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Sample records for potential drug target

  1. Metabolic Enzymes of Helminth Parasites: Potential as Drug Targets.

    PubMed

    Timson, David J

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic pathways that extract energy from carbon compounds are essential for an organism's survival. Therefore, inhibition of enzymes in these pathways represents a potential therapeutic strategy to combat parasitic infections. However, the high degree of similarity between host and parasite enzymes makes this strategy potentially difficult. Nevertheless, several existing drugs to treat infections by parasitic helminths (worms) target metabolic enzymes. These include the trivalent antimonials that target phosphofructokinase and Clorsulon that targets phosphoglycerate mutase and phosphoglycerate kinase. Glycolytic enzymes from a variety of helminths have been characterised biochemically, and some inhibitors identified. To date none of these inhibitors have been developed into therapies. Many of these enzymes are externalised from the parasite and so are also of interest in the development of potential vaccines. Less work has been done on tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes and oxidative phosphorylation complexes. Again, while some inhibitors have been identified none have been developed into drug-like molecules. Barriers to the development of novel drugs targeting metabolic enzymes include the lack of experimentally determined structures of helminth enzymes, lack of direct proof that the enzymes are vital in the parasites and lack of cell culture systems for many helminth species. Nevertheless, the success of Clorsulon (which discriminates between highly similar host and parasite enzymes) should inspire us to consider making serious efforts to discover novel anthelminthics, which target metabolic enzymes. PMID:26983888

  2. Targeting cancer with sesterterpenoids: the new potential antitumor drugs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Caiguo; Liu, Yan

    2015-07-01

    Cancer remains a major cause of death in the world to date. A variety of anticancer drugs have been used in clinical chemotherapy, acting on the particular oncogenic abnormalities that are responsible for malignant transformation and progression. Interestingly, some of these anticancer drugs are developed from natural sources such as plants, marine organisms, and microorganisms. Over the past decades, a family of naturally occuring molecules, namely sesterterpenoids, has been isolated from different organisms and they exhibit significant potential in the inhibition of tumor cells in vitro, while the molecular targets of these compounds and their functional mechanisms are still obscure. In this review, we summarize and discuss the functions of these sesterterpenoids in the inhibition of cancer cells. Moreover, we also highlight and discuss chemical structure-activity relationships of some compounds, demonstrating their pervasiveness and importance in cancer therapy. PMID:25894074

  3. Potential drug targets for calcific aortic valve disease

    PubMed Central

    Hutcheson, Joshua D.; Aikawa, Elena; Merryman, W. David

    2014-01-01

    Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is a major contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and, given its association with age, the prevalence of CAVD is expected to continue to rise as global life expectancy increases. No drug strategies currently exist to prevent or treat CAVD. Given that valve replacement is the only available clinical option, patients often cope with a deteriorating quality of life until diminished valve function demands intervention. The recognition that CAVD results from active cellular mechanisms suggests that the underlying pathways might be targeted to treat the condition. However, no such therapeutic strategy has been successfully developed to date. One hope was that drugs already used to treat vascular complications might also improve CAVD outcomes, but the mechanisms of CAVD progression and the desired therapeutic outcomes are often different from those of vascular diseases. We, therefore, discuss the benchmarks that must be met by a CAVD treatment approach, and highlight advances in the understanding of CAVD mechanisms to identify potential novel therapeutic targets. PMID:24445487

  4. TargetNet: a web service for predicting potential drug-target interaction profiling via multi-target SAR models.

    PubMed

    Yao, Zhi-Jiang; Dong, Jie; Che, Yu-Jing; Zhu, Min-Feng; Wen, Ming; Wang, Ning-Ning; Wang, Shan; Lu, Ai-Ping; Cao, Dong-Sheng

    2016-05-01

    Drug-target interactions (DTIs) are central to current drug discovery processes and public health fields. Analyzing the DTI profiling of the drugs helps to infer drug indications, adverse drug reactions, drug-drug interactions, and drug mode of actions. Therefore, it is of high importance to reliably and fast predict DTI profiling of the drugs on a genome-scale level. Here, we develop the TargetNet server, which can make real-time DTI predictions based only on molecular structures, following the spirit of multi-target SAR methodology. Naïve Bayes models together with various molecular fingerprints were employed to construct prediction models. Ensemble learning from these fingerprints was also provided to improve the prediction ability. When the user submits a molecule, the server will predict the activity of the user's molecule across 623 human proteins by the established high quality SAR model, thus generating a DTI profiling that can be used as a feature vector of chemicals for wide applications. The 623 SAR models related to 623 human proteins were strictly evaluated and validated by several model validation strategies, resulting in the AUC scores of 75-100 %. We applied the generated DTI profiling to successfully predict potential targets, toxicity classification, drug-drug interactions, and drug mode of action, which sufficiently demonstrated the wide application value of the potential DTI profiling. The TargetNet webserver is designed based on the Django framework in Python, and is freely accessible at http://targetnet.scbdd.com . PMID:27167132

  5. TRPV1: A Potential Drug Target for Treating Various Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Brito, Rafael; Sheth, Sandeep; Mukherjea, Debashree; Rybak, Leonard P.; Ramkumar, Vickram

    2014-01-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is an ion channel present on sensory neurons which is activated by heat, protons, capsaicin and a variety of endogenous lipids termed endovanilloids. As such, TRPV1 serves as a multimodal sensor of noxious stimuli which could trigger counteractive measures to avoid pain and injury. Activation of TRPV1 has been linked to chronic inflammatory pain conditions and peripheral neuropathy, as observed in diabetes. Expression of TRPV1 is also observed in non-neuronal sites such as the epithelium of bladder and lungs and in hair cells of the cochlea. At these sites, activation of TRPV1 has been implicated in the pathophysiology of diseases such as cystitis, asthma and hearing loss. Therefore, drugs which could modulate TRPV1 channel activity could be useful for the treatment of conditions ranging from chronic pain to hearing loss. This review describes the roles of TRPV1 in the normal physiology and pathophysiology of selected organs of the body and highlights how drugs targeting this channel could be important clinically. PMID:24861977

  6. Potential of magnetic nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hung-Wei; Hua, Mu-Yi; Liu, Hao-Li; Huang, Chiung-Yin; Wei, Kuo-Chen

    2012-01-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) play an important role in the molecular diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring of therapeutic outcomes in various diseases. Their nanoscale size, large surface area, unique capabilities, and negligible side effects make NPs highly effective for biomedical applications such as cancer therapy, thrombolysis, and molecular imaging. In particular, nontoxic superparamagnetic magnetic NPs (MNPs) with functionalized surface coatings can conjugate chemotherapeutic drugs or be used to target ligands/proteins, making them useful for drug delivery, targeted therapy, magnetic resonance imaging, transfection, and cell/protein/DNA separation. To optimize the therapeutic efficacy of MNPs for a specific application, three issues must be addressed. First, the efficacy of magnetic targeting/guidance is dependent on particle magnetization, which can be controlled by adjusting the reaction conditions during synthesis. Second, the tendency of MNPs to aggregate limits their therapeutic use in vivo; surface modifications to produce high positive or negative charges can reduce this tendency. Finally, the surface of MNPs can be coated with drugs which can be rapidly released after injection, resulting in targeting of low doses of the drug. Drugs therefore need to be conjugated to MNPs such that their release is delayed and their thermal stability enhanced. This chapter describes the creation of nanocarriers with a high drug-loading capacity comprised of a high-magnetization MNP core and a shell of aqueous, stable, conducting polyaniline derivatives and their applications in cancer therapy. It further summarizes some newly developed methods to synthesize and modify the surfaces of MNPs and their biomedical applications. PMID:24198498

  7. HNF4α -- role in drug metabolism and potential drug target?

    PubMed Central

    Hwang-Verslues, Wendy W.; Sladek, Frances M.

    2010-01-01

    Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α) is a highly conserved member of the nuclear receptor superfamily of ligand-dependent transcription factors. It is best known as a master regulator of liver-specific gene expression, especially those genes involved in lipid transport and glucose metabolism. However, there is also a growing body of work that indicates the importance of HNF4α in the regulation of genes involved in xenobiotic and drug metabolism. A recent study identifying the essential fatty acid linoleic acid (LA, C18:2) as the endogenous, reversible ligand for HNF4α suggests that HNF4α may also be a potential drug target and that its activity may be regulated by diet. This review will discuss the role of HNF4α in drug metabolism, including the genes it regulates, the factors that regulate its activity, and its potential as a drug target. PMID:20833107

  8. Sirtuins as potential drug targets for metablic diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent studies of the sirtuin family of proteins, which possess NAD+/-dependent deacetylase and ADP ribosyltransferase activities, indicate that they regulate many biological functions, such as longevity and metabolism. These findings also suggest that sirtuins might serve as valuable drug targets f...

  9. TCGA bladder cancer study reveals potential drug targets

    Cancer.gov

    Investigators with TCGA have identified new potential therapeutic targets for a major form of bladder cancer, including important genes and pathways that are disrupted in the disease. They also discovered that, at the molecular level, some subtypes of bla

  10. Pharmacoinformatics elucidation of potential drug targets against migraine to target ion channel protein KCNK18.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Sheikh Arslan; Hassan, Mubashir; Rashid, Sajid

    2014-01-01

    Migraine, a complex debilitating neurological disorder is strongly associated with potassium channel subfamily K member 18 (KCNK18). Research has emphasized that high levels of KCNK18 may be responsible for improper functioning of neurotransmitters, resulting in neurological disorders like migraine. In the present study, a hybrid approach of molecular docking and virtual screening were followed by pharmacophore identification and structure modeling. Screening was performed using a two-dimensional similarity search against recommended migraine drugs, keeping in view the physicochemical properties of drugs. LigandScout tool was used for exploring pharmacophore properties and designing novel molecules. Here, we report the screening of four novel compounds that have showed maximum binding affinity against KCNK18, obtained through the ZINC database, and Drug and Drug-Like libraries. Docking studies revealed that Asp-46, Ile-324, Ile-44, Gly-118, Leu-338, Val-113, and Phe-41 are critical residues for receptor-ligand interaction. A virtual screening approach coupled with docking energies and druglikeness rules illustrated that ergotamine and PB-414901692 are potential inhibitor compounds for targeting KCNK18. We propose that selected compounds may be more potent than the previously listed drug analogs based on the binding energy values. Further analysis of these inhibitors through site-directed mutagenesis could be helpful for exploring the details of ligand-binding pockets. Overall, the findings of this study may be helpful for designing novel therapeutic targets to cure migraine. PMID:24899801

  11. Pharmacoinformatics elucidation of potential drug targets against migraine to target ion channel protein KCNK18

    PubMed Central

    Sehgal, Sheikh Arslan; Hassan, Mubashir; Rashid, Sajid

    2014-01-01

    Migraine, a complex debilitating neurological disorder is strongly associated with potassium channel subfamily K member 18 (KCNK18). Research has emphasized that high levels of KCNK18 may be responsible for improper functioning of neurotransmitters, resulting in neurological disorders like migraine. In the present study, a hybrid approach of molecular docking and virtual screening were followed by pharmacophore identification and structure modeling. Screening was performed using a two-dimensional similarity search against recommended migraine drugs, keeping in view the physicochemical properties of drugs. LigandScout tool was used for exploring pharmacophore properties and designing novel molecules. Here, we report the screening of four novel compounds that have showed maximum binding affinity against KCNK18, obtained through the ZINC database, and Drug and Drug-Like libraries. Docking studies revealed that Asp-46, Ile-324, Ile-44, Gly-118, Leu-338, Val-113, and Phe-41 are critical residues for receptor–ligand interaction. A virtual screening approach coupled with docking energies and druglikeness rules illustrated that ergotamine and PB-414901692 are potential inhibitor compounds for targeting KCNK18. We propose that selected compounds may be more potent than the previously listed drug analogs based on the binding energy values. Further analysis of these inhibitors through site-directed mutagenesis could be helpful for exploring the details of ligand-binding pockets. Overall, the findings of this study may be helpful for designing novel therapeutic targets to cure migraine. PMID:24899801

  12. A-kinase anchoring proteins as potential drug targets

    PubMed Central

    Tröger, Jessica; Moutty, Marie C; Skroblin, Philipp; Klussmann, Enno

    2012-01-01

    A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) crucially contribute to the spatial and temporal control of cellular signalling. They directly interact with a variety of protein binding partners and cellular constituents, thereby directing pools of signalling components to defined locales. In particular, AKAPs mediate compartmentalization of cAMP signalling. Alterations in AKAP expression and their interactions are associated with or cause diseases including chronic heart failure, various cancers and disorders of the immune system such as HIV. A number of cellular dysfunctions result from mutations of specific AKAPs. The link between malfunctions of single AKAP complexes and a disease makes AKAPs and their interactions interesting targets for the development of novel drugs. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on Novel cAMP Signalling Paradigms. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2012.166.issue-2 PMID:22122509

  13. Enzymology of the nematode cuticle: A potential drug target?

    PubMed

    Page, Antony P; Stepek, Gillian; Winter, Alan D; Pertab, David

    2014-08-01

    All nematodes possess an external structure known as the cuticle, which is crucial for their development and survival. This structure is composed primarily of collagen, which is secreted from the underlying hypodermal cells. Extensive studies using the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans demonstrate that formation of the cuticle requires the activity of an extensive range of enzymes. Enzymes are required both pre-secretion, for synthesis of component proteins such as collagen, and post-secretion, for removal of the previous developmental stage cuticle, in a process known as moulting or exsheathment. The excretion/secretion products of numerous parasitic nematodes contain metallo-, serine and cysteine proteases, and these proteases are conserved across the nematode phylum and many are involved in the moulting/exsheathment process. This review highlights the enzymes required for cuticle formation, with a focus on the post-secretion moulting events. Where orthologues of the C. elegans enzymes have been identified in parasitic nematodes these may represent novel candidate targets for future drug/vaccine development. PMID:25057463

  14. Potential Targets for Antifungal Drug Discovery Based on Growth and Virulence in Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiuyun; Hou, Yinglong; Yue, Longtao; Liu, Shuyuan; Du, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Fungal infections, especially infections caused by Candida albicans, remain a challenging problem in clinical settings. Despite the development of more-effective antifungal drugs, their application is limited for various reasons. Thus, alternative treatments with drugs aimed at novel targets in C. albicans are needed. Knowledge of growth and virulence in fungal cells is essential not only to understand their pathogenic mechanisms but also to identify potential antifungal targets. This article reviews the current knowledge of the mechanisms of growth and virulence in C. albicans and examines potential targets for the development of new antifungal drugs. PMID:26195510

  15. Serine Proteases of Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum: Potential as Antimalarial Drug Targets

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Malaria is a major global parasitic disease and a cause of enormous mortality and morbidity. Widespread drug resistance against currently available antimalarials warrants the identification of novel drug targets and development of new drugs. Malarial proteases are a group of molecules that serve as potential drug targets because of their essentiality for parasite life cycle stages and feasibility of designing specific inhibitors against them. Proteases belonging to various mechanistic classes are found in P. falciparum, of which serine proteases are of particular interest due to their involvement in parasite-specific processes of egress and invasion. In P. falciparum, a number of serine proteases belonging to chymotrypsin, subtilisin, and rhomboid clans are found. This review focuses on the potential of P. falciparum serine proteases as antimalarial drug targets. PMID:24799897

  16. Bacterial Magnetosome: A Novel Biogenetic Magnetic Targeted Drug Carrier with Potential Multifunctions

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jianbo; Li, Ying; Liang, Xing-Jie; Wang, Paul C.

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial magnetosomes (BMs) synthesized by magnetotactic bacteria have recently drawn great interest due to their unique features. BMs are used experimentally as carriers for antibodies, enzymes, ligands, nucleic acids, and chemotherapeutic drugs. In addition to the common attractive properties of magnetic carriers, BMs also show superiority as targeting nanoscale drug carriers, which is hardly matched by artificial magnetic particles. We are presenting the potential applications of BMs as drug carriers by introducing the drug-loading methods and strategies and the recent research progress of BMs which has contributed to the application of BMs as drug carriers. PMID:22448162

  17. Modular Nanotransporters for Targeted Intracellular Delivery of Drugs: Folate Receptors as Potential Targets

    PubMed Central

    Slastnikova, Tatiana A.; Rosenkranz, Andrey A.; Zalutsky, Michael R.; Sobolev, Alexander S.

    2015-01-01

    The review is devoted to a subcellular drug delivery system, modular nanotransporters (MNT) that can penetrate into target cells and deliver a therapeutic into their subcellular compartments, particularly into the nucleus. The therapeutics which need such type of delivery belong to two groups: (i) those that exert their effect only when delivered into a certain cell compartment (like DNA delivered into the nucleus); and (ii) those drugs that are capable of exerting their effect in different parts of the cells, however there can be found a cell compartment that is the most sensitive to their effect. A particular interest attract such cytotoxic agents as Auger electron emitters which are known to be ineffective outside the cell nucleus, whereas they possess high cytotoxicity in the vicinity of nuclear DNA through the induction of non-reparable double-strand DNA breaks. The review discusses main approaches permitting to choose internalizable receptors permitting both recognition of target cells and penetration into them. Special interest attract folate receptors which become accessible to blood circulating therapeutics after malignant transformation or on activated macrophages which makes them an attractive target for both several oncological and inflammatory diseases, like atherosclerosis. In vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated that MNT is a promising platform for targeted delivery of different therapeutics into the nuclei of target cells. PMID:25312738

  18. UDP-galactopyranose mutase, a potential drug target against human pathogenic nematode Brugia malayi.

    PubMed

    Misra, Sweta; Valicherla, Guru R; Mohd Shahab; Gupta, Jyoti; Gayen, Jiaur R; Misra-Bhattacharya, Shailja

    2016-08-01

    Lymphatic filariasis, a vector-borne neglected tropical disease affects millions of population in tropical and subtropical countries. Vaccine unavailability and emerging drug resistance against standard antifilarial drugs necessitate search of novel drug targets for developing alternate drugs. Recently, UDP-galactopyranose mutases (UGM) have emerged as a promising drug target playing an important role in parasite virulence and survival. This study deals with the cloning and characterization of Brugia malayi UGM and further exploring its antifilarial drug target potential. The recombinant protein was actively involved in conversion of UDP-galactopyranose (substrate) to UDP-galactofuranose (product) revealing Km and Vmax to be ∼51.15 μM and ∼1.27 μM/min, respectively. The purified protein appeared to be decameric in native state and its 3D homology modeling using Aspergillus fumigatus UGM enzyme as template revealed conservation of active site residues. Two specific prokaryotic inhibitors (compounds A and B) of the enzyme inhibited B. malayi UGM enzymatic activity competitively depicting Ki values ∼22.68 and ∼23.0 μM, respectively. These compounds were also active in vitro and in vivo against B. malayi The findings suggest that B. malayi UGM could be a potential antifilarial therapeutic drug target. PMID:27465638

  19. Identification of potential drug targets in Helicobacter pylori strain HPAG1 by in silico genome analysis.

    PubMed

    Neelapu, Nageswara R R; Mutha, Naresh V R; Akula, Srinivas

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori colonizes the stomach, causing gastritis, peptic ulcers and gastric carcinoma. Drugs for treatment of H. pylori relieve from gastritis or pain but are not specific to H. pylori. Therefore, there is an immediate requirement for new therapeutic molecules to treat H. pylori. Current study investigates identification of drug targets in the strain HPAG1 of H. pylori by in silico genome analysis. Genome of HPAG1 was reconstructed for metabolic pathways and compared with Homosapien sapiens to identify genes which are unique to H. pylori. These unique genes were subjected to gene property analysis to identify the potentiality of the drug targets. Among the total number of genes analysed in H. pylori strain HPAG1, nearly 542 genes qualified as unique molecules and among them 29 were identified to be potential drug targets. Co/Zn/Cd efflux system membrane fusion protein, Ferric sidephore transport system and biopolymer transport protein EXbB were found to be critical drug targets to H. pylori HPAG1. Five genes (superoxide dismutase, HtrA protease/chaperone protein, Heatinducible transcription repressor HrcA, HspR, transcriptional repressor of DnaK operon, Cobalt-zinccadmium resistance protein CzcA) of the 29 predicted drug targets are already experimentally validated either genetically or biochemically lending credence to our unique approach. PMID:26205802

  20. Sodium Dependent Multivitamin Transporter (SMVT): A Potential Target for Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Vadlapudi, Aswani Dutt; Vadlapatla, Ramya Krishna; Mitra, Ashim K.

    2015-01-01

    Sodium dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT; product of the SLC5A6 gene) is an important transmembrane protein responsible for translocation of vitamins and other essential cofactors such as biotin, pantothenic acid and lipoic acid. Hydropathy plot (Kyte-Dolittle algorithm) revealed that human SMVT protein consists of 635 amino acids and 12 transmembrane domains with both amino and carboxyl termini oriented towards the cytoplasm. SMVT is expressed in various tissues such as placenta, intestine, brain, liver, lung, kidney, cornea, retina and heart. This transporter displays broad substrate specificity and excellent capacity for utilization in drug delivery. Drug absorption is often limited by the presence of physiological (epithelial tight junctions), biochemical (efflux transporters and enzymatic degradation) and chemical (size, lipophilicity, molecular weight, charge, etc.) barriers. These barriers may cause many potential therapeutics to be dropped from the preliminary screening portfolio and subsequent entry into the market. Transporter targeted delivery has become a powerful approach to deliver drugs to target tissues because of the ability of the transporter to translocate the drug to intracellular organelles at a higher rate. This review highlights studies employing SMVT transporter as a target for drug delivery to improve bioavailability and investigate the feasibility of developing SMVT targeted drug delivery systems. PMID:22420308

  1. Inorganic nanovehicle for potential targeted drug delivery to tumor cells, tumor optical imaging.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shiyong; Gao, Xuechuan; Baigude, Huricha; Hai, Xiao; Zhang, Renfei; Gao, Xiaolong; Shen, Beibei; Li, Zhao; Tan, Zhibing; Su, Haiquan

    2015-03-11

    In this work, an inorganic multifunctional nanovehicle was tailored as a carrier to deliver anticancer drug for tumor optical imaging and therapy. The nanovehicle could be used as a dually targeted drug nanovehicle by bonded magnetical (passive) and folic acid (active) targeting capabilities. In addition, it was developed using rhodamine 6G (R6G) as a fluorescence reagent, and an α-zirconium phosphate nanoplatform (Zr(HPO4)2·H2O, abbreviated as α-ZrP) as the anticancer drug nanovehicle. The novel drug-release system was designed and fabricated by intercalation of α-ZrP with magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles and anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), followed by reacting with a folate acid-chitosan-rhodamine6G (FA-CHI-R6G) complex, and then α-ZrP intercalated with Fe3O4 nanoparticles and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) was successfully encapsulated into chitosan (CHI). The resultant multifunctional drug delivery system was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, photoluminescence spectra, magnetometry, fluorescence microscopy imaging studies and other characterization methods. Simultaneously, the drug release in vitro on the obtained nanocomposites that exhibited a sustained release behavior was carried out in buffer solution at 37 °C, which demonstrated clearly that the nanocomposites shown a sustained release behavior. Meanwhile, cell culture experiments also indicated that the drug-release system had the potential to be used as an dually targeted drug nanovehicle into the tumor cells. PMID:25693506

  2. The Validation of Nematode-Specific Acetylcholine-Gated Chloride Channels as Potential Anthelmintic Drug Targets

    PubMed Central

    Wever, Claudia M.; Farrington, Danielle; Dent, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    New compounds are needed to treat parasitic nematode infections in humans, livestock and plants. Small molecule anthelmintics are the primary means of nematode parasite control in animals; however, widespread resistance to the currently available drug classes means control will be impossible without the introduction of new compounds. Adverse environmental effects associated with nematocides used to control plant parasitic species are also motivating the search for safer, more effective compounds. Discovery of new anthelmintic drugs in particular has been a serious challenge due to the difficulty of obtaining and culturing target parasites for high-throughput screens and the lack of functional genomic techniques to validate potential drug targets in these pathogens. We present here a novel strategy for target validation that employs the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to demonstrate the value of new ligand-gated ion channels as targets for anthelmintic discovery. Many successful anthelmintics, including ivermectin, levamisole and monepantel, are agonists of pentameric ligand-gated ion channels, suggesting that the unexploited pentameric ion channels encoded in parasite genomes may be suitable drug targets. We validated five members of the nematode-specific family of acetylcholine-gated chloride channels as targets of agonists with anthelmintic properties by ectopically expressing an ivermectin-gated chloride channel, AVR-15, in tissues that endogenously express the acetylcholine-gated chloride channels and using the effects of ivermectin to predict the effects of an acetylcholine-gated chloride channel agonist. In principle, our strategy can be applied to validate any ion channel as a putative anti-parasitic drug target. PMID:26393923

  3. ROCK1 is a potential combinatorial drug target for BRAF mutant melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Smit, Marjon A; Maddalo, Gianluca; Greig, Kylie; Raaijmakers, Linsey M; Possik, Patricia A; van Breukelen, Bas; Cappadona, Salvatore; Heck, Albert JR; Altelaar, AF Maarten; Peeper, Daniel S

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of BRAF mutant melanomas with specific BRAF inhibitors leads to tumor remission. However, most patients eventually relapse due to drug resistance. Therefore, we designed an integrated strategy using (phospho)proteomic and functional genomic platforms to identify drug targets whose inhibition sensitizes melanoma cells to BRAF inhibition. We found many proteins to be induced upon PLX4720 (BRAF inhibitor) treatment that are known to be involved in BRAF inhibitor resistance, including FOXD3 and ErbB3. Several proteins were down-regulated, including Rnd3, a negative regulator of ROCK1 kinase. For our genomic approach, we performed two parallel shRNA screens using a kinome library to identify genes whose inhibition sensitizes to BRAF or ERK inhibitor treatment. By integrating our functional genomic and (phospho)proteomic data, we identified ROCK1 as a potential drug target for BRAF mutant melanoma. ROCK1 silencing increased melanoma cell elimination when combined with BRAF or ERK inhibitor treatment. Translating this to a preclinical setting, a ROCK inhibitor showed augmented melanoma cell death upon BRAF or ERK inhibition in vitro. These data merit exploration of ROCK1 as a target in combination with current BRAF mutant melanoma therapies. PMID:25538140

  4. Diacylglycerol Kinases as Emerging Potential Drug Targets for a Variety of Diseases: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Sakane, Fumio; Mizuno, Satoru; Komenoi, Suguru

    2016-01-01

    Ten mammalian diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) isozymes (α–κ) have been identified to date. Our previous review noted that several DGK isozymes can serve as potential drug targets for cancer, epilepsy, autoimmunity, cardiac hypertrophy, hypertension and type II diabetes (Sakane et al., 2008). Since then, recent genome-wide association studies have implied several new possible relationships between DGK isozymes and diseases. For example, DGKθ and DGKκ have been suggested to be associated with susceptibility to Parkinson's disease and hypospadias, respectively. In addition, the DGKη gene has been repeatedly identified as a bipolar disorder (BPD) susceptibility gene. Intriguingly, we found that DGKη-knockout mice showed lithium (BPD remedy)-sensitive mania-like behaviors, suggesting that DGKη is one of key enzymes of the etiology of BPD. Because DGKs are potential drug targets for a wide variety of diseases, the development of DGK isozyme-specific inhibitors/activators has been eagerly awaited. Recently, we have identified DGKα-selective inhibitors. Because DGKα has both pro-tumoral and anti-immunogenic properties, the DGKα-selective inhibitors would simultaneously have anti-tumoral and pro-immunogenic (anti-tumor immunogenic) effects. Although the ten DGK isozymes are highly similar to each other, our current results have encouraged us to identify and develop specific inhibitors/activators against every DGK isozyme that can be effective regulators and drugs against a wide variety of physiological events and diseases. PMID:27583247

  5. Diacylglycerol Kinases as Emerging Potential Drug Targets for a Variety of Diseases: An Update.

    PubMed

    Sakane, Fumio; Mizuno, Satoru; Komenoi, Suguru

    2016-01-01

    Ten mammalian diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) isozymes (α-κ) have been identified to date. Our previous review noted that several DGK isozymes can serve as potential drug targets for cancer, epilepsy, autoimmunity, cardiac hypertrophy, hypertension and type II diabetes (Sakane et al., 2008). Since then, recent genome-wide association studies have implied several new possible relationships between DGK isozymes and diseases. For example, DGKθ and DGKκ have been suggested to be associated with susceptibility to Parkinson's disease and hypospadias, respectively. In addition, the DGKη gene has been repeatedly identified as a bipolar disorder (BPD) susceptibility gene. Intriguingly, we found that DGKη-knockout mice showed lithium (BPD remedy)-sensitive mania-like behaviors, suggesting that DGKη is one of key enzymes of the etiology of BPD. Because DGKs are potential drug targets for a wide variety of diseases, the development of DGK isozyme-specific inhibitors/activators has been eagerly awaited. Recently, we have identified DGKα-selective inhibitors. Because DGKα has both pro-tumoral and anti-immunogenic properties, the DGKα-selective inhibitors would simultaneously have anti-tumoral and pro-immunogenic (anti-tumor immunogenic) effects. Although the ten DGK isozymes are highly similar to each other, our current results have encouraged us to identify and develop specific inhibitors/activators against every DGK isozyme that can be effective regulators and drugs against a wide variety of physiological events and diseases. PMID:27583247

  6. The periplasmic protein TolB as a potential drug target in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Lo Sciuto, Alessandra; Fernández-Piñar, Regina; Bertuccini, Lucia; Iosi, Francesca; Superti, Fabiana; Imperi, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most dreaded pathogens in the hospital setting, and represents a prototype of multi-drug resistant "superbug" for which effective therapeutic options are very limited. The identification and characterization of new cellular functions that are essential for P. aeruginosa viability and/or virulence could drive the development of anti-Pseudomonas compounds with novel mechanisms of action. In this study we investigated whether TolB, the periplasmic component of the Tol-Pal trans-envelope protein complex of Gram-negative bacteria, represents a potential drug target in P. aeruginosa. By combining conditional mutagenesis with the analysis of specific pathogenicity-related phenotypes, we demonstrated that TolB is essential for P. aeruginosa growth, both in laboratory and clinical strains, and that TolB-depleted P. aeruginosa cells are strongly defective in cell-envelope integrity, resistance to human serum and several antibiotics, as well as in the ability to cause infection and persist in an insect model of P. aeruginosa infection. The essentiality of TolB for P. aeruginosa growth, resistance and pathogenicity highlights the potential of TolB as a novel molecular target for anti-P. aeruginosa drug discovery. PMID:25093328

  7. In silico analysis of Burkholderia pseudomallei genome sequence for potential drug targets.

    PubMed

    Chong, Chan-Eng; Lim, Boon-San; Nathan, Sheila; Mohamed, Rahmah

    2006-01-01

    Recent advances in DNA sequencing technology have enabled elucidation of whole genome information from a plethora of organisms. In parallel with this technology, various bioinformatics tools have driven the comparative analysis of the genome sequences between species and within isolates. While drawing meaningful conclusions from a large amount of raw material, computer-aided identification of suitable targets for further experimental analysis and characterization, has also led to the prediction of non-human homologous essential genes in bacteria as promising candidates for novel drug discovery. Here, we present a comparative genomic analysis to identify essential genes in Burkholderia pseudomallei. Our in silico prediction has identified 312 essential genes which could also be potential drug candidates. These genes encode essential proteins to support the survival of B. pseudomallei including outer-inner membrane and surface structures, regulators, proteins involved in pathogenenicity, adaptation, chaperones as well as degradation of small and macromolecules, energy metabolism, information transfer, central/intermediate/miscellaneous metabolism pathways and some conserved hypothetical proteins of unknown function. Therefore, our in silico approach has enabled rapid screening and identification of potential drug targets for further characterization in the laboratory. PMID:16922696

  8. Large-scale identification of potential drug targets based on the topological features of human protein-protein interaction network.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhan-Chao; Zhong, Wen-Qian; Liu, Zhi-Qing; Huang, Meng-Hua; Xie, Yun; Dai, Zong; Zou, Xiao-Yong

    2015-04-29

    Identifying potential drug target proteins is a crucial step in the process of drug discovery and plays a key role in the study of the molecular mechanisms of disease. Based on the fact that the majority of proteins exert their functions through interacting with each other, we propose a method to recognize target proteins by using the human protein-protein interaction network and graph theory. In the network, vertexes and edges are weighted by using the confidence scores of interactions and descriptors of protein primary structure, respectively. The novel network topological features are defined and employed to characterize protein using existing databases. A widely used minimum redundancy maximum relevance and random forests algorithm are utilized to select the optimal feature subset and construct model for the identification of potential drug target proteins at the proteome scale. The accuracies of training set and test set are 89.55% and 85.23%. Using the constructed model, 2127 potential drug target proteins have been recognized and 156 drug target proteins have been validated in the database of drug target. In addition, some new drug target proteins can be considered as targets for treating diseases of mucopolysaccharidosis, non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, Bernard-Soulier syndrome and pseudo-von Willebrand, etc. It is anticipated that the proposed method may became a powerful high-throughput virtual screening tool of drug target. PMID:25847157

  9. Potential of targeted drug delivery system for the treatment of bone metastasis.

    PubMed

    Vinay, Raichur; KusumDevi, V

    2016-01-01

    Bone metastasis is a devastating complication of cancer that requires an immediate attention. Although our understanding of the metastatic process has improved over the years, yet a number of questions still remain unanswered, and more research is required for complete understanding of the skeletal consequences of metastasis. Furthermore, as no effective treatments are available for some of the most common skeleton disorders such as arthritis, osteoarthritis, osteosarcoma and metastatic bone cancer, there is an urgent need to develop new drugs and drug delivery systems for safe and efficient clinical treatments. Hence this article describes the potential of targeted delivery platforms aimed specifically at bone metastasized tumors. The review gives a brief understanding of the proposed mechanisms of metastasis and focuses primarily on the targeting moieties such as bisphosphonates, which represent the current gold standard in bone metastasis therapies. Special focus has been given to the targeted nanoparticulate systems for treating bone metastasis and its future. Also highlighted are some of the therapeutic targets that can be exploited for designing therapies for bone metastasis. Some of the patented molecules for bone metastasis prevention and treatment have also been discussed. Recently proposed HIFU-CHEM, which utilizes High Intensity Focused ultrasound (HIFU) guided by MRI in combination with temperature-sensitive nanomedicines has also been briefed. The study has been concluded with a focus on the innovations requiring an immediate attention that could improve the treatment modality of bone metastasis. PMID:24839990

  10. Global transcriptional responses to cisplatin in Dictyostelium discoideum identify potential drug targets

    PubMed Central

    Van Driessche, Nancy; Alexander, Hannah; Min, Junxia; Kuspa, Adam; Alexander, Stephen; Shaulsky, Gad

    2007-01-01

    Dictyostelium discoideum is a useful model for studying mechanisms of cisplatin drug sensitivity. Our previous findings, that mutations in sphingolipid metabolism genes confer cisplatin resistance in D. discoideum and in human cells, raised interest in the resistance mechanisms and their implications for cisplatin chemotherapy. Here we used expression microarrays to monitor physiological changes and to identify pathways that are affected by cisplatin treatment of D. discoideum. We found >400 genes whose regulation was altered by cisplatin treatment of wild-type cells, including groups of genes that participate in cell proliferation and in nucleotide and protein metabolism, showing that the cisplatin response is orderly and multifaceted. Transcriptional profiling of two isogenic cisplatin-resistant mutants, impaired in different sphingolipid metabolism steps, showed that the effect of cisplatin treatment was greater than the effect of the mutations, indicating that cisplatin resistance in the mutants is due to specific abilities to overcome the drug effects rather than to general drug insensitivity. Nevertheless, the mutants exhibited significantly different responses to cisplatin compared with the parent, and >200 genes accounted for that difference. Mutations in five cisplatin response genes (sgkB, csbA, acbA, smlA, and atg8) resulted in altered drug sensitivity, implicating novel pathways in cisplatin response. Our data illustrate how modeling complex cellular responses to drugs in genetically stable and tractable systems can uncover new targets with the potential for improving chemotherapy. PMID:17878305

  11. Sigma receptors: potential targets for a new class of antidepressant drug

    PubMed Central

    Fishback, James A.; Robson, Matthew J.; Xu, Yan-Tong; Matsumoto, Rae R.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the widespread and devastating impact of depression on society, our current understanding of its pathogenesis is limited. Likewise, existing treatments are inadequate, providing relief to only a subset of people suffering from depression. The search for more effective antidepressant drugs includes the investigation of new molecular targets. Among them, current data suggests that sigma receptors are involved in multiple processes effecting antidepressant-like actions in vivo and in vitro. This review summarizes accumulated evidence supporting a role for sigma receptors in antidepressant effects and provides a conceptual framework for delineating their potential roles over the course of antidepressant treatment. PMID:20438757

  12. The exploration of network motifs as potential drug targets from post-translational regulatory networks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Song, Jiangning; Bork, Peer; Zhao, Xing-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorylation and proteolysis are among the most common post-translational modifications (PTMs), and play critical roles in various biological processes. More recent discoveries imply that the crosstalks between these two PTMs are involved in many diseases. In this work, we construct a post-translational regulatory network (PTRN) consists of phosphorylation and proteolysis processes, which enables us to investigate the regulatory interplays between these two PTMs. With the PTRN, we identify some functional network motifs that are significantly enriched with drug targets, some of which are further found to contain multiple proteins targeted by combinatorial drugs. These findings imply that the network motifs may be used to predict targets when designing new drugs. Inspired by this, we propose a novel computational approach called NetTar for predicting drug targets using the identified network motifs. Benchmarking results on real data indicate that our approach can be used for accurate prediction of novel proteins targeted by known drugs. PMID:26853265

  13. The exploration of network motifs as potential drug targets from post-translational regulatory networks

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Song, Jiangning; Bork, Peer; Zhao, Xing-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorylation and proteolysis are among the most common post-translational modifications (PTMs), and play critical roles in various biological processes. More recent discoveries imply that the crosstalks between these two PTMs are involved in many diseases. In this work, we construct a post-translational regulatory network (PTRN) consists of phosphorylation and proteolysis processes, which enables us to investigate the regulatory interplays between these two PTMs. With the PTRN, we identify some functional network motifs that are significantly enriched with drug targets, some of which are further found to contain multiple proteins targeted by combinatorial drugs. These findings imply that the network motifs may be used to predict targets when designing new drugs. Inspired by this, we propose a novel computational approach called NetTar for predicting drug targets using the identified network motifs. Benchmarking results on real data indicate that our approach can be used for accurate prediction of novel proteins targeted by known drugs. PMID:26853265

  14. Metabonomic analysis of potential biomarkers and drug targets involved in diabetic nephropathy mice

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Tingting; Zhao, Liangcai; Jia, Jianmin; Xia, Huanhuan; Du, Yao; Lin, Qiuting; Lin, Xiaodong; Ye, Xinjian; Yan, Zhihan; Gao, Hongchang

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the lethal manifestations of diabetic systemic microvascular disease. Elucidation of characteristic metabolic alterations during diabetic progression is critical to understand its pathogenesis and identify potential biomarkers and drug targets involved in the disease. In this study, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR)-based metabonomics with correlative analysis was performed to study the characteristic metabolites, as well as the related pathways in urine and kidney samples of db/db diabetic mice, compared with age-matched wildtype mice. The time trajectory plot of db/db mice revealed alterations, in an age-dependent manner, in urinary metabolic profiles along with progression of renal damage and dysfunction. Age-dependent and correlated metabolite analysis identified that cis-aconitate and allantoin could serve as biomarkers for the diagnosis of DN. Further correlative analysis revealed that the enzymes dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH), guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase I (GTPCH I), and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA lyase (HMG-CoA lyase) were involved in dimethylamine metabolism, ketogenesis and GTP metabolism pathways, respectively, and could be potential therapeutic targets for DN. Our results highlight that metabonomic analysis can be used as a tool to identify potential biomarkers and novel therapeutic targets to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the initiation and progression of diseases. PMID:26149603

  15. Metabonomic analysis of potential biomarkers and drug targets involved in diabetic nephropathy mice.

    PubMed

    Wei, Tingting; Zhao, Liangcai; Jia, Jianmin; Xia, Huanhuan; Du, Yao; Lin, Qiuting; Lin, Xiaodong; Ye, Xinjian; Yan, Zhihan; Gao, Hongchang

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the lethal manifestations of diabetic systemic microvascular disease. Elucidation of characteristic metabolic alterations during diabetic progression is critical to understand its pathogenesis and identify potential biomarkers and drug targets involved in the disease. In this study, (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR)-based metabonomics with correlative analysis was performed to study the characteristic metabolites, as well as the related pathways in urine and kidney samples of db/db diabetic mice, compared with age-matched wildtype mice. The time trajectory plot of db/db mice revealed alterations, in an age-dependent manner, in urinary metabolic profiles along with progression of renal damage and dysfunction. Age-dependent and correlated metabolite analysis identified that cis-aconitate and allantoin could serve as biomarkers for the diagnosis of DN. Further correlative analysis revealed that the enzymes dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH), guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase I (GTPCH I), and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA lyase (HMG-CoA lyase) were involved in dimethylamine metabolism, ketogenesis and GTP metabolism pathways, respectively, and could be potential therapeutic targets for DN. Our results highlight that metabonomic analysis can be used as a tool to identify potential biomarkers and novel therapeutic targets to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the initiation and progression of diseases. PMID:26149603

  16. Hyperlipidemia, Disease Associations, and Top 10 Potential Drug Targets: A Network View.

    PubMed

    Rai, Sneha; Bhatnagar, Sonika

    2016-03-01

    The prevalence of acquired hyperlipidemia has increased due to sedentary life style and lipid-rich diet. In this work, a lipid-protein-protein interaction network (LPPIN) for acquired hyperlipidemia was prepared by incorporating differentially expressed genes in obese fatty liver as seed nodes, protein interactions from PathwayLinker, and lipid interactions from STITCH4.0. Cholesterol, diacylglycreol, phosphatidylinositol-bis-phosphate, and inositol triphosphate were identified as core lipids that influence the signaling pathways in the LPPIN. RACα serine/threonine-protein kinase (AKT1) was a highly essential central protein. The gastrin-CREB pathway was greatly enriched; all enriched pathways in the LPPIN showed crosstalk with the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-Akt pathway, correlating with the central role of AKT1 in the network. The disease clusters identified in the LPPIN were cardiovascular disease, cancer, Alzheimer's disease, and Type II diabetes. In this context, we note that the commercially approved drug targets for hyperlipidemia in each disease cluster may potentially be repurposed for treatment of the specific disease. We report here top 10 potential drug targets that may mediate progression from hyperlipidemia to the respective disease state. ToppGene Suite was employed to identify candidates followed by a) discarding high closeness centrality nodes, and b) selecting nodes with high bridging centrality. Three potential targets could be mapped to specific disease clusters in the LPPIN. Lipids associated with acquired hyperlipidemia and each disease cluster identified may be useful as prognostic fingerprints. These findings provide an integrative view of lipid-protein interactions leading to acquired hyperlipidemia and the associated diseases, and might prove useful in future translational pharmaceutical research. PMID:26983022

  17. The 5-HT7 receptor as a potential target for treating drug and alcohol abuse.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Sheketha R; Hedlund, Peter B; Roberts, Amanda J; Sari, Youssef; Bell, Richard L; Engleman, Eric A

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol and drug abuse take a large toll on society and affected individuals. However, very few effective treatments are currently available to treat alcohol and drug addiction. Basic and clinical research has begun to provide some insights into the underlying neurobiological systems involved in the addiction process. Several neurotransmitter pathways have been implicated and distinct reward neurocircuitry have been proposed-including the mesocorticolimbic dopamine (MCL-DA) system and the extended amygdala. The serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmitter system is of particular interest and multiple 5-HT receptors are thought to play significant roles in alcohol and drug self-administration and the development of drug dependence. Among the 5-HT receptors, the 5-HT7 receptor is currently undergoing characterization as a potential target for the treatment of several psychiatric disorders. Although this receptor has received only limited research regarding addictive behaviors, aspects of its neuroanatomical, biochemical, physiological, pharmacological, and behavioral profiles suggest that it could play a key role in the addiction process. For instance, genomic studies in humans have suggested a link between variants in the gene encoding the 5-HT7 receptor and alcoholism. Recent behavioral testing using high-affinity antagonists in mice and preliminary tests with alcohol-preferring rats suggest that this receptor could mediate alcohol consumption and/or reinforcement and play a role in seeking/craving behavior. Interest in the development of new and more selective pharmacological agents for this receptor will aid in examining the 5-HT7 receptor as a novel target for treating addiction. PMID:25628528

  18. The 5-HT7 receptor as a potential target for treating drug and alcohol abuse

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, Sheketha R.; Hedlund, Peter B.; Roberts, Amanda J.; Sari, Youssef; Bell, Richard L.; Engleman, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol and drug abuse take a large toll on society and affected individuals. However, very few effective treatments are currently available to treat alcohol and drug addiction. Basic and clinical research has begun to provide some insights into the underlying neurobiological systems involved in the addiction process. Several neurotransmitter pathways have been implicated and distinct reward neurocircuitry have been proposed—including the mesocorticolimbic dopamine (MCL-DA) system and the extended amygdala. The serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmitter system is of particular interest and multiple 5-HT receptors are thought to play significant roles in alcohol and drug self-administration and the development of drug dependence. Among the 5-HT receptors, the 5-HT7 receptor is currently undergoing characterization as a potential target for the treatment of several psychiatric disorders. Although this receptor has received only limited research regarding addictive behaviors, aspects of its neuroanatomical, biochemical, physiological, pharmacological, and behavioral profiles suggest that it could play a key role in the addiction process. For instance, genomic studies in humans have suggested a link between variants in the gene encoding the 5-HT7 receptor and alcoholism. Recent behavioral testing using high-affinity antagonists in mice and preliminary tests with alcohol-preferring rats suggest that this receptor could mediate alcohol consumption and/or reinforcement and play a role in seeking/craving behavior. Interest in the development of new and more selective pharmacological agents for this receptor will aid in examining the 5-HT7 receptor as a novel target for treating addiction. PMID:25628528

  19. Novel drugs that target the estrogen-related receptor alpha: their therapeutic potential in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    May, Felicity EB

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of breast cancer continues to rise: 1.7 million women were diagnosed with and 521,000 women died from breast cancer in 2012. This review considers first current treatment options: surgery; radiotherapy; and systemic endocrine, anti-biological, and cytotoxic therapies. Clinical management includes prevention, early detection by screening, treatment with curative intent, management of chronic disease, and palliative control of advanced breast cancer. Next, the potential of novel drugs that target DNA repair, growth factor dependence, intracellular and intercellular signal transduction, and cell cycle are considered. Estrogen-related receptor alpha has attracted attention as a therapeutic target in triple-negative breast cancers with de novo resistance to, and in breast cancers with acquired resistance to, endocrine therapies such as antiestrogens and aromatase inhibitors. Estrogen-related receptor alpha is an orphan receptor and transcription factor. Its activity is regulated by coregulator proteins and posttranslational modification. It is an energy sensor that controls adaptation to energy demand and may facilitate glycolytic metabolism and mitochondrial oxidative respiration in breast cancer cells. Estrogen-related receptor alpha increases breast cancer cell migration, proliferation, and tumor development. It is expressed at high levels in estrogen receptor-negative tumors, and is proposed to activate estrogen-responsive genes in endocrine-resistant tumors. The structures and functions of the ligand-binding domains of estrogen receptor alpha and estrogen-related receptor alpha, their ability to bind estrogens, phytoestrogens, and synthetic ligands, and the effects of ligand agonists, antagonists, and inverse agonists on biological activity, are evaluated. Synthetic ligands of estrogen-related receptor alpha have activity in preclinical models of metabolic disorders, diabetes, osteoporosis, and oncology. The clinical settings in which these novel

  20. Potential therapeutic drug target identification in Community Acquired-Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) using computational analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Pramod Kumar; Singh, Gurmit; Singh, Satendra; Gautam, Budhayash; Saad, Esmaiel IF

    2012-01-01

    The emergence of multidrug-resistant strain of community-acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) strain has highlighted the urgent need for the alternative and effective therapeutic approach to combat the menace of this nosocomial pathogen. In the present work novel potential therapeutic drug targets have been identified through the metabolic pathways analysis. All the gene products involved in different metabolic pathways of CA-MRSA in KEGG database were searched against the proteome of Homo sapiens using the BLASTp program and the threshold of E-value was set to as 0.001. After database searching, 152 putative targets were identified. Among all 152 putative targets, 39 genes encoding for putative targets were identified as the essential genes from the DEG database which are indispensable for the survival of CA-MRSA. After extensive literature review, 7 targets were identified as potential therapeutic drug target. These targets are Fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, Phosphoglyceromutase, Purine nucleoside phosphorylase, Uridylate kinase, Tryptophan synthase subunit beta, Acetate kinase and UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 1-carboxyvinyltransferase. Except Uridylate kinase all the identified targets were involved in more than one metabolic pathways of CA-MRSA which underlines the importance of drug targets. These potential therapeutic drug targets can be exploited for the discovery of novel inhibitors for CA-MRSA using the structure based drug design (SBDD) strategy. PMID:23055607

  1. Characterisation of the Candida albicans Phosphopantetheinyl Transferase Ppt2 as a Potential Antifungal Drug Target

    PubMed Central

    Dobb, Katharine S.; Kaye, Sarah J.; Beckmann, Nicola; Thain, John L.; Stateva, Lubomira; Birch, Mike; Oliver, Jason D.

    2015-01-01

    Antifungal drugs acting via new mechanisms of action are urgently needed to combat the increasing numbers of severe fungal infections caused by pathogens such as Candida albicans. The phosphopantetheinyl transferase of Aspergillus fumigatus, encoded by the essential gene pptB, has previously been identified as a potential antifungal target. This study investigated the function of its orthologue in C. albicans, PPT2/C1_09480W by placing one allele under the control of the regulatable MET3 promoter, and deleting the remaining allele. The phenotypes of this conditional null mutant showed that, as in A. fumigatus, the gene PPT2 is essential for growth in C. albicans, thus fulfilling one aspect of an efficient antifungal target. The catalytic activity of Ppt2 as a phosphopantetheinyl transferase and the acyl carrier protein Acp1 as a substrate were demonstrated in a fluorescence transfer assay, using recombinant Ppt2 and Acp1 produced and purified from E.coli. A fluorescence polarisation assay amenable to high-throughput screening was also developed. Therefore we have identified Ppt2 as a broad-spectrum novel antifungal target and developed tools to identify inhibitors as potentially new antifungal compounds. PMID:26606674

  2. Plasmodium falciparum glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase 6-phosphogluconolactonase is a potential drug target.

    PubMed

    Allen, Stacey M; Lim, Erin E; Jortzik, Esther; Preuss, Janina; Chua, Hwa Huat; MacRae, James I; Rahlfs, Stefan; Haeussler, Kristina; Downton, Matthew T; McConville, Malcolm J; Becker, Katja; Ralph, Stuart A

    2015-10-01

    The malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum is exposed to substantial redox challenges during its complex life cycle. In intraerythrocytic parasites, haemoglobin breakdown is a major source of reactive oxygen species. Deficiencies in human glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, the initial enzyme in the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), lead to a disturbed redox equilibrium in infected erythrocytes and partial protection against severe malaria. In P. falciparum, the first two reactions of the PPP are catalysed by the bifunctional enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase 6-phosphogluconolactonase (PfGluPho). This enzyme differs structurally from its human counterparts and represents a potential target for drugs. In the present study we used epitope tagging of endogenous PfGluPho to verify that the enzyme localises to the parasite cytosol. Furthermore, attempted double crossover disruption of the PfGluPho gene indicates that the enzyme is essential for the growth of blood stage parasites. As a further step towards targeting PfGluPho pharmacologically, ellagic acid was characterised as a potent PfGluPho inhibitor with an IC50 of 76 nM. Interestingly, pro-oxidative drugs or treatment of the parasites with H2O2 only slightly altered PfGluPho expression or activity under the conditions tested. Furthermore, metabolic profiling suggested that pro-oxidative drugs do not significantly perturb the abundance of PPP intermediates. These data indicate that PfGluPho is essential in asexual parasites, but that the oxidative arm of the PPP is not strongly regulated in response to oxidative challenge. PMID:26198663

  3. Exploring the Trypanosoma brucei Hsp83 Potential as a Target for Structure Guided Drug Design

    PubMed Central

    Pizarro, Juan Carlos; Hills, Tanya; Senisterra, Guillermo; Wernimont, Amy K.; Mackenzie, Claire; Norcross, Neil R.; Ferguson, Michael A. J.; Wyatt, Paul G.; Gilbert, Ian H.; Hui, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis is a neglected parasitic disease that is fatal if untreated. The current drugs available to eliminate the causative agent Trypanosoma brucei have multiple liabilities, including toxicity, increasing problems due to treatment failure and limited efficacy. There are two approaches to discover novel antimicrobial drugs - whole-cell screening and target-based discovery. In the latter case, there is a need to identify and validate novel drug targets in Trypanosoma parasites. The heat shock proteins (Hsp), while best known as cancer targets with a number of drug candidates in clinical development, are a family of emerging targets for infectious diseases. In this paper, we report the exploration of T. brucei Hsp83 – a homolog of human Hsp90 – as a drug target using multiple biophysical and biochemical techniques. Our approach included the characterization of the chemical sensitivity of the parasitic chaperone against a library of known Hsp90 inhibitors by means of differential scanning fluorimetry (DSF). Several compounds identified by this screening procedure were further studied using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and X-ray crystallography, as well as tested in parasite growth inhibitions assays. These experiments led us to the identification of a benzamide derivative compound capable of interacting with TbHsp83 more strongly than with its human homologs and structural rationalization of this selectivity. The results highlight the opportunities created by subtle structural differences to develop new series of compounds to selectively target the Trypanosoma brucei chaperone and effectively kill the sleeping sickness parasite. PMID:24147171

  4. Entamoeba thiol-based redox metabolism: A potential target for drug development.

    PubMed

    Jeelani, Ghulam; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Amebiasis is an intestinal infection widespread throughout the world caused by the human pathogen Entamoeba histolytica. Metronidazole has been a drug of choice against amebiasis for decades despite its low efficacy against asymptomatic cyst carriers and emergence of resistance in other protozoa with similar anaerobic metabolism. Therefore, identification and characterization of specific targets is urgently needed to design new therapeutics for improved treatment against amebiasis. Toward this goal, thiol-dependent redox metabolism is of particular interest. The thiol-dependent redox metabolism in E. histolytica consists of proteins including peroxiredoxin, rubrerythrin, Fe-superoxide dismutase, flavodiiron proteins, NADPH: flavin oxidoreductase, and amino acids including l-cysteine, S-methyl-l-cysteine, and thioprolines (thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acids). E. histolytica completely lacks glutathione and its metabolism, and l-cysteine is the major intracellular low molecular mass thiol. Moreover, this parasite possesses a functional thioredoxin system consisting of thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase, which is a ubiquitous oxidoreductase system with antioxidant and redox regulatory roles. In this review, we summarize and highlight the thiol-based redox metabolism and its control mechanisms in E. histolytica, in particular, the features of the system unique to E. histolytica, and its potential use for drug development against amebiasis. PMID:26775086

  5. Molecular and Kinetic Characterization of Babesia microti Gray Strain Lactate Dehydrogenase as a Potential Drug Target

    PubMed Central

    Vudriko, Patrick; Masatani, Tatsunori; Cao, Shinuo; Terkawi, Mohamad Alla; Kamyingkird, Ketsarin; Mousa, Ahmed A; Adjou Moumouni, Paul F; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi; Xuan, Xuenan

    2014-01-01

    Babesia microti is an emerging zoonotic protozoan organism that causes “malaria-like” symptoms that can be fatal in immunocompromised people. Owing to lack of specific therapeutic regiment against the disease, we cloned and characterized B. microti lactate dehydrogenase (BmLDH) as a potential molecular drug receptor. The in vitro kinetic properties of BmLDH enzyme was evaluated using nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) as a co-factor and lactate as a substrate. Inhibitory assay was also done using gossypol as BmLDH inhibitor to determine the inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50). The result showed that the 0.99 kbp BmLDH gene codes for a barely soluble 36 kDa protein (332 amino acids) localized in both the cytoplasm and nucleus of the parasite. In vitro enzyme kinetic studies further revealed that BmLDH is an active enzyme with a high catalytic efficiency at optimal pH of 10.2. The Km values of NAD+ and lactate were 8.7 ± 0.57 mM and 99.9 ± 22.33 mM, respectively. The IC50 value for gossypol was 0.345 μM, while at 2.5 μM, gossypol caused 100% inhibition of BmLDH catalytic activity. These findings, therefore, provide initial evidence that BmLDH could be a potential drug target, although further in vivo studies are needed to validate the practical application of lactate dehydrogenase inhibitors against B. microti infection. PMID:25125971

  6. Potential application of functional porous TiO2 nanoparticles in light-controlled drug release and targeted drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tianyi; Jiang, Haitao; Wan, Long; Zhao, Qinfu; Jiang, Tongying; Wang, Bing; Wang, Siling

    2015-02-01

    Novel multifunctional porous titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles modified with polyethylenimine (PEI) were developed to explore the feasibility of exploiting the photocatalytic property of titanium dioxide to achieve ultraviolet (UV) light triggered drug release. Additionally, in order to further realize targeting delivery, folic acid, which chemically conjugated to the surface of the functionalized multifunctional porous TiO2 nanoparticles through amide linkage with free amine groups of PEI, was used as a cancer-targeting agent to effectively promote cancer-cell-specific uptake through receptor-mediated endocytosis. And a typical poorly water-soluble anti-cancer drug, paclitaxel, was encapsulated in multifunctional porous TiO2 nanoparticles. The PEI on the surface of multifunctional porous TiO2 nanoparticles could effectively block the channel to prevent premature drug release, thus providing enough circulation time to target cancer cells. Following UV light radiation, PEI molecules on the surface were cut off by the free radicals (OH˙ and O2-) that TiO2 produced, and then the drug loaded in the carrier was released rapidly into the cytoplasm. Importantly, the amount of drug released from multifunctional porous TiO2 nanoparticles can be regulated by the UV-light radiation time to further control the anti-cancer effect. This multifunctional porous TiO2 nanoparticle exhibits a combination of stimuli-triggered drug release and cancer cell targeting. The authors believe that the present study will provide important information for the use of porous TiO2 nanomaterials in light-controlled drug release and targeted therapy. PMID:25462846

  7. Microbial Peptidyl-Prolyl cis/trans Isomerases (PPIases): Virulence Factors and Potential Alternative Drug Targets

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Initially discovered in the context of immunomodulation, peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerases (PPIases) were soon identified as enzymes catalyzing the rate-limiting protein folding step at peptidyl bonds preceding proline residues. Intense searches revealed that PPIases are a superfamily of proteins consisting of three structurally distinguishable families with representatives in every described species of prokaryote and eukaryote and, recently, even in some giant viruses. Despite the clear-cut enzymatic activity and ubiquitous distribution of PPIases, reports on solely PPIase-dependent biological roles remain scarce. Nevertheless, they have been found to be involved in a plethora of biological processes, such as gene expression, signal transduction, protein secretion, development, and tissue regeneration, underscoring their general importance. Hence, it is not surprising that PPIases have also been identified as virulence-associated proteins. The extent of contribution to virulence is highly variable and dependent on the pleiotropic roles of a single PPIase in the respective pathogen. The main objective of this review is to discuss this variety in virulence-related bacterial and protozoan PPIases as well as the involvement of host PPIases in infectious processes. Moreover, a special focus is given to Legionella pneumophila macrophage infectivity potentiator (Mip) and Mip-like PPIases of other pathogens, as the best-characterized virulence-related representatives of this family. Finally, the potential of PPIases as alternative drug targets and first tangible results are highlighted. PMID:25184565

  8. Phytochemical-mediated Protein Expression Profiling and the Potential Applications in Therapeutic Drug Target Identifications.

