    2015-03-01

    Potato is one of the staple crops cultivated in upland farming in Japan and is propagated vegetatively by means of tubers. However once infected with diseases, potato yield decreases significantly. And one seed potato can produce approximately only 10 potato tubers. To improve the production system of seed potatoes in Japan, Japanese government established a three-stage propagation system for the production and distribution of healthy and disease-free seed potatoes. The National Center for Seeds and Seedlings (NCSS) has a role for the production of foundation seed potatoes and strictly manages the production in isolated fields that are treated thoroughly to control pests and diseases. Recently though the distribution of foundation seed potatoes is decreasing, the number of varieties of foundation seed potatoes has increased steadily. And new varieties of potato adapted various requirements, including resistance of the golden potato cyst nematode, have been increasing. Therefore, NCSS is introducing a new method of producing minitubers (MnTs) by using hydroponic cultivation greenhouse to increase the efficiency of propagation and to rapidly disseminate these new potato varieties. In this review, we describe a seed potato production system in Japan and the production of foundation seed potatoes as an important role of NCSS. PMID:25931977

  2. Seed potato production system in Japan, starting from foundation seed of potato

    PubMed Central

    Kawakami, Tsukasa; Oohori, Hidemiki; Tajima, Kazuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Potato is one of the staple crops cultivated in upland farming in Japan and is propagated vegetatively by means of tubers. However once infected with diseases, potato yield decreases significantly. And one seed potato can produce approximately only 10 potato tubers. To improve the production system of seed potatoes in Japan, Japanese government established a three-stage propagation system for the production and distribution of healthy and disease-free seed potatoes. The National Center for Seeds and Seedlings (NCSS) has a role for the production of foundation seed potatoes and strictly manages the production in isolated fields that are treated thoroughly to control pests and diseases. Recently though the distribution of foundation seed potatoes is decreasing, the number of varieties of foundation seed potatoes has increased steadily. And new varieties of potato adapted various requirements, including resistance of the golden potato cyst nematode, have been increasing. Therefore, NCSS is introducing a new method of producing minitubers (MnTs) by using hydroponic cultivation greenhouse to increase the efficiency of propagation and to rapidly disseminate these new potato varieties. In this review, we describe a seed potato production system in Japan and the production of foundation seed potatoes as an important role of NCSS. PMID:25931977

  3. Organic potato productionseed potato production and participatory variety trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potatoes are vegetatively propagated, thus many pathogens can be transmitted in seed potatoes and affect the subsequent crop. Certified seed potatoes, which are inspected to ensure that pathogen levels are below a specified threshold, provide effective control of most tuber-borne diseases. Organic g...

  4. Rapid cycling with true potato seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rapid generation cycling via true seed production can increase the efficiency of potato breeding programs and genetics studies. This study was carried out to determine the fruit ripening and seed treatment conditions needed for generating true potato seed (TPS) with a high germination rate in a shor...

  5. 7 CFR 947.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 947.12 Section 947.12 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND... Definitions § 947.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified...

  6. 7 CFR 947.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 947.12 Section 947.12 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND... Definitions § 947.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified...

  7. 7 CFR 947.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 947.12 Section 947.12 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND... Definitions § 947.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified...

  8. 7 CFR 947.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 947.12 Section 947.12 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND... Definitions § 947.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified...

  9. 7 CFR 947.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 947.12 Section 947.12 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND... Definitions § 947.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified...

  10. 7 CFR 948.6 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 948.6 Section 948.6 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.6 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes or seed means any...

  11. 7 CFR 948.6 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 948.6 Section 948.6 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.6 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes or seed means any...

  12. 7 CFR 948.6 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 948.6 Section 948.6 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.6 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes or seed means any...

  13. 7 CFR 948.6 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 948.6 Section 948.6 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.6 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes or seed means any...

  14. 7 CFR 948.6 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 948.6 Section 948.6 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.6 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes or seed means any...

  15. Farmyard Manure and Fertilizer Effects on Seed Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Yield in Green House Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László, M.

    2009-04-01

    Nowadays is widely well know that the potato is an important vegetable crop at Brazíl. It is grown on about 173.000 ha, with total yield of 2.6 million tons year-1. The average yield is 15 t ha-1. This level is very low because degeneration of crop is rapid under high temperature and high viruses pressure. Therefore seed potato propagation and production is principal on consumption potato production. This is why we found it necessary to develop it. The latossolo vermelho soil-farmyard manure- burnt rice straw-fertilizer 4N:14P:8K greenhouse pot trial was set up at the National Vegetable Crops Research Center, Brasília-DF, Brazíl in 1990. The methods of the experiments were soil x farmyard manure x burnt rice straw, soil x 4N:14P:8K fertilizer and soil x farmyard manure x burnt rice straw x 4N:14P:8K fertilizer on randomized block design in total 29 combination of treatments in 5, 5 and 3 repetitions with in a total parcel of 116. According to chemical analysis of the a., soil, b., farmyard manure and c., burnt rice straw the agrochemistry parameters were as follows (estimated datas): a., latossolo vermelho soil: CaCO3 0.3-0.7%, humo 0.9-1.0%, pH (H2O) 5.3, pH (KCl) 4.5, AL- P2O5 3.2-3.5 mg kg-1, AL- K2O 180 mg kg-1, Mg (KCl) 70 mg kg-1, EDTA-Zn 0.5-0.8 mg kg-1, EDTA-Cu 0.5-0.6 mg kg-1, b., farmyard manure: N 1.8 g kg-1, P2O5 2.0 g kg-1, K2O 4.0 g kg-1, c., burnt rice straw: N 0.8 g kg-1, P2O5 7.0 g kg-1, K2O 4.5 g kg-1. The experimental datas were estimated by analysis of variance, ANOVA and MANOVA. The main conclusions were as follows: 1. Mixture of 80% latossolo vermelho, 10% burnt rice straw and 10% farmyard manure were shown best performance on seed potato productivity. The piece of tubers with a 0-20 mm (consumption seeds) was increased by 77%. 2. Total seed potato number was reached maximum at 10.8 g pot-1 4N:14P:8K fertilizer regarding to average of treatments with a 33%. 3. Dry biomassa production plant-1 was decreased by high dose of 4N:14P:8K

  16. 7 CFR 946.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 946.12 Section 946.12 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes...

  17. 7 CFR 946.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 946.12 Section 946.12 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes...

  18. 7 CFR 946.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 946.12 Section 946.12 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes...

  19. 7 CFR 946.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 946.12 Section 946.12 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes...

  20. 7 CFR 946.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 946.12 Section 946.12 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes...

  1. Mustard Seed Meal suppresses Weeds in Potato and Peppermint

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed meal is a co-product remaining after pressing mustard seed to remove the oil. Seed meals containing high glucosinolates have been reported to have herbicidal activity. Weed suppression with seed meal of Sinapis alba, variety Ida Gold was evaluated in field trials on potatoes and peppermint in ...

  2. Potato production in Thailand

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato production has increased dramatically in recent years in Thailand. Consumer demand for fresh and processed potatoes has driven this trend. Most potatoes are produced in northern Thailand in either double cropping highland zones or as a single winter crop following rice in lowland regions. Maj...

  3. 7 CFR 945.7 - Certified seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Certified seed potatoes. 945.7 Section 945.7... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN... Certified seed potatoes. Certified seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified...

  4. 7 CFR 945.7 - Certified seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Certified seed potatoes. 945.7 Section 945.7... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN... Certified seed potatoes. Certified seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified...

  5. 7 CFR 945.7 - Certified seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Certified seed potatoes. 945.7 Section 945.7... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN... Certified seed potatoes. Certified seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified...

  6. 7 CFR 945.7 - Certified seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Certified seed potatoes. 945.7 Section 945.7... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN... Certified seed potatoes. Certified seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified...

  7. 7 CFR 945.7 - Certified seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certified seed potatoes. 945.7 Section 945.7... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN... Certified seed potatoes. Certified seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified...

  8. Farmyard Manure and Fertilizer Effects on Seed Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Yield in Green House Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László, M.

    2009-04-01

    Nowadays is widely well know that the potato is an important vegetable crop at Brazíl. It is grown on about 173.000 ha, with total yield of 2.6 million tons year-1. The average yield is 15 t ha-1. This level is very low because degeneration of crop is rapid under high temperature and high viruses pressure. Therefore seed potato propagation and production is principal on consumption potato production. This is why we found it necessary to develop it. The latossolo vermelho soil-farmyard manure- burnt rice straw-fertilizer 4N:14P:8K greenhouse pot trial was set up at the National Vegetable Crops Research Center, Brasília-DF, Brazíl in 1990. The methods of the experiments were soil x farmyard manure x burnt rice straw, soil x 4N:14P:8K fertilizer and soil x farmyard manure x burnt rice straw x 4N:14P:8K fertilizer on randomized block design in total 29 combination of treatments in 5, 5 and 3 repetitions with in a total parcel of 116. According to chemical analysis of the a., soil, b., farmyard manure and c., burnt rice straw the agrochemistry parameters were as follows (estimated datas): a., latossolo vermelho soil: CaCO3 0.3-0.7%, humo 0.9-1.0%, pH (H2O) 5.3, pH (KCl) 4.5, AL- P2O5 3.2-3.5 mg kg-1, AL- K2O 180 mg kg-1, Mg (KCl) 70 mg kg-1, EDTA-Zn 0.5-0.8 mg kg-1, EDTA-Cu 0.5-0.6 mg kg-1, b., farmyard manure: N 1.8 g kg-1, P2O5 2.0 g kg-1, K2O 4.0 g kg-1, c., burnt rice straw: N 0.8 g kg-1, P2O5 7.0 g kg-1, K2O 4.5 g kg-1. The experimental datas were estimated by analysis of variance, ANOVA and MANOVA. The main conclusions were as follows: 1. Mixture of 80% latossolo vermelho, 10% burnt rice straw and 10% farmyard manure were shown best performance on seed potato productivity. The piece of tubers with a 0-20 mm (consumption seeds) was increased by 77%. 2. Total seed potato number was reached maximum at 10.8 g pot-1 4N:14P:8K fertilizer regarding to average of treatments with a 33%. 3. Dry biomassa production plant-1 was decreased by high dose of 4N:14P:8K

  9. 19 CFR 10.57 - Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize... Provisions Potatoes, Corn, Or Maize § 10.57 Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. Claim for classification as seed potatoes under subheading 0701.10.00, as seed corn (maize) under subheading...

  10. 19 CFR 10.57 - Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize... Provisions Potatoes, Corn, Or Maize § 10.57 Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. Claim for classification as seed potatoes under subheading 0701.10.00, as seed corn (maize) under subheading...

  11. 19 CFR 10.57 - Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize... Provisions Potatoes, Corn, Or Maize § 10.57 Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. Claim for classification as seed potatoes under subheading 0701.10.00, as seed corn (maize) under subheading...

  12. 19 CFR 10.57 - Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize... Provisions Potatoes, Corn, Or Maize § 10.57 Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. Claim for classification as seed potatoes under subheading 0701.10.00, as seed corn (maize) under subheading...

  13. 19 CFR 10.57 - Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize... Provisions Potatoes, Corn, Or Maize § 10.57 Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. Claim for classification as seed potatoes under subheading 0701.10.00, as seed corn (maize) under subheading...

  14. Effect of mustard seed meal on early weed emergence in peppermint and potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed meal is the by-product remaining after pressing/crushing mustard seed to remove the majority of the oil. Trials to evaluate weed suppression were conducted at several locations on peppermint and potatoes using seed meal obtained from Sinapis alba, variety Ida Gold. White mustard seed meal appl...

  15. Work of multiple organizations to improve seed potato health in U.S.A. and an example of change to reduce Potato virus Y in seed lots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Work of multiple organizations to improve seed potato health in U.S.A. and an example of change to reduce Potato virus Y in seed lots. In the United States, seed potato improvement starts with the individual seed potato grower. The seed grower also has resources that are available from university e...

  16. Acrylamide in processed potato products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trace amounts of acrylamide are found in many foods cooked at high temperatures. Acrylamide in processed potato products is formed from reducing sugars and asparagine and is a product of the Maillard reaction. Processed potato products including fries and chips are relatively high in acrylamide comp...

  17. Neonicotinoids as seed potato treatments to control wireworms.

    PubMed

    Huiting, H F; Ester, A

    2009-01-01

    A series of field trials were carried out from 2000 to 2003. Neonicotinoid insecticides applied as seed potato treatments at planting were tested to control wireworms in potato crops. Compounds were applied as drench or spray. Neonicotinoids tested were imidacloprid at rates of 35, 70, 88, and 175 g a.i.; thiamethoxam at 17.5, 35, 50, 70, and 140 g a.i.; and thiacloprid at 72 and 144 g a.i. per metric ton seed potatoes. Treatment with imidacloprid at 70 g/ton seed and thiamethoxam at 50 g/ton seed showed significant control of wireworms at harvest but thiacloprid showed insufficient protection. No phytotoxicity was recorded at harvest. Prospects and benefits of seed potato treatments with neonicotinoids are discussed, including lowering of the amount of insecticide needed for adequate protection. PMID:20218529

  18. Addressing Constraints to Potato Productivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are a number of factors that limit potato productivity in Maine and the northeast U.S., including crop fertility, soil-borne diseases and other crop pests, water availability, and degradation of soil resources. We established a long-term field experiment in Presque Isle in 2004, to establish ...

  19. 7 CFR 457.145 - Potato crop insurance-certified seed endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Potato crop insurance-certified seed endorsement. 457... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.145 Potato crop insurance—certified seed endorsement. The Potato Crop Insurance Certified Seed Endorsement Provisions...

  20. 7 CFR 457.145 - Potato crop insurance-certified seed endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Potato crop insurance-certified seed endorsement. 457... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.145 Potato crop insurance—certified seed endorsement. The Potato Crop Insurance Certified Seed Endorsement Provisions...

  1. 7 CFR 457.145 - Potato crop insurance-certified seed endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potato crop insurance-certified seed endorsement. 457... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.145 Potato crop insurance—certified seed endorsement. The Potato Crop Insurance Certified Seed Endorsement Provisions...

  2. 7 CFR 457.145 - Potato crop insurance-certified seed endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Potato crop insurance-certified seed endorsement. 457... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.145 Potato crop insurance—certified seed endorsement. The Potato Crop Insurance Certified Seed Endorsement Provisions...

  3. 7 CFR 457.145 - Potato crop insurance-certified seed endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Potato crop insurance-certified seed endorsement. 457... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.145 Potato crop insurance—certified seed endorsement. The Potato Crop Insurance Certified Seed Endorsement Provisions...

  4. Identifying and reducing constraints to potato productivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato yield in Maine has remained relatively constant for over 50 years, despite increased inputs of pesticides, nutrients, and water. Research is needed to identify and reduce the constraints to potato productivity. We evaluated Status Quo, Soil Conserving, Soil Improving, and Disease Suppressive ...

  5. Production of potato minitubers using advanced environmental control technologies developed for growing plants in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britt, Robert G.

    1998-01-01

    Development of plant growth systems for use in outer space have been modified for use on earth as the backbone of a new system for rapid growth of potato minitubers. The automation of this new biotechnology provides for a fully controllable method of producing pathogen-free nuclear stock potato minitubers from tissue cultured clones of varieties of potato in a biomanufacturing facility. These minitubers are the beginning stage of seed potato production. Because the new system provides for pathogen-free minitubers by the tens-of-millions, rather than by the thousands which are currently produced in advanced seed potato systems, a new-dimension in seed potato development, breeding and multiplication has been achieved. The net advantage to earth-borne agricultural farming systems will be the elimination of several years of seed multiplication from the current system, higher quality potato production, and access to new potato varieties resistant to diseases and insects which will eliminate the need for chemical controls.

  6. Microbial products from sweet potato wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Nghiem, N.P.

    1982-01-01

    Microbial production of methane from alkaline sweet potato wastes was studied. Assessment of methane production potential was based on total COD of the wastes. A single-stage and a two-stage system were studied. In both systems, to ensure stable operation and high performance, methane fermenters had to be initially seeded with large quantities of methane formers. A 50% inoculum (based on total fermenter volume) was found to be most effective. Methane formers tended to aggregate to form spherical particles which had extremely high settling rates, this eliminated the requirement of cell recycle. In both single-stage and two-stage systems the rates of gas production was sufficiently fast to induce thorough mixing of the fermenter contents. At low residence times of two and four days the two-stage system achieved significantly higher conversions. Gas production started almost immediately after feeding the methane fermenter of the two-stage system. The conversions in the methane fermenter of a two-stage system could be predicted by a model based on Contois' kinetics. The composition of the gas produced in this fermenter could also be predicted from the distribution of the organic acids in the effluent from the acid fermenter. The acid formation stage was studied in a chemostat operated at a fixed residence time of 5.5 hours. The highest yield of 0.09 g protein/g glucose consumed was obtained at pH 5.5 and 37/sup 0/C.

  7. Ethanol production from potato peel waste (PPW).

    PubMed

    Arapoglou, D; Varzakas, Th; Vlyssides, A; Israilides, C

    2010-10-01

    Considerable concern is caused by the problem of potato peel waste (PPW) to potato industries in Europe. An integrated, environmentally-friendly solution is yet to be found and is currently undergoing investigation. Potato peel is a zero value waste produced by potato processing plants. However, bio-ethanol produced from potato wastes has a large potential market. If Federal Government regulations are adopted in light of the Kyoto agreement, the mandatory blending of bio-ethanol with traditional gasoline in amounts up to 10% will result in a demand for large quantities of bio-ethanol. PPW contain sufficient quantities of starch, cellulose, hemicellulose and fermentable sugars to warrant use as an ethanol feedstock. In the present study, a number of batches of PPW were hydrolyzed with various enzymes and/or acid, and fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisae var. bayanus to determine fermentability and ethanol production. Enzymatic hydrolysis with a combination of three enzymes, released 18.5 g L(-1) reducing sugar and produced 7.6 g L(-1) of ethanol after fermentation. The results demonstrate that PPW, a by-product of the potato industry features a high potential for ethanol production. PMID:20471817

  8. A method for estimating the contribution of seed potatoes, machinery and soil tare in field infestations with potato cyst nematodes on a national scale.

    PubMed

    Goeminne, M; Demeulemeester, K; Viaene, N

    2011-01-01

    In order to make a cost benefit analysis for the management of the potato cyst nematodes Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida, we developed a method to estimate the relative importance of three basic distribution channels of potato cyst nematodes: seed potatoes, machinery and soil tare. The baseline is determined by the area planted with potatoes, the area infested with potato cysts, the proportion of resistant potato cultivars and the distribution of cysts trough different channels. This quantification forms a basis for the evaluation of the effects of different control measures for potato cyst nematode on a national scale. The method can be useful as an example for application in other countries. PMID:22696943

  9. Increased nutritive value of transgenic potato by expressing a nonallergenic seed albumin gene from Amaranthus hypochondriacus.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, S; Chakraborty, N; Datta, A

    2000-03-28

    Improvement of nutritive value of crop plants, in particular the amino acid composition, has been a major long-term goal of plant breeding programs. Toward this end, we reported earlier the cloning of the seed albumin gene AmA1 from Amaranthus hypochondriacus. The AmA1 protein is nonallergenic in nature and is rich in all essential amino acids, and the composition corresponds well with the World Health Organization standards for optimal human nutrition. In an attempt to improve the nutritional value of potato, the AmA1 coding sequence was successfully introduced and expressed in tuber-specific and constitutive manner. There was a striking increase in the growth and production of tubers in transgenic populations and also of the total protein content with an increase in most essential amino acids. The expressed protein was localized in the cytoplasm as well as in the vacuole of transgenic tubers. Thus we have been able to use a seed albumin gene with a well-balanced amino acid composition as a donor protein to develop a transgenic crop plant. The results document, in addition to successful nutritional improvement of potato tubers, the feasibility of genetically modifying other crop plants with novel seed protein composition. PMID:10716698

  10. Sustainable potato production and global food security

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato (Solanum spp.) is currently the leading non-grain commodity in the global food system with production exceeding 329 million metric tonnes in 2009. The extraordinary adaptive range of this species complex combined with ease of cultivation and high nutritional content have promoted steady i...

  11. Alcohol production from fermentation of sweet potatoes

    SciTech Connect

    Egg, R.P.; Coble, C.G.; O'Neal, H.P.; Sweeten, J.M.

    1982-12-01

    A study was conducted to determine the ethanol production characteristics of sweet potatoes. Ethanol yields were as high as 137 liters per tonne of feedstock using procedures developed for grain. Major problems encountered were low ethanol concentrations in the beer and poor stillage dewatering properties.