    PubMed

    Wong, Fai-Chu; Tan, Siok-Thing; Chai, Tsun-Thai

    2016-07-29

    Many phytochemicals derived from edible medicinal plants have been investigated intensively for their various bioactivities. However, the detailed mechanism and their corresponding molecular targets frequently remain elusive. In this review, we present a summary of the research works done on phytochemical-mediated molecular targets, identified via proteomic approach. Concurrently, we also highlighted some pharmaceutical drugs which could be traced back to their origins in phytochemicals. For ease of presentation, these identified protein targets were categorized into two important healthcare-related fields, namely anti-bacterial and anti-cancer research. Through this review, we hope to highlight the usefulness of comparative proteomic as a powerful tool in phytochemical-mediated protein target identifications. Likewise, we wish to inspire further investigations on some of these protein targets identified over the last few years. With contributions from all researchers, the accumulative efforts could eventually lead to the discovery of some target-specific, low-toxicity therapeutic agents. PMID:26193174

  9. Comparative analyses of the proteins from Mycobacterium tuberculosis and human genomes: Identification of potential tuberculosis drug targets.

    PubMed

    Sridhar, Settu; Dash, Pallabini; Guruprasad, Kunchur

    2016-03-15

    Tuberculosis, one of the major infectious diseases affecting human beings is caused by the bacillus Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Increased resistance to known drugs commonly used for the treatment of tuberculosis has created an urgent need to identify new targets for validation and to develop drugs. In this study, we have used various bioinformatics tools, to compare the protein sequences from twenty-three M. tuberculosis genome strains along with the known human protein sequences, in order to identify the 'conserved' M. tuberculosis proteins absent in human. Further, based on the analysis of protein interaction networks, we selected one-hundred and forty proteins that were predicted as potential M. tuberculosis drug targets and prioritized according to the ranking of 'clusters' of interacting proteins. Comparison of the predicted 140 TB targets with literature indicated that 46 of them were previously reported, thereby increasing the confidence in our predictions of the remaining 94 targets too. The analyses of the structures and functions corresponding to the predicted potential TB drug targets indicated a diverse range of proteins that included ten 'druggable' targets with some of the known drugs. PMID:26762852

  10. The clinicopathological significance and potential drug target of E-cadherin in NSCLC.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Kaize; Chen, Weiwen; Xiao, Ning; Zhao, Jian

    2015-08-01

    Human epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin), a member of transmembrane glycoprotein family, encoded by the E-cadherin gene, plays a key role in cell-cell adhesion, adherent junction in normal epithelial tissues, contributing to tissue differentiation and homeostasis. Although previous studies indicated that inactivation of the E-cadherin is mainly induced by hypermethylation of E-cadherin gene, evidence concerning E-cadherin hypermethylation in the carcinogenesis and development of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) remains controversial. In this study, we conducted a meta-analysis to quantitatively evaluate the effects of E-cadherin hypermethylation on the incidence and clinicopathological characteristics of NSCLC. A comprehensive search of PubMed and Embase databases was performed up to October 2014. Analyses of pooled data were performed. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated and summarized. Our meta-analysis combining 18 published articles demonstrated that the hypermethylation frequencies in NSCLC were significantly higher than those in normal control tissues, OR = 3.55, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1.98-6.36, p < 0.0001. Further analysis showed that E-cadherin hypermethylation was not strongly associated with the sex or smoking status in NSCLC patients. In addition, E-cadherin hypermethylation was also not strongly associated with pathological types, differentiated status, clinical stages, or metastatic status in NSCLC patients. The results from the current study indicate that the hypermethylation frequency of E-cadherin in NSCLC is strongly associated with NSCLC incidence and it may be an early event in carcinogenesis of NSCLC. We also discussed the potential value of E-cadherin as a drug target that may bring new direction and hope for cancer treatment through gene-targeted therapy. PMID:25758052

  11. The AEROPATH project targeting Pseudomonas aeruginosa: crystallographic studies for assessment of potential targets in early-stage drug discovery

    PubMed Central

    Moynie, Lucille; Schnell, Robert; McMahon, Stephen A.; Sandalova, Tatyana; Boulkerou, Wassila Abdelli; Schmidberger, Jason W.; Alphey, Magnus; Cukier, Cyprian; Duthie, Fraser; Kopec, Jolanta; Liu, Huanting; Jacewicz, Agata; Hunter, William N.; Naismith, James H.; Schneider, Gunter

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial infections are increasingly difficult to treat owing to the spread of antibiotic resistance. A major concern is Gram-negative bacteria, for which the discovery of new antimicrobial drugs has been particularly scarce. In an effort to accelerate early steps in drug discovery, the EU-funded AEROPATH project aims to identify novel targets in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa by applying a multidisciplinary approach encompassing target validation, structural characterization, assay development and hit identification from small-molecule libraries. Here, the strategies used for target selection are described and progress in protein production and structure analysis is reported. Of the 102 selected targets, 84 could be produced in soluble form and the de novo structures of 39 proteins have been determined. The crystal structures of eight of these targets, ranging from hypothetical unknown proteins to metabolic enzymes from different functional classes (PA1645, PA1648, PA2169, PA3770, PA4098, PA4485, PA4992 and PA5259), are reported here. The structural information is expected to provide a firm basis for the improvement of hit compounds identified from fragment-based and high-throughput screening campaigns. PMID:23295481

  12. Targeting the Toll of Drug Abuse: The Translational Potential of Toll-Like Receptor 4.

    PubMed

    Bachtell, Ryan; Hutchinson, Mark R; Wang, Xiaohui; Rice, Kenner C; Maier, Steven F; Watkins, Linda R

    2015-01-01

    There is growing recognition that glial proinflammatory activation importantly contributes to the rewarding and reinforcing effects of a variety of drugs of abuse, including cocaine, methamphetamine, opioids, and alcohol. It has recently been proposed that glia are recognizing, and becoming activated by, such drugs as a CNS immunological response to these agents being xenobiotics; that is, substances foreign to the brain. Activation of glia, primarily microglia, by various drugs of abuse occurs via toll like receptor 4 (TLR4). The detection of such xenobiotics by TLR4 results in the release of glial neuroexcitatory and neurotoxic substances. These glial products of TLR4 activation enhance neuronal excitability within brain reward circuitry, thereby enhancing their rewarding and reinforcing effects. Indeed, selective pharmacological blockade of TLR4 activation, such as with the non-opioid TLR4 antagonist (+)-naltrexone, suppresses a number of indices of drug reward/reinforcement. These include: conditioned place preference, self-administration, drugprimed reinstatement, incubation of craving, and elevations of nucleus accumbens shell dopamine. Notably, TLR4 blockade fails to alter self-administration of food, indicative of a selective effect on drugs of abuse. Genetic disruption of TLR4 signaling recapitulates the effects of pharmacological TLR4 blockade, providing converging lines of evidence of a central importance of TLR4. Taken together, multiple lines of evidence converge to raise TLR4 as a promising therapeutic target for drug abuse. PMID:26022268

  13. Drug addiction: targeting dynamic neuroimmune receptor interactions as a potential therapeutic strategy.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Jonathan Henry W; Hutchinson, Mark R; Mustafa, Sanam

    2016-02-01

    Drug addiction and dependence have proven to be difficult psychiatric disorders to treat. The limited efficacy of neuronally acting medications, such as acamprosate and naltrexone, highlights the need to identify novel targets. Recent research has underscored the importance of the neuroimmune system in many behavioural manifestations of drug addiction. In this review, we propose that our appreciation for complex phenotypes such as drug addiction and dependence will come with a greater understanding that these disorders are the result of intricate, interconnected signalling pathways that are, if only partially, determined at the receptor level. The idea of receptor heteromerisation and receptor mosaics will be introduced to explain cross talk between the receptors and signalling molecules implicated in neuroimmune signalling pathways. PMID:26657076

  14. A novel antidiabetic therapy: free fatty acid receptors as potential drug target.

    PubMed

    Sekiguchi, Hiroki; Kasubuchi, Mayu; Hasegawa, Sae; Pelisch, Nicolas; Kimura, Ikuo; Ichimura, Atsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Excessive dietary intake of fat is strongly involved in the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Free fatty acids (FFAs), which are provided from dietary fat, are not only important nutrients, but also act as signaling molecules and stimulate key biological functions. Recent physiological and pharmacological studies have shown that several G-protein coupled receptors, such as FFAR1-4, are receptors for FFAs. FFAR1 and FFAR4 are activated by medium- and long-chain fatty acids, whereas FFAR2 and FFAR3 are activated by short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). These FFA receptors (FFARs) mediate various physiological functions, depending on the carbon chain length of the FFAs and the ligand specificity of the FFARs. Functional analyses have revealed that FFARs mediate important metabolic functions, such as peptide hormone secretion and inflammation, and thereby contribute to energy homeostasis. Since imbalances in energy homeostasis lead to metabolic disorders, such as obesity and T2D, FFARs are considered to be key therapeutic targets in these diseases. In particular, recent studies have shown that the administration of selective agonists of FFAR1 and FFAR4 improved glucose metabolism and ameliorated systemic metabolic disorders. Furthermore, the biological functions of SCFAs in anti-inflammation and energy metabolism are linked with the activation of FFAR2 and FFAR3. Hence, in this review, we summarize the physiological functions of FFARs and discuss the potential of selective ligands of FFARs for development as drugs to treat metabolic disorders, such as T2D and obesity. PMID:25732031

  15. NAD(P) biosynthesis enzymes as potential targets for selective drug design.

    PubMed

    Magni, G; Di Stefano, M; Orsomando, G; Raffaelli, N; Ruggieri, S

    2009-01-01

    NAD(P) biosynthetic pathways can be considered a generous source of enzymatic targets for drug development. Key reactions for NAD(P) biosynthesis in all organisms, common to both de novo and salvage routes, are catalyzed by NMN/NaMN adenylyltransferase (NMNAT), NAD synthetase (NADS), and NAD kinase (NADK). These reactions represent a three-step pathway, present in the vast majority of living organisms, which is responsible for the generation of both NAD and NADP cellular pools. The validation of these enzymes as drug targets is based on their essentiality and conservation among a large variety of pathogenic microorganisms, as well as on their differential structural features or their differential metabolic contribution to NAD(P) homeostasis between microbial and human cell types. This review describes the structural and functional properties of eubacterial and human enzymes endowed with NMNAT, NADS, and NADK activities, as well as with nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NamPRT) and nicotinamide riboside kinase (NRK) activities, highlighting the species-related differences, with emphasis on their relevance for drug design. In addition, since the overall NMNAT activity in humans is accounted by multiple isozymes differentially involved in the metabolic activation of antineoplastic compounds, their individual diagnostic value for early therapy optimization is outlined. The involvement of human NMNAT in neurodegenerative disorders and its role in neuroprotection is also discussed. PMID:19355893

  16. Identification of Potential Drug Targets in Cancer Signaling Pathways using Stochastic Logical Models

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Peican; Aliabadi, Hamidreza Montazeri; Uludağ, Hasan; Han, Jie

    2016-01-01

    The investigation of vulnerable components in a signaling pathway can contribute to development of drug therapy addressing aberrations in that pathway. Here, an original signaling pathway is derived from the published literature on breast cancer models. New stochastic logical models are then developed to analyze the vulnerability of the components in multiple signalling sub-pathways involved in this signaling cascade. The computational results are consistent with the experimental results, where the selected proteins were silenced using specific siRNAs and the viability of the cells were analyzed 72 hours after silencing. The genes elF4E and NFkB are found to have nearly no effect on the relative cell viability and the genes JAK2, Stat3, S6K, JUN, FOS, Myc, and Mcl1 are effective candidates to influence the relative cell growth. The vulnerabilities of some targets such as Myc and S6K are found to vary significantly depending on the weights of the sub-pathways; this will be indicative of the chosen target to require customization for therapy. When these targets are utilized, the response of breast cancers from different patients will be highly variable because of the known heterogeneities in signaling pathways among the patients. The targets whose vulnerabilities are invariably high might be more universally acceptable targets. PMID:26988076

  17. The β-ketoacyl-ACP synthase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis as potential drug targets.

    PubMed

    Singh, V; Mani, I; Chaudhary, D K; Somvanshi, P

    2011-01-01

    The continuous preventive measures and control of tuberculosis are often hampered by re-emergence of multi-drug-resistant (MDR) strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A novel drug approach is desperately needed to combat the global threat posed by MDR strains. In spite of current advancement in biological techniques viz. microarray and proteomics data for tuberculosis, no such potent drug has been developed in the past decades yet. Therefore, mycolic acid is an essential constituent which is involved in the formation of cell wall of Mycobacterium species. The biosynthesis of mycolic acid is involved in two fatty acid synthase systems, the multifunctional polypeptide fatty acid synthase I (FASI) which performs de novo fatty acid synthesis and dissociate FASII system. FASII system consists of monofunctional enzymes and acyl carrier protein (ACP), elongating FASI products to long chain mycolic acid precursor. In this review, the β-ketoacyl-ACP synthases (fadH, kasA and kasB) are distinct and play a vital role in mycolic acid synthesis, cell wall synthesis, biofilm formation and also pathogenesis. On the basis of substantial observation we suggest that these enzymes may be used as promising and attractive targets for novel anti-TB drugs designing and discovery. PMID:21370994

  18. Genomic profiling of murine mammary tumors identifies potential personalized drug targets for p53-deficient mammary cancers

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Yash N.; Koboldt, Daniel C.; Kanchi, Krishna L.; Herschkowitz, Jason I.; Mardis, Elaine R.; Rosen, Jeffrey M.; Perou, Charles M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Targeted therapies against basal-like breast tumors, which are typically ‘triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs)’, remain an important unmet clinical need. Somatic TP53 mutations are the most common genetic event in basal-like breast tumors and TNBC. To identify additional drivers and possible drug targets of this subtype, a comparative study between human and murine tumors was performed by utilizing a murine Trp53-null mammary transplant tumor model. We show that two subsets of murine Trp53-null mammary transplant tumors resemble aspects of the human basal-like subtype. DNA-microarray, whole-genome and exome-based sequencing approaches were used to interrogate the secondary genetic aberrations of these tumors, which were then compared to human basal-like tumors to identify conserved somatic genetic features. DNA copy-number variation produced the largest number of conserved candidate personalized drug targets. These candidates were filtered using a DNA-RNA Pearson correlation cut-off and a requirement that the gene was deemed essential in at least 5% of human breast cancer cell lines from an RNA-mediated interference screen database. Five potential personalized drug target genes, which were spontaneously amplified loci in both murine and human basal-like tumors, were identified: Cul4a, Lamp1, Met, Pnpla6 and Tubgcp3. As a proof of concept, inhibition of Met using crizotinib caused Met-amplified murine tumors to initially undergo complete regression. This study identifies Met as a promising drug target in a subset of murine Trp53-null tumors, thus identifying a potential shared driver with a subset of human basal-like breast cancers. Our results also highlight the importance of comparative genomic studies for discovering personalized drug targets and for providing a preclinical model for further investigations of key tumor signaling pathways. PMID:27149990

  19. DNA G-quadruplex and its potential as anticancer drug target

    PubMed Central

    Buket, ONEL; Clement, LIN; DanZhou, YANG

    2016-01-01

    G-quadruplex secondary structures are four-stranded globular nucleic acid structures form in the specific DNA and RNA G-rich sequences with biological significance such as human telomeres, oncogene-promoter regions, replication initiation sites, and 5′ and 3′-untranslated (UTR) regions. The non-canonical G-quadruplex secondary structures can readily form under physiologically relevant ionic conditions and are considered to be new molecular target for cancer therapeutics. This review discusses the essential progress in our lab related to the structures and functions of biologically relevant DNA G-quadruplexes in human gene promoters and telomeres, and the opportunities presented for the development of G-quadruplex-targeted small- molecule drugs. PMID:27182219

  20. Brucella melitensis Methionyl-tRNA-Synthetase (MetRS), a Potential Drug Target for Brucellosis

    PubMed Central

    Ranade, Ranae M.; Zhang, Zhongsheng; Dranow, David M.; Myers, Janette B.; Choi, Ryan; Nakazawa Hewitt, Steve; Edwards, Thomas E.; Davies, Douglas R.; Lorimer, Donald; Boyle, Stephen M.; Barrett, Lynn K.; Buckner, Frederick S.; Fan, Erkang; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated Brucella melitensis methionyl-tRNA-synthetase (BmMetRS) with molecular, structural and phenotypic methods to learn if BmMetRS is a promising target for brucellosis drug development. Recombinant BmMetRS was expressed, purified from wild type Brucella melitensis biovar Abortus 2308 strain ATCC/CRP #DD-156 and screened by a thermal melt assay against a focused library of one hundred previously classified methionyl-tRNA-synthetase inhibitors of the blood stage form of Trypanosoma brucei. Three compounds showed appreciable shift of denaturation temperature and were selected for further studies on inhibition of the recombinant enzyme activity and cell viability against wild type B. melitensis strain 16M. BmMetRS protein complexed with these three inhibitors resolved into three-dimensional crystal structures and was analyzed. All three selected methionyl-tRNA-synthetase compounds inhibit recombinant BmMetRS enzymatic functions in an aminoacylation assay at varying concentrations. Furthermore, growth inhibition of B. melitensis strain 16M by the compounds was shown. Inhibitor-BmMetRS crystal structure models were used to illustrate the molecular basis of the enzyme inhibition. Our current data suggests that BmMetRS is a promising target for brucellosis drug development. However, further studies are needed to optimize lead compound potency, efficacy and safety as well as determine the pharmacokinetics, optimal dosage, and duration for effective treatment. PMID:27500735

  1. Identification of potential drug targets by subtractive genome analysis of Escherichia coli O157:H7: an in silico approach.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Shakhinur Islam; Ferdous, Sabiha; Jewel, Nurnabi Azad; Akter, Arzuba; Mahmud, Zabed; Islam, Md Muzahidul; Afrin, Tanzila; Karim, Nurul

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial enteric infections resulting in diarrhea, dysentery, or enteric fever constitute a huge public health problem, with more than a billion episodes of disease annually in developing and developed countries. In this study, the deadly agent of hemorrhagic diarrhea and hemolytic uremic syndrome, Escherichia coli O157:H7 was investigated with extensive computational approaches aimed at identifying novel and broad-spectrum antibiotic targets. A systematic in silico workflow consisting of comparative genomics, metabolic pathways analysis, and additional drug prioritizing parameters was used to identify novel drug targets that were essential for the pathogen's survival but absent in its human host. Comparative genomic analysis of Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes annotated metabolic pathways identified 350 putative target proteins in E. coli O157:H7 which showed no similarity to human proteins. Further bio-informatic approaches including prediction of subcellular localization, calculation of molecular weight, and web-based investigation of 3D structural characteristics greatly aided in filtering the potential drug targets from 350 to 120. Ultimately, 44 non-homologous essential proteins of E. coli O157:H7 were prioritized and proved to have the eligibility to become novel broad-spectrum antibiotic targets and DNA polymerase III alpha (dnaE) was the top-ranked among these targets. Moreover, druggability of each of the identified drug targets was evaluated by the DrugBank database. In addition, 3D structure of the dnaE was modeled and explored further for in silico docking with ligands having potential druggability. Finally, we confirmed that the compounds N-coeleneterazine and N-(1,4-dihydro-5H-tetrazol-5-ylidene)-9-oxo-9H-xanthene-2-sulfon-amide were the most suitable ligands of dnaE and hence proposed as the potential inhibitors of this target protein. The results of this study could facilitate the discovery and release of new and effective drugs against E

  2. Identification of potential drug targets by subtractive genome analysis of Escherichia coli O157:H7: an in silico approach

    PubMed Central

    Mondal, Shakhinur Islam; Ferdous, Sabiha; Jewel, Nurnabi Azad; Akter, Arzuba; Mahmud, Zabed; Islam, Md Muzahidul; Afrin, Tanzila; Karim, Nurul

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial enteric infections resulting in diarrhea, dysentery, or enteric fever constitute a huge public health problem, with more than a billion episodes of disease annually in developing and developed countries. In this study, the deadly agent of hemorrhagic diarrhea and hemolytic uremic syndrome, Escherichia coli O157:H7 was investigated with extensive computational approaches aimed at identifying novel and broad-spectrum antibiotic targets. A systematic in silico workflow consisting of comparative genomics, metabolic pathways analysis, and additional drug prioritizing parameters was used to identify novel drug targets that were essential for the pathogen’s survival but absent in its human host. Comparative genomic analysis of Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes annotated metabolic pathways identified 350 putative target proteins in E. coli O157:H7 which showed no similarity to human proteins. Further bio-informatic approaches including prediction of subcellular localization, calculation of molecular weight, and web-based investigation of 3D structural characteristics greatly aided in filtering the potential drug targets from 350 to 120. Ultimately, 44 non-homologous essential proteins of E. coli O157:H7 were prioritized and proved to have the eligibility to become novel broad-spectrum antibiotic targets and DNA polymerase III alpha (dnaE) was the top-ranked among these targets. Moreover, druggability of each of the identified drug targets was evaluated by the DrugBank database. In addition, 3D structure of the dnaE was modeled and explored further for in silico docking with ligands having potential druggability. Finally, we confirmed that the compounds N-coeleneterazine and N-(1,4-dihydro-5H-tetrazol-5-ylidene)-9-oxo-9H-xanthene-2-sulfon-amide were the most suitable ligands of dnaE and hence proposed as the potential inhibitors of this target protein. The results of this study could facilitate the discovery and release of new and effective drugs against E

  3. The Metaboloepigenetic Dimension of Cancer Stem Cells: Evaluating the Market Potential for New Metabostemness-Targeting Oncology Drugs.

    PubMed

    Menendez, Javier A

    2015-01-01

    The current global portfolio of oncology drugs is unlikely to produce durable disease remission for millions of cancer patients worldwide. This is due, in part, to the existence of so-called cancer stem cells (CSCs), a particularly aggressive type of malignant cell that is capable of indefinite self-replication, is refractory to conventional treatments, and is skilled at spreading and colonizing distant organs. To date, no drugs from big-league Pharma companies are capable of killing CSCs. Why? Quite simply, a classic drug development approach based on mutated genes and pathological protein products cannot efficiently target the plastic, epigenetic proclivity of cancer tissues to generate CSCs. Recent studies have proposed that certain elite metabolites (oncometabolites) and other common metabolites can significantly influence the establishment and maintenance of epigenetic signatures of stemness and cancer. Consequently, cellular metabolism and the core epigenetic codes, DNA methylation and histone modification, can be better viewed as an integrated metaboloepigenetic dimension of CSCs, which we have recently termed cancer metabostemness. By targeting weaknesses in the bridge connecting metabolism and epigenetics, a new generation of metabostemnessspecific drugs can be generated for potent and long-lasting elimination of life-threatening CSCs. Here I evaluate the market potential of re-modeling the oncology drug pipeline by discovering and developing new metabolic approaches able to target the apparently undruggable epigenetic programs that dynamically regulate the plasticity of non-CSC and CSC cellular states. PMID:26166605

  4. NPY receptors as potential targets for anti-obesity drug development

    PubMed Central

    Yulyaningsih, Ernie; Zhang, Lei; Herzog, Herbert; Sainsbury, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    The neuropeptide Y system has proven to be one of the most important regulators of feeding behaviour and energy homeostasis, thus presenting great potential as a therapeutic target for the treatment of disorders such as obesity and at the other extreme, anorexia. Due to the initial lack of pharmacological tools that are active in vivo, functions of the different Y receptors have been mainly studied in knockout and transgenic mouse models. However, over recent years various Y receptor selective peptidic and non-peptidic agonists and antagonists have been developed and tested. Their therapeutic potential in relation to treating obesity and other disorders of energy homeostasis is discussed in this review. PMID:21545413

  5. Giardia fatty acyl-CoA synthetases as potential drug targets

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Fengguang; Ortega-Pierres, Guadalupe; Argüello-García, Raúl; Zhang, Haili; Zhu, Guan

    2015-01-01

    Giardiasis caused by Giardia intestinalis (syn. G. lamblia, G. duodenalis) is one of the leading causes of diarrheal parasitic diseases worldwide. Although limited drugs to treat giardiasis are available, there are concerns regarding toxicity in some patients and the emerging drug resistance. By data-mining genome sequences, we observed that G. intestinalis is incapable of synthesizing fatty acids (FA) de novo. However, this parasite has five long-chain fatty acyl-CoA synthetases (GiACS1 to GiACS5) to activate FA scavenged from the host. ACS is an essential enzyme because FA need to be activated to form acyl-CoA thioesters before they can enter subsequent metabolism. In the present study, we performed experiments to explore whether some GiACS enzymes could serve as drug targets in Giardia. Based on the high-throughput datasets and protein modeling analyses, we initially studied the GiACS1 and GiACS2, because genes encoding these two enzymes were found to be more consistently expressed in varied parasite life cycle stages and when interacting with host cells based on previously reported transcriptome data. These two proteins were cloned and expressed as recombinant proteins. Biochemical analysis revealed that both had apparent substrate preference toward palmitic acid (C16:0) and myristic acid (C14:0), and allosteric or Michaelis–Menten kinetics on palmitic acid or ATP. The ACS inhibitor triacsin C inhibited the activity of both enzymes (IC50 = 1.56 μM, Ki = 0.18 μM for GiACS1, and IC50 = 2.28 μM, Ki = 0.23 μM for GiACS2, respectively) and the growth of G. intestinalis in vitro (IC50 = 0.8 μM). As expected from giardial evolutionary characteristics, both GiACSs displayed differences in overall folding structure as compared with their human counterparts. These observations support the notion that some of the GiACS enzymes may be explored as drug targets in this parasite. PMID:26257723

  6. Targeting Prefrontal Cortical Systems for Drug Development: Potential Therapies for Cognitive Disorders.

    PubMed

    Arnsten, Amy F T; Wang, Min

    2016-01-01

    Medications to treat cognitive disorders are increasingly needed, yet researchers have had few successes in this challenging arena. Cognitive abilities in primates arise from highly evolved N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor circuits in layer III of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. These circuits have unique modulatory needs that can differ from the layer V neurons that predominate in rodents, but they offer multiple therapeutic targets. Cognitive improvement often requires low doses that enhance the pattern of information held in working memory, whereas higher doses can produce nonspecific changes that obscure information. Identifying appropriate doses for clinical trials may be helped by assessments in monkeys and by flexible, individualized dose designs. The use of guanfacine (Intuniv) for prefrontal cortical disorders was based on research in monkeys, supporting this approach. Coupling our knowledge of higher primate circuits with the powerful methods now available in drug design will help create effective treatments for cognitive disorders. PMID:26738476

  7. Targeting Prefrontal Cortical Systems for Drug Development: Potential Therapies for Cognitive Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Arnsten, Amy F.T.; Wang, Min

    2016-01-01

    Medications to treat cognitive disorders are increasingly needed, yet researchers have had few successes in this challenging arena. Cognitive abilities in primates arise from highly evolved N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor circuits in layer III of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. These circuits have unique modulatory needs that can differ from the layer V neurons that predominate in rodents, but they offer multiple therapeutic targets. Cognitive improvement often requires low doses that enhance the pattern of information held in working memory, whereas higher doses can produce nonspecific changes that obscure information. Identifying appropriate doses for clinical trials may be helped by assessments in monkeys and by flexible, individualized dose designs. The use of guanfacine (Intuniv) for prefrontal cortical disorders was based on research in monkeys, supporting this approach. Coupling our knowledge of higher primate circuits with the powerful methods now available in drug design will help create effective treatments for cognitive disorders. PMID:26738476

  8. Magnetic nanoscale metal organic frameworks for potential targeted anticancer drug delivery, imaging and as an MRI contrast agent.

    PubMed

    Ray Chowdhuri, Angshuman; Bhattacharya, Dipsikha; Sahu, Sumanta Kumar

    2016-02-21

    The development of a novel multifunctional porous nanoplatform for targeted anticancer drug delivery with cell imaging and magnetic resonance imaging has been realised in the current work. Here we have developed a magnetic nanoscale metal organic frameworks (NMOF) for potential targeted drug delivery. These magnetic NMOFs were fabricated by incorporation of Fe3O4 nanoparticles into porous isoreticular metal organic frameworks (IRMOF-3). To achieve targeted drug delivery towards cancer cells specifically, folic acid was conjugated to the NMOF surface. Then, the fluorescent molecule rhodamine B isothiocyanate (RITC) was conjugated to the NMOFs for biological imaging applications. The synthesized magnetic NMOFs were fully characterised by FTIR, powder XRD, XPS, SQUID, TGA, TEM, FESEM, and DLS. The synthesized magnetic NMOFs were observed to be smaller than 100 nm and were found to be nontoxic towards human cervix adenocarcinoma (HeLa) and murine fibroblast (NIH3T3) cells according to cell viability assays. The cancer chemotherapy drug paclitaxel was conjugated to the magnetic NMOFs through hydrophobic interactions with a relatively high loading capacity. Moreover, these folic acid-conjugated magnetic NMOFs showed stronger T2-weighted MRI contrast towards the cancer cells, justifying their possible significance in imaging. PMID:26754449

  9. FK506-Binding Protein 10, a Potential Novel Drug Target for Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Staab-Weijnitz, Claudia A.; Fernandez, Isis E.; Knüppel, Larissa; Maul, Julia; Heinzelmann, Katharina; Juan-Guardela, Brenda M.; Hennen, Elisabeth; Preissler, Gerhard; Winter, Hauke; Neurohr, Claus; Hatz, Rudolf; Lindner, Michael; Behr, Jürgen; Kaminski, Naftali

    2015-01-01

    secretion by phLF. Conclusions: FKBP10 might be a novel drug target for IPF. PMID:26039104

  10. Enteric P2X receptors as potential targets for drug treatment of the irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Galligan, James J

    2004-01-01

    The irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a gastrointestinal motility disorder affecting millions of patients. IBS symptoms include diarrhea, constipation and pain. The etiology of IBS is due partly to changes in the function of nerves supplying the gastrointestinal tract, immune system activation and to psychological factors. P2X receptors are multimeric ATP-gated cation channels expressed by neuronal and non-neuronal cells. Sensory nerve endings in the gastrointestinal tract express P2X receptors. ATP released from gastrointestinal cells activates P2X receptors on sensory nerve endings to stimulate motor reflexes and to transmit nociceptive signals. Antagonists acting at P2X receptors on sensory nerves could attenuate abdominal pain in IBS patients. Primary afferent neurons intrinsic to the gut, and enteric motor- and interneurons express P2X receptors. These neurons participate in motor reflexes. Agonists acting at enteric P2X receptors may enhance gastrointestinal propulsion and secretion, and these drugs could be useful for treating constipation-predominant IBS. Antagonists acting at enteric P2X receptors would decrease propulsion and secretion and they might be useful for treating diarrhea-predominant IBS. Current knowledge of P2X receptor distribution and function in the gut of laboratory animals provides a rational basis for further exploration of the therapeutic potential for drugs acting at P2X receptors in IBS patients. However, more information about P2X receptor distribution and function in the human gastrointestinal tract is needed. Data on the distribution and function of P2X receptors on gastrointestinal immune cells would also provide insights into the therapeutic potential of P2X receptor agents in IBS. PMID:15051631

  11. Small Molecules from Nature Targeting G-Protein Coupled Cannabinoid Receptors: Potential Leads for Drug Discovery and Development.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Charu; Sadek, Bassem; Goyal, Sameer N; Sinha, Satyesh; Kamal, Mohammad Amjad; Ojha, Shreesh

    2015-01-01

    The cannabinoid molecules are derived from Cannabis sativa plant which acts on the cannabinoid receptors types 1 and 2 (CB1 and CB2) which have been explored as potential therapeutic targets for drug discovery and development. Currently, there are numerous cannabinoid based synthetic drugs used in clinical practice like the popular ones such as nabilone, dronabinol, and Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol mediates its action through CB1/CB2 receptors. However, these synthetic based Cannabis derived compounds are known to exert adverse psychiatric effect and have also been exploited for drug abuse. This encourages us to find out an alternative and safe drug with the least psychiatric adverse effects. In recent years, many phytocannabinoids have been isolated from plants other than Cannabis. Several studies have shown that these phytocannabinoids show affinity, potency, selectivity, and efficacy towards cannabinoid receptors and inhibit endocannabinoid metabolizing enzymes, thus reducing hyperactivity of endocannabinoid systems. Also, these naturally derived molecules possess the least adverse effects opposed to the synthetically derived cannabinoids. Therefore, the plant based cannabinoid molecules proved to be promising and emerging therapeutic alternative. The present review provides an overview of therapeutic potential of ligands and plants modulating cannabinoid receptors that may be of interest to pharmaceutical industry in search of new and safer drug discovery and development for future therapeutics. PMID:26664449

  12. Small Molecules from Nature Targeting G-Protein Coupled Cannabinoid Receptors: Potential Leads for Drug Discovery and Development

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Charu; Sadek, Bassem; Goyal, Sameer N.; Sinha, Satyesh; Ojha, Shreesh

    2015-01-01

    The cannabinoid molecules are derived from Cannabis sativa plant which acts on the cannabinoid receptors types 1 and 2 (CB1 and CB2) which have been explored as potential therapeutic targets for drug discovery and development. Currently, there are numerous cannabinoid based synthetic drugs used in clinical practice like the popular ones such as nabilone, dronabinol, and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol mediates its action through CB1/CB2 receptors. However, these synthetic based Cannabis derived compounds are known to exert adverse psychiatric effect and have also been exploited for drug abuse. This encourages us to find out an alternative and safe drug with the least psychiatric adverse effects. In recent years, many phytocannabinoids have been isolated from plants other than Cannabis. Several studies have shown that these phytocannabinoids show affinity, potency, selectivity, and efficacy towards cannabinoid receptors and inhibit endocannabinoid metabolizing enzymes, thus reducing hyperactivity of endocannabinoid systems. Also, these naturally derived molecules possess the least adverse effects opposed to the synthetically derived cannabinoids. Therefore, the plant based cannabinoid molecules proved to be promising and emerging therapeutic alternative. The present review provides an overview of therapeutic potential of ligands and plants modulating cannabinoid receptors that may be of interest to pharmaceutical industry in search of new and safer drug discovery and development for future therapeutics. PMID:26664449

  13. The Response Regulator BfmR Is a Potential Drug Target for Acinetobacter baumannii

    PubMed Central

    Manohar, Akshay; Beanan, Janet M.; Olson, Ruth; MacDonald, Ulrike; Graham, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Identification and validation is the first phase of target-based antimicrobial development. BfmR (RstA), a response regulator in a two-component signal transduction system (TCS) in Acinetobacter baumannii, is an intriguing potential antimicrobial target. A unique characteristic of BfmR is that its inhibition would have the dual benefit of significantly decreasing in vivo survival and increasing sensitivity to selected antimicrobials. Studies on the clinically relevant strain AB307-0294 have shown BfmR to be essential in vivo. Here, we demonstrate that this phenotype in strains AB307-0294 and AB908 is mediated, in part, by enabling growth in human ascites fluid and serum. Further, BfmR conferred resistance to complement-mediated bactericidal activity that was independent of capsular polysaccharide. Importantly, BfmR also increased resistance to the clinically important antimicrobials meropenem and colistin. BfmR was highly conserved among A. baumannii strains. The crystal structure of the receiver domain of BfmR was determined, lending insight into putative ligand binding sites. This enabled an in silico ligand binding analysis and a blind docking strategy to assess use as a potential druggable target. Predicted binding hot spots exist at the homodimer interface and the phosphorylation site. These data support pursuing the next step in the development process, which includes determining the degree of inhibition needed to impact growth/survival and the development a BfmR activity assay amenable to high-throughput screening for the identification of inhibitors. Such agents would represent a new class of antimicrobials active against A. baumannii which could be active against other Gram-negative bacilli that possess a TCS with shared homology. IMPORTANCE Increasing antibiotic resistance in bacteria, particularly Gram-negative bacilli, has significantly affected the ability of physicians to treat infections, with resultant increased morbidity, mortality, and

  14. The Response Regulator BfmR Is a Potential Drug Target for Acinetobacter baumannii.

    PubMed

    Russo, Thomas A; Manohar, Akshay; Beanan, Janet M; Olson, Ruth; MacDonald, Ulrike; Graham, Jessica; Umland, Timothy C

    2016-01-01

    Identification and validation is the first phase of target-based antimicrobial development. BfmR (RstA), a response regulator in a two-component signal transduction system (TCS) in Acinetobacter baumannii, is an intriguing potential antimicrobial target. A unique characteristic of BfmR is that its inhibition would have the dual benefit of significantly decreasing in vivo survival and increasing sensitivity to selected antimicrobials. Studies on the clinically relevant strain AB307-0294 have shown BfmR to be essential in vivo. Here, we demonstrate that this phenotype in strains AB307-0294 and AB908 is mediated, in part, by enabling growth in human ascites fluid and serum. Further, BfmR conferred resistance to complement-mediated bactericidal activity that was independent of capsular polysaccharide. Importantly, BfmR also increased resistance to the clinically important antimicrobials meropenem and colistin. BfmR was highly conserved among A. baumannii strains. The crystal structure of the receiver domain of BfmR was determined, lending insight into putative ligand binding sites. This enabled an in silico ligand binding analysis and a blind docking strategy to assess use as a potential druggable target. Predicted binding hot spots exist at the homodimer interface and the phosphorylation site. These data support pursuing the next step in the development process, which includes determining the degree of inhibition needed to impact growth/survival and the development a BfmR activity assay amenable to high-throughput screening for the identification of inhibitors. Such agents would represent a new class of antimicrobials active against A. baumannii which could be active against other Gram-negative bacilli that possess a TCS with shared homology. IMPORTANCE Increasing antibiotic resistance in bacteria, particularly Gram-negative bacilli, has significantly affected the ability of physicians to treat infections, with resultant increased morbidity, mortality, and health

  15. PPAR{alpha} is a potential therapeutic target of drugs to treat circadian rhythm sleep disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Shirai, Hidenori; Oishi, Katsutaka; Kudo, Takashi; Shibata, Shigenobu; Ishida, Norio . E-mail: n.ishida@aist.go.jp

    2007-06-08

    Recent progress at the molecular level has revealed that nuclear receptors play an important role in the generation of mammalian circadian rhythms. To examine whether peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR{alpha}) is involved in the regulation of circadian behavioral rhythms in mammals, we evaluated the locomotor activity of mice administered with the hypolipidemic PPAR{alpha} ligand, bezafibrate. Circadian locomotor activity was phase-advanced about 3 h in mice given bezafibrate under light-dark (LD) conditions. Transfer from LD to constant darkness did not change the onset of activity in these mice, suggesting that bezafibrate advanced the phase of the endogenous clock. Surprisingly, bezafibrate also advanced the phase in mice with lesions of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN; the central clock in mammals). The circadian expression of clock genes such as period2, BMAL1, and Rev-erb{alpha} was also phase-advanced in various tissues (cortex, liver, and fat) without affecting the SCN. Bezafibrate also phase-advanced the activity phase that is delayed in model mice with delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPS) due to a Clock gene mutation. Our results indicated that PPAR{alpha} is involved in circadian clock control independently of the SCN and that PPAR{alpha} could be a potent target of drugs to treat circadian rhythm sleep disorders including DSPS.

  16. Medicinal Chemistry of ATP Synthase: A Potential Drug Target of Dietary Polyphenols and Amphibian Antimicrobial Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Zulfiqar; Laughlin, Thomas F.

    2015-01-01

    In this review we discuss the inhibitory effects of dietary polyphenols and amphibian antimicrobial/antitumor peptides on ATP synthase. In the beginning general structural features highlighting catalytic and motor functions of ATP synthase will be described. Some details on the presence of ATP synthase on the surface of several animal cell types, where it is associated with multiple cellular processes making it an interesting drug target with respect to dietary polyphenols and amphibian antimicrobial peptides will also be reviewed. ATP synthase is known to have distinct polyphenol and peptide binding sites at the interface of α/β subunits. Molecular interaction of polyphenols and peptides with ATP synthase at their respective binding sites will be discussed. Binding and inhibition of other proteins or enzymes will also be covered so as to understand the therapeutic roles of both types of molecules. Lastly, the effects of polyphenols and peptides on the inhibition of Escherichia coli cell growth through their action on ATP synthase will also be presented. PMID:20586714

  17. Potential prostate cancer drug target: bioactivation of androstanediol by conversion to dihydrotestosterone.

    PubMed

    Mohler, James L; Titus, Mark A; Wilson, Elizabeth M

    2011-09-15

    High-affinity binding of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) to the androgen receptor (AR) initiates androgen-dependent gene activation, required for normal male sex development in utero, and contributes to prostate cancer development and progression in men. Under normal physiologic conditions, DHT is synthesized predominantly by 5α-reduction of testosterone, the major circulating androgen produced by the testis. During androgen deprivation therapy, intratumoral androgen production is sufficient for AR activation and prostate cancer growth, even though circulating testicular androgen levels are low. Recent studies indicate that the metabolism of 5α-androstane-3α, 17β-diol by 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 6 in benign prostate and prostate cancer cells is a major biosynthetic pathway for intratumoral synthesis of DHT, which binds AR and initiates transactivation to promote prostate cancer growth during androgen deprivation therapy. Drugs that target the so-called backdoor pathway of DHT synthesis provide an opportunity to enhance clinical response to luteinizing-hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonists or antagonists, AR antagonists, and inhibitors of 5α-reductase enzymes (finasteride or dutasteride), and other steroid metabolism enzyme inhibitors (ketoconazole or the recently available abiraterone acetate). PMID:21705451

  18. microRNAs of parasitic helminths - Identification, characterization and potential as drug targets.

    PubMed

    Britton, Collette; Winter, Alan D; Gillan, Victoria; Devaney, Eileen

    2014-08-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs involved in post-transcriptional gene regulation. They were first identified in the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, where the miRNAs lin-4 and let-7 were shown to be essential for regulating correct developmental progression. The sequence of let-7 was subsequently found to be conserved in higher organisms and changes in expression of let-7, as well as other miRNAs, are associated with certain cancers, indicating important regulatory roles. Some miRNAs have been shown to have essential functions, but the roles of many are currently unknown. With the increasing availability of genome sequence data, miRNAs have now been identified from a number of parasitic helminths, by deep sequencing of small RNA libraries and bioinformatic approaches. While some miRNAs are widely conserved in a range of organisms, others are helminth-specific and many are novel to each species. Here we review the potential roles of miRNAs in regulating helminth development, in interacting with the host environment and in development of drug resistance. Use of fluorescently-labeled small RNAs demonstrates uptake by parasites, at least in vitro. Therefore delivery of miRNA inhibitors or mimics has potential to alter miRNA activity, providing a useful tool for probing the roles of miRNAs and suggesting novel routes to therapeutics for parasite control. PMID:25057458

  19. microRNAs of parasitic helminths – Identification, characterization and potential as drug targets

    PubMed Central

    Britton, Collette; Winter, Alan D.; Gillan, Victoria; Devaney, Eileen

    2014-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs involved in post-transcriptional gene regulation. They were first identified in the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, where the miRNAs lin-4 and let-7 were shown to be essential for regulating correct developmental progression. The sequence of let-7 was subsequently found to be conserved in higher organisms and changes in expression of let-7, as well as other miRNAs, are associated with certain cancers, indicating important regulatory roles. Some miRNAs have been shown to have essential functions, but the roles of many are currently unknown. With the increasing availability of genome sequence data, miRNAs have now been identified from a number of parasitic helminths, by deep sequencing of small RNA libraries and bioinformatic approaches. While some miRNAs are widely conserved in a range of organisms, others are helminth-specific and many are novel to each species. Here we review the potential roles of miRNAs in regulating helminth development, in interacting with the host environment and in development of drug resistance. Use of fluorescently-labeled small RNAs demonstrates uptake by parasites, at least in vitro. Therefore delivery of miRNA inhibitors or mimics has potential to alter miRNA activity, providing a useful tool for probing the roles of miRNAs and suggesting novel routes to therapeutics for parasite control. PMID:25057458

  20. Marketed Drugs Can Inhibit Cytochrome P450 27A1, a Potential New Target for Breast Cancer Adjuvant Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Mast, Natalia; Lin, Joseph B.

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 CYP27A1 is the only enzyme in humans converting cholesterol to 27-hydroxycholesterol, an oxysterol of multiple functions, including tissue-specific modulation of estrogen and liver X receptors. Both receptors seem to mediate adverse effects of 27-hydroxycholesterol in breast cancer when the levels of this oxysterol are elevated. The present work assessed druggability of CYP27A1 as a potential antibreast cancer target. We selected 26 anticancer and noncancer medications, most approved by the Food and Drug Administration, and evaluated them first in vitro for inhibition of purified recombinant CYP27A1 and binding to the enzyme active site. Six strong CYP27A1 inhibitors/binders were identified. These were the two antibreast cancer pharmaceuticals anastrozole and fadrozole, antiprostate cancer drug bicalutamide, sedative dexmedetomidine, and two antifungals ravuconazole and posaconazole. Anastrozole was then tested in vivo on mice, which received subcutaneous drug injections for 1 week. Mouse plasma and hepatic 27-hydroxycholesterol levels were decreased 2.6- and 1.6-fold, respectively, whereas plasma and hepatic cholesterol content remained unchanged. Thus, pharmacologic CYP27A1 inhibition is possible in the whole body and individual organs, but does not negatively affect cholesterol elimination. Our results enhance the potential of CYP27A1 as an antibreast cancer target, could be of importance for the interpretation of Femara versus Anastrozole Clinical Evaluation Trial, and bring attention to posaconazole as a potential complementary anti-breast cancer medication. More medications on the US market may have unanticipated off-target inhibition of CYP27A1, and we propose strategies for their identification. PMID:26082378

  1. Marketed Drugs Can Inhibit Cytochrome P450 27A1, a Potential New Target for Breast Cancer Adjuvant Therapy.

    PubMed

    Mast, Natalia; Lin, Joseph B; Pikuleva, Irina A

    2015-09-01

    Cytochrome P450 CYP27A1 is the only enzyme in humans converting cholesterol to 27-hydroxycholesterol, an oxysterol of multiple functions, including tissue-specific modulation of estrogen and liver X receptors. Both receptors seem to mediate adverse effects of 27-hydroxycholesterol in breast cancer when the levels of this oxysterol are elevated. The present work assessed druggability of CYP27A1 as a potential antibreast cancer target. We selected 26 anticancer and noncancer medications, most approved by the Food and Drug Administration, and evaluated them first in vitro for inhibition of purified recombinant CYP27A1 and binding to the enzyme active site. Six strong CYP27A1 inhibitors/binders were identified. These were the two antibreast cancer pharmaceuticals anastrozole and fadrozole, antiprostate cancer drug bicalutamide, sedative dexmedetomidine, and two antifungals ravuconazole and posaconazole. Anastrozole was then tested in vivo on mice, which received subcutaneous drug injections for 1 week. Mouse plasma and hepatic 27-hydroxycholesterol levels were decreased 2.6- and 1.6-fold, respectively, whereas plasma and hepatic cholesterol content remained unchanged. Thus, pharmacologic CYP27A1 inhibition is possible in the whole body and individual organs, but does not negatively affect cholesterol elimination. Our results enhance the potential of CYP27A1 as an antibreast cancer target, could be of importance for the interpretation of Femara versus Anastrozole Clinical Evaluation Trial, and bring attention to posaconazole as a potential complementary anti-breast cancer medication. More medications on the US market may have unanticipated off-target inhibition of CYP27A1, and we propose strategies for their identification. PMID:26082378

  2. Understanding the cardiovascular actions of soy isoflavones: potential novel targets for antihypertensive drug development.

    PubMed

    Martin, Doug; Song, Jin; Mark, Connie; Eyster, Kathleen

    2008-12-01

    Interest in and use of "natural" remedies has grown exponentially in recent years. Compounds that have attracted considerable attention are the isoflavones, particular those found in soy. This review will provide a critical evaluation of our current understanding of the effects, mechanisms of action, and potential clinical applications of soy isoflavones in hypertension. Current data indicate that soy isoflavones, such as genistein and daidzein and equol, relax vascular smooth muscle both in vitro and in vivo via a combination of mechanisms including potentiation of endothelial-dependent and endothelial-independent vasodilator systems and inhibition of constrictor mechanisms. These effects involve both classical genomic as well non genomic actions. Isoflavone actions are mediated in part via interactions with estrogen receptors where soy isoflavones induce unique receptor conformations and exert tissue dependent effects similar to the selective estrogen receptor modulators. Signaling pathways such as ERK1/2, PI3-Kinase/Akt and cAMP contribute to isoflavone isoflavone activation of eNOS in the vasculature as well. Isoflavones also target the kidney to increase renal blood flow and sodium excretion. Finally, soy isoflavones interact with humoral systems such as the renin angiotensin. Data from animal studies show consistently that the aggregate effect of these actions is attenuation of hypertension. In contrast, studies in humans remain controversial. Recent data also suggest that analogues of isoflavones may possess unique vascular actions. Thus significant opportunity remains for study of the effects and mechanisms of action of soy isoflavones on hypertension in both animals and humans. PMID:19202595

  3. Core Proteomic Analysis of Unique Metabolic Pathways of Salmonella enterica for the Identification of Potential Drug Targets

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Infections caused by Salmonella enterica, a Gram-negative facultative anaerobic bacteria belonging to the family of Enterobacteriaceae, are major threats to the health of humans and animals. The recent availability of complete genome data of pathogenic strains of the S. enterica gives new avenues for the identification of drug targets and drug candidates. We have used the genomic and metabolic pathway data to identify pathways and proteins essential to the pathogen and absent from the host. Methods We took the whole proteome sequence data of 42 strains of S. enterica and Homo sapiens along with KEGG-annotated metabolic pathway data, clustered proteins sequences using CD-HIT, identified essential genes using DEG database and discarded S. enterica homologs of human proteins in unique metabolic pathways (UMPs) and characterized hypothetical proteins with SVM-prot and InterProScan. Through this core proteomic analysis we have identified enzymes essential to the pathogen. Results The identification of 73 enzymes common in 42 strains of S. enterica is the real strength of the current study. We proposed all 73 unexplored enzymes as potential drug targets against the infections caused by the S. enterica. The study is comprehensive around S. enterica and simultaneously considered every possible pathogenic strain of S. enterica. This comprehensiveness turned the current study significant since, to the best of our knowledge it is the first subtractive core proteomic analysis of the unique metabolic pathways applied to any pathogen for the identification of drug targets. We applied extensive computational methods to shortlist few potential drug targets considering the druggability criteria e.g. Non-homologous to the human host, essential to the pathogen and playing significant role in essential metabolic pathways of the pathogen (i.e. S. enterica). In the current study, the subtractive proteomics through a novel approach was applied i.e. by considering only proteins

  4. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Aminoglycosides Resistant and Susceptible Mycobacterium tuberculosis Clinical Isolates for Exploring Potential Drug Targets

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Divakar; Kumar, Bhavnesh; Lata, Manju; Joshi, Beenu; Venkatesan, Krishnamurthy; Shukla, Sangeeta; Bisht, Deepa

    2015-01-01

    Aminoglycosides, amikacin (AK) and kanamycin (KM) are second line anti-tuberculosis drugs used to treat tuberculosis (TB) and resistance to them affects the treatment. Membrane and membrane associated proteins have an anticipated role in biological processes and pathogenesis and are potential targets for the development of new diagnostics/vaccine/therapeutics. In this study we compared membrane and membrane associated proteins of AK and KM resistant and susceptible Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates by 2DE coupled with MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS and bioinformatic tools. Twelve proteins were found to have increased intensities (PDQuest Advanced Software) in resistant isolates and were identified as ATP synthase subunit alpha (Rv1308), Trigger factor (Rv2462c), Dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (Rv0462), Elongation factor Tu (Rv0685), Transcriptional regulator MoxR1(Rv1479), Universal stress protein (Rv2005c), 35kDa hypothetical protein (Rv2744c), Proteasome subunit alpha (Rv2109c), Putative short-chain type dehydrogenase/reductase (Rv0148), Bacterioferritin (Rv1876), Ferritin (Rv3841) and Alpha-crystallin/HspX (Rv2031c). Among these Rv2005c, Rv2744c and Rv0148 are proteins with unknown functions. Docking showed that both drugs bind to the conserved domain (Usp, PspA and SDR domain) of these hypothetical proteins and GPS-PUP predicted potential pupylation sites within them. Increased intensities of these proteins and proteasome subunit alpha might not only be neutralized/modulated the drug molecules but also involved in protein turnover to overcome the AK and KM resistance. Besides that Rv1876, Rv3841 and Rv0685 were found to be associated with iron regulation signifying the role of iron in resistance. Further research is needed to explore how these potential protein targets contribute to resistance of AK and KM. PMID:26436944

  5. Scaffold proteins LACK and TRACK as potential drug targets in kinetoplastid parasites: Development of inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Qvit, Nir; Schechtman, Deborah; Pena, Darlene Aparecida; Berti, Denise Aparecida; Soares, Chrislaine Oliveira; Miao, Qianqian; Liang, Liying (Annie); Baron, Lauren A.; Teh-Poot, Christian; Martínez-Vega, Pedro; Ramirez-Sierra, Maria Jesus; Churchill, Eric; Cunningham, Anna D.; Malkovskiy, Andrey V.; Federspiel, Nancy A.; Gozzo, Fabio Cesar; Torrecilhas, Ana Claudia; Manso Alves, Maria Julia; Jardim, Armando; Momar, Ndao; Dumonteil, Eric; Mochly-Rosen, Daria

    2016-01-01

    Parasitic diseases cause ∼500,000 deaths annually and remain a major challenge for therapeutic development. Using a rational design based approach, we developed peptide inhibitors with anti-parasitic activity that were derived from the sequences of parasite scaffold proteins LACK (Leishmania's receptor for activated C-kinase) and TRACK (Trypanosomareceptor for activated C-kinase). We hypothesized that sequences in LACK and TRACK that are conserved in the parasites, but not in the mammalian ortholog, RACK (Receptor for activated C-kinase), may be interaction sites for signaling proteins that are critical for the parasites' viability. One of these peptides exhibited leishmanicidal and trypanocidal activity in culture. Moreover, in infected mice, this peptide was also effective in reducing parasitemia and increasing survival without toxic effects. The identified peptide is a promising new anti-parasitic drug lead, as its unique features may limit toxicity and drug-resistance, thus overcoming central limitations of most anti-parasitic drugs. PMID:27054066

  6. Scaffold proteins LACK and TRACK as potential drug targets in kinetoplastid parasites: Development of inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Qvit, Nir; Schechtman, Deborah; Pena, Darlene Aparecida; Berti, Denise Aparecida; Soares, Chrislaine Oliveira; Miao, Qianqian; Liang, Liying Annie; Baron, Lauren A; Teh-Poot, Christian; Martínez-Vega, Pedro; Ramirez-Sierra, Maria Jesus; Churchill, Eric; Cunningham, Anna D; Malkovskiy, Andrey V; Federspiel, Nancy A; Gozzo, Fabio Cesar; Torrecilhas, Ana Claudia; Manso Alves, Maria Julia; Jardim, Armando; Momar, Ndao; Dumonteil, Eric; Mochly-Rosen, Daria

    2016-04-01

    Parasitic diseases cause ∼ 500,000 deaths annually and remain a major challenge for therapeutic development. Using a rational design based approach, we developed peptide inhibitors with anti-parasitic activity that were derived from the sequences of parasite scaffold proteins LACK (Leishmania's receptor for activated C-kinase) and TRACK (Trypanosoma receptor for activated C-kinase). We hypothesized that sequences in LACK and TRACK that are conserved in the parasites, but not in the mammalian ortholog, RACK (Receptor for activated C-kinase), may be interaction sites for signaling proteins that are critical for the parasites' viability. One of these peptides exhibited leishmanicidal and trypanocidal activity in culture. Moreover, in infected mice, this peptide was also effective in reducing parasitemia and increasing survival without toxic effects. The identified peptide is a promising new anti-parasitic drug lead, as its unique features may limit toxicity and drug-resistance, thus overcoming central limitations of most anti-parasitic drugs. PMID:27054066

  7. Comparative protein modeling of methionine S-adenosyltransferase (MAT) enzyme from Mycobacterium tuberculosis: a potential target for antituberculosis drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Khedkar, Santosh A; Malde, Alpeshkumar K; Coutinho, Evans C

    2005-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is a successful pathogen that overcomes the numerous challenges presented by the immune system of the host. In the last 40 years few anti-TB drugs have been developed, while the drug-resistance problem is increasing; there is thus a pressing need to develop new anti-TB drugs active against both the acute and chronic growth phases of the mycobacterium. Methionine S-adenosyltransferase (MAT) is an enzyme involved in the synthesis of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), a methyl donor essential for mycolipid biosynthesis. As an anti-TB drug target, Mtb-MAT has been well validated. A homology model of MAT has been constructed using the X-ray structures of E. coli MAT (PDB code: 1MXA) and rat MAT (PDB code: 1QM4) as templates, by comparative protein modeling principles. The resulting model has the correct stereochemistry as gauged from the Ramachandran plot and good three-dimensional (3D) structure compatibility as assessed by the Profiles-3D score. The structurally and functionally important residues (active site) of Mtb-MAT have been identified using the E. coli and rat MAT crystal structures and the reported point mutation data. The homology model conserves the topological and active site features of the MAT family of proteins. The differences in the molecular electrostatic potentials (MEP) of Mtb and human MAT provide evidences that selective and specific Mtb-MAT inhibitors can be designed using the homology model, by the structure-based drug design approaches. PMID:15670956

  8. G-coupled protein receptors and breast cancer progression: potential drug targets.

    PubMed

    Taborga, Marcelo; Corcoran, Kelly E; Fernandes, Neil; Ramkissoon, Shakti H; Rameshwar, Pranela

    2007-03-01

    Breast cancer remains a leading cause of death despite early screening and advances in medicine. Bone marrow metastasis often complicates the clinical picture by requiring more aggressive treatment and worsening long-term prognoses. Recent therapeutic targeting of hormonal receptors such as human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 and estrogen receptor has shown limited success in treating localized disease for those patients whose cancer cells are responsive. Although traditional approaches such as chemotherapy have demonstrated many successes, these agents fail to target quiescent cancer stem cells, which might have entered the bone marrow where they might be responsible for the quiescence population. Following years of clinical remission, these dormant cells could lead to secondary cancer resurgence. To date, little progress has been made in the development of targeted treatments for receptor negative and metastatic disease. In this review, we discuss the role of G-protein coupled receptors, including neurokinin-1, neurokinin-2 and chemokine receptor 4, as novel targets in the treatment of breast cancer. PMID:17346217

  9. Octreotide-modified N-octyl-O, N-carboxymethyl chitosan micelles as potential carriers for targeted antitumor drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Zou, Aifeng; Huo, Meirong; Zhang, Yong; Zhou, Jianping; Yin, Xiaoqiang; Yao, Chengli; Zhu, Qinnv; Zhang, Min; Ren, Jinshan; Zhang, Qiang

    2012-02-01

    Octreotide (OCT) was recently found to have high binding affinity to the positive tumor cells of somatostatin receptors (SSTRs). In this study, octreotide-Phe-polyethylene glycol-stearic acid was first successfully synthesized and used as a targeting molecule for N-octyl-O, N-carboxymethyl chitosan (OCC). Doxorubicin (DOX) was loaded into OCT-modified OCC micelles (DOX-OCC-OCT). The drug-loaded micelles obtained exhibited spherical shape, small particle sizes, and negative zeta potentials. The cytotoxicity of DOX-OCC-OCT micelles against MCF-7 cells (SSTRs expressing) was found to significantly increase with the increased amount of OCT modification, whereas no significant difference was observed against WI-38 cells (no SSTRs expressing). Results of flow cytometry, fluorescence microscopy, and confocal laser scanning microscopy confirmed that DOX-OCC-OCT micelles could remarkably increase the uptake of DOX in MCF-7 cells. All the results indicated that OCC-OCT micelles may be a promising intracellular targeting carrier for efficient delivery of antitumor drugs into tumor cells. PMID:22083725

  10. Chloride channels as drug targets

    PubMed Central

    Verkman, Alan S.; Galietta, Luis J. V.