  12. Combination of the auxins NAA, IBA, and IAA with GA3 improves the commercial seed-tuber production of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) under in vitro conditions.

    PubMed

    Kumlay, Ahmet Metin

    2014-01-01

    The study compared the effects of 1.0 × MS medium containing various concentrations of α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), alone or in combination with gibberellic acid (GA3) in micropropagation of three potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars Pasinler, Granola, and Caspar using binodal stem cuttings. The results testified improved regeneration on 1.0 × MS medium containing variants of NAA, IAA, and IBA plus GA3 on all cultivars. The minimum days to shoot induction on three cultivars ranged 4.25-5 d on 1.0 × MS medium containing 0.25 mg L(-1) GA3 + 1 mg L(-1) NAA. The longest shoots (11.8 cm), maximum number of nodes (13.50), and maximum number of leaves (11.00) were recorded on cv. Caspar on 1.0 × MS medium containing 1 mg L(-1) NAA + 0.25 mg L(-1) GA3. The minimum time to root induction (12.25 d) was noted on cv. Pasinler on the same medium. All of the regenerated shoots could be easily rooted. The results showed that the combined effect of various concentrations of NAA, IAA, and IBA plus GA3 was more pronounced compared to the auxins used alone. The results of this research are of significant importance for potato breeders. PMID:25028654

  13. Unbalanced bulk of parent’s seed is not detrimental in potato germplasm regeneration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although cultivated potato, Solanum tuberosum is a clonal crop, genebank maintenance is commonly done as populations of true seeds. To help prevent genetic drift, some recommend bulking equal number of seeds from each mother plant for use in subsequent regeneration cycles. To assess whether this is ...

  14. Combination of the Auxins NAA, IBA, and IAA with GA3 Improves the Commercial Seed-Tuber Production of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) under In Vitro Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Kumlay, Ahmet Metin

    2014-01-01

    The study compared the effects of 1.0 × MS medium containing various concentrations of α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), alone or in combination with gibberellic acid (GA3) in micropropagation of three potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars Pasinler, Granola, and Caspar using binodal stem cuttings. The results testified improved regeneration on 1.0 × MS medium containing variants of NAA, IAA, and IBA plus GA3 on all cultivars. The minimum days to shoot induction on three cultivars ranged 4.25–5 d on 1.0 × MS medium containing 0.25 mg L−1  GA3 + 1 mg L−1 NAA. The longest shoots (11.8 cm), maximum number of nodes (13.50), and maximum number of leaves (11.00) were recorded on cv. Caspar on 1.0 × MS medium containing 1 mg L−1  NAA + 0.25 mg L−1 GA3. The minimum time to root induction (12.25 d) was noted on cv. Pasinler on the same medium. All of the regenerated shoots could be easily rooted. The results showed that the combined effect of various concentrations of NAA, IAA, and IBA plus GA3 was more pronounced compared to the auxins used alone. The results of this research are of significant importance for potato breeders. PMID:25028654

  15. Efficiency of clinorotation usage on virus-infected seed potatoes for its improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishchenko, Ivan; Nechitailo, Galina S.; Dunich, Alina; Mishchenko, Anatoliy; Boiko, Anatolii

    increased 4,9 time. Thus, there was a process of PXV virus reproduction reduction. Insertion to the culture of in vitro from clinorotated plants enabled to get regenerants, free from PXV. The use of thermotherapy sometimes gives negative false results when the content of viruses in regenerants is not determined at the first stages of clonal micromultiplication. This brings profit losses to biothechnological laboratories as after 6 months of multiplication the number of plants infected with the virus will exceed 16000. Economical indices show that the use of thermotherapy presupposes considerable expenditures. Thus, the thermotherapy presupposes considerable expenditures. Thus, the thermotherapy of potatoes at 33 - 37 oC during 40 days requires 1,152 kW of electrical energy. The result of such a procedure is not always positive in terms of plant remediation. Some less expensive procedures are, therefore, needed. Our device for the clinostating of plants in combination with illumination system uses only 256 kW in 40 days. The expenditures with the use of simulated microgravity are, there fore, 4,5 time lower than usual. Biological effects of simulated microgravity on the development of viral (PVX) infection in two different potato varieties are shown in. The cost of plant in vitro occupies a considerable part in the cost of minitubers - the essential primary potato material. The production of seed tubers is effective if the cost of a single minituber does not exceed 0,10 $. Thus the reduction of expenditures on the production of remediated plants in vitro allows to increase the profitability of planting material potato tubers production. The introduction into culture of the meristems from clinostated plants allowed to obtain the regenerants free from the PVX infection. The employment of simulated microgravity for plant remediation reduced the expenditures on the production of in vitro culture 4,5 times.

  16. OPTIMIZING FERTILITY FOR SEED PRODUCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed corn production is a high input and high management endeavor that yields a high value product. Most seed production fields are managed as a unit in terms of cultivars, so timing of field operations follows the same scale. However, some producers are finding that spatial variability in soil prop...

  17. Recovery of four novel Potato spindle tuber viroid sequence variants from Russian seed potatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Symptoms of potato “gothic” disease resemble those of Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd), but its limited distribution in European Russia made the disease of little economic significance in European Russia until the early 1970’s when meristem tip culture was widely adopted throughout the former USS...

  18. Potato production in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potatoes have been a staple in the American diet for almost 250 years. The United States is the world's fifth biggest producer, behind China, India, the Russian Federation, and the Ukraine. Potatoes in the United States are grown in nearly every state. Idaho produces approximately 1/3 of all potatoe...

  19. Sustainable potato production: global case studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is grown in over 100 countries throughout the world. As a staple food, potato is the fourth most important crop after rice, wheat, and maize, and has historically contributed to food and nutrition security in the world. Global interest in potato increased sharply in 200...

  20. Selfing Potato Species Produce Robust Spontaneous Field Seed Increases Under Floating Mesh

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Performing genebank propagation of botanical seed populations of wild potato species is typically done by hand pollinations in the greenhouse. This prevents intermixing of the populations by bumblebees and avoids the need for emasculation. Field plantings require less inputs and often have vigorou...

  1. Fusarium spp. causing dry rot of seed potato tubers in Michigan and their sensitivity to fungicides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium dry rot of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is a postharvest disease that can be caused by several Fusarium spp. A survey was conducted to establish the composition of Fusarium species causing dry rot of seed tubers in Michigan. A total of 370 dry rot symptomatic tubers were collected in 2009 ...

  2. Expressing the sweet potato orange gene in transgenic potato improves drought tolerance and marketable tuber production.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kwang-Soo; Han, Eun-Heui; Kwak, Sang-Soo; Cho, Ji-Hong; Im, Ju-Seong; Hong, Su-Young; Sohn, Hwang-Bae; Kim, Yun-Hee; Lee, Shin-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is generally considered to be sensitive to drought stress. Even short periods of water shortage can result in reduced tuber production and quality. We previously reported that transgenic potato plants expressing the sweet potato orange gene (IbOr) under the control of the stress-inducible SWPA2 promoter (referred to as SOR plants) showed increased tolerance to methyl viologen-mediated oxidative stress and high salinity, along with increased carotenoid contents. In this study, in an effort to improve the productivity and environmental stress tolerance of potato, we subjected transgenic potato plants expressing IbOr to water-deficient conditions in the greenhouse. The SOR plants exhibited increased tolerance to drought stress under greenhouse conditions. IbOr expression was associated with slightly negative phenotypes, including reduced tuber production. Controlling IbOr expression imparted the same degree of drought tolerance while ameliorating these negative phenotypic effects, leading to levels of tuber production similar to or better than those of wild-type plants under drought stress conditions. In particular, under drought stress, drought tolerance and the production of marketable tubers (over 80g) were improved in transgenic plants compared with non-transgenic plants. These results suggest that expressing the IbOr transgene can lead to significant gains in drought tolerance and tuber production in potato, thereby improving these agronomically important traits. PMID:27212605

  3. Effectiveness and Efficacy of Soil Conservation Practices in Potato Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato production systems in the Northeast U.S. are characterized by intensive tillage, minimal ground cover, low crop residue return, and steep slopes. Soil conservation can be especially challenging after potato harvest. We used rainfall simulators in the greenhouse and field to assess sediment ...

  4. Disinfection of seeds and sprout inhibition of potatoes with low energy electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todoriki, Setsuko; Hayashi, Toru

    2000-03-01

    Electrons at acceleration voltages of 170-190 kV reduced microbial count of seeds of adzuki bean, pot herb mustered and black gram to undetectable levels without any detrimental effects on the germination ability. However, electrons at 200 kV or higher affected the growing of black gram sprouts. The energies of electrons at the surface of seed (15 cm distance from the accelerator's window) at acceleration voltages of 170-190 kV were estimated to be 60-90 kV, based on the stopping powers of titanium and air. Electrons at acceleration voltages of 250 kV or higher inhibited sprouting of potato tubers of various cultivars. The results suggest the efficacy of low energy electron treatment for disinfection of seeds and sprout inhibition of potatoes.

  5. Potato Production, Usage, and Nutrition--A Review.

    PubMed

    Zaheer, Khalid; Akhtar, M Humayoun

    2016-01-01

    Potato is an economically important staple crop prevailing all across the world with successful large-scale production, consumption, and affordability with easy availability in the open market. Potatoes provide basic nutrients such as-carbohydrates, dietary fiber (skin), several vitamins, and minerals (e.g., potassium, magnesium, iron). On occasion exposures to raw and cooked potatoes impart allergic reactions. Dietary intake of potatoes, especially colored potatoes, play an important role in the production of antioxidant defense system by providing essential nutrient antioxidants, such as vitamins, β-carotene, polyphenols, and minerals. This may help lower the incidence of wide range of chronic and acute disease processes (like hypertension, heart diseases, cancer, neurodegenerative, and other diseases). However, retention of nutrients in potatoes is affected by various cooking and processing methods. Cooking at elevated temperature also produces acrylamide-a suspected carcinogen. Independent and/or collaborative studies have been conducted and reported on the various pathways leading to the formation of acrylamide in heat processed foods. This article reviews the latest research on potato production, consumption, nature of phytochemicals and their health benefits, and allergic reactions to children. Also included is the discovery of acrylamide in processed starch-rich foods including potatoes, mechanism of formation, detection methodologies, and mitigation steps to reduce acrylamide content in food. PMID:24925679

  6. Isolation of Bacillus cytotoxicus from various commercial potato products.

    PubMed

    Contzen, Matthias; Hailer, Mandy; Rau, Jörg

    2014-03-17

    Bacillus (B.) cytotoxicus is a newly described thermotolerant member of the Bacillus cereus group. This potential foodborne pathogen had so far only been isolated from vegetable products, including mashed potatoes. Here we report the detection of B. cytotoxicus in a variety of potato products taken on retail level or from catering establishments (n=151). Identification of isolates as B. cytotoxicus was performed after enrichment at 50°C, followed by differentiation using Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy and detection of the specific cytK-1 gene by PCR. Thirty-five percent of all samples were positive for B. cytotoxicus. Highest prevalence was found in dehydrated potato products (44/62=71%) such as powder for mashed potatoes and products made thereof. B. cytotoxicus was not detected in products that were evidently made directly from potatoes (n=24) but in one sample of raw potatoes (n=10; 10%). The high prevalence of this thermotolerant pathogen in potato products could pose a risk for consumers, especially if prepared foods are held at improper holding temperatures. PMID:24440535

  7. First report of seed-borne cherry leaf roll virus in wild potato, Solanum acaule, from South America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A virus, designated JCM-79, was isolated from wild potato (Solanum acaule Bitt.) plants grown from true seed received at USDA-APHIS Potato Quarantine Program from Peru. JCM-79 was mechanically transmissible to Nicotiana clevelandii, N.tabacum cv. Samsun NN, and Chenopodium quinoa. Symptoms in the ...

  8. First report of Fusarium proliferatum causing dry rot in Michigan commercial potato (Solanum tuberosum) production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium dry rot of potato is a postharvest disease caused by several Fusarium spp. and is of worldwide importance. Thirteen Fusarium spp. have been implicated in fungal dry rots of potatoes worldwide. Among them, 11 species have been reported causing potato dry rot of seed tubers in the northern Un...

  9. Comparing modeled productivity to historical data in New England potato production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato yields in Northern Maine have remained fairly constant for the last 70 years. Many long-term projects have sought to identify the limitations to potato yield, but identifying limiting factors is difficult without first identifying the upper limits of potato production. A simple, light-driven ...

  10. Utilization of potatoes in CELSS: Productivity and growing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tibbitts, T. W.

    1986-01-01

    The potato plant (solanum tuberosum L.) is one of the basic food crops that should be studied for use in NASA's closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS). It offers high yields per unit area and time, with most of this production in the form of highly digestible carbohydrate. Potatoes, like wheat and rice, are particularly useful in human diets because of their nutritional versatility and ease of processing and preparation. The growth of the potato was studied and it was found to be a useful species for life support systems.

  11. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE EXPRESSION AND INHERITANCE OF POTATO LEAFROLL VIRUS (PLRV) AND POTATO VIRUS Y (PVY) RESISTANCE IN THREE GENERATIONS OF GERMPLASM DERIVED FROM SOLANUM ETUBEROSUM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato virus Y (PVY) and potato leafroll virus (PLRV) are two of the most important viral pathogens of potato. Infection of potato by these viruses results in losses of yield and quality in commercial production and in the rejection of seed in certification programs. Host plant resistance to these...

  12. LOW WASTEWATER POTATO STARCH/PROTEIN PRODUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    While potato starch has been an item of commerce for many years, traditional processing methods have incurred large volumes of high BOD effluents. The research summarized by this report has lead to a modified process which upgrades the soluble components formerly discarded in the...

  13. Integrated bioethanol and biomanure production from potato waste.

    PubMed

    Chintagunta, Anjani Devi; Jacob, Samuel; Banerjee, Rintu

    2016-03-01

    Disposal of potato processing waste and the problem of pollution associated with it is a vital issue that is being faced by the potato processing plants. The conventional peeling methods presently followed in the processing plants for removing the potato peel, also result in the loss of some portion of the mash which is rich in starch. Indiscriminate discharge of the waste causes detrimental effects in the environment, so this problem can be resolved by successful utilization of the waste for the generation of value added products. Hence, the present work focuses on integrated production of bioethanol and biomanure to utilize the waste completely leading to zero waste generation. The first part of the work describes a comparative study of ethanol production from potato peel and mash wastes by employing co-culture of Aspergillus niger and Saccharomyces cerevisiae at various incubation time (24-120 h) instead of application of enzymes. The solid state fermentation of potato peel and mash inoculated with co-culture, resulted in bioethanol production of 6.18% (v/v) and 9.30% (v/v) respectively. In the second part of the work, the residue obtained after ethanol production was inoculated with seven different microorganisms (Nostoc muscorum, Fischerella muscicola, Anabaena variabilis, Aulosira fertilissima, Cylindrospermum muscicola, Azospirillium lipoferum, Azotobacter chroococcum) and mixture of all the organisms in equal ratio for nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P) and potassium (K) enrichment. Among them, A. variabilis was found to enrich N, P and K content of the residue by nearly 7.66, 21.66 and 15 fold than that of the initial content, ultimately leading to improved N:P:K ratio of approximately 2:1:1. The application of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) for the conversion of potato waste to ethanol and enrichment of residue obtained after ethanol production with microorganisms to be used as manure envisages environmental sustainability. PMID:26316099

  14. Geospatial evaluations of potato production systems in Maine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maine consistently ranks in the top ten potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) production areas though yields are substantially lower than the mid- and western USA. Geospatial frameworks help resolve patterns and trends in production environments (at multiple scales) that may enable improvements in adaptive ...

  15. 40 CFR 407.50 - Applicability; description of the dehydrated potato products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... dehydrated potato products subcategory. 407.50 Section 407.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Dehydrated Potato Products Subcategory § 407.50 Applicability; description of the dehydrated potato products subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  16. 40 CFR 407.50 - Applicability; description of the dehydrated potato products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... dehydrated potato products subcategory. 407.50 Section 407.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Dehydrated Potato Products Subcategory § 407.50 Applicability; description of the dehydrated potato products subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  17. 40 CFR 407.50 - Applicability; description of the dehydrated potato products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... dehydrated potato products subcategory. 407.50 Section 407.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Dehydrated Potato Products Subcategory § 407.50 Applicability; description of the dehydrated potato products subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  18. 40 CFR 407.40 - Applicability; description of the frozen potato products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... frozen potato products subcategory. 407.40 Section 407.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Frozen Potato Products Subcategory § 407.40 Applicability; description of the frozen potato products subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  19. 40 CFR 407.50 - Applicability; description of the dehydrated potato products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... dehydrated potato products subcategory. 407.50 Section 407.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Dehydrated Potato Products Subcategory § 407.50 Applicability; description of the dehydrated potato products subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  20. 40 CFR 407.40 - Applicability; description of the frozen potato products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... frozen potato products subcategory. 407.40 Section 407.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Frozen Potato Products Subcategory § 407.40 Applicability; description of the frozen potato products subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  1. 40 CFR 407.40 - Applicability; description of the frozen potato products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... frozen potato products subcategory. 407.40 Section 407.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Frozen Potato Products Subcategory § 407.40 Applicability; description of the frozen potato products subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  2. 40 CFR 407.40 - Applicability; description of the frozen potato products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... frozen potato products subcategory. 407.40 Section 407.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Frozen Potato Products Subcategory § 407.40 Applicability; description of the frozen potato products subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  3. 40 CFR 407.40 - Applicability; description of the frozen potato products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... frozen potato products subcategory. 407.40 Section 407.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Frozen Potato Products Subcategory § 407.40 Applicability; description of the frozen potato products subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  4. 40 CFR 407.50 - Applicability; description of the dehydrated potato products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... dehydrated potato products subcategory. 407.50 Section 407.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Dehydrated Potato Products Subcategory § 407.50 Applicability; description of the dehydrated potato products subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  5. Age-induced protein modifications and increased proteolysis in potato seed-tubers

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, G.N.M.; Knowles, N.R.; Houtz, R.L.

    1999-01-01

    Long-term aging of potato (Solanum tuberosum) seed-tubers resulted in a loss of patatin and a cysteine-proteinase inhibitor, potato multicystatin (PMC), as well as in increase in the activities of 84-, 95-, and 125-kD proteinases. Highly active, additional proteinases appeared in the oldest tubers. Over 90% of the total proteolytic activity in aged tubers was sensitive to trans-epoxysuccinyl-L-leucylamido (4-guanidino) butane or leupeptin, whereas pepstatin was the most effective inhibitor of proteinases in young tubers. Proteinases in aged tubers were also inhibited by crude extracts or purified PMC from young tubers, suggesting that the loss of PMC was responsible for the age-induced increase in proteinase activity. Nonenzymatic oxidation, glycation, and deamidation of proteins were enhanced by aging. Aged tubers developed daughter tubers that contained 3-fold more protein than mother tubers, with a polypeptide profile consistent with that of young tubers. Although PMC and patatin were absent from the older mother tubers, both proteins were expressed in the daughter tubers, indicating that aging did not compromise the efficacy of genes encoding PMC and patatin. Unlike the mother tubers, proteinase activity in daughter tubers was undetectable. Their results indicate that tuber aging nonenzymatically modifies proteins, which enhances their susceptibility to breakdown; the authors also identify a role for PMC in regulating protein turnover in potato tubers.

  6. Genetic, Physiological, and Environmental Factors Affecting Acrylamide Concentration in Fried Potato Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The discovery of acrylamide in processed potato products has brought increased interest in the controlling Maillard reaction precursors (reducing sugars and amino acids) in potato tubers. Because of their effects on nonenzymatic browning of fried potato products, reducing sugars and amino acids have...

  7. Epitrix flea beetles: new threats to potato production in Europe.

    PubMed

    Eyre, Dominic; Giltrap, Neil

    2013-01-01

    Epitrix tuberis and E. cucumeris are major pests of potatoes in North America. E. tuberis causes the most serious damage because the larval feeding can cause superficial serpentine tunnelling on the surface of tubers as well as deeper pits. This damage can make crops unmarketable. By contrast, E. cucumeris mainly damages the foliage, and yield losses can occur when the adults reach high densities. In 2004, potato tuber damage characteristic of E. tuberis was seen in Portugal. In 2008, damage was more widespread and severe. E. cucumeris and a lesser known species, E. similaris, were recorded in affected fields. E. similaris has since been found across Galicia, Spain. E. similaris is thought to be the most likely cause of the tuber damage in Portugal, but it is possible that E. cucumeris or an as yet undetected Epitrix species is causing the damage. In 2010, a pest risk assessment for the Euro-Mediterranean area identified the movement of adults and pupae with seed or ware potatoes and associated soil as being the highest-risk pathways for the spread of Epitrix. In 2012, EU emergency measures were agreed to reduce the risk of further introductions and the rate of spread of these pests. PMID:23169596

  8. Weed Research in Alfalfa Seed Production 2007

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed control in alfalfa seed production is important to produce high quality and high yield of alfalfa seed. Herbicides were tested on a commercial field of alfalfa seed in central Washington in 2007. Flumioxzin slightly injured alfalfa when applied at 0.125 and 0.25 lb ai/a. to dormant alfalfa in M...

  9. Efficiency of clinorotation usage on virus-infected seed potatoes for its improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishchenko, Ivan; Nechitailo, Galina S.; Dunich, Alina; Mishchenko, Anatoliy; Boiko, Anatolii

    Potato crop as a food staple takes a fourth place in the world by impotence after wheat, maize, and rice. Under present-day conditions, the role of this crop will invariably grow up, as fighting hunger is a number one problem in the 21st century. Planting material quality is very important for profitable potato production, and this quality is determined by the absence of disease-including organisms in tubers. Viral diseases cause much damage to crop production. Planting material tubers infected with viruses are an important source of the primary inoculum and infection is transferred in a mechanical way. Without effective methods of viral disease control, the losses of yield are considerable, as well as potato quality determination, so the obtaining of virus free planting material is a primary task for the planting material producers. During the last decades, the progress in potato viral disease control is connected with tissue culture research activities, as a result of which it became possible to obtain virus -free tabers from the varieties formerly completely infected. The use of meristem-tip culture for the obtaining of virus free plants has been based on the assumption that viruses were not able to penetrate the meristem tissues of the buds. Later on, it was found out that viruses penetrated into the meristems but the remediation of plants occurs in the process of tissue culture in vitro. Up to date hypotheses of remediation from the viruses occurring in the process of in vitro culture show that an interrelation in the system “virus - host plant” is affected by many factors, but some intensive redox processes take place in the meristems, creating an environment in which viral replication becomes suppressed. An important part in phytoviral pathogenesis is played by abiotic environmental factors. Gravity is a necessary condition for the growth and spatial orientation of plants, whereas the disturbances of g-vector change the structure of plant organism, its

  10. 7 CFR 946.140 - Handling potatoes for commercial processing into products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Handling potatoes for commercial processing into... AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Modification of Inspection Requirements § 946.140 Handling potatoes for commercial processing into products. Pursuant to §...

  11. 7 CFR 946.140 - Handling potatoes for commercial processing into products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Handling potatoes for commercial processing into... AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Modification of Inspection Requirements § 946.140 Handling potatoes for commercial processing into products. Pursuant to §...

  12. 7 CFR 946.140 - Handling potatoes for commercial processing into products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handling potatoes for commercial processing into... AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Modification of Inspection Requirements § 946.140 Handling potatoes for commercial processing into products. Pursuant to §...

  13. 7 CFR 946.140 - Handling potatoes for commercial processing into products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Handling potatoes for commercial processing into... AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Modification of Inspection Requirements § 946.140 Handling potatoes for commercial processing into products. Pursuant to §...

  14. 7 CFR 946.140 - Handling potatoes for commercial processing into products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Handling potatoes for commercial processing into... AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Modification of Inspection Requirements § 946.140 Handling potatoes for commercial processing into products. Pursuant to §...

  15. Potato evapotranspiration and productivity as affected by drip irrigation frequency and soil matric potential

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drip irrigation has been shown to be an effective method for achieving high potato yields. Soil matric potential (SMP) and irrigation frequencies are two important factors in optimizing potato production and tuber quality. This chapter reviews and discusses a case study of potato evapotranspiration ...

  16. Reducing the acrylamide content of processed potato products through germplasm improvement: opportunities, challenges and progress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Processed potato products, including french fries and potato chips, make a substantial contribution to total dietary acrylamide. Health safety concerns raised by acrylamide in food increase financial risks to the potato industry and have encouraged industry to take a proactive response toward acryla...

  17. Case study: Healthy grown potatoes and sustainability of Wisconsin potato production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Wisconsin Eco-Potato collaboration developed after several meetings between the Wisconsin Potato and Vegetable Growers Association (WPVGA) and World Wildlife Fund (WWF). Representatives met at the National Potato Council meeting and identified a common interest in development of environmentally ...

  18. Protein and starch digestibilities and mineral availability of products developed from potato, soy and corn flour.

    PubMed

    Gahlawat, P; Sehgal, S

    1998-01-01

    A technique for development of potato flour was standardized. Five products viz. cake, biscuit, weaning food, panjiri and ladoo were prepared incorporating potato flour, defatted soy flour and corn flour. Baking and roasting were the major processing techniques employed for the development of these products. Protein, ash and fat contents of potato flour were almost similar to those of raw potatoes. Significant differences in protein, ash and fat contents of all the products were observed. Protein and starch digestibility of potato flour was significantly higher than that of raw potatoes. Protein digestibility increased by 12 to 17 percent on baking or roasting of products. Processed products had significantly higher starch digestibility and mineral availability compared to raw products. Thus, it can be concluded that roasting and baking are effective means of improving starch and protein digestibility and mineral availability of products. PMID:9839814

  19. Prickly lettuce control in alfalfa seed production.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weeds are particularly troublesome in alfalfa grown for seed due to the wider row spacing and the lack of multiple cuttings compared to alfalfa grown for hay. Prickly lettuce is often an escape weed in alfalfa seed production fields as it can germinate throughout the entire year and is naturally tol...

  20. Insecticidal activity of the granulosis virus in combination with neem products and talc powder against the potato tuberworm Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    PubMed

    Mascarin, G M; Delalibera, I

    2012-06-01

    The potato tuberworm Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) is an important agricultural pest that causes significant economic losses to potato growers worldwide. The addition of an effective method of biological control for the potato tuberworm is greatly needed, and is currently unavailable in Brazil. The granulosis virus (Baculoviridae) is a promising biological control agent to protect post-harvest potatoes and in storage from the potato tuberworm. However, the control measure must be economically feasible. Liquid suspensions of a granulosis virus applied alone or in mixture with two commercial neem oil-based products (DalNeem™ and NeemAzal™), and a dry powder formulation of viral granules were evaluated for control of potato tuberworm larvae by treating potato tubers under laboratory conditions. High larval mortality (86.7%) was achieved when DalNeem and virus were applied together at 4 mg of azadirachtin/L and 10(4) occlusion bodies (OBs)/mL, respectively. This combination resulted in ≥50% efficacy in relation to their counterparts alone. Conversely, NeemAzal did not enhance virus effectiveness against larvae of the potato tuberworm. The talc-based virus formulation was used for dusting seed tubers at different concentrations and resulted in 100% larval mortality at 5 × 10(8) OBs/g. Formulated and unformulated virus provided 50% mortality at 166 OBs/g and at 5.0 × 10(5) OBs/mL, respectively. As a result, talc-based virus formulation had a better control efficiency on potato tuberworm than the aqueous virus suspension. The granulosis virus combined with DalNeem at low rates or formulated with talc powder is a viable option to control the potato tuberworm under storage conditions. PMID:23950047

  1. Antidiabetic II drug metformin in plants: uptake and translocation to edible parts of cereals, oily seeds, beans, tomato, squash, carrots, and potatoes.

    PubMed

    Eggen, Trine; Lillo, Cathrine

    2012-07-18

    Residues of pharmaceuticals present in wastewater and sewage sludge are of concern due to their transfer to aquatic and terrestrial food chains and possible adverse effects on nontargeted organisms. In the present work, uptake and translocation of metformin, an antidiabetic II medicine, by edible plant species cultivated in agricultural soil have been investigated in greenhouse experiment. Metformin demonstrated a high uptake and translocation to oily seeds of rape ( Brassica napus cv. Sheik and Brassica rapa cv. Valo); expressed as an average bioconcentration factor (BCF, plant concentration over initial concentration in soil, both in dry weight), BCF values as high as 21.72 were measured. In comparison, BCFs for grains of the cereals wheat, barley, and oat were in the range of 0.29-1.35. Uptake and translocation to fruits and vegetables of tomato (BCFs 0.02-0.06), squash (BCFs 0.12-0.18), and bean (BCF 0.88) were also low compared to rape. BCFs for carrot, potato, and leaf forage B. napus cv. Sola were similar (BCF 1-4). Guanylurea, a known degradation product of metformin by microorganisms in activated sludge, was found in barley grains, bean pods, potato peel, and small potatoes. The mechanisms for transport of metformin and guanidine in plants are still unknown, whereas organic cation transporters (OCTs) in mammals are known to actively transport such compounds and may guide the way for further understanding of mechanisms also in plants. PMID:22712757

  2. Economic assessments of potato production systems in Maine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using an integrated enterprise and whole-farm budget model for a 324-ha medium-sized potato farm, the profitability of potatoes grown in combination with fifteen common potato rotation crops in Maine are evaluated. Enterprise budgets for all sixteen crops are calculated while a whole-farm budget syn...

  3. Use of buckwheat seed protease inhibitor gene for improvement of tobacco and potato plant resistance to biotic stress.

    PubMed

    Khadeeva, N V; Kochieva, E Z; Tcherednitchenko, M Yu; Yakovleva, E Yu; Sydoruk, K V; Bogush, V G; Dunaevsky, Y E; Belozersky, M A

    2009-03-01

    The possibility to use agrobacterial transformation of leaf discs to produce resistance to bacterial infections in tobacco and potato plants by introduction of a single gene encoding the serine proteinase inhibitor BWI-1a (ISP) from buckwheat seeds is shown. All studied PCR-positive transgenic plants exhibited antibacterial activity in biotests. It was shown that the presence of just a single gene of serine proteinase inhibitor provides sufficient protection at least against two bacterial phytopathogens, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato and Clavibacter michiganensis sbsp. michiganensis. The biotest including tobacco plant infection by the white wings butterfly in the green house has also demonstrated the existence of protective effect in transgenic tobacco plants. Significant genotypic variations in the protection efficiency were found between members of different genera of the same family (potato and tobacco) as well as between different lines of the same species. Northern blot analysis of four transgenic potato lines and three tobacco lines transformed by a vector plasmid containing the ISP gene of serine proteinases BWI-1a from buckwheat seeds has shown the presence of the expected size mRNA transcript. PMID:19364319

  4. Hydroponic potato production on nutrients derived from anaerobically-processed potato plant residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackowiak, C. L.; Stutte, G. W.; Garland, J. L.; Finger, B. W.; Ruffe, L. M.

    1997-01-01

    Bioregenerative methods are being developed for recycling plant minerals from harvested inedible biomass as part of NASA's Advanced Life Support (ALS) research. Anaerobic processing produces secondary metabolites, a food source for yeast production, while providing a source of water soluble nutrients for plant growth. Since NH_4-N is the nitrogen product, processing the effluent through a nitrification reactor was used to convert this to NO_3-N, a more acceptable form for plants. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cv. Norland plants were used to test the effects of anaerobically-produced effluent after processing through a yeast reactor or nitrification reactor. These treatments were compared to a mixed-N treatment (75:25, NO_3:NH_4) or a NO_3-N control, both containing only reagent-grade salts. Plant growth and tuber yields were greatest in the NO_3-N control and yeast reactor effluent treatments, which is noteworthy, considering the yeast reactor treatment had high organic loading in the nutrient solution and concomitant microbial activity.

  5. Consumer acceptance of vegetarian sweet potato products intended for space missions.

    PubMed

    Wilson, C D; Pace, R D; Bromfield, E; Jones, G; Lu, J Y

    1998-01-01

    Sweet potato is one of the crops selected for NASA's Advanced Life Support Program for potential long-duration lunar/Mars missions. This article presents recipes of products made from sweet potato and determines the consumer acceptability of products containing from 6% to 20% sweet potato on a dry weight basis. These products were developed for use in nutritious and palatable meals for future space explorers. Sensory evaluation (appearance/color, aroma, texture, flavor/taste, and overall acceptability) studies were conducted to determine the consumer acceptability of vegetarian products made with sweet potato using panelists at NASA/Johnson Space Center in Houston, TX. None of these products including the controls, contained any ingredient of animal origin with the exception of sweet potato pie. A 9-point hedonic scale (9 being like extremely and 1 being dislike extremely) was used to evaluate 10 products and compare them to similar commercially available products used as controls. The products tested were pancakes, waffles, tortillas, bread, pie, pound cake, pasta, vegetable patties, doughnuts, and pretzels. All of the products were either liked moderately or liked slightly with the exception of the sweet potato vegetable patties, which were neither liked nor disliked. Mean comparisons of sensory scores of sweet potato recipes and their controls were accomplished by using the Student t-test. Because of their nutritional adequacy and consumer acceptability, these products are being recommended to NASA's Advanced Life Support Program for inclusion in a vegetarian menu plan designed for lunar/Mars space missions. PMID:11876201

  6. Scenarios for optimizing potato productivity in a lunar CELSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, R. M.; Morrow, R. C.; Tibbitts, T. W.; Bula, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    The use of controlled ecological life support system (CELSS) in the development and growth of large-scale bases on the Moon will reduce the expense of supplying life support materials from Earth. Such systems would use plants to produce food and oxygen, remove carbon dioxide, and recycle water and minerals. In a lunar CELSS, several factors are likely to be limiting to plant productivity, including the availability of growing area, electrical power, and lamp/ballast weight for lighting systems. Several management scenarios are outlined in this discussion for the production of potatoes based on their response to irradiance, photoperiod, and carbon dioxide concentration. Management scenarios that use 12-hr photoperiods, high carbon dioxide concentrations, and movable lamp banks to alternately irradiate halves of the growing area appear to be the most efficient in terms of growing area, electrical power, and lamp weights. However, the optimal scenario will be dependent upon the relative 'costs' of each factor.

  7. A Seasonal Survey of Click Beetles in a Potato Production Area Near Palmer, Alaska

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adult elaterids associated with potato production were collected in the three major potato producing areas of Alaska: Fairbanks, Delta Junction, and Palmer, and from a subsistence farm above the arctic circle in Wiseman. Twelve species from ten genera were collected including three of the six most e...

  8. Analysis of genetic and pathogenic variation among Alternaria solani in a potato production region

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A two-year survey was conducted in a potato production region to investigate the genetic variability within naturally infecting populations of Alternaria solani, the cause of early blight in potato, and between species A. solani and A. dauci. Genetic diversity among 151 isolates was assessed using s...

  9. Introduction to Potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is an introductory chapter on potatoes which gives a brief history of the potato, potato morphology, taxonomy, production statistics, nutritional content, and future prospects for potato research and production. It will appear in a new book entitled Genetics, Genomics, and Breeding of Potato ...

  10. Potato (Solanum tuberosum) greenhouse tuber production as an assay for asexual reproduction effects from herbicides

    EPA Science Inventory

    The present study determined whether young potato plants can be used as an assay to indicate potential effects of pesticides on asexual reproduction. Solanum tuberosum (Russet Burbank) plants were grown from seed pieces in a mineral soil in pots under greenhouse conditions. Plant...

  11. Effect of seeding rate on organic production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased demand for organic rice (Oryza sativa L.) has incentivized producer conversion from conventional to organically-managed rice production in the U.S. Little is known on the impacts of seeding rate on organic rice production. A completely randomized factorial design with four replications was...

  12. Potato, viruses, and seed certification in the USA to provide healthy propagated tubers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In general, potato is an intensively managed crop, requiring irrigation, fertilization, and frequent pesticide applications in order to obtain the highest yields possible. In the past, breeding programs focused primarily on improving yield and ignored the many diseases that can afflict potatoes, esp...

  13. First report of Fusarium torulosum causing dry rot of seed potato tubers in Michigan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium dry rot of potato (Solanum tuberosum) is a postharvest disease caused by several Fusarium species and is of worldwide importance. Thirteen species of Fusarium have been implicated in fungal dry rots of potatoes worldwide. Among them, eight species have been reported in the northern United S...

  14. Life-cycle energy efficiency and environmental impacts of bioethanol production from sweet potato.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mingxin; Shi, Yu; Xia, Xunfeng; Li, Dinglong; Chen, Qun

    2013-04-01

    Life-cycle assessment (LCA) was used to evaluate the energy efficiency and environmental impacts of sweet potato-based bioethanol production. The scope covered all stages in the life cycle of bioethanol production, including the cultivation and treatment, transport, as well as bioethanol conversion of sweet potato. Results show that the net energy ratio of sweet potato-based bioethanol is 1.48 and the net energy gain is 6.55 MJ/L. Eutrophication is identified as the most significant environmental impact category, followed by acidification, global warming, human toxicity, and photochemical oxidation. Sensitivity analysis reveals that steam consumption during bioethanol conversion exerts the most effect on the results, followed by sweet potato yields and fertilizers input. It is suggested that substituting coal with cleaner energy for steam generation in bioethanol conversion stage and promotion of better management practices in sweet potato cultivation stage could lead to a significant improvement of energy and environmental performance. PMID:23434804

  15. Organoleptic damage classification of potatoes with the use of image analysis in production process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przybył, K.; Zaborowicz, M.; Koszela, K.; Boniecki, P.; Mueller, W.; Raba, B.; Lewicki, A.

    2014-04-01

    In the agro-food sector security it is required the safety of a healthy food. Therefore, the farms are inspected by the quality standards of production in all sectors of production. Farms must meet the requirements dictated by the legal regulations in force in the European Union. Currently, manufacturers are seeking to make their food products have become unbeatable. This gives you the chance to form their own brand on the market. In addition, they use technologies that can increase the scale of production. Moreover, in the manufacturing process they tend to maintain a high level of quality of their products. Potatoes may be included in this group of agricultural products. Potatoes have become one of the major and popular edible plants. Globally, potatoes are used for consumption at 60%, Poland 40%. This is due to primarily advantages, consumer and nutritional qualities. Potatoes are easy to digest. Medium sized potato bigger than 60 mm in diameter contains only about 60 calories and very little fat. Moreover, it is the source of many vitamins such as vitamin C, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin E, etc. [1]. The parameters of quality consumer form, called organoleptic sensory properties, are evaluated by means of sensory organs by using the point method. The most important are: flavor, flesh color, darkening of the tuber flesh when raw and after cooking. In the production process it is important to adequate, relevant and accurate preparing potatoes for use and sale. Evaluation of the quality of potatoes is determined on the basis of organoleptic quality standards for potatoes. Therefore, there is a need to automate this process. To do this, use the appropriate tools, image analysis and classification models using artificial neural networks that will help assess the quality of potatoes [2, 3, 4].

  16. Possibility of sweet corn synthetic seed production.

    PubMed

    Thobunluepop, P; Pawelzik, E; Vearasilp, S

    2009-08-01

    Somatic embryogenesis in sweet corn has been reported by a number of workers. However, the knowledge maintaining storage life, vigor and viability of these somatic embryos are limited. A model system of synchronous somatic embryos production combined with encapsulation to synthetic seed was studied in sweet corn (Zea mays var. saccharata). In this study immature zygotic embryo cultured on N6 medium, contained 2, 4-D 2 mg L(-1) and sucrose 60 g L(-1) form the embryogenic callus. Higher 2, 4-D levels did not show increasing in inducing embryogenic callus. If the concentration of 2, 4-D decreased globular-stage, somatic zygote form the roots. Somatic embryo develop without surrounding nutritive tissues and protective seed coat has been devoted to causing somatic embryos to functionally mimic embryo, then was encapsulated by 3% (w/v) sodium alginate with 4-6 mm in diameter. It was found that when synthetic seed were treated with 60 g L(-1) sucrose and stored at 15+/-2 degree Celsius for 2 weeks, the survival rate of synthetic seed were 44%, after 8 days of germination test, it was found that there were 91% of which were normal seedling and 9% were abnormal seedling. This result indicated that there is a possibility in sweet corn synthetic seed production. Anyhow, more research for better technique are further required. PMID:19943466

  17. Management effects of disease-suppressive rotation crops on potato yield and soilborne disease and their economic implications in potato production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soilborne potato diseases are persistent problems in potato production. Use of disease-suppressive rotation crops, such as Brassica spp. (mustards, rapeseed) and sudangrass, has shown potential for management of soilborne diseases and enhanced yield. However, how to best implement these crops into p...

  18. Assessment of screening methods for the identification of genetically modified potatoes in raw materials and finished products.