    2013-01-01

    Chloride channels represent a relatively under-explored target class for drug discovery as elucidation of their identity and physiological roles has lagged behind that of many other drug targets. Chloride channels are involved in a wide range of biological functions, including epithelial fluid secretion, cell-volume regulation, neuroexcitation, smooth-muscle contraction and acidification of intracellular organelles. Mutations in several chloride channels cause human diseases, including cystic fibrosis, macular degeneration, myotonia, kidney stones, renal salt wasting and hyperekplexia. Chloride-channel modulators have potential applications in the treatment of some of these disorders, as well as in secretory diarrhoeas, polycystic kidney disease, osteoporosis and hypertension. Modulators of GABAA (γ-aminobutyric acid A) receptor chloride channels are in clinical use and several small-molecule chloride-channel modulators are in preclinical development and clinical trials. Here, we discuss the broad opportunities that remain in chloride-channel-based drug discovery. PMID:19153558

  11. Epidermal Differentiation Complex: A Review on Its Epigenetic Regulation and Potential Drug Targets.

    PubMed

    Abhishek, Sinha; Palamadai Krishnan, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    The primary feature of the mammalian skin includes the hair follicle, inter-follicular epidermis and the sebaceous glands, all of which form pilo-sebaceous units. The epidermal protective layer undergoes an ordered/programmed process of proliferation and differentiation, ultimately culminating in the formation of a cornified envelope consisting of enucleated corneocytes. These terminally differentiated cells slough off in a cyclic manner and this process is regulated via induction or repression of epidermal differentiation complex (EDC) genes. These genes, spanning 2 Mb region of human chromosome 1q21, play a crucial role in epidermal development, through various mechanisms. Each of these mechanisms employs a unique chromatin re-modelling factor or an epigenetic modifier. These factors act to regulate epidermal differentiation singly and/or in combination. Diseases like psoriasis and cancer exhibit aberrations in proliferation and differentiation through, in part, dysregulation in these epigenetic mechanisms. Knowledge of the existing mechanisms in the physiological and the aforesaid pathological contexts may not only facilitate drug development, it also can make refinements to the existing drug delivery systems. PMID:27054112

  12. Epidermal Differentiation Complex: A Review on Its Epigenetic Regulation and Potential Drug Targets

    PubMed Central

    Abhishek, Sinha; Palamadai Krishnan, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    The primary feature of the mammalian skin includes the hair follicle, inter-follicular epidermis and the sebaceous glands, all of which form pilo-sebaceous units. The epidermal protective layer undergoes an ordered/programmed process of proliferation and differentiation, ultimately culminating in the formation of a cornified envelope consisting of enucleated corneocytes. These terminally differentiated cells slough off in a cyclic manner and this process is regulated via induction or repression of epidermal differentiation complex (EDC) genes. These genes, spanning 2 Mb region of human chromosome 1q21, play a crucial role in epidermal development, through various mechanisms. Each of these mechanisms employs a unique chromatin re-modelling factor or an epigenetic modifier. These factors act to regulate epidermal differentiation singly and/or in combination. Diseases like psoriasis and cancer exhibit aberrations in proliferation and differentiation through, in part, dysregulation in these epigenetic mechanisms. Knowledge of the existing mechanisms in the physiological and the aforesaid pathological contexts may not only facilitate drug development, it also can make refinements to the existing drug delivery systems. PMID:27054112

  13. Nuclear Targeting with an Auger Electron Emitter Potentiates the Action of a Widely Used Antineoplastic Drug.

    PubMed

    Imstepf, Sebastian; Pierroz, Vanessa; Raposinho, Paula; Bauwens, Matthias; Felber, Michael; Fox, Thomas; Shapiro, Adam B; Freudenberg, Robert; Fernandes, Célia; Gama, Sofia; Gasser, Gilles; Motthagy, Felix; Santos, Isabel R; Alberto, Roger

    2015-12-16

    We present the combination of the clinically well-proven chemotherapeutic agent, Doxorubicin, and (99m)Tc, an Auger and internal conversion electron emitter, into a dual-action agent for therapy. Chemical conjugation of Doxorubicin to (99m)Tc afforded a construct which autonomously ferries a radioactive payload into the cell nucleus. At this site, damage is exerted by dose deposition from Auger radiation. The (99m)Tc-conjugate exhibited a dose-dependent inhibition of survival in a selected panel of cancer cells and an in vivo study in healthy mice evidenced a biodistribution which is comparable to that of the parent drug. The homologous Rhenium conjugate was found to effectively bind to DNA, inhibited human Topoisomerase II, and exhibited cytotoxicity in vitro. The collective in vitro and in vivo data demonstrate that the presented metallo-conjugates closely mimic native Doxorubicin. PMID:26473388

  14. Intrinsically disordered amphiphilic peptides as potential targets in drug delivery vehicles.

    PubMed

    Vincenzi, Marian; Accardo, Antonella; Costantini, Susan; Scala, Stefania; Portella, Luigi; Trotta, Annamaria; Ronga, Luisa; Guillon, Jean; Leone, Marilisa; Colonna, Giovanni; Rossi, Filomena; Tesauro, Diego

    2015-11-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins/peptides play a crucial role in many physiological and pathological events and may assume a precise conformation upon binding to a specific target. Recently, we have described the conformational and functional properties of two linear ester peptides provided with the following sequences: Y-G-E-C-P-C-K-OAllyl (PepK) and Y-G-E-C-P-C-E-OAllyl (PepE). Both peptides are characterized by the presence of the "CPC" motif together with a few amino acids able to promote disorder. The CPC sequence is a binding motif for the CXCR4 receptor that represents a well-known target for cancer therapies. In this paper, we report on synthetic amphiphilic peptides that consist of lipophilic derivatives of PepE and PepK bearing two stearic alkyl chains and/or an ethoxylic spacer. These peptide amphiphiles form stable supramolecular aggregates; they present conformational features that are typical of intrinsically disordered molecules as shown by CD spectroscopy. Solution fluorescence and DLS studies have been performed to evaluate Critical Micellar Concentrations and the dimension of supramolecular aggregates. Moreover, preliminary in vitro cell-based assays have been conducted to investigate the molecular recognition processes involving the CXCR4 receptor. In the end, the results obtained have been compared with the previous data generated by the corresponding non-amphiphilic peptides (PepE and PepK). PMID:26263446

  15. Energy metabolism targeted drugs synergize with photodynamic therapy to potentiate breast cancer cell death.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiaolan; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Pan; Liu, Quanhong; Wang, Xiaobing

    2014-12-01

    Malignant cells are highly dependent on aerobic glycolysis, which differs significantly from normal cells (the Warburg effect). Interference of this metabolic process has been considered as an innovative method for developing selective cancer therapy. A recent study demonstrated that the glycolysis inhibitor 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) can potentiate PDT efficacy, whereas the possible mechanisms have not been carefully investigated. This study firstly proved the general potentiation of PDT efficacy by 2-DG and 3-bromopyruvate (3-BP) in human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells, and carefully elucidated the underlying mechanism in the process. Our results showed that both 2-DG and 3-BP could significantly promote a PDT-induced cell cytotoxic effect when compared with either monotherapy. Synergistic potentiation of mitochondria- and caspase-dependent cell apoptosis was observed, including a mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) drop, Bax translocation, and caspase-3 activation. Besides, ROS generation and the expression of oxidative stress related proteins such as P38 MAPK phosphorylation and JNK phosphorylation were notably increased after the combined treatments. Moreover, when pretreated with the ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine (NAC), the ROS generation, the MMP drop, cell apoptosis and cytotoxicity were differently inhibited, suggesting that ROS was vertical in the pro-apoptotic process induced by 2-DG/3-BP combined with PDT treatment. These results indicate that the combination of glycolytic antagonists and PDT may be a promising therapeutic strategy to effectively kill cancer cells. PMID:25363473

  16. The Apoptosome: Emerging Insights and New Potential Targets for Drug Design

    PubMed Central

    D’Amelio, Marcello; Tino, Elisa

    2007-01-01

    Apoptosis plays a crucial role in tissue homeostasis, development and many diseases. The relevance of Apaf1, the molecular core of apoptosome, has been underlined in mitochondria-dependent apoptosis, which according to a growing body of evidence, is involved in various pathologies where the equilibrium of life-and-death is dysregulated, such as heart attack, stroke, liver failure, cancer and autoimmune diseases. Consequently, great interest has emerged in devising therapeutic strategies for regulating the key molecules involved in the life-and-death decision. Here we review recent progress in apoptosis-based pharmacological therapies and, in particular, we point out a possible role of the apoptosome as an emerging and promising pharmacological target. PMID:17674158

  17. Iron-binding drugs targeted to lysosomes: a potential strategy to treat inflammatory lung disorders.

    PubMed

    Persson, H Lennart; Richardson, Des R

    2005-08-01

    In many inflammatory lung disorders, an abnormal assimilation of redox-active iron will exacerbate oxidative tissue damage. It may be that the most important cellular pool of redox-active iron exists within lysosomes, making these organelles vulnerable to oxidative stress. In experiments employing respiratory epithelial cells and macrophages, the chelation of intra-lysosomal iron efficiently prevented lysosomal rupture and the ensuing cell death induced by hydrogen peroxide, ionising radiation or silica particles. Furthermore, cell-permeable iron-binding agents (weak bases) that accumulate within lysosomes due to proton trapping were much more efficient for cytoprotection than the chelator, desferrioxamine. On a molar basis, the weak base alpha-lipoic acid plus was 5000 times more effective than desferrioxamine at preventing lysosomal rupture and apoptotic cell death in cell cultures exposed to hydrogen peroxide. Thus, iron-chelating therapy that targets the lysosome might be a future treatment strategy for inflammatory pulmonary diseases. PMID:16050792

  18. Fabrication of lactobionic-loaded chitosan microcapsules as potential drug carriers targeting the liver.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Li, Cao; Xue, Zhi-Yuan; Cheng, Hai-Wei; Huang, Fu-Wei; Zhuo, Ren-Xi; Zhang, Xian-Zheng

    2011-04-01

    This paper demonstrates a general approach for fabrication of lactobionic chitosan microcapsules using layer-by-layer assembly via click chemistry. Chitosan was selectively modified with either azide (CHI-Az) or alkyne (CHI-Alk) groups. The growth of the CHI-Az/CHI-Alk click multilayer was studied experimentally by multilayer assembly on planar supports. Linear buildup of the film was observed. The chitosan click capsules were also analyzed with confocal laser scanning microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Capsules were found to have regular spherical shapes. In addition, (CHI-Az/CHI-Alk)-coated particles were modified with fluorescein isothiocyanate to ensure that the particles can be easily post-functionalized. Finally, lactobionic acid was conjugated onto the (CHI-Az/CHI-Alk)-coated particles and the lactobionic particles exhibited hepatoma cell (HepG2) targeting behavior. PMID:21130904

  19. Imeglimin: A Potential New Multi-Target Drug for Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Vuylsteke, Valerie; Chastain, Lisa M; Maggu, Geeta A; Brown, Crystal

    2015-09-01

    Imeglimin is a novel agent currently in development to treat type 2 diabetes. Laboratory studies have demonstrated that it has the potential to impact the three main pathophysiologic components of type 2 diabetes: impaired glucose uptake by muscle tissue, excess hepatic gluconeogenesis, and increased beta-cell apoptosis. Preliminary human studies that have been published within the last 2 years demonstrate that imeglimin improves hemoglobin A1c and fasting plasma glucose similarly when compared with metformin and with sitagliptin. There has also been a low incidence of adverse effects, especially hypoglycemia, reported in these early human studies. Currently, imeglimin is lacking long-term evidence to demonstrate any effects on its cardiovascular safety, and data on morbidity and mortality, though some studies are currently in progress. There is great potential for imeglimin, if FDA approved, to play a significant role in the type 2 diabetes management algorithm. PMID:26254210

  20. TRPM7 in cerebral ischemia and potential target for drug development in stroke

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Christine You-jin; Sun, Hong-shuo

    2011-01-01

    Searching for effective pharmacological agents for stroke treatment has largely been unsuccessful. Despite initial excitement, antagonists for glutamate receptors, the most studied receptor channels in ischemic stroke, have shown insufficient neuroprotective effects in clinical trials. Outside the traditional glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity, recent evidence suggests few non-glutamate mechanisms, which may also cause ionic imbalance and cell death in cerebral ischemia. Transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7) is a Ca2+ permeable, non-selective cation channel that has recently gained attention as a potential cation influx pathway involved in ischemic events. Compelling new evidence from an in vivo study demonstrated that suppression of TRPM7 channels in adult rat brain in vivo using virally mediated gene silencing approach reduced delayed neuronal cell death and preserved neuronal functions in global cerebral ischemia. In this review, we will discuss the current understanding of the role of TRPM7 channels in physiology and pathophysiology as well as its therapeutic potential in stroke. PMID:21552293

  1. SW43-DOX ± loading onto drug-eluting bead, a potential new targeted drug delivery platform for systemic and locoregional cancer treatment – An in vitro evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, Johannes M.; Gai, Yongkang; Sun, Lingyi; Xiang, Guangya; Zeng, Dexing; Kim, Hyun S.

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of unresectable primary cancer and their distant metastases, with the liver representing one of the most frequent location, is still plagued by insufficient treatment success and poor survival rates. The Sigma-2 receptor is preferentially expressed on many tumor cells making it an appealing target for therapy. Thus, we developed a potential targeted drug conjugate consisting of the Sigma-2 receptor ligand SW43 and Doxorubicin (SW43-DOX) for systemic cancer therapy and for locoregional treatment of primary and secondary liver malignancies when loaded onto drug-eluting bead (DEB) which was compared in vitro to the treatment with Doxorubicin alone. SW43-DOX binds specifically to the Sigma-2 receptor expressed on hepatocellular (Hep G2, Hep 3B), pancreatic (Panc-1) and colorectal (HT-29) carcinoma cell lines with high affinity and subsequent early specific internalization. Free SW43-DOX showed superior concentration and time depended cancer toxicity than treatment with Doxorubicin alone. Action mechanisms analysis revealed an apoptotic cell death with increased caspase 3/7 activation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Only ROS scavenging with α-Tocopherol, but not the caspase inhibition (Z-VAD-FMK), partly reverted the effect. SW43-DOX could successfully be loaded onto DEB and showed prolonged eluting kinetics compared to Doxorubicin. SW43-DOX loaded DEB vs. Doxorubicin loaded DEB showed a significantly greater time dependent toxicity in all cell lines. In conclusion, the novel conjugate SW43-DOX ± loading onto DEB is a promising drug delivery platform for targeted systemic and locoregional cancer therapy. PMID:27262893

  2. Identification of potential drug targets in Salmonella enterica sv. Typhimurium using metabolic modelling and experimental validation.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Hassan B; Fell, David A; Rossell, Sergio; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal; Woodward, Martin J; Thorndahl, Lotte; Jelsbak, Lotte; Olsen, John Elmerdahl; Raghunathan, Anu; Daefler, Simon; Poolman, Mark G

    2014-06-01

    Salmonella enterica sv. Typhimurium is an established model organism for Gram-negative, intracellular pathogens. Owing to the rapid spread of resistance to antibiotics among this group of pathogens, new approaches to identify suitable target proteins are required. Based on the genome sequence of S. Typhimurium and associated databases, a genome-scale metabolic model was constructed. Output was based on an experimental determination of the biomass of Salmonella when growing in glucose minimal medium. Linear programming was used to simulate variations in the energy demand while growing in glucose minimal medium. By grouping reactions with similar flux responses, a subnetwork of 34 reactions responding to this variation was identified (the catabolic core). This network was used to identify sets of one and two reactions that when removed from the genome-scale model interfered with energy and biomass generation. Eleven such sets were found to be essential for the production of biomass precursors. Experimental investigation of seven of these showed that knockouts of the associated genes resulted in attenuated growth for four pairs of reactions, whilst three single reactions were shown to be essential for growth. PMID:24777662

  3. Structure of human dual-specificity phosphatase 7, a potential cancer drug target

    PubMed Central

    Lountos, George T.; Austin, Brian P.; Tropea, Joseph E.; Waugh, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Human dual-specificity phosphatase 7 (DUSP7/Pyst2) is a 320-residue protein that belongs to the mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase (MKP) subfamily of dual-specificity phosphatases. Although its precise biological function is still not fully understood, previous reports have demonstrated that DUSP7 is overexpressed in myeloid leukemia and other malignancies. Therefore, there is interest in developing DUSP7 inhibitors as potential therapeutic agents, especially for cancer. Here, the purification, crystallization and structure determination of the catalytic domain of DUSP7 (Ser141–Ser289/C232S) at 1.67 Å resolution are reported. The structure described here provides a starting point for structure-assisted inhibitor-design efforts and adds to the growing knowledge base of three-dimensional structures of the dual-specificity phosphatase family. PMID:26057789

  4. The Co-Metabolism within the Gut-Brain Metabolic Interaction: Potential Targets for Drug Treatment and Design.

    PubMed

    Obrenovich, Mark; Flückiger, Rudolf; Sykes, Lorraine; Donskey, Curtis

    2016-01-01

    We know that within the complex mammalian gut is any number of metabolic biomes. The gut has been sometimes called the "second brain" within the "gut-brain axis". A more informative term would be the gut-brain metabolic interactome, which is coined here to underscore the relationship between the digestive system and cognitive function or dysfunction as the case may be. Co-metabolism between the host and the intestinal microbiota is essential for life's processes. How diet, lifestyle, antibiotics and other factors shape the gut microbiome constitutes a rapidly growing area of research. Conversely, the gut microbiome also affects mammalian systems. Metabolites of the gut-brain axis are potential targets for treatment and drug design since the interaction or biochemical interplay results in net metabolite production or end-products with either positive or negative effects on human health. This review explores the gut-brain metabolic interactome, with particular emphasis on drug design and treatment strategies and how commensal bacteria or their disruption lead to dysbiosis and the effect this has on neurochemistry. Increasing data indicate that the intestinal microbiome can affect neurobiology, from mental and even behavioral health to memory, depression, mood, anxiety, obesity, cravings and even the creation and maintenance of the blood brain barrier. PMID:26831263

  5. Integrated gene co-expression network analysis in the growth phase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis reveals new potential drug targets.

    PubMed

    Puniya, Bhanwar Lal; Kulshreshtha, Deepika; Verma, Srikant Prasad; Kumar, Sanjiv; Ramachandran, Srinivasan

    2013-11-01

    We have carried out weighted gene co-expression network analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to gain insights into gene expression architecture during log phase growth. The differentially expressed genes between at least one pair of 11 different M. tuberculosis strains as source of biological variability were used for co-expression network analysis. This data included genes with highest coefficient of variation in expression. Five distinct modules were identified using topological overlap based clustering. All the modules together showed significant enrichment in biological processes: fatty acid biosynthesis, cell membrane, intracellular membrane bound organelle, DNA replication, Quinone biosynthesis, cell shape and peptidoglycan biosynthesis, ribosome and structural constituents of ribosome and transposition. We then extracted the co-expressed connections which were supported either by transcriptional regulatory network or STRING database or high edge weight of topological overlap. The genes trpC, nadC, pitA, Rv3404c, atpA, pknA, Rv0996, purB, Rv2106 and Rv0796 emerged as top hub genes. After overlaying this network on the iNJ661 metabolic network, the reactions catalyzed by 15 highly connected metabolic genes were knocked down in silico and evaluated by Flux Balance Analysis. The results showed that in 12 out of 15 cases, in 11 more than 50% of reactions catalyzed by genes connected through co-expressed connections also had altered fluxes. The modules 'Turquoise', 'Blue' and 'Red' also showed enrichment in essential genes. We could map 152 of the previously known or proposed drug targets in these modules and identified 15 new potential drug targets based on their high degree of co-expressed connections and strong correlation with module eigengenes. PMID:24056838

  6. Ephrin receptor A10 is a promising drug target potentially useful for breast cancers including triple negative breast cancers.

    PubMed

    Nagano, Kazuya; Maeda, Yuka; Kanasaki, So-Ichiro; Watanabe, Takanobu; Yamashita, Takuya; Inoue, Masaki; Higashisaka, Kazuma; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Abe, Yasuhiro; Mukai, Yohei; Kamada, Haruhiko; Tsutsumi, Yasuo; Tsunoda, Shin-ichi

    2014-09-10

    Ephrin receptor A10 (EphA10) is a relatively uncharacterized protein which is expressed in many breast cancers but not expressed in normal breast tissues. Here, we examined the potential of EphA10 as a drug target in breast cancer. Immunohistochemical staining of clinical tissue sections revealed that EphA10 was expressed in various breast cancer subtypes, including triple negative breast cancers (TNBCs), with no expression observed in normal tissues apart from testis. Ligand-dependent proliferation was observed in EphA10-transfected MDA-MB-435 cells (MDA-MB-435(EphA10)) and native TNBC cells (MDA-MB-436). However, this phenomenon was not observed in parental MDA-MB-435 cells which express a low level of EphA10. Finally, tumor growth was significantly suppressed by administration of an anti-EphA10 monoclonal antibody in a xenograft mouse model. These results suggest that inhibition of EphA10 signaling may be a novel therapeutic option for management of breast cancer, including TNBCs which are currently not treated with molecularly targeted agents. PMID:24946238

  7. GESSE: Predicting Drug Side Effects from Drug-Target Relationships.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Nueno, Violeta I; Souchet, Michel; Karaboga, Arnaud S; Ritchie, David W

    2015-09-28

    The in silico prediction of unwanted side effects (SEs) caused by the promiscuous behavior of drugs and their targets is highly relevant to the pharmaceutical industry. Considerable effort is now being put into computational and experimental screening of several suspected off-target proteins in the hope that SEs might be identified early, before the cost associated with developing a drug candidate rises steeply. Following this need, we present a new method called GESSE to predict potential SEs of drugs from their physicochemical properties (three-dimensional shape plus chemistry) and to target protein data extracted from predicted drug-target relationships. The GESSE approach uses a canonical correlation analysis of the full drug-target and drug-SE matrices, and it then calculates a probability that each drug in the resulting drug-target matrix will have a given SE using a Bayesian discriminant analysis (DA) technique. The performance of GESSE is quantified using retrospective (external database) analysis and literature examples by means of area under the ROC curve analysis, "top hit rates", misclassification rates, and a χ(2) independence test. Overall, the robust and very promising retrospective statistics obtained and the many SE predictions that have experimental corroboration demonstrate that GESSE can successfully predict potential drug-SE profiles of candidate drug compounds from their predicted drug-target relationships. PMID:26251970

  8. Other targeted drugs in melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Rodón, Jordi; Karachaliou, Niki; Sánchez, Jesús; Santarpia, Mariacarmela; Viteri, Santiago; Pilotto, Sara; Teixidó, Cristina; Riso, Aldo; Rosell, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Targeted therapy drugs are developed against specific molecular alterations on cancer cells. Because they are “targeted” to the tumor, these therapies are more effective and better tolerated than conventional therapies such as chemotherapy. In the last decade, great advances have been made in understanding of melanoma biology and identification of molecular mechanisms involved in malignant transformation of cells. The identification of oncogenic mutated kinases involved in this process provides an opportunity for development of new target therapies. The dependence of melanoma on BRAF-mutant kinase has provided an opportunity for development of mutation-specific inhibitors with high activity and excellent tolerance that are now being used in clinical practice. This marked a new era in the treatment of metastatic melanoma and much research is now ongoing to identify other “druggable” kinases and transduction signaling networking. It is expected that in the near future the spectrum of target drugs for melanoma treatment will increase. Herein, we review the most relevant potential novel drugs for melanoma treatment based on preclinical data and the results of early clinical trials. PMID:26605312

  9. The clinicopathological significance and drug target potential of FHIT in breast cancer, a meta-analysis and literature review.

    PubMed

    Su, Yunshu; Wang, Xiaoli; Li, Jun; Xu, Junming; Xu, Lijun

    2015-01-01

    FHIT is a bona fide tumor-suppressor gene and its loss contributes to tumorigenesis of epithelial cancers including breast cancer (BC). However, the association and clinicopathological significance between FHIT promoter hypermethylation and BC remains unclear. The purpose of this study is to conduct a meta-analysis and literature review to investigate the clinicopathological significance of FHIT methylation in BC. A detailed literature search was performed in PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases. The data were extracted and assessed by two reviewers independently. Odds ratios with 95% corresponding confidence intervals were calculated. A total of seven relevant articles were available for meta-analysis, which included 985 patients. The frequency of FHIT hypermethylation was significantly increased in invasive ductal carcinoma compared to benign breast disease, the pooled odds ratio was 8.43, P<0.00001. The rate of FHIT hypermethylation was not significantly different between stage I/II and stage III/IV, odds ratio was 2.98, P=0.06. In addition, FHIT hypermethylation was not significantly associated with ER and PR status. FHIT hypermethylation was not significantly correlated with premenopausal and postmenopausal patients with invasive ductal carcinoma. In summary, our meta-analysis indicated that the frequency of FHIT hypermethylation was significantly increased in BC compared to benign breast disease. The rate of FHIT hypermethylation in advanced stages of BC was higher than in earlier stages; however, the difference was not statistically significant. Our data suggested that FHIT methylation could be a diagnostic biomarker of BC carcinogenesis. FHIT is a potential drug target for development of demethylation treatment for patients with BC. PMID:26491255

  10. Targeting MDR in breast and lung cancer: discriminating its potential importance from the failure of drug resistance reversal studies.

    PubMed

    Amiri-Kordestani, Laleh; Basseville, Agnes; Kurdziel, Karen; Fojo, Antonio Tito; Bates, Susan E

    2012-01-01

    This special issue of Drug Resistance Updates is dedicated to multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR-1), 35 years after its discovery. While enormous progress has been made and our understanding of drug resistance has become more sophisticated and nuanced, after 35 years the role of MDR-1 in clinical oncology remains a work in progress. Despite clear in vitro evidence that P-glycoprotein (Pgp), encoded by MDR-1, is able to dramatically reduce drug concentrations in cultured cells, and that drug accumulation can be increased by small molecule inhibitors, clinical trials testing this paradigm have mostly failed. Some have argued that it is no longer worthy of study. However, repeated analyses have demonstrated MDR-1 expression in a tumor is a poor prognostic indicator leading some to conclude MDR-1 is a marker of a more aggressive phenotype, rather than a mechanism of drug resistance. In this review we will re-evaluate the MDR-1 story in light of our new understanding of molecular targeted therapy, using breast and lung cancer as examples. In the end we will reconcile the data available and the knowledge gained in support of a thesis that we understand far more than we realize, and that we can use this knowledge to improve future therapies. PMID:22464282

  11. Targeted Drug Delivery in Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xianjun; Zhang, Yuqing; Chen, Changyi; Yao, Qizhi; Li, Min

    2009-01-01

    Effective drug delivery in pancreatic cancer treatment remains a major challenge. Because of the high resistance to chemo and radiation therapy, the overall survival rate for pancreatic cancer is extremely low. Recent advances in drug delivery systems hold great promise for improving cancer therapy. Using liposomes, nanoparticles, and carbon nanotubes to deliver cancer drugs and other therapeutic agents such as siRNA, suicide gene, oncolytic virus, small molecule inhibitor and antibody has been a success in recent pre-clinical trials. However, how to improve the specificity and stability of the delivered drug using ligand or antibody directed delivery represent a major problem. Therefore, developing novel, specific, tumor-targeted drug delivery systems is urgently needed for this terrible disease. This review summarizes the current progress on targeted drug delivery in pancreatic cancer, and provides important information on potential therapeutic targets for pancreatic cancer treatment. PMID:19853645

  12. Drug targeting through pilosebaceous route.

    PubMed

    Chourasia, Rashmi; Jain, Sanjay K

    2009-10-01

    Local skin targeting is of interest for the pharmaceutical and the cosmetic industry. A topically applied substance has basically three possibilities to penetrate into the skin: transcellular, intercellular, and follicular. The transfollicular path has been largely ignored because hair follicles constitute only 0.1% of the total skin. The hair follicle is a skin appendage with a complex structure containing many cell types that produce highly specialised proteins. The hair follicle is in a continuous cycle: anagen is the hair growth phase, catagen the involution phase and telogen is the resting phase. Nonetheless, the hair follicle has great potential for skin treatment, owing to its deep extension into the dermis and thus provides much deeper penetration and absorption of compounds beneath the skin than seen with the transdermal route. In the case of skin diseases and of cosmetic products, delivery to sweat glands or to the pilosebaceous unit is essential for the effectiveness of the drug. Increased accumulation in the pilosebaceous unit could treat alopecia, acne and skin cancer more efficiently and improve the effect of cosmetic substances and nutrients. Therefore, we review herein various drug delivery systems, including liposomes, niosomes, microspheres, nanoparticles, nanoemulsions, lipid nanocarriers, gene therapy and discuss the results of recent researches. We also review the drugs which have been investigated for pilosebaceous delivery. PMID:19663765

  13. Risk assessment of drug interaction potential and concomitant dosing pattern on targeted toxicities in pediatric cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Jeffrey S; Patel, Dimple; Dombrowsky, Erin; Bajaj, Gaurav; Skolnik, Jeffrey M

    2013-07-01

    This investigation evaluated the impact of potential drug interactions on the incidence of reported toxicities seen with common dosing patterns in children with cancer, with the intent of being able to screen and reduce the incidence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in the future. Toxicity reported in pediatric cancer patients treated at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia from 2004 to 2010 were abstracted from a cancer tumor registry and merged with drug order profiles from the medical record system. Analysis datasets were created in SAS and permutation algorithms were used to identify pairwise drug combinations associated with specific toxicity occurrence. Relative risk of toxicity based on dosing pattern was assessed via comparison to control patients. A total of 326 of 1,713 patients (19%) had reportable toxicities. Neutrophil count decreases and alanine aminotransferase increases represented the highest occurring, corresponding to 28.8% and 31.9% prevalence among patients reporting toxicity, respectively. Of coadministered drug pairs, acetaminophen-diphenhydramine occurred most frequently; however, methotrexate-vincristine was the highest occurring pair linked to a single toxicity (hepatotoxicity). Toxicity was highly associated with the diagnoses of leukemia (52.1%) or neuroblastoma (28.5%). Comparison of the dosing interval (≤30 versus >30 min) suggested that risk of toxicity can be associated with the timing of coadministration, with ≤30 min increasing the risk of hepatotoxicity with fentanyl-midazolam and methotrexate-midazolam combinations. Knowledge of drug interactions in children with cancer may help reduce the incidence of ADRs by providing pharmacotherapy options that may reduce the likelihood of toxicity. PMID:23595361

  14. Drug targeting using solid lipid nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Rostami, Elham; Kashanian, Soheila; Azandaryani, Abbas H; Faramarzi, Hossain; Dolatabadi, Jafar Ezzati Nazhad; Omidfar, Kobra

    2014-07-01

    The present review aims to show the features of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) which are at the forefront of the rapidly developing field of nanotechnology with several potential applications in drug delivery and research. Because of some unique features of SLNs such as their unique size dependent properties it offers possibility to develop new therapeutics. A common denominator of all these SLN-based platforms is to deliver drugs into specific tissues or cells in a pathological setting with minimal adverse effects on bystander cells. SLNs are capable to incorporate drugs into nanocarriers which lead to a new prototype in drug delivery which maybe used for drug targeting. Hence solid lipid nanoparticles hold great promise for reaching the goal of controlled and site specific drug delivery and hence attracted wide attention of researchers. This review presents a broad treatment of targeted solid lipid nanoparticles discussing their types such as antibody SLN, magnetic SLN, pH sensitive SLN and cationic SLN. PMID:24717692

  15. Choline kinase-alpha by regulating cell aggressiveness and drug sensitivity is a potential druggable target for ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Granata, A; Nicoletti, R; Tinaglia, V; De Cecco, L; Pisanu, M E; Ricci, A; Podo, F; Canevari, S; Iorio, E; Bagnoli, M; Mezzanzanica, D

    2014-01-01

    Background: Aberrant choline metabolism has been proposed as a novel cancer hallmark. We recently showed that epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) possesses an altered MRS-choline profile, characterised by increased phosphocholine (PCho) content to which mainly contribute over-expression and activation of choline kinase-alpha (ChoK-alpha). Methods: To assess its biological relevance, ChoK-alpha expression was downmodulated by transient RNA interference in EOC in vitro models. Gene expression profiling by microarray analysis and functional analysis was performed to identify the pathway/functions perturbed in ChoK-alpha-silenced cells, then validated by in vitro experiments. Results: In silenced cells, compared with control, we observed: (I) a significant reduction of both CHKA transcript and ChoK-alpha protein expression; (II) a dramatic, proportional drop in PCho content ranging from 60 to 71%, as revealed by 1H-magnetic spectroscopy analysis; (III) a 35–36% of cell growth inhibition, with no evidences of apoptosis or modification of the main cellular survival signalling pathways; (IV) 476 differentially expressed genes, including genes related to lipid metabolism. Ingenuity pathway analysis identified cellular functions related to cell death and cellular proliferation and movement as the most perturbed. Accordingly, CHKA-silenced cells displayed a significant delay in wound repair, a reduced migration and invasion capability were also observed. Furthermore, although CHKA silencing did not directly induce cell death, a significant increase of sensitivity to platinum, paclitaxel and doxorubicin was observed even in a drug-resistant context. Conclusion: We showed for the first time in EOC that CHKA downregulation significantly decreased the aggressive EOC cell behaviour also affecting cells' sensitivity to drug treatment. These observations open the way to further analysis for ChoK-alpha validation as a new EOC therapeutic target to be used alone or in combination with

  16. Development of oxaliplatin encapsulated in magnetic nanocarriers of pectin as a potential targeted drug delivery for cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Raj Kumar; Sahu, Saurabh

    2012-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) and oxaliplatin (OHP) were in-situ encapsulated in pectin cross-linked with Ca2+ forming 100–200 nm sized magnetically functionalized pectin nanocarriers, referred here as MP-OHP nanocarriers. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies revealed formation of spherical nanostructures. The magnetic measurements by vibration sample magnetometer (VSM) revealed high saturation magnetization (Ms=45.65 emu/g). The superparamagnetic property of MP-OHP was confirmed from the blocking temperature (TB) determined from field cooled and zero field cooled magnetization, measured by superconducting quantum unit interference device (SQUID) magnetometry. The stability of the aqueous dispersion of MP-OHP nanocarriers was confirmed from its high zeta potential (−30.5 mV). The drug encapsulation efficiency (55.2±4.8% w/w) and the drug loading content (0.10±0.04 wt%) in MP-OHP nanocarriers were determined from corresponding platinum contents in OHP and MP-OHP batches measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). These nanocarriers exhibited a sustained release of OHP in phosphate buffer solution maintained at pH 5.5 and 7.4, where the drug release profile satisfied a combination of diffusion and swelling controlled mechanism. The cytotoxicity effect of MP-OHP nanocarriers was studied on MIA-PaCa-2 (pancreas) cancer cell line, where the GI50 values were more than 5 mg/mL and it exhibited 10 folds higher cytoxicity than the equivalent concentration of free drug. PMID:25755993

  17. Emerging targets for antimalarial drugs.

    PubMed

    Padmanaban, Govinarajan; Rangarajan, Pundi N

    2001-08-01

    The absence of an effective vaccine against malaria and the ability of the parasite to develop resistance to known antimalarial drugs makes it mandatory to unravel newer drug targets with a view to developing newer pharmacophores. While conventional targets such as the purine, pyrimidine and folate pathways are still being investigated in the light of newer knowledge, a new opportunity has emerged from an understanding of certain unique features of the parasite biology. These include the food vacuole, haemoglobin catabolism, haeme biosynthesis, apicoplasts and their metabolism as well as macromolecular transactions, import of host proteins, parasite induced alterations in the red cell surface and transport phenomena. This review seeks to emphasise the new and emerging targets, while giving a brief account of the targets that have already been exploited. PMID:12540258

  18. Structures of Wild-Type and Mutant Human Spermidine/Spermine N1-acetyltransferase, a Potential Therapeutic Drug Target

    SciTech Connect

    Bewley,M.; Graziano, V.; Jiang, J.; Matz, E.; Studier, F.; Pegg, A.; Coleman, C.; Flanagan, J.

    2006-01-01

    Spermidine/spermine N{sup 1}-acetyltransferase (SSAT) is a key enzyme in the control of polyamine levels in human cells, as acetylation of spermidine and spermine triggers export or degradation. Increased intracellular polyamine levels accompany several types of cancers as well as other human diseases, and compounds that affect the expression, activity, or stability of SSAT are being explored as potential therapeutic drugs. We have expressed human SSAT from the cloned cDNA in Escherichia coli and have determined high-resolution structures of wild-type and mutant SSAT, as the free dimer and in binary and ternary complexes with CoA, acetyl-CoA (AcCoA), spermine, and the inhibitor N{sup 1},N{sup 11}-bis-(ethyl)-norspermine (BE-3-3-3). These structures show details of binding sites for cofactor, substrates, and inhibitor and provide a framework to understand enzymatic activity, mutations, and the action of potential drugs. Two dimer conformations were observed: a symmetric form with two open surface channels capable of binding substrate or cofactor, and an asymmetric form in which only one of the surface channels appears capable of binding and acetylating polyamines. SSAT was found to self-acetylate lysine-26 in the presence of AcCoA and absence of substrate, a reaction apparently catalyzed by AcCoA bound in the second channel of the asymmetric dimer. These unexpected and intriguing complexities seem likely to have some as yet undefined role in regulating SSAT activity or stability as a part of polyamine homeostasis. Sequence signatures group SSAT with proteins that appear to have thialysine N{sup {var_epsilon}}-acetyltransferase activity.

  19. Quinoxalines Potential to Target Pathologies.

    PubMed

    Tristán-Manzano, María; Guirado, Antonio; Martínez-Esparza, María; Gálvez, Jesús; García-Peñarrubia, Pilar; Ruiz-Alcaraz, Antonio J

    2015-01-01

    The study of quinoxalines has increased immeasurably during the last two decades, due firstly to their relatively simple chemical synthesis, which has generated a vast variety of compounds with diverse structural modifications, and secondly, to the wide therapeutic potential and biological activities exhibited by this family of compounds. Quinoxalines constitute a rising biomedical class of low-molecular weight heterocyclic compounds with potential functions as antitumour, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, antiparasitic and antidiabetic agents, as well as being of interest for the potential treatment of glaucoma, insomnia, cardiovascular and neurological diseases, among others. However, a deeper knowledge of the molecular targets of quinoxalines that fulfil a key role in certain pathologies is required for the development of new and more specific drugs through a rational design strategy to avoid undesirable side effects. In the present review, we summarize the most important molecular targets of the quinoxaline derivatives discovered to date, thus providing a first reference index for researchers to identify the potential targets of their quinoxalines derived collections, which could facilitate the development of new quinoxaline- based therapies. PMID:26264925

  20. Complete genome-wide screening and subtractive genomic approach revealed new virulence factors, potential drug targets against bio-war pathogen Brucella melitensis 16M

    PubMed Central

    Pradeepkiran, Jangampalli Adi; Sainath, Sri Bhashyam; Kumar, Konidala Kranthi; Bhaskar, Matcha

    2015-01-01

    Brucella melitensis 16M is a Gram-negative coccobacillus that infects both animals and humans. It causes a disease known as brucellosis, which is characterized by acute febrile illness in humans and causes abortions in livestock. To prevent and control brucellosis, identification of putative drug targets is crucial. The present study aimed to identify drug targets in B. melitensis 16M by using a subtractive genomic approach. We used available database repositories (Database of Essential Genes, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Automatic Annotation Server, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) to identify putative genes that are nonhomologous to humans and essential for pathogen B. melitensis 16M. The results revealed that among 3 Mb genome size of pathogen, 53 putative characterized and 13 uncharacterized hypothetical genes were identified; further, from Basic Local Alignment Search Tool protein analysis, one hypothetical protein showed a close resemblance (50%) to Silicibacter pomeroyi DUF1285 family protein (2RE3). A further homology model of the target was constructed using MODELLER 9.12 and optimized through variable target function method by molecular dynamics optimization with simulating annealing. The stereochemical quality of the restrained model was evaluated by PROCHECK, VERIFY-3D, ERRAT, and WHATIF servers. Furthermore, structure-based virtual screening was carried out against the predicted active site of the respective protein using the glycerol structural analogs from the PubChem database. We identified five best inhibitors with strong affinities, stable interactions, and also with reliable drug-like properties. Hence, these leads might be used as the most effective inhibitors of modeled protein. The outcome of the present work of virtual screening of putative gene targets might facilitate design of potential drugs for better treatment against brucellosis. PMID:25834405

  1. The Robustness of Pathway Analysis in Identifying Potential Drug Targets in Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Dalby, Andrew; Bailey, Ian

    2014-01-01

    The identification of genes responsible for causing cancers from gene expression data has had varied success. Often the genes identified depend on the methods used for detecting expression patterns, or on the ways that the data had been normalized and filtered. The use of gene set enrichment analysis is one way to introduce biological information in order to improve the detection of differentially expressed genes and pathways. In this paper we show that the use of network models while still subject to the problems of normalization is a more robust method for detecting pathways that are differentially overrepresented in lung cancer data. Such differences may provide opportunities for novel therapeutics. In addition, we present evidence that non-small cell lung carcinoma is not a series of homogeneous diseases; rather that there is a heterogeny within the genotype which defies phenotype classification. This diversity helps to explain the lack of progress in developing therapies against non-small cell carcinoma and suggests that drug development may consider multiple pathways as treatment targets.

  2. Genome-scale reconstruction of the Streptococcus pyogenes M49 metabolic network reveals growth requirements and indicates potential drug targets.

    PubMed

    Levering, Jennifer; Fiedler, Tomas; Sieg, Antje; van Grinsven, Koen W A; Hering, Silvio; Veith, Nadine; Olivier, Brett G; Klett, Lara; Hugenholtz, Jeroen; Teusink, Bas; Kreikemeyer, Bernd; Kummer, Ursula

    2016-08-20

    Genome-scale metabolic models comprise stoichiometric relations between metabolites, as well as associations between genes and metabolic reactions and facilitate the analysis of metabolism. We computationally reconstructed the metabolic network of the lactic acid bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes M49. Initially, we based the reconstruction on genome annotations and already existing and curated metabolic networks of Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactococcus lactis. This initial draft was manually curated with the final reconstruction accounting for 480 genes associated with 576 reactions and 558 metabolites. In order to constrain the model further, we performed growth experiments of wild type and arcA deletion strains of S. pyogenes M49 in a chemically defined medium and calculated nutrient uptake and production fluxes. We additionally performed amino acid auxotrophy experiments to test the consistency of the model. The established genome-scale model can be used to understand the growth requirements of the human pathogen S. pyogenes and define optimal and suboptimal conditions, but also to describe differences and similarities between S. pyogenes and related lactic acid bacteria such as L. lactis in order to find strategies to reduce the growth of the pathogen and propose drug targets. PMID:26970054

  3. Brain Tumor Targeting of Magnetic Nanoparticles for Potential Drug Delivery: Effect of Administration Route and Magnetic Field Topography

    PubMed Central

    Chertok, Beata; David, Allan E.; Yang, Victor C.

    2011-01-01

    Our previous studies demonstrated feasibility of magnetically-mediated retention of iron-oxide nanoparticles in brain tumors after intravascular administration. The purpose of this study was to elucidate strategies for further improvement of this promising approach. In particular, we explored administration of the nanoparticles via a non-occluded carotid artery as a way to increase the passive exposure of tumor vasculature to nanoparticles for subsequent magnetic entrapment. However, aggregation of nanoparticles in the afferent vasculature interfered with tumor targeting. The magnetic setup employed in our experiments was found to generate a relatively uniform magnetic flux density over a broad range, exposing the region of the afferent vasculature to high magnetic force. To overcome this problem, the magnetic setup was modified with a 9-mm diameter cylindrical NdFeB magnet to exhibit steeper magnetic field topography. Six-fold reduction of the magnetic force at the injection site, achieved with this modification, alleviated the aggregation problem under the conditions of intact carotid blood flow. Using this setup, carotid administration was found to present 1.8-fold increase in nanoparticle accumulation in glioma compared to the intravenous route at 350 mT. This increase was found to be in reasonable agreement with the theoretically estimated 1.9-fold advantage of carotid administration, Rd. The developed approach is expected to present an even greater advantage when applied to drug-loaded nanoparticles exhibiting higher values of Rd. PMID:21763736

  4. Analyses of the Binding between Water Soluble C60 Derivatives and Potential Drug Targets through a Molecular Docking Approach

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Junjun; Zhang, Houjin

    2016-01-01

    Fullerene C60, a unique sphere-shaped molecule consisting of carbon, has been proved to have inhibitory effects on many diseases. However, the applications of C60 in medicine have been severely hindered by its complete insolubility in water and low solubility in almost all organic solvents. In this study, the water-soluble C60 derivatives and the C60 binding protein’s structures were collected from the literature. The selected proteins fall into several groups, including acetylcholinesterase, glutamate racemase, inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase, lumazine synthase, human estrogen receptor alpha, dihydrofolate reductase and N-myristoyltransferase. The C60 derivatives were docked into the binding sites in the proteins. The binding affinities of the C60 derivatives were calculated. The bindings between proteins and their known inhibitors or native ligands were also characterized in the same way. The results show that C60 derivatives form good interactions with the binding sites of different protein targets. In many cases, the binding affinities of C60 derivatives are better than those of known inhibitors and native ligands. This study demonstrates the interaction patterns of C60 derivatives and their binding partners, which will have good impact on the fullerene-based drug discovery. PMID:26829126

  5. Therapeutic target database update 2012: a resource for facilitating target-oriented drug discovery

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Feng; Shi, Zhe; Qin, Chu; Tao, Lin; Liu, Xin; Xu, Feng; Zhang, Li; Song, Yang; Liu, Xianghui; Zhang, Jingxian; Han, Bucong; Zhang, Peng; Chen, Yuzong

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge and investigation of therapeutic targets (responsible for drug efficacy) and the targeted drugs facilitate target and drug discovery and validation. Therapeutic Target Database (TTD, http://bidd.nus.edu.sg/group/ttd/ttd.asp) has been developed to provide comprehensive information about efficacy targets and the corresponding approved, clinical trial and investigative drugs. Since its last update, major improvements and updates have been made to TTD. In addition to the significant increase of data content (from 1894 targets and 5028 drugs to 2025 targets and 17 816 drugs), we added target validation information (drug potency against target, effect against disease models and effect of target knockout, knockdown or genetic variations) for 932 targets, and 841 quantitative structure activity relationship models for active compounds of 228 chemical types against 121 targets. Moreover, we added the data from our previous drug studies including 3681 multi-target agents against 108 target pairs, 116 drug combinations with their synergistic, additive, antagonistic, potentiative or reductive mechanisms, 1427 natural product-derived approved, clinical trial and pre-clinical drugs and cross-links to the clinical trial information page in the ClinicalTrials.gov database for 770 clinical trial drugs. These updates are useful for facilitating target discovery and validation, drug lead discovery and optimization, and the development of multi-target drugs and drug combinations. PMID:21948793

  6. Bone-targeted delivery of nanodiamond-based drug carriers conjugated with alendronate for potential osteoporosis treatment.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Tae-Kyung; Kang, Rae-Hyoung; Jeong, Ki-Young; Jun, Dae-Ryong; Koh, Jung-Min; Kim, Doyun; Bae, Soo Kyung; Choi, Sung-Wook

    2016-06-28

    This paper describes the design of alendronate-conjugated nanodiamonds (Alen-NDs) and evaluation of their feasibility for bone-targeted delivery. Alen-NDs exhibited a high affinity to hydroxyapatite (HAp, the mineral component of bone) due to the presence of Alen. Unlike NDs (without Alen), Alen-NDs were preferentially taken up by MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells, compared to NIH3T3 and HepG2 cells, suggesting their cellular specificity. In addition, NDs itself increased ALP activity of MC3T3-E1 cells, compared to control group (osteogenic medium) and Alen-NDs exhibited more enhanced ALP activity. In addition, an in vivo study revealed that Alen-NDs effectively accumulated in bone tissues after intravenous tail vein injection. These results confirm the superior properties of Alen-NDs with advantages of high HAp affinity, specific uptake for MC3T3-E1 cells, positive synergistic effect for ALP activity, and in vivo bone targeting ability. The Alen-NDs can potentially be employed for osteoporosis treatment by delivering both NDs and Alen to bone tissue. PMID:27094604

  7. High-throughput transcriptomic and RNAi analysis identifies AIM1, ERGIC1, TMED3 and TPX2 as potential drug targets in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Vainio, Paula; Mpindi, John-Patrick; Kohonen, Pekka; Fey, Vidal; Mirtti, Tuomas; Alanen, Kalle A; Perälä, Merja; Kallioniemi, Olli; Iljin, Kristiina

    2012-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a heterogeneous group of diseases and there is a need for more efficient and targeted methods of treatment. In this study, the potential of gene expression data and RNA interference technique were combined to advance future personalized prostate cancer therapeutics. To distinguish the most promising in vivo prevalidated prostate cancer drug targets, a bioinformatic analysis was carried out using genome-wide gene expression data from 9873 human tissue samples. In total, 295 genes were selected for further functional studies in cultured prostate cancer cells due to their high mRNA expression in prostate, prostate cancer or in metastatic prostate cancer samples. Second, RNAi based cell viability assay was performed in VCaP and LNCaP prostate cancer cells. Based on the siRNA results, gene expression patterns in human tissues and novelty, endoplasmic reticulum function associated targets AIM1, ERGIC1 and TMED3, as well as mitosis regulating TPX2 were selected for further validation. AIM1, ERGIC1, and TPX2 were shown to be highly expressed especially in prostate cancer tissues, and high mRNA expression of ERGIC1 and TMED3 associated with AR and ERG oncogene expression. ERGIC1 silencing specifically regulated the proliferation of ERG oncogene positive prostate cancer cells and inhibited ERG mRNA expression in these cells, indicating that it is a potent drug target in ERG positive subgroup of prostate cancers. TPX2 expression associated with PSA failure and TPX2 silencing reduced PSA expression, indicating that TPX2 regulates androgen receptor mediated signaling. In conclusion, the combinatorial usage of microarray and RNAi techniques yielded in a large number of potential novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets, for future development of targeted and personalized approaches for prostate cancer management. PMID:22761906

  8. Implant-Assisted Intrathecal Magnetic Drug Targeting to Aid in Therapeutic Nanoparticle Localization for Potential Treatment of Central Nervous System Disorders.

    PubMed

    Lueshen, Eric; Venugopal, Indu; Soni, Tejen; Alaraj, Ali; Linninger, Andreas

    2015-02-01

    There is an ongoing struggle to develop efficient drug delivery and targeting methods within the central nervous system. One technique known as intrathecal drug delivery, involves direct drug infusion into the spinal canal and has become standard practice for treating many central nervous system diseases due to reduced systemic toxicity from the drug bypassing the blood-brain barrier. Although intrathecal drug delivery boasts the advantage of reduced systemic toxicity compared to oral and intravenous drug delivery techniques, current intrathecal delivery protocols lack a means of sufficient drug targeting at specific locations of interest within the central nervous system. We previously proposed the method of intrathecal magnetic drug targeting in order to overcome the limited targeting capabilities of standard intrathecal drug delivery protocols, while simultaneously reducing the systemic toxicity as well as the amount of drug required to produce a therapeutic effect. Building off of our previous work, this paper presents the concept of implant-assisted intrathecal magnetic drug targeting. Ferritic stainless steel implants were incorporated within the subarachnoid space of our in vitro human spine model, and the targeting magnet was placed at a physiological distance away from the model and implant to mimic the distance between the epidermis and spinal canal. Computer simulations were performed to optimize implant design for generating high gradient magnetic fields and to study how these fields may aid in therapeutic nanoparticle localization. Experiments aiming to determine the effects of different magnetically-susceptible implants placed within an external magnetic field on the targeting efficiency of gold-coated magnetite nanoparticles were then performed on our in vitro human spine model. Our results indicate that implant-assisted intrathecal magnetic drug targeting is an excellent supplementary technique to further enhance the targeting capabilities of our

  9. Modeling of Human Prokineticin Receptors: Interactions with Novel Small-Molecule Binders and Potential Off-Target Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Levit, Anat; Yarnitzky, Talia; Wiener, Ayana; Meidan, Rina; Niv, Masha Y.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Motivation The Prokineticin receptor (PKR) 1 and 2 subtypes are novel members of family A GPCRs, which exhibit an unusually high degree of sequence similarity. Prokineticins (PKs), their cognate ligands, are small secreted proteins of ∼80 amino acids; however, non-peptidic low-molecular weight antagonists have also been identified. PKs and their receptors play important roles under various physiological conditions such as maintaining circadian rhythm and pain perception, as well as regulating angiogenesis and modulating immunity. Identifying binding sites for known antagonists and for additional potential binders will facilitate studying and regulating these novel receptors. Blocking PKRs may serve as a therapeutic tool for various diseases, including acute pain, inflammation and cancer. Methods and Results Ligand-based pharmacophore models were derived from known antagonists, and virtual screening performed on the DrugBank dataset identified potential human PKR (hPKR) ligands with novel scaffolds. Interestingly, these included several HIV protease inhibitors for which endothelial cell dysfunction is a documented side effect. Our results suggest that the side effects might be due to inhibition of the PKR signaling pathway. Docking of known binders to a 3D homology model of hPKR1 is in agreement with the well-established canonical TM-bundle binding site of family A GPCRs. Furthermore, the docking results highlight residues that may form specific contacts with the ligands. These contacts provide structural explanation for the importance of several chemical features that were obtained from the structure-activity analysis of known binders. With the exception of a single loop residue that might be perused in the future for obtaining subtype-specific regulation, the results suggest an identical TM-bundle binding site for hPKR1 and hPKR2. In addition, analysis of the intracellular regions highlights variable regions that may provide subtype specificity

  10. Chemical signatures and new drug targets for gametocytocidal drug development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wei; Tanaka, Takeshi Q.; Magle, Crystal T.; Huang, Wenwei; Southall, Noel; Huang, Ruili; Dehdashti, Seameen J.; McKew, John C.; Williamson, Kim C.; Zheng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Control of parasite transmission is critical for the eradication of malaria. However, most antimalarial drugs are not active against P. falciparum gametocytes, responsible for the spread of malaria. Consequently, patients can remain infectious for weeks after the clearance of asexual parasites and clinical symptoms. Here we report the identification of 27 potent gametocytocidal compounds (IC50 < 1 μM) from screening 5,215 known drugs and compounds. All these compounds were active against three strains of gametocytes with different drug sensitivities and geographical origins, 3D7, HB3 and Dd2. Cheminformatic analysis revealed chemical signatures for P. falciparum sexual and asexual stages indicative of druggability and suggesting potential targets. Torin 2, a top lead compound (IC50 = 8 nM against gametocytes in vitro), completely blocked oocyst formation in a mouse model of transmission. These results provide critical new leads and potential targets to expand the repertoire of malaria transmission-blocking reagents.

  11. Modeling, molecular dynamics, and docking assessment of transcription factor rho: a potential drug target in Brucella melitensis 16M

    PubMed Central

    Pradeepkiran, Jangampalli Adi; Kumar, Konidala Kranthi; Kumar, Yellapu Nanda; Bhaskar, Matcha

    2015-01-01

    -ligand complex via a hydrogen bonding interaction by aromatic-π contacts, and the ADMET (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion) analysis of best leads indicate nontoxic in nature with good potential for drug development. PMID:25848225

  12. "Target-Site" Drug Metabolism and Transport.