    PubMed

    Jaccaud, Etienne; Höhne, Michaela; Meyer, Rolf

    2003-01-29

    Qualitative polymerase chain reaction methods for the detection of genetically modified potatoes have been investigated that can be used for screening purposes and identification of insect-resistant and virus-resistant potatoes in food. The presence of the nos terminator from Agrobacterium tumefaciens and the antibiotic marker gene nptII (neomycin-phosphotransferase II) was demonstrated in three commercialized Bt-potato lines (Monsanto Co., St. Louis, MO, USA) and one noncommercial GM-potato product (high amylopectin starch, AVEBE, Veendam, The Netherlands) and allows for general screening in foods. For further identification, specific primers for the FMV promoter derived from the figwort mosaic virus, the CryIIIA gene (delta-endotoxin from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. tenebrionis), potato leafroll virus replicase gene, and the potato virus Y coat protein gene, were designed. The methods described were successfully applied to processed potato raw materials (dehydrated potato powders and flakes), starch samples, and finished products. PMID:12537422

  19. Maillard reaction products and potatoes: have the benefits been clearly assessed?

    PubMed

    Liska, DeAnn J; Cook, Chad M; Wang, Ding Ding; Szpylka, John

    2016-03-01

    Cooking foods affords numerous food safety benefits. During heating, Maillard reaction products (MRPs) are formed. MRPs contribute sensory aspects to food, including color, taste, and texture. One MRP, acrylamide, has been implicated in negative health outcomes; however, emerging data suggests MRPs may also deliver certain health benefits. The food industry has taken steps to decrease acrylamide formation, but the perception that high levels of acrylamide compromise the nutritional benefit of certain foods has continued. Potatoes are susceptible to MRP formation during cooking but also are considered an affordable, high nutrient content food. In particular, potatoes contribute significantly to fiber and potassium intakes in the U.S. population, two nutrients of need. How, then, should potatoes be judged for effects on health? A structured evidence assessment was conducted to identify literature, specifically clinical trials, on MRPs from potatoes and health, as well as nutritional contribution of potatoes. The results indicate limited human clinical data are available on negative health outcomes of potato-based MRPs, whereas potatoes are important contributors of key nutrients, such as fiber and potassium. Therefore, a balanced benefit-risk approach is warranted in order to assure that decreasing consumption of certain foods, like potatoes, does not lead to unintended consequences of nutrition inadequacies. PMID:27004113

  20. 40 CFR 153.155 - Seed treatment products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Seed treatment products. 153.155... REGISTRATION POLICIES AND INTERPRETATIONS Coloration and Discoloration of Pesticides § 153.155 Seed treatment products. (a) Pesticide products intended for use in treating seeds must contain an EPA-approved dye...

  1. 40 CFR 153.155 - Seed treatment products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Seed treatment products. 153.155... REGISTRATION POLICIES AND INTERPRETATIONS Coloration and Discoloration of Pesticides § 153.155 Seed treatment products. (a) Pesticide products intended for use in treating seeds must contain an EPA-approved dye...

  2. 40 CFR 153.155 - Seed treatment products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... products. (a) Pesticide products intended for use in treating seeds must contain an EPA-approved dye to... the user to add an EPA-approved dye with the pesticide during the seed treatment process. (2) Products... in form or are used as fumigants. (c) EPA-approved dyes for seed treatment are listed in:...

  3. 40 CFR 153.155 - Seed treatment products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... products. (a) Pesticide products intended for use in treating seeds must contain an EPA-approved dye to... the user to add an EPA-approved dye with the pesticide during the seed treatment process. (2) Products... in form or are used as fumigants. (c) EPA-approved dyes for seed treatment are listed in:...

  4. 40 CFR 153.155 - Seed treatment products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... products. (a) Pesticide products intended for use in treating seeds must contain an EPA-approved dye to... the user to add an EPA-approved dye with the pesticide during the seed treatment process. (2) Products... in form or are used as fumigants. (c) EPA-approved dyes for seed treatment are listed in:...

  5. Methane production and recovery using potato waste solubles and solids

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, M.L.

    1982-01-01

    The production and recovery of methane gas utilizing various potato conversion wastes in either soluble or solid form is discussed in this chapter. Such wastes may occur at temperatures ranging from 25 C to as high as 55 C. The form and concentration of the waste and the temperature may dictate the choice of one of several possible treatment processes which are variously designated as conventional (holding tanks), contact (recycle of cell solids), and filter (packed bed) reactors. To this may be added a recent concept of an expanded bed reactor. A first design approach was employed to approximate capital and operating costs with an evaluation of the internal rates of return on investment and payout times. The fraction of the energy required by a processing plant which could be provided by the gas produced was of interest as a potential supplemental source of energy in the event that natural gas supplies are reduced or that prices of this fuel continue to escalate rapidly.

  6. Medicinal use of potato-derived products: conclusions of a rapid versus full systematic review.

    PubMed

    Van de Velde, Stijn; De Buck, Emmy; Dieltjens, Tessa; Aertgeerts, Bert

    2011-05-01

    Vlachojannis et al reported a systematic review on the medicinal use of potato-derived products. The authors identified five trials for inclusion in the review, including one study on the treatment of burns. Based on this RCT the review authors concluded that potato peel is not recommended for burns. As the authors of a rapid review on the use of potato peels for burns, we read this systematic review with great interest. Although the concept of rapid review is rising, accelerating the review process might introduce bias and its conclusions may be subject to change once a systematic review is available. Since this rapid and systematic review were done at similar times, we explored if the results were consistent. We identified three trials on the use of potato peels. Two of these trials were not mentioned in the systematic review. The evidence indicates that sterile potato peel dressings are better than gauze alone during the healing phase.While there is no evidence of an antibacterial effect, we concluded that potato peels promote healing. Potato peel dressings might be the best available dressing in resource poor countries. Because systematic reviews have a major impact it is crucial that systematic reviews meet specified quality criteria. Therefore we draw attention to adherance to the PRISMA statement. PMID:21110396

  7. Production of Surfactant from Bacillus subtilis ATCC 21332 using Potato substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, Sandra Lynn; Bala, Greg Alan

    2000-12-01

    Surfactin, a lipopeptide biosurfactant, produced by Bacillus subtilis is known to reduce the surface tension of water from 72 to 27 mN/m. Potato substrates were evaluated as a carbon source for surfactant production by B. subtilis ATCC 21332. An established potato medium, simulated liquid and solid potato waste media, and a commercially prepared potato starch in a mineral salts medium were evaluated in shake flask experiments to verify growth, surface tension reduction, and carbohydrate reduction capabilities. Total carbohydrate assays and glucose monitoring indicated that B. subtilis was able to degrade potato substrates to produce surfactant. Surface tensions dropped from 71.3±0.1 to 28.3±0.3 mN/m (simulated solid potato medium) and to 27.5±0.3 mN/m (mineral salts medium). A critical micelle concentration (CMC) of 0.10 g/l was obtained from a methylene chloride extract of the simulated solid potato medium.

  8. Glyphosate carryover in seed potato: effects on mother crop and daughter tubers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field studies were conducted in 2008 and 2009 in Aberdeen, ID, Ontario, OR, and Paterson, WA to determine the effect of simulated glyphosate drift on ‘Ranger Russet’ potato during the application year and the crop growing the next year from the daughter tubers. Glyphosate was applied at 8.5, 54, 107...

  9. Cold tolerance, seed production and seed germination of a forage bermudagrass core collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forage bermudagrass can be an important perennial warm-season forage for transitional zones of warm and cool season pastures. Cold-tolerant seeded varieties will be especially desirable. A forage bermudagrass core collection was assessed for seed production and seed germination. Also, a replicate...

  10. First report on a potato I family chymotrypsin inhibitor from the seeds of a Cucurbitaceous plant, Momordica cochinchinensis.

    PubMed

    Tsoi, Alex Y K; Wong, Ricardo C H; Ng, Tzi-Bun; Fong, Wing-Ping

    2004-02-01

    A 7514-Da chymotrypsin inhibitor was isolated from the seed extract of Momordica cochinchinensis (Family Cucurbitaceae) by chromatography on chymotrypsin-Sepharose 4B and subsequently by C18 reversed-phase HPLC. This inhibitor, named MCoCl, possessed remarkable thermostability and was stable from pH 2 to 12. MCoCl also inhibited subtilisin, but had at least 50-fold lower inhibitory activity towards trypsin and elastase. Amino acid sequencing of a peptide fragment of MCoCl revealed a sequence of 23 amino acids. Comparison of this sequence and the molecular mass with those of other protease inhibitors suggests that MCoCl belongs to the potato I inhibitor family. PMID:15101561

  11. Economic Effectiveness of Healthy Potato Planting Material Production with the Use of Simulated Microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishchenko, I. A.; Galushko, V. P.; Taran, O. P.

    2008-06-01

    Research of potato crop productivity under simulated microgravity allows to identify the plants which can become potentially productive under such stress conditions and that might allow to identify the technological parameters of potato production in other space expeditions. One of the traditional practices of planting material treatment against the viruses are the species in vitro. The study of infectious process flow is conducted in the vitro potato in the conditions of clinorotation. The introduction into culture of the meristems from clinostated plants allowed to obtain the regenerants free from the PVX infection. The employment of simulated microgravity for plant remediation reduced the expenditures on the production of in vitro culture 4,5 times, as compared to termoteraphy.

  12. Determination of acrylamide level in popular Iranian brands of potato and corn products.

    PubMed

    Boroushaki, Mohammad Taher; Nikkhah, Elham; Kazemi, Abdollah; Oskooei, Mojtaba; Raters, Marion

    2010-10-01

    Acrylamide is a chemical found in starchy foods that have been cooked at high temperatures. These include crisps, chips, bread and crisp breads. It was first discovered by scientists in Sweden in 2002. The Objective of this study is to determine the level of acrylamide in popular Iranian brands of potato crisps and corn products, produced by domestic food industrial factories. For this reason 7 brands of potato and 8 brands of corn products (10 each) were collected, crashed and after preparing the extracts of each sample, using LC-MS-MS spectrometry for measuring acrylamide amount. Results showed that in different brands of potato and corn products there were different amounts (244-1688 microg/kg) and (<30-410 microg/kg) of acrylamide, respectively. As acrylamide is a dangerous toxin for human health, so it needs to reduce the level of acrylamide in these products that are used extensively by people specially children. PMID:20600544

  13. Nitrogen Management for Irrigated Potato Production under Different Tillage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four years of potato (Solanum tuberosum) field study was conducted under center pivot irrigation using large size plots and standard industry cultural practices to evaluate the affects of reduced or conventional tillage and different N management practices; i.e. pre-plant N rates of either 56, 112, ...

  14. Preemergence herbicides forpotential use in potato (Solanum tuberosum) production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field trials were conducted in 2009 and 2010 near Paterson, WA and Ontario, OR to evaluate weed control and potato tolerance to preemergence applied pyroxasulfone, saflufenacil, and KSU12800 herbicides. Pyroxasulfone at 0.09 to 0.15 kg ai ha-1 and saflufenacil at 0.05 to 0.07 kg ha-1 applied PRE alo...

  15. Recommending soil copper thresholds for potato production in Idaho

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A rising concern with the application of dairy wastes to agricultural fields is the accumulation of copper in the soil. Copper sulfate from cattle footbaths is washed out of dairy barns and into wastewater lagoons. Potato growers are concerned about this issue, as many of the predominant dairy produ...

  16. Effects of Controlled Atmospheres on Production of Sesquiterpenoid Stress Metabolites by White Potato Tuber

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Leo M.; Heisler, Edward G.; Kissinger, John C.; Patterson, Joseph M.; Kalan, Edwin B.

    1979-01-01

    Levels of katahdinone (solavetivone), lubimin, rishitin, and phytuberin, sesquiterpenoid stress metabolites of white potato (Solanum tuberosum), were monitored in tuber slices which were challenged with an extract of Phytophthora infestans and incubated under controlled atmospheres. A mixture of ethylene in air enhanced stress metabolite production. This enhancement was amplified by higher partial pressures of oxygen. Stress metabolite production was inhibited by salicylhydroxamic acid. These results suggest the involvement of cyanide-resistant respiration in the production of potato stress metabolites, compounds which may serve as phytoalexins. PMID:16660728

  17. CULTURAL METHODS FOR ENHANCING WYOMING BIG SAGEBRUSH SEED PRODUCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Demand for sagebrush seed is expanding but wildland harvesting is impaired by several factors including loss of stands to weed invasions and fire. To increase the potential for seed production, sagebrush seed harvests were compared among cultural treatments for stands on a coal mine near Glenrock, W...

  18. Life cycle inventory for the production of germinated oil palm seeds at a selected seed production unit in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khairuddin, Nik Sasha Khatrina; Ismail, B. S.; Muhamad, Halimah; May, Choo Yuen

    2013-11-01

    The increasing global demand for edible oil has encouraged Malaysia to increase the areas under oil palm cultivation. The total demand for germinated oil palm seeds in the years 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012 were 86.4, 76.5, 72.6 and 75.2 million, respectively. Production of germinated oil palm seeds is the first link in the palm oil supply chain. Therefore, good management practices at seed production stage is required to ensure only high quality germinated oil palm seeds are produced before sale to customers. Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used as a tool to assess environmental impact of the processes throughout a product's lifespan and this approach is an important tool for assessing green house gas (GHG) emission. For this study, a gate-to-gate life cycle inventory (LCI) of a single germinated oil palm seed production unit was carried out. The functional unit used for this LCI was one germinated oil palm seed. To determine the environmental impact for the production of germinated oil palm seeds, information on the inputs were obtained. The inputs for the production of germinated oil palm seeds involved materials such as polyethylene bags, electricity, water, chemicals and fungicides. For this study, the system boundary involved seed germination process and management of germinated oil palm seeds. It was found that the amount of input such as materials and energy used in the production of germinated oil palm seeds was very minimal.

  19. Bioethanol production from sweet potato using Saccharomyces diastaticus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Suryani, Irma; Pradia Paundradewa, J.

    2015-12-01

    Sweet potato contains about 16 to 40% dry matter and about 70-90% of the dry matter is a carbohydrate made up of starch, sugar, cellulose, hemicellulose and pectin so suitable for used as raw material for bioethanol. In this study focused on the manufacture of bioethanol with changes in temperature and concentration variations of yeast with sweet potato raw materials used yeast Saccharomyces diastaticus. Operating variables used are at a temperature of 30°C; 31,475°C; 35°C; 38,525°C; and 40°C with a yeast concentration of 25.9%; 30%; 40%; 50% and 54.1%. The experimental results obtained, the optimum conditions of ethanol fermentation with yeast Saccharomyces diastaticus on 36,67 °C temperature and yeast concentration of 43,43 % v / v.

  20. The effect of pretreatments on surfactin production from potato process effluent by Bacillus subtilis

    SciTech Connect

    D. N. Thompson; S. L. Fox; G. A. Bala

    2000-05-07

    Pretreatment of low-solids (LS) potato process effluent was tested for potential to increase surfactin yield. Pretreatments included heat, removal of starch particulates, and acid hydrolysis. Elimination of contaminating vegetative cells was necessary for surfactin production. After autoclaving, 0.40 g/L of surfactin was produced from the effluent in 72 h, versus 0.24 g/L in the purified potato starch control. However, surfactin yields per carbon consumed were 76% lower from process effluent. Removal of starch particulates had little effect on the culture. Acid hydrolysis decreased growth and surfactant production, except 0.5 wt% acid, which increased the yield by 25% over untreated effluent.

  1. The Effect of Pretreatments on Surfactin Production From Potato Process Effluent by Bacillus Subtilis

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, David Neal; Fox, Sandra Lynn; Bala, Greg Alan

    2000-05-01

    Pretreatment of low-solids (LS) potato process effluent was tested for potential to increase surfactin yield. Pretreatments included heat, removal of starch particulates, and acid hydrolysis. Elimination of contaminating vegetative cells was necessary for surfactin production. After autoclaving, 0.40 g/L of surfactin was produced from the effluent in 72 h, versus 0.24 g/L in the purified potato starch control. However, surfactin yields per carbon consumed were 76% lower from process effluent. Removal of starch particulates had little effect on the culture. Acid hydrolysis decreased growth and surfactant production, except 0.5 wt% acid, which increased the yield by 25% over untreated effluent.

  2. Acid hydrolysis of sweet potato for ethanol production

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.; Hamdy, M.K.

    1985-01-01

    Studies were conducted to establish optimal conditions for the acid hydrolysis of sweet potato for maximal ethanol yield. The starch contents of two sweet potato cultivars (Georgia Red and TG-4), based on fresh weight, were 21.1 +/- 0.6% and 27.5 +/- 1.6%, respectively. The results of acid hydrolysis experiments showed the following: (1) both hydrolysis rate and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) concentration were a function of HCL concentration, temperature, and time; (2) the reducing sugars were rapidly formed with elevated concentrations of HCl and temperature, but also destroyed quickly; and (3) HMF concentration increased significantly with the concentration of HCl, temperature, and hydrolysis time. Maximum reducing sugar value of 84.2 DE and 0.056% HMF (based on wet weight) was achieved after heating 8% SPS for 15 min in 1N HCl at 110/sup 0/C. Degraded 8% SPS (1N HCl, 97/sup 0/C for 20 min or 110/sup 0/C for 10 min) was utilized as substrate for ethanol fermentation and 3.8% ethanol (v/v) was produced from 1400 mL fermented wort. This is equal to 41.6 g ethanol (200 proof) from 400 g of fresh sweet potato tuber (Georgia Red) or an ethanol yield potential of 431 gal of 200-proof ethanol/acre (from 500 bushel tubers/acre).

  3. Estimation of Nitrogen Pools in Irrigated Potato Production on Sandy Soil Using the Model SUBSTOR

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Rishi; Hochmuth, George J.; Boote, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    Recent increases in nitrate concentrations in the Suwannee River and associated springs in northern Florida have raised concerns over the contributions of non-point sources. The Middle Suwannee River Basin (MSRB) is of special concern because of prevalent karst topography, unconfined aquifers and sandy soils which increase vulnerability of the ground water contamination from agricultural operations- a billion dollar industry in this region. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) production poses a challenge in the area due to the shallow root system of potato plants, and low water and nutrient holding capacity of the sandy soils. A four-year monitoring study for potato production on sandy soil was conducted on a commercial farm located in the MSRB to identify major nitrogen (N) loss pathways and determine their contribution to the total environmental N load, using a partial N budget approach and the potato model SUBSTOR. Model simulated environmental N loading rates were found to lie within one standard deviation of the observed values and identified leaching loss of N as the major sink representing 25 to 38% (or 85 to 138 kg ha-1 N) of the total input N (310 to 349 kg ha-1 N). The crop residues left in the field after tuber harvest represented a significant amount of N (64 to 110 kg ha-1N) and posed potential for indirect leaching loss of N upon their mineralization and the absence of subsequent cover crops. Typically, two months of fallow period exits between harvest of tubers and planting of the fall row crop (silage corn). The fallow period is characterized by summer rains which pose a threat to N released from rapidly mineralizing potato vines. Strategies to reduce N loading into the groundwater from potato production must focus on development and adoption of best management practices aimed on reducing direct as well as indirect N leaching losses. PMID:25635904

  4. Estimation of nitrogen pools in irrigated potato production on sandy soil using the model SUBSTOR.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Rishi; Hochmuth, George J; Boote, Kenneth J

    2015-01-01

    Recent increases in nitrate concentrations in the Suwannee River and associated springs in northern Florida have raised concerns over the contributions of non-point sources. The Middle Suwannee River Basin (MSRB) is of special concern because of prevalent karst topography, unconfined aquifers and sandy soils which increase vulnerability of the ground water contamination from agricultural operations--a billion dollar industry in this region. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) production poses a challenge in the area due to the shallow root system of potato plants, and low water and nutrient holding capacity of the sandy soils. A four-year monitoring study for potato production on sandy soil was conducted on a commercial farm located in the MSRB to identify major nitrogen (N) loss pathways and determine their contribution to the total environmental N load, using a partial N budget approach and the potato model SUBSTOR. Model simulated environmental N loading rates were found to lie within one standard deviation of the observed values and identified leaching loss of N as the major sink representing 25 to 38% (or 85 to 138 kg ha(-1) N) of the total input N (310 to 349 kg ha(-1) N). The crop residues left in the field after tuber harvest represented a significant amount of N (64 to 110 kg ha(-1) N) and posed potential for indirect leaching loss of N upon their mineralization and the absence of subsequent cover crops. Typically, two months of fallow period exits between harvest of tubers and planting of the fall row crop (silage corn). The fallow period is characterized by summer rains which pose a threat to N released from rapidly mineralizing potato vines. Strategies to reduce N loading into the groundwater from potato production must focus on development and adoption of best management practices aimed on reducing direct as well as indirect N leaching losses. PMID:25635904

  5. Usefulness of Molecular Markers to Screen for PVY Resistance (Ryadg gene) in Potatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato yield, quality and tuber seed production are seriously limited by Potato virus Y (PVY Potyvirus). Artificial inoculation under controlled conditions followed by DAS-ELISA is commonly used to screen for PVY resistance, but this method is very tedious and time consuming prohibiting the screenin...

  6. Production of ω-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids From Cull Potato Using an Algae Culture Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Zhanyou; Hu, Bo; Liu, Yan; Frear, Craig; Wen, Zhiyou; Chen, Shulin

    Algal cultivation for converting cull potato to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was studied. Schizochytrium limacinum SR21 was selected as the better producing strain, compared with Thraustochytrium aureum because of higher cell density and DHA content. Used as both carbon and nitrogen source, an optimal ratio of hydrolyzed potato broth in the culture medium was determined as 50%, with which the highest production of 21.7 g/L dry algae biomass and 5.35 g/L DHA was obtained, with extra glucose supplemented. Repeat culture further improved the cell density but not fed batch culture, suggesting limited growth was most likely caused by metabolites inhibition.

  7. Using LANDSAT to provide potato production estimates to Columbia Basin farmers and processors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The estimation of potato yields in the Columbia basin is described. The fundamental objective is to provide CROPIX with working models of potato production. A two-pronged approach was used to yield estimation: (1) using simulation models, and (2) using purely empirical models. The simulation modeling approach used satellite observations to determine certain key dates in the development of the crop for each field identified as potatoes. In particular, these include planting dates, emergence dates, and harvest dates. These critical dates are fed into simulation models of crop growth and development to derive yield forecasts. Purely empirical models were developed to relate yield to some spectrally derived measure of crop development. Two empirical approaches are presented: one relates tuber yield to estimates of cumulative intercepted solar radiation, the other relates tuber yield to the integral under GVI (Global Vegetation Index) curve.

  8. Potato production systems in Maine: geospatial assessments of agri-environmental indicators

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sustainability of Maine potato production systems has been a major concern for at least the past 35 years following release of a detailed soil loss investigation conducted in Aroostook County that indicated close to 80% of the most intensively farmed fields were shedding soil at rates of 6.7-190...

  9. A new index to assess nitrogen dynamics in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) production systems of Bolivia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bolivia is the poorest country in South America with over 80% of the rural population under the poverty line. Agricultural productivity is closely correlated with poverty levels across rural Bolivia. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is one of the most important crops for food security in Bolivia and th...

  10. TESTING AND EVALUATION OF AN ALCOHOL PRODUCTION FACILITY UTILIZING POTATOES AS A FEEDSTOCK

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study presents the sampling and analysis results for the characterization of liquid effluents and solid residuals from a culled potato feedstock process for the production of ethanol for use as fuel. The facility tested produces approximately 1 million gallons per year of et...

  11. Production of pullulan from raw potato starch hydrolysates by a new strain of Auerobasidium pullulans.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shengjun; Lu, Mingsheng; Chen, Jing; Fang, Yaowei; Wu, Leilei; Xu, Yan; Wang, Shujun

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, hydrolysis of potato starch with marine cold-adapted α-amylase and pullulan production from the hydrolysates by a new strain of Auerobasidium pullulans isolated from sea mud were conducted. The hydrolysis conditions were optimized as follows: reaction time 2h, pH 6.5, temperature 20°C, and α-amylase amount 12 U/g. Under these optimum hydrolysis conditions, the DE value of the potato starch hydrolysates reached to 49.56. The potato starch hydrolysates consist of glucose, maltose, isomaltose, maltotriose, and trace of other maltooligosaccharides with degree of polymerization ranged 4-7. The maximum production of pullulan at 96 h from the hydrolysate of potato starch was 36.17 g/L, which was higher than those obtained from glucose (22.07 g/L, p<0.05) and sucrose (31.42 g/L, p<0.05). Analysis of the high performance liquid chromatography of the hydrolysates of the pullulan product with pullulanase indicated that the main composition is maltotriose, thus confirming the pullulan structure of this pullulan product. PMID:26434522

  12. Overview of water-saving potato production research for the semi-arid areas of Northern China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the arid and semi-arid areas of Northern China, potato makes a greater contribution to solve food problems, even though,frequent droughts, general water shortages and poor irrigation management often lead to low yields and poor tuber quality. Therefore, water-saving potato production plays an imp...

  13. Use of biocontrol organisms and compost amendments for improved control of soilborne diseases and increased potato production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soilborne potato diseases are persistent problems in potato production and alternative management practices are needed. In this research, biocontrol agents (Bacillus subtilis GB03 and Rhizoctonia solani hypovirulent isolate Rhs1A1) and compost amendments (from different source material), were evalua...

  14. Compost, rapeseed rotation, and biocontrol agents significantly impact soil microbial communities in organic and conventional potato production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, three different sustainable disease management practices were evaluated in potato field trials at two sites under different management regimes (organic vs. conventional production) over three potato cropping seasons for their effects on soil microbial communities. Management factors a...

  15. Pectin engineering to modify product quality in potato.

    PubMed

    Ross, Heather A; Morris, Wayne L; Ducreux, Laurence J M; Hancock, Robert D; Verrall, Susan R; Morris, Jenny A; Tucker, Gregory A; Stewart, Derek; Hedley, Pete E; McDougall, Gordon J; Taylor, Mark A

    2011-10-01

    Although processed potato tuber texture is an important trait that influences consumer preference, a detailed understanding of tuber textural properties at the molecular level is lacking. Previous work has identified tuber pectin methyl esterase (PME) activity as a potential factor impacting on textural properties, and the expression of a gene encoding an isoform of PME (PEST1) was associated with cooked tuber textural properties. In this study, a transgenic approach was undertaken to investigate further the impact of the PEST1 gene. Antisense and over-expressing potato lines were generated. In over-expressing lines, tuber PME activity was enhanced by up to 2.3-fold; whereas in antisense lines, PME activity was decreased by up to 62%. PME isoform analysis indicated that the PEST1 gene encoded one isoform of PME. Analysis of cell walls from tubers from the over-expressing lines indicated that the changes in PME activity resulted in a decrease in pectin methylation. Analysis of processed tuber texture demonstrated that the reduced level of pectin methylation in the over-expressing transgenic lines was associated with a firmer processed texture. Thus, there is a clear link between PME activity, pectin methylation and processed tuber textural properties. PMID:21281424

  16. The effect of domestic preparation of some potato products on acrylamide content.

    PubMed

    Michalak, Joanna; Gujska, Elżbieta; Klepacka, Joanna

    2011-11-01

    The influence that food heating has on the concentration of acrylamide in home-cooked potato dishes prepared by high-temperature, such as pan-frying, deep-frying, roasting and microwave heating was analyzed. The experiment was performed with commercially available deep-frozen par-fried French fries and deep-frozen par-fried potato products other than French fries (cubes, wedges, noisettes, pancakes). Acrylamide was found in all deep-frozen par-fried French fries and other deep-frozen par-fried potato products before domestic preparation. The mean level of acrylamide content in all frozen potato products before preparation was found to be 322 μg/kg. Potato products were then prepared at 180 °C for 3 min and at 220 °C for 10 min. After domestic preparation (roasting, pan-frying, deep-frying and microwave heating) it was found that the level of acrylamide in all products increased. Acrylamide content in the analyzed samples significantly increased as the temperature and time of processing increased. The statistical analysis showed significant differences (P < 0.05) for acrylamide content as a function of food preparation. The level of acrylamide increased with the increased heating temperature and heating time. Additionally, the preparation method of roasting was significantly lower in acrylamide content (P < 0.05) than the preparation method of microwaving although both preparation methods used the same conditions (time and temperature). These results suggest that microwaving might be more favourable to the formation of acrylamide than conventional heating methods, such as roasting. PMID:21853292

  17. Improved Plant-based Production of E1 endoglucanase Using Potato: Expression Optimization and Tissue Targeting

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Ziyu; Hooker, Brian S.; Anderson, Daniel B.; Thomas, Steven R.

    2000-06-01

    Optimization of Acidothermus cellulolyticus endoglucanase (E1) gene expression in transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) was examined in this study, where the E1 coding sequence was transcribed under control of a leaf specific promoter (tomato RbcS-3C) or the Mac promoter (a hybrid promoter of mannopine synthase promoter and cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter enhancer region). Average E1 activity in leaf extracts of potato transformants, in which E1 protein was targeted by a chloroplast signal peptide and an apoplast signal peptide were much higher than those by an E1 native signal peptide and a vacuole signal peptide. E1 protein accumulated up to 2.6% of total leaf soluble protein, where E1 gene was under control of the RbcS-3C promoter, alfalfa mosaic virus 5-untranslated leader, and RbcS-2A signal peptide. E1 protein production, based on average E1 activity and E1 protein accumulation in leaf extracts, is higher in potato than those measured previously in transgenic tobacco bearing the same transgene constructs. Comparisons of E1 activity, protein accumulation, and relative mRNA levels showed that E1 expression under control of tomato RbcS-3C promoter was specifically localized in leaf tissues, while E1 gene was expressed in both leaf and tuber tissues under control of Mac promoter. This suggests dual-crop applications in which potato vines serve as enzyme production `bioreactors' while tubers are preserved for culinary applications.

  18. Macroscopic modelling of bioethanol production from potato peel wastes in batch cultures supplemented with inorganic nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Richelle, A; Ben Tahar, I; Hassouna, M; Bogaerts, Ph

    2015-09-01

    Inorganic nitrogen supplementation is commonly used to boost fermentation metabolism in yeast cultures. However, an excessive addition can induce an opposite effect. Hence, it is important to ensure that the ammonia supplemented to the culture leads to an improvement of the ethanol production while avoiding undesirable inhibition effects. To this end, a macroscopic model describing the influence of ammonia addition on Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolism during bioethanol production from potato peel wastes has been developed. The model parameters are obtained by a simplified identification methodology in five steps. It is validated with experimental data and successfully predicts the dynamics of growth, substrate consumption (ammonia and fermentable sugar sources) and bioethanol production, even in cross validation. The model is used to determine the optimal quantity of supplemented ammonia required for maximizing bioethanol production from potato peel wastes in batch cultures. PMID:26059818

  19. Microbial lipid production from potato processing wastewater using oleaginous filamentous fungi Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Muniraj, Iniya Kumar; Xiao, Liwen; Hu, Zhenhu; Zhan, Xinmin; Shi, Jianghong

    2013-06-15

    Use of potato processing wastewater for microbial lipid production by oleaginous filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae was studied with the purpose of recycling potato processing wastewater for biodiesel production. The wastewater contained high concentrations of solids, starch and nutrients. Sterilization of the potato processing wastewater resulted in a thick gelatinized medium, causing the fungi to grow slow. In order to overcome this problem, the wastewater was diluted with tap water at three dilution ratios (25%, 50% and 75% before fermentation). Dilution of the wastewater not only enhanced lipid production, starch utilization and amylase secretion but also COD and nutrient removal. The dilution ratio of 25% was found to be optimum for lipid production and the maximum lipid concentration obtained was 3.5 g/L. Lipid accumulation was influenced by amylase secretion, and the amylase activity was up to 53.5 IU/mL at 25% dilution. The results show that phosphate limitation may be the mechanism to stimulate the lipid accumulation. In addition to lipid production, removals of COD, total soluble nitrogen and total soluble phosphorus up to 91%, 98% and 97% were achieved, respectively. Microbial lipids of A. oryzae contained major fatty acids such as palmitic acid (11.6%), palmitolic acid (15.6%), stearic acid (19.3%), oleic acid (30.3%), linolenic acid (5.5%) and linoleic acid (6.5%) suggesting that the lipids be suitable for second generation biodiesel production. PMID:23597680

  20. Enhanced Bio-Ethanol Production from Industrial Potato Waste by Statistical Medium Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Izmirlioglu, Gulten; Demirci, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Industrial wastes are of great interest as a substrate in production of value-added products to reduce cost, while managing the waste economically and environmentally. Bio-ethanol production from industrial wastes has gained attention because of its abundance, availability, and rich carbon and nitrogen content. In this study, industrial potato waste was used as a carbon source and a medium was optimized for ethanol production by using statistical designs. The effect of various medium components on ethanol production was evaluated. Yeast extract, malt extract, and MgSO4·7H2O showed significantly positive effects, whereas KH2PO4 and CaCl2·2H2O had a significantly negative effect (p-value < 0.05). Using response surface methodology, a medium consisting of 40.4 g/L (dry basis) industrial waste potato, 50 g/L malt extract, and 4.84 g/L MgSO4·7H2O was found optimal and yielded 24.6 g/L ethanol at 30 °C, 150 rpm, and 48 h of fermentation. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that industrial potato waste can be used effectively to enhance bioethanol production. PMID:26501261

  1. Enhanced Bio-Ethanol Production from Industrial Potato Waste by Statistical Medium Optimization.

    PubMed

    Izmirlioglu, Gulten; Demirci, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Industrial wastes are of great interest as a substrate in production of value-added products to reduce cost, while managing the waste economically and environmentally. Bio-ethanol production from industrial wastes has gained attention because of its abundance, availability, and rich carbon and nitrogen content. In this study, industrial potato waste was used as a carbon source and a medium was optimized for ethanol production by using statistical designs. The effect of various medium components on ethanol production was evaluated. Yeast extract, malt extract, and MgSO₄·7H₂O showed significantly positive effects, whereas KH₂PO₄ and CaCl₂·2H₂O had a significantly negative effect (p-value<0.05). Using response surface methodology, a medium consisting of 40.4 g/L (dry basis) industrial waste potato, 50 g/L malt extract, and 4.84 g/L MgSO₄·7H₂O was found optimal and yielded 24.6 g/L ethanol at 30 °C, 150 rpm, and 48 h of fermentation. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that industrial potato waste can be used effectively to enhance bioethanol production. PMID:26501261

  2. Feasibility of Seed Production from Non-flowering Orchardgrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Non-flowering or sparse flowering orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) would greatly simplify management of intensive rotational grazing systems. Our objective was to quantify seed production on non-flowering orchardgrass clones selected in cold-winter climates, but grown for seed in mild-winter cl...

  3. Incidence, Distribution, and Genetic Variations of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter sp.' Associated with Zebra Chip of Potato in North America.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The presence of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (CLs) and ‘Candidatus Liberibacter psyllaurous’ (CLp) were confirmed in potato plants affected with zebra chip/zebra complex (ZC) disease throughout Texas potato production areas in 2005-2008, in seed tubers produced from Wyoming in 2007, and in...

  4. Comparison of ethanol production performance in 10 varieties of sweet potato at different growth stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Yanling; Fang, Yang; Zhang, Guohua; Zhou, Lingling; Zhao, Hai

    2012-10-01

    The performance in the ethanol production of 10 varieties of sweet potato was evaluated, and the consumption in raw materials, land occupation and fermentation waste residue in producing 1 ton of anhydrous ethanol were investigated. The comparative results between 10 varieties of sweet potato at 3 growth stages indicated that NS 007 and SS 19 were better feedstocks for ethanol production, exhibiting less feedstock consumption (6.19 and 7.59 tons/ton ethanol, respectively), the least land occupation (0.24 and 0.24 ha/ton ethanol, respectively), less fermentation waste residue (0.56 and 0.55 tons/ton ethanol, respectively), the highest level of ethanol output per unit area (4.17 and 4.17 ton/ha, respectively), and a lower viscosity of the fermentation culture (591 and 612 mPa S, respectively). The data above are average data. In most varieties, the ethanol output speed at day 130 was the highest. Therefore, NS 007 and SS 19 could be used for ethanol production and harvested after 130 days of growth from an economic point of view. In addition, the high content of fermentable sugars and low content of fiber in sweet potatoes are criteria for achieving low viscosity in ethanol fermentation cultures.

  5. Life Cycle Assessment for the Production of Oil Palm Seeds.

    PubMed

    Muhamad, Halimah; Ai, Tan Yew; Khairuddin, Nik Sasha Khatrina; Amiruddin, Mohd Din; May, Choo Yuen

    2014-12-01

    The oil palm seed production unit that generates germinated oil palm seeds is the first link in the palm oil supply chain, followed by the nursery to produce seedling, the plantation to produce fresh fruit bunches (FFB), the mill to produce crude palm oil (CPO) and palm kernel, the kernel crushers to produce crude palm kernel oil (CPKO), the refinery to produce refined palm oil (RPO) and finally the palm biodiesel plant to produce palm biodiesel. This assessment aims to investigate the life cycle assessment (LCA) of germinated oil palm seeds and the use of LCA to identify the stage/s in the production of germinated oil palm seeds that could contribute to the environmental load. The method for the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) is modelled using SimaPro version 7, (System for Integrated environMental Assessment of PROducts), an internationally established tool used by LCA practitioners. This software contains European and US databases on a number of materials in addition to a variety of European- and US-developed impact assessment methodologies. LCA was successfully conducted for five seed production units and it was found that the environmental impact for the production of germinated oil palm was not significant. The characterised results of the LCIA for the production of 1000 germinated oil palm seeds showed that fossil fuel was the major impact category followed by respiratory inorganics and climate change. PMID:27073598

  6. Life Cycle Assessment for the Production of Oil Palm Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Muhamad, Halimah; Ai, Tan Yew; Khairuddin, Nik Sasha Khatrina; Amiruddin, Mohd Din; May, Choo Yuen

    2014-01-01

    The oil palm seed production unit that generates germinated oil palm seeds is the first link in the palm oil supply chain, followed by the nursery to produce seedling, the plantation to produce fresh fruit bunches (FFB), the mill to produce crude palm oil (CPO) and palm kernel, the kernel crushers to produce crude palm kernel oil (CPKO), the refinery to produce refined palm oil (RPO) and finally the palm biodiesel plant to produce palm biodiesel. This assessment aims to investigate the life cycle assessment (LCA) of germinated oil palm seeds and the use of LCA to identify the stage/s in the production of germinated oil palm seeds that could contribute to the environmental load. The method for the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) is modelled using SimaPro version 7, (System for Integrated environMental Assessment of PROducts), an internationally established tool used by LCA practitioners. This software contains European and US databases on a number of materials in addition to a variety of European- and US-developed impact assessment methodologies. LCA was successfully conducted for five seed production units and it was found that the environmental impact for the production of germinated oil palm was not significant. The characterised results of the LCIA for the production of 1000 germinated oil palm seeds showed that fossil fuel was the major impact category followed by respiratory inorganics and climate change. PMID:27073598

  7. Pollen- and Seed-Mediated Transgene Flow in Commercial Cotton Seed Production Fields

    PubMed Central

    Heuberger, Shannon; Ellers-Kirk, Christa; Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Carrière, Yves

    2010-01-01

    Background Characterizing the spatial patterns of gene flow from transgenic crops is challenging, making it difficult to design containment strategies for markets that regulate the adventitious presence of transgenes. Insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton is planted on millions of hectares annually and is a potential source of transgene flow. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we monitored 15 non-Bt cotton (Gossypium hirsutum, L.) seed production fields (some transgenic for herbicide resistance, some not) for gene flow of the Bt cotton cry1Ac transgene. We investigated seed-mediated gene flow, which yields adventitious Bt cotton plants, and pollen-mediated gene flow, which generates outcrossed seeds. A spatially-explicit statistical analysis was used to quantify the effects of nearby Bt and non-Bt cotton fields at various spatial scales, along with the effects of pollinator abundance and adventitious Bt plants in fields, on pollen-mediated gene flow. Adventitious Bt cotton plants, resulting from seed bags and planting error, comprised over 15% of plants sampled from the edges of three seed production fields. In contrast, pollen-mediated gene flow affected less than 1% of the seed sampled from field edges. Variation in outcrossing was better explained by the area of Bt cotton fields within 750 m of the seed production fields than by the area of Bt cotton within larger or smaller spatial scales. Variation in outcrossing was also positively associated with the abundance of honey bees. Conclusions/Significance A comparison of statistical methods showed that our spatially-explicit analysis was more powerful for understanding the effects of surrounding fields than customary models based on distance. Given the low rates of pollen-mediated gene flow observed in this study, we conclude that careful planting and screening of seeds could be more important than field spacing for limiting gene flow. PMID:21152426

  8. Production of total reducing sugar (TRS) from acid hydrolysed potato peels by sonication and its optimization.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Saurav; Chakraborty, Sudip; Datta, Siddhartha; Drioli, Enrico; Bhattacharjee, Chiranjib

    2013-01-01

    Potato peel is a waste biomass which can be a source of raw material for biofuel production. This biomass contains a sufficient amount of total reducing sugar (TRS), which can be extracted and further treated with microbial pathways to produce bioethanol. The extraction of TRS from potato peels by hydrolysis in dilute sulphuric acid was investigated at different acid concentrations (0.50%, 0.75% and 1% w/v) and sonication was carried out to improve the extent of sugar extraction after hydrolysis. Response surface methodology based on central composite design was used to verify the experimental data and later applied for the optimization of the main important reaction variables including amplitude (60%, 80% and 100%), cycle (0.6, 0.8 and 1.0) and treatment time (5, 10 and 15 min) for the responses of TRS extraction by acid hydrolysis and later compared with the experimental data. PMID:24191439

  9. Silencing of vacuolar invertase and asparagine synthetase genes and its impact on acrylamide formation of fried potato products.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaobiao; Gong, Huiling; He, Qunyan; Zeng, Zixian; Busse, James S; Jin, Weiwei; Bethke, Paul C; Jiang, Jiming

    2016-02-01

    Acrylamide is produced in a wide variety of carbohydrate-rich foods during high-temperature cooking. Dietary acrylamide is a suspected human carcinogen, and health concerns related to dietary acrylamide have been raised worldwide. French fries and potato chips contribute a significant proportion to the average daily intake of acrylamide, especially in developed countries. One way to mitigate health concerns related to acrylamide is to develop potato cultivars that have reduced contents of the acrylamide precursors asparagine, glucose and fructose in tubers. We generated a large number of silencing lines of potato cultivar Russet Burbank by targeting the vacuolar invertase gene VInv and the asparagine synthetase genes StAS1 and StAS2 with a single RNA interference construct. The transcription levels of these three genes were correlated with reducing sugar (glucose and fructose) and asparagine content in tubers. Fried potato products from the best VInv/StAS1/StAS2-triple silencing lines contained only one-fifteenth of the acrylamide content of the controls. Interestingly, the extent of acrylamide reduction of the best triple silencing lines was similar to that of the best VInv-single silencing lines developed previously from the same potato cultivar Russet Burbank. These results show that an acrylamide mitigation strategy focused on developing potato cultivars with low reducing sugars is likely to be an effective and sufficient approach for minimizing the acrylamide-forming potential of French fry processing potatoes. PMID:26079224

  10. Pyrrolnitrin Production by Biological Control Agent Pseudomonas cepacia B37w in Culture and in Colonized Wounds of Potatoes

    PubMed Central

    Burkhead, Karen D.; Schisler, David A.; Slininger, Patricia J.