    PubMed

    Foti, Robert S; Tyndale, Rachel F; Garcia, Kristine L P; Sweet, Douglas H; Nagar, Swati; Sharan, Satish; Rock, Dan A

    2015-08-01

    The recent symposium on "Target-Site" Drug Metabolism and Transport that was sponsored by the American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics at the 2014 Experimental Biology meeting in San Diego is summarized in this report. Emerging evidence has demonstrated that drug-metabolizing enzyme and transporter activity at the site of therapeutic action can affect the efficacy, safety, and metabolic properties of a given drug, with potential outcomes including altered dosing regimens, stricter exclusion criteria, or even the failure of a new chemical entity in clinical trials. Drug metabolism within the brain, for example, can contribute to metabolic activation of therapeutic drugs such as codeine as well as the elimination of potential neurotoxins in the brain. Similarly, the activity of oxidative and conjugative drug-metabolizing enzymes in the lung can have an effect on the efficacy of compounds such as resveratrol. In addition to metabolism, the active transport of compounds into or away from the site of action can also influence the outcome of a given therapeutic regimen or disease progression. For example, organic anion transporter 3 is involved in the initiation of pancreatic β-cell dysfunction and may have a role in how uremic toxins enter pancreatic β-cells and ultimately contribute to the pathogenesis of gestational diabetes. Finally, it is likely that a combination of target-specific metabolism and cellular internalization may have a significant role in determining the pharmacokinetics and efficacy of antibody-drug conjugates, a finding which has resulted in the development of a host of new analytical methods that are now used for characterizing the metabolism and disposition of antibody-drug conjugates. Taken together, the research summarized herein can provide for an increased understanding of potential barriers to drug efficacy and allow for a more rational approach for developing safe and effective therapeutics. PMID:25986849

  13. Drug targeting to the brain.

    PubMed

    Pardridge, William M

    2007-09-01

    The goal of brain drug targeting technology is the delivery of therapeutics across the blood-brain barrier (BBB), including the human BBB. This is accomplished by re-engineering pharmaceuticals to cross the BBB via specific endogenous transporters localized within the brain capillary endothelium. Certain endogenous peptides, such as insulin or transferrin, undergo receptor-mediated transport (RMT) across the BBB in vivo. In addition, peptidomimetic monoclonal antibodies (MAb) may also cross the BBB via RMT on the endogenous transporters. The MAb may be used as a molecular Trojan horse to ferry across the BBB large molecule pharmaceuticals, including recombinant proteins, antibodies, RNA interference drugs, or non-viral gene medicines. Fusion proteins of the molecular Trojan horse and either neurotrophins or single chain Fv antibodies have been genetically engineered. The fusion proteins retain bi-functional properties, and both bind the BBB receptor, to trigger transport into brain, and bind the cognate receptor inside brain to induce the pharmacologic effect. Trojan horse liposome technology enables the brain targeting of non-viral plasmid DNA. Molecular Trojan horses may be formulated with fusion protein technology, avidin-biotin technology, or Trojan horse liposomes to target to brain virtually any large molecule pharmaceutical. PMID:17554607

  14. Novel high throughput pooled shRNA screening identifies NQO1 as a potential drug target for host directed therapy for tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qing; Karim, Ahmad F.; Ding, Xuedong; Das, Biswajit; Dobrowolski, Curtis; Gibson, Richard M.; Quiñones-Mateu, Miguel E.; Karn, Jonathan; Rojas, Roxana E.

    2016-01-01

    Chemical regulation of macrophage function is one key strategy for developing host-directed adjuvant therapies for tuberculosis (TB). A critical step to develop these therapies is the identification and characterization of specific macrophage molecules and pathways with a high potential to serve as drug targets. Using a barcoded lentivirus-based pooled short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) library combined with next generation sequencing, we identified 205 silenced host genes highly enriched in mycobacteria-resistant macrophages. Twenty-one of these “hits” belonged to the oxidoreductase functional category. NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) was the top oxidoreductase “hit”. NQO1 expression was increased after mycobacterial infection, and NQO1 knockdown increased macrophage differentiation, NF-κB activation, and the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β in response to infection. This suggests that mycobacteria hijacks NQO1 to down-regulate pro-inflammatory and anti-bacterial functions. The competitive inhibitor of NQO1 dicoumarol synergized with rifampin to promote intracellular killing of mycobacteria. Thus, NQO1 is a new host target in mycobacterial infection that could potentially be exploited to increase antibiotic efficacy in vivo. Our findings also suggest that pooled shRNA libraries could be valuable tools for genome-wide screening in the search for novel druggable host targets for adjunctive TB therapies. PMID:27297123

  15. Using bioinformatics for drug target identification from the genome.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhenran; Zhou, Yanhong

    2005-01-01

    Genomics and proteomics technologies have created a paradigm shift in the drug discovery process, with bioinformatics having a key role in the exploitation of genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic data to gain insights into the molecular mechanisms that underlie disease and to identify potential drug targets. We discuss the current state of the art for some of the bioinformatic approaches to identifying drug targets, including identifying new members of successful target classes and their functions, predicting disease relevant genes, and constructing gene networks and protein interaction networks. In addition, we introduce drug target discovery using the strategy of systems biology, and discuss some of the data resources for the identification of drug targets. Although bioinformatics tools and resources can be used to identify putative drug targets, validating targets is still a process that requires an understanding of the role of the gene or protein in the disease process and is heavily dependent on laboratory-based work. PMID:16336003

  16. Drug-targeting methodologies with applications: A review

    PubMed Central

    Kleinstreuer, Clement; Feng, Yu; Childress, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Targeted drug delivery to solid tumors is a very active research area, focusing mainly on improved drug formulation and associated best delivery methods/devices. Drug-targeting has the potential to greatly improve drug-delivery efficacy, reduce side effects, and lower the treatment costs. However, the vast majority of drug-targeting studies assume that the drug-particles are already at the target site or at least in its direct vicinity. In this review, drug-delivery methodologies, drug types and drug-delivery devices are discussed with examples in two major application areas: (1) inhaled drug-aerosol delivery into human lung-airways; and (2) intravascular drug-delivery for solid tumor targeting. The major problem addressed is how to deliver efficiently the drug-particles from the entry/infusion point to the target site. So far, most experimental results are based on animal studies. Concerning pulmonary drug delivery, the focus is on the pros and cons of three inhaler types, i.e., pressurized metered dose inhaler, dry powder inhaler and nebulizer, in addition to drug-aerosol formulations. Computational fluid-particle dynamics techniques and the underlying methodology for a smart inhaler system are discussed as well. Concerning intravascular drug-delivery for solid tumor targeting, passive and active targeting are reviewed as well as direct drug-targeting, using optimal delivery of radioactive microspheres to liver tumors as an example. The review concludes with suggestions for future work, considereing both pulmonary drug targeting and direct drug delivery to solid tumors in the vascular system. PMID:25516850

  17. Drug-targeting methodologies with applications: A review.

    PubMed

    Kleinstreuer, Clement; Feng, Yu; Childress, Emily

    2014-12-16

    Targeted drug delivery to solid tumors is a very active research area, focusing mainly on improved drug formulation and associated best delivery methods/devices. Drug-targeting has the potential to greatly improve drug-delivery efficacy, reduce side effects, and lower the treatment costs. However, the vast majority of drug-targeting studies assume that the drug-particles are already at the target site or at least in its direct vicinity. In this review, drug-delivery methodologies, drug types and drug-delivery devices are discussed with examples in two major application areas: (1) inhaled drug-aerosol delivery into human lung-airways; and (2) intravascular drug-delivery for solid tumor targeting. The major problem addressed is how to deliver efficiently the drug-particles from the entry/infusion point to the target site. So far, most experimental results are based on animal studies. Concerning pulmonary drug delivery, the focus is on the pros and cons of three inhaler types, i.e., pressurized metered dose inhaler, dry powder inhaler and nebulizer, in addition to drug-aerosol formulations. Computational fluid-particle dynamics techniques and the underlying methodology for a smart inhaler system are discussed as well. Concerning intravascular drug-delivery for solid tumor targeting, passive and active targeting are reviewed as well as direct drug-targeting, using optimal delivery of radioactive microspheres to liver tumors as an example. The review concludes with suggestions for future work, considereing both pulmonary drug targeting and direct drug delivery to solid tumors in the vascular system. PMID:25516850

  18. A Systems-Pharmacology Analysis of Herbal Medicines Used in Health Improvement Treatment: Predicting Potential New Drugs and Targets

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianling; Pei, Mengjie; Zheng, Chunli; Li, Yan; Wang, Yonghua; Lu, Aiping; Yang, Ling

    2013-01-01

    For thousands of years, tonic herbs have been successfully used all around the world to improve health, energy, and vitality. However, their underlying mechanisms of action in molecular/systems levels are still a mystery. In this work, two sets of tonic herbs, so called Qi-enriching herbs (QEH) and Blood-tonifying herbs (BTH) in TCM, were selected to elucidate why they can restore proper balance and harmony inside body, organ and energy system. Firstly, a pattern recognition model based on artificial neural network and discriminant analysis for assessing the molecular difference between QEH and BTH was developed. It is indicated that QEH compounds have high lipophilicity while BTH compounds possess high chemical reactivity. Secondly, a systematic investigation integrating ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion) prediction, target fishing and network analysis was performed and validated on these herbs to obtain the compound-target associations for reconstructing the biologically-meaningful networks. The results suggest QEH enhance physical strength, immune system and normal well-being, acting as adjuvant therapy for chronic disorders while BTH stimulate hematopoiesis function in body. As an emerging approach, the systems pharmacology model might facilitate to understand the mechanisms of action of the tonic herbs, which brings about new development for complementary and alternative medicine. PMID:24369484

  19. Homology Modeling of NAD+-Dependent DNA Ligase of the Wolbachia Endosymbiont of Brugia malayi and Its Drug Target Potential Using Dispiro-Cycloalkanones

    PubMed Central

    Shrivastava, Nidhi; Nag, Jeetendra K.; Pandey, Jyoti; Tripathi, Rama Pati; Shah, Priyanka; Siddiqi, Mohammad Imran

    2015-01-01

    Lymphatic filarial nematodes maintain a mutualistic relationship with the endosymbiont Wolbachia. Depletion of Wolbachia produces profound defects in nematode development, fertility, and viability and thus has great promise as a novel approach for treating filarial diseases. NAD+-dependent DNA ligase is an essential enzyme of DNA replication, repair, and recombination. Therefore, in the present study, the antifilarial drug target potential of the NAD+-dependent DNA ligase of the Wolbachia symbiont of Brugia malayi (wBm-LigA) was investigated using dispiro-cycloalkanone compounds. Dispiro-cycloalkanone specifically inhibited the nick-closing and cohesive-end ligation activities of the enzyme without inhibiting human or T4 DNA ligase. The mode of inhibition was competitive with the NAD+ cofactor. Docking studies also revealed the interaction of these compounds with the active site of the target enzyme. The adverse effects of these inhibitors were observed on adult and microfilarial stages of B. malayi in vitro, and the most active compounds were further monitored in vivo in jirds and mastomys rodent models. Compounds 1, 2, and 5 had severe adverse effects in vitro on the motility of both adult worms and microfilariae at low concentrations. Compound 2 was the best inhibitor, with the lowest 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) (1.02 μM), followed by compound 5 (IC50, 2.3 μM) and compound 1 (IC50, 2.9 μM). These compounds also exhibited the same adverse effect on adult worms and microfilariae in vivo (P < 0.05). These compounds also tremendously reduced the wolbachial load, as evident by quantitative real-time PCR (P < 0.05). wBm-LigA thus shows great promise as an antifilarial drug target, and dispiro-cycloalkanone compounds show great promise as antifilarial lead candidates. PMID:25845868

  20. A Computational Approach to Finding Novel Targets for Existing Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yvonne Y.; An, Jianghong; Jones, Steven J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Repositioning existing drugs for new therapeutic uses is an efficient approach to drug discovery. We have developed a computational drug repositioning pipeline to perform large-scale molecular docking of small molecule drugs against protein drug targets, in order to map the drug-target interaction space and find novel interactions. Our method emphasizes removing false positive interaction predictions using criteria from known interaction docking, consensus scoring, and specificity. In all, our database contains 252 human protein drug targets that we classify as reliable-for-docking as well as 4621 approved and experimental small molecule drugs from DrugBank. These were cross-docked, then filtered through stringent scoring criteria to select top drug-target interactions. In particular, we used MAPK14 and the kinase inhibitor BIM-8 as examples where our stringent thresholds enriched the predicted drug-target interactions with known interactions up to 20 times compared to standard score thresholds. We validated nilotinib as a potent MAPK14 inhibitor in vitro (IC50 40 nM), suggesting a potential use for this drug in treating inflammatory diseases. The published literature indicated experimental evidence for 31 of the top predicted interactions, highlighting the promising nature of our approach. Novel interactions discovered may lead to the drug being repositioned as a therapeutic treatment for its off-target's associated disease, added insight into the drug's mechanism of action, and added insight into the drug's side effects. PMID:21909252

  1. Bioinformatics and Molecular Biological Characterization of a Hypothetical Protein SAV1226 as a Potential Drug Target for Methicillin/Vancomycin-Staphylococcus aureus Infections

    PubMed Central

    Haag, Nichole; Velk, Kimberly; McCune, Tyler; Wu, Chun

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin/multiple-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are infectious bacteria that are resistant to common antibiotics. A previous in silico study in our group has identified a hypothetical protein SAV1226 as one of the potential drug targets. In this study, we reported the bioinformatics characterization, as well as cloning, expression, purification and kinetic assays of hypothetical protein SAV1226 from methicillin/vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Mu50 strain. MALDI-TOF/MS analysis revealed a low degree of structural similarity with known proteins. Kinetic assays demonstrated that hypothetical protein SAV1226 is neither a domain of an ATP dependent dihydroxyacetone kinase nor of a phosphotransferase system (PTS) dihydroxyacetone kinase, suggesting that the function of hypothetical protein SAV1226 might be misannotated on public databases such as UniProt and InterProScan 5. PMID:26388980

  2. Targeting tuberculosis: a glimpse of promising drug targets.

    PubMed

    Arora, N; Banerjee, A K

    2012-03-01

    Tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis has emerged as the biggest curse of our time causing significant morbidity and mortality. Increasing resistance in mycobacterium to existing drugs calls for exploration of metabolic pathways for finding novel drug targets and also for prioritization of known drug targets. Recent advances in molecular biology, bioinformatics and structural biology coupled with availability of M. tuberculosis genome sequence have provided much needed boost to drug discovery process. This review provides a glimpse of attractive drug targets for development of anti-mycobacterial drug development. PMID:22356190

  3. Sphingosines Derived from Marine Sponge as Potential Multi-Target Drug Related to Disorders in Cancer Development.

    PubMed

    Biegelmeyer, Renata; Schröder, Rafael; Rambo, Douglas F; Dresch, Roger R; Carraro, João L F; Mothes, Beatriz; Moreira, José Cláudio F; Junior, Mário L C da Frota; Henriques, Amélia T

    2015-09-01

    Haliclona tubifera, marine sponge species abundant in Brazilian coastline, presents only a few papers published in the literature. Recently, we have reported the isolation of two modified C18 sphingoid bases: (2R,3R,6R,7Z)-2-aminooctadec-7-ene-1,3, 6-triol and and (2R,3R,6R)-2-aminooctadec-1,3,6-triol. In order to continue our research, in this work aimed at the biological investigation of fractions that led to the isolation of these compounds. We evaluated the cytotoxic effect of marine sponge H. tubifera fractions in glioma (U87) and neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) human cell lines. In addition, considering the link between cancer, imbalance of reactive oxygen species and coagulation disorders, we also investigated the in vitro effects on blood coagulation and their redox properties. We showed that the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction, rich in sphingoid bases, had important cytotoxic effects in both cancer cell lines with an IC50 < 15 μg/mL and also can inhibit the production of peroxyl radicals. Interestingly, this fraction increased the recalcification time of human blood, showing anticoagulant properties. The present study indicates the sphingosines fraction as a promising source of chemical prototypes, especially multifunctional drugs in cancer therapy. PMID:26308014

  4. Sphingosines Derived from Marine Sponge as Potential Multi-Target Drug Related to Disorders in Cancer Development

    PubMed Central

    Biegelmeyer, Renata; Schröder, Rafael; Rambo, Douglas F.; Dresch, Roger R.; Carraro, João L. F.; Mothes, Beatriz; Moreira, José Cláudio F.; da Frota Junior, Mário L. C.; Henriques, Amélia T.

    2015-01-01

    Haliclona tubifera, marine sponge species abundant in Brazilian coastline, presents only a few papers published in the literature. Recently, we have reported the isolation of two modified C18 sphingoid bases: (2R,3R,6R,7Z)-2-aminooctadec-7-ene-1,3,6-triol and and (2R,3R,6R)-2-aminooctadec-1,3,6-triol. In order to continue our research, in this work aimed at the biological investigation of fractions that led to the isolation of these compounds. We evaluated the cytotoxic effect of marine sponge H. tubifera fractions in glioma (U87) and neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) human cell lines. In addition, considering the link between cancer, imbalance of reactive oxygen species and coagulation disorders, we also investigated the in vitro effects on blood coagulation and their redox properties. We showed that the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction, rich in sphingoid bases, had important cytotoxic effects in both cancer cell lines with an IC50 < 15 μg/mL and also can inhibit the production of peroxyl radicals. Interestingly, this fraction increased the recalcification time of human blood, showing anticoagulant properties. The present study indicates the sphingosines fraction as a promising source of chemical prototypes, especially multifunctional drugs in cancer therapy. PMID:26308014

  5. AP-2-Associated Protein Kinase 1 and Cyclin G-Associated Kinase Regulate Hepatitis C Virus Entry and Are Potential Drug Targets

    PubMed Central

    Neveu, Gregory; Ziv-Av, Amotz; Barouch-Bentov, Rina; Berkerman, Elena; Mulholland, Jon

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hepatitis C virus (HCV) enters its target cell via clathrin-mediated endocytosis. AP-2-associated protein kinase 1 (AAK1) and cyclin G-associated kinase (GAK) are host kinases that regulate clathrin adaptor protein (AP)-mediated trafficking in the endocytic and secretory pathways. We previously reported that AAK1 and GAK regulate HCV assembly by stimulating binding of the μ subunit of AP-2, AP2M1, to HCV core protein. We also discovered that AAK1 and GAK inhibitors, including the approved anticancer drugs sunitinib and erlotinib, could block HCV assembly. Here, we hypothesized that AAK1 and GAK regulate HCV entry independently of their effect on HCV assembly. Indeed, silencing AAK1 and GAK expression inhibited entry of pseudoparticles and cell culture grown-HCV and internalization of Dil-labeled HCV particles with no effect on HCV attachment or RNA replication. AAK1 or GAK depletion impaired epidermal growth factor (EGF)-mediated enhanced HCV entry and endocytosis of EGF receptor (EGFR), an HCV entry cofactor and erlotinib's cancer target. Moreover, either RNA interference-mediated depletion of AP2M1 or NUMB, each a substrate of AAK1 and/or GAK, or overexpression of either an AP2M1 or NUMB phosphorylation site mutant inhibited HCV entry. Last, in addition to affecting assembly, sunitinib and erlotinib inhibited HCV entry at a postbinding step, their combination was synergistic, and their antiviral effect was reversed by either AAK1 or GAK overexpression. Together, these results validate AAK1 and GAK as critical regulators of HCV entry that function in part by activating EGFR, AP2M1, and NUMB and as the molecular targets underlying the antiviral effect of sunitinib and erlotinib (in addition to EGFR), respectively. IMPORTANCE Understanding the host pathways hijacked by HCV is critical for developing host-centered anti-HCV approaches. Entry represents a potential target for antiviral strategies; however, no FDA-approved HCV entry inhibitors are currently

  6. Targeting γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) carriers to the brain: potential relevance as antiepileptic pro-drugs.

    PubMed

    Semreen, Mohammad H; El-Shorbagi, Abdel-Nasser; Al-Tel, Taleb H; Alsalahat, Izzeddin M M

    2010-05-01

    The search for antiepileptic compounds with more selective activity continues to be an area of intensive investigation in medicinal chemistry. 3,5-Disubstituted tetrahydro-2H-1,3,5-thiadiazine-2-thione (THTT) derivatives, 3a-g, potential prodrugs incorporating the neurotransmitter GABA were synthesized and studied for crossing the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Compounds were prepared from primary amines and carbon disulfide to give dithiocarbamates 2a-g which upon reaction in situ with formaldehyde provided the intermediates Ia-g. Addition of Ia-g onto GABA furnished the title compounds 3a-g. The structures were verified by spectral data and the amounts of the compounds in the brain were investigated by using HPLC. The concentration profiles of the tested compounds in mice brain were determined and the in vivo anticonvulsant activity was measured. PMID:20632978

  7. Systemic targeted radionuclide therapy: Potential new areas

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Jeffrey Y.C. . E-mail: jwong@coh.org

    2006-10-01

    Radiation oncology is entering an exciting new era with therapies being delivered in a targeted fashion through an increasing number of novel approaches. External beam radiotherapy now integrates functional and anatomic tumor imaging to guide delivery of conformal radiation to the tumor target. Systemic targeted radionuclide therapy (STaRT) adds an important new dimension by making available to Radiation oncologist biologically targeted radiation therapy. Impressive clinical results with antibody-targeted radiotherapy, leading to the Food and Drug Administration's approval of two anti-CD20 radiolabeled antibodies, highlight the potential of STaRT. Optimization strategies will further improve the efficacy of STaRT by improving delivery systems, modifying the tumor microenvironment to increase targeted dose, and maximizing dose effect. Ultimately, the greatest potential for STaRT will not be as monotherapy, but as therapy integrated into established multimodality regimens and used as adjuvant or consolidative therapy in patients with minimal or micrometastatic disease.

  8. Computational screening for new inhibitors of M. tuberculosis mycolyltransferases antigen 85 group of proteins as potential drug targets.

    PubMed

    Gahoi, Shachi; Mandal, Rahul Shubhra; Ivanisenko, Nikita; Shrivastava, Priyanka; Jain, Sriyans; Singh, Ashish Kumar; Raghunandanan, Muthukurrusi Varieth; Kanchan, Swarna; Taneja, Bhupesh; Mandal, Chhabinath; Ivanisenko, Vladimir A; Kumar, Anil; Kumar, Rita; Open Source Drug Discovery Consortium; Ramachandran, Srinivasan

    2013-01-01

    The group of antigen 85 proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is responsible for converting trehalose monomycolate to trehalose dimycolate, which contributes to cell wall stability. Here, we have used a serial enrichment approach to identify new potential inhibitors by searching the libraries of compounds using both 2D atom pair descriptors and binary fingerprints followed by molecular docking. Three different docking softwares AutoDock, GOLD, and LigandFit were used for docking calculations. In addition, we applied the criteria of selecting compounds with binding efficiency close to the starting known inhibitor and showing potential to form hydrogen bonds with the active site amino acid residues. The starting inhibitor was ethyl-3-phenoxybenzyl-butylphosphonate, which had IC(50) value of 2.0 μM in mycolyltransferase inhibition assay. Our search from more than 34 million compounds from public libraries yielded 49 compounds. Subsequently, selection was restricted to compounds conforming to the Lipinski rule of five and exhibiting hydrogen bonding to any of the amino acid residues in the active site pocket of all three proteins of antigen 85A, 85B, and 85C. Finally, we selected those ligands which were ranked top in the table with other known decoys in all the docking results. The compound NIH415032 from tuberculosis antimicrobial acquisition and coordinating facility was further examined using molecular dynamics simulations for 10 ns. These results showed that the binding is stable, although some of the hydrogen bond atom pairs varied through the course of simulation. The NIH415032 has antitubercular properties with IC(90) at 20 μg/ml (53.023 μM). These results will be helpful to the medicinal chemists for developing new antitubercular molecules for testing. PMID:22804492

  9. Polymers for Colon Targeted Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Rajpurohit, H.; Sharma, P.; Sharma, S.; Bhandari, A.

    2010-01-01

    The colon targeted drug delivery has a number of important implications in the field of pharmacotherapy. Oral colon targeted drug delivery systems have recently gained importance for delivering a variety of therapeutic agents for both local and systemic administration. Targeting of drugs to the colon via oral administration protect the drug from degradation or release in the stomach and small intestine. It also ensures abrupt or controlled release of the drug in the proximal colon. Various drug delivery systems have been designed that deliver the drug quantitatively to the colon and then trigger the release of drug. This review will cover different types of polymers which can be used in formulation of colon targeted drug delivery systems. PMID:21969739

  10. Identification of potential vaccine and drug target candidates by expressed sequence tag analysis and immunoscreening of Onchocerca volvulus larval cDNA libraries.

    PubMed

    Lizotte-Waniewski, M; Tawe, W; Guiliano, D B; Lu, W; Liu, J; Williams, S A; Lustigman, S

    2000-06-01

    The search for appropriate vaccine candidates and drug targets against onchocerciasis has so far been confronted with several limitations due to the unavailability of biological material, appropriate molecular resources, and knowledge of the parasite biology. To identify targets for vaccine or chemotherapy development we have undertaken two approaches. First, cDNA expression libraries were constructed from life cycle stages that are critical for establishment of Onchocerca volvulus infection, the third-stage larvae (L3) and the molting L3. A gene discovery effort was then initiated by random expressed sequence tag analysis of 5,506 cDNA clones. Cluster analyses showed that many of the transcripts were up-regulated and/or stage specific in either one or both of the cDNA libraries when compared to the microfilariae, L2, and both adult stages of the parasite. Homology searches against the GenBank database facilitated the identification of several genes of interest, such as proteinases, proteinase inhibitors, antioxidant or detoxification enzymes, and neurotransmitter receptors, as well as structural and housekeeping genes. Other O. volvulus genes showed homology only to predicted genes from the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans or were entirely novel. Some of the novel proteins contain potential secretory leaders. Secondly, by immunoscreening the molting L3 cDNA library with a pool of human sera from putatively immune individuals, we identified six novel immunogenic proteins that otherwise would not have been identified as potential vaccinogens using the gene discovery effort. This study lays a solid foundation for a better understanding of the biology of O. volvulus as well as for the identification of novel targets for filaricidal agents and/or vaccines against onchocerciasis based on immunological and rational hypothesis-driven research. PMID:10816503

  11. Histamine pharmacology and new CNS drug targets.

    PubMed

    Tiligada, Ekaterini; Kyriakidis, Konstantinos; Chazot, Paul L; Passani, M Beatrice

    2011-12-01

    During the last decade, the identification of a number of novel drug targets led to the development of promising new compounds which are currently under evaluation for their therapeutic prospective in CNS related disorders. Besides the established pleiotropic regulatory functions in the periphery, the interest in the potential homeostatic role of histamine in the brain was revived following the identification of H(3) and H(4) receptors some years ago. Complementing classical CNS pharmacology, the development of selective histamine receptor agonists, antagonists, and inverse agonists provides the lead for the potential exploitation of the histaminergic system in the treatment of brain pathologies. Although no CNS disease entity has been associated directly to brain histamine dysfunction until now, the H(3) receptor is recognized as a drug target for neuropathic pain, sleep-wake disorders, including narcolepsy, and cognitive impairment associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, schizophrenia, Alzheimer's, or Parkinson's disease, while the first H(3) receptor ligands have already entered phase I-III clinical trials. Interestingly, the localization of the immunomodulatory H(4) receptor in the nervous system exposes attractive perspectives for the therapeutic exploitation of this new drug target in neuroimmunopharmacology. This review focuses on a concise presentation of the current "translational research" approach that exploits the latest advances in histamine pharmacology for the development of beneficial drug targets for the treatment of neuronal disorders, such as neuropathic pain, cognitive, and sleep-wake pathologies. Furthermore, the role of the brain histaminergic system(s) in neuroprotection and neuroimmunology/inflammation remains a challenging research area that is currently under consideration. PMID:22070192

  12. In silico prediction of drug targets in Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Katara, Pramod; Grover, Atul; Kuntal, Himani; Sharma, Vinay

    2011-10-01

    Identification of potential drug targets is the first step in the process of modern drug discovery, subjected to their validation and drug development. Whole genome sequences of a number of organisms allow prediction of potential drug targets using sequence comparison approaches. Here, we present a subtractive approach exploiting the knowledge of global gene expression along with sequence comparisons to predict the potential drug targets more efficiently. Based on the knowledge of 155 known virulence and their coexpressed genes mined from microarray database in the public domain, 357 coexpressed probable virulence genes for Vibrio cholerae were predicted. Based on screening of Database of Essential Genes using blastn, a total of 102 genes out of these 357 were enlisted as vitally essential genes, and hence good putative drug targets. As the effective drug target is a protein which is only present in the pathogen, similarity search of these 102 essential genes against human genome sequence led to subtraction of 66 genes, thus leaving behind a subset of 36 genes whose products have been called as potential drug targets. The gene ontology analysis using Blast2GO of these 36 genes revealed their roles in important metabolic pathways of V. cholerae or on the surface of the pathogen. Thus, we propose that the products of these genes be evaluated as target sites of drugs against V. cholerae in future investigations. PMID:21174131

  13. Helicases as Antiviral Drug Targets

    PubMed Central

    Frick, David N.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Helicases catalytically unwind duplex DNA or RNA using energy derived from the hydrolysis of nucleoside triphosphates and are attractive drug targets because they are required for viral replication. This review discusses methods for helicase identification, classification and analysis, and presents an overview of helicases that are necessary for the replication of human pathogenic viruses. Newly developed methods to analyze helicases, coupled with recently determined atomic structures, have led to a better understanding of their mechanisms of action. The majority of this research has concentrated on enzymes encoded by the herpes simplex virus (HSV) and the hepatitis C virus (HCV). Helicase inhibitors that target the HSV helicase–primase complex comprised of the UL5, UL8 and UL52 proteins have recently been shown to effectively control HSV infection in animal models. In addition, several groups have reported structures of the HCV NS3 helicase at atomic resolutions, and mechanistic studies have uncovered characteristics that distinguish the HCV helicase from related cellular proteins. These new developments should eventually lead to new antiviral medications. PMID:12973446

  14. Functional genomics and cancer drug target discovery.

    PubMed

    Moody, Susan E; Boehm, Jesse S; Barbie, David A; Hahn, William C

    2010-06-01

    The recent development of technologies for whole-genome sequencing, copy number analysis and expression profiling enables the generation of comprehensive descriptions of cancer genomes. However, although the structural analysis and expression profiling of tumors and cancer cell lines can allow the identification of candidate molecules that are altered in the malignant state, functional analyses are necessary to confirm such genes as oncogenes or tumor suppressors. Moreover, recent research suggests that tumor cells also depend on synthetic lethal targets, which are not mutated or amplified in cancer genomes; functional genomics screening can facilitate the discovery of such targets. This review provides an overview of the tools available for the study of functional genomics, and discusses recent research involving the use of these tools to identify potential novel drug targets in cancer. PMID:20521217

  15. Molecular Targets for Antiepileptic Drug Development

    PubMed Central

    Meldrum, Brian S.; Rogawski, Michael A.

    2007-01-01

    Summary This review considers how recent advances in the physiology of ion channels and other potential molecular targets, in conjunction with new information on the genetics of idiopathic epilepsies, can be applied to the search for improved antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Marketed AEDs predominantly target voltage-gated cation channels (the α subunits of voltage-gated Na+ channels and also T-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels) or influence GABA-mediated inhibition. Recently, α2–δ voltage-gated Ca2+ channel subunits and the SV2A synaptic vesicle protein have been recognized as likely targets. Genetic studies of familial idiopathic epilepsies have identified numerous genes associated with diverse epilepsy syndromes, including genes encoding Na+ channels and GABAA receptors, which are known AED targets. A strategy based on genes associated with epilepsy in animal models and humans suggests other potential AED targets, including various voltage-gated Ca2+ channel subunits and auxiliary proteins, A- or M-type voltage-gated K+ channels, and ionotropic glutamate receptors. Recent progress in ion channel research brought about by molecular cloning of the channel subunit proteins and studies in epilepsy models suggest additional targets, including G-protein-coupled receptors, such as GABAB and metabotropic glutamate receptors; hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated cation (HCN) channel subunits, responsible for hyperpolarization-activated current Ih; connexins, which make up gap junctions; and neurotransmitter transporters, particularly plasma membrane and vesicular transporters for GABA and glutamate. New information from the structural characterization of ion channels, along with better understanding of ion channel function, may allow for more selective targeting. For example, Na+ channels underlying persistent Na+ currents or GABAA receptor isoforms responsible for tonic (extrasynaptic) currents represent attractive targets. The growing understanding of the

  16. Targeting the brain: advances in drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Blumling Iii, James P; Silva, Gabriel A

    2012-09-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) represents a significant obstacle for drug delivery to the brain. Many therapeutics with potential for treating neurological conditions prove incompatible with intravenous delivery simply because of this barrier. Rather than modifying drugs to penetrate the BBB directly, it has proven more efficacious to either physically bypass the barrier or to use specialized delivery vehicles that circumvent BBB regulatory mechanisms. Controlled-release intracranial polymer implants and particle injections are the clinical state of the art with regard to localized delivery, although these approaches can impose significant surgical risks. Focused ultrasound provides a non-invasive alternative that may prove more desirable for acute treatment of brain tumors and other conditions requiring local tissue necrosis. For targeting the brain as a whole, cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) and molecular trojan horses (MTHs) have demonstrated particular ability as delivery molecules and will likely see increased application. CPPs are not brain specific but offer the potential for efficient traversal of the BBB, and tandem systems with targeting molecules may produce extremely effective brain drug delivery tools. Molecular trojan horses utilize receptor-mediated transcytosis to transport cargo and are thus limited by the quantity of relevant receptors; however, they can be very selective for the BBB endothelium and have shown promise in gene therapy. PMID:23016646

  17. Multiple myeloma-associated hDIS3 mutations cause perturbations in cellular RNA metabolism and suggest hDIS3 PIN domain as a potential drug target.

    PubMed

    Tomecki, Rafal; Drazkowska, Karolina; Kucinski, Iwo; Stodus, Krystian; Szczesny, Roman J; Gruchota, Jakub; Owczarek, Ewelina P; Kalisiak, Katarzyna; Dziembowski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    hDIS3 is a mainly nuclear, catalytic subunit of the human exosome complex, containing exonucleolytic (RNB) and endonucleolytic (PIN) active domains. Mutations in hDIS3 have been found in ∼10% of patients with multiple myeloma (MM). Here, we show that these mutations interfere with hDIS3 exonucleolytic activity. Yeast harboring corresponding mutations in DIS3 show growth inhibition and changes in nuclear RNA metabolism typical for exosome dysfunction. Construction of a conditional DIS3 knockout in the chicken DT40 cell line revealed that DIS3 is essential for cell survival, indicating that its function cannot be replaced by other exosome-associated nucleases: hDIS3L and hRRP6. Moreover, HEK293-derived cells, in which depletion of endogenous wild-type hDIS3 was complemented with exogenously expressed MM hDIS3 mutants, proliferate at a slower rate and exhibit aberrant RNA metabolism. Importantly, MM mutations are synthetically lethal with the hDIS3 PIN domain catalytic mutation both in yeast and human cells. Since mutations in PIN domain alone have little effect on cell physiology, our results predict the hDIS3 PIN domain as a potential drug target for MM patients with hDIS3 mutations. It is an interesting example of intramolecular synthetic lethality with putative therapeutic potential in humans. PMID:24150935

  18. A weighted and integrated drug-target interactome: drug repurposing for schizophrenia as a use case

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Computational pharmacology can uniquely address some issues in the process of drug development by providing a macroscopic view and a deeper understanding of drug action. Specifically, network-assisted approach is promising for the inference of drug repurposing. However, the drug-target associations coming from different sources and various assays have much noise, leading to an inflation of the inference errors. To reduce the inference errors, it is necessary and critical to create a comprehensive and weighted data set of drug-target associations. Results In this study, we created a weighted and integrated drug-target interactome (WinDTome) to provide a comprehensive resource of drug-target associations for computational pharmacology. We first collected drug-target interactions from six commonly used drug-target centered data sources including DrugBank, KEGG, TTD, MATADOR, PDSP Ki Database, and BindingDB. Then, we employed the record linkage method to normalize drugs and targets to the unique identifiers by utilizing the public data sources including PubChem, Entrez Gene, and UniProt. To assess the reliability of the drug-target associations, we assigned two scores (Score_S and Score_R) to each drug-target association based on their data sources and publication references. Consequently, the WinDTome contains 546,196 drug-target associations among 303,018 compounds and 4,113 genes. To assess the application of the WinDTome, we designed a network-based approach for drug repurposing using mental disorder schizophrenia (SCZ) as a case. Starting from 41 known SCZ drugs and their targets, we inferred a total of 264 potential SCZ drugs through the associations of drug-target with Score_S higher than two in WinDTome and human protein-protein interactions. Among the 264 SCZ-related drugs, 39 drugs have been investigated in clinical trials for SCZ treatment and 74 drugs for the treatment of other mental disorders, respectively. Compared with the results using other

  19. Mitosis as an anti-cancer drug target.

    PubMed

    Salmela, Anna-Leena; Kallio, Marko J

    2013-10-01

    Suppression of cell proliferation by targeting mitosis is one potential cancer intervention. A number of existing chemotherapy drugs disrupt mitosis by targeting microtubule dynamics. While efficacious, these drugs have limitations, i.e. neuropathy, unpredictability and development of resistance. In order to overcome these issues, a great deal of effort has been spent exploring novel mitotic targets including Polo-like kinase 1, Aurora kinases, Mps1, Cenp-E and KSP/Eg5. Here we summarize the latest developments in the discovery and clinical evaluation of new mitotic drug targets. PMID:23775312

  20. Drug Transport to Brain with Targeted Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Olivier, Jean-Christophe

    2005-01-01

    Summary: Nanoparticle drug carriers consist of solid biodegradable particles in size ranging from 10 to 1000 nm (50–300 nm generally). They cannot freely diffuse through the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and require receptor-mediated transport through brain capillary endothelium to deliver their content into the brain parenchyma. Polysorbate 80-coated polybutylcyanoacrylate nanoparticles can deliver drugs to the brain by a still debated mechanism. Despite interesting results these nanoparticles have limitations, discussed in this review, that may preclude, or at least limit, their potential clinical applications. Long-circulating nanoparticles made of methoxypoly(ethylene glycol)- polylactide or poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (mPEG-PLA/PLGA) have a good safety profiles and provide drug-sustained release. The availability of functionalized PEG-PLA permits to prepare target-specific nanoparticles by conjugation of cell surface ligand. Using peptidomimetic antibodies to BBB transcytosis receptor, brain-targeted pegylated immunonanoparticles can now be synthesized that should make possible the delivery of entrapped actives into the brain parenchyma without inducing BBB permeability alteration. This review presents their general properties (structure, loading capacity, pharmacokinetics) and currently available methods for immunonanoparticle preparation. PMID:15717062

  1. Proteomic analysis of two metabolic proteins with potential to translocate to plasma membrane associated with tumor metastasis development and drug targets.

    PubMed

    Xue, Ting; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Luofu; Yao, Ling; Hu, Xiaofang; Xu, Lisa X

    2013-04-01

    Metastasis is the main cause for death of breast cancer patients. However, the underlying mechanism is still poorly understood. Plasma membrane (PM) proteins play a key role in various biological processes, especially for cell migration. In this study, we used a set of well-characterized mammary mouse cell lines, 67NR, 168FARN, 4T1, representing the metastatic progression, to study the differentially expressed membrane proteins. These proteins were analyzed by a linear ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (LTQ-MS/MS) following cell surface biotinylation and streptavidin purification. A total of 1667 membrane proteins were identified, out of which 472 were characterized as differentially expressed with at least 2-fold change and p-value < 0.01. Functional clustering of the 472 proteins revealed that 178 of them were metabolic proteins. Finally, we focused on two metabolic proteins, fatty acid synthase (FASN) and NAD(P)H steroid dehydrogenase-like protein (NSDHL), which were validated by Western blot and immunofluorescence. We found that FASN and NSDHL translocated to the plasma membrane from the intracellular compartment, and their expressions increased from 67NR to 4T1. This alteration of localization along with differential expressions might be necessary for metastasis development. Potentially, FASN and NSDHL could serve as drug targets in new antimetastasis therapy. PMID:23445495

  2. Comparative protein modeling of 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase enzyme from Plasmodium falciparum: a potential target for antimalarial drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nidhi; Chevé, Gwénaël; Avery, Mitchell A; McCurdy, Christopher R

    2006-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase (Pf-DXR) is a potential target for antimalarial chemotherapy. The three-dimensional model (3D) of this enzyme was determined by means of comparative modeling through multiple alignment followed by intensive optimization, minimization, and validation. The resulting model demonstrates a reasonable topology as gauged from the Ramachandran plot and acceptable three-dimensional structure compatibility as assessed by the Profiles-3D score. The modeled monomeric subunit consists of three domains: (1) N-terminal NADPH binding domain, (2) connective or linker domain (with most of the active site residues located in this domain), and (3) a C-terminal domain. This structure proved to be consistent with known DXR crystal structures from other species. The predicted active site compared favorably with those of the templates and appears to have an active site with a highly conserved architecture. Additionally, the model explains several site-directed mutagenesis data. Besides using several protein structure-checking programs to validate the model, a set of known inhibitors of DXR were also docked into the active site of the modeled Pf-DXR. The docked scores correlated reasonably well with experimental pIC50 values with a regression coefficient (R2) equal to 0.84. Results of the current study should prove useful in the early design and development of inhibitors by either de novo drug design or virtual screening of large small-molecule databases leading to development of new antimalarial agents. PMID:16711755

  3. Automated High Throughput Drug Target Crystallography

    SciTech Connect

    Rupp, B

    2005-02-18

    The molecular structures of drug target proteins and receptors form the basis for 'rational' or structure guided drug design. The majority of target structures are experimentally determined by protein X-ray crystallography, which as evolved into a highly automated, high throughput drug discovery and screening tool. Process automation has accelerated tasks from parallel protein expression, fully automated crystallization, and rapid data collection to highly efficient structure determination methods. A thoroughly designed automation technology platform supported by a powerful informatics infrastructure forms the basis for optimal workflow implementation and the data mining and analysis tools to generate new leads from experimental protein drug target structures.

  4. Incidence of potential drug-drug interactions with antidiabetic drugs.

    PubMed

    Samardzic, I; Bacic-Vrca, V

    2015-06-01

    In an effort to achieve normoglycemia more than one antidiabetic agent is usually needed. Diabetes is associated with several comorbidities and patients with diabetes are often treated with multiple medications. Therefore, patients with diabetes are especially exposed to drug-drug interactions (DDIs). The aim of this study was to analyse the incidence and type of potential DDIs of antidiabetic drugs in patients with diabetes. This retrospective study analyzed pharmacy record data of 225 patients with diabetes mellitus. Both type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients who were taking at least one antidiabetic agent during the period of six months were included. We investigated associated therapy in that period in order to identify potential DDIs with antidiabetic therapy. Potential interactions were identified by Lexicomp Lexi-Interat Online (Lexi-Comp, Inc., Hudson, USA) software which categorizes potential DDIs according to clinical significance in five types (A, B, C, D and X). Categories C, D and X are of clinical concern and always require medical attention (therapy monitoring, therapy modification or avoiding combination). We found that 80.9% of patients had at least one potential category C interaction while there were no D and X interactions. Most frequently encountered potential DDI (n = 176) included antidiabetic drugs and thiazide or thiazide like diuretics. Patients with diabetes are exposed to a large number of potential clinically significant DDIs that may require appropriate monitoring. Using databases of DDIs could be helpful in reducing the risk of potential clinically significant DDIs. PMID:26189304

  5. Targets of drugs are generally, and targets of drugs having side effects are specifically good spreaders of human interactome perturbations

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Lopez, Áron R.; Szalay, Kristóf Z.; Türei, Dénes; Módos, Dezső; Lenti, Katalin; Korcsmáros, Tamás; Csermely, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Network-based methods are playing an increasingly important role in drug design. Our main question in this paper was whether the efficiency of drug target proteins to spread perturbations in the human interactome is larger if the binding drugs have side effects, as compared to those which have no reported side effects. Our results showed that in general, drug targets were better spreaders of perturbations than non-target proteins, and in particular, targets of drugs with side effects were also better spreaders of perturbations than targets of drugs having no reported side effects in human protein-protein interaction networks. Colorectal cancer-related proteins were good spreaders and had a high centrality, while type 2 diabetes-related proteins showed an average spreading efficiency and had an average centrality in the human interactome. Moreover, the interactome-distance between drug targets and disease-related proteins was higher in diabetes than in colorectal cancer. Our results may help a better understanding of the network position and dynamics of drug targets and disease-related proteins, and may contribute to develop additional, network-based tests to increase the potential safety of drug candidates. PMID:25960144

  6. Targets of drugs are generally, and targets of drugs having side effects are specifically good spreaders of human interactome perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Lopez, Áron R.; Szalay, Kristóf Z.; Türei, Dénes; Módos, Dezső; Lenti, Katalin; Korcsmáros, Tamás; Csermely, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Network-based methods are playing an increasingly important role in drug design. Our main question in this paper was whether the efficiency of drug target proteins to spread perturbations in the human interactome is larger if the binding drugs have side effects, as compared to those which have no reported side effects. Our results showed that in general, drug targets were better spreaders of perturbations than non-target proteins, and in particular, targets of drugs with side effects were also better spreaders of perturbations than targets of drugs having no reported side effects in human protein-protein interaction networks. Colorectal cancer-related proteins were good spreaders and had a high centrality, while type 2 diabetes-related proteins showed an average spreading efficiency and had an average centrality in the human interactome. Moreover, the interactome-distance between drug targets and disease-related proteins was higher in diabetes than in colorectal cancer. Our results may help a better understanding of the network position and dynamics of drug targets and disease-related proteins, and may contribute to develop additional, network-based tests to increase the potential safety of drug candidates.

  7. Tumor targeting using liposomal antineoplastic drugs

    PubMed Central

    Huwyler, Jörg; Drewe, Jürgen; Krähenbühl, Stephan

    2008-01-01

    During the last years, liposomes (microparticulate phospholipid vesicles) have been used with growing success as pharmaceutical carriers for antineoplastic drugs. Fields of application include lipid-based formulations to enhance the solubility of poorly soluble antitumor drugs, the use of pegylated liposomes for passive targeting of solid tumors as well as vector-conjugated liposomal carriers for active targeting of tumor tissue. Such formulation and drug targeting strategies enhance the effectiveness of anticancer chemotherapy and reduce at the same time the risk of toxic side-effects. The present article reviews the principles of different liposomal technologies and discusses current trends in this field of research. PMID:18488413

  8. Matrix metalloproteases: Underutilized targets for drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Vartak, Deepali G.; Gemeinhart, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    Pathophysiological molecules in the extracellular environment offer excellent targets that can be exploited for designing drug targeting systems. Matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) are a family of extracellular proteolytic enzymes that are characterized by their overexpression or overactivity in several pathologies. Over the last two decades, the MMP literature reveals heightened interest in the research involving MMP biology, pathology, and targeting. This review describes various strategies that have been designed to utilize MMPs for targeting therapeutic entities. Key factors that need to be considered in the successful design of such systems have been identified based on the analyses of these strategies. Development of targeted drug delivery using MMPs has been steadily pursued; however, drug delivery efforts using these targets need to be intensified and focused to realize the clinical application of the fast developing fundamental MMP research. PMID:17365270

  9. Targeted drugs and nanomedicine: present and future.

    PubMed

    Debbage, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Packaging small-molecule drugs into nanoparticles improves their bio-availability, bio-compatibility and safety profiles. Multifunctional particles carrying large drug payloads for targeted transport, immune evasion and favourable drug release kinetics at the target site, require a certain minimum size usually 30-300 nm diameter, so are nanoparticles. Targeting particles to a disease site can signal the presence of the disease site, block a function there, or deliver a drug to it. Targeted nanocarriers must navigate through blood-tissue barriers, varying in strength between organs and highest in the brain, to reach target cells. They must enter target cells to contact cytoplasmic targets; specific endocytotic and transcytotic transport mechanisms can be used as trojan horses to ferry nanoparticles across cellular barriers. Specific ligands to cell surface receptors, antibodies and antibody fragments, and aptamers can all access such transport mechanisms to ferry nanoparticles to their targets. The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the targeted drug-bearing particle depend critically on particle size, chemistry, surface charge and other parameters. Particle types for targeting include liposomes, polymer and protein nanoparticles, dendrimers, carbon-based nanoparticles e.g. fullerenes, and others. Immunotargeting by use of monoclonal antibodies, chimeric antibodies and humanized antibodies has now reached the stage of clinical application. High-quality targeting groups are emerging: antibody engineering enables generation of human/like antibody (fragments) and facilitates the search for clinically relevant biomarkers; conjugation of nanocarriers to specific ligands and to aptamers enables specific targeting with improved clinical efficacy. Future developments depend on identification of clinically relevant targets and on raising targeting efficiency of the multifunctional nanocarriers. PMID:19149610

  10. Targeted Nanodelivery of Drugs and Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Margaret A.; Gran, Martin L.; Peppas, Nicholas A.

    2010-01-01

    Nanomaterials for targeted delivery are uniquely capable of localizing delivery of therapeutics and diagnostics to diseased tissues. The ability to achieve high, local concentrations of drugs or image contrast agents at a target site provides the opportunity for improved system performance and patient outcomes along with reduced systemic dosing. In this review, the design of targeted nanodelivery systems is discussed with an emphasis on in vivo performance, the physicochemical properties that affect localization at the target site, and the incorporation of therapeutic drugs into these systems. PMID:20543895

  11. Microarray: an approach for current drug targets.

    PubMed

    Gomase, Virendra S; Tagore, Somnath; Kale, Karbhari V

    2008-03-01

    Microarrays are a powerful tool has multiple applications both in clinical and cellular and molecular biology arenas. Early assessment of the probable biological importance of drug targets, pharmacogenomics, toxicogenomics and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). A list of new drug candidates along with proposed targets for intervention is described. Recent advances in the knowledge of microarrays analysis of organisms and the availability of the genomics sequences provide a wide range of novel targets for drug design. This review gives different process of microarray technologies; methods for comparative gene expression study, applications of microarrays in medicine and pharmacogenomics and current drug targets in research, which are relevant to common diseases as they relate to clinical and future perspectives. PMID:18336225

  12. Potentiating antilymphoma efficacy of chemotherapy using a liposome for integration of CD20 targeting, ultra-violet irradiation polymerizing, and controlled drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Cong; Li, Huafei; Zhao, He; Zhang, Weiwei; Chen, Yan; Yue, Zhanyi; Lu, Qiong; Wan, Yuxiang; Tian, Xiaoyu; Deng, Anmei

    2014-08-01

    Unlike most malignancies, chemotherapy but not surgery plays the most important role in treating non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Currently, liposomes have been widely used to encapsulate chemotherapeutic drugs in treating solid tumors. However, higher in vivo stability owns a much more important position for excellent antitumor efficacy in treating hematological malignancies. In this study, we finely fabricated a rituximab Fab fragment-decorated liposome based on 1,2-bis(10,12-tricosadiynoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DC8,9PC), which can form intermolecular cross-linking through the diacetylenic group by ultra-violet (UV) irradiation. Our experimental results demonstrated that after the UV irradiation, the liposomes exhibit better serum stability and slower drug release with a decreased mean diameter of approximately 285 nm. The cellular uptake of adriamycin (ADR) by this Fab-navigated liposome was about four times of free drugs. Cytotoxicity assays against CD20+ lymphoma cells showed that the half maximal (50%) inhibitory concentration (IC50) of ADR-loaded immunoliposome was only one fourth of free ADR at the same condition. In vivo studies were evaluated in lymphoma-bearing SCID mice. With the high serum stability, finely regulated structure, active targeting strategy via antigen-antibody reaction and passive targeting strategy via enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect, our liposome exhibits durable and potent antitumor activities both in the disseminated and localized human NHL xeno-transplant models.

  13. Network-assisted prediction of potential drugs for addiction.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jingchun; Huang, Liang-Chin; Xu, Hua; Zhao, Zhongming

    2014-01-01

    Drug addiction is a chronic and complex brain disease, adding much burden on the community. Though numerous efforts have been made to identify the effective treatment, it is necessary to find more novel therapeutics for this complex disease. As network pharmacology has become a promising approach for drug repurposing, we proposed to apply the approach to drug addiction, which might provide new clues for the development of effective addiction treatment drugs. We first extracted 44 addictive drugs from the NIDA and their targets from DrugBank. Then, we constructed two networks: an addictive drug-target network and an expanded addictive drug-target network by adding other drugs that have at least one common target with these addictive drugs. By performing network analyses, we found that those addictive drugs with similar actions tended to cluster together. Additionally, we predicted 94 nonaddictive drugs with potential pharmacological functions to the addictive drugs. By examining the PubMed data, 51 drugs significantly cooccurred with addictive keywords than expected. Thus, the network analyses provide a list of candidate drugs for further investigation of their potential in addiction treatment or risk. PMID:24689033

  14. Aptamers for Targeted Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Partha; White, Rebekah R.

    2010-01-01

    Aptamers are a class of therapeutic oligonucleotides that form specific three-dimensional structures that are dictated by their sequences. They are typically generated by an iterative screening process of complex nucleic acid libraries employing a process termed Systemic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX). SELEX has traditionally been performed using purified proteins, and cell surface receptors may be challenging to purify in their properly folded and modified conformations. Therefore, relatively few aptamers have been generated that bind cell surface receptors. However, improvements in recombinant fusion protein technology have increased the availability of receptor extracellular domains as purified protein targets, and the development of cell-based selection techniques has allowed selection against surface proteins in their native configuration on the cell surface. With cell-based selection, a specific protein target is not always chosen, but selection is performed against a target cell type with the goal of letting the aptamer choose the target. Several studies have demonstrated that aptamers that bind cell surface receptors may have functions other than just blocking receptor-ligand interactions. All cell surface proteins cycle intracellularly to some extent, and many surface receptors are actively internalized in response to ligand binding. Therefore, aptamers that bind cell surface receptors have been exploited for the delivery of a variety of cargoes into cells. This review focuses on recent progress and current challenges in the field of aptamer-mediated delivery.

  15. Discovery of Anthelmintic Drug Targets and Drugs Using Chokepoints in Nematode Metabolic Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Christina M.; Wang, Qi; Rosa, Bruce A.; Huang, Stanley Ching-Cheng; Powell, Kerrie; Schedl, Tim; Pearce, Edward J.; Abubucker, Sahar; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2013-01-01

    Parasitic roundworm infections plague more than 2 billion people (1/3 of humanity) and cause drastic losses in crops and livestock. New anthelmintic drugs are urgently needed as new drug resistance and environmental concerns arise. A “chokepoint reaction” is defined as a reaction that either consumes a unique substrate or produces a unique product. A chokepoint analysis provides a systematic method of identifying novel potential drug targets. Chokepoint enzymes were identified in the genomes of 10 nematode species, and the intersection and union of all chokepoint enzymes were found. By studying and experimentally testing available compounds known to target proteins orthologous to nematode chokepoint proteins in public databases, this study uncovers features of chokepoints that make them successful drug targets. Chemogenomic screening was performed on drug-like compounds from public drug databases to find existing compounds that target homologs of nematode chokepoints. The compounds were prioritized based on chemical properties frequently found in successful drugs and were experimentally tested using Caenorhabditis elegans. Several drugs that are already known anthelmintic drugs and novel candidate targets were identified. Seven of the compounds were tested in Caenorhabditis elegans and three yielded a detrimental phenotype. One of these three drug-like compounds, Perhexiline, also yielded a deleterious effect in Haemonchus contortus and Onchocerca lienalis, two nematodes with divergent forms of parasitism. Perhexiline, known to affect the fatty acid oxidation pathway in mammals, caused a reduction in oxygen consumption rates in C. elegans and genome-wide gene expression profiles provided an additional confirmation of its mode of action. Computational modeling of Perhexiline and its target provided structural insights regarding its binding mode and specificity. Our lists of prioritized drug targets and drug-like compounds have potential to expedite the discovery

  16. Nanogel Carrier Design for Targeted Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Eckmann, D. M.; Composto, R. J.; Tsourkas, A.; Muzykantov, V. R.

    2014-01-01

    Polymer-based nanogel formulations offer features attractive for drug delivery, including ease of synthesis, controllable swelling and viscoelasticity as well as drug loading and release characteristics, passive and active targeting, and the ability to formulate nanogel carriers that can respond to biological stimuli. These unique features and low toxicity make the nanogels a favorable option for vascular drug targeting. In this review, we address key chemical and biological aspects of nanogel drug carrier design. In particular, we highlight published studies of nanogel design, descriptions of nanogel functional characteristics and their behavior in biological models. These studies form a compendium of information that supports the scientific and clinical rationale for development of this carrier for targeted therapeutic interventions. PMID:25485112

  17. Diallyl Sulfide: Potential Use in Novel Therapeutic Interventions in Alcohol, Drugs, and Disease Mediated Cellular Toxicity by Targeting Cytochrome P450 2E1

    PubMed Central

    Rao, PSS; Midde, Narasimha M; Miller, Duane D.; Chauhan, Subhash; Kumar, Anil; Kumar, Santosh

    2015-01-01

    Diallyl sulfide (DAS) and other organosulfur compounds are chief constituents of garlic. These compounds have many health benefits, as they are very efficient in detoxifying natural agents. Therefore, these compounds may be useful for prevention/treatment of cancers. However, DAS has shown appreciable allergic reactions and toxicity, as they can also affect normal cells. Thus their use as in the prevention and treatment of cancer is limited. DAS is a selective inhibitor of cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), which is known to metabolize many xenobiotics including alcohol and analgesic drugs in the liver. CYP2E1-mediated alcohol/drug metabolism produce reactive oxygen species and reactive metabolites, which damage DNA, protein, and lipid membranes, subsequently causing liver damage. Several groups have shown that DAS is not only capable of inhibiting alcohol- and drug-mediated cellular toxicities, but also HIV protein- and diabetes-mediated toxicities by selectively inhibiting CYP2E1 in various cell types. However, due to known DAS toxicities, its use as a treatment modality for alcohol/drug- and HIV/diabetes-mediated toxicity have only limited clinical relevance. Therefore, effort is being made to generate DAS analogs, which are potent and selective inhibitor of CYP2E1 and poor substrate of CYP2E1. This review summarizes current advances in the field of DAS, its anticancer properties, role as a CYP2E1 inhibitor, preventing agent of cellular toxicities from alcohol, analgesic drugs, xenobiotics, as well as, from diseases like HIV and diabetes. Finally, this review also provides insights toward developing novel DAS analogues for chemical intervention of many disease conditions by targeting CYP2E1 enzyme. PMID:26264202

  18. Novel drugs targeting transthyretin amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Mazen

    2014-03-01

    Transthyretin amyloidosis (ATTR) is either a hereditary disease related to a mutation in the transthyretin gene that leads to neuropathy and/or cardiomyopathy or an acquired disease of the elderly that leads to restrictive cardiomyopathy. The prevalence of this disease is higher than once thought and awareness is likely to increase amongst physicians and in particular cardiologists. Until recently there have been no treatment options for this disease except to treat the heart failure with diuretics and the neuropathy symptomatically. However, there are several emerging pharmacologic therapies designed to slow or stop the progression of ATTR. This article reviews novel therapeutic drugs that work at different points in the pathogenesis of this disease attempting to change its natural history and improve outcomes. PMID:24464360

  19. Nanostructured porous Si-based nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Shahbazi, Mohammad-Ali; Herranz, Barbara; Santos, Hélder A.