    1994-01-01

    Bacterial strain B37w (= NRRL B-14858), an isolate noteworthy because it inhibits the growth of the bioherbicide fungus Colletotrichum truncatum, was selected for further studies of bacterial antifungal properties. This isolate was identified as a Pseudomonas cepacia strain by performing carbohydrate utilization and fatty acid profile analyses, as well as other biochemical and physiological tests. Petri plate assays revealed that strain B37w exhibited antifungal activity against the potato dry rot fungus Fusarium sambucinum. Using bioautography, we correlated antifungal activity with production of a specific compound. Isolation from strain B37w and identification of the antifungal antibiotic pyrrolnitrin are described. A whole-potato assay revealed B37w's ability to colonize potato wounds. Wounded potatoes were inoculated with B37w, and pyrrolnitrin was detected in these potatoes by thin-layer chromatography-bioautography at a concentration on the order of nanograms per wound. We performed an assay in which we examined efficacy against F. sambucinum-incited potato dry rot and found that B37w inhibited disease development. This is the first report of P. cepacia or pyrrolnitrin activity against the economically important potato pathogen F. sambucinum. PMID:16349289

  11. Pyrrolnitrin Production by Biological Control Agent Pseudomonas cepacia B37w in Culture and in Colonized Wounds of Potatoes.

    PubMed

    Burkhead, K D; Schisler, D A; Slininger, P J

    1994-06-01

    Bacterial strain B37w (= NRRL B-14858), an isolate noteworthy because it inhibits the growth of the bioherbicide fungus Colletotrichum truncatum, was selected for further studies of bacterial antifungal properties. This isolate was identified as a Pseudomonas cepacia strain by performing carbohydrate utilization and fatty acid profile analyses, as well as other biochemical and physiological tests. Petri plate assays revealed that strain B37w exhibited antifungal activity against the potato dry rot fungus Fusarium sambucinum. Using bioautography, we correlated antifungal activity with production of a specific compound. Isolation from strain B37w and identification of the antifungal antibiotic pyrrolnitrin are described. A whole-potato assay revealed B37w's ability to colonize potato wounds. Wounded potatoes were inoculated with B37w, and pyrrolnitrin was detected in these potatoes by thin-layer chromatography-bioautography at a concentration on the order of nanograms per wound. We performed an assay in which we examined efficacy against F. sambucinum-incited potato dry rot and found that B37w inhibited disease development. This is the first report of P. cepacia or pyrrolnitrin activity against the economically important potato pathogen F. sambucinum. PMID:16349289

  12. Next-generation protein-rich potato expressing the seed protein gene AmA1 is a result of proteome rebalancing in transgenic tuber

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Subhra; Chakraborty, Niranjan; Agrawal, Lalit; Ghosh, Sudip; Narula, Kanika; Shekhar, Shubhendu; Naik, Prakash S.; Pande, P. C.; Chakrborti, Swarup Kumar; Datta, Asis

    2010-01-01

    Protein deficiency is the most crucial factor that affects physical growth and development and that increases morbidity and mortality especially in developing countries. Efforts have been made to improve protein quality and quantity in crop plants but with limited success. Here, we report the development of transgenic potatoes with enhanced nutritive value by tuber-specific expression of a seed protein, AmA1 (Amaranth Albumin 1), in seven genotypic backgrounds suitable for cultivation in different agro-climatic regions. Analyses of the transgenic tubers revealed up to 60% increase in total protein content. In addition, the concentrations of several essential amino acids were increased significantly in transgenic tubers, which are otherwise limited in potato. Moreover, the transgenics also exhibited enhanced photosynthetic activity with a concomitant increase in total biomass. These results are striking because this genetic manipulation also resulted in a moderate increase in tuber yield. The comparative protein profiling suggests that the proteome rebalancing might cause increased protein content in transgenic tubers. Furthermore, the data on field performance and safety evaluation indicate that the transgenic potatoes are suitable for commercial cultivation. In vitro and in vivo studies on experimental animals demonstrate that the transgenic tubers are also safe for human consumption. Altogether, these results emphasize that the expression of AmA1 is a potential strategy for the nutritional improvement of food crops. PMID:20855595

  13. Chlorogenic Acid Biosynthesis Appears Linked with Suberin Production in Potato Tuber (Solanum tuberosum).

    PubMed

    Valiñas, Matías Ariel; Lanteri, María Luciana; ten Have, Arjen; Andreu, Adriana Balbina

    2015-05-20

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is a good source of dietary antioxidants. Chlorogenic acid (CGA) and caffeic acid (CA) are the most abundant phenolic acid antioxidants in potato and are formed by the phenylpropanoid pathway. A number of CGA biosynthetic routes that involve hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA quinate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HQT) and/or hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA shikimate/quinate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HCT) have been proposed, but little is known about their path in potato. CA production requires a caffeoyl shikimate esterase (CSE), and CA serves as a substrate of lignin precursor ferulic acid via the action of caffeic/5-hydroxyferulic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT I). CGA is precursor of caffeoyl-CoA and, via caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase (CCoAOMT), of feruloyl-CoA. Feruloyl-CoA is required for lignin and suberin biosynthesis, crucial for tuber development. Here, metabolite and transcript levels of the mentioned and related enzymes, such as cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H), were determined in the flesh and skin of fresh and stored tubers. Metabolite and transcript levels were higher in skin than in flesh, irrespective of storage. CGA and CA production appear to occur via p-coumaroyl-CoA, using HQT and CSE, respectively. HCT is likely involved in CGA remobilization toward suberin. The strong correlation between CGA and CA, the correspondence with C4H, HQT, CCoAOMT2, and CSE, and the negative correlation of HCT and COMT I in potato tubers suggest a major flux toward suberin. PMID:25921651

  14. Integrated utilization of red radish seeds for the efficient production of seed oil and sulforaphene.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Zhou, Xing; Fu, Min

    2016-02-01

    Supercritical CO2 was used to obtain seed oil from red radish seeds. The influence of pressure, temperature, CO2 flow rate and time on extraction yield of oil were investigated in detail. The maximum extraction yield of oil was 92.07 ± 0.76% at the optimal extraction conditions. The physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition of oil indicated that the seed oil can be used as a dietary oil. Meanwhile, the high purity sulforaphene (96.84 ± 0.17%) was separated by solvent extraction coupled with preparative high performance liquid chromatography from red radish seed meal. The initial pH, R, extraction temperature and extraction time for each cycle had a considerable influence both on the extraction yield and purity of sulforaphene of crude product. The extraction of oil was directly responsible for an increase of 18.32% in the yield of sulforaphene. PMID:26304382

  15. Emerging diversity in Potato virus Y poses new challenges for the U.S. potato industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Until recently tobacco and potato tuber necrotic strains of Potato virus Y (PVY) were considered to be absent from the U.S., and seed certification programs were able to limit PVY incidence in seed potatoes. PVY has become more problematic in recent years and beginning in 2002, necrotic strains of P...

  16. Synthesis of the aggregation pheromone of the Colorado potato beetle from its degradation product.

    PubMed

    Wacławczyk-Biedroń, Weronika; Frąckowiak-Wojtasek, Bożena; Strub, Daniel; Rzechak, Magdalena; Wojtasek, Hubert

    2015-09-01

    Incubation of the Colorado potato beetle aggregation pheromone, (S)-1,3-dihydroxy-3,7-dimethyl-6-octen-2-one, with antennal or leg extracts from this beetle gave 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one as the major product. This ketone was used as a substrate in a stereoselective synthesis of the pheromone. It was attached to the butanediacetal of glycolic acid with good stereoselectivity and the desired isomer was further enriched by purification of the product of this reaction on silica gel. PMID:26169127

  17. Traditional Potato Production Beyond the Arctic Circle in Alaska, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The role of traditional agricultural production is receiving renewed attention, especially in circumpolar environments facing challenges and opportunities associated to climate change. Issues such as food security, biodiversity, natural resources preservation, and traditional farming are receiving t...

  18. Testing and evaluation of an alcohol production facility utilizing potatoes as a feedstock. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kuby, W.; Nackord, S.; Wyss, W.

    1984-05-01

    This study presents the sampling and analysis results for the characterization of liquid effluents and solid residuals from a culled potato feedstock process for the production of ethanol for use as fuel. The facility tested produces approximately 1 million gallons per year of ethanol and is located in eastern Idaho. Liquid and solid samples were taken throughout the process from the following locations: sluice/flume water, chopper product, makeup water, cooker product, fermenter product, beer tank, stillage, interim and final product, washwater, fuel oil, bath and 'Sparkle' bath. Analytical results for the ethanol plant effluents include: ethanol and sugar content, conventional parameters, metals, cyanide, phenols, nutrients, oil and grease, priority pollutant organics, and selected pesticides. The most significant characteristics of concern were the BOD and COD levels.

  19. Preparation of protein concentrates from whey and seed products

    SciTech Connect

    Saunders, R.M.; Kohler, G.O.

    1980-01-01

    Whey is mixed with a seed product (e.g., cereal, legumes, oil seeds, flour, etc.) and the pH of the mixture adjusted to 9-10. The resultant mixture is treated to separate a juice from the fibrous residue; in a preferred embodiment of the subsequent process, a protein concentrate is recovered from the juice by adding an acid to it to adjust the pH to 3-4 and subsequently adding sodium hexametaphosphate in an amount sufficient to precipitate the protein product. After adjustment of the pH to 7, a protein concentrate may be obtained by drying the alkaline extract.

  20. Indirect Effects of Field Management on Pollination Service and Seed Set in Hybrid Onion Seed Production.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Sandra; Long, Rachael; Williams, Neal

    2015-12-01

    Pollination in crops, as in native ecosystems, is a stepwise process that can be disrupted at any stage. Healthy pollinator populations are critical for adequate visitation, but pollination still might fail if crop management interferes with the attraction and retention of pollinators. Farmers must balance the direct benefits of applying insecticide and managing irrigation rates against their potential to indirectly interfere with the pollination process. We investigated these issues in hybrid onion seed production, where previous research has shown that high insecticide use reduces pollinator attraction. We conducted field surveys of soil moisture, nectar production, pollinator visitation, pollen-stigma interactions, and seed set at multiple commercial fields across 2 yr. We then examined how management actions, such as irrigation rate (approximated by soil moisture), or insecticide use could affect the pollination process. Onions produced maximum nectar at intermediate soil moisture, and high nectar production attracted more pollinators. Insecticide use weakly affected pollinator visitation, but when applied close to bloom reduced pollen germination and pollen tube growth. Ultimately, neither soil moisture nor insecticide use directly affected seed set, but the high correlation between pollinator visitation and seed set suggests that crop management will ultimately affect yields via indirect effects on the pollination process. PMID:26470371

  1. Efficient ethanol production from potato and corn processing industry waste using E. coli engineered to express Vitreoscilla haemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Sumer, Fatma; Stark, Benjamin C; Yesilcimen Akbas, Meltem

    2015-01-01

    Engineering of ethanologenic E. coli to express the haemoglobin (VHb) from the bacterium Vitreoscilla has been shown to enhance ethanol production by fermentation of pure sugars, sugars from hydrolysis of lignocellulose, components of whey, and sugars from wastewater produced during potato processing. Here, these studies were extended to see whether the same effect could be seen when a mixture of waste materials from processing of potatoes and corn into potato and corn chips were used as sugar sources. Consistent increases in ethanol production coincident with VHb expression were seen in shake flasks at both low aeration and high aeration conditions. The ethanol increases were due almost entirely to increases in the amount of ethanol produced per unit of cell mass. The VHb strategy for increasing fermentation to ethanol (and perhaps other valuable fermentation products) may be of general use, particularly regarding conversion of otherwise discarded materials into valuable commodities. PMID:25766084

  2. In Situ Prebiotics for Weaning Piglets: In Vitro Production and Fermentation of Potato Galacto-Rhamnogalacturonan

    PubMed Central

    Strube, Mikael Lenz; Ravn, Helle Christine; Ingerslev, Hans-Christian; Meyer, Anne Strunge

    2014-01-01

    Postweaning diarrhea (PWD) in pigs is a leading cause of economic loss in pork production worldwide. The current practice of using antibiotics and zinc to treat PWD is unsustainable due to the potential of antibiotic resistance and ecological disturbance, and novel methods are required. In this study, an in vitro model was used to test the possibility of producing prebiotic fiber in situ in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of the piglet and the prebiotic activity of the resulting fiber in the terminal ileum. Soluble fiber was successfully produced from potato pulp, an industrial waste product, with the minimal enzyme dose in a simulated upper GI tract model extracting 26.9% of the initial dry matter. The fiber was rich in galactose and galacturonic acid and was fermented at 2.5, 5, or 10 g/liter in a glucose-free medium inoculated with the gut contents of piglet terminal ileum. Fermentations of 5 g/liter inulin or 5 g/liter of a purified potato fiber were used as controls. The fibers showed high fermentability, evident by a dose-dependent drop in pH and an increase in the organic acid content, with lactate in particular being increased. Deep sequencing showed a significant increase in the numbers of Lactobacillus and Veillonella organisms and an insignificant increase in the numbers of Clostridium organisms as well as a decrease in the numbers of Streptococcus organisms. Multivariate analysis showed clustering of the treatment groups, with the group treated with purified potato fiber being clearly separated from the other groups, as the microbiota composition was 60% Lactobacillus and almost free of Clostridium. For animal studies, a dosage corresponding to the 5-g/liter treatment is suggested. PMID:25527557

  3. In situ prebiotics for weaning piglets: in vitro production and fermentation of potato galacto-rhamnogalacturonan.

    PubMed

    Strube, Mikael Lenz; Ravn, Helle Christine; Ingerslev, Hans-Christian; Meyer, Anne Strunge; Boye, Mette

    2015-03-01

    Postweaning diarrhea (PWD) in pigs is a leading cause of economic loss in pork production worldwide. The current practice of using antibiotics and zinc to treat PWD is unsustainable due to the potential of antibiotic resistance and ecological disturbance, and novel methods are required. In this study, an in vitro model was used to test the possibility of producing prebiotic fiber in situ in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of the piglet and the prebiotic activity of the resulting fiber in the terminal ileum. Soluble fiber was successfully produced from potato pulp, an industrial waste product, with the minimal enzyme dose in a simulated upper GI tract model extracting 26.9% of the initial dry matter. The fiber was rich in galactose and galacturonic acid and was fermented at 2.5, 5, or 10 g/liter in a glucose-free medium inoculated with the gut contents of piglet terminal ileum. Fermentations of 5 g/liter inulin or 5 g/liter of a purified potato fiber were used as controls. The fibers showed high fermentability, evident by a dose-dependent drop in pH and an increase in the organic acid content, with lactate in particular being increased. Deep sequencing showed a significant increase in the numbers of Lactobacillus and Veillonella organisms and an insignificant increase in the numbers of Clostridium organisms as well as a decrease in the numbers of Streptococcus organisms. Multivariate analysis showed clustering of the treatment groups, with the group treated with purified potato fiber being clearly separated from the other groups, as the microbiota composition was 60% Lactobacillus and almost free of Clostridium. For animal studies, a dosage corresponding to the 5-g/liter treatment is suggested. PMID:25527557

  4. Potato pulp: microbiological characterization, physical modification, and application of this agricultural waste product.

    PubMed

    Mayer, F; Hillebrandt, J O

    1997-10-01

    Potato pulp, one of the agricultural waste products obtained in high quantities during starch production, contains starch, cellulose, hemicelluloses, pectin, proteins, free amino acids and salts. It exhibits physical and physicochemical properties of a typical colloid. It is mainly used, in a dried and pelleted form, as cattle feed. Its autochthonic microbial flora (bacteria, fungi) was identified and studied with a view towards the degradative potential of the microorganisms and ways of conserving the pulp for subsequent technical applications; 33 isolates (28 bacteria, 4 fungi, 1 yeast), belonging to 15 genera were characterized. Biological conservation was possible at very low oxygen pressure, brought about by the autochthonic anaerobic microorganisms causing acidification. Chemical conservation was achieved with sorbic acid. By treatment with hot water vapour under pressure (autoclaving), followed by a pressure release procedure, intact cells in the pulp (both potato cells and microorganisms, not spores) were destroyed, and their contents and wall fragments were set free. This process resulted in low drying costs and was a prerequisite for the production of a powder that can be used as glue or as animal feed. PMID:9390450

  5. Potato Production as Affected by Crop Parameters and Meteoro Logical Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, André B.; Villa Nova, Nilson A.; Pereira, Antonio R.

    Meteorological elements directly influence crop potential productivity, regulating its transpiration, photosynthesis, and respiration processes in such a way as to control the growth and development of the plants throughout their physiological mechanisms at a given site. The interaction of the meteorological factors with crop responses is complex and has been the target of attention of many researchers from all over the world. There is currently a great deal of interest in estimating crop productivity as a function of climate by means of different crop weather models in order to help growers choose planting locations and timing to produce high yields with good tuber quality under site-specific atmospheric conditions. In this manuscript an agrometeorological model based on maximum carbon dioxide assimilation rates for C3 plants, fraction of photosynthetically active radiation, air temperature, photoperiod duration, and crop parameters is assessed as to its performance under tropical conditions. Crop parameters include leaf areaand harvest indexes, dry matter content of potato tubers, and crop cycles to estimate potato potential yields. Productivity obtained with the cultivar Itararé, grown with adequate soil water supply conditions at four different sites in the State of São Paulo (Itararé, Piracicaba, TatuÍ, and São Manuel), Brazil, were used to test the model. The results showed thatthe agrometeorological model tested under the climatic conditions of the State of São Paulo in general underestimated irrigated potato yield by less than 10%.This justifies the recommendation to test the performance of the model in study in other climaticregions for different crops and genotypes under optimal irrigationconditions in further scientific investigations. We reached the conclusion that the agrometeorological model taking into account information on leaf area index, photoperiod duration, photosynthetically active radiation and air temperature is feasible to estimate

  6. 7 CFR 201.72 - Production of all classes of certified seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production of all classes of certified seed. 201.72... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Certified Seed § 201.72 Production of all classes of certified...

  7. 7 CFR 201.72 - Production of all classes of certified seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Production of all classes of certified seed. 201.72... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Certified Seed § 201.72 Production of all classes of certified...

  8. 7 CFR 201.72 - Production of all classes of certified seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Production of all classes of certified seed. 201.72... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Certified Seed § 201.72 Production of all classes of certified...

  9. 7 CFR 201.72 - Production of all classes of certified seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Production of all classes of certified seed. 201.72... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Certified Seed § 201.72 Production of all classes of certified...

  10. 7 CFR 201.72 - Production of all classes of certified seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Production of all classes of certified seed. 201.72... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Certified Seed § 201.72 Production of all classes of certified...

  11. An evaluation of cassava, sweet potato and field corn as potential carbohydrate sources for bioethanol production in Alabama and Maryland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The recent emphasis on corn production to meet the increasing demand for bioethanol has resulted in trepidation regarding the sustainability of the global food supply. To assess the potential of alternative crops as sources of bioethanol production, we grew sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) and cassav...

  12. Incidence, transmission and molecular characterization of Potato virus S from selected potato cultivars in Washington State

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Washington State Potato Seed Lot Trials annually evaluates seed lots from several states for the incidence of various potato viruses and other growth compromising factors. During the 2005 and 2006 seasons, many plants within seed lots of cv. Defender displayed necrotic lesions, leaf malformati...

  13. Seed Production from Non-flowering Orchardgrass: Proof of Concept

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Non-flowering or sparse flowering orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) would greatly simplify management of intensive rotational grazing systems in which flowering stems are an impediment to efficient pasture utilization. Our objective was to quantify seed production on non-flowering orchardgrass c...

  14. Cultural practices in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) affect weed seed production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Billions of dollars are lost annually due to weeds or weed control, but weeds persist. Successful weed management systems must reduce weed populations. The objectives of this research were to 1) determine if cotton row spacing has an impact on weed growth and seed production and 2) evaluate the infl...

  15. Competencies Needed by Seed Production and Distribution Company Employees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Charles Kendall

    To determine competencies needed by employees in the seed production and distribution industry, a questionnaire containing 49 competencies was compiled with the assistance of specialists and mailed to 100 company managers and 200 nonmanagerial employees. Returns from the 200 usable questionnaires indicate that the competencies needed most by…

  16. Allium acuminatum Seed Production: First Look at Cultural Parameters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is a report on the first year data for a two year project assessing seed production parameters for the native forb Allium acuminatum. As a component of greater sage-grouse and Southern Idaho ground squirrel habitat, Allium acuminatum Hook. (Taper-tip onion) has been targeted for use in restor...

  17. Adaptation of SUBSTOR for controlled-environment potato production with elevated carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Fleisher, D H; Cavazzoni, J; Giacomelli, G A; Ting, K C

    2003-01-01

    The SUBSTOR crop growth model was adapted for controlled-environment hydroponic production of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Norland) under elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration. Adaptations included adjustment of input files to account for cultural differences between the field and controlled environments, calibration of genetic coefficients, and adjustment of crop parameters including radiation use efficiency. Source code modifications were also performed to account for the absorption of light reflected from the surface below the crop canopy, an increased leaf senescence rate, a carbon (mass) balance to the model, and to modify the response of crop growth rate to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration. Adaptations were primarily based on growth and phenological data obtained from growth chamber experiments at Rutgers University (New Brunswick, N.J.) and from the modeling literature. Modified-SUBSTOR predictions were compared with data from Kennedy Space Center's Biomass Production Chamber for verification. Results show that, with further development, modified-SUBSTOR will be a useful tool for analysis and optimization of potato growth in controlled environments. PMID:14552353

  18. Adaptation of SUBSTOR for controlled-environment potato production with elevated carbon dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleisher, D. H.; Cavazzoni, J.; Giacomelli, G. A.; Ting, K. C.; Janes, H. W. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    The SUBSTOR crop growth model was adapted for controlled-environment hydroponic production of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Norland) under elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration. Adaptations included adjustment of input files to account for cultural differences between the field and controlled environments, calibration of genetic coefficients, and adjustment of crop parameters including radiation use efficiency. Source code modifications were also performed to account for the absorption of light reflected from the surface below the crop canopy, an increased leaf senescence rate, a carbon (mass) balance to the model, and to modify the response of crop growth rate to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration. Adaptations were primarily based on growth and phenological data obtained from growth chamber experiments at Rutgers University (New Brunswick, N.J.) and from the modeling literature. Modified-SUBSTOR predictions were compared with data from Kennedy Space Center's Biomass Production Chamber for verification. Results show that, with further development, modified-SUBSTOR will be a useful tool for analysis and optimization of potato growth in controlled environments.

  19. Effects of water potential on mycelial growth, sclerotial production, and germination of Rhizoctonia solani from potato.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Faye; McQuilken, Mark P; Bain, Ruairidh A

    2006-06-01

    The effects of osmotic and matric potential on mycelial growth, sclerotial production and germination of isolates of Rhizoctonia solani [anastomosis groups (AGs) 2-1 and 3] from potato were studied on potato dextrose agar (PDA) adjusted osmotically with sodium chloride, potassium chloride, glycerol, and matrically with polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000. All isolates from AGs 2-1 and AG-3 exhibited fastest mycelial growth on unamended PDA (-0.4MPa), and growth generally declined with decreasing osmotic and matric potentials. Growth ceased between -3.5 and -4.0MPa on osmotically adjusted media, and at -2.0MPa on matrically adjusted media, with slight differences between isolates and osmotica. Sclerotium yield declined with decreasing osmotic potential, and formation by AG 2-1 and AG-3 isolates ceased between -1.5 and -3.0MPa and -2.5 and -3.5MPa, respectively. On matrically adjusted media, sclerotial formation by AG 2-1 isolates ceased at -0.8MPa, whereas formation by AG-3 isolates ceased at the lower matric potential of -1.5MPa. Sclerotial germination also declined with decreasing osmotic and matric potential, with total inhibition occurring over the range -3.0 to -4.0MPa on osmotically adjusted media, and at -2.0MPa on matrically adjusted media. In soil, mycelial growth and sclerotial germination of AG-3 isolates declined with decreasing total water potential, with a minimum potential of -6.3MPa permitting both growth and germination. The relevance of these results to the behaviour of R. solani AGs in soil and their pathogenicity on potato is discussed. PMID:16765034

  20. Anaerobic digestion of pre-fermented potato peel wastes for methane production.

    PubMed

    Liang, Shaobo; McDonald, Armando G

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of anaerobic digestion (AD) of potato peel waste (PPW) and its lactic acid fermentation residue (PPW-FR) for methane (CH4) production. The experimental results showed that about 60-70% CH4 content was obtained. The digester using PPW-FR as feedstock exhibited better performance and produced a highest cumulative CH4 production of 273 L/kg VS fed, followed by 239 L/kg VS fed using PPW under the same conditions. However, with increasing solid loadings of PPW-FR feedstock from 6.4% to 9.1%, the CH4 production was inhibited. The generation, accumulation, and degradation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) in digesters were also investigated in this research. PMID:26421481

  1. Ketocarotenoid Production in Soybean Seeds through Metabolic Engineering.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Emily C; LaFayette, Peter R; Ortega, María A; Joyce, Blake L; Kopsell, Dean A; Parrott, Wayne A

    2015-01-01

    The pink or red ketocarotenoids, canthaxanthin and astaxanthin, are used as feed additives in the poultry and aquaculture industries as a source of egg yolk and flesh pigmentation, as farmed animals do not have access to the carotenoid sources of their wild counterparts. Because soybean is already an important component in animal feed, production of these carotenoids in soybean could be a cost-effective means of delivery. In order to characterize the ability of soybean seed to produce carotenoids, soybean cv. Jack was transformed with the crtB gene from Pantoea ananatis, which codes for phytoene synthase, an enzyme which catalyzes the first committed step in the carotenoid pathway. The crtB gene was engineered together in combinations with ketolase genes (crtW from Brevundimonas sp. strain SD212 and bkt1 from Haematococcus pluvialis) to produce ketocarotenoids; all genes were placed under the control of seed-specific promoters. HPLC results showed that canthaxanthin is present in the transgenic seeds at levels up to 52 μg/g dry weight. Transgenic seeds also accumulated other compounds in the carotenoid pathway, such as astaxanthin, lutein, β-carotene, phytoene, α-carotene, lycopene, and β-cryptoxanthin, whereas lutein was the only one of these detected in non-transgenic seeds. The accumulation of astaxanthin, which requires a β-carotene hydroxylase in addition to a β-carotene ketolase, in the transgenic seeds suggests that an endogenous soybean enzyme is able to work in combination with the ketolase transgene. Soybean seeds that accumulate ketocarotenoids could potentially be used in animal feed to reduce or eliminate the need for the costly addition of these compounds. PMID:26376481

  2. Ketocarotenoid Production in Soybean Seeds through Metabolic Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Emily C.; LaFayette, Peter R.; Ortega, María A.; Joyce, Blake L.; Kopsell, Dean A.; Parrott, Wayne A.

    2015-01-01

    The pink or red ketocarotenoids, canthaxanthin and astaxanthin, are used as feed additives in the poultry and aquaculture industries as a source of egg yolk and flesh pigmentation, as farmed animals do not have access to the carotenoid sources of their wild counterparts. Because soybean is already an important component in animal feed, production of these carotenoids in soybean could be a cost-effective means of delivery. In order to characterize the ability of soybean seed to produce carotenoids, soybean cv. Jack was transformed with the crtB gene from Pantoea ananatis, which codes for phytoene synthase, an enzyme which catalyzes the first committed step in the carotenoid pathway. The crtB gene was engineered together in combinations with ketolase genes (crtW from Brevundimonas sp. strain SD212 and bkt1 from Haematococcus pluvialis) to produce ketocarotenoids; all genes were placed under the control of seed-specific promoters. HPLC results showed that canthaxanthin is present in the transgenic seeds at levels up to 52 μg/g dry weight. Transgenic seeds also accumulated other compounds in the carotenoid pathway, such as astaxanthin, lutein, β-carotene, phytoene, α-carotene, lycopene, and β-cryptoxanthin, whereas lutein was the only one of these detected in non-transgenic seeds. The accumulation of astaxanthin, which requires a β-carotene hydroxylase in addition to a β-carotene ketolase, in the transgenic seeds suggests that an endogenous soybean enzyme is able to work in combination with the ketolase transgene. Soybean seeds that accumulate ketocarotenoids could potentially be used in animal feed to reduce or eliminate the need for the costly addition of these compounds. PMID:26376481

  3. 21 CFR 102.41 - Potato chips made from dried potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potato chips made from dried potatoes. 102.41... Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.41 Potato chips made from dried potatoes. (a) The common or usual name of the food product that resembles and is of the same composition as potato chips, except that it...

  4. 21 CFR 102.41 - Potato chips made from dried potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potato chips made from dried potatoes. 102.41... Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.41 Potato chips made from dried potatoes. (a) The common or usual name of the food product that resembles and is of the same composition as potato chips, except that it...

  5. 21 CFR 102.41 - Potato chips made from dried potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potato chips made from dried potatoes. 102.41... Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.41 Potato chips made from dried potatoes. (a) The common or usual name of the food product that resembles and is of the same composition as potato chips, except that it...

  6. 21 CFR 102.41 - Potato chips made from dried potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potato chips made from dried potatoes. 102.41... Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.41 Potato chips made from dried potatoes. (a) The common or usual name of the food product that resembles and is of the same composition as potato chips, except that it...

  7. 21 CFR 102.41 - Potato chips made from dried potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potato chips made from dried potatoes. 102.41... Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.41 Potato chips made from dried potatoes. (a) The common or usual name of the food product that resembles and is of the same composition as potato chips, except that it...

  8. Achieving sustainable cultivation of potatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Every phase of the production cycle impacts the sustainability of potato. Potato physiology determines how genetically encoded developmental attributes interact with local environmental conditions as modified through agricultural practice to produce a perishable crop. In this chapter we highlight ho...

  9. Estimating seed production of common plants in seasonally flooded wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laubhan, Murray K.; Fredrickson, Leigh H.

    1992-01-01

    We developed a technique to quickly estimate seed production of common moist-soil plants because previously reported methods were too time consuming to be of value to waterfowl resource managers. Eleven regression equations were developed for 13 plant species in the upper Mississippi Alluvial Valley and the Rio Grande Valley, New Mexico. Estimated time to collect a sample was 1.5 minutes. Easily measured vegetation characteristics such as inflorescence number, inflorescence length, and plant height were used as independent variables to estimate seed mass of known mass samples. Coefficients of determination (R2) ranged from 0.79 for rice flatsedge (Cyperus iria) to 0.96 for smartweeds (Polygonum spp.). The accuracy and precision of equations tested using independent data indicate that the technique can be used to detect changes in seed mass of moist-soil plants in seasonally flooded impoundments. Because of the small sample area per plot used (0.0625 m2) and changes in the density of plants within an impoundment, we recommend that as many samples as economically feasible be collected to reliably estimate seed production.

  10. Seed Production Affects Maternal Growth and Senescence in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Wuest, Samuel Elias; Philipp, Matthias Anton; Guthörl, Daniela; Schmid, Bernhard; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2016-05-01

    Correlative control (influence of one organ over another organ) of seeds over maternal growth is one of the most obvious phenotypic expressions of the trade-off between growth and reproduction. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we characterize the physiological and molecular effects of correlative inhibition by seeds on Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) inflorescences, i.e. global proliferative arrest (GPA) during which all maternal growth ceases upon the production of a given number of seeds. We observed transcriptional responses to growth- and branching-inhibitory hormones, and low mitotic activity in meristems upon GPA, but found that meristems retain their identity and proliferative potential. In shoot tissues, we detected the induction of stress- and senescence-related gene expression upon fruit production and GPA, and a drop in chlorophyll levels, suggestive of altered source-sink relationships between vegetative shoot and reproductive tissues. Levels of shoot reactive oxygen species, however, strongly decreased upon GPA, a phenomenon that is associated with bud dormancy in some perennials. Indeed, gene expression changes in arrested apical inflorescences after fruit removal resembled changes observed in axillary buds following release from apical dominance. This suggests that GPA represents a form of bud dormancy, and that dominance is gradually transferred from growing inflorescences to maturing seeds, allowing offspring control over maternal resources, simultaneously restricting offspring number. This would provide a mechanistic explanation for the constraint between offspring quality and quantity. PMID:27009281

  11. Characterization of volatile production during storage of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The duration that seeds stay vigorous during storage is difficult to predict but critical to seed industry and conservation communities. Production of volatile compounds from lettuce seeds during storage was investigated as a non-invasive and early detection method of seed aging rates. Over thirty...

  12. Identification of factors most important for ammonia emission from fertilized soils for potato production using principle component analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of this study was to identify the primary factors affecting ammonia (NH3) emission from fertilized soils in potato production fields using principal component analysis (PCA). A dataset consisting of 14 different variables and 1800 NH3 emission rates was geometrically classified for analysi...

  13. Climate, water management, and land use: Estimating potential potato and corn production in the U.S. northeastern seaboard region

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potential production capacity of the United States Northeastern Seaboard Region (NESR) was assessed using corn and potato as representative commodities. Geospatial data regarding historical climate, land use, soils, and management were coupled with a weather generator, the crop models SPUDSIM a...

  14. Use of disease-suppressive Brassica rotation crops in potato production: overview of 10 years of field trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Disease-suppressive Brassica rotation crops have shown promise for management of soilborne diseases and enhanced yield in a variety of crop production systems. Over the last 10 years, numerous field trials have focused on how to best use Brassica crops in potato rotations in the Northeast, including...

  15. Detection of the Bacterial Potato Pathogens Pectobacterium and Dickeya spp. Using Conventional and Real-Time PCR.

    PubMed

    Humphris, Sonia N; Cahill, Greig; Elphinstone, John G; Kelly, Rachel; Parkinson, Neil M; Pritchard, Leighton; Toth, Ian K; Saddler, Gerry S

    2015-01-01

    Blackleg and soft rot of potato, caused by Pectobacterium and Dickeya spp., are major production constraints in many potato-growing regions of the world. Despite advances in our understanding of the causative organisms, disease epidemiology, and control, blackleg remains the principal cause of down-grading and rejection of potato seed in classification schemes across Northern Europe and many other parts of the world. Although symptom recognition is relatively straightforward and is applied universally in seed classification schemes, attributing disease to a specific organism is problematic and can only be achieved through the use of diagnostics. Similarly as disease spread is largely through the movement of asymptomatically infected seed tubers and, possibly in the case of Dickeya spp., irrigation waters, accurate and sensitive diagnostics are a prerequisite for detection. This chapter describes the diagnostic pathway that can be applied to identify the principal potato pathogens within the genera Pectobacterium and Dickeya. PMID:25981242

  16. Screening, separating, and completely recovering polyphenol oxidases and other biochemicals from sweet potato wastewater in starch production.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shi; Zhang, Yi-Feng; Zeng, Zhao-Qin; Lin, Jia; Zhang, Ya-Wen; Ni, He; Li, Hai-Hang

    2015-02-01

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) has multiple functions, and the lack of commercially available enzyme sources limits its widespread application in various industries. An accurate PPO assay was developed by HPLC determination of the substrate oxidation. Resources screening indicated that sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) wastewater in starch production has high PPO activity. A procedure was developed for separately recovering PPO, β-amylase, sporamins, and small molecular nutrients (SMNs) from sweet potato wastewater. The wastewater was adjusted to pH 3.5 to precipitate PPO, and then adjusted to 50 % acetone to precipitate β-amylase and further to 80 % acetone to precipitate sporamins. The SMNs were obtained after acetone recovery. Purified powders of 4.3 × 10(5) units of PPO, 4.0 × 10(6) units of β-amylase, 8.70 g sporamins, and 20.2 g SMNs were obtained from the wastewater of 1 kg sweet potato. More than 50 million tons of sweet potato is used for starch production annually around the world. Through this simple procedure, huge amount of biochemical resources can be recovered from the wastewater, which greatly increases the economic value of the crop and saves the environment. PMID:25190667

  17. Managing deficit irrigation for potatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inadequate water availability, particularly at certain growth stages, has negative impact on the yield and quality of potato tubers. Tuber quality is important for processing potatoes to meet the marketability standards. The Pacific Northwest (PNW) of the US is a major potato production region of pr...

  18. The potato psyllid genome project

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato psyllid (Bactericera cockerelli) is a Hemipteran pest of solanaceous plants and limits potato and tomato production by the transmission of Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum. Genomic information on the potato psyllid is limited but is vital in developing appropriate management strategi...

  19. Solanum tuberosum (Potato)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato is the fourth most important food crop worldwide, with high value as a balanced and nutritious food. It is one of the world’s most productive crops. Wild potatoes are native from the southwestern United States to south-central Chile, with centers of species diversity in central Mexico and in ...

  20. 7 CFR 52.1842 - Product description of Layer or (Cluster) raisins with seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Product description of Layer or (Cluster) raisins with seeds. 52.1842 Section 52.1842 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL... Raisins 1 § 52.1842 Product description of Layer or (Cluster) raisins with seeds. Raisins with Seeds...

  1. 7 CFR 52.1842 - Product description of Layer or (Cluster) raisins with seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Product description of Layer or (Cluster) raisins with seeds. 52.1842 Section 52.1842 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL... Raisins 1 § 52.1842 Product description of Layer or (Cluster) raisins with seeds. Raisins with Seeds...

  2. 7 CFR 52.1842 - Product description of Layer or (Cluster) raisins with seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Product description of Layer or (Cluster) raisins with seeds. 52.1842 Section 52.1842 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL... Raisins 1 § 52.1842 Product description of Layer or (Cluster) raisins with seeds. Raisins with Seeds...

  3. Fertilizer management effects on nitrate leaching and indirect nitrous oxide emissions in irrigated potato production.

    PubMed

    Venterea, Rodney T; Hyatt, Charles R; Rosen, Carl J

    2011-01-01

    Potato ( L.) is a N-intensive crop, with high potential for nitrate (NO) leaching, which can contribute to both water contamination and indirect nitrous oxide (NO) emissions. Two approaches that have been considered for reducing N losses include conventional split application (CSA) of soluble fertilizers and single application of polymer-coated urea (PCU). The objectives of this study were to: (i) compare NO leaching using CSA and two PCUs (PCU-1 and PCU-2), which differed in their polymer formulations, and (ii) use measured NO leaching rates and published emissions factors to estimate indirect NO emissions. Averaged over three growing seasons (2007-2009), NO leaching rates were not significantly different among the three fertilizer treatments. Using previously reported direct NO emissions data from the same experiment, total direct plus indirect growing season NO emissions with PCU-1 were estimated to be 30 to 40% less than with CSA. However, PCU-1 also resulted in greater residual soil N after harvest in 2007 and greater soil-water NO in the spring following the 2008 growing season. These results provide evidence that single PCU applications for irrigated potato production do not increase growing season NO leaching compared with multiple split applications of soluble fertilizers, but have the potential to increase N losses after the growing season and into the following year. Estimates of indirect NO emissions ranged from 0.8 to 64% of direct emissions, depending on what value was assumed for the emission factor describing off-site conversion of NO to NO. Thus, our results also demonstrate how more robust models are needed to account for off-site conversion of NO to NO, since current emission factor models have an enormous degree of uncertainty. PMID:21712579

  4. Residual effects of fresh and composted dairy manure applications on potato production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato growers in Idaho and other dairy producing regions often grow potatoes on fields that have had a history of fresh and composted manure applications. Growers remain uncertain of the impacts that previous manure applications will have on tuber yield and quality, as well as diseases, physiologic...