    2012-01-01

    One of the backbones in nanomedicine is to deliver drugs specifically to unhealthy cells. Drug nanocarriers can cross physiological barriers and access different tissues, which after proper surface biofunctionalization can enhance cell specificity for cancer therapy. Recent developments have highlighted the potential of mesoporous silica (PSiO2) and silicon (PSi) nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery. In this review, we outline and discuss the most recent advances on the applications and developments of cancer therapies by means of PSiO2 and PSi nanomaterials. Bio-engineering and fine tuning of anti-cancer drug vehicles, high flexibility and potential for sophisticated release mechanisms make these nanostructures promising candidates for “smart” cancer therapies. As a result of their physicochemical properties they can be controllably loaded with large amounts of drugs and coupled to homing molecules to facilitate active targeting. The main emphasis of this review will be on the in vitro and in vivo studies. PMID:23507894

  20. Potential new therapeutic targets for pathological pruritus.

    PubMed

    Kuraishi, Yasushi

    2013-01-01

    Very few approved medications are indicated for the treatment of pruritus, and drug development for pruritic diseases is awaited. During the past two decades, progress has been made in understanding the molecular basis of the physiology and pathophysiology of pruritus. Newly identified potential targets for pathological pruritus include receptors (histamine H4 receptor, leukotriene B4 receptors, interleukin-31 receptor A, bombesin BB2 receptor, toll-like receptor 3, α-adrenoceptor, and opioid μ- and κ-receptors), channels (transient receptor potential (TRP) V3 and TRPA1 channels), and enzymes (histidine decarboxylase, sphingomyelin glucosylceramide deacylase, 5-lipoxygenase, leukotriene A4 hydrolase, and autotaxin). The development of specific, effective blockers and agonists/antagonists of these targets is awaited. PMID:23902965

  1. AZ17: a new bispecific drug targeting IL-6 and IL-23 with potential clinical use--improves psoriasis in a human xenograft transplantation model.

    PubMed

    Stenderup, Karin; Rosada, Cecilia; Shanebeck, Kurt; Brady, William; Van Brunt, Michael P; King, Gordon; Marelli, Marcello; Slagle, Paul; Xu, Hengyu; Nairn, Natalie W; Johnson, Jeffrey; Wang, Aijun A; Li, Gary; Thornton, Kenneth C; Dam, Tomas N; Grabstein, Kenneth H

    2015-10-01

    Targeting more than one molecule in multifactorial diseases involving several disease mediators may provide improved therapeutic efficacy. Psoriasis is a multifactorial disease in which interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-23 are important disease mediators because they facilitate development of Th17 cells; widely accepted to be associated with psoriasis. To meet the need for new therapeutics, we aimed to create a clinically relevant bispecific drug, by combining the inhibitory properties of anti-IL-6 and anti-IL-23 antibodies, exhibiting high affinity, high stability and the ability to be produced in high yield. The bispecific molecule AZ17 was created by combining high affinity binding domains originating from monoclonal antibodies targeting human IL-6 and IL-23. To allow for high and efficient production, AZ17 was assembled by site-specific bioconjugation from two individual single chain fragment variables that were synthesized separately in Escherichia coli. To improve stability and extend pharmacokinetics, a flexible poly-ethylene glycol molecule was used as linker. In preclinical psoriasis models, AZ17 reduced IL-23-induced ear inflammation and improved psoriasis in a xenograft transplantation model where psoriasis skin is transplanted onto immune-deficient mice. The data presented here suggest AZ17 to be a promising drug candidate in psoriasis and other inflammatory diseases associated with Th17 cell development. PMID:26271488

  2. Targeted Cellular Drug Delivery using Tailored Dendritic Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannan, Rangaramanujam; Kolhe, Parag; Kannan, Sujatha; Lieh-Lai, Mary

    2002-03-01

    Dendrimers and hyperbranched polymers possess highly branched architectures, with a large number of controllable, tailorble, ‘peripheral’ functionalities. Since the surface chemistry of these materials can be modified with relative ease, these materials have tremendous potential in targeted drug and gene delivery. The large number of end groups can also be tailored to create special affinity to targeted cells, and can also encapsulate drugs and deliver them in a controlled manner. We are developing tailor-modified dendritic systems for drug delivery. Synthesis, in-vitro drug loading, in-vitro drug delivery, and the targeting efficiency to the cell are being studied systematically using a wide variety of experimental tools. Polyamidoamine and Polyol dendrimers, with different generations and end-groups are studied, with drugs such as Ibuprofen and Methotrexate. Our results indicate that a large number of drug molecules can be encapsulated/attached to the dendrimers, depending on the end groups. The drug-encapsulated dendrimer is able to enter the cells rapidly and deliver the drug. Targeting strategies being explored

  3. Fluid mechanics aspects of magnetic drug targeting.

    PubMed

    Odenbach, Stefan

    2015-10-01

    Experiments and numerical simulations using a flow phantom for magnetic drug targeting have been undertaken. The flow phantom is a half y-branched tube configuration where the main tube represents an artery from which a tumour-supplying artery, which is simulated by the side branch of the flow phantom, branches off. In the experiments a quantification of the amount of magnetic particles targeted towards the branch by a magnetic field applied via a permanent magnet is achieved by impedance measurement using sensor coils. Measuring the targeting efficiency, i.e. the relative amount of particles targeted to the side branch, for different field configurations one obtains targeting maps which combine the targeting efficiency with the magnetic force densities in characteristic points in the flow phantom. It could be shown that targeting efficiency depends strongly on the magnetic field configuration. A corresponding numerical model has been set up, which allows the simulation of targeting efficiency for variable field configuration. With this simulation good agreement of targeting efficiency with experimental data has been found. Thus, the basis has been laid for future calculations of optimal field configurations in clinical applications of magnetic drug targeting. Moreover, the numerical model allows the variation of additional parameters of the drug targeting process and thus an estimation of the influence, e.g. of the fluid properties on the targeting efficiency. Corresponding calculations have shown that the non-Newtonian behaviour of the fluid will significantly influence the targeting process, an aspect which has to be taken into account, especially recalling the fact that the viscosity of magnetic suspensions depends strongly on the magnetic field strength and the mechanical load. PMID:26415215

  4. Preclinical validation of Aurora kinases-targeting drugs in osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Tavanti, E; Sero, V; Vella, S; Fanelli, M; Michelacci, F; Landuzzi, L; Magagnoli, G; Versteeg, R; Picci, P; Hattinger, C M; Serra, M

    2013-01-01

    Background: Aurora kinases are key regulators of cell cycle and represent new promising therapeutic targets in several human tumours. Methods: Biological relevance of Aurora kinase-A and -B was assessed on osteosarcoma clinical samples and by silencing these genes with specific siRNA in three human osteosarcoma cell lines. In vitro efficacy of two Aurora kinases-targeting drugs (VX-680 and ZM447439) was evaluated on a panel of four drug-sensitive and six drug-resistant human osteosarcoma cell lines. Results: Human osteosarcoma cell lines proved to be highly sensitive to both drugs. A decreased drug sensitivity was observed in doxorubicin-resistant cell lines, most probably related to ABCB1/MDR1 overexpression. Both drugs variably induced hyperploidy and apoptosis in the majority of cell lines. VX-680 also reduced in vitro cell motility and soft-agar cloning efficiency. Drug association experiments showed that VX-680 positively interacts with all conventional drugs used in osteosarcoma chemotherapy, overcoming the cross-resistance observed in the single-drug treatments. Conclusion: Aurora kinase-A and -B represent new candidate therapeutic targets for osteosarcoma. In vitro analysis of the Aurora kinases inhibitors VX-680 and ZM447439 indicated in VX-680 a new promising drug of potential clinical usefulness in association with conventional osteosarcoma chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:24129234

  5. The drug-minded protein interaction database (DrumPID) for efficient target analysis and drug development

    PubMed Central

    Kunz, Meik; Liang, Chunguang; Nilla, Santosh; Cecil, Alexander; Dandekar, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The drug-minded protein interaction database (DrumPID) has been designed to provide fast, tailored information on drugs and their protein networks including indications, protein targets and side-targets. Starting queries include compound, target and protein interactions and organism-specific protein families. Furthermore, drug name, chemical structures and their SMILES notation, affected proteins (potential drug targets), organisms as well as diseases can be queried including various combinations and refinement of searches. Drugs and protein interactions are analyzed in detail with reference to protein structures and catalytic domains, related compound structures as well as potential targets in other organisms. DrumPID considers drug functionality, compound similarity, target structure, interactome analysis and organismic range for a compound, useful for drug development, predicting drug side-effects and structure–activity relationships. Database URL: http://drumpid.bioapps.biozentrum.uni-wuerzburg.de PMID:27055828

  6. Drug target prediction using adverse event report systems: a pharmacogenomic approach

    PubMed Central

    Takarabe, Masataka; Kotera, Masaaki; Nishimura, Yosuke; Goto, Susumu; Yamanishi, Yoshihiro

    2012-01-01

    Motivation: Unexpected drug activities derived from off-targets are usually undesired and harmful; however, they can occasionally be beneficial for different therapeutic indications. There are many uncharacterized drugs whose target proteins (including the primary target and off-targets) remain unknown. The identification of all potential drug targets has become an important issue in drug repositioning to reuse known drugs for new therapeutic indications. Results: We defined pharmacological similarity for all possible drugs using the US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) adverse event reporting system (AERS) and developed a new method to predict unknown drug–target interactions on a large scale from the integration of pharmacological similarity of drugs and genomic sequence similarity of target proteins in the framework of a pharmacogenomic approach. The proposed method was applicable to a large number of drugs and it was useful especially for predicting unknown drug–target interactions that could not be expected from drug chemical structures. We made a comprehensive prediction for potential off-targets of 1874 drugs with known targets and potential target profiles of 2519 drugs without known targets, which suggests many potential drug–target interactions that were not predicted by previous chemogenomic or pharmacogenomic approaches. Availability: Softwares are available upon request. Contact: yamanishi@bioreg.kyushu-u.ac.jp Supplementary Information: Datasets and all results are available at http://cbio.ensmp.fr/~yyamanishi/aers/. PMID:22962489

  7. Structure-Bioactivity Relationship for Benzimidazole Thiophene Inhibitors of Polo-Like Kinase 1 (PLK1), a Potential Drug Target in Schistosoma mansoni

    PubMed Central

    Long, Thavy; Neitz, R. Jeffrey; Beasley, Rachel; Kalyanaraman, Chakrapani; Suzuki, Brian M.; Jacobson, Matthew P.; Dissous, Colette; McKerrow, James H.; Drewry, David H.; Zuercher, William J.; Singh, Rahul; Caffrey, Conor R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Schistosoma flatworm parasites cause schistosomiasis, a chronic and debilitating disease of poverty in developing countries. Praziquantel is employed for treatment and disease control. However, its efficacy spectrum is incomplete (less active or inactive against immature stages of the parasite) and there is a concern of drug resistance. Thus, there is a need to identify new drugs and drug targets. Methodology/Principal Findings We show that RNA interference (RNAi) of the Schistosoma mansoni ortholog of human polo-like kinase (huPLK)1 elicits a deleterious phenotypic alteration in post-infective larvae (schistosomula or somules). Phenotypic screening and analysis of schistosomula and adult S. mansoni with small molecule inhibitors of huPLK1 identified a number of potent anti-schistosomals. Among these was a GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) benzimidazole thiophene inhibitor that has completed Phase I clinical trials for treatment of solid tumor malignancies. We then obtained GSKs Published Kinase Inhibitor Sets (PKIS) 1 and 2, and phenotypically screened an expanded series of 38 benzimidazole thiophene PLK1 inhibitors. Computational analysis of controls and PLK1 inhibitor-treated populations of somules demonstrated a distinctive phenotype distribution. Using principal component analysis (PCA), the phenotypes exhibited by these populations were mapped, visualized and analyzed through projection to a low-dimensional space. The phenotype distribution was found to have a distinct shape and topology, which could be elicited using cluster analysis. A structure-activity relationship (SAR) was identified for the benzimidazole thiophenes that held for both somules and adult parasites. The most potent inhibitors produced marked phenotypic alterations at 1–2 μM within 1 h. Among these were compounds previously characterized as potent inhibitors of huPLK1 in cell assays. Conclusions/Significance The reverse genetic and chemical SAR data support a continued investigation of Sm

  8. Injected nanocrystals for targeted drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yi; Li, Ye; Wu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Nanocrystals are pure drug crystals with sizes in the nanometer range. Due to the advantages of high drug loading, platform stability, and ease of scaling-up, nanocrystals have been widely used to deliver poorly water-soluble drugs. Nanocrystals in the blood stream can be recognized and sequestered as exogenous materials by mononuclear phagocytic system (MPS) cells, leading to passive accumulation in MPS-rich organs, such as liver, spleen and lung. Particle size, morphology and surface modification affect the biodistribution of nanocrystals. Ligand conjugation and stimuli-responsive polymers can also be used to target nanocrystals to specific pathogenic sites. In this review, the progress on injected nanocrystals for targeted drug delivery is discussed following a brief introduction to nanocrystal preparation methods, i.e., top-down and bottom-up technologies. PMID:27006893

  9. The role of estrogen receptor {beta} (ER{beta}) in malignant diseases-A new potential target for antiproliferative drugs in prevention and treatment of cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Warner, Margaret; Gustafsson, Jan-Ake

    2010-05-21

    The discovery of ER{beta} in the middle of the 1990s represents a paradigm shift in our understanding of estrogen signaling. It has turned out that estrogen action is not mediated by one receptor, ER{alpha}, but by two balancing factors, ER{alpha} and ER{beta}, which are often antagonistic to one another. Excitingly, ER{beta} has been shown to be widespread in the body and to be involved in a multitude of physiological and pathophysiological events. This has led to a strong interest of the pharmaceutical industry to target ER{beta} by drugs against various diseases. In this review, focus is on the role of ER{beta} in malignant diseases where the anti proliferative activity of ER{beta} gives hope of new therapeutic approaches.

  10. Protein-protein interactions as drug targets.

    PubMed

    Skwarczynska, Malgorzata; Ottmann, Christian

    2015-10-01

    Modulation of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) is becoming increasingly important in drug discovery and chemical biology. While a few years ago this 'target class' was deemed to be largely undruggable an impressing number of publications and success stories now show that targeting PPIs with small, drug-like molecules indeed is a feasible approach. Here, we summarize the current state of small-molecule inhibition and stabilization of PPIs and review the active molecules from a structural and medicinal chemistry angle, especially focusing on the key examples of iNOS, LFA-1 and 14-3-3. PMID:26510391

  11. "Nanotheranostics" for tumor imaging and targeted drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Peng

    The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique is a promising tool that improves cancer detection, facilitates diagnosis and monitors therapeutic effects. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIOs) have emerged as MRI contrast agents for tumor imaging and as potential vectors for targeted anti-cancer drug delivery; nevertheless, the application of SPIOs has been hampered due to a lack of specificity to tumor tissues and premature drug release. This project aims at developing multifunctional SPIOs for both cancer imaging and targeted drug delivery via conjugation of tumor specific antibodies with SPIOs. The application of anti-TAG-72 antibodies as tumor targeting modalities was evaluated in cultured colorectal cancer cells and in xenograft models by using fluorescent imaging and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. It was demonstrated that antibody-labeled SPIOs were superior imaging agents and drug carriers for increased tumor specificity. The regulation and kinetics of intracellular drug release from SPIOs were explored by means of fluorescence imaging. In vitro and in vivo fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) imaging was employed to investigate the mechanisms of premature drug release from nanocarriers. The large volume and high hydrophobicity of cell membranes were found to play an important role in premature drug release. The encapsulation of SPIOs into nanocarriers decreased drug release in a dose-dependent mode. This study provided future opportunities to improve the efficiency of nanocarriers by exploring the mechanism of drug release and disassembly of SPIO-loaded polymeric nanoparticles.

  12. Structural and functional characterization of the recombinant thioredoxin reductase from Candida albicans as a potential target for vaccine and drug design.

    PubMed

    Godoy, Janine Silva Ribeiro; Kioshima, Érika Seki; Abadio, Ana Karina Rodrigues; Felipe, Maria Sueli Soares; de Freitas, Sonia Maria; Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez Estivalet

    2016-05-01

    The thioredoxin system plays a critical role in maintaining the cytoplasm redox state, participating in functions that are important to the cellular viability of fungi. Although functional and structural information on targets in human pathogenic fungi has been scarcely described in the literature, such studies are essential for in silico drug design and biotechnological applications. Therefore, the aims of the present study were to produce recombinant proteins of the thioredoxin system from Candida albicans and evaluate their possible use as prophylactic or alternative therapies against the most important pathogenic fungus associated with nosocomial infections. We focused on biochemical and structural analyses of recombinant thioredoxin reductase from C. albicans with His-tag (CaTrxR-His) for further biotechnology applications. Heterologous CaTrxR-His was efficiently expressed in the soluble fraction of the Escherichia coli lysate. CaTrxR-His was obtained with a high level of purity and presented specific enzymatic activity. Conformational changes of the protein were observed at different pHs and temperatures, with higher thermal stability at pH 8.0. The CaTrxR-His vaccine was shown to effectively induce high levels of CaTrxR-specific immunoglobulin G antibodies in Balb/c mice and reduce the renal fungal burden of experimental disseminated candidiasis in mice. These data may greatly impact future development strategies for vaccine and drug designs against C. albicans infection. PMID:26695160

  13. Therapeutic targets and potential of the novel brain- permeable multifunctional iron chelator-monoamine oxidase inhibitor drug, M-30, for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Avramovich-Tirosh, Yael; Amit, Tamar; Bar-Am, Orit; Zheng, Hailin; Fridkin, Mati; Youdim, Moussa B H

    2007-01-01

    Novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders comprise drug candidates designed specifically to act on multiple CNS targets. We have synthesized a multifunctional non-toxic, brain permeable iron chelator drug, M-30, possessing propargyl monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitory neuroprotective and iron-chelating moieties, from our prototype iron chelator VK-28. In the present study M-30 was shown to possess a wide range of pharmacological activities, including pro-survival neurorescue effects, induction of neuronal differentiation and regulation of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and beta-amyloid (Abeta) levels. M-30 was found to decrease apoptosis of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells in a neurorescue, serum deprivation model, via reduction of the pro-apoptotic proteins Bad and Bax, and inhibition of the apoptosis-associated phosphorylated H2A.X protein (Ser 139) and caspase 3 activation. In addition, M-30 induced the outgrowth of neurites, triggered cell cycle arrest in G(0)/G(1) phase and enhanced the expression of growth associated protein-43. Furthermore, M-30 markedly reduced the levels of cellular APP and beta-C-terminal fragment (beta-CTF) and the levels of the amyloidogenic Abeta peptide in the medium of SH-SY5Y cells and Chinese hamster ovary cells stably transfected with the APP 'Swedish' mutation. Levels of the non-amyloidogenic soluble APPalpha and alpha-CTF in the medium and cell lysate respectively were coordinately increased. These properties, together with its brain selective MAO inhibitory and propargylamine- dependent neuroprotective effects, suggest that M-30 might serve as an ideal drug for neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases, in which oxidative stress and iron dysregulation have been implicated. PMID:17144902

  14. Nanoparticles for intracellular-targeted drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulo, Cristiana S. O.; Pires das Neves, Ricardo; Ferreira, Lino S.

    2011-12-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are very promising for the intracellular delivery of anticancer and immunomodulatory drugs, stem cell differentiation biomolecules and cell activity modulators. Although initial studies in the area of intracellular drug delivery have been performed in the delivery of DNA, there is an increasing interest in the use of other molecules to modulate cell activity. Herein, we review the latest advances in the intracellular-targeted delivery of short interference RNA, proteins and small molecules using NPs. In most cases, the drugs act at different cellular organelles and therefore the drug-containing NPs should be directed to precise locations within the cell. This will lead to the desired magnitude and duration of the drug effects. The spatial control in the intracellular delivery might open new avenues to modulate cell activity while avoiding side-effects.

  15. Existing drugs and their application in drug discovery targeting cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Lv, Junfang; Shim, Joong Sup

    2015-09-01

    Despite standard cancer therapies such as chemotherapy and targeted therapy have shown some efficacies, the cancer in many cases eventually relapses and metastasizes upon stopping the treatment. There is a small subpopulation of cancer cells within tumor, with specific characters similar to those found in stem cells. This group of cancer cells is known as tumor-initiating or cancer stem cells (CSCs), which have an ability to self-renew and give rise to cancer cell progeny. CSCs are related with drug resistance, metastasis and relapse of cancer, hence emerging as a crucial drug target for eliminating cancer. Rapid advancement of CSC biology has enabled researchers to isolate and culture CSCs in vitro, making the cells amenable to high-throughput drug screening. Recently, drug repositioning, which utilizes existing drugs to develop potential new indications, has been gaining popularity as an alternative approach for the drug discovery. As existing drugs have favorable bioavailability and safety profiles, drug repositioning is now actively exploited for prompt development of therapeutics for many serious diseases, such as cancer. In this review, we will introduce latest examples of attempted drug repositioning targeting CSCs and discuss potential use of the repositioned drugs for cancer therapy. PMID:26152874

  16. Open challenges in magnetic drug targeting.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Benjamin; Kulkarni, Sandip; Nacev, Aleksander; Muro, Silvia; Stepanov, Pavel Y; Weinberg, Irving N

    2015-01-01

    The principle of magnetic drug targeting, wherein therapy is attached to magnetically responsive carriers and magnetic fields are used to direct that therapy to disease locations, has been around for nearly two decades. Yet our ability to safely and effectively direct therapy to where it needs to go, for instance to deep tissue targets, remains limited. To date, magnetic targeting methods have not yet passed regulatory approval or reached clinical use. Below we outline key challenges to magnetic targeting, which include designing and selecting magnetic carriers for specific clinical indications, safely and effectively reaching targets behind tissue and anatomical barriers, real-time carrier imaging, and magnet design and control for deep and precise targeting. Addressing these challenges will require interactions across disciplines. Nanofabricators and chemists should work with biologists, mathematicians, and engineers to better understand how carriers move through live tissues and how to optimize carrier and magnet designs to better direct therapy to disease targets. Clinicians should be involved early on and throughout the whole process to ensure the methods that are being developed meet a compelling clinical need and will be practical in a clinical setting. Our hope is that highlighting these challenges will help researchers translate magnetic drug targeting from a novel concept to a clinically available treatment that can put therapy where it needs to go in human patients. PMID:25377422

  17. Open Challenges in Magnetic Drug Targeting

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Sandip; Nacev, Aleksander; Muro, Silvia; Stepanov, Pavel Y.; Weinberg, Irving N.

    2014-01-01

    The principle of magnetic drug targeting, wherein therapy is attached to magnetically responsive carriers and magnetic fields are used to direct that therapy to disease locations, has been around for nearly two decades. Yet our ability to safely and effectively direct therapy to where it needs to go, for instance to deep tissue targets, remains limited. To date, magnetic targeting methods have not yet passed regulatory approval or reached clinical use. Below we outline key challenges to magnetic targeting, which include designing and selecting magnetic carriers for specific clinical indications, safely and effectively reaching targets behind tissue and anatomical barriers, real-time carrier imaging, and magnet design and control for deep and precise targeting. Addressing these challenges will require interactions across disciplines. Nanofabricators and chemists should work with biologists, mathematicians and engineers to better understand how carriers move through live tissues and how to optimize carrier and magnet designs to better direct therapy to disease targets. Clinicians should be involved early on and throughout the whole process to ensure the methods that are being developed meet a compelling clinical need and will be practical in a clinical setting. Our hope is that highlighting these challenges will help researchers translate magnetic drug targeting from a novel concept to a clinically-available treatment that can put therapy where it needs to go in human patients. PMID:25377422

  18. Targeted Drug Delivery to Treat Pain and Cerebral Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Thomas P.

    2013-01-01

    Limited drug penetration is an obstacle that is often encountered in treatment of central nervous system (CNS) diseases including pain and cerebral hypoxia. Over the past several years, biochemical characteristics of the brain (i.e., tight junction protein complexes at brain barrier sites, expression of influx and efflux transporters) have been shown to be directly involved in determining CNS permeation of therapeutic agents; however, the vast majority of these studies have focused on understanding those mechanisms that prevent drugs from entering the CNS. Recently, this paradigm has shifted toward identifying and characterizing brain targets that facilitate CNS drug delivery. Such targets include the organic anion–transporting polypeptides (OATPs in humans; Oatps in rodents), a family of sodium-independent transporters that are endogenously expressed in the brain and are involved in drug uptake. OATP/Oatp substrates include drugs that are efficacious in treatment of pain and/or cerebral hypoxia (i.e., opioid analgesic peptides, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors). This clearly suggests that OATP/Oatp isoforms are viable transporter targets that can be exploited for optimization of drug delivery to the brain and, therefore, improved treatment of CNS diseases. This review summarizes recent knowledge in this area and emphasizes the potential that therapeutic targeting of OATP/Oatp isoforms may have in facilitating CNS drug delivery and distribution. Additionally, information presented in this review will point to novel strategies that can be used for treatment of pain and cerebral hypoxia. PMID:23343976

  19. A smart multifunctional drug delivery nanoplatform for targeting cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hoop, M; Mushtaq, F; Hurter, C; Chen, X-Z; Nelson, B J; Pané, S

    2016-07-01

    Wirelessly guided magnetic nanomachines are promising vectors for targeted drug delivery, which have the potential to minimize the interaction between anticancer agents and healthy tissues. In this work, we propose a smart multifunctional drug delivery nanomachine for targeted drug delivery that incorporates a stimuli-responsive building block. The nanomachine consists of a magnetic nickel (Ni) nanotube that contains a pH-responsive chitosan hydrogel in its inner cavity. The chitosan inside the nanotube serves as a matrix that can selectively release drugs in acidic environments, such as the extracellular space of most tumors. Approximately a 2.5 times higher drug release from Ni nanotubes at pH = 6 is achieved compared to that at pH = 7.4. The outside of the Ni tube is coated with gold. A fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) labeled thiol-ssDNA, a biological marker, was conjugated on its surface by thiol-gold click chemistry, which enables traceability. The Ni nanotube allows the propulsion of the device by means of external magnetic fields. As the proposed nanoarchitecture integrates different functional building blocks, our drug delivery nanoplatform can be employed for carrying molecular drug conjugates and for performing targeted combinatorial therapies, which can provide an alternative and supplementary solution to current drug delivery technologies. PMID:27297037

  20. Targeting of drugs and nanoparticles to tumors

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Sangeeta N.; Sailor, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    The various types of cells that comprise the tumor mass all carry molecular markers that are not expressed or are expressed at much lower levels in normal cells. These differentially expressed molecules can be used as docking sites to concentrate drug conjugates and nanoparticles at tumors. Specific markers in tumor vessels are particularly well suited for targeting because molecules at the surface of blood vessels are readily accessible to circulating compounds. The increased concentration of a drug in the site of disease made possible by targeted delivery can be used to increase efficacy, reduce side effects, or achieve some of both. We review the recent advances in this delivery approach with a focus on the use of molecular markers of tumor vasculature as the primary target and nanoparticles as the delivery vehicle. PMID:20231381

  1. Extracellular proteases as targets for drug development.

    PubMed

    Cudic, Mare; Fields, Gregg B

    2009-08-01

    Proteases constitute one of the primary targets in drug discovery. In the present review, we focus on extracellular proteases (ECPs) because of their differential expression in many pathophysiological processes, including cancer, cardiovascular conditions, and inflammatory, pulmonary, and periodontal diseases. Many new ECP inhibitors are currently under clinical investigation and a significant increase in new therapies based on protease inhibition can be expected in the coming years. In addition to directly blocking the activity of a targeted protease, one can take advantage of differential expression in disease states to selectively deliver therapeutic or imaging agents. Recent studies in targeted drug development for the metalloproteases (matrix metalloproteinases, adamalysins, pappalysins, neprilysin, angiotensin-converting enzyme, metallocarboxypeptidases, and glutamate carboxypeptidase II), serine proteases (elastase, coagulation factors, tissue/urokinase plasminogen activator system, kallikreins, tryptase, dipeptidyl peptidase IV) and cysteine proteases (cathepsin B) are discussed herein. PMID:19689354

  2. Cryptic prophages as targets for drug development.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoxue; Wood, Thomas K

    2016-07-01

    Bacterial chromosomes may contain up to 20% phage DNA that encodes diverse proteins ranging from those for photosynthesis to those for autoimmunity; hence, phages contribute greatly to the metabolic potential of pathogens. Active prophages carrying genes encoding virulence factors and antibiotic resistance can be excised from the host chromosome to form active phages and are transmissible among different bacterial hosts upon SOS responses. Cryptic prophages are artifacts of mutagenesis in which lysogenic phage are captured in the bacterial chromosome: they may excise but they do not form active phage particles or lyse their captors. Hence, cryptic prophages are relatively permanent reservoirs of genes, many of which benefit pathogens, in ways we are just beginning to discern. Here we explore the role of active prophage- and cryptic prophage-derived proteins in terms of (i) virulence, (ii) antibiotic resistance, and (iii) antibiotic tolerance; antibiotic tolerance occurs as a result of the non-heritable phenotype of dormancy which is a result of activation of toxins of toxin/antitoxin loci that are frequently encoded in cryptic prophages. Therefore, cryptic prophages are promising targets for drug development. PMID:27449596

  3. Nanoscale drug delivery for targeted chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Xin, Yong; Huang, Qian; Tang, Jian-Qin; Hou, Xiao-Yang; Zhang, Pei; Zhang, Long Zhen; Jiang, Guan

    2016-08-28

    Despite significant improvements in diagnostic methods and innovations in therapies for specific cancers, effective treatments for neoplastic diseases still represent major challenges. Nanotechnology as an emerging technology has been widely used in many fields and also provides a new opportunity for the targeted delivery of cancer drugs. Nanoscale delivery of chemotherapy drugs to the tumor site is highly desirable. Recent studies have shown that nanoscale drug delivery systems not only have the ability to destroy cancer cells but may also be carriers for chemotherapy drugs. Some studies have demonstrated that delivery of chemotherapy via nanoscale carriers has greater therapeutic benefit than either treatment modality alone. In this review, novel approaches to nanoscale delivery of chemotherapy are described and recent progress in this field is discussed. PMID:27235607

  4. Targeted proteins for diabetes drug design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doan Trang Nguyen, Ngoc; Thi Le, Ly

    2012-03-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a common metabolism disorder characterized by high glucose in the bloodstream, especially in the case of insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency. Nowadays, it is very common in middle-aged people and involves such dangerous symptoms as increasing risk of stroke, obesity and heart failure. In Vietnam, besides the common treatment of insulin injection, some herbal medication is used but no unified optimum remedy for the disease yet exists and there is no production of antidiabetic drugs in the domestic market yet. In the development of nanomedicine at the present time, drug design is considered as an innovative tool for researchers to study the mechanisms of diseases at the molecular level. The aim of this article is to review some common protein targets involved in type 2 diabetes, offering a new idea for designing new drug candidates to produce antidiabetic drugs against type 2 diabetes for Vietnamese people.

  5. In silico search of DNA drugs targeting oncogenes.

    PubMed

    Papadakis, George; Gizeli, Electra

    2012-01-01

    Triplex forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) represent a class of drug candidates for antigene therapy. Based on strict criteria, we investigated the potential of 25 known oncogenes to be regulated by TFOs in the mRNA synthesis level and we report specific target sequences found in seven of these genes. PMID:23221090

  6. Functional differentiation of cytotoxic cancer drugs and targeted cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Gian C; Barle, Ester Lovsin; Galati, Giuseppe; Kluwe, William M

    2014-10-01

    There is no nationally or internationally binding definition of the term "cytotoxic drug" although this term is used in a variety of regulations for pharmaceutical development and manufacturing of drugs as well as in regulations for protecting medical personnel from occupational exposure in pharmacy, hospital, and other healthcare settings. The term "cytotoxic drug" is frequently used as a synonym for any and all oncology or antineoplastic drugs. Pharmaceutical companies generate and receive requests for assessments of the potential hazards of drugs regularly - including cytotoxicity. This publication is intended to provide functional definitions that help to differentiate between generically-cytotoxic cancer drugs of significant risk to normal human tissues, and targeted cancer therapeutics that pose much lesser risks. Together with specific assessments, it provides comprehensible guidance on how to assess the relevant properties of cancer drugs, and how targeted therapeutics discriminate between cancer and normal cells. The position of several regulatory agencies in the long-term is clearly to regulate all drugs regardless of classification, according to scientific risk based data. Despite ongoing discussions on how to replace the term "cytotoxic drugs" in current regulations, it is expected that its use will continue for the near future. PMID:24956585

  7. Multifunctional Inorganic Nanoparticles for Imaging, Targeting, and Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Liong, Monty; Lu, Jie; Kovochich, Michael; Xia, Tian; Ruehm, Stefan G.; Nel, Andre E.; Tamanoi, Fuyuhiko; Zink, Jeffrey I.

    2009-01-01

    Drug delivery, magnetic resonance and fluorescence imaging, magnetic manipulation, and cell targeting are simultaneously possible using a multifunctional mesoporous silica nanoparticle. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanocrystals were encapsulated inside mesostructured silica spheres that were labeled with fluorescent dye molecules and coated with hydrophilic groups to prevent aggregation. Water-insoluble anticancer drugs were delivered into human cancer cells; surface conjugation with cancer-specific targeting agents increased the uptake into cancer cells relative to that in non-cancerous fibroblasts. The highly versatile multifunctional nanoparticles could potentially be used for simultaneous imaging and therapeutic applications. PMID:19206485

  8. New approaches to targeted drug delivery to tumour cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Severin, E. S.

    2015-01-01

    Basic approaches to the design of targeted drugs for the treatment of human malignant tumours have been considered. The stages of the development of these approaches have been described in detail and theoretically substantiated, and basic experimental results have been reported. Considerable attention is paid to the general characteristic of nanopharmacological drugs and to the description of mechanisms of cellular interactions with nanodrugs. The potentialities and limitations of application of nanodrugs for cancer therapy and treatment of other diseases have been considered. The use of nanodrugs conjugated with vector molecules seems to be the most promising trend of targeted therapy of malignant tumours. The bibliography includes 122 references.

  9. Mining metabolic networks for optimal drug targets.

    PubMed

    Sridhar, Padmavati; Song, Bin; Kahveci, Tamer; Ranka, Sanjay

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in bioinformatics promote drug-design methods that aim to reduce side-effects. Efficient computational methods are required to identify the optimal enzyme-combination (i.e., drug targets) whose inhibition, will achieve the required effect of eliminating a given target set of compounds, while incurring minimal side-effects. We formulate the optimal enzyme-combination identification problem as an optimization problem on metabolic networks. We define a graph based computational damage model that encapsulates the impact of enzymes onto compounds in metabolic networks. We develop a branch-and-bound algorithm, named OPMET, to explore the search space dynamically. We also develop two filtering strategies to prune the search space while still guaranteeing an optimal solution. They compute an upper bound to the number of target compounds eliminated and a lower bound to the side-effect respectively. Our experiments on the human metabolic network demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can accurately identify the target enzymes for known successful drugs in the literature. Our experiments also show that OPMET can reduce the total search time by several orders of magnitude as compared to the exhaustive search. PMID:18229694

  10. Membrane Transporters: Structure, Function and Targets for Drug Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravna, Aina W.; Sager, Georg; Dahl, Svein G.; Sylte, Ingebrigt

    Current therapeutic drugs act on four main types of molecular targets: enzymes, receptors, ion channels and transporters, among which a major part (60-70%) are membrane proteins. This review discusses the molecular structures and potential impact of membrane transporter proteins on new drug discovery. The three-dimensional (3D) molecular structure of a protein contains information about the active site and possible ligand binding, and about evolutionary relationships within the protein family. Transporters have a recognition site for a particular substrate, which may be used as a target for drugs inhibiting the transporter or acting as a false substrate. Three groups of transporters have particular interest as drug targets: the major facilitator superfamily, which includes almost 4000 different proteins transporting sugars, polyols, drugs, neurotransmitters, metabolites, amino acids, peptides, organic and inorganic anions and many other substrates; the ATP-binding cassette superfamily, which plays an important role in multidrug resistance in cancer chemotherapy; and the neurotransmitter:sodium symporter family, which includes the molecular targets for some of the most widely used psychotropic drugs. Recent technical advances have increased the number of known 3D structures of membrane transporters, and demonstrated that they form a divergent group of proteins with large conformational flexibility which facilitates transport of the substrate.

  11. Drug Normalization for Cancer Therapeutic and Druggable Genome Target Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Guoqian; Sohn, Sunghwan; Zimmermann, Michael T.; Wang, Chen; Liu, Hongfang; Chute, Christopher G.

    2015-01-01

    Heterogeneous drug data representation among different druggable genome knowledge resources and datasets delays effective cancer therapeutic target discovery within the broad scientific community. The objective of the present paper is to describe the challenges and lessons learned from our efforts in developing and evaluating a standards-based drug normalization framework targeting cancer druggable genome datasets. Our findings suggested that mechanisms need to be established to deal with spelling errors and irregularities in normalizing clinical drug data in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), whereas the annotations from NCI Thesaurus (NCIt) and PubChem are two layers of normalization that potentially bridge between the clinical phenotypes and the druggable genome knowledge for effective cancer therapeutic target discovery. PMID:26306243

  12. [Drug delivery strategies for targeted treatment of inflammatory bowel disease].

    PubMed

    Lautenschläger, C; Schmidt, C; Lange, K; Stallmach, A

    2015-03-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a frequently occurring disease in young people, which is characterized by chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. The therapy of IBD is dominated by the administration of anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive agents, which suppress the intestinal inflammatory burden and improve the disease-related symptoms. Present treatment strategies are characterized by a limited therapeutical efficacy and the occurrence of adverse drug reactions. The development of novel disease-targeted drug delivery strategies is preferable for a more effective therapy and thus demonstrates the potential to address unmet medical needs. This review gives an overview about drug delivery strategies for the treatment of IBD. Therefore, established intestine-targeting strategies for a selective drug release into the diseased part of the gastrointestinal tract will be presented, including prodrugs, and dosage forms with pH-/time-dependent drug release. Furthermore future-oriented disease-targeting strategies for a selective drug release into the intestinal inflammation will be described, including micro-/nanosized synthetic and biologic drug carriers. This novel therapeutic approach may enable a more effective anti-inflammatory treatment of IBD with reduced risks of adverse reactions. PMID:25723326

  13. Vasorin is a potential serum biomarker and drug target of hepatocarcinoma screened by subtractive-EMSA-SELEX to clinic patient serum

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Huang, Aixue; Li, Jie; Qin, Xingliang; Li, Fei; Lu, Guanyi; Ding, Hongmei; Su, Xueting; Hou, Lvbin; Xia, Wei; Shi, Ming; Zhang, Hongwen; Zhao, Qiang; Dong, Jie; Ge, Xingfeng; Sun, Leqiao; Bai, Chenjun; Wang, Chaonan; Shen, Xuelian; Fang, Tao; Wang, Fusheng; Zhang, Heqiu; Shao, Ningsheng

    2015-01-01

    We report a new biomarker of hepatocarcinoma, vasorin (VASN), screened by a subtractive EMSA-SELEX strategy from AFP negative serum of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients with extrahepatic metastases. VASN was verified to be highly expressed in sera of 100 cases of HCC patients compared with 97 cases of normal persons and 129 cases of hepatitis patients. Further validation by Q-PCR, IFA and Western blot showed higher expression of VASN at mRNA and protein levels in HCC cell lines and HCC tissues than in normal controls. RNA interference and forced overexpression assays verified that VASN promotes cell proliferation and migration and inhibits apoptosis. Down-regulation of microRNA miR145 and miR146a is an important mechanism leading to high expression of VASN. Conclusion: As a membrane protein and/or as free protein, VASN may be an effective target for biological treatment of liver cancer and is a potential biomarker for HCC diagnosis. Small molecular nucleotides targeting VASN are promising biological therapies to HCC. PMID:25826090

  14. Prediction of drug-target interactions and drug repositioning via network-based inference.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Feixiong; Liu, Chuang; Jiang, Jing; Lu, Weiqiang; Li, Weihua; Liu, Guixia; Zhou, Weixing; Huang, Jin; Tang, Yun

    2012-01-01

    Drug-target interaction (DTI) is the basis of drug discovery and design. It is time consuming and costly to determine DTI experimentally. Hence, it is necessary to develop computational methods for the prediction of potential DTI. Based on complex network theory, three supervised inference methods were developed here to predict DTI and used for drug repositioning, namely drug-based similarity inference (DBSI), target-based similarity inference (TBSI) and network-based inference (NBI). Among them, NBI performed best on four benchmark data sets. Then a drug-target network was created with NBI based on 12,483 FDA-approved and experimental drug-target binary links, and some new DTIs were further predicted. In vitro assays confirmed that five old drugs, namely montelukast, diclofenac, simvastatin, ketoconazole, and itraconazole, showed polypharmacological features on estrogen receptors or dipeptidyl peptidase-IV with half maximal inhibitory or effective concentration ranged from 0.2 to 10 µM. Moreover, simvastatin and ketoconazole showed potent antiproliferative activities on human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line in MTT assays. The results indicated that these methods could be powerful tools in prediction of DTIs and drug repositioning. PMID:22589709

  15. Prediction of Drug-Target Interactions and Drug Repositioning via Network-Based Inference

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jing; Lu, Weiqiang; Li, Weihua; Liu, Guixia; Zhou, Weixing; Huang, Jin; Tang, Yun

    2012-01-01

    Drug-target interaction (DTI) is the basis of drug discovery and design. It is time consuming and costly to determine DTI experimentally. Hence, it is necessary to develop computational methods for the prediction of potential DTI. Based on complex network theory, three supervised inference methods were developed here to predict DTI and used for drug repositioning, namely drug-based similarity inference (DBSI), target-based similarity inference (TBSI) and network-based inference (NBI). Among them, NBI performed best on four benchmark data sets. Then a drug-target network was created with NBI based on 12,483 FDA-approved and experimental drug-target binary links, and some new DTIs were further predicted. In vitro assays confirmed that five old drugs, namely montelukast, diclofenac, simvastatin, ketoconazole, and itraconazole, showed polypharmacological features on estrogen receptors or dipeptidyl peptidase-IV with half maximal inhibitory or effective concentration ranged from 0.2 to 10 µM. Moreover, simvastatin and ketoconazole showed potent antiproliferative activities on human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line in MTT assays. The results indicated that these methods could be powerful tools in prediction of DTIs and drug repositioning. PMID:22589709

  16. Putative Drugs and Targets for Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Zarate, Carlos A.; Manji, Husseini K.

    2009-01-01

    Current pharmacotherapy for bipolar disorder (BPD) is generally unsatisfactory for a large number of patients. Even with adequate modern bipolar pharmacological therapies, many afflicted individuals continue to have persistent mood episode relapses, residual symptoms, functional impairment and psychosocial disability. Creating novel therapeutics for BPD is urgently needed. Promising drug targets and compounds for BPD worthy of further study involve the following systems: purinergic, dynorphin opioid neuropeptide, cholinergic (muscarinic and nicotinic), melatonin and serotonin (5-HT2C receptor), glutamatergic, hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis have all been implicated. Intracellular pathways and targets worthy of further study include glycogen synthase kinase-3 protein, protein kinase C, arachidonic acid cascade. PMID:18704977

  17. A Pilot Study to Assess Adenosine 5’-triphosphate Metabolism in Red Blood Cells as a Drug Target for Potential Cardiovascular Protection

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Pollen K.F.; Tinkel, Jodi; Seeto, Dena

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of exercise preconditioning on adenosine 5’triphosphate (ATP) metabolism in red blood cells and cardiovascular protection against injury induced by isoproterenol in vivo. Methods: Male Sprague Dawley rats (SDR) were each exercised on a treadmill for 15 minutes at 10 m/min and 10% grade (n = 7) (LowEx), or 14 m/min and 22% grade (n = 8) (VigEx). Two hours after the exercise, each rat received a single dose of isoproterenol (30 mg/kg) by subcutaneous (sc) injection. Two separate groups of SDR were used as control: One received no exercise (n = 10) (NoEx) and the other received no exercise and no isoproterenol (n = 11) (NoIso). Serial blood samples were collected over 5 hours for measurement of ATP and its catabolites by a validated HPLC. Hemodynamic recording was collected continuously for 
the duration of the experiment. Data were analysed using ANOVA and t-tests and difference considered significant at 
p < 0.05. Results: Exercise pre-conditioning (both LowEx and VigEx) reduced mortality after isoproterenol from 50% to < 30% 
(p > 0.05). It attenuated the rebound in blood pressure significantly (p < 0.05 between NoEx vs VigEx), attenuated the increase of RBC adenosine 5’-monophosphate (AMP) concentrations induced by isoproterenol, and also decreased the breakdown of ATP to AMP in the RBC (p < 0.05 vs NoEx). Conclusion: Exercise pre-conditioning decreased the blood pressure rebound and also breakdown of ATP in RBC after isoproterenol which may be exploited further as a drug target for cardiovascular protection and prevention.

  18. Potential molecular targets for Ewing's sarcoma therapy.

    PubMed

    Jully, Babu; Rajkumar, Thangarajan

    2012-10-01

    Ewing's sarcoma (ES) is a highly malignant tumor of children and young adults. Modern therapy for Ewing's sarcoma combines high-dose chemotherapy for systemic control of disease, with advanced surgical and/or radiation therapeutic approaches for local control. Despite optimal management, the cure rate for localized disease is only approximately 70%, whereas the cure rate for metastatic disease at presentation is less than 30%. Patients who experience long-term disease-free survival are at risk for significant side-effects of therapy, including infertility, limb dysfunction and an increased risk for second malignancies. The identification of new targets for innovative therapeutic approaches is, therefore, strongly needed for its treatment. Many new pharmaceutical agents have been tested in early phases of clinical trials in ES patients who have recurrent disease. While some agents led to partial response or stable disease, the percentages of drugs eliciting responses or causing an overall effect have been minimal. Furthermore, of the new pharmaceuticals being introduced to clinical practice, the most effective agents also have dose-limiting toxicities. Novel approaches are needed to minimize non-specific toxicity, both for patients with recurrence and at diagnosis. This report presents an overview of the potential molecular targets in ES and highlights the possibility that they may serve as therapeutic targets for the disease. Although additional investigations are required before most of these approaches can be assessed in the clinic, they provide a great deal of hope for patients with Ewing's sarcoma. PMID:23580819

  19. Targeted Liposomal Drug Delivery to Monocytes and Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Ciara; Jefferies, Caroline; Cryan, Sally-Ann

    2011-01-01

    As the role of monocytes and macrophages in a range of diseases is better understood, strategies to target these cell types are of growing importance both scientifically and therapeutically. As particulate carriers, liposomes naturally target cells of the mononuclear phagocytic system (MPS), particularly macrophages. Loading drugs into liposomes can therefore offer an efficient means of drug targeting to MPS cells. Physicochemical properties including size, charge and lipid composition can have a very significant effect on the efficiency with which liposomes target MPS cells. MPS cells express a range of receptors including scavenger receptors, integrins, mannose receptors and Fc-receptors that can be targeted by the addition of ligands to liposome surfaces. These ligands include peptides, antibodies and lectins and have the advantages of increasing target specificity and avoiding the need for cationic lipids to trigger intracellular delivery. The goal for targeting monocytes/macrophages using liposomes includes not only drug delivery but also potentially a role in cell ablation and cell activation for the treatment of conditions including cancer, atherosclerosis, HIV, and chronic inflammation. PMID:21512579

  20. Functional and mechanistic analysis of telomerase: An antitumor drug target.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yinnan; Zhang, Yanmin

    2016-07-01

    The current research on anticancer drugs focuses on exploiting particular traits or hallmarks unique to cancer cells. Telomerase, a special reverse transcriptase, has been recognized as a common factor in most tumor cells, and in turn a distinctive characteristic with respect to non-malignant cells. This feature has made telomerase a preferred target for anticancer drug development and cancer therapy. This review aims to analyze the pharmacological function and mechanism and role of telomerase in oncogenesis; to provide fundamental knowledge for research on the structure, function, and working mechanism of telomerase; to expound the role that telomerase plays in the initiation and development of tumor and its relationship with tumor cell growth, proliferation, apoptosis, and related pathway molecules; and to display potential targets of antitumor drug for inhibiting the expression, reconstitution, and trafficking of the enzyme. We therefore summarize recent advances in potential telomerase inhibitors for antitumor including natural products, synthetic small molecules, peptides and proteins, which indicate that optimizing the delivery method and drug combination could be of help in a combinatorial drug treatment for tumor. More extensive understanding of the structure, biogenesis, and mechanism of telomerase will provide invaluable information for increasing the efficiency of rational antitumor drug design. PMID:27118336

  1. RepurposeVS: A Drug Repurposing-Focused Computational Method for Accurate Drug-Target Signature Predictions.

    PubMed

    Issa, Naiem T; Peters, Oakland J; Byers, Stephen W; Dakshanamurthy, Sivanesan

    2015-01-01

    We describe here RepurposeVS for the reliable prediction of drug-target signatures using X-ray protein crystal structures. RepurposeVS is a virtual screening method that incorporates docking, drug-centric and protein-centric 2D/3D fingerprints with a rigorous mathematical normalization procedure to account for the variability in units and provide high-resolution contextual information for drug-target binding. Validity was confirmed by the following: (1) providing the greatest enrichment of known drug binders for multiple protein targets in virtual screening experiments, (2) determining that similarly shaped protein target pockets are predicted to bind drugs of similar 3D shapes when RepurposeVS is applied to 2,335 human protein targets, and (3) determining true biological associations in vitro for mebendazole (MBZ) across many predicted kinase targets for potential cancer repurposing. Since RepurposeVS is a drug repurposing-focused method, benchmarking was conducted on a set of 3,671 FDA approved and experimental drugs rather than the Database of Useful Decoys (DUDE) so as to streamline downstream repurposing experiments. We further apply RepurposeVS to explore the overall potential drug repurposing space for currently approved drugs. RepurposeVS is not computationally intensive and increases performance accuracy, thus serving as an efficient and powerful in silico tool to predict drug-target associations in drug repurposing. PMID:26234515

  2. Bioinspired Nanonetworks for Targeted Cancer Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Raz, Nasibeh Rady; Akbarzadeh-T, Mohammad-R; Tafaghodi, Mohsen

    2015-12-01

    A biomimicry approach to nanonetworks is proposed here for targeted cancer drug delivery (TDD). The swarm of bioinspired nanomachines utilizes the blood distribution network and chemotaxis to carry drug through the vascular system to the cancer site, recognized by a high concentration of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Our approach is multi-scale and includes processes that occur both within cells and with their neighbors. The proposed bionanonetwork takes advantage of several organic processes, some of which already occur within the human body, such as a plate-like structure similar to those of red blood cells for more environmental contact; a berry fruit architecture for its internal multi-foams architecture; the penetrable structure of cancer cells, tissue, as well as the porous structure of the capillaries for drug penetration; state of glycocalyx for ligand-receptor adhesion; as well as changes in pH state of blood and O 2 release for nanomachine communication. For a more appropriate evaluation, we compare our work with a conventional chemotherapy approach using a mathematical model of cancer under actual experimental parameter settings. Simulation results show the merits of the proposed method in targeted cancer therapy by improving the densities of the relevant cancer cell types and VEGF concentration, while following more organic and natural processes. PMID:26529771

  3. The tuberculosis drug discovery and development pipeline and emerging drug targets.

    PubMed

    Mdluli, Khisimuzi; Kaneko, Takushi; Upton, Anna

    2015-06-01

    The recent accelerated approval for use in extensively drug-resistant and multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis (MDR-TB) of two first-in-class TB drugs, bedaquiline and delamanid, has reinvigorated the TB drug discovery and development field. However, although several promising clinical development programs are ongoing to evaluate new TB drugs and regimens, the number of novel series represented is few. The global early-development pipeline is also woefully thin. To have a chance of achieving the goal of better, shorter, safer TB drug regimens with utility against drug-sensitive and drug-resistant disease, a robust and diverse global TB drug discovery pipeline is key, including innovative approaches that make use of recently acquired knowledge on the biology of TB. Fortunately, drug discovery for TB has resurged in recent years, generating compounds with varying potential for progression into developable leads. In parallel, advances have been made in understanding TB pathogenesis. It is now possible to apply the lessons learned from recent TB hit generation efforts and newly validated TB drug targets to generate the next wave of TB drug leads. Use of currently underexploited sources of chemical matter and lead-optimization strategies may also improve the efficiency of future TB drug discovery. Novel TB drug regimens with shorter treatment durations must target all subpopulations of Mycobacterium tuberculosis existing in an infection, including those responsible for the protracted TB treatment duration. This review summarizes the current TB drug development pipeline and proposes strategies for generating improved hits and leads in the discovery phase that could help achieve this goal. PMID:25635061

  4. A smart multifunctional drug delivery nanoplatform for targeting cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoop, M.; Mushtaq, F.; Hurter, C.; Chen, X.-Z.; Nelson, B. J.; Pané, S.

    2016-06-01

    Wirelessly guided magnetic nanomachines are promising vectors for targeted drug delivery, which have the potential to minimize the interaction between anticancer agents and healthy tissues. In this work, we propose a smart multifunctional drug delivery nanomachine for targeted drug delivery that incorporates a stimuli-responsive building block. The nanomachine consists of a magnetic nickel (Ni) nanotube that contains a pH-responsive chitosan hydrogel in its inner cavity. The chitosan inside the nanotube serves as a matrix that can selectively release drugs in acidic environments, such as the extracellular space of most tumors. Approximately a 2.5 times higher drug release from Ni nanotubes at pH = 6 is achieved compared to that at pH = 7.4. The outside of the Ni tube is coated with gold. A fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) labeled thiol-ssDNA, a biological marker, was conjugated on its surface by thiol-gold click chemistry, which enables traceability. The Ni nanotube allows the propulsion of the device by means of external magnetic fields. As the proposed nanoarchitecture integrates different functional building blocks, our drug delivery nanoplatform can be employed for carrying molecular drug conjugates and for performing targeted combinatorial therapies, which can provide an alternative and supplementary solution to current drug delivery technologies.Wirelessly guided magnetic nanomachines are promising vectors for targeted drug delivery, which have the potential to minimize the interaction between anticancer agents and healthy tissues. In this work, we propose a smart multifunctional drug delivery nanomachine for targeted drug delivery that incorporates a stimuli-responsive building block. The nanomachine consists of a magnetic nickel (Ni) nanotube that contains a pH-responsive chitosan hydrogel in its inner cavity. The chitosan inside the nanotube serves as a matrix that can selectively release drugs in acidic environments, such as the extracellular space of

  5. Polyphenols as mitochondria-targeted anticancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Gorlach, Sylwia; Fichna, Jakub; Lewandowska, Urszula

    2015-10-01

    Mitochondria are the respiratory and energetic centers of the cell where multiple intra- and extracellular signal transduction pathways converge leading to dysfunction of those organelles and, consequently, apoptotic or/and necrotic cell death. Mitochondria-targeted anticancer drugs are referred to as mitocans; they have recently been classified by Neuzil et al. (2013) according to their molecular mode of action into: hexokinase inhibitors; mimickers of the Bcl-2 homology-3 (BH3) domains; thiol redox inhibitors; deregulators of voltage-dependent anionic channel (VDAC)/adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) complex; electron redox chain-targeting agents; lipophilic cations targeting the mitochondrial inner membrane; tricarboxylic acid cycle-targeting agents; and mitochondrial DNA-targeting agents. Polyphenols of plant origin and their synthetic or semisynthetic derivatives exhibit pleiotropic biological activities, including the above-mentioned modes of action characteristic of mitocans. Some of them have already been tested in clinical trials. Gossypol has served as a lead compound for developing more efficient BH3 mimetics such as ABT-737 and its orally available structural analog ABT-263 (Navitoclax). Furthermore, mitochondriotropic derivatives of phenolic compounds such as quercetin and resveratrol have been synthesized and reported to efficiently induce cancer cell death in vitro. PMID:26185003

  6. The JAK kinases: not just another kinase drug discovery target.

    PubMed

    Wilks, Andrew F

    2008-08-01

    There are four members of the JAK family of protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) in the human genome. Since their discovery in 1989, great strides have been made in the understanding of their role in normal intracellular signalling. Importantly, their roles in pathologies ranging from cancer to immune deficiencies have placed them front and centre as potential drug targets. The recent discovery of the role of activating mutations in the kinase-like domain (KLD) of JAK2 in the development of polycythemia rubra vera, and the elaboration of KLD mutation as a broader mechanism by which cells might become hyperproliferative has sparked enormous interest in the development of JAK selective drug candidates. I review herein the progress that has been made in the discovery of JAK-targeted inhibitors, and discuss the challenges that face the development of these drugs for use in the clinic. PMID:18721891

  7. Cooperative assembly in targeted drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auguste, Debra

    2012-02-01

    Described as cell analogues, liposomes are self-assembled lipid bilayer spheres that encapsulate aqueous volumes. Liposomes offer several drug delivery advantages due to their structural versatility related to size, composition, bilayer fluidity, and ability to encapsulate a large variety of compounds non-covalently. However, liposomes lack the structural information embedded within cell membranes. Partitioning of unsaturated and saturated lipids into liquid crystalline (Lα) and gel phase (Lβ) domains, respectively, affects local molecular diffusion and elasticity. Liposome microdomains may be used to pattern molecules, such as antibodies, on the liposome surface to create concentrated, segregated binding regions. We have synthesized, characterized, and evaluated a series of homogeneous and heterogeneous liposomal vehicles that target inflamed endothelium. These drug delivery vehicles are designed to complement the heterogeneous presentation of lipids and receptors on endothelial cells (ECs). EC surfaces are dynamic; they segregate receptors within saturated lipid microdomains on the cell surface to regulate binding and signaling events. We have demonstrated that cooperative binding of two antibodies enhances targeting by multiple fold. Further, we have shown that organization of these antibodies on the surface can further enhance cell uptake. The data suggest that EC targeting may be enhanced by designing liposomes that mirror the segregated structure of lipid and receptor molecules involved in neutrophil-EC adhesion. This strategy is employed in an atherosclerotic mouse model in vivo.

  8. Parasitic diarrheal disease: drug development and targets

    PubMed Central

    Azam, Amir; Peerzada, Mudasir N.; Ahmad, Kamal

    2015-01-01

    Diarrhea is the manifestation of gastrointestinal infection and is one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity specifically among the children of less than 5 years age worldwide. Moreover, in recent years there has been a rise in the number of reports of intestinal infections continuously in the industrialized world. These are largely related to waterborne and food borne outbreaks. These occur by the pathogenesis of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms like bacteria and parasites. The parasitic intestinal infection has remained mostly unexplored and under assessed in terms of therapeutic development. The lack of new drugs and the risk of resistance have led us to carry out this review on drug development for parasitic diarrheal diseases. The major focus has been depicted on commercially available drugs, currently synthesized active heterocyclic compounds and unique drug targets, that are vital for the existence and growth of the parasites and can be further exploited for the search of therapeutically active anti-parasitic agents. PMID:26617574

  9. Potential drug interactions with melatonin.

    PubMed

    Papagiannidou, Eleni; Skene, Debra J; Ioannides, Costas

    2014-05-28

    Possible interactions of melatonin with concurrently administered drugs were investigated in in vitro studies utilising human hepatic post-mitochondrial preparations; similar studies were conducted with rat preparations to ascertain whether rat is a suitable surrogate for human. Drugs were selected based not only on the knowledge that the 6-hydroxylation of exogenous melatonin, its principal pathway of metabolism, is mainly mediated by hepatic CYP1A2, but also on the likelihood of the drug being concurrently administered with melatonin. Hepatic preparations were incubated with either melatonin or 6-hydroxymelatonin in the presence and absence of a range of concentrations of interacting drug, and the production of 6-sulphatoxymelatonin monitored using a radioimmunoassay procedure. Of the drugs screened, only the potent CYP1A2 inhibitor 5-methoxypsoralen impaired the 6-melatonin hydroxylation at pharmacologically relevant concentrations, and is likely to lead to clinical interactions; diazepam, tamoxifen and acetaminophen (paracetamol) did not impair the metabolic conversion of melatonin to 6-sulphatoxymelatonin at concentrations attained following therapeutic administration. 17-Ethinhyloestradiol appeared not to suppress the 6-hydroxylation of melatonin but inhibited the sulphation of 6-hydroxymelatonin, but this is unlikely to result in an interaction following therapeutic intake of the steroid. Species differences in the inhibition of melatonin metabolism in human and rat hepatic post-mitochondrial preparations were evident implying that the rat may not be an appropriate surrogate of human in such studies. PMID:24732412

  10. Dengue protease activity: the structural integrity and interaction of NS2B with NS3 protease and its potential as a drug target.

    PubMed

    Phong, Wai Y; Moreland, Nicole J; Lim, Siew P; Wen, Daying; Paradkar, Prasad N; Vasudevan, Subhash G

    2011-10-01

    Flaviviral NS3 serine proteases require the NS2B cofactor region (cNS2B) to be active. Recent crystal structures of WNV (West Nile virus) protease in complex with inhibitors revealed that cNS2B participates in the formation of the protease active site. No crystal structures of ternary complexes are currently available for DENV (dengue virus) to validate the role of cNS2B in active site formation. In the present study, a GST (glutathione transferase) fusion protein of DENV-2 cNS2B49-95 was used as a bait to pull down DENV-2 protease domain (NS3pro). The affinity of NS3pro for cNS2B was strong (equilibrium-binding constant <200 nM) and the heterodimeric complex displayed a catalytic efficiency similar to that of single-chain DENV-2 cNS2B/NS3pro. Various truncations and mutations in the cNS2B sequence showed that conformational integrity of the entire 47 amino acids is critical for protease activity. Furthermore, DENV-2 NS3 protease can be pulled down and transactivated by cNS2B cofactors from DENV-1, -3, -4 and WNV, suggesting that mechanisms for activation are conserved across the flavivirus genus. To validate NS2B as a potential target in allosteric inhibitor development, a cNS2B-specific human monoclonal antibody (3F10) was utilized. 3F10 disrupted the interaction between cNS2B and NS3 in vitro and reduced DENV viral replication in HEK (human embryonic kidney)-293 cells. This provides proof-of-concept for developing assays to find inhibitors that block the interaction between NS2B and NS3 during viral translation. PMID:21329491

  11. New drugs and treatment targets in psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Kofoed, Kristian; Skov, Lone; Zachariae, Claus

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, the increased understanding of the pathophysiology of psoriasis has resulted in several new treatments. The success of ustekinumab proved the importance of the IL-23/T helper cell 17 axis in psoriatic diseases. Several new biologics targeting this axis will reach the clinic in the next years. Biologics are costly, require injections, and some patients experience tacaphylaxis, thus, the development of orally available, small-molecule inhibitors is desirable. Among small-molecules under investigation are A3 adenosine receptor agonists, Janus kinase inhibitors, and phosphodiesterase inhibitors. We review published clinical trials, and conference abstracts presented during the last years, concerned with new drugs under development for the treatment of psoriasis. In conclusion, our psoriasis armamentarium will be filled with several new effective therapeutic options the coming years. We need to be aware of the limitations of drug safety data when selecting new novel treatments. Monitoring and clinical registries are still important tools. PMID:25111317

  12. Tumour macrophages as potential targets of bisphosphonates

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    bisphosphonates in model studies; In vitro, zoledronic acid causes increased apoptotic cell death; in vivo the drug has been shown to inhibit the production of pro-angiogenic factor MMP-9, as well as most recent evidence showing it can trigger the reversal of the TAMs phenotype from pro-tumoral M2 to tumoricidal M1. There is thus accumulating evidence supporting the hypothesis that effects on TAMs may contribute to the anti-tumour effect of bisphosphonates. This review will focus in detail on the role of tumour associated macrophages in breast cancer progression, the actions of bisphosphonates on macrophages in vitro and in tumour models in vivo and summarise the evidence supporting the potential for the targeting of tumour macrophages with bisphosphonates. PMID:22005011

  13. Increasing the structural coverage of tuberculosis drug targets

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Baugh, Loren; Phan, Isabelle; Begley, Darren W.; Clifton, Matthew C.; Armour, Brianna; Dranow, David M.; Taylor, Brandy M.; Muruthi, Marvin M.; Abendroth, Jan; Fairman, James W.; et al

    2014-12-19

    High-resolution three-dimensional structures of essential Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) proteins provide templates for TB drug design, but are available for only a small fraction of the Mtb proteome. Here we evaluate an intra-genus “homolog-rescue” strategy to increase the structural information available for TB drug discovery by using mycobacterial homologs with conserved active sites. We found that of 179 potential TB drug targets selected for x-ray structure determination, only 16 yielded a crystal structure. By adding 1675 homologs from nine other mycobacterial species to the pipeline, structures representing an additional 52 otherwise intractable targets were solved. To determine whether these homolog structuresmore » would be useful surrogates in TB drug design, we compared the active sites of 106 pairs of Mtb and non-TB mycobacterial (NTM) enzyme homologs with experimentally determined structures, using three metrics of active site similarity, including superposition of continuous pharmacophoric property distributions. Pair-wise structural comparisons revealed that 19/22 pairs with >55% overall sequence identity had active site Cα RMSD <1 Å, >85% side chain identity, and ≥80% PSAPF (similarity based on pharmacophoric properties) indicating highly conserved active site shape and chemistry. Applying these results to the 52 NTM structures described above, 41 shared >55% sequence identity with the Mtb target, thus increasing the effective structural coverage of the 179 Mtb targets over three-fold (from 9% to 32%). The utility of these structures in TB drug design can be tested by designing inhibitors using the homolog structure and assaying the cognate Mtb enzyme; a promising test case, Mtb cytidylate kinase, is described. The homolog-rescue strategy evaluated here for TB is also generalizable to drug targets for other diseases.« less

  14. Increasing the structural coverage of tuberculosis drug targets

    SciTech Connect

    Baugh, Loren; Phan, Isabelle; Begley, Darren W.; Clifton, Matthew C.; Armour, Brianna; Dranow, David M.; Taylor, Brandy M.; Muruthi, Marvin M.; Abendroth, Jan; Fairman, James W.; Fox, David; Dieterich, Shellie H.; Staker, Bart L.; Gardberg, Anna S.; Choi, Ryan; Hewitt, Stephen N.; Napuli, Alberto J.; Myers, Janette; Barrett, Lynn K.; Zhang, Yang; Ferrell, Micah; Mundt, Elizabeth; Thompkins, Katie; Tran, Ngoc; Lyons-Abbott, Sally; Abramov, Ariel; Sekar, Aarthi; Serbzhinskiy, Dmitri; Lorimer, Don; Buchko, Garry W.; Stacy, Robin; Stewart, Lance J.; Edwards, Thomas E.; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Myler, Peter J.

    2014-12-19

    High-resolution three-dimensional structures of essential Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) proteins provide templates for TB drug design, but are available for only a small fraction of the Mtb proteome. Here we evaluate an intra-genus “homolog-rescue” strategy to increase the structural information available for TB drug discovery by using mycobacterial homologs with conserved active sites. We found that of 179 potential TB drug targets selected for x-ray structure determination, only 16 yielded a crystal structure. By adding 1675 homologs from nine other mycobacterial species to the pipeline, structures representing an additional 52 otherwise intractable targets were solved. To determine whether these homolog structures would be useful surrogates in TB drug design, we compared the active sites of 106 pairs of Mtb and non-TB mycobacterial (NTM) enzyme homologs with experimentally determined structures, using three metrics of active site similarity, including superposition of continuous pharmacophoric property distributions. Pair-wise structural comparisons revealed that 19/22 pairs with >55% overall sequence identity had active site Cα RMSD <1 Å, >85% side chain identity, and ≥80% PSAPF (similarity based on pharmacophoric properties) indicating highly conserved active site shape and chemistry. Applying these results to the 52 NTM structures described above, 41 shared >55% sequence identity with the Mtb target, thus increasing the effective structural coverage of the 179 Mtb targets over three-fold (from 9% to 32%). The utility of these structures in TB drug design can be tested by designing inhibitors using the homolog structure and assaying the cognate Mtb enzyme; a promising test case, Mtb cytidylate kinase, is described. The homolog-rescue strategy evaluated here for TB is also generalizable to drug targets for other diseases.

  15. Increasing the structural coverage of tuberculosis drug targets.

    PubMed

    Baugh, Loren; Phan, Isabelle; Begley, Darren W; Clifton, Matthew C; Armour, Brianna; Dranow, David M; Taylor, Brandy M; Muruthi, Marvin M; Abendroth, Jan; Fairman, James W; Fox, David; Dieterich, Shellie H; Staker, Bart L; Gardberg, Anna S; Choi, Ryan; Hewitt, Stephen N; Napuli, Alberto J; Myers, Janette; Barrett, Lynn K; Zhang, Yang; Ferrell, Micah; Mundt, Elizabeth; Thompkins, Katie; Tran, Ngoc; Lyons-Abbott, Sally; Abramov, Ariel; Sekar, Aarthi; Serbzhinskiy, Dmitri; Lorimer, Don; Buchko, Garry W; Stacy, Robin; Stewart, Lance J; Edwards, Thomas E; Van Voorhis, Wesley C; Myler, Peter J

    2015-03-01

    High-resolution three-dimensional structures of essential Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) proteins provide templates for TB drug design, but are available for only a small fraction of the Mtb proteome. Here we evaluate an intra-genus "homolog-rescue" strategy to increase the structural information available for TB drug discovery by using mycobacterial homologs with conserved active sites. Of 179 potential TB drug targets selected for x-ray structure determination, only 16 yielded a crystal structure. By adding 1675 homologs from nine other mycobacterial species to the pipeline, structures representing an additional 52 otherwise intractable targets were solved. To determine whether these homolog structures would be useful surrogates in TB drug design, we compared the active sites of 106 pairs of Mtb and non-TB mycobacterial (NTM) enzyme homologs with experimentally determined structures, using three metrics of active site similarity, including superposition of continuous pharmacophoric property distributions. Pair-wise structural comparisons revealed that 19/22 pairs with >55% overall sequence identity had active site Cα RMSD <1 Å, >85% side chain identity, and ≥80% PSAPF (similarity based on pharmacophoric properties) indicating highly conserved active site shape and chemistry. Applying these results to the 52 NTM structures described above, 41 shared >55% sequence identity with the Mtb target, thus increasing the effective structural coverage of the 179 Mtb targets over three-fold (from 9% to 32%). The utility of these structures in TB drug design can be tested by designing inhibitors using the homolog structure and assaying the cognate Mtb enzyme; a promising test case, Mtb cytidylate kinase, is described. The homolog-rescue strategy evaluated here for TB is also generalizable to drug targets for other diseases. PMID:25613812

  16. Genetic Approaches To Identifying Novel Osteoporosis Drug Targets.

    PubMed

    Brommage, Robert

    2015-10-01

    During the past two decades effective drugs for treating osteoporosis have been developed, including anti-resorptives inhibiting bone resorption (estrogens, the SERM raloxifene, four bisphosphonates, RANKL inhibitor denosumab) and the anabolic bone forming daily injectable peptide teriparatide. Two potential drugs (odanacatib and romosozumab) are in late stage clinical development. The most pressing unmet need is for orally active anabolic drugs. This review describes the basic biological studies involved in developing these drugs, including the animal models employed for osteoporosis drug development. The genomics revolution continues to identify potential novel osteoporosis drug targets. Studies include human GWAS studies and identification of mutant genes in subjects having abnormal bone mass, mouse QTL and gene knockouts, and gene expression studies. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that Wnt signaling plays a major role in regulating bone formation and continued study of this complex pathway is likely to lead to key discoveries. In addition to the classic Wnt signaling targets DKK1 and sclerostin, LRP4, LRP5/LRP6, SFRP4, WNT16, and NOTUM can potentially be targeted to modulate Wnt signaling. Next-generation whole genome and exome sequencing, RNA-sequencing and CRISPR/CAS9 gene editing are new experimental techniques contributing to understanding the genome. The International Knockout Mouse Consortium efforts to knockout and phenotype all mouse genes are poised to accelerate. Accumulating knowledge will focus attention on readily accessible databases (Big Data). Efforts are underway by the International Bone and Mineral Society to develop an annotated Skeletome database providing information on all genes directly influencing bone mass, architecture, mineralization or strength. PMID:25833316

  17. Drug Targets in Mycobacterial Sulfur Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Bhave, Devayani P.; Muse, Wilson B.; Carroll, Kate S.

    2011-01-01

    The identification of new antibacterial targets is urgently needed to address multidrug resistant and latent tuberculosis infection. Sulfur metabolic pathways are essential for survival and the expression of virulence in many pathogenic bacteria, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In addition, microbial sulfur metabolic pathways are largely absent in humans and therefore, represent unique targets for therapeutic intervention. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of the enzymes associated with the production of sulfated and reduced sulfur-containing metabolites in Mycobacteria. Small molecule inhibitors of these catalysts represent valuable chemical tools that can be used to investigate the role of sulfur metabolism throughout the Mycobacterial lifecycle and may also represent new leads for drug development. In this light, we also summarize recent progress in the development of inhibitors of sulfur metabolism enzymes. PMID:17970225

  18. Carbon Nanotubes: An Emerging Drug Carrier for Targeting Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Shiv Sankar; Mishra, Arun Kumar; Verma, Navneet; Verma, Anurag; Pandit, Jayanta Kumar

    2014-01-01

    During recent years carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been attracted by many researchers as a drug delivery carrier. CNTs are the third allotropic form of carbon-fullerenes which were rolled into cylindrical tubes. To be integrated into the biological systems, CNTs can be chemically modified or functionalised with therapeutically active molecules by forming stable covalent bonds or supramolecular assemblies based on noncovalent interactions. Owing to their high carrying capacity, biocompatibility, and specificity to cells, various cancer cells have been explored with CNTs for evaluation of pharmacokinetic parameters, cell viability, cytotoxicty, and drug delivery in tumor cells. This review attempts to highlight all aspects of CNTs which render them as an effective anticancer drug carrier and imaging agent. Also the potential application of CNT in targeting metastatic cancer cells by entrapping biomolecules and anticancer drugs has been covered in this review. PMID:24872894

  19. Carbon nanotubes: an emerging drug carrier for targeting cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Vaibhav; Yadav, Pragya; Bhattacharya, Shiv Sankar; Mishra, Arun Kumar; Verma, Navneet; Verma, Anurag; Pandit, Jayanta Kumar

    2014-01-01

    During recent years carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been attracted by many researchers as a drug delivery carrier. CNTs are the third allotropic form of carbon-fullerenes which were rolled into cylindrical tubes. To be integrated into the biological systems, CNTs can be chemically modified or functionalised with therapeutically active molecules by forming stable covalent bonds or supramolecular assemblies based on noncovalent interactions. Owing to their high carrying capacity, biocompatibility, and specificity to cells, various cancer cells have been explored with CNTs for evaluation of pharmacokinetic parameters, cell viability, cytotoxicty, and drug delivery in tumor cells. This review attempts to highlight all aspects of CNTs which render them as an effective anticancer drug carrier and imaging agent. Also the potential application of CNT in targeting metastatic cancer cells by entrapping biomolecules and anticancer drugs has been covered in this review. PMID:24872894

  20. Galactosylated fluorescent labeled micelles as a liver targeting drug carrier.

    PubMed

    Wu, De-Qun; Lu, Bo; Chang, Cong; Chen, Chang-Sheng; Wang, Tao; Zhang, Yuan-Yuan; Cheng, Si-Xue; Jiang, Xue-Jun; Zhang, Xian-Zheng; Zhuo, Ren-Xi

    2009-03-01

    Galactosylated and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) labeled polycaprolactone-g-dextran (Gal-PCL-g-Dex-FITC) polymers were synthesized. The grafted polymers can self-assemble into stable micelles in aqueous medium and in serum. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed that the self-assembled micelles were regularly spherical in shape. Micelle size determined by size analysis was around 120 nm. The anti-inflammation drug prednisone acetate as a model drug was loaded in the polymeric micelles, and the in vitro drug release was investigated. The galactosylated micelles could be selectively recognized by HepG2 cells and subsequently accumulate in HepG2 cells. The in vivo study demonstrated the relative uptake of the micelles by liver is much higher than the other tissues, indicating that the galactosylated micelles have great potential as a liver targeting drug carrier. PMID:19100617

  1. Multifunctional Particles for Melanoma-Targeted Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Wadajkar, Aniket S.; Bhavsar, Zarna; Ko, Cheng-Yu; Koppolu, Bhanuprasanth; Cui, Weina; Tang, Liping; Nguyen, Kytai T.

    2012-01-01

    New magnetic-based core-shell particles (MBCSP) were developed to target skin cancer cells while delivering chemotherapeutic drugs in a controlled fashion. MBCSP consist of a thermo-responsive shell of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-acrylamide-allylamine) and a core of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) embedded with magnetite nanoparticles. To target melanoma cancer cells, MBCSP were conjugated with Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser (GRGDS) peptides that specifically bind to the α5β3+ receptor of melanoma cell. MBCSP consist of unique multifunctional and controlled drug delivery characteristics. Specially, they can provide dual drug release mechanisms (a sustained release of drugs through degradation of PLGA core and a controlled release in response to changes in temperature via thermo-responsive polymer shell), and dual targeting mechanisms (magnetic localization and receptor-mediated targeting). Results from in vitro studies indicate that GRGDS-conjugated MBCSP has an average diameter of 296 nm and exhibit no cytotoxicity towards human dermal fibroblasts up to 500 μg ml−1. Further, a sustained release of curcumin from the core and a temperature-dependent release of doxorubicin from the shell of MBCSP were observed. The particles also produced a dark contrast signal in magnetic resonance imaging. Finally, the particles were accumulated at the tumor site in a B16F10 melanoma orthotopic mouse model, especially in presence of a magnet. Results indicate great potential of MBCSP as a platform technology to target, treat, and monitor melanoma for targeted drug delivery to reduce side effects of chemotherapeutic reagents. PMID:22561668

  2. Smooth muscle-specific drug targets for next generation Drug-eluting stent

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Rui; Chen, Shiyou

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of stent thrombosis is one of the major obstacles limiting the long-term clinical efficacy of percutaneous coronary intervention. The anti-smooth muscle proliferation drugs coated on drug-eluting stents (DES) often indistinguishably block re-endothelialization, an essential step toward successful vascular repair, due to their non-specific effect on endothelial cells (EC). Therefore, identification of therapeutic targets that differentially regulate vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) and EC proliferation may lead to the development of ideal drugs for next generation DES. Our recent studies have shown that CTP synthase 1 (CTPS1) differentially regulates the proliferation of VSMC and EC following vascular injury. Therefore, CTPS1 inhibitors are promising agents for DES. In addition to CTPS1, other factors have also shown cell-specific effects on VSMC and/or EC proliferation and thus may become potential molecular targets for developing drugs to coat stents. PMID:24325297

  3. Therapeutic approaches to drug targets in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Jamkhande, Prasad G; Chandak, Prakash G; Dhawale, Shashikant C; Barde, Sonal R; Tidke, Priti S; Sakhare, Ram S

    2014-07-01

    Non-communicable diseases such as cancer, atherosclerosis and diabetes are responsible for major social and health burden as millions of people are dying every year. Out of which, atherosclerosis is the leading cause of deaths worldwide. The lipid abnormality is one of the major modifiable risk factors for atherosclerosis. Both genetic and environmental components are associated with the development of atherosclerotic plaques. Immune and inflammatory mediators have a complex role in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. Understanding of all these processes will help to invent a range of new biomarkers and novel treatment modalities targeting various cellular events in acute and chronic inflammation that are accountable for atherosclerosis. Several biochemical pathways, receptors and enzymes are involved in the development of atherosclerosis that would be possible targets for improving strategies for disease diagnosis and management. Earlier anti-inflammatory or lipid-lowering treatments could be useful for alleviating morbidity and mortality of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. However, novel drug targets like endoglin receptor, PPARα, squalene synthase, thyroid hormone analogues, scavenger receptor and thyroid hormone analogues are more powerful to control the process of atherosclerosis. Therefore, the review briefly focuses on different novel targets that act at the starting stage of the plaque form to the thrombus formation in the atherosclerosis. PMID:25061401

  4. Immunoliposomes for Targeted Delivery of an Antifibrotic Drug.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Liane; Seifert, Oliver; Vollmer, Stefanie; Kontermann, Roland E; Schlosshauer, Burkhard; Hartmann, Hanna

    2015-09-01

    Excessive extracellular matrix formation in organs and tissues arises from an imbalance between the synthesis and degradation of matrix proteins, especially collagen. This condition interferes with proper wound healing and regeneration, and to date, no specific treatment is available. In the present study, we propose a targeted drug delivery system consisting of cell-specific immunoliposomes (ILs) loaded with deferoxamine (DFO) as an antifibrotic drug. ILs were functionalized with polyethylene glycol (PEG) to improve the steric stability and prolong their half-life. In addition, a single-chain Fv (scFv) antibody fragment that specifically targets fibroblast activation protein (FAP) was incorporated. An in vitro fibrosis model was employed to test this construct. This model consisted of highly activated pro-fibrotic fibroblasts with 2- to 6-fold induction of selected fibrosis markers: cell/matrix deposited collagen I, total soluble collagen, and α smooth muscle actin. The activation was accompanied by a significant and cell-specific elevation of FAP expression and activity, thereby confirming that FAP is an adequate target for antifibrotic drug delivery. Purified anti-FAP scFv was shown to bind specifically to these cells without influencing the FAP enzymatic activity. DFO was demonstrated to have a dose-dependent antifibrotic activity as quantified by collagen deposition. Specific binding and intracellular uptake of DiI-labeled ILs into the activated fibroblasts were shown by flow cytometry and microscopy. Finally, DFO-loaded ILs targeted to FAP caused a significant reduction in the collagen deposition, whereas no effect was observed using liposomes that lacked the targeting antibody fragment. These results suggest that the FAP-specific scFv-conjugated liposomes have considerable potential for cell-specific targeting applicable as a therapy for excessive collagen deposition during fibrosis. In general, through liposome encapsulation, bioactive molecules, such as

  5. Mitochondrial biology, targets, and drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Milane, Lara; Trivedi, Malav; Singh, Amit; Talekar, Meghna; Amiji, Mansoor

    2015-06-10

    In recent years, mitochondrial medicine has emerged as a new discipline resting at the intersection of mitochondrial biology, pathology, and pharmaceutics. The central role of mitochondria in critical cellular processes such as metabolism and apoptosis has placed mitochondria at the forefront of cell science. Advances in mitochondrial biology have revealed that these organelles continually undergo fusion and fission while functioning independently and in complex cellular networks, establishing direct membrane contacts with each other and with other organelles. Understanding the diverse cellular functions of mitochondria has contributed to understanding mitochondrial dysfunction in disease states. Polyplasmy and heteroplasmy contribute to mitochondrial phenotypes and associated dysfunction. Residing at the center of cell biology, cellular functions, and disease pathology and being laden with receptors and targets, mitochondria are beacons for pharmaceutical modification. This review presents the current state of mitochondrial medicine with a focus on mitochondrial function, dysfunction, and common disease; mitochondrial receptors, targets, and substrates; and mitochondrial drug design and drug delivery with a focus on the application of nanotechnology to mitochondrial medicine. Mitochondrial medicine is at the precipice of clinical translation; the objective of this review is to aid in the advancement of mitochondrial medicine from infancy to application. PMID:25841699

  6. P2X Receptors as Drug Targets

    PubMed Central

    Jarvis, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    The study of P2X receptors has long been handicapped by a poverty of small-molecule tools that serve as selective agonists and antagonists. There has been progress, particularly in the past 10 years, as cell-based high-throughput screening methods were applied, together with large chemical libraries. This has delivered some drug-like molecules in several chemical classes that selectively target P2X1, P2X3, or P2X7 receptors. Some of these are, or have been, in clinical trials for rheumatoid arthritis, pain, and cough. Current preclinical research programs are studying P2X receptor involvement in pain, inflammation, osteoporosis, multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injury, and bladder dysfunction. The determination of the atomic structure of P2X receptors in closed and open (ATP-bound) states by X-ray crystallography is now allowing new approaches by molecular modeling. This is supported by a large body of previous work using mutagenesis and functional expression, and is now being supplemented by molecular dynamic simulations and in silico ligand docking. These approaches should lead to P2X receptors soon taking their place alongside other ion channel proteins as therapeutically important drug targets. PMID:23253448

  7. Pin1 as an anticancer drug target.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guoyan G; Etzkorn, Felicia A

    2009-09-01

    Pin1 specifically catalyzes the cis/trans isomerization of phospho-Ser/Thr-Pro bonds and plays an important role in many cellular events through the effects of conformational change on the function of its biological substrates, including cell division cycle 25 C (Cdc25C), c-Jun and p53. Pin1 is overexpressed in many human cancer tissues, including breast, prostate and lung cancer. Its expression correlates with cyclin D1 levels, which contribute to cell transformation. Overexpression of Pin1 promotes tumor growth, while inhibition of Pin1 causes tumor cell apoptosis. Pin1 plays an important role in oncogenesis and therefore may serve as an effective anticancer target. Many inhibitors of Pin1 have been discovered, including several classes of designed inhibitors (alkene isosteres, reduced amides, indanyl ketones) and natural products (juglone, pepticinnamin E analogues, PiB and its derivatives obtained from a library screen). Pin1 inhibitors could be used as a novel type of anticancer drug by blocking cell cycle progression. Therefore, Pin1 represents a new diagnostic and therapeutic anticancer drug target. PMID:19890497

  8. Targeted polymer-drug conjugates: Current progress and future perspective.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hongyan; Ma, Haifeng; Yang, Peimin; Zhang, Xia; Wu, Xiangxia; Yin, Weidong; Wang, Hui; Xu, Dongmei

    2015-12-01

    The combination of polymer technology and targeted drug delivery may pave the way for more effective yet safer therapeutic options for cancer therapy. Polymer-drug conjugates belonging to polymer therapeutics represent an emerging approach for drug delivery. The development of smart targeted polymer-drug conjugates that can specifically deliver drugs at a sustained rate to tumor cells may substantially improve the therapeutic index of anticancer agents. In this update, we provide an overview of the most important targeting molecules, and systemically summarize the recent advances in the development of tumor-targeted polymer-drug conjugates. Additionally, several promising approaches for the future will also be presented. PMID:26513756

  9. Recognizing drug targets using evolutionary information: implications for repurposing FDA-approved drugs against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, Gayatri; Chandra, Nagasuma R; Srinivasan, Narayanaswamy

    2015-12-01

    Drug repurposing to explore target space has been gaining pace over the past decade with the upsurge in the use of systematic approaches for computational drug discovery. Such a cost and time-saving approach gains immense importance for pathogens of special interest, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. We report a comprehensive approach to repurpose drugs, based on the exploration of evolutionary relationships inferred from the comparative sequence and structural analyses between targets of FDA-approved drugs and the proteins of M. tuberculosis. This approach has facilitated the identification of several polypharmacological drugs that could potentially target unexploited M. tuberculosis proteins. A total of 130 FDA-approved drugs, originally intended against other diseases, could be repurposed against 78 potential targets in M. tuberculosis. Additionally, we have also made an attempt to augment the chemical space by recognizing compounds structurally similar to FDA-approved drugs. For three of the attractive cases we have investigated the probable binding modes of the drugs in their corresponding M. tuberculosis targets by means of structural modelling. Such prospective targets and small molecules could be prioritized for experimental endeavours, and could significantly influence drug-discovery and drug-development programmes for tuberculosis. PMID:26429199

  10. The hydrogenosome as a drug target.

    PubMed

    Benchimol, Marlene

    2008-01-01

    Hydrogenosomes are spherical or slightly elongated organelles found in non-mitochondrial organisms. In Trichomonas hydrogenosomes measure between 200 to 500 nm, but under drug treatment they can reach 2 microm. Like mitochondria hydrogenosomes: (1) are surrounded by two closely apposed membranes and present a granular matrix: (2) divide in three different ways: segmentation, partition and the heart form; (3) they may divide at any phase of the cell cycle; (4) produce ATP; (5) participate in the metabolism of pyruvate formed during glycolysis; (6) are the site of molecular hydrogen formation; (7) present a relationship with the endoplasmic reticulum; (8) incorporate calcium; (9) import proteins post-translationally; (10) present cardiolipin. However, there are differences, such as: (1) absence of genetic material, at least in trichomonas; (2) lack a respiratory chain and cytochromes; (3) absence of the F(0)-F(1) ATPase; (4) absence of the tricarboxylic acid cycle; (5) lack of oxidative phosphorylation; (6) presence of peripheral vesicles. Hydrogenosomes are considered an excellent drug target since their metabolic pathway is distinct from those found in mitochondria and thus medicines directed to these organelles will probably not affect the host-cell. The main drug used against trichomonads is metronidazole, although other drugs such as beta-Lapachone, colchicine, Taxol, nocodazole, griseofulvin, cytochalasins, hydroxyurea, among others, have been used in trichomonad studies, showing: (1) flagella internalization forming pseudocyst; (2) dysfunctional hydrogenosomes; (3) hydrogenosomes with abnormal sizes and shapes and with an electron dense deposit called nucleoid; (4) intense autophagy in which hydrogenosomes are removed and further digested in lysosomes. PMID:18473836

  11. Intracranial Self-Stimulation to Evaluate Abuse Potential of Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Laurence L.

    2014-01-01

    Intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) is a behavioral procedure in which operant responding is maintained by pulses of electrical brain stimulation. In research to study abuse-related drug effects, ICSS relies on electrode placements that target the medial forebrain bundle at the level of the lateral hypothalamus, and experimental sessions manipulate frequency or amplitude of stimulation to engender a wide range of baseline response rates or response probabilities. Under these conditions, drug-induced increases in low rates/probabilities of responding maintained by low frequencies/amplitudes of stimulation are interpreted as an abuse-related effect. Conversely, drug-induced decreases in high rates/probabilities of responding maintained by high frequencies/amplitudes of stimulation can be interpreted as an abuse-limiting effect. Overall abuse potential can be inferred from the relative expression of abuse-related and abuse-limiting effects. The sensitivity and selectivity of ICSS to detect abuse potential of many classes of abused drugs is similar to the sensitivity and selectivity of drug self-administration procedures. Moreover, similar to progressive-ratio drug self-administration procedures, ICSS data can be used to rank the relative abuse potential of different drugs. Strengths of ICSS in comparison with drug self-administration include 1) potential for simultaneous evaluation of both abuse-related and abuse-limiting effects, 2) flexibility for use with various routes of drug administration or drug vehicles, 3) utility for studies in drug-naive subjects as well as in subjects with controlled levels of prior drug exposure, and 4) utility for studies of drug time course. Taken together, these considerations suggest that ICSS can make significant contributions to the practice of abuse potential testing. PMID:24973197

  12. Protein kinases as drug targets in cancer.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Mehmet Alper; Kutuk, Ozgur; Basaga, Huveyda

    2006-11-01

    Identification of the key roles of protein kinases in signaling pathways leading to development of cancer has caused pharmacological interest to concentrate extensively on targeted therapies as a more specific and effective way for blockade of cancer progression. This review will mainly focus on inhibitors targeting these key components of cellular signaling by employing a technology-based point of view with respect to ATP- and non-ATP-competitive small molecule inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies of selected protein kinases, particularly, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), BCR-ABL, MEK, p38 MAPK, EGFR PDGFR, VEGFR, HER2 and Raf. Inhibitors of the heat shock protein Hsp90 are also included in a separate section, as this protein plays an essential role for the maturation/proper activation of cancer-related protein kinases. In the following review, the molecular details of the mode of action of these inhibitors as well as the emergence of drug resistance encountered in several cases are discussed in light of the structural, molecular and clinical studies conducted so far. PMID:17100568

  13. Potential of metabolomics in preclinical and clinical drug development.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Baldeep; Prakash, Ajay; Ruhela, Rakesh Kumar; Medhi, Bikash

    2014-12-01

    Metabolomics is an upcoming technology system which involves detailed experimental analysis of metabolic profiles. Due to its diverse applications in preclinical and clinical research, it became an useful tool for the drug discovery and drug development process. This review covers the brief outline about the instrumentation and interpretation of metabolic profiles. The applications of metabolomics have a considerable scope in the pharmaceutical industry, almost at each step from drug discovery to clinical development. These include finding drug target, potential safety and efficacy biomarkers and mechanisms of drug action, the validation of preclinical experimental models against human disease profiles, and the discovery of clinical safety and efficacy biomarkers. As we all know, nowadays the drug discovery and development process is a very expensive, and risky business. Failures at any stage of drug discovery and development process cost millions of dollars to the companies. Some of these failures or the associated risks could be prevented or minimized if there were better ways of drug screening, drug toxicity profiling and monitoring adverse drug reactions. Metabolomics potentially offers an effective route to address all the issues associated with the drug discovery and development. PMID:25443721

  14. Neighborhood Regularized Logistic Matrix Factorization for Drug-Target Interaction Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yong; Wu, Min; Miao, Chunyan; Zhao, Peilin; Li, Xiao-Li

    2016-01-01

    In pharmaceutical sciences, a crucial step of the drug discovery process is the identification of drug-target interactions. However, only a small portion of the drug-target interactions have been experimentally validated, as the experimental validation is laborious and costly. To improve the drug discovery efficiency, there is a great need for the development of accurate computational approaches that can predict potential drug-target interactions to direct the experimental verification. In this paper, we propose a novel drug-target interaction prediction algorithm, namely neighborhood regularized logistic matrix factorization (NRLMF). Specifically, the proposed NRLMF method focuses on modeling the probability that a drug would interact with a target by logistic matrix factorization, where the properties of drugs and targets are represented by drug-specific and target-specific latent vectors, respectively. Moreover, NRLMF assigns higher importance levels to positive observations (i.e., the observed interacting drug-target pairs) than negative observations (i.e., the unknown pairs). Because the positive observations are already experimentally verified, they are usually more trustworthy. Furthermore, the local structure of the drug-target interaction data has also been exploited via neighborhood regularization to achieve better prediction accuracy. We conducted extensive experiments over four benchmark datasets, and NRLMF demonstrated its effectiveness compared with five state-of-the-art approaches. PMID:26872142

  15. Cyanobacterial Cyclopeptides as Lead Compounds to Novel Targeted Cancer Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Sainis, Ioannis; Fokas, Demosthenes; Vareli, Katerina; Tzakos, Andreas G.; Kounnis, Valentinos; Briasoulis, Evangelos

    2010-01-01

    Cyanobacterial cyclopeptides, including microcystins and nodularins, are considered a health hazard to humans due to the possible toxic effects of high consumption. From a pharmacological standpoint, microcystins are stable hydrophilic cyclic heptapeptides with a potential to cause cellular damage following uptake via organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATP). Their intracellular biological effects involve inhibition of catalytic subunits of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) and PP2, glutathione depletion and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Interestingly, certain OATPs are prominently expressed in cancers as compared to normal tissues, qualifying MC as potential candidates for cancer drug development. In the era of targeted cancer therapy, cyanotoxins comprise a rich source of natural cytotoxic compounds with a potential to target cancers expressing specific uptake transporters. Moreover, their structure offers opportunities for combinatorial engineering to enhance the therapeutic index and resolve organ-specific toxicity issues. In this article, we revisit cyanobacterial cyclopeptides as potential novel targets for anticancer drugs by summarizing existing biomedical evidence, presenting structure-activity data and discussing developmental perspectives. PMID:20411119

  16. The drug target genes show higher evolutionary conservation than non-target genes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Panpan; Luan, Meiwei; Zhu, Hongjie; Liu, Guiyou; Zhang, Mingming; Lv, Hongchao; Duan, Lian; Shang, Zhenwei; Li, Jin; Jiang, Yongshuai; Zhang, Ruijie

    2016-01-01

    Although evidence indicates that drug target genes share some common evolutionary features, there have been few studies analyzing evolutionary features of drug targets from an overall level. Therefore, we conducted an analysis which aimed to investigate the evolutionary characteristics of drug target genes. We compared the evolutionary conservation between human drug target genes and non-target genes by combining both the evolutionary features and network topological properties in human protein-protein interaction network. The evolution rate, conservation score and the percentage of orthologous genes of 21 species were included in our study. Meanwhile, four topological features including the average shortest path length, betweenness centrality, clustering coefficient and degree were considered for comparison analysis. Then we got four results as following: compared with non-drug target genes, 1) drug target genes had lower evolutionary rates; 2) drug target genes had higher conservation scores; 3) drug target genes had higher percentages of orthologous genes and 4) drug target genes had a tighter network structure including higher degrees, betweenness centrality, clustering coefficients and lower average shortest path lengths. These results demonstrate that drug target genes are more evolutionarily conserved than non-drug target genes. We hope that our study will provide valuable information for other researchers who are interested in evolutionary conservation of drug targets. PMID:26716901

  17. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm: potential therapeutic targets.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Garima; Rao, Saloni; Bansal, Ankiti; Dang, Shweta; Gupta, Sanjay; Gabrani, Reema

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a gram-negative pathogen that has become an important cause of infection, especially in patients with compromised host defense mechanisms. It is frequently related to nosocomial infections such as pneumonia, urinary tract infections (UTIs) and bacteremia. The biofilm formed by the bacteria allows it to adhere to any surface, living or non-living and thus Pseudomonal infections can involve any part of the body. Further, the adaptive and genetic changes of the micro-organisms within the biofilm make them resistant to all known antimicrobial agents making the Pseudomonal infections complicated and life threatening. Pel, Psl and Alg operons present in P. aeruginosa are responsible for the biosynthesis of extracellular polysaccharide which plays an important role in cell-cell and cell-surface interactions during biofilm formation. Understanding the bacterial virulence which depends on a large number of cell-associated and extracellular factors is essential to know the potential drug targets for future studies. Current novel methods like small molecule based inhibitors, phytochemicals, bacteriophage therapy, photodynamic therapy, antimicrobial peptides, monoclonal antibodies and nanoparticles to curtail the biofilm formed by P. aeruginosa are being discussed in this review. PMID:24309094

  18. Neuronal and Cardiovascular Potassium Channels as Therapeutic Drug Targets

    PubMed Central

    Humphries, Edward S. A.

    2015-01-01

    Potassium (K+) channels, with their diversity, often tissue-defined distribution, and critical role in controlling cellular excitability, have long held promise of being important drug targets for the treatment of dysrhythmias in the heart and abnormal neuronal activity within the brain. With the exception of drugs that target one particular class, ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels, very few selective K+ channel activators or inhibitors are currently licensed for clinical use in cardiovascular and neurological disease. Here we review what a range of human genetic disorders have told us about the role of specific K+ channel subunits, explore the potential of activators and inhibitors of specific channel populations as a therapeutic strategy, and discuss possible reasons for the difficulty in designing clinically relevant K+ channel modulators. PMID:26303307

  19. DrugTargetSeqR: a genomics- and CRISPR/Cas9-based method to analyze drug targets

    PubMed Central

    Kasap, Corynn; Elemento, Olivier; Kapoor, Tarun M.

    2014-01-01

    To identify the physiological targets of drugs and bioactive small molecules we have developed an approach, named DrugTargetSeqR, which combines high-throughput sequencing, computational mutation discovery and CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing. We apply this approach to ispinesib and YM155, drugs that have undergone clinical trials as anti-cancer agents, and demonstrate target identification and uncover genetic and epigenetic mechanisms likely to cause drug resistance in human cancer cells. PMID:24929528

  20. The opioid receptors as targets for drug abuse medication

    PubMed Central

    Noble, Florence; Lenoir, Magalie; Marie, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    The endogenous opioid system is largely expressed in the brain, and both endogenous opioid peptides and receptors are present in areas associated with reward and motivation. It is well known that this endogenous system plays a key role in many aspects of addictive behaviours. The present review summarizes the modifications of the opioid system induced by chronic treatment with drugs of abuse reported in preclinical and clinical studies, as well as the action of opioid antagonists and agonists on the reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse, with therapeutic perspectives. We have focused on the effects of chronic psychostimulants, alcohol and nicotine exposure. Taken together, the changes in both opioid peptides and opioid receptors in different brain structures following acute or chronic exposure to these drugs of abuse clearly identify the opioid system as a potential target for the development of effective pharmacotherapy for the treatment of addiction and the prevention of relapse. PMID:25988826

  1. The opioid receptors as targets for drug abuse medication.

    PubMed

    Noble, Florence; Lenoir, Magalie; Marie, Nicolas

    2015-08-01

    The endogenous opioid system is largely expressed in the brain, and both endogenous opioid peptides and receptors are present in areas associated with reward and motivation. It is well known that this endogenous system plays a key role in many aspects of addictive behaviours. The present review summarizes the modifications of the opioid system induced by chronic treatment with drugs of abuse reported in preclinical and clinical studies, as well as the action of opioid antagonists and agonists on the reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse, with therapeutic perspectives. We have focused on the effects of chronic psychostimulants, alcohol and nicotine exposure. Taken together, the changes in both opioid peptides and opioid receptors in different brain structures following acute or chronic exposure to these drugs of abuse clearly identify the opioid system as a potential target for the development of effective pharmacotherapy for the treatment of addiction and the prevention of relapse. PMID:25988826

  2. CYP4 Enzymes as potential drug targets: focus on enzyme multiplicity, inducers and inhibitors, and therapeutic modulation of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) synthase and fatty acid ω-hydroxylase activities

    PubMed Central

    Edson, Katheryne Z.; Rettie, Allan E.

    2014-01-01

    The Cytochrome P450 4 (CYP4) family of enzymes in humans is comprised of thirteen isozymes that typically catalyze the ω-oxidation of endogenous fatty acids and eicosanoids. Several CYP4 enzymes can biosynthesize 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid or 20-HETE, an important signaling eicosanoid involved in regulation of vascular tone and kidney reabsorption. Additionally, accumulation of certain fatty acids is a hallmark of the rare genetic disorders, Refsum disease and X-ALD. Therefore, modulation of CYP4 enzyme activity, either by inhibition or induction, is a potential strategy for drug discovery. Here we review the substrate specificities, sites of expression, genetic regulation, and inhibition by exogenous chemicals of the human CYP4 enzymes, and discuss the targeting of CYP4 enzymes in the development of new treatments for hypertension, stroke, certain cancers and the fatty acid-linked orphan diseases. PMID:23688133

  3. Identifying mechanism-of-action targets for drugs and probes

    PubMed Central

    Gregori-Puigjané, Elisabet; Setola, Vincent; Hert, Jérôme; Crews, Brenda A.; Irwin, John J.; Lounkine, Eugen; Marnett, Lawrence; Roth, Bryan L.; Shoichet, Brian K.

    2012-01-01

    Notwithstanding their key roles in therapy and as biological probes, 7% of approved drugs are purported to have no known primary target, and up to 18% lack a well-defined mechanism of action. Using a chemoinformatics approach, we sought to “de-orphanize” drugs that lack primary targets. Surprisingly, targets could be easily predicted for many: Whereas these targets were not known to us nor to the common databases, most could be confirmed by literature search, leaving only 13 Food and Drug Administration—approved drugs with unknown targets; the number of drugs without molecular targets likely is far fewer than reported. The number of worldwide drugs without reasonable molecular targets similarly dropped, from 352 (25%) to 44 (4%). Nevertheless, there remained at least seven drugs for which reasonable mechanism-of-action targets were unknown but could be predicted, including the antitussives clemastine, cloperastine, and nepinalone; the antiemetic benzquinamide; the muscle relaxant cyclobenzaprine; the analgesic nefopam; and the immunomodulator lobenzarit. For each, predicted targets were confirmed experimentally, with affinities within their physiological concentration ranges. Turning this question on its head, we next asked which drugs were specific enough to act as chemical probes. Over 100 drugs met the standard criteria for probes, and 40 did so by more stringent criteria. A chemical information approach to drug-target association can guide therapeutic development and reveal applications to probe biology, a focus of much current interest. PMID:22711801

  4. Identifying mechanism-of-action targets for drugs and probes.

    PubMed

    Gregori-Puigjané, Elisabet; Setola, Vincent; Hert, Jérôme; Crews, Brenda A; Irwin, John J; Lounkine, Eugen; Marnett, Lawrence; Roth, Bryan L; Shoichet, Brian K

    2012-07-10

    Notwithstanding their key roles in therapy and as biological probes, 7% of approved drugs are purported to have no known primary target, and up to 18% lack a well-defined mechanism of action. Using a chemoinformatics approach, we sought to "de-orphanize" drugs that lack primary targets. Surprisingly, targets could be easily predicted for many: Whereas these targets were not known to us nor to the common databases, most could be confirmed by literature search, leaving only 13 Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs with unknown targets; the number of drugs without molecular targets likely is far fewer than reported. The number of worldwide drugs without reasonable molecular targets similarly dropped, from 352 (25%) to 44 (4%). Nevertheless, there remained at least seven drugs for which reasonable mechanism-of-action targets were unknown but could be predicted, including the antitussives clemastine, cloperastine, and nepinalone; the antiemetic benzquinamide; the muscle relaxant cyclobenzaprine; the analgesic nefopam; and the immunomodulator lobenzarit. For each, predicted targets were confirmed experimentally, with affinities within their physiological concentration ranges. Turning this question on its head, we next asked which drugs were specific enough to act as chemical probes. Over 100 drugs met the standard criteria for probes, and 40 did so by more stringent criteria. A chemical information approach to drug-target association can guide therapeutic development and reveal applications to probe biology, a focus of much current interest. PMID:22711801

  5. Extracellular Matrix Molecules: Potential Targets in Pharmacotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Järveläinen, Hannu; Sainio, Annele; Koulu, Markku; Wight, Thomas N.; Penttinen, Risto

    2009-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) consists of numerous macromolecules classified traditionally into collagens, elastin, and microfibrillar proteins, proteoglycans including hyaluronan, and noncollagenous glycoproteins. In addition to being necessary structural components, ECM molecules exhibit important functional roles in the control of key cellular events such as adhesion, migration, proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Any structural inherited or acquired defect and/or metabolic disturbance in the ECM may cause cellular and tissue alterations that can lead to the development or progression of disease. Consequently, ECM molecules are important targets for pharmacotherapy. Specific agents that prevent theexcess accumulation of ECM molecules in the vascular system, liver, kidney, skin, and lung; alternatively, agents that inhibit the degradation of the ECM in degenerative diseases such as osteoarthritis would be clinically beneficial. Unfortunately, until recently, the ECM in drug discovery has been largely ignored. However, several of today's drugs that act on various primary targets affect the ECM as a byproduct of the drugs' actions, and this activity may in part be beneficial to the drugs' disease-modifying properties. In the future, agents and compounds targeting directly the ECM will significantly advance the treatment of various human diseases, even those for which efficient therapies are not yet available. PMID:19549927

  6. Potential targets for lung squamous cell carcinoma

    Cancer.gov

    Researchers have identified potential therapeutic targets in lung squamous cell carcinoma, the second most common form of lung cancer. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network study comprehensively characterized the lung squamous cell carcinoma gen

  7. Approaches of targeting Rho GTPases in cancer drug discovery

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yuan; Zheng, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Rho GTPases are master regulators of actomyosin structure and dynamics and play pivotal roles in a variety of cellular processes including cell morphology, gene transcription, cell cycle progression and cell adhesion. Because aberrant Rho GTPase signaling activities are widely associated with human cancer, key components of Rho GTPase signaling pathways have attracted increasing interest as potential therapeutic targets. Similar to Ras, Rho GTPases themselves were, until recently, deemed “undruggable” because of structure-function considerations. Several approaches to interfere with Rho GTPase signaling have been explored and show promise as new ways for tackling cancer cells. Areas covered This review focuses on the recent progress in targeting the signaling activities of three prototypical Rho GTPases, i.e. RhoA, Rac1, and Cdc42. The authors describe the involvement of these Rho GTPases, their key regulators and effectors in cancer. Furthermore, the authors discuss the current approaches for rationally targeting aberrant Rho GTPases along their signaling cascades, upstream and downstream of Rho GTPases and posttranslational modifications at a molecular level. Expert opinion To date, while no clinically effective drugs targeting Rho GTPase signaling for cancer treatment are available, tool compounds and lead drugs that pharmacologically inhibit Rho GTPase pathways have shown promise. Small molecule inhibitors targeting Rho GTPase signaling may add new treatment options for future precision cancer therapy, particularly in combination with other anti-cancer agents. PMID:26087073

  8. Image-based prediction of drug target in yeast.

    PubMed

    Ohnuki, Shinsuke; Okada, Hiroki; Ohya, Yoshikazu

    2015-01-01

    Discovering the intracellular target of drugs is a fundamental challenge in biomedical research. We developed an image-based technique with which we were able to identify intracellular target of the compounds in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we describe the rationale of the technique, staining of yeast cells, image acquisition, data processing, and statistical analysis required for prediction of drug targets. PMID:25618355

  9. Repositioning of drugs for intervention in tumor progression and metastasis: Old drugs for new targets.

    PubMed

    Mudduluru, Giridhar; Walther, Wolfgang; Kobelt, Dennis; Dahlmann, Mathias; Treese, Christoph; Assaraf, Yehuda G; Stein, Ulrike

    2016-05-01

    The increasing unraveling of the molecular basis of cancer offers manifold novel options for intervention strategies. However, the discovery and development of new drugs for potential clinical applications is a tremendously time-consuming and costly process. Translating a novel lead candidate compound into an approved clinical drug takes often more than a decade, and the success rate is very low due to versatile efforts including defining its pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, side effects as well as lack of sufficient efficacy. Thus, strategies are needed to minimize time and costs, while maximizing success rates. A very attractive strategy for novel cancer therapeutic options is the repositioning of already approved drugs. These medicines, approved for the treatment of non-malignant disorders, have already passed some early costs and time, have been tested in humans and are ready for clinical trials as anti-cancer drugs. Here we discuss the repositioning of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID), statins, anti-psychotic drugs, anti-helminthic drugs and vitamin D as anti-tumor agents. We focus on their novel actions and potential for inhibition of cancer growth and metastasis by interfering with target molecules and pathways, which drive these malignant processes. Furthermore, important pre-clinical and clinical data are reviewed herein, which elucidate their therapeutic mechanisms which enable their repositioning for cancer therapy and disruption of metastasis. PMID:27180307

  10. An Efficient Targeted Drug Delivery through Apotransferrin Loaded Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Kishore, Golla; Kondapi, Anand Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Background Cancerous state is a highly stimulated environment of metabolically active cells. The cells under these conditions over express selective receptors for assimilation of factors essential for growth and transformation. Such receptors would serve as potential targets for the specific ligand mediated transport of pharmaceutically active molecules. The present study demonstrates the specificity and efficacy of protein nanoparticle of apotransferrin for targeted delivery of doxorubicin. Methodology/Principal Findings Apotransferrin nanoparticles were developed by sol-oil chemistry. A comparative analysis of efficiency of drug delivery in conjugated and non-conjugated forms of doxorubicin to apotransferrin nanoparticle is presented. The spherical shaped apotransferrin nanoparticles (nano) have diameters of 25–50 ηm, which increase to 60–80 ηm upon direct loading of drug (direct-nano), and showed further increase in dimension (75–95 ηm) in conjugated nanoparticles (conj-nano). The competitive experiments with the transferrin receptor specific antibody showed the entry of both conj-nano and direct-nano into the cells through transferrin receptor mediated endocytosis. Results of various studies conducted clearly establish the superiority of the direct-nano over conj-nano viz. (a) localization studies showed complete release of drug very early, even as early as 30 min after treatment, with the drug localizing in the target organelle (nucleus) (b) pharmacokinetic studies showed enhanced drug concentrations, in circulation with sustainable half-life (c) the studies also demonstrated efficient drug delivery, and an enhanced inhibition of proliferation in cancer cells. Tissue distribution analysis showed intravenous administration of direct nano lead to higher drug localization in liver, and blood as compared to relatively lesser localization in heart, kidney and spleen. Experiments using rat cancer model confirmed the efficacy of the formulation in regression

  11. Theoretical study of zeatin - A plant hormone and potential drug for neural diseases - On the basis of DFT, MP2 and target docking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xueping; Bereźniak, Tomasz; Panek, Jarosław Jan; Jezierska-Mazzarello, Aneta

    2013-02-01

    Zeatin, a cytokinin of the adenine family, originally isolated from Zea mays L., exhibits also bioeffects towards human cells: it is a potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitor and can potentially inhibit amyloid β-protein formation. The role of zeatin in neural disease treatment is yet to be established. This computational study describes a hierarchy of interactions between zeatin and a receptor, a protein from the nodulin family. DFT in hybrid and dispersion-corrected form as well as MP2 approaches were used to derive interaction energies. Docking procedure was employed to investigate the role of selected interaction for anchoring the ligand.

  12. Aquaporins: important but elusive drug targets

    PubMed Central

    Verkman, Alan S.; Anderson, Marc O.; Papadopoulos, Marios C.

    2014-01-01

    The aquaporins (AQPs) are a family of small, integral membrane proteins that facilitate water transport across the plasma membranes of cells in response to osmotic gradients. Data from knockout mice support the involvement of AQPs in epithelial fluid secretion, cell migration, brain oedema and adipocyte metabolism, which suggests that modulation of AQP function or expression could have therapeutic potential in oedema, cancer, obesity, brain injury, glaucoma and several other conditions. Moreover, loss-of-function mutations in human AQPs cause congenital cataracts (AQP0) and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (AQP2), and autoantibodies against AQP4 cause the autoimmune demyelinating disease neuromyelitis optica. Although some potential AQP modulators have been identified, challenges associated with the development of better modulators include the druggability of the target and the suitability of the assay methods used to identify modulators. PMID:24625825

  13. Potential and problems in ultrasound-responsive drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ying-Zheng; Du, Li-Na; Lu, Cui-Tao; Jin, Yi-Guang; Ge, Shu-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasound is an important local stimulus for triggering drug release at the target tissue. Ultrasound-responsive drug delivery systems (URDDS) have become an important research focus in targeted therapy. URDDS include many different formulations, such as microbubbles, nanobubbles, nanodroplets, liposomes, emulsions, and micelles. Drugs that can be loaded into URDDS include small molecules, biomacromolecules, and inorganic substances. Fields of clinical application include anticancer therapy, treatment of ischemic myocardium, induction of an immune response, cartilage tissue engineering, transdermal drug delivery, treatment of Huntington's disease, thrombolysis, and disruption of the blood-brain barrier. This review focuses on recent advances in URDDS, and discusses their formulations, clinical application, and problems, as well as a perspective on their potential use in the future. PMID:23637531

  14. Potential and problems in ultrasound-responsive drug delivery systems

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ying-Zheng; Du, Li-Na; Lu, Cui-Tao; Jin, Yi-Guang; Ge, Shu-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasound is an important local stimulus for triggering drug release at the target tissue. Ultrasound-responsive drug delivery systems (URDDS) have become an important research focus in targeted therapy. URDDS include many different formulations, such as microbubbles, nanobubbles, nanodroplets, liposomes, emulsions, and micelles. Drugs that can be loaded into URDDS include small molecules, biomacromolecules, and inorganic substances. Fields of clinical application include anticancer therapy, treatment of ischemic myocardium, induction of an immune response, cartilage tissue engineering, transdermal drug delivery, treatment of Huntington’s disease, thrombolysis, and disruption of the blood–brain barrier. This review focuses on recent advances in URDDS, and discusses their formulations, clinical application, and problems, as well as a perspective on their potential use in the future. PMID:23637531

  15. Encapsulation of methotrexate loaded magnetic microcapsules for magnetic drug targeting and controlled drug release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakkarapani, Prabu; Subbiah, Latha; Palanisamy, Selvamani; Bibiana, Arputha; Ahrentorp, Fredrik; Jonasson, Christian; Johansson, Christer

    2015-04-01

    We report on the development and evaluation of methotrexate magnetic microcapsules (MMC) for targeted rheumatoid arthritis therapy. Methotrexate was loaded into CaCO3-PSS (poly (sodium 4-styrenesulfonate)) doped microparticles that were coated successively with poly (allylamine hydrochloride) and poly (sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) by layer-by-layer technique. Ferrofluid was incorporated between the polyelectrolyte layers. CaCO3-PSS core was etched by incubation with EDTA yielding spherical MMC. The MMC were evaluated for various physicochemical, pharmaceutical parameters and magnetic properties. Surface morphology, crystallinity, particle size, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency, loading capacity, drug release pattern, release kinetics and AC susceptibility studies revealed spherical particles of ~3 μm size were obtained with a net zeta potential of +24.5 mV, 56% encapsulation and 18.6% drug loading capacity, 96% of cumulative drug release obeyed Hixson-Crowell model release kinetics. Drug excipient interaction, surface area, thermal and storage stability studies for the prepared MMC was also evaluated. The developed MMC offer a promising mode of targeted and sustained release drug delivery for rheumatoid arthritis therapy.