  5. 7 CFR 947.134 - Establishment of list of manufacturers of potato products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Establishment of list of manufacturers of potato... AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU COUNTIES, CALIF., AND IN ALL COUNTIES IN OREGON, EXCEPT MALHEUR COUNTY Rules and Regulations Safeguards § 947.134 Establishment of list of manufacturers of...

  6. 7 CFR 947.134 - Establishment of list of manufacturers of potato products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Establishment of list of manufacturers of potato... AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU COUNTIES, CALIF., AND IN ALL COUNTIES IN OREGON, EXCEPT MALHEUR COUNTY Rules and Regulations Safeguards § 947.134 Establishment of list of manufacturers of...

  7. 7 CFR 947.134 - Establishment of list of manufacturers of potato products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Establishment of list of manufacturers of potato... AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU COUNTIES, CALIF., AND IN ALL COUNTIES IN OREGON, EXCEPT MALHEUR COUNTY Rules and Regulations Safeguards § 947.134 Establishment of list of manufacturers of...

  8. 7 CFR 947.134 - Establishment of list of manufacturers of potato products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Establishment of list of manufacturers of potato... AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU COUNTIES, CALIF., AND IN ALL COUNTIES IN OREGON, EXCEPT MALHEUR COUNTY Rules and Regulations Safeguards § 947.134 Establishment of list of manufacturers of...

  9. 7 CFR 947.134 - Establishment of list of manufacturers of potato products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishment of list of manufacturers of potato... AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU COUNTIES, CALIF., AND IN ALL COUNTIES IN OREGON, EXCEPT MALHEUR COUNTY Rules and Regulations Safeguards § 947.134 Establishment of list of manufacturers of...

  10. Stem end chip defect in tubers used for potato chip production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stem-end chip defect (SECD) is a serious tuber quality concern that affects chipping potatoes (Solanum tuberosum). SECD defect is characterized by dark-colored vascular tissues and adjacent cortical tissues at the tuber stem-end portion of potato chips after frying. Chips with SECD are unattractive ...

  11. Improving nutrient-use efficiency in Chinese potato production - experiences from the USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ABSTRACT Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is the fourth most important food crop in the world after corn, wheat, and rice. It is adapted to a wide range of growing conditions, producing high yields with a near-optimum balance of nutrients for human consumption. China is the world’s largest potato prod...

  12. Flumioxazin: A new tool for hairy nightshade control in potato production.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flumioxazin was tested at 53 g ai/ha as a tank mix partner for hairy nightshade (Solanum sarrachoides) control in potatoes near Aberdeen, ID, and Paterson, WA from 2001 to 2005. Herbicides were applied after final hilling and preemergence (PRE) to potato and weeds and sprinkler incorporated. Stud...

  13. A seasonal survey of click beetles in two potato production areas of Interior Alaska

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wireworms are becoming more of a problem in potato [Solanum tuberosum (L.)] producing areas, especially where potatoes are seasonally rotated with grasses, like in interior Alaska. The objective of this research was to study the species composition and seasonal biology of adult elaterids (Coleoptera...

  14. Potato tuber dormancy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The date that potato tubers begin to sprout must be carefully managed to maximize crop value. Spouting of fresh, chip and fry processing tubers during storage can decrease crop value, increase water loss and pressure bruising, and may promote pathogen entry. A lack of uniform sprouting in seed potat...

  15. Lactic acid production from potato peel waste by anaerobic sequencing batch fermentation using undefined mixed culture.

    PubMed

    Liang, Shaobo; McDonald, Armando G; Coats, Erik R

    2015-11-01

    Lactic acid (LA) is a necessary industrial feedstock for producing the bioplastic, polylactic acid (PLA), which is currently produced by pure culture fermentation of food carbohydrates. This work presents an alternative to produce LA from potato peel waste (PPW) by anaerobic fermentation in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) inoculated with undefined mixed culture from a municipal wastewater treatment plant. A statistical design of experiments approach was employed using set of 0.8L SBRs using gelatinized PPW at a solids content range from 30 to 50 g L(-1), solids retention time of 2-4 days for yield and productivity optimization. The maximum LA production yield of 0.25 g g(-1) PPW and highest productivity of 125 mg g(-1) d(-1) were achieved. A scale-up SBR trial using neat gelatinized PPW (at 80 g L(-1) solids content) at the 3 L scale was employed and the highest LA yield of 0.14 g g(-1) PPW and a productivity of 138 mg g(-1) d(-1) were achieved with a 1 d SRT. PMID:25708409

  16. Use of biologically reclaimed minerals for continuous hydroponic potato production in a CELSS.

    PubMed

    Mackowiak, C L; Wheeler, R M; Stutte, G W; Yorio, N C; Sager, J C

    1997-01-01

    Plant-derived nutrients were successfully recycled in a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) using biological methods. The majority of the essential nutrients were recovered by microbiologically treating the plant biomass in an aerobic bioreactor. Liquid effluent containing the nutrients was then returned to the biomass production component via a recirculating hydroponic system. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cv. Norland plants were grown on those nutrients in either a batch production mode (same age plants on a nutrient solution) or a staggered production mode (4 different ages of plants on a nutrient solution). The study continued over a period of 418 days, within NASA Breadboard Project's Biomass Production Chamber at the Kennedy Space Center. During this period, four consecutive batch cycles (104-day harvests) and 13 consecutive staggered cycles (26-day harvests) were completed using reclaimed minerals and compared to plants grown with standard nutrient solutions. All nutrient solutions were continually recirculated during the entire 418 day study. In general, tuber yields with reclaimed minerals were within 10% of control solutions. Contaminants, such as sodium and recalcitrant organics tended to increase over time in solutions containing reclaimed minerals, however tuber composition was comparable to tubers grown in the control solutions. PMID:11542555

  17. Use of biologically reclaimed minerals for continuous hydroponic potato production in a CELSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackowiak, C. L.; Wheeler, R. M.; Stutte, G. W.; Yorio, N. C.; Sager, J. C.

    1997-01-01

    Plant-derived nutrients were successfully recycled in a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) using biological methods. The majority of the essential nutrients were recovered by microbiologically treating the plant biomass in an aerobic bioreactor. Liquid effluent containing the nutrients was then returned to the biomass production component via a recirculating hydroponic system. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cv. Norland plants were grown on those nutrients in either a batch production mode (same age plants on a nutrient solution) or a staggered production mode (4 different ages of plants on a nutrient solution). The study continued over a period of 418 days, within NASA Breadboard Project's Biomass Production Chamber at the Kennedy Space Center. During this period, four consecutive batch cycles (104-day harvests) and 13 consecutive staggered cycles (26-day harvests) were completed using reclaimed minerals and compared to plants grown with standard nutrient solutions. All nutrient solutions were continually recirculated during the entire 418 day study. In general, tuber yields with reclaimed minerals were within 10% of control solutions. Contaminants, such as sodium and recalcitrant organics tended to increase over time in solutions containing reclaimed minerals, however tuber composition was comparable to tubers grown in the control solutions.

  18. Application and evaluation of entomopathogens in potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    More than 290 million metric tons of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) are produced throughout the world annually. Potato production ranks fourth among agricultural crops, after wheat, maize, and rice. A large number of insect pests affect potatoes. Worldwide, the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa ...

  19. Effect of seeding density on biomass production in mussel bottom culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capelle, Jacob J.; Wijsman, Jeroen W. M.; van Stralen, Marnix R.; Herman, Peter M. J.; Smaal, Aad C.

    2016-04-01

    Effects of seeding density on biomass production in mussel bottom culture are investigated by detailed monitoring of culture practice in the western Wadden Sea, The Netherlands. The seeds originate from different sources. The seeds differ in size and farmers apply seeding techniques dependent on the seed size resulting in different seed densities on the culture plots. We hypothesise growth to be density dependent and that biomass production is primarily determined by survival and is therefore a function of seed density which is related to the activities of the farmers. Data was collected from 42 different culture plots over a three year period (June 2009-June 2012). During this period, 66 sub-populations were followed from seeding until harvest. Seeding at the start of the culture resulted in an instantaneous drop in biomass production, caused by large losses in mussel number. These losses were on average 42% of the mussels seeded. This seeding loss decreased with mussel size and increased with seeding density. A subsequent density dependent loss of 1.8 mussels per day was found for smaller mussels (< 30 mm), and a non-density dependent loss of 0.8 mussels per day for larger mussels (> 30 mm) during grow out. Overall loss from seeding to harvest was high, from 92% for the smallest seeds collected from spat collectors, to 54% for half-grown mussels fished from natural beds in the spring. No indication was found that growth or mussel condition was affected by culture plot scale density. Growth was dependent on mussel size and age, and this largely determined the differences in biomass production between seed sources. The density dependent seeding loss associated with seeding activities largely determined survival, and hence overall biomass production.

  20. Herbivore and Fungal Pathogen Exclusion Affects the Seed Production of Four Common Grassland Species

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, Timothy L.; Mitchell, Charles E.

    2010-01-01

    Insect herbivores and fungal pathogens can independently affect plant fitness, and may have interactive effects. However, few studies have experimentally quantified the joint effects of insects and fungal pathogens on seed production in non-agricultural populations. We examined the factorial effects of insect herbivore exclusion (via insecticide) and fungal pathogen exclusion (via fungicide) on the population-level seed production of four common graminoid species (Andropogon gerardii, Schizachyrium scoparium, Poa pratensis, and Carex siccata) over two growing seasons in Minnesota, USA. We detected no interactive effects of herbivores and pathogens on seed production. However, the seed production of all four species was affected by either insecticide or fungicide in at least one year of the study. Insecticide consistently doubled the seed production of the historically most common species in the North American tallgrass prairie, A. gerardii (big bluestem). This is the first report of insect removal increasing seed production in this species. Insecticide increased A. gerardii number of seeds per seed head in one year, and mass per seed in both years, suggesting that consumption of flowers and seed embryos contributed to the effect on seed production. One of the primary insect species consuming A. gerardii flowers and seed embryos was likely the Cecidomyiid midge, Contarinia wattsi. Effects on all other plant species varied among years. Herbivores and pathogens likely reduce the dispersal and colonization ability of plants when they reduce seed output. Therefore, impacts on seed production of competitive dominant species may help to explain their relatively poor colonization abilities. Reduced seed output by dominant graminoids may thereby promote coexistence with subdominant species through competition-colonization tradeoffs. PMID:20711408

  1. Crossmodal correspondences in product packaging. Assessing color-flavor correspondences for potato chips (crisps).

    PubMed

    Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina; Spence, Charles

    2011-12-01

    We report a study designed to investigate consumers' crossmodal associations between the color of packaging and flavor varieties in crisps (potato chips). This product category was chosen because of the long-established but conflicting color-flavor conventions that exist for the salt and vinegar and cheese and onion flavor varieties in the UK. The use of both implicit and explicit measures of this crossmodal association revealed that consumers responded more slowly, and made more errors, when they had to pair the color and flavor that they implicitly thought of as being "incongruent" with the same response key. Furthermore, clustering consumers by the brand that they normally purchased revealed that the main reason why this pattern of results was observed could be their differing acquaintance with one brand versus another. In addition, when participants tried the two types of crisps from "congruently" and "incongruently" colored packets, some were unable to guess the flavor correctly in the latter case. These strong crossmodal associations did not have a significant effect on participants' hedonic appraisal of the crisps, but did arouse confusion. These results are relevant in terms of R&D, since ascertaining the appropriate color of the packaging across flavor varieties ought normally to help achieve immediate product recognition and consumer satisfaction. PMID:21824502

  2. Vegetable product containing caseinomacropeptide and germinated seed and sprouts.

    PubMed

    Karakaya, Sibel; El, Sedef Nehir; Simsek, Sebnem; Buyukkestelli, Hulya Ilyasoglu

    2016-01-01

    In this study vegetable product containing germinated seed and sprouts of lentils and cowpeas, and caseinomacropeptide isolated from whey is produced. Three different forms of vegetable product namely puree (VP), freeze-dried (FD) and drum-dried (DD) are produced. Freeze-dried and DD forms are produced to diversify forms of utilization and to improve functionality such as increased shelf life and decreased storage space. Their beneficial effects on health are determined using in vitro methods. All forms displayed antioxidant activities against DPPH radical and oxygen radical, α-amylase inhibitory activities, bile acid binding capacities, and angiotension converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities. Freeze-dried product exhibited the strongest inhibition on α-amylase and ACE with the IC50 value 0.09 μM total phenolic and 0.82 mg protein/g sample, respectively when evaluated on the basis of serving size. PMID:26788011

  3. Potato flour mediated solid-state fermentation for the enhanced production of Bacillus thuringiensis-toxin.

    PubMed

    Smitha, Robinson Babysarojam; Jisha, Veloorvalappil Narayanan; Pradeep, Selvanesan; Josh, Moolakkariyil Sarath; Benjamin, Sailas

    2013-11-01

    In this study, we explored the efficacy of raw potato flour (PF) as supplement to the conventional LB medium (LB control, designated as M1) for enhancing the concomitant production of endospores and δ-endotoxin from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki by solid-state fermentation (SSF). Of different concentrations and combinations of media tested, 10% (w/v) PF supplemented LB medium (M2) was found as the best source for the maximum yield of toxin. After 12 h submerged fermentation (SmF) at 37°C and 125 rpm, M2 was made into a wet-solid matter for SSF by removing the supernatant (1000 ×g, 10 min); the resultant pellet subsequently incubated statically (37°C) for the production of B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki toxin (Btk-toxin). In comparison to M1, yield of δ-endotoxin purified by sucrose density gradient centrifugation method from M2 was about 6-fold higher (53% recovery). This maximum yield from M2 was obtained at 48 h (as against 72 h from M1), thus the gestation period of M2 was reduced by 24 h with higher yield. In addition to the quantitative data, qualitative photomicrographs taken by image analyzer, scanning electron and fluorescent microscopes and digital camera showed physical evidences for the upper hand of SSF over conventional SmF for the enhanced production of Btk-toxin. SDS-PAGE image of the purified δ-endotoxin showed three major fractions with apparent MWs 66, 45 and 30 kDa. Briefly, if low-cost agricultural products like PF is used as supplement to LB, by SSF strategy, production of Btk-toxin could be enhanced to 6-fold in short gestation time without losing its entomotoxicity efficiency. PMID:23773700

  4. Phytotoxicity assay for seed production using Brassica rapa L.

    PubMed

    Olszyk, David; Pfleeger, Thomas; Lee, E Henry; Plocher, Milton

    2010-10-01

    Although pesticide drift can affect crop yield adversely, current plant testing protocols emphasize only the potential impacts on vegetative plant growth. The present study was conducted to determine whether a plant species with a short life cycle, such as Brassica rapa L. Wisconsin Fast Plants®, can be used to indicate potential effects on seed production of herbicides applied at relatively low levels (e.g., low field application rates [FAR]). The effects of ≤0.1 × FAR of aminopyralid, cloransulam, glyphosate, primisulfuron, or sulfometuron applied 14 d after emergence (DAE), were evaluated for B. rapa grown in mineral soil in pots under greenhouse conditions. Effects were expressed as the effective concentration of the herbicide producing a 25% reduction in a response (EC25) based on nonlinear regression. Brassica rapa seed dry weight was reduced by sulfometuron at an EC25 of 0.00014 × a field application rate (FAR) of 53 g active ingredient (a.i.) ha(-1), primisulfuron at 0.008 (experiment 1) or 0.0050 (experiment 2) × FAR of 40 g a.i. ha(-1), cloransulam at 0.022 × FAR of 18 g a.i. ha(-1), glyphosate at 0.0399 × FAR of 834 g a.i. ha(-1), and by aminopyralid at 0.005 × FAR of 123 g a.i. ha(-1), but only for 1 of 2 experiments. Reduced seed production occurred at less than the FAR that reduced shoot dry weight with sulfometuron and primisulfuron, whereas neither aminopyralid, cloransulam, nor glyphosate affected shoot dry weight. A short life cycle form of B. rapa could be used to indicate reduced seed production with plants grown only 1 week longer (∼35 DAE) than as the current vegetative vigor test for nontarget herbicide effects on plants. PMID:20872651

  5. SUSTAINABILITY IN SEED PRODUCTION ENTERPRISES – WHAT WE’VE LEARNED

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over 18 years of field studies comparing water and soil quality along with seed yield in conservation and conventional grass seed production systems is described. In many cases, minimum tillage and direct seeding approaches could be successfully implemented in these systems, and that their implemen...

  6. 7 CFR 52.1842 - Product description of Layer or (Cluster) raisins with seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Product description of Layer or (Cluster) raisins with seeds. 52.1842 Section 52.1842 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL... seeds. Raisins with Seeds that are referred to as Layer or Cluster raisins means that the raisins...

  7. 7 CFR 52.1842 - Product description of Layer or (Cluster) raisins with seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Product description of Layer or (Cluster) raisins with seeds. 52.1842 Section 52.1842 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL... seeds. Raisins with Seeds that are referred to as Layer or Cluster raisins means that the raisins...

  8. Active thermography for potato characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Sheng-Jen; Sun, Chih-Chen

    2008-03-01

    This paper describes the design of a semi-automated heating and scanning system and analytic method for potato characterization. Potatoes are heated using lamps in a heating chamber and then transferred on a movable fixture to an imaging chamber. A non-linear model was designed to predict which potatoes have excessive sugar defects and the model was evaluated with good results. Results from this research will benefit potato growers and manufacturers/producers of potato-based products such as chips and fries.

  9. Lactic acid production with undefined mixed culture fermentation of potato peel waste.

    PubMed

    Liang, Shaobo; McDonald, Armando G; Coats, Erik R

    2014-11-01

    Potato peel waste (PPW) as zero value byproduct generated from food processing plant contains a large quantity of starch, non-starch polysaccharide, lignin, protein, and lipid. PPW as one promising carbon source can be managed and utilized to value added bioproducts through a simple fermentation process using undefined mixed cultures inoculated from wastewater treatment plant sludge. A series of non-pH controlled batch fermentations under different conditions such as pretreatment process, enzymatic hydrolysis, temperature, and solids loading were studied. Lactic acid (LA) was the major product, followed by acetic acid (AA) and ethanol under fermentation conditions without the presence of added hydrolytic enzymes. The maximum yields of LA, AA, and ethanol were respectively, 0.22 g g(-1), 0.06 g g(-1), and 0.05 g g(-1). The highest LA concentration of 14.7 g L(-1) was obtained from a bioreactor with initial solids loading of 60 g L(-1) at 35°C. PMID:25127412

  10. Product inhibition of potato tuber pyrophosphate:fructose-6-phosphate phosphotransferase by phosphate and pyrophosphate.

    PubMed

    Stitt, M

    1989-02-01

    The product inhibition of potato (Solanum tuberosum) tuber pyrophosphate:fructose-6-phosphate phosphotransferase by inorganic pyrophosphate and inorganic phosphate has been studied. The binding of substrates for the forward (glycolytic) and the reverse (gluconeogenic) reaction is random order, and occurs with only weak competition between the substrate pair fructose-6-phosphate and pyrophosphate, and between the substrate pair fructose-1,6-bisphosphate and phosphate. Pyrophosphate is a powerful inhibitor of the reverse reaction, acting competitively to fructose-1,6-biphosphate and noncompetitively to phosphate. At the concentrations needed for catalysis of the reverse reaction, phosphate inhibits the forward reaction in a largely noncompetitive mode with respect to both fructose-6-phosphate and pyrophosphate. At higher concentrations, phosphate inhibits both the forward and the reverse reaction by decreasing the affinity for fructose-2,6-bisphosphate and thus, for the other three substrates. These results allow a model to be proposed, which describes the interactions between the substrates at the catalytic site. They also suggest the enzyme may be regulated in vivo by changes of the relation between metabolites and phosphate and could act as a means of controlling the cytosolic pyrophosphate concentration. PMID:16666593