  16. SecA: a potential antimicrobial target.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Arpana S; Chen, Weixuan; Jin, Jinshan; Tai, Phang C; Wang, Binghe

    2015-01-01

    There is a consensus in the medical profession of the pressing need for novel antimicrobial agents due to issues related to drug resistance. In practice, solutions to this problem to a large degree lie with the identification of new and vital targets in bacteria and subsequently designing their inhibitors. We consider SecA a very promising antimicrobial target. In this review, we compile and analyze information available on SecA to show that inhibition of SecA has a multitude of consequences. Furthermore, we discuss issues critical to the design and evaluation of SecA inhibitors. PMID:26062397

  17. SecA: a potential antimicrobial target

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Arpana S; Chen, Weixuan; Jin, Jinshan; Tai, Phang C; Wang, Binghe

    2015-01-01

    There is a consensus in the medical profession of the pressing need for novel antimicrobial agents due to issues related to drug resistance. In practice, solutions to this problem to a large degree lie with the identification of new and vital targets in bacteria and subsequently designing their inhibitors. We consider SecA a very promising antimicrobial target. In this review, we compile and analyze information available on SecA to show that inhibition of SecA has a multitude of consequences. Furthermore, we discuss issues critical to the design and evaluation of SecA inhibitors. PMID:26062397

  18. Toxoplasma histone acetylation remodelers as novel drug targets

    PubMed Central

    Vanagas, Laura; Jeffers, Victoria; Bogado, Silvina S; Dalmasso, Maria C; Sullivan, William J; Angel, Sergio O

    2013-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a leading cause of neurological birth defects and a serious opportunistic pathogen. The authors and others have found that Toxoplasma uses a unique nucleosome composition supporting a fine gene regulation together with other factors. Post-translational modifications in histones facilitate the establishment of a global chromatin environment and orchestrate DNA-related biological processes. Histone acetylation is one of the most prominent post-translational modifications influencing gene expression. Histone acetyltransferases and histone deacetylases have been intensively studied as potential drug targets. In particular, histone deacetylase inhibitors have activity against apicomplexan parasites, underscoring their potential as a new class of antiparasitic compounds. In this review, we summarize what is known about Toxoplasma histone acetyltransferases and histone deacetylases, and discuss the inhibitors studied to date. Finally, the authors discuss the distinct possibility that the unique nucleosome composition of Toxoplasma, which harbors a nonconserved H2Bv variant histone, might be targeted in novel therapeutics directed against this parasite. PMID:23199404

  19. Drug target prioritization by perturbed gene expression and network information

    PubMed Central

    Isik, Zerrin; Baldow, Christoph; Cannistraci, Carlo Vittorio; Schroeder, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Drugs bind to their target proteins, which interact with downstream effectors and ultimately perturb the transcriptome of a cancer cell. These perturbations reveal information about their source, i.e., drugs’ targets. Here, we investigate whether these perturbations and protein interaction networks can uncover drug targets and key pathways. We performed the first systematic analysis of over 500 drugs from the Connectivity Map. First, we show that the gene expression of drug targets is usually not significantly affected by the drug perturbation. Hence, expression changes after drug treatment on their own are not sufficient to identify drug targets. However, ranking of candidate drug targets by network topological measures prioritizes the targets. We introduce a novel measure, local radiality, which combines perturbed genes and functional interaction network information. The new measure outperforms other methods in target prioritization and proposes cancer-specific pathways from drugs to affected genes for the first time. Local radiality identifies more diverse targets with fewer neighbors and possibly less side effects. PMID:26615774

  20. tcTKB: an integrated cardiovascular toxicity knowledge base for targeted cancer drugs

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Rong; Wang, QuanQiu

    2015-01-01

    Targeted cancer drugs are often associated with unexpectedly high cardiovascular (CV) adverse events. Systematic approaches to studying CV events associated with targeted anticancer drugs have high potential for elucidating the complex pathways underlying targeted anti-cancer drugs. In this study, we built tcTKB, a comprehensive CV toxicity knowledge base for targeted cancer drugs, by extracting drug-CV pairs from five large-scale and complementary data sources. The data sources include FDA drug labels (44,979 labels), the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) (4,285,097 records), the Canada Vigilance Adverse Reaction Online Database (CVAROD) (1,107,752 records), published biomedical literature (21,354,075 records), and published full-text articles from the Journal of Oncology (JCO) (13,855 articles). tcTKB contains 14,351 drug-CV pairs for 45 targeted anticancer drugs and 1,842 CV events. We demonstrate that CV events positively correlate with drug target genes and drug metabolism genes, demonstrating that tcTKB in combination with other data resources, could facilitate our understanding of targeted anticancer drugs and their associated CV toxicities. PMID:26958275

  1. Drug-target interaction prediction: databases, web servers and computational models.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xing; Yan, Chenggang Clarence; Zhang, Xiaotian; Zhang, Xu; Dai, Feng; Yin, Jian; Zhang, Yongdong

    2016-07-01

    Identification of drug-target interactions is an important process in drug discovery. Although high-throughput screening and other biological assays are becoming available, experimental methods for drug-target interaction identification remain to be extremely costly, time-consuming and challenging even nowadays. Therefore, various computational models have been developed to predict potential drug-target associations on a large scale. In this review, databases and web servers involved in drug-target identification and drug discovery are summarized. In addition, we mainly introduced some state-of-the-art computational models for drug-target interactions prediction, including network-based method, machine learning-based method and so on. Specially, for the machine learning-based method, much attention was paid to supervised and semi-supervised models, which have essential difference in the adoption of negative samples. Although significant improvements for drug-target interaction prediction have been obtained by many effective computational models, both network-based and machine learning-based methods have their disadvantages, respectively. Furthermore, we discuss the future directions of the network-based drug discovery and network approach for personalized drug discovery based on personalized medicine, genome sequencing, tumor clone-based network and cancer hallmark-based network. Finally, we discussed the new evaluation validation framework and the formulation of drug-target interactions prediction problem by more realistic regression formulation based on quantitative bioactivity data. PMID:26283676

  2. A meta-analysis for C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 as a prognostic marker and potential drug target in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Fei; Miao, Lin; Zhao, Yu; Xiao, Yuan-Yuan; Xu, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Chemokines (CKs), small proinflammatory chemoattractant cytokines that bind to specific G-protein coupled seven-span transmembrane receptors, are major regulators of cell trafficking and adhesion. C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) has gained tremendous attention over the last decade, since it was found to be upregulated in a wide variety of cancer types, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The clinical relevance of expression of CXCR4 in HCC remains controversial; our aim was to identify the precise relationship of CXCR4 to prognosis and clinicopathological features. We searched the database from MEDLINE, PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus and Embase and then conducted a meta-analysis from publications met the inclusion criteria for the qualitative study. Our data showed that 1) CXCR4 is overexpressed in HCC tissues but not in normal hepatic tissue, OR =84.26, 95% confidence interval (CI) =11.86–598.98, P<0.0001. CXCR4 expression is higher in HCC than those in cirrhosis as well, OR =20.71, 95% CI =7.61–56.34, P<0.00001. 2) The expression levels of CXCR4 does not increase during local progression, however, CXCR4 expression increases the risk of distant metastases in HCC, OR =5.84, 95% CI =2.84–12.00, P<0.00001. 3) High levels of CXCR4 gene expression are associated with worse survival in HCC, HR =0.18, 95% CI =0.10–0.32, Z=5.77, P<0.00001. These data indicate that CXCR4 expression correlates with an increased risk and worse survival in HCC patients. The aberrant CXCR4 expression plays an important role in the carcinogenesis and metastasis of HCC. Our conclusion also supports that the promise of CXCR4 signaling pathway blockade as a potential strategy for HCC patients. PMID:26203228

  3. Anti-malarial Drug Design by Targeting Apicoplasts: New Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Avinaba; Sadhukhan, Gobinda Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Malaria has been a major global health problem in recent times with increasing mortality. Current treatment methods include parasiticidal drugs and vaccinations. However, resistance among malarial parasites to the existing drugs has emerged as a significant area of concern in anti-malarial drug design. Researchers are now desperately looking for new targets to develop anti-malarials drug which is more target specific. Malarial parasites harbor a plastid-like organelle known as the ‘apicoplast’, which is thought to provide an exciting new outlook for the development of drugs to be used against the parasite. This review elaborates on the current state of development of novel compounds targeted againstemerging malaria parasites. Methods: The apicoplast, originates by an endosymbiotic process, contains a range of metabolic pathways and housekeeping processes that differ from the host body and thereby presents ideal strategies for anti-malarial drug therapy. Drugs are designed by targeting the unique mechanism of the apicoplasts genetic machinery. Several anabolic and catabolic processes, like fatty acid, isopenetyl diphosphate and heme synthess in this organelle, have also been targeted by drugs. Results: Apicoplasts offer exciting opportunities for the development of malarial treatment specific drugs have been found to act by disrupting this organelle’s function, which wouldimpede the survival of the parasite. Conclusion: Recent advanced drugs, their modes of action, and their advantages in the treatment of malaria by using apicoplasts as a target are discussed in this review which thought to be very useful in desigining anti-malarial drugs. Targetting the genetic machinery of apicoplast shows a great advantange regarding anti-malarial drug design. Critical knowledge of these new drugs would give a healthier understanding for deciphering the mechanism of action of anti-malarial drugs when targeting apicoplasts to overcome drug resistance. PMID

  4. A survey of yeast genomic assays for drug and target discovery

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Andrew M.; Ammar, Ron; Nislow, Corey; Giaever, Guri

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, the development and application of chemical genomic assays using the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae has provided powerful methods to identify the mechanism of action of known drugs and novel small molecules in vivo. These assays identify drug target candidates, genes involved in buffering drug target pathways and also help to define the general cellular response to small molecules. In this review, we examine current yeast chemical genomic assays and summarize the potential applications of each approach. PMID:20546776

  5. Targeting Lung Cancer Stem Cells with Antipsychological Drug Thioridazine

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Haiying; Huang, Dongning; Qin, Li; Zheng, Zhiyong; Hua, Li; Wang, Guodong; Huang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer stem cells are a subpopulation of cells critical for lung cancer progression, metastasis, and drug resistance. Thioridazine, a classical neurological drug, has been reported with anticancer ability. However, whether thioridazine could inhibit lung cancer stem cells has never been studied. In our current work, we used different dosage of thioridazine to test its effect on lung cancer stem cells sphere formation. The response of lung cancer stem cells to chemotherapy drug with thioridazine treatment was measured. The cell cycle distribution of lung cancer stem cells after thioridazine treatment was detected. The in vivo inhibitory effect of thioridazine was also measured. We found that thioridazine could dramatically inhibit sphere formation of lung cancer stem cells. It sensitized the LCSCs to chemotherapeutic drugs 5-FU and cisplatin. Thioridazine altered the cell cycle distribution of LCSCs and decreased the proportion of G0 phase cells in lung cancer stem cells. Thioridazine inhibited lung cancer stem cells initiated tumors growth in vivo. This study showed that thioridazine could inhibit lung cancer stem cells in vitro and in vivo. It provides a potential drug for lung cancer therapy through targeting lung cancer stem cells. PMID:27556038

  6. Internalized compartments encapsulated nanogels for targeted drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jicheng; Zhang, Yuqi; Sun, Wujin; Wang, Chao; Ranson, Davis; Ye, Yanqi; Weng, Yuyan; Gu, Zhen

    2016-04-01

    Drug delivery systems inspired by natural particulates hold great promise for targeted cancer therapy. An endosome formed by internalization of plasma membrane has a massive amount of membrane proteins and receptors on the surface, which is able to specifically target the homotypic cells. Herein, we describe a simple method to fabricate an internalized compartments encapsulated nanogel with endosome membrane components (EM-NG) from source cancer cells. Following intracellular uptake of methacrylated hyaluronic acid (m-HA) adsorbed SiO2/Fe3O4 nanoparticles encapsulating a crosslinker and a photoinitiator, EM-NG was readily prepared through in situ crosslinking initiated under UV irradiation after internalization. The resulting nanogels loaded with doxorubicin (DOX) displayed enhanced internalization efficiency to the source cells through a specific homotypic affinity in vitro. However, when treated with the non-source cells, the EM-NGs exhibited insignificant difference in therapeutic efficiency compared to a bare HA nanogel with DOX. This study illustrates the potential of utilizing an internalized compartments encapsulated formulation for targeted cancer therapy, and offers guidelines for developing a natural particulate-inspired drug delivery system.Drug delivery systems inspired by natural particulates hold great promise for targeted cancer therapy. An endosome formed by internalization of plasma membrane has a massive amount of membrane proteins and receptors on the surface, which is able to specifically target the homotypic cells. Herein, we describe a simple method to fabricate an internalized compartments encapsulated nanogel with endosome membrane components (EM-NG) from source cancer cells. Following intracellular uptake of methacrylated hyaluronic acid (m-HA) adsorbed SiO2/Fe3O4 nanoparticles encapsulating a crosslinker and a photoinitiator, EM-NG was readily prepared through in situ crosslinking initiated under UV irradiation after internalization. The

  7. DrugTargetSeqR: a genomics- and CRISPR-Cas9-based method to analyze drug targets.

    PubMed

    Kasap, Corynn; Elemento, Olivier; Kapoor, Tarun M

    2014-08-01

    To identify physiological targets of drugs and bioactive small molecules, we developed an approach, named DrugTargetSeqR, which combines high-throughput sequencing, computational mutation discovery and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9-based genome editing. We applied this approach to ispinesib and YM155, drugs that have undergone clinical trials as anticancer agents, and uncovered mechanisms of action and identified genetic and epigenetic mechanisms likely to cause drug resistance in human cancer cells. PMID:24929528

  8. Electrospun Nanofibers of Guar Galactomannan for Targeted Drug Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Hsiao Mei Annie

    2011-12-01

    Guar galactomannan is a biodegradable polysaccharide used widely in the food industry but also in the cosmetics, pharmaceutical, oil drilling, textile and paper industries. Guar consists of a mannose backbone and galactose side groups that are both susceptible to enzyme degradation, a unique property that can be explored for targeted drug delivery especially since those enzymes are naturally secreted by the microflora in human colon. The present study can be divided into three parts. In the first part, we discuss ways to modify guar to produce nanofibers by electrospinning, a process that involves the application of an electric field to a polymer solution or melt to facilitate production of fibers in the sub-micron range. Nanofibers are currently being explored as the next generation of drug carriers due to its many advantages, none more important than the fact that nanofibers are on a size scale that is a fraction of a hair's width and have large surface-to-volume ratio. The incorporation and controlled release of nano-sized drugs is one way in which nanofibers are being utilized in drug delivery. In the second part of the study, we explore various methods to crosslink guar nanofibers as a means to promote water-resistance in a potential drug carrier. The scope and utility of water-resistant guar nanofibers can only be fully appreciated when subsequent drug release studies are carried out. To that end, the third part of our study focuses on understanding the kinetics and diffusion mechanisms of a model drug, Rhodamine B, through moderately-swelling (crosslinked) hydrogel nanofibers in comparison to rapidly-swelling (non-crosslinked) nanofibers. Along the way, our investigations led us to a novel electrospinning set-up that has a unique collector designed to capture aligned nanofibers. These aligned nanofiber bundles can then be twisted to hold them together like yarn. From a practical standpoint, these yarns are advantageous because they come freely suspended and

  9. TRPV1: A Target for Rational Drug Design.

    PubMed

    Carnevale, Vincenzo; Rohacs, Tibor

    2016-01-01

    Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a non-selective, Ca(2+) permeable cation channel activated by noxious heat, and chemical ligands, such as capsaicin and resiniferatoxin (RTX). Many compounds have been developed that either activate or inhibit TRPV1, but none of them are in routine clinical practice. This review will discuss the rationale for antagonists and agonists of TRPV1 for pain relief and other conditions, and strategies to develop new, better drugs to target this ion channel, using the newly available high-resolution structures. PMID:27563913

  10. Conundrum and therapeutic potential of curcumin in drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anil; Ahuja, Alka; Ali, Javed; Baboota, Sanjula

    2010-01-01

    Turmeric, the source of the polyphenolic active compound curcumin (diferuloylmethane), has been used extensively in traditional medicine since ancient times as a household remedy against various diseases, including hepatic disorders, cough, sinusitis, rheumatism, and biliary disorders. In the past few decades, a number of studies have been done on curcumin showing its potential role in treating inflammatory disorders, cardiovascular disease, cancer, AIDS, and neurological disorders. However, the main drawback associated with curcumin is its poor aqueous solubility and stability in gastrointestinal fluids, which leads to poor bioavailability. Multifarious novel drug-delivery approaches, including microemulsions, nanoemulsions, liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, microspheres, solid dispersion, polymeric nanoparticles, and self-microemulsifying drug-delivery systems have been used to enhance the bioavailability and tissue-targeting ability of curcumin. These attempts have revealed promising results for enhanced bioavailability and targeting to disease such as cancer, but more extensive research on tissue-targeting and stability-related issues is needed. Tissue targeting and enhanced bioavailability of curcumin using novel drug-delivery methods with minimum side effects will in the near future bring this promising natural product to the forefront of therapy for the treatment of human diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular ailments. We provide a detailed analysis of prominent research in the field of curcumin drug delivery with special emphasis on bioavailability-enhancement approaches and novel drug-delivery system approaches. PMID:20932240

  11. Repurposing Drugs to Target the Diabetes Epidemic.

    PubMed

    Turner, Nigel; Zeng, Xiao-Yi; Osborne, Brenna; Rogers, Suzanne; Ye, Ji-Ming

    2016-05-01

    Despite major investment by pharmaceutical companies in conventional drug discovery pipelines, development of new drugs has failed to keep up with the increasing incidence of many diseases, including type 2 diabetes (T2D). Drug repurposing, where existing drugs are applied to a new indication, is gaining momentum as a successful approach to overcome the bottlenecks commonly encountered with conventional approaches. Repurposing takes advantage of available information on the molecular pharmacology of clinical agents to drastically shorten drug development timelines. This review discusses recent advances in the discovery of new antidiabetic agents using repurposing strategies. PMID:26900045

  12. Therapeutic target database update 2016: enriched resource for bench to clinical drug target and targeted pathway information.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hong; Qin, Chu; Li, Ying Hong; Tao, Lin; Zhou, Jin; Yu, Chun Yan; Xu, Feng; Chen, Zhe; Zhu, Feng; Chen, Yu Zong

    2016-01-01

    Extensive drug discovery efforts have yielded many approved and candidate drugs targeting various targets in different biological pathways. Several freely accessible databases provide the drug, target and drug-targeted pathway information for facilitating drug discovery efforts, but there is an insufficient coverage of the clinical trial drugs and the drug-targeted pathways. Here, we describe an update of the Therapeutic Target Database (TTD) previously featured in NAR. The updated contents include: (i) significantly increased coverage of the clinical trial targets and drugs (1.6 and 2.3 times of the previous release, respectively), (ii) cross-links of most TTD target and drug entries to the corresponding pathway entries of KEGG, MetaCyc/BioCyc, NetPath, PANTHER pathway, Pathway Interaction Database (PID), PathWhiz, Reactome and WikiPathways, (iii) the convenient access of the multiple targets and drugs cross-linked to each of these pathway entries and (iv) the recently emerged approved and investigative drugs. This update makes TTD a more useful resource to complement other databases for facilitating the drug discovery efforts. TTD is accessible at http://bidd.nus.edu.sg/group/ttd/ttd.asp. PMID:26578601

  13. Candidate Drug Targets for Prevention or Modification of Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Varvel, Nicholas H.; Jiang, Jianxiong; Dingledine, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is a prevalent neurological disorder afflicting nearly 50 million people worldwide. The disorder is characterized clinically by recurrent spontaneous seizures attributed to abnormal synchrony of brain neurons. Despite advances in the treatment of epilepsy, nearly one-third of patients are resistant to current therapies, and the underlying mechanisms whereby a healthy brain becomes epileptic remain unresolved. Therefore, researchers have a major impetus to identify and exploit new drug targets. Here we distinguish between epileptic effectors, or proteins that set the seizure threshold, and epileptogenic mediators, which control the expression or functional state of the effector proteins. Under this framework, we then discuss attempts to regulate the mediators to control epilepsy. Further insights into the complex processes that render the brain susceptible to seizures and the identification of novel mediators of these processes will lead the way to the development of drugs to modify disease outcome and, potentially, to prevent epileptogenesis. PMID:25196047

  14. Drug Targets for Rational Design against Emerging Coronaviruses.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qi; Weber, Erin; Yang, Haitao

    2013-07-26

    The recent, fatal outbreak of the novel coronavirus strain in the Middle East highlights the real threat posed by this unique virus family. Neither pharmaceutical cures nor preventive vaccines are clinically available to fight against coronavirus associated syndromes, not to mention a lack of symptom soothing drugs. Development of treatment options is complicated by the unpredictable, recurring instances of cross-species viral transmission. The vastly distributing virus reservoir and the rapid rate of host-species exchange of coronavirus demands wide spectrum potency in an ideal therapeutic. Through summarizing the available information and progress in coronavirus research, this review provides a systematic assessment of the potential wide-spectrum features on the most popular drug targets including viral proteases, spike protein, RNA polymerases and editing enzymes as well as host-virus interaction pathways associated with coronaviruses. PMID:23885693

  15. Drug targets for rational design against emerging coronaviruses.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qi; Weber, Erin; Yang, Haitao

    2013-04-01

    The recent, fatal outbreak of the novel coronavirus strain in the Middle East highlights the real threat posed by this unique virus family. Neither pharmaceutical cures nor preventive vaccines are clinically available to fight against coronavirus associated syndromes, not to mention a lack of symptom soothing drugs. Development of treatment options is complicated by the unpredictable, recurring instances of cross-species viral transmission. The vastly distributing virus reservoir and the rapid rate of host-species exchange of coronavirus demands wide spectrum potency in an ideal therapeutic. Through summarizing the available information and progress in coronavirus research, this review provides a systematic assessment of the potential wide-spectrum features on the most popular drug targets including viral proteases, spike protein, RNA polymerases and editing enzymes as well as host-virus interaction pathways associated with coronaviruses. PMID:23895136

  16. Identification of Multiple Cryptococcal Fungicidal Drug Targets by Combined Gene Dosing and Drug Affinity Responsive Target Stability Screening

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yoon-Dong; Sun, Wei; Salas, Antonio; Antia, Avan; Carvajal, Cindy; Wang, Amy; Xu, Xin; Meng, Zhaojin; Zhou, Ming; Tawa, Gregory J.; Dehdashti, Jean; Zheng, Wei; Henderson, Christina M.; Zelazny, Adrian M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cryptococcus neoformans is a pathogenic fungus that is responsible for up to half a million cases of meningitis globally, especially in immunocompromised individuals. Common fungistatic drugs, such as fluconazole, are less toxic for patients but have low efficacy for initial therapy of the disease. Effective therapy against the disease is provided by the fungicidal drug amphotericin B; however, due to its high toxicity and the difficulty in administering its intravenous formulation, it is imperative to find new therapies targeting the fungus. The antiparasitic drug bithionol has been recently identified as having potent fungicidal activity. In this study, we used a combined gene dosing and drug affinity responsive target stability (GD-DARTS) screen as well as protein modeling to identify a common drug binding site of bithionol within multiple NAD-dependent dehydrogenase drug targets. This combination genetic and proteomic method thus provides a powerful method for identifying novel fungicidal drug targets for further development. PMID:27486194

  17. Challenges in design and characterization of ligand-targeted drug delivery systems

    PubMed Central

    Muro, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Targeting of therapeutic agents to molecular markers expressed on the surface of cells requiring clinical intervention holds promise to improve specificity of delivery, enhancing therapeutic effects while decreasing potential damage to healthy tissues. Drug targeting to cellular receptors involved in endocytic transport facilitates intracellular delivery, a requirement for a number of therapeutic goals. However, after several decades of experimental design, there is still considerable controversy on the practical outcome of drug targeting strategies. The plethora of factors contributing to the relative efficacy of targeting makes the success of these approaches hardly predictable. Lack of fully specific targets, along with selection of targets with spatial and temporal expression well aligned to interventional requirements, pose difficulties to this process. Selection of adequate sub-molecular target epitopes determines accessibility for anchoring of drug conjugates and bulkier drug carriers, as well as proper signaling for uptake within the cell. Targeting design must adapt to physiological variables of blood flow, disease status, and tissue architecture by accommodating physicochemical parameters such as carrier composition, functionalization, geometry, and avidity. In many cases, opposite features need to meet a balance, e.g., sustained circulation versus efficient targeting, penetration through tissues versus uptake within cells, internalization within endocytic compartment to avoid efflux pumps versus accessibility to molecular targets within the cytosol, etc. Detailed characterization of these complex physiological factors and design parameters, along with a deep understanding of the mechanisms governing the interaction of targeted drugs and carriers with the biological environment, are necessary steps toward achieving efficient drug targeting systems. PMID:22709588

  18. VNP: Interactive Visual Network Pharmacology of Diseases, Targets, and Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Q-N; Deng, Z; Tu, W; Yang, X; Meng, Z-B; Deng, Z-X; Liu, J

    2014-01-01

    In drug discovery, promiscuous targets, multifactorial diseases, and “dirty” drugs construct complex network relationships. Network pharmacology description and analysis not only give a systems-level understanding of drug action and disease complexity but can also help to improve the efficiency of target selection and drug design. Visual network pharmacology (VNP) is developed to visualize network pharmacology of targets, diseases, and drugs with a graph network by using disease, target or drug names, chemical structures, or protein sequence. To our knowledge, VNP is the first free interactive VNP server that should be very helpful for systems pharmacology research. VNP is freely available at http://cadd.whu.edu.cn/ditad/vnpsearch. PMID:24622768

  19. Chondroitin sulfate derived theranostic nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Oommen P; Liu, Jianping; Sundaram, Karthi; Hilborn, Jöns; Oommen, Oommen P

    2016-08-16

    Glycosaminoglycan derived nanoparticles are a promising delivery system owing to their unique tumour targeting ability. Exploiting fluorescein for inducing amphiphilicity in these biopolymers provides inherent imaging and drug stabilization capabilities by π-π stacking interactions with aromatic antineoplastic agents. This offers a versatile and highly customizable nanocarrier with narrow size distribution and high drug loading efficiency (80%) with sustained drug release. PMID:27431007

  20. Targeting mitochondrial biogenesis to overcome drug resistance to MAPK inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Gao; Frederick, Dennie T.; Wu, Lawrence; Wei, Zhi; Krepler, Clemens; Srinivasan, Satish; Chae, Young Chan; Xu, Xiaowei; Choi, Harry; Dimwamwa, Elaida; Shannan, Batool; Basu, Devraj; Zhang, Dongmei; Guha, Manti; Xiao, Min; Randell, Sergio; Sproesser, Katrin; Xu, Wei; Liu, Jephrey; Karakousis, Giorgos C.; Schuchter, Lynn M.; Gangadhar, Tara C.; Amaravadi, Ravi K.; Gu, Mengnan; Xu, Caiyue; Ghosh, Abheek; Xu, Weiting; Tian, Tian; Zhang, Jie; Zha, Shijie; Brafford, Patricia; Weeraratna, Ashani; Davies, Michael A.; Wargo, Jennifer A.; Avadhani, Narayan G.; Lu, Yiling; Mills, Gordon B.; Altieri, Dario C.; Flaherty, Keith T.

    2016-01-01

    Targeting multiple components of the MAPK pathway can prolong the survival of patients with BRAFV600E melanoma. This approach is not curative, as some BRAF-mutated melanoma cells are intrinsically resistant to MAPK inhibitors (MAPKi). At the systemic level, our knowledge of how signaling pathways underlie drug resistance needs to be further expanded. Here, we have shown that intrinsically resistant BRAF-mutated melanoma cells with a low basal level of mitochondrial biogenesis depend on this process to survive MAPKi. Intrinsically resistant cells exploited an integrated stress response, exhibited an increase in mitochondrial DNA content, and required oxidative phosphorylation to meet their bioenergetic needs. We determined that intrinsically resistant cells rely on the genes encoding TFAM, which controls mitochondrial genome replication and transcription, and TRAP1, which regulates mitochondrial protein folding. Therefore, we targeted mitochondrial biogenesis with a mitochondrium-targeted, small-molecule HSP90 inhibitor (Gamitrinib), which eradicated intrinsically resistant cells and augmented the efficacy of MAPKi by inducing mitochondrial dysfunction and inhibiting tumor bioenergetics. A subset of tumor biopsies from patients with disease progression despite MAPKi treatment showed increased mitochondrial biogenesis and tumor bioenergetics. A subset of acquired drug-resistant melanoma cell lines was sensitive to Gamitrinib. Our study establishes mitochondrial biogenesis, coupled with aberrant tumor bioenergetics, as a potential therapy escape mechanism and paves the way for a rationale-based combinatorial strategy to improve the efficacy of MAPKi. PMID:27043285

  1. Motif mediated protein-protein interactions as drug targets.

    PubMed

    Corbi-Verge, Carles; Kim, Philip M

    2016-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions (PPI) are involved in virtually every cellular process and thus represent an attractive target for therapeutic interventions. A significant number of protein interactions are frequently formed between globular domains and short linear peptide motifs (DMI). Targeting these DMIs has proven challenging and classical approaches to inhibiting such interactions with small molecules have had limited success. However, recent new approaches have led to the discovery of potent inhibitors, some of them, such as Obatoclax, ABT-199, AEG-40826 and SAH-p53-8 are likely to become approved drugs. These novel inhibitors belong to a wide range of different molecule classes, ranging from small molecules to peptidomimetics and biologicals. This article reviews the main reasons for limited success in targeting PPIs, discusses how successful approaches overcome these obstacles to discovery promising inhibitors for human protein double minute 2 (HDM2), B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), and provides a summary of the promising approaches currently in development that indicate the future potential of PPI inhibitors in drug discovery. PMID:26936767

  2. Targeting mitochondrial biogenesis to overcome drug resistance to MAPK inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gao; Frederick, Dennie T; Wu, Lawrence; Wei, Zhi; Krepler, Clemens; Srinivasan, Satish; Chae, Young Chan; Xu, Xiaowei; Choi, Harry; Dimwamwa, Elaida; Ope, Omotayo; Shannan, Batool; Basu, Devraj; Zhang, Dongmei; Guha, Manti; Xiao, Min; Randell, Sergio; Sproesser, Katrin; Xu, Wei; Liu, Jephrey; Karakousis, Giorgos C; Schuchter, Lynn M; Gangadhar, Tara C; Amaravadi, Ravi K; Gu, Mengnan; Xu, Caiyue; Ghosh, Abheek; Xu, Weiting; Tian, Tian; Zhang, Jie; Zha, Shijie; Liu, Qin; Brafford, Patricia; Weeraratna, Ashani; Davies, Michael A; Wargo, Jennifer A; Avadhani, Narayan G; Lu, Yiling; Mills, Gordon B; Altieri, Dario C; Flaherty, Keith T; Herlyn, Meenhard

    2016-05-01

    Targeting multiple components of the MAPK pathway can prolong the survival of patients with BRAFV600E melanoma. This approach is not curative, as some BRAF-mutated melanoma cells are intrinsically resistant to MAPK inhibitors (MAPKi). At the systemic level, our knowledge of how signaling pathways underlie drug resistance needs to be further expanded. Here, we have shown that intrinsically resistant BRAF-mutated melanoma cells with a low basal level of mitochondrial biogenesis depend on this process to survive MAPKi. Intrinsically resistant cells exploited an integrated stress response, exhibited an increase in mitochondrial DNA content, and required oxidative phosphorylation to meet their bioenergetic needs. We determined that intrinsically resistant cells rely on the genes encoding TFAM, which controls mitochondrial genome replication and transcription, and TRAP1, which regulates mitochondrial protein folding. Therefore, we targeted mitochondrial biogenesis with a mitochondrium-targeted, small-molecule HSP90 inhibitor (Gamitrinib), which eradicated intrinsically resistant cells and augmented the efficacy of MAPKi by inducing mitochondrial dysfunction and inhibiting tumor bioenergetics. A subset of tumor biopsies from patients with disease progression despite MAPKi treatment showed increased mitochondrial biogenesis and tumor bioenergetics. A subset of acquired drug-resistant melanoma cell lines was sensitive to Gamitrinib. Our study establishes mitochondrial biogenesis, coupled with aberrant tumor bioenergetics, as a potential therapy escape mechanism and paves the way for a rationale-based combinatorial strategy to improve the efficacy of MAPKi. PMID:27043285

  3. Enhancing cancer targeting and anticancer activity by a stimulus-sensitive multifunctional polymer-drug conjugate.

    PubMed

    Tu, Ying; Zhu, Lin

    2015-08-28

    Undesirable physicochemical properties, low tumor targeting, insufficient cell internalization, acquired drug resistance, and severe side effects significantly limit the applications of anticancer drugs. In this study, to improve the tumor targeting and drug efficacy of the poorly water-soluble drug, doxorubicin (DOX), a novel drug delivery platform (PEG-ppTAT-DOX) was developed, which contained a polyethylene glycol (PEG), a matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2)-sensitive peptide linker (pp), a cell penetrating peptide (TAT), and a model drug (doxorubicin). The prepared drug platform possessed several key features, including: (i) the nanoparticle formation via the self-assembly; (ii) prevention of the non-specific interaction via the PEGylation; (iii) tumor targeting via the MMP2-mediated PEG deshielding and exposure of the TAT; (iv) the TAT-mediated cell internalization; (v) the TAT-induced endosomal escape; (vi) the inhibition of P-glycoprotein mediated drug efflux; and (vii) the TAT-medicated nuclear translocation. These cooperative functions ensured the improved tumor targetability, enhanced tumor cell internalization, improved intracellular distribution, and potentiated anticancer activity. Compared to the multi-component nanocarriers, the proposed simple but multifunctional polymer-drug conjugate might have greater potential for tumor-targeted drug delivery and enhanced chemotherapy. PMID:26113423

  4. Tumour vasculature--a potential therapeutic target.

    PubMed Central

    Baillie, C. T.; Winslet, M. C.; Bradley, N. J.

    1995-01-01

    The tumour vasculature is vital for the establishment, growth and metastasis of solid tumours. Its physiological properties limit the effectiveness of conventional anti-cancer strategies. Therapeutic approaches directed at the tumour vasculature are reviewed, suggesting the potential of anti-angiogenesis and the targeting of vascular proliferation antigens as cancer treatments. PMID:7543770

  5. Targeted electrohydrodynamic printing for micro-reservoir drug delivery systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Tae Heon; Kim, Jin Bum; Som Yang, Da; Park, Yong-il; Ryu, WonHyoung

    2013-03-01

    Microfluidic drug delivery systems consisting of a drug reservoir and microfluidic channels have shown the possibility of simple and robust modulation of drug release rate. However, the difficulty of loading a small quantity of drug into drug reservoirs at a micro-scale limited further development of such systems. Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) printing was employed to fill micro-reservoirs with controlled amount of drugs in the range of a few hundreds of picograms to tens of micrograms with spatial resolution of as small as 20 µm. Unlike most EHD systems, this system was configured in combination with an inverted microscope that allows in situ targeting of drug loading at micrometer scale accuracy. Methylene blue and rhodamine B were used as model drugs in distilled water, isopropanol and a polymer solution of a biodegradable polymer and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Also tetracycline-HCl/DI water was used as actual drug ink. The optimal parameters of EHD printing to load an extremely small quantity of drug into microscale drug reservoirs were investigated by changing pumping rates, the strength of an electric field and drug concentration. This targeted EHD technique was used to load drugs into the microreservoirs of PDMS microfluidic drug delivery devices and their drug release performance was demonstrated in vitro.

  6. Strategies and Advancement in Antibody-Drug Conjugate Optimization for Targeted Cancer Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eunhee G.; Kim, Kristine M.

    2015-01-01

    Antibody-drug conjugates utilize the antibody as a delivery vehicle for highly potent cytotoxic molecules with specificity for tumor-associated antigens for cancer therapy. Critical parameters that govern successful antibody-drug conjugate development for clinical use include the selection of the tumor target antigen, the antibody against the target, the cytotoxic molecule, the linker bridging the cytotoxic molecule and the antibody, and the conjugation chemistry used for the attachment of the cytotoxic molecule to the antibody. Advancements in these core antibody-drug conjugate technology are reflected by recent approval of Adectris® (anti-CD30-drug conjugate) and Kadcyla® (anti-HER2 drug conjugate). The potential approval of an anti-CD22 conjugate and promising new clinical data for anti-CD19 and anti-CD33 conjugates are additional advancements. Enrichment of antibody-drug conjugates with newly developed potent cytotoxic molecules and linkers are also in the pipeline for various tumor targets. However, the complexity of antibody-drug conjugate components, conjugation methods, and off-target toxicities still pose challenges for the strategic design of antibody-drug conjugates to achieve their fullest therapeutic potential. This review will discuss the emergence of clinical antibody-drug conjugates, current trends in optimization strategies, and recent study results for antibody-drug conjugates that have incorporated the latest optimization strategies. Future challenges and perspectives toward making antibody-drug conjugates more amendable for broader disease indications are also discussed. PMID:26535074

  7. Potential anti-cancer drugs commonly used for other indications.

    PubMed

    Hanusova, Veronika; Skalova, Lenka; Kralova, Vera; Matouskova, Petra

    2015-01-01

    An increasing resistance of mammalian tumor cells to chemotherapy along with the severe side effects of commonly used cytostatics has raised the urgency in the search for new anti-cancer agents. Several drugs originally approved for indications other than cancer treatment have recently been found to have a cytostatic effect on cancer cells. These drugs could be expediently repurposed as anti-cancer agents, since they have already been tested for toxicity in humans and animals. The groups of newly recognized potential cytostatics discussed in this review include benzimidazole anthelmintics (albendazole, mebendazole, flubendazole), anti-hypertensive drugs (doxazosin, propranolol), psychopharmaceuticals (chlorpromazine, clomipramine) and antidiabetic drugs (metformin, pioglitazone). All these drugs have a definite potential to be used especially in combinations with other cytostatics; the chemotherapy targeting of multiple sites now represents a promising approach in cancer treatment. The present review summarizes recent information about the anti-cancer effects of selected drugs commonly used for other medical indications. Our aim is not to collect all the reported results, but to present an overview of various possibilities. Advantages, disadvantages and further perspectives regarding individual drugs are discussed and evaluated. PMID:25544649

  8. Application of RNAi to Genomic Drug Target Validation in Schistosomes

    PubMed Central

    Guidi, Alessandra; Mansour, Nuha R.; Paveley, Ross A.; Carruthers, Ian M.; Besnard, Jérémy; Hopkins, Andrew L.; Gilbert, Ian H.; Bickle, Quentin D.

    2015-01-01

    Concerns over the possibility of resistance developing to praziquantel (PZQ), has stimulated efforts to develop new drugs for schistosomiasis. In addition to the development of improved whole organism screens, the success of RNA interference (RNAi) in schistosomes offers great promise for the identification of potential drug targets to initiate drug discovery. In this study we set out to contribute to RNAi based validation of putative drug targets. Initially a list of 24 target candidates was compiled based on the identification of putative essential genes in schistosomes orthologous of C. elegans essential genes. Knockdown of Calmodulin (Smp_026560.2) (Sm-Calm), that topped this list, produced a phenotype characterised by waves of contraction in adult worms but no phenotype in schistosomula. Knockdown of the atypical Protein Kinase C (Smp_096310) (Sm-aPKC) resulted in loss of viability in both schistosomula and adults and led us to focus our attention on other kinase genes that were identified in the above list and through whole organism screening of known kinase inhibitor sets followed by chemogenomic evaluation. RNAi knockdown of these kinase genes failed to affect adult worm viability but, like Sm-aPKC, knockdown of Polo-like kinase 1, Sm-PLK1 (Smp_009600) and p38-MAPK, Sm-MAPK p38 (Smp_133020) resulted in an increased mortality of schistosomula after 2-3 weeks, an effect more marked in the presence of human red blood cells (hRBC). For Sm-PLK-1 the same effects were seen with the specific inhibitor, BI2536, which also affected viable egg production in adult worms. For Sm-PLK-1 and Sm-aPKC the in vitro effects were reflected in lower recoveries in vivo. We conclude that the use of RNAi combined with culture with hRBC is a reliable method for evaluating genes important for larval development. However, in view of the slow manifestation of the effects of Sm-aPKC knockdown in adults and the lack of effects of Sm-PLK-1 and Sm-MAPK p38 on adult viability, these

  9. Application of RNAi to Genomic Drug Target Validation in Schistosomes.

    PubMed

    Guidi, Alessandra; Mansour, Nuha R; Paveley, Ross A; Carruthers, Ian M; Besnard, Jérémy; Hopkins, Andrew L; Gilbert, Ian H; Bickle, Quentin D

    2015-05-01

    Concerns over the possibility of resistance developing to praziquantel (PZQ), has stimulated efforts to develop new drugs for schistosomiasis. In addition to the development of improved whole organism screens, the success of RNA interference (RNAi) in schistosomes offers great promise for the identification of potential drug targets to initiate drug discovery. In this study we set out to contribute to RNAi based validation of putative drug targets. Initially a list of 24 target candidates was compiled based on the identification of putative essential genes in schistosomes orthologous of C. elegans essential genes. Knockdown of Calmodulin (Smp_026560.2) (Sm-Calm), that topped this list, produced a phenotype characterised by waves of contraction in adult worms but no phenotype in schistosomula. Knockdown of the atypical Protein Kinase C (Smp_096310) (Sm-aPKC) resulted in loss of viability in both schistosomula and adults and led us to focus our attention on other kinase genes that were identified in the above list and through whole organism screening of known kinase inhibitor sets followed by chemogenomic evaluation. RNAi knockdown of these kinase genes failed to affect adult worm viability but, like Sm-aPKC, knockdown of Polo-like kinase 1, Sm-PLK1 (Smp_009600) and p38-MAPK, Sm-MAPK p38 (Smp_133020) resulted in an increased mortality of schistosomula after 2-3 weeks, an effect more marked in the presence of human red blood cells (hRBC). For Sm-PLK-1 the same effects were seen with the specific inhibitor, BI2536, which also affected viable egg production in adult worms. For Sm-PLK-1 and Sm-aPKC the in vitro effects were reflected in lower recoveries in vivo. We conclude that the use of RNAi combined with culture with hRBC is a reliable method for evaluating genes important for larval development. However, in view of the slow manifestation of the effects of Sm-aPKC knockdown in adults and the lack of effects of Sm-PLK-1 and Sm-MAPK p38 on adult viability, these

  10. Drug target identification using a trypanosome overexpression library.

    PubMed

    Begolo, Daniela; Erben, Esteban; Clayton, Christine

    2014-10-01

    Elucidation of molecular targets is very important for lead optimization during the drug development process. We describe a direct method to find targets of antitrypanosomal compounds against Trypanosoma brucei using a trypanosome overexpression library. As proof of concept, we treated the library with difluoromethylornithine and DDD85646 and identified their respective targets, ornithine decarboxylase and N-myristoyltransferase. The overexpression library could be a useful tool to study the modes of action of novel antitrypanosomal drug candidates. PMID:25049244

  11. In silico identification of candidate drug and vaccine targets from various pathways in Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed

    Barh, Debmalya; Kumar, Anil

    2009-01-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae is responsible for causing gonorrhea, one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases prevailing globally. Although extensive researches are in progress in order to control the transmission of the disease and to develop drug(s) against the pathogen, till date no effective vaccine or specific drug could be developed and only antibiotic treatment is in use. Perhaps, due to excess use of antibiotics, several resistant strains have been found. In the present study, metabolic pathways-related candidate drug and vaccine targets have been identified in N. gonorrhoeae virulent strain FA 1090 using an in silico subtractive genomics approach. 106 putative drug targets out of 537 essential genes have been predicted. 67 cytoplasmic and 9 membrane enzymes, along with 10 membrane transporters are found to be the potential drug targets from the host-pathogen common metabolic pathways. Among these targets, competence lipoproteins (NGO0277) and cysW have been identified as candidate vaccine targets. 20 drug targets have been identified from pathogen specific unique metabolic pathways. Out of these, 6 enzymes are involved in dual metabolic pathways and 2 are expressed in cell wall and fimbrium. These gonococci-specific proteins are expected to be better possible drug targets. Screening of the functional inhibitors against these novel targets may result in discovery of novel therapeutic compounds that can be effective against antibiotic resistant strains. PMID:20109152

  12. A small molecule nanodrug consisting of amphiphilic targeting ligand-chemotherapy drug conjugate for targeted cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Mou, Quanbing; Ma, Yuan; Zhu, Xinyuan; Yan, Deyue

    2016-05-28

    Targeted drug delivery is a broadly applicable approach for cancer therapy. However, the nanocarrier-based targeted delivery system suffers from batch-to-batch variation, quality concerns and carrier-related toxicity issues. Thus, to develop a carrier-free targeted delivery system with nanoscale characteristics is very attractive. Here, a novel targeting small molecule nanodrug self-delivery system consisting of targeting ligand and chemotherapy drug was constructed, which combined the advantages of small molecules and nano-assemblies together and showed excellent targeting ability and long blood circulation time with well-defined structure, high drug loading ratio and on-demand drug release behavior. As a proof-of-concept, lactose (Lac) and doxorubicin (DOX) were chosen as the targeting ligand and chemotherapy drug, respectively. Lac and DOX were conjugated through a pH-responsive hydrazone group. For its intrinsic amphiphilic property, Lac-DOX conjugate could self-assemble into nanoparticles in water. Both in vitro and in vivo assays indicated that Lac-DOX nanoparticles exhibited enhanced anticancer activity and weak side effects. This novel active targeting nanodrug delivery system shows great potential in cancer therapy. PMID:27040815

  13. Scorpion Peptides: Potential Use for New Drug Development

    PubMed Central

    Hmed, BenNasr; Serria, Hammami Turky; Mounir, Zeghal Khaled

    2013-01-01

    Several peptides contained in scorpion fluids showed diverse array of biological activities with high specificities to their targeted sites. Many investigations outlined their potent effects against microbes and showed their potential to modulate various biological mechanisms that are involved in immune, nervous, cardiovascular, and neoplastic diseases. Because of their important structural and functional diversity, it is projected that scorpion-derived peptides could be used to develop new specific drugs. This review summarizes relevant findings improving their use as valuable tools for new drugs development. PMID:23843786

  14. Age factors potentiating drug toxicity in the reproductive axis

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, R.F.

    1986-12-01

    Traditionally, the drug toxicity in the reproductive system has been a concern only as it affects fertility and fecundity in young individuals. The purpose of this report is to address the potential problem of synergy between drug actions and abnormal secretion of reproductive hormones that together produce disease in older individuals. Thus, reproductive toxicity has different, but no less serious implications in aging individuals. During aging, the coordinated function of elements within the reproductive neuroendocrine axis degrades. This change promotes atypical secretion of hormones producing abnormal responses in target organs and thus creates a condition with pathogenic potential. Certain drugs may contribute to reproductive toxicity in aging individuals either by accelerating the process of dysregulation and/or by synergizing with hormones to stimulate pathologic changes in target tissues. The geriatric population or the world is increasing, and since it consumes a proportionately larger percentage of drugs than younger groups, this novel form of reproductive toxicity may represent a problem in drug safety that warrants serious consideration.

  15. Nanomechanics of drug-target interactions and antibacterial resistance detection.

    PubMed

    Ndieyira, Joseph W; Watari, Moyu; McKendry, Rachel A

    2013-01-01

    The cantilever sensor, which acts as a transducer of reactions between model bacterial cell wall matrix immobilized on its surface and antibiotic drugs in solution, has shown considerable potential in biochemical sensing applications with unprecedented sensitivity and specificity. The drug-target interactions generate surface stress, causing the cantilever to bend, and the signal can be analyzed optically when it is illuminated by a laser. The change in surface stress measured with nano-scale precision allows disruptions of the biomechanics of model bacterial cell wall targets to be tracked in real time. Despite offering considerable advantages, multiple cantilever sensor arrays have never been applied in quantifying drug-target binding interactions. Here, we report on the use of silicon multiple cantilever arrays coated with alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers mimicking bacterial cell wall matrix to quantitatively study antibiotic binding interactions. To understand the impact of vancomycin on the mechanics of bacterial cell wall structures. We developed a new model(1) which proposes that cantilever bending can be described by two independent factors; i) namely a chemical factor, which is given by a classical Langmuir adsorption isotherm, from which we calculate the thermodynamic equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) and ii) a geometrical factor, essentially a measure of how bacterial peptide receptors are distributed on the cantilever surface. The surface distribution of peptide receptors (p) is used to investigate the dependence of geometry and ligand loading. It is shown that a threshold value of p ~10% is critical to sensing applications. Below which there is no detectable bending signal while above this value, the bending signal increases almost linearly, revealing that stress is a product of a local chemical binding factor and a geometrical factor combined by the mechanical connectivity of reacted regions and provides a new paradigm for design of powerful

  16. Targeted drug induces responses in aggressive lymphomas

    Cancer.gov

    Preliminary results from clinical trials in a subtype of lymphoma show that for a number of patients whose disease was not cured by other treatments, the drug ibrutinib can provide significant anti-cancer responses with modest side effects.

  17. Selection of molecular targets for drug development against trypanosomatids.

    PubMed

    Smirlis, Despina; Soares, Milena Botelho Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Trypanosomatid parasites are a group of flagellated protozoa that includes the genera Leishmania and Trypanosoma, which are the causative agents of diseases (leishmaniases, sleeping sickness and Chagas disease) that cause considerable morbidity and mortality, affecting more than 27 million people worldwide. Today no effective vaccines for the prevention of these diseases exist, whereas current chemotherapy is ineffective, mainly due to toxic side effects of current drugs and to the emergence of drug resistance and lack of cost effectiveness. For these reasons, rational drug design and the search of good candidate drug targets is of prime importance. The search for drug targets requires a multidisciplinary approach. To this end, the completion of the genome project of many trypanosomatid species gives a vast amount of new information that can be exploited for the identification of good drug candidates with a prediction of "druggability" and divergence from mammalian host proteins. In addition, an important aspect in the search for good drug targets is the "target identification" and evaluation in a biological pathway, as well as the essentiality of the gene in the mammalian stage of the parasite, which is provided by basic research and genetic and proteomic approaches. In this chapter we will discuss how these bioinformatic tools and experimental evaluations can be integrated for the selection of candidate drug targets, and give examples of metabolic and signaling pathways in the parasitic protozoa that can be exploited for rational drug design. PMID:24264240

  18. Plasmodium Drug Targets Outside the Genetic Control of the Parasite

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Drug development often seeks to find “magic bullets” which target microbiologic proteins while not affecting host proteins. Paul Ehrlich tested methylene blue as an antimalarial but this dye was not superior to quinine. Many successful antimalarial therapies are “magic shotguns” which target many Plasmodium pathways with little interference in host metabolism. Two malaria drug classes, the 8-aminoquinolines and the artemisinins interact with cytochrome P450s and host iron protoporphyrin IX or iron, respectively, to generate toxic metabolites and/or radicals, which kill the parasite by interference with many proteins. The non 8-amino antimalarial quinolines like quinine or piperaquine bind heme to inhibit the process of heme crystallization, which results in multiple enzyme inhibition and membrane dysfunction. The quinolines and artemisinins are rapidly parasiticidal in contrast to metal chelators, which have a slower parasite clearance rate with higher drug concentrations. Iron chelators interfere with the artemisinins but otherwise represent a strategy of targeting multiple enzymes containing iron. Interest has been revived in antineoplastic drugs that target DNA metabolism as antimalarials. Specific drug targeting or investigation of the innate immunity directed to the more permeable trophozoite or schizont infected erythrocyte membrane has been under explored. Novel drug classes in the antimalarial development pipeline which either target multiple proteins or unchangeable cellular targets will slow the pace of drug resistance acquisition. PMID:22973888

  19. Off-Target Effects of Psychoactive Drugs Revealed by Genome-Wide Assays in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Ericson, Elke; Gebbia, Marinella; Heisler, Lawrence E.; Wildenhain, Jan; Tyers, Mike; Giaever, Guri; Nislow, Corey

    2008-01-01

    To better understand off-target effects of widely prescribed psychoactive drugs, we performed a comprehensive series of chemogenomic screens using the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model system. Because the known human targets of these drugs do not exist in yeast, we could employ the yeast gene deletion collections and parallel fitness profiling to explore potential off-target effects in a genome-wide manner. Among 214 tested, documented psychoactive drugs, we identified 81 compounds that inhibited wild-type yeast growth and were thus selected for genome-wide fitness profiling. Many of these drugs had a propensity to affect multiple cellular functions. The sensitivity profiles of half of the analyzed drugs were enriched for core cellular processes such as secretion, protein folding, RNA processing, and chromatin structure. Interestingly, fluoxetine (Prozac) interfered with establishment of cell polarity, cyproheptadine (Periactin) targeted essential genes with chromatin-remodeling roles, while paroxetine (Paxil) interfered with essential RNA metabolism genes, suggesting potential secondary drug targets. We also found that the more recently developed atypical antipsychotic clozapine (Clozaril) had no fewer off-target effects in yeast than the typical antipsychotics haloperidol (Haldol) and pimozide (Orap). Our results suggest that model organism pharmacogenetic studies provide a rational foundation for understanding the off-target effects of clinically important psychoactive agents and suggest a rational means both for devising compound derivatives with fewer side effects and for tailoring drug treatment to individual patient genotypes. PMID:18688276

  20. Systematic identification of synergistic drug pairs targeting HIV.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xu; Hu, Long; Luquette, Lovelace J; Gao, Geng; Liu, Yifang; Qu, Hongjing; Xi, Ruibin; Lu, Zhi John; Park, Peter J; Elledge, Stephen J

    2012-11-01

    The systematic identification of effective drug combinations has been hindered by the unavailability of methods that can explore the large combinatorial search space of drug interactions. Here we present multiplex screening for interacting compounds (MuSIC), which expedites the comprehensive assessment of pairwise compound interactions. We examined ∼500,000 drug pairs from 1,000 US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved or clinically tested drugs and identified drugs that synergize to inhibit HIV replication. Our analysis reveals an enrichment of anti-inflammatory drugs in drug combinations that synergize against HIV. As inflammation accompanies HIV infection, these findings indicate that inhibiting inflammation could curb HIV propagation. Multiple drug pairs identified in this study, including various glucocorticoids and nitazoxanide (NTZ), synergize by targeting different steps in the HIV life cycle. MuSIC can be applied to a wide variety of disease-relevant screens to facilitate efficient identification of compound combinations. PMID:23064238

  1. [Research advance in the drug target prediction based on chemoinformatics].

    PubMed

    Fang, Jian-song; Liu, Ai-lin; Du, Guan-hua

    2014-10-01

    The emerging of network pharmacology and polypharmacology forces the scientists to recognize and explore new mechanisms of existing drugs. The drug target prediction can play a key significance on the elucidation of the molecular mechanism of drugs and drug reposition. In this paper, we systematically review the existing approaches to the prediction of biological targets of small molecule based on chemoinformatics, including ligand-based prediction, receptor-based prediction and data mining-based prediction. We also depict the strength of these methods as well as their applications, and put forward their developing direction. PMID:25577863

  2. Potential drug interaction between paclitaxel and clopidogrel

    PubMed Central

    SHINODA, YASUTAKA; KIMURA, MICHIO; USAMI, EISEKI; ASANO, HIROKI; YOSHIMURA, TOMOAKI

    2016-01-01

    Paclitaxel is mainly inactivated in vivo by cytochrome P5402C8 (CYP2C8). In recent years, the clopidogrel metabolite has been reported to potently inhibit CYP2C8. However, clinical information regarding the interaction between these two drugs is limited. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first retrospective study investigating the potential for the drug interaction between paclitaxel and clopidogrel. A total of 8 cases in which clopidogrel and paclitaxel were used in combination were examined. The incidence of adverse events and discontinuation rate in these cases were assessed. Neutrophil counts were compared in patients prior and subsequent to the combined administration of clopidogrel and paclitaxel. Grade 3 neutropenia occurred in all cases of combination therapy and grade 4 occurred in 7 cases (88%). In addition, 4 cases (50%) showed febrile neutropenia. Four cases (50%) involved a severe adverse event requiring discontinuation of drug administration. In 1 case involving 6 courses of paclitaxel and nedaplatin therapy prior and subsequent to clopidogrel, there was a significant reduction in the average neutrophil count after 8 days of combination treatment (1,240±395 counts/mm3 without clopidogrel; 370±148 counts/mm3 with clopidogrel; mean ± standard deviation, P<0.01). Drug interactions during co-administration of clopidogrel and paclitaxel may cause severe neutropenia. To avoid these interactions, alternative medications should be considered. If these two drugs are used in combination, it may be necessary to monitor for adverse events more carefully. PMID:27347418

  3. Magnetically responsive microparticles for targeted drug and radionuclide delivery.

    SciTech Connect

    Kaminski, M. D.; Ghebremeskel, A. N.; Nunez, L.; Kasza, K. E.; Chang, F.; Chien, T.-H.; Fisher, P. F.; Eastman, J. A.; Rosengart, A. J.; McDonald, L.; Xie, Y.; Johns, L.; Pytel, P.; Hafeli, U. O.

    2004-02-16

    system (RES) prefer to associate with hydrophobic surfaces. Accordingly, we will tackle this challenge by modifying the particles with hydrophilic coatings such as PEG or poloxamer (co-polymers containing hydrophobic polyoxypropylene segments and repetitive polyoxyethylene hydrophilic groups), which have a proven ability to mask recognition by the RES. Modeling is needed to help optimize the performance of targeted magnetic-particle delivery, enhance its medicinal value, and expedite its medical application. To this end, scientists at Argonne National Laboratory, working with The University of Chicago and Cleveland Clinic Hospital, are working on an effective magnetic drug targeting system based on custom magnetic field designs coupled to a three-dimensional imaging platform that addresses all associated physical and theoretical problems. Furthermore, while our clinical trial results are encouraging with regard to the tolerance and applicability of the system, more improvements must be made with respect to future study designs and systems being used. Given the technical hurdles in developing this potentially important technology, we believe we have made great progress and that we have a strong developmental plan.

  4. Structure-Based DNA-Targeting Strategies with Small Molecule Ligands for Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Jia; Gan, Jianhua; Huang, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Nucleic acids are the molecular targets of many clinical anticancer drugs. However, compared with proteins, nucleic acids have traditionally attracted much less attention as drug targets in structure-based drug design, partially because limited structural information of nucleic acids complexed with potential drugs is available. Over the past several years, enormous progresses in nucleic acid crystallization, heavy-atom derivatization, phasing, and structural biology have been made. Many complicated nucleic acid structures have been determined, providing new insights into the molecular functions and interactions of nucleic acids, especially DNAs complexed with small molecule ligands. Thus, opportunities have been created to further discover nucleic acid-targeting drugs for disease treatments. This review focuses on the structure studies of DNAs complexed with small molecule ligands for discovering lead compounds, drug candidates, and/or therapeutics. PMID:23633219

  5. 21 CFR 314.104 - Drugs with potential for abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drugs with potential for abuse. 314.104 Section... (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG FDA Action on Applications and Abbreviated Applications § 314.104 Drugs with potential for abuse. The Food and...

  6. 21 CFR 314.104 - Drugs with potential for abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Drugs with potential for abuse. 314.104 Section... (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG FDA Action on Applications and Abbreviated Applications § 314.104 Drugs with potential for abuse. The Food and...

  7. 21 CFR 314.104 - Drugs with potential for abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Drugs with potential for abuse. 314.104 Section... (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG FDA Action on Applications and Abbreviated Applications § 314.104 Drugs with potential for abuse. The Food and...

  8. 21 CFR 314.104 - Drugs with potential for abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Drugs with potential for abuse. 314.104 Section... (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG FDA Action on Applications and Abbreviated Applications § 314.104 Drugs with potential for abuse. The Food and...

  9. 21 CFR 314.104 - Drugs with potential for abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Drugs with potential for abuse. 314.104 Section... (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG FDA Action on Applications and Abbreviated Applications § 314.104 Drugs with potential for abuse. The Food and...

  10. Therapeutic potential of cannabis-related drugs.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Stephen P H

    2016-01-01

    In this review, I will consider the dual nature of Cannabis and cannabinoids. The duality arises from the potential and actuality of cannabinoids in the laboratory and clinic and the 'abuse' of Cannabis outside the clinic. The therapeutic areas currently best associated with exploitation of Cannabis-related medicines include pain, epilepsy, feeding disorders, multiple sclerosis and glaucoma. As with every other medicinal drug of course, the 'trick' will be to maximise the benefit and minimise the cost. After millennia of proximity and exploitation of the Cannabis plant, we are still playing catch up with an understanding of its potential influence for medicinal benefit. PMID:26216862

  11. In Vitro Drug Sensitivity Tests to Predict Molecular Target Drug Responses in Surgically Resected Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Miyazaki, Ryohei; Anayama, Takashi; Hirohashi, Kentaro; Okada, Hironobu; Kume, Motohiko; Orihashi, Kazumasa

    2016-01-01

    Background Epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitors have dramatically changed the strategy of medical treatment of lung cancer. Patients should be screened for the presence of the EGFR mutation or echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4)-ALK fusion gene prior to chemotherapy to predict their clinical response. The succinate dehydrogenase inhibition (SDI) test and collagen gel droplet embedded culture drug sensitivity test (CD-DST) are established in vitro drug sensitivity tests, which may predict the sensitivity of patients to cytotoxic anticancer drugs. We applied in vitro drug sensitivity tests for cyclopedic prediction of clinical responses to different molecular targeting drugs. Methods The growth inhibitory effects of erlotinib and crizotinib were confirmed for lung cancer cell lines using SDI and CD-DST. The sensitivity of 35 cases of surgically resected lung cancer to erlotinib was examined using SDI or CD-DST, and compared with EGFR mutation status. Results HCC827 (Exon19: E746-A750 del) and H3122 (EML4-ALK) cells were inhibited by lower concentrations of erlotinib and crizotinib, respectively than A549, H460, and H1975 (L858R+T790M) cells were. The viability of the surgically resected lung cancer was 60.0 ± 9.8 and 86.8 ± 13.9% in EGFR-mutants vs. wild types in the SDI (p = 0.0003). The cell viability was 33.5 ± 21.2 and 79.0 ± 18.6% in EGFR mutants vs. wild-type cases (p = 0.026) in CD-DST. Conclusions In vitro drug sensitivity evaluated by either SDI or CD-DST correlated with EGFR gene status. Therefore, SDI and CD-DST may be useful predictors of potential clinical responses to the molecular anticancer drugs, cyclopedically. PMID:27070423

  12. Leveraging Big Data to Transform Target Selection and Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Chen, B; Butte, AJ

    2016-01-01

    The advances of genomics, sequencing, and high throughput technologies have led to the creation of large volumes of diverse datasets for drug discovery. Analyzing these datasets to better understand disease and discover new drugs is becoming more common. Recent open data initiatives in basic and clinical research have dramatically increased the types of data available to the public. The past few years have witnessed successful use of big data in many sectors across the whole drug discovery pipeline. In this review, we will highlight the state of the art in leveraging big data to identify new targets, drug indications, and drug response biomarkers in this era of precision medicine. PMID:26659699

  13. Mining Predicted Essential Genes of Brugia malayi for Nematode Drug Targets

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sanjay; Chaudhary, Kshitiz; Foster, Jeremy M.; Novelli, Jacopo F.; Zhang, Yinhua; Wang, Shiliang; Spiro, David; Ghedin, Elodie; Carlow, Clotilde K. S.

    2007-01-01

    We report results from the first genome-wide application of a rational drug target selection methodology to a metazoan pathogen genome, the completed draft sequence of Brugia malayi, a parasitic nematode responsible for human lymphatic filariasis. More than 1.5 billion people worldwide are at risk of contracting lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis, a related filarial disease. Drug treatments for filariasis have not changed significantly in over 20 years, and with the risk of resistance rising, there is an urgent need for the development of new anti-filarial drug therapies. The recent publication of the draft genomic sequence for B. malayi enables a genome-wide search for new drug targets. However, there is no functional genomics data in B. malayi to guide the selection of potential drug targets. To circumvent this problem, we have utilized the free-living model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as a surrogate for B. malayi. Sequence comparisons between the two genomes allow us to map C. elegans orthologs to B. malayi genes. Using these orthology mappings and by incorporating the extensive genomic and functional genomic data, including genome-wide RNAi screens, that already exist for C. elegans, we identify potentially essential genes in B. malayi. Further incorporation of human host genome sequence data and a custom algorithm for prioritization enables us to collect and rank nearly 600 drug target candidates. Previously identified potential drug targets cluster near the top of our prioritized list, lending credibility to our methodology. Over-represented Gene Ontology terms, predicted InterPro domains, and RNAi phenotypes of C. elegans orthologs associated with the potential target pool are identified. By virtue of the selection procedure, the potential B. malayi drug targets highlight components of key processes in nematode biology such as central metabolism, molting and regulation of gene expression. PMID:18000556

  14. Application of chemical biology in target identification and drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yue; Xiao, Ting; Lei, Saifei; Zhou, Fulai; Wang, Ming-Wei

    2015-09-01

    Drug discovery and development is vital to the well-being of mankind and sustainability of the pharmaceutical industry. Using chemical biology approaches to discover drug leads has become a widely accepted path partially because of the completion of the Human Genome Project. Chemical biology mainly solves biological problems through searching previously unknown targets for pharmacologically active small molecules or finding ligands for well-defined drug targets. It is a powerful tool to study how these small molecules interact with their respective targets, as well as their roles in signal transduction, molecular recognition and cell functions. There have been an increasing number of new therapeutic targets being identified and subsequently validated as a result of advances in functional genomics, which in turn led to the discovery of numerous active small molecules via a variety of high-throughput screening initiatives. In this review, we highlight some applications of chemical biology in the context of drug discovery. PMID:26242900

  15. Design of Nanoparticle-Based Carriers for Targeted Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Muqing; Duval, Kayla; Guo, Xing; Chen, Zi

    2016-01-01

    Nanoparticles have shown promise as both drug delivery vehicles and direct antitumor systems, but they must be properly designed in order to maximize efficacy. Computational modeling is often used both to design new nanoparticles and to better understand existing ones. Modeled processes include the release of drugs at the tumor site and the physical interaction between the nanoparticle and cancer cells. In this article, we provide an overview of three different targeted drug delivery methods (passive targeting, active targeting and physical targeting), compare methods of action, advantages, limitations, and the current stage of research. For the most commonly used nanoparticle carriers, fabrication methods are also reviewed. This is followed by a review of computational simulations and models on nanoparticle-based drug delivery. PMID:27398083

  16. Antibody drug-conjugates targeting the tumor vasculature

    PubMed Central

    Gerber, Hans-Peter; Senter, Peter D

    2009-01-01

    Reducing the blood supply of tumors is one modality to combat cancer. Monoclonal antibodies are now established as a key therapeutic approach for a range of diseases. Owing to the ability of antibodies to selectively target endothelial cells within the tumor vasculature, vascular targeting programs have become a mainstay in oncology drug development. However, the antitumor activity of single agent administration of conventional anti-angiogenic compounds is limited and the improvements in patient survival are most prominent in combinations with chemotherapy. Furthermore, prolonged treatment with conventional anti-angiogenic drugs is associated with toxicity and drug resistance. These circumstances provide a strong rationale for novel approaches to enhance the efficacy of mAbs targeting tumor vasculature such as antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs). Here, we review trends in the development of ADCs targeting tumor vasculature with the aim of informing future research and development of this class of therapeutics. PMID:20069754

  17. Drug targeting to infectious diseases by nanoparticles surface functionalized with special biomolecules

    PubMed Central

    Sundar, Shyam; Prajapati, Vijay Kumar

    2012-01-01

    The potential to deliver nanoparticles directly into the targeted cells is important in the therapeutic applications for infectious diseases. The possibility of therapeutic agent being attached to the nanoparticles by chemical modification has provided a novel drug delivery option. Interestingly, the discovery of carbon nanotubes and graphene has given an excellent imaging and therapeutic agent for the biomedical applications. In spite of continuous advancement in pharmaceutical drug delivery viz. micelles, vesicles and liquid crystals etc. during the past decades, their prohibitive production has limited their use. Nanomaterials with their properties of biodegradation, equal biodistribution, mass production and long time storage make them attractive alternative for future biomedical applications. Nanoparticles surface functionalized with specific biomolecules based drug delivery has driven new direction for modulating the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, biorecognition; and increasing the efficacy of targeted drugs. These new strategies are likely to minimize drug degradation and loss, increase drug availability, and opens up new vistas for drug delivery. PMID:22612703

  18. Orexin Receptor Targets for Anti-Relapse Medication Development in Drug Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Luyi; Sun, Wei-Lun; See, Ronald E.

    2011-01-01

    Drug addiction is a chronic illness characterized by high rates of relapse. Relapse to drug use can be triggered by re-exposure to drug-associated cues, stressful events, or the drug itself after a period of abstinence. Pharmacological intervention to reduce the impact of relapse-instigating factors offers a promising target for addiction treatment. Growing evidence has implicated an important role of the orexin/hypocretin system in drug reward and drug-seeking, including animal models of relapse. Here, we review the evidence for the role of orexins in modulating reward and drug-seeking in animal models of addiction and the potential for orexin receptors as specific targets for anti-relapse medication approaches. PMID:23997653

  19. Alzheimer's disease, enzyme targets and drug discovery struggles: from natural products to drug prototypes.

    PubMed

    Silva, Tiago; Reis, Joana; Teixeira, José; Borges, Fernanda

    2014-05-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an incapacitating neurodegenerative disease that slowly destroys brain cells. This disease progressively compromises both memory and cognition, culminating in a state of full dependence and dementia. Currently, AD is the main cause of dementia in the elderly and its prevalence in the developed world is increasing rapidly. Classic drugs, such as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs), fail to decline disease progression and display several side effects that reduce patient's adhesion to pharmacotherapy. The past decade has witnessed an increasing focus on the search for novel AChEIs and new putative enzymatic targets for AD, like β- and γ-secretases, sirtuins, caspase proteins and glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3). In addition, new mechanistic rationales for drug discovery in AD that include autophagy and synaptogenesis have been discovered. Herein, we describe the state-of-the-art of the development of recent enzymatic inhibitors and enhancers with therapeutic potential on the treatment of AD. PMID:24726823

  20. Microfluidics for Drug Discovery and Development: From Target Selection to Product Lifecycle Management

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Lifeng; Chung, Bong Geun; Langer, Robert; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Microfluidic technologies’ ability to miniaturize assays and increase experimental throughput have generated significant interest in the drug discovery and development domain. These characteristics make microfluidic systems a potentially valuable tool for many drug discovery and development applications. Here, we review the recent advances of microfluidic devices for drug discovery and development and highlight their applications in different stages of the process, including target selection, lead identification, preclinical tests, clinical trials, chemical synthesis, formulations studies, and product management. PMID:18190858

  1. Microfluidics for drug discovery and development: from target selection to product lifecycle management.

    PubMed

    Kang, Lifeng; Chung, Bong Geun; Langer, Robert; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2008-01-01

    Microfluidic technologies' ability to miniaturize assays and increase experimental throughput have generated significant interest in the drug discovery and development domain. These characteristics make microfluidic systems a potentially valuable tool for many drug discovery and development applications. Here, we review the recent advances of microfluidic devices for drug discovery and development and highlight their applications in different stages of the process, including target selection, lead identification, preclinical tests, clinical trials, chemical synthesis, formulations studies and product management. PMID:18190858

  2. A Tutorial on Target-Mediated Drug Disposition (TMDD) Models

    PubMed Central

    Dua, P; Hawkins, E; van der Graaf, PH

    2015-01-01

    Target-mediated drug disposition (TMDD) is the phenomenon in which a drug binds with high affinity to its pharmacological target site (such as a receptor) to such an extent that this affects its pharmacokinetic characteristics.1 The aim of this Tutorial is to provide an introductory guide to the mathematical aspects of TMDD models for pharmaceutical researchers. Examples of Berkeley Madonna2 code for some models discussed in this Tutorial are provided in the Supplementary Materials. PMID:26225261

  3. Validating Aurora B as an anti-cancer drug target.

    PubMed

    Girdler, Fiona; Gascoigne, Karen E; Eyers, Patrick A; Hartmuth, Sonya; Crafter, Claire; Foote, Kevin M; Keen, Nicholas J; Taylor, Stephen S

    2006-09-01

    The Aurora kinases, a family of mitotic regulators, have received much attention as potential targets for novel anti-cancer therapeutics. Several Aurora kinase inhibitors have been described including ZM447439, which prevents chromosome alignment, spindle checkpoint function and cytokinesis. Subsequently, ZM447439-treated cells exit mitosis without dividing and lose viability. Because ZM447439 inhibits both Aurora A and B, we set out to determine which phenotypes are due to inhibition of which kinase. Using molecular genetic approaches, we show that inhibition of Aurora B kinase activity phenocopies ZM447439. Furthermore, a novel ZM compound, which is 100 times more selective for Aurora B over Aurora A in vitro, induces identical phenotypes. Importantly, inhibition of Aurora B kinase activity induces a penetrant anti-proliferative phenotype, indicating that Aurora B is an attractive anti-cancer drug target. Using molecular genetic and chemical-genetic approaches, we also probe the role of Aurora A kinase activity. We show that simultaneous repression of Aurora A plus induction of a catalytic mutant induces a monopolar phenotype. Consistently, another novel ZM-related inhibitor, which is 20 times as potent against Aurora A compared with ZM447439, induces a monopolar phenotype. Expression of a drug-resistant Aurora A mutant reverts this phenotype, demonstrating that Aurora A kinase activity is required for spindle bipolarity in human cells. Because small molecule-mediated inhibition of Aurora A and Aurora B yields distinct phenotypes, our observations indicate that the Auroras may present two avenues for anti-cancer drug discovery. PMID:16912073

  4. Predicting drug-target interactions using restricted Boltzmann machines

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuhao; Zeng, Jianyang

    2013-01-01

    Motivation: In silico prediction of drug-target interactions plays an important role toward identifying and developing new uses of existing or abandoned drugs. Network-based approaches have recently become a popular tool for discovering new drug-target interactions (DTIs). Unfortunately, most of these network-based approaches can only predict binary interactions between drugs and targets, and information about different types of interactions has not been well exploited for DTI prediction in previous studies. On the other hand, incorporating additional information about drug-target relationships or drug modes of action can improve prediction of DTIs. Furthermore, the predicted types of DTIs can broaden our understanding about the molecular basis of drug action. Results: We propose a first machine learning approach to integrate multiple types of DTIs and predict unknown drug-target relationships or drug modes of action. We cast the new DTI prediction problem into a two-layer graphical model, called restricted Boltzmann machine, and apply a practical learning algorithm to train our model and make predictions. Tests on two public databases show that our restricted Boltzmann machine model can effectively capture the latent features of a DTI network and achieve excellent performance on predicting different types of DTIs, with the area under precision-recall curve up to 89.6. In addition, we demonstrate that integrating multiple types of DTIs can significantly outperform other predictions either by simply mixing multiple types of interactions without distinction or using only a single interaction type. Further tests show that our approach can infer a high fraction of novel DTIs that has been validated by known experiments in the literature or other databases. These results indicate that our approach can have highly practical relevance to DTI prediction and drug repositioning, and hence advance the drug discovery process. Availability: Software and datasets are available

  5. Potential Targets for Colorectal Cancer Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Temraz, Sally; Mukherji, Deborah; Shamseddine, Ali

    2013-01-01

    The step-wise development of colorectal neoplasia from adenoma to carcinoma suggests that specific interventions could delay or prevent the development of invasive cancer. Several key factors involved in colorectal cancer pathogenesis have already been identified including cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), survivin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). Clinical trials of COX-2 inhibitors have provided the “proof of principle” that inhibition of this enzyme can prevent the formation of colonic adenomas and potentially carcinomas, however concerns regarding the potential toxicity of these drugs have limited their use as a chemopreventative strategy. Curcumin, resveratrol and quercetin are chemopreventive agents that are able to suppress multiple signaling pathways involved in carcinogenesis and hence are attractive candidates for further research. PMID:23975167

  6. Liposomes and nanotechnology in drug development: focus on ocular targets

    PubMed Central

    Honda, Miki; Asai, Tomohiro; Oku, Naoto; Araki, Yoshihiko; Tanaka, Minoru; Ebihara, Nobuyuki

    2013-01-01

    Poor drug delivery to lesions in patients’ eyes is a major obstacle to the treatment of ocular diseases. The accessibility of these areas to drugs is highly restricted by the presence of barriers, including the corneal barrier, aqueous barrier, and the inner and outer blood–retinal barriers. In particular, the posterior segment is difficult to reach for drugs because of its structural peculiarities. This review discusses various barriers to drug delivery and provides comprehensive information for designing nanoparticle-mediated drug delivery systems for the treatment of ocular diseases. Nanoparticles can be designed to improve penetration, controlled release, and drug targeting. As highlighted in this review, the therapeutic efficacy of drugs in ocular diseases has been reported to be enhanced by the use of nanoparticles such as liposomes, micro/nanospheres, microemulsions, and dendrimers. Our recent data show that intravitreal injection of targeted liposomes encapsulating an angiogenesis inhibitor caused significantly greater suppression of choroidal neovascularization than did the injection of free drug. Recent progress in ocular drug delivery systems research has provided new insights into drug development, and the use of nanoparticles for drug delivery is thus a promising approach for advanced therapy of ocular diseases. PMID:23439842

  7. Liposomes and nanotechnology in drug development: focus on ocular targets.

    PubMed

    Honda, Miki; Asai, Tomohiro; Oku, Naoto; Araki, Yoshihiko; Tanaka, Minoru; Ebihara, Nobuyuki

    2013-01-01

    Poor drug delivery to lesions in patients' eyes is a major obstacle to the treatment of ocular diseases. The accessibility of these areas to drugs is highly restricted by the presence of barriers, including the corneal barrier, aqueous barrier, and the inner and outer blood-retinal barriers. In particular, the posterior segment is difficult to reach for drugs because of its structural peculiarities. This review discusses various barriers to drug delivery and provides comprehensive information for designing nanoparticle-mediated drug delivery systems for the treatment of ocular diseases. Nanoparticles can be designed to improve penetration, controlled release, and drug targeting. As highlighted in this review, the therapeutic efficacy of drugs in ocular diseases has been reported to be enhanced by the use of nanoparticles such as liposomes, micro/nanospheres, microemulsions, and dendrimers. Our recent data show that intravitreal injection of targeted liposomes encapsulating an angiogenesis inhibitor caused significantly greater suppression of choroidal neovascularization than did the injection of free drug. Recent progress in ocular drug delivery systems research has provided new insights into drug development, and the use of nanoparticles for drug delivery is thus a promising approach for advanced therapy of ocular diseases. PMID:23439842

  8. NIH tools facilitate matching cancer drugs with gene targets

    Cancer.gov

    A new study details how a suite of web-based tools provides the research community with greatly improved capacity to compare data derived from large collections of genomic information against thousands of drugs. By comparing drugs and genetic targets, re

  9. Towards multifunctional, targeted drug delivery systems using mesoporous silica nanoparticles - opportunities & challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenholm, Jessica M.; Sahlgren, Cecilia; Lindén, Mika

    2010-10-01

    One of the big challenges of medicine today is to deliver drugs specifically to defected cells. Nanoparticulate drug carriers have the potential to answer to this call, as nanoparticles can cross physiological barriers and access different tissues, and also be provided in a targetable form aimed at enhancing cell specificity of the carrier. Recent developments within material science and strong collaborative efforts crossing disciplinary borders have highlighted the potential of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) for such targeted drug delivery. Here we outline recent advances which in this sense push MSNs to the forefront of drug delivery development. Relatively straightforward inside-out tuning of the vehicles, high flexibility, and potential for sophisticated release mechanisms make these nanostructures promising candidates for targeted drug delivery such as `smart' cancer therapies. Moreover, due to the large surface area and the controllable surface functionality of MSNs, they can be controllably loaded with large amounts of drugs and coupled to homing molecules to facilitate active targeting, simultaneously carrying traceable (fluorescent or magnetically active) modalities, also making them highly interesting as theragnostic agents. However, the increased relative surface area and small size, and flexible surface functionalization which is beneficially exploited in nanomedicine, consequently also includes potential risks in their interactions with biological systems. Therefore, we also discuss some safety issues regarding MSNs and highlight how different features of the drug delivery platform influence their behaviour in a biological setting. Addressing these burning questions will facilitate the application of MSNs in nanomedicine.

  10. Comparative genomics study for identification of putative drug targets in Salmonella typhi Ty2.

    PubMed

    Batool, Nisha; Waqar, Maleeha; Batool, Sidra

    2016-01-15

    Typhoid presents a major health concern in developing countries with an estimated annual infection rate of 21 million. The disease is caused by Salmonella typhi, a pathogenic bacterium acquiring multiple drug resistance. We aim to identify proteins that could prove to be putative drug targets in the genome of S. typhi str. Ty2. We employed comparative and subtractive genomics to identify targets that are absent in humans and are essential to S. typhi Ty2. We concluded that 46 proteins essential to pathogen are absent in the host genome. Filtration on the basis of drug target prioritization singled out 20 potentially therapeutic targets. Their absence in the host and specificity to S. typhi Ty2 makes them ideal targets for treating typhoid in Homo sapiens. 3D structures of two of the final target enzymes, MurA and MurB have been predicted via homology modeling which are then used for a docking study. PMID:26555890

  11. Systematic Identification of Anti-Fungal Drug Targets by a Metabolic Network Approach

    PubMed Central

    Kaltdorf, Martin; Srivastava, Mugdha; Gupta, Shishir K.; Liang, Chunguang; Binder, Jasmin; Dietl, Anna-Maria; Meir, Zohar; Haas, Hubertus; Osherov, Nir; Krappmann, Sven; Dandekar, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    New antimycotic drugs are challenging to find, as potential target proteins may have close human orthologs. We here focus on identifying metabolic targets that are critical for fungal growth and have minimal similarity to targets among human proteins. We compare and combine here: (I) direct metabolic network modeling using elementary mode analysis and flux estimates approximations using expression data, (II) targeting metabolic genes by transcriptome analysis of condition-specific highly expressed enzymes, and (III) analysis of enzyme structure, enzyme interconnectedness (“hubs”), and identification of pathogen-specific enzymes using orthology relations. We have identified 64 targets including metabolic enzymes involved in vitamin synthesis, lipid, and amino acid biosynthesis including 18 targets validated from the literature, two validated and five currently examined in own genetic experiments, and 38 further promising novel target proteins which are non-orthologous to human proteins, involved in metabolism and are highly ranked drug targets from these pipelines. PMID:27379244

  12. New drugs targeting Th2 lymphocytes in asthma.

    PubMed

    Caramori, Gaetano; Groneberg, David; Ito, Kazuhiro; Casolari, Paolo; Adcock, Ian M; Papi, Alberto

    2008-02-27

    Asthma represents a profound worldwide public health problem. The most effective anti-asthmatic drugs currently available include inhaled beta2-agonists and glucocorticoids and control asthma in about 90-95% of patients. The current asthma therapies are not cures and symptoms return soon after treatment is stopped even after long term therapy. Although glucocorticoids are highly effective in controlling the inflammatory process in asthma, they appear to have little effect on the lower airway remodelling processes that appear to play a role in the pathophysiology of asthma at currently prescribed doses. The development of novel drugs may allow resolution of these changes. In addition, severe glucocorticoid-dependent and resistant asthma presents a great clinical burden and reducing the side-effects of glucocorticoids using novel steroid-sparing agents is needed. Furthermore, the mechanisms involved in the persistence of inflammation are poorly understood and the reasons why some patients have severe life threatening asthma and others have very mild disease are still unknown. Drug development for asthma has been directed at improving currently available drugs and findings new compounds that usually target the Th2-driven airway inflammatory response. Considering the apparently central role of T lymphocytes in the pathogenesis of asthma, drugs targeting disease-inducing Th2 cells are promising therapeutic strategies. However, although animal models of asthma suggest that this is feasible, the translation of these types of studies for the treatment of human asthma remains poor due to the limitations of the models currently used. The myriad of new compounds that are in development directed to modulate Th2 cells recruitment and/or activation will clarify in the near future the relative importance of these cells and their mediators in the complex interactions with the other pro-inflammatory/anti-inflammatory cells and mediators responsible of the different asthmatic

  13. New drugs targeting Th2 lymphocytes in asthma

    PubMed Central

    Caramori, Gaetano; Groneberg, David; Ito, Kazuhiro; Casolari, Paolo; Adcock, Ian M; Papi, Alberto

    2008-01-01

    Asthma represents a profound worldwide public health problem. The most effective anti-asthmatic drugs currently available include inhaled β2-agonists and glucocorticoids and control asthma in about 90-95% of patients. The current asthma therapies are not cures and symptoms return soon after treatment is stopped even after long term therapy. Although glucocorticoids are highly effective in controlling the inflammatory process in asthma, they appear to have little effect on the lower airway remodelling processes that appear to play a role in the pathophysiology of asthma at currently prescribed doses. The development of novel drugs may allow resolution of these changes. In addition, severe glucocorticoid-dependent and resistant asthma presents a great clinical burden and reducing the side-effects of glucocorticoids using novel steroid-sparing agents is needed. Furthermore, the mechanisms involved in the persistence of inflammation are poorly understood and the reasons why some patients have severe life threatening asthma and others have very mild disease are still unknown. Drug development for asthma has been directed at improving currently available drugs and findings new compounds that usually target the Th2-driven airway inflammatory response. Considering the apparently central role of T lymphocytes in the pathogenesis of asthma, drugs targeting disease-inducing Th2 cells are promising therapeutic strategies. However, although animal models of asthma suggest that this is feasible, the translation of these types of studies for the treatment of human asthma remains poor due to the limitations of the models currently used. The myriad of new compounds that are in development directed to modulate Th2 cells recruitment and/or activation will clarify in the near future the relative importance of these cells and their mediators in the complex interactions with the other pro-inflammatory/anti-inflammatory cells and mediators responsible of the different asthmatic

  14. Aiming drug discovery at lysophosphatidic acid targets

    PubMed Central

    Tigyi, Gabor

    2010-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA, 1-radyl-2-hydroxy-sn-glycero-3-phosphate) is the prototype member of a family of lipid mediators and second messengers. LPA and its naturally occurring analogues interact with G protein-coupled receptors on the cell surface and a nuclear hormone receptor within the cell. In addition, there are several enzymes that utilize LPA as a substrate or generate it as a product and are under its regulatory control. LPA is present in biological fluids, and attempts have been made to link changes in its concentration and molecular composition to specific disease conditions. Through their many targets, members of the LPA family regulate cell survival, apoptosis, motility, shape, differentiation, gene transcription, malignant transformation and more. The present review depicts arbitrary aspects of the physiological and pathophysiological actions of LPA and attempts to link them with select targets. Many of us are now convinced that therapies targeting LPA biosynthesis and signalling are feasible for the treatment of devastating human diseases such as cancer, fibrosis and degenerative conditions. However, successful targeting of the pathways associated with this pleiotropic lipid will depend on the future development of as yet undeveloped pharmacons. PMID:20735414

  15. Scientometrics of drug discovery efforts: pain-related molecular targets

    PubMed Central

    Kissin, Igor

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to make a scientometric assessment of drug discovery efforts centered on pain-related molecular targets. The following scientometric indices were used: the popularity index, representing the share of articles (or patents) on a specific topic among all articles (or patents) on pain over the same 5-year period; the index of change, representing the change in the number of articles (or patents) on a topic from one 5-year period to the next; the index of expectations, representing the ratio of the number of all types of articles on a topic in the top 20 journals relative to the number of articles in all (>5,000) biomedical journals covered by PubMed over a 5-year period; the total number of articles representing Phase I–III trials of investigational drugs over a 5-year period; and the trial balance index, a ratio of Phase I–II publications to Phase III publications. Articles (PubMed database) and patents (US Patent and Trademark Office database) on 17 topics related to pain mechanisms were assessed during six 5-year periods from 1984 to 2013. During the most recent 5-year period (2009–2013), seven of 17 topics have demonstrated high research activity (purinergic receptors, serotonin, transient receptor potential channels, cytokines, gamma aminobutyric acid, glutamate, and protein kinases). However, even with these seven topics, the index of expectations decreased or did not change compared with the 2004–2008 period. In addition, publications representing Phase I–III trials of investigational drugs (2009–2013) did not indicate great enthusiasm on the part of the pharmaceutical industry regarding drugs specifically designed for treatment of pain. A promising development related to the new tool of molecular targeting, ie, monoclonal antibodies, for pain treatment has not yet resulted in real success. This approach has not yet demonstrated clinical effectiveness (at least with nerve growth factor) much beyond conventional analgesics

  16. Scientometrics of drug discovery efforts: pain-related molecular targets.

    PubMed

    Kissin, Igor

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to make a scientometric assessment of drug discovery efforts centered on pain-related molecular targets. The following scientometric indices were used: the popularity index, representing the share of articles (or patents) on a specific topic among all articles (or patents) on pain over the same 5-year period; the index of change, representing the change in the number of articles (or patents) on a topic from one 5-year period to the next; the index of expectations, representing the ratio of the number of all types of articles on a topic in the top 20 journals relative to the number of articles in all (>5,000) biomedical journals covered by PubMed over a 5-year period; the total number of articles representing Phase I-III trials of investigational drugs over a 5-year period; and the trial balance index, a ratio of Phase I-II publications to Phase III publications. Articles (PubMed database) and patents (US Patent and Trademark Office database) on 17 topics related to pain mechanisms were assessed during six 5-year periods from 1984 to 2013. During the most recent 5-year period (2009-2013), seven of 17 topics have demonstrated high research activity (purinergic receptors, serotonin, transient receptor potential channels, cytokines, gamma aminobutyric acid, glutamate, and protein kinases). However, even with these seven topics, the index of expectations decreased or did not change compared with the 2004-2008 period. In addition, publications representing Phase I-III trials of investigational drugs (2009-2013) did not indicate great enthusiasm on the part of the pharmaceutical industry regarding drugs specifically designed for treatment of pain. A promising development related to the new tool of molecular targeting, ie, monoclonal antibodies, for pain treatment has not yet resulted in real success. This approach has not yet demonstrated clinical effectiveness (at least with nerve growth factor) much beyond conventional analgesics, when its

  17. Improved drug targeting of cancer cells by utilizing actively targetable folic acid-conjugated albumin nanospheres.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zheyu; Li, Yan; Kohama, Kazuhiro; Oneill, Brian; Bi, Jingxiu

    2011-01-01

    Folic acid-conjugated albumin nanospheres (FA-AN) have been developed to provide an actively targetable drug delivery system for improved drug targeting of cancer cells with reduced side effects. The nanospheres were prepared by conjugating folic acid onto the surface of albumin nanospheres using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDAC) as a catalyst. To test the efficacy of these nanospheres as a potential delivery platform, doxorubicin-loaded albumin nanospheres (DOX-AN) and doxorubicin-loaded FA-AN (FA-DOX-AN) were prepared by entrapping DOX (an anthracycline, antibiotic drug widely used in cancer chemotherapy that works by intercalating DNA) into AN and FA-AN nanoparticles. Cell uptake of the DOX was then measured. The results show that FA-AN was incorporated into HeLa cells (tumor cells) only after 2.0h incubation, whereas HeLa cells failed to incorporate albumin nanospheres without conjugated folic acid after 4.0h incubation. When HeLa cells were treated with the DOX-AN, FA-DOX-AN nanoparticles or free DOX, cell viability decreased with increasing culture time (i.e. cell death increases with time) over a 70h period. Cell viability was always the lowest for free DOX followed by FA-DOX-AN4 and then DOX-AN. In a second set of experiments, HeLa cells washed to remove excess DOX after an initial incubation for 2h were incubated for 70h. The corresponding cell viability was slightly higher when the cells were treated with FA-DOX-AN or free DOX whilst cells treated with DOX-AN nanoparticles remained viable. The above experiments were repeated for non-cancerous, aortic smooth muscle cells (AoSMC). As expected, cell viability of the HeLa cells (with FA receptor alpha, FRα) and AoSMC cells (without FRα) decreased rapidly with time in the presence of free DOX, but treatment with FA-DOX-AN resulted in selective killing of the tumor cells. These results indicated that FA-AN may be used as a promising actively targetable drug delivery system to improve drug

  18. Dendrimers in drug delivery and targeting: Drug-dendrimer interactions and toxicity issues

    PubMed Central

    Madaan, Kanika; Kumar, Sandeep; Poonia, Neelam; Lather, Viney; Pandita, Deepti

    2014-01-01

    Dendrimers are the emerging polymeric architectures that are known for their defined structures, versatility in drug delivery and high functionality whose properties resemble with biomolecules. These nanostructured macromolecules have shown their potential abilities in entrapping and/or conjugating the high molecular weight hydrophilic/hydrophobic entities by host-guest interactions and covalent bonding (prodrug approach) respectively. Moreover, high ratio of surface groups to molecular volume has made them a promising synthetic vector for gene delivery. Owing to these properties dendrimers have fascinated the researchers in the development of new drug carriers and they have been implicated in many therapeutic and biomedical applications. Despite of their extensive applications, their use in biological systems is limited due to toxicity issues associated with them. Considering this, the present review has focused on the different strategies of their synthesis, drug delivery and targeting, gene delivery and other biomedical applications, interactions involved in formation of drug-dendrimer complex along with characterization techniques employed for their evaluation, toxicity problems and associated approaches to alleviate their inherent toxicity. PMID:25035633

  19. Predicting drug-target interaction for new drugs using enhanced similarity measures and super-target clustering.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jian-Yu; Yiu, Siu-Ming; Li, Yiming; Leung, Henry C M; Chin, Francis Y L

    2015-07-15

    Predicting drug-target interaction using computational approaches is an important step in drug discovery and repositioning. To predict whether there will be an interaction between a drug and a target, most existing methods identify similar drugs and targets in the database. The prediction is then made based on the known interactions of these drugs and targets. This idea is promising. However, there are two shortcomings that have not yet been addressed appropriately. Firstly, most of the methods only use 2D chemical structures and protein sequences to measure the similarity of drugs and targets respectively. However, this information may not fully capture the characteristics determining whether a drug will interact with a target. Secondly, there are very few known interactions, i.e. many interactions are "missing" in the database. Existing approaches are biased towards known interactions and have no good solutions to handle possibly missing interactions which affect the accuracy of the prediction. In this paper, we enhance the similarity measures to include non-structural (and non-sequence-based) information and introduce the concept of a "super-target" to handle the problem of possibly missing interactions. Based on evaluations on real data, we show that our similarity measure is better than the existing measures and our approach is able to achieve higher accuracy than the two best existing algorithms, WNN-GIP and KBMF2K. Our approach is available at http://web.hku.hk/∼liym1018/projects/drug/drug.html or http://www.bmlnwpu.org/us/tools/PredictingDTI_S2/METHODS.html. PMID:25957673

  20. In Vivo Target Validation Using Biological Molecules in Drug Development.

    PubMed

    Sim, Derek S; Kauser, Katalin

    2016-01-01

    Drug development is a resource-intensive process requiring significant financial and time investment. Preclinical target validation studies and in vivo testing of the therapeutic molecules in clinically relevant disease models can accelerate and significantly de-risk later stage clinical development. In this chapter, we will focus on (1) in vivo animal models and (2) pharmacological tools for target validation. PMID:26552401

  1. Evolving Strategies for Target Selection for Antibody-Drug Conjugates.

    PubMed

    Damelin, Marc; Zhong, Wenyan; Myers, Jeremy; Sapra, Puja

    2015-11-01

    Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) represent a promising modality for the treatment of cancer. The therapeutic strategy is to deliver a potent drug preferentially to the tumor and not normal tissues by attaching the drug to an antibody that recognizes a tumor antigen. The selection of antigen targets is critical to enabling a therapeutic window for the ADC and has proven to be surprisingly complex. We surveyed the tumor and normal tissue expression profiles of the targets of ADCs currently in clinical development. Our analysis demonstrates a surprisingly broad range of expression profiles and the inability to formalize any optimal parameters for an ADC target. In this context, we discuss additional considerations for ADC target selection, including interdependencies among biophysical properties of the drug, biological functions of the target and strategies for clinical development. The TPBG (5T4) oncofetal antigen and the anti-TPBG ADC A1-mcMMAF are highlighted to demonstrate the relevance of the target's biological function. Emerging platform technologies and novel biological insights are expanding ADC target space and transforming strategies for target selection. PMID:25585957

  2. Synthetic LDL as targeted drug delivery vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Forte, Trudy M.; Nikanjam, Mina

    2012-08-28

    The present invention provides a synthetic LDL nanoparticle comprising a lipid moiety and a synthetic chimeric peptide so as to be capable of binding the LDL receptor. The synthetic LDL nanoparticle of the present invention is capable of incorporating and targeting therapeutics to cells expressing the LDL receptor for diseases associated with the expression of the LDL receptor such as central nervous system diseases. The invention further provides methods of using such synthetic LDL nanoparticles.

  3. Glial cells as drug targets: What does it take?

    PubMed

    Möller, Thomas; Boddeke, Hendrikus W G M

    2016-10-01

    The last two decades have brought a significant increase in our understanding of glial biology and glial contribution to CNS disease. Yet, despite the fact that glial cells make up the majority of CNS cells, no drug specifically targeting glial cells is on the market. Given the long development times of CNS drugs, on average over 12 years, this is not completely surprising. However, there is increasing interest from academia and industry to exploit glial targets to develop drugs for the benefit of patients with currently limited or no therapeutic options. CNS drug development has a high attrition rate and has encountered many challenges. It seems unlikely that developing drugs against glial targets would be any less demanding. However, the knowledge generated in traditional CNS drug discovery teaches valuable lessons, which could enable the glial community to accelerate the cycle time from basic discovery to drug development. In this review we will discuss steps necessary to bring a "glial target idea" to a clinical development program. GLIA 2016;64:1742-1754. PMID:27121701

  4. Targeted drug delivery using genetically engineered diatom biosilica.

    PubMed

    Delalat, Bahman; Sheppard, Vonda C; Rasi Ghaemi, Soraya; Rao, Shasha; Prestidge, Clive A; McPhee, Gordon; Rogers, Mary-Louise; Donoghue, Jacqueline F; Pillay, Vinochani; Johns, Terrance G; Kröger, Nils; Voelcker, Nicolas H

    2015-01-01

    The ability to selectively kill cancerous cell populations while leaving healthy cells unaffected is a key goal in anticancer therapeutics. The use of nanoporous silica-based materials as drug-delivery vehicles has recently proven successful, yet production of these materials requires costly and toxic chemicals. Here we use diatom microalgae-derived nanoporous biosilica to deliver chemotherapeutic drugs to cancer cells. The diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana is genetically engineered to display an IgG-binding domain of protein G on the biosilica surface, enabling attachment of cell-targeting antibodies. Neuroblastoma and B-lymphoma cells are selectively targeted and killed by biosilica displaying specific antibodies sorbed with drug-loaded nanoparticles. Treatment with the same biosilica leads to tumour growth regression in a subcutaneous mouse xenograft model of neuroblastoma. These data indicate that genetically engineered biosilica frustules may be used as versatile 'backpacks' for the targeted delivery of poorly water-soluble anticancer drugs to tumour sites. PMID:26556723

  5. Computational selection of antibody-drug conjugate targets for breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fauteux, François; Hill, Jennifer J.; Jaramillo, Maria L.; Pan, Youlian; Phan, Sieu; Famili, Fazel; O'Connor-McCourt, Maureen

    2016-01-01

    The selection of therapeutic targets is a critical aspect of antibody-drug conjugate research and development. In this study, we applied computational methods to select candidate targets overexpressed in three major breast cancer subtypes as compared with a range of vital organs and tissues. Microarray data corresponding to over 8,000 tissue samples were collected from the public domain. Breast cancer samples were classified into molecular subtypes using an iterative ensemble approach combining six classification algorithms and three feature selection techniques, including a novel kernel density-based method. This feature selection method was used in conjunction with differential expression and subcellular localization information to assemble a primary list of targets. A total of 50 cell membrane targets were identified, including one target for which an antibody-drug conjugate is in clinical use, and six targets for which antibody-drug conjugates are in clinical trials for the treatment of breast cancer and other solid tumors. In addition, 50 extracellular proteins were identified as potential targets for non-internalizing strategies and alternative modalities. Candidate targets linked with the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition were identified by analyzing differential gene expression in epithelial and mesenchymal tumor-derived cell lines. Overall, these results show that mining human gene expression data has the power to select and prioritize breast cancer antibody-drug conjugate targets, and the potential to lead to new and more effective cancer therapeutics. PMID:26700623

  6. Self-Assembled Smart Nanocarriers for Targeted Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Cui, Wei; Li, Junbai; Decher, Gero

    2016-02-01

    Nanostructured drug-carrier systems promise numerous benefits for drug delivery. They can be engineered to precisely control drug-release rates or to target specific sites within the body with a specific amount of therapeutic agent. However, to achieve the best therapeutic effects, the systems should be designed for carrying the optimum amount of a drug to the desired target where it should be released at the optimum rate for a specified time. Despite numerous attempts, fulfilling all of these requirements in a synergistic way remains a huge challenge. The trend in drug delivery is consequently directed toward integrated multifunctional carrier systems, providing selective recognition in combination with sustained or triggered release. Capsules as vesicular systems enable drugs to be confined for controlled release. Furthermore, carriers modified with recognition groups can enhance the capability of encapsulated drug efficacy. Here, recent advances are reviewed regarding designing and preparing assembled capsules with targeting ligands or size controllable for selective recognition in drug delivery. PMID:26436442

  7. A Computational Drug Repositioning Approach for Targeting Oncogenic Transcription Factors.

    PubMed

    Gayvert, Kaitlyn M; Dardenne, Etienne; Cheung, Cynthia; Boland, Mary Regina; Lorberbaum, Tal; Wanjala, Jackline; Chen, Yu; Rubin, Mark A; Tatonetti, Nicholas P; Rickman, David S; Elemento, Olivier

    2016-06-14

    Mutations in transcription factor (TF) genes are frequently observed in tumors, often leading to aberrant transcriptional activity. Unfortunately, TFs are often considered undruggable due to the absence of targetable enzymatic activity. To address this problem, we developed CRAFTT, a computational drug-repositioning approach for targeting TF activity. CRAFTT combines ChIP-seq with drug-induced expression profiling to identify small molecules that can specifically perturb TF activity. Application to ENCODE ChIP-seq datasets revealed known drug-TF interactions, and a global drug-protein network analysis supported these predictions. Application of CRAFTT to ERG, a pro-invasive, frequently overexpressed oncogenic TF, predicted that dexamethasone would inhibit ERG activity. Dexamethasone significantly decreased cell invasion and migration in an ERG-dependent manner. Furthermore, analysis of electronic medical record data indicates a protective role for dexamethasone against prostate cancer. Altogether, our method provides a broadly applicable strategy for identifying drugs that specifically modulate TF activity. PMID:27264179

  8. Targeting the mycobacterial envelope for tuberculosis drug development

    PubMed Central

    Favrot, Lorenza; Ronning, Donald R

    2013-01-01

    The bacterium that causes tuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, possesses a rather unique outer membrane composed largely of lipids that possess long-chain and branched fatty acids, called mycolic acids. These lipids form a permeability barrier that prevents entry of many environmental solutes, thereby making these bacteria acid-fast and able to survive extremely hostile surroundings. Antitubercular drugs must penetrate this layer to reach their target. This review highlights drug development efforts that have added to the slowly growing tuberculosis drug pipeline, identified new enzyme activities to target with drugs and increased the understanding of important biosynthetic pathways for mycobacterial outer membrane and cell wall core assembly. In addition, a portion of this review looks at discovery efforts aimed at weakening this barrier to decrease mycobacterial virulence, decrease fitness in the host or enhance the efficacy of the current drug repertoire by disrupting the permeability barrier. PMID:23106277

  9. Drug bioactivation, covalent binding to target proteins and toxicity relevance.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shufeng; Chan, Eli; Duan, Wei; Huang, Min; Chen, Yu-Zong

    2005-01-01

    A number of therapeutic drugs with different structures and mechanisms of action have been reported to undergo metabolic activation by Phase I or Phase II drug-metabolizing enzymes. The bioactivation gives rise to reactive metabolites/intermediates, which readily confer covalent binding to various target proteins by nucleophilic substitution and/or Schiff's base mechanism. These drugs include analgesics (e.g., acetaminophen), antibacterial agents (e.g., sulfonamides and macrolide antibiotics), anticancer drugs (e.g., irinotecan), antiepileptic drugs (e.g., carbamazepine), anti-HIV agents (e.g., ritonavir), antipsychotics (e.g., clozapine), cardiovascular drugs (e.g., procainamide and hydralazine), immunosupressants (e.g., cyclosporine A), inhalational anesthetics (e.g., halothane), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDSs) (e.g., diclofenac), and steroids and their receptor modulators (e.g., estrogens and tamoxifen). Some herbal and dietary constituents are also bioactivated to reactive metabolites capable of binding covalently and inactivating cytochrome P450s (CYPs). A number of important target proteins of drugs have been identified by mass spectrometric techniques and proteomic approaches. The covalent binding and formation of drug-protein adducts are generally considered to be related to drug toxicity, and selective protein covalent binding by drug metabolites may lead to selective organ toxicity. However, the mechanisms involved in the protein adduct-induced toxicity are largely undefined, although it has been suggested that drug-protein adducts may cause toxicity either through impairing physiological functions of the modified proteins or through immune-mediated mechanisms. In addition, mechanism-based inhibition of CYPs may result in toxic drug-drug interactions. The clinical consequences of drug bioactivation and covalent binding to proteins are unpredictable, depending on many factors that are associated with the administered drugs and patients

  10. Influence networks based on coexpression improve drug target discovery for the development of novel cancer therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The demand for novel molecularly targeted drugs will continue to rise as we move forward toward the goal of personalizing cancer treatment to the molecular signature of individual tumors. However, the identification of targets and combinations of targets that can be safely and effectively modulated is one of the greatest challenges facing the drug discovery process. A promising approach is to use biological networks to prioritize targets based on their relative positions to one another, a property that affects their ability to maintain network integrity and propagate information-flow. Here, we introduce influence networks and demonstrate how they can be used to generate influence scores as a network-based metric to rank genes as potential drug targets. Results We use this approach to prioritize genes as drug target candidates in a set of ER + breast tumor samples collected during the course of neoadjuvant treatment with the aromatase inhibitor letrozole. We show that influential genes, those with high influence scores, tend to be essential and include a higher proportion of essential genes than those prioritized based on their position (i.e. hubs or bottlenecks) within the same network. Additionally, we show that influential genes represent novel biologically relevant drug targets for the treatment of ER + breast cancers. Moreover, we demonstrate that gene influence differs between untreated tumors and residual tumors that have adapted to drug treatment. In this way, influence scores capture the context-dependent functions of genes and present the opportunity to design combination treatment strategies that take advantage of the tumor adaptation process. Conclusions Influence networks efficiently find essential genes as promising drug targets and combinations of targets to inform the development of molecularly targeted drugs and their use. PMID:24495353

  11. Marked enhancement of lysosomal targeting and efficacy of ErbB2-targeted drug delivery by HSP90 inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Mohapatra, Bhopal; Luan, Haitao; Soni, Kruti; Zhang, Jinjin; Storck, Matthew A.; Feng, Dan; Bielecki, Timothy A.; Band, Vimla; Cohen, Samuel M.; Bronich, Tatiana K.; Band, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Targeted delivery of anticancer drugs to tumor cells using monoclonal antibodies against oncogenic cell surface receptors is an emerging therapeutic strategy. These strategies include drugs directly conjugated to monoclonal antibodies through chemical linkers (Antibody-Drug Conjugates, ADCs) or those encapsulated within nanoparticles that in turn are conjugated to targeting antibodies (Antibody-Nanoparticle Conjugates, ANPs). The recent FDA approval of the ADC Trastuzumab-TDM1 (Kadcyla®; Genentech; San Francisco) for the treatment of ErbB2-overexpressing metastatic breast cancer patients has validated the strong potential of these strategies. Even though the activity of ANPs and ADCs is dependent on lysosomal traffic, the roles of the endocytic route traversed by the targeted receptor and of cancer cell-specific alterations in receptor dynamics on the efficiency of drug delivery have not been considered in these new targeted therapies. For example, constitutive association with the molecular chaperone HSP90 is thought to either retard ErbB2 endocytosis or to promote its recycling, traits undesirable for targeted therapy with ANPs and ADCs. HSP90 inhibitors are known to promote ErbB2 ubiquitination, targeting to lysosome and degradation. We therefore hypothesized that ErbB2-targeted drug delivery using Trastuzumab-conjugated nanoparticles could be significantly improved by HSP90 inhibitor-promoted lysosomal traffic of ErbB2. Studies reported here validate this hypothesis and demonstrate, both in vitro and in vivo, that HSP90 inhibition facilitates the intracellular delivery of Trastuzumab-conjugated ANPs carrying a model chemotherapeutic agent, Doxorubicin, specifically into ErbB2-overexpressing breast cancer cells, resulting in improved antitumor activity. These novel findings highlight the need to consider oncogene-specific alterations in receptor traffic in the design of targeted drug delivery strategies. We suggest that combination of agents that enhance

  12. Marked enhancement of lysosomal targeting and efficacy of ErbB2-targeted drug delivery by HSP90 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Raja, Srikumar M; Desale, Swapnil S; Mohapatra, Bhopal; Luan, Haitao; Soni, Kruti; Zhang, Jinjin; Storck, Matthew A; Feng, Dan; Bielecki, Timothy A; Band, Vimla; Cohen, Samuel M; Bronich, Tatiana K; Band, Hamid

    2016-03-01

    Targeted delivery of anticancer drugs to tumor cells using monoclonal antibodies against oncogenic cell surface receptors is an emerging therapeutic strategy. These strategies include drugs directly conjugated to monoclonal antibodies through chemical linkers (Antibody-Drug Conjugates, ADCs) or those encapsulated within nanoparticles that in turn are conjugated to targeting antibodies (Antibody-Nanoparticle Conjugates, ANPs). The recent FDA approval of the ADC Trastuzumab-TDM1 (Kadcyla; Genentech; San Francisco) for the treatment of ErbB2-overexpressing metastatic breast cancer patients has validated the strong potential of these strategies. Even though the activity of ANPs and ADCs is dependent on lysosomal traffic, the roles of the endocytic route traversed by the targeted receptor and of cancer cell-specific alterations in receptor dynamics on the efficiency of drug delivery have not been considered in these new targeted therapies. For example, constitutive association with the molecular chaperone HSP90 is thought to either retard ErbB2 endocytosis or to promote its recycling, traits undesirable for targeted therapy with ANPs and ADCs. HSP90 inhibitors are known to promote ErbB2 ubiquitination, targeting to lysosome and degradation. We therefore hypothesized that ErbB2-targeted drug delivery using Trastuzumab-conjugated nanoparticles could be significantly improved by HSP90 inhibitor-promoted lysosomal traffic of ErbB2. Studies reported here validate this hypothesis and demonstrate, both in vitro and in vivo, that HSP90 inhibition facilitates the intracellular delivery of Trastuzumab-conjugated ANPs carrying a model chemotherapeutic agent, Doxorubicin, specifically into ErbB2-overexpressing breast cancer cells, resulting in improved antitumor activity. These novel findings highlight the need to consider oncogene-specific alterations in receptor traffic in the design of targeted drug delivery strategies. We suggest that combination of agents that enhance receptor

  13. Membrane lipidomics for the discovery of new antiparasitic drug targets.

    PubMed

    Maréchal, Eric; Riou, Mickaël; Kerboeuf, Dominique; Beugnet, Frédéric; Chaminade, Pierre; Loiseau, Philippe M

    2011-11-01

    Advances in lipid separation methods and mass spectrometry technologies allow the fine characterization of the lipidome of parasites, ranging from unicellular protists to worms, which cause threatening infections in vertebrates, including humans. Specific lipid structures or lipid metabolic pathways can inspire the development of novel antiparasitic drugs. Changes in the lipid balance in membranes of parasites can also provide clues on the dynamics of drugs and some mechanisms of drug resistance. This review highlights recent trends in parasite lipidomics, combined with functional analyses, for the discovery of novel targets and the development of novel drugs. PMID:21862412

  14. Drug elucidation: invertebrate genetics sheds new light on the molecular targets of CNS drugs.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Donard S; Aamodt, Eric; Cohen, Bruce; Buttner, Edgar A

    2014-01-01

    Many important drugs approved to treat common human diseases were discovered by serendipity, without a firm understanding of their modes of action. As a result, the side effects and interactions of these medications are often unpredictable, and there is limited guidance for improving the design of next-generation drugs. Here, we review the innovative use of simple model organisms, especially Caenorhabditis elegans, to gain fresh insights into the complex biological effects of approved CNS medications. Whereas drug discovery involves the identification of new drug targets and lead compounds/biologics, and drug development spans preclinical testing to FDA approval, drug elucidation refers to the process of understanding the mechanisms of action of marketed drugs by studying their novel effects in model organisms. Drug elucidation studies have revealed new pathways affected by antipsychotic drugs, e.g., the insulin signaling pathway, a trace amine receptor and a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Similarly, novel targets of antidepressant drugs and lithium have been identified in C. elegans, including lipid-binding/transport proteins and the SGK-1 signaling pathway, respectively. Elucidation of the mode of action of anesthetic agents has shown that anesthesia can involve mitochondrial targets, leak currents, and gap junctions. The general approach reviewed in this article has advanced our knowledge about important drugs for CNS disorders and can guide future drug discovery efforts. PMID:25120487

  15. Drug elucidation: invertebrate genetics sheds new light on the molecular targets of CNS drugs

    PubMed Central

    Dwyer, Donard S.; Aamodt, Eric; Cohen, Bruce; Buttner, Edgar A.

    2014-01-01

    Many important drugs approved to treat common human diseases were discovered by serendipity, without a firm understanding of their modes of action. As a result, the side effects and interactions of these medications are often unpredictable, and there is limited guidance for improving the design of next-generation drugs. Here, we review the innovative use of simple model organisms, especially Caenorhabditis elegans, to gain fresh insights into the complex biological effects of approved CNS medications. Whereas drug discovery involves the identification of new drug targets and lead compounds/biologics, and drug development spans preclinical testing to FDA approval, drug elucidation refers to the process of understanding the mechanisms of action of marketed drugs by studying their novel effects in model organisms. Drug elucidation studies have revealed new pathways affected by antipsychotic drugs, e.g., the insulin signaling pathway, a trace amine receptor and a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Similarly, novel targets of antidepressant drugs and lithium have been identified in C. elegans, including lipid-binding/transport proteins and the SGK-1 signaling pathway, respectively. Elucidation of the mode of action of anesthetic agents has shown that anesthesia can involve mitochondrial targets, leak currents, and gap junctions. The general approach reviewed in this article has advanced our knowledge about important drugs for CNS disorders and can guide future drug discovery efforts. PMID:25120487

  16. [Progress of mesoporous silica nanoparticles in targeting drug delivery system of antitumor drug].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-min; Mo, Shu; Liu, Xiao-qian; Han, Fu-man; Wang, Jin-yu; Wang, Zhi-min

    2015-09-01

    Currently, chemotherapy is one of the main therapy for cancer. But the traditional antitumor drugs are systemic distribution in vivo, they are difficult to achieve an effective drug concentration in the tumor tissue and don't have the ability to distinguish normal cells and tumor cells by themselves, that cause systemic toxicity easily and can not meet the clinical needs. With the research on mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) deepening, more and more attention in the drug delivery system have been payed to in recent years, because of its unique physicochemical structure characteristics, it has the effect on specific targets, directly inhibits the tumor cell growth, reduces the side effects to normal cells, tissues and organs and can be long-term medication, etc. It is expected to be excellent carriers of antitumor drugs. MSNs application in the field of cancer treatment has now become a hot research field of medicine. In this paper, the latest research about MSNs in antitumor drugs targeting delivery system from 2008 to 2015 is summarized, including the application of MSNs separately in antitumor drug targeting, passive targeting, active targeting, physical or chemical conditions response targeting and other compound targeting drug delivery system. We expect it to provide a reference to the toxicity reducing and efficacy enhancing and further development of chemical medicine, natural medicine and monomeric compound of chinese herbal medicine. PMID:26978988

  17. Better Drug Discovery Through Better Target Identification

    PubMed Central

    CARROLL, JOHN

    2005-01-01

    High-throughput screening has the potential to shave hundreds of millions of dollars from the cost of research and development. Hailed as a major technological breakthrough 10 years ago, HTS has yet to live up to the hype. But scientists involved in second-generation HTS techniques say we’re getting close. PMID:23390406

  18. A functional variomics tool for discovering drug resistance genes and drug targets

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhiwei; Chen, Kaifu; Zhang, Jianhuai; Li, Yongxiang; Wang, Hui; Cui, Dandan; Tang, Jiangwu; Liu, Yong; Shi, Xiaomin; Li, Wei; Liu, Dan; Chen, Rui; Sucgang, Richard S.; Pan, Xuewen

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensive discovery of genetic mechanisms of drug resistance and identification of in vivo drug targets represent significant challenges. Here we present a functional variomics technology in the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This tool analyzes numerous genetic variants and effectively tackles both problems simultaneously. Using this tool, we discovered almost all genes that, due to mutations or modest overexpression, confer resistance to rapamycin, cycloheximide, and amphotericin B. Most significant among the resistance genes were drug targets, including multiple targets of a given drug. With amphotericin B, we discovered the highly conserved membrane protein Pmp3 as a potent resistance factor and a possible novel target. Widespread application of this tool should allow rapid identification of conserved resistance mechanisms and targets of many more compounds. New genes and alleles that confer resistance to other stresses can also be discovered. Similar tools in other systems such as human cell lines will also be useful. PMID:23416056

  19. Comprehensive transcriptomic analysis of molecularly targeted drugs in cancer for target pathway evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Mashima, Tetsuo; Ushijima, Masaru; Matsuura, Masaaki; Tsukahara, Satomi; Kunimasa, Kazuhiro; Furuno, Aki; Saito, Sakae; Kitamura, Masami; Soma-Nagae, Taeko; Seimiya, Hiroyuki; Dan, Shingo; Yamori, Takao; Tomida, Akihiro

    2015-01-01

    Targeted therapy is a rational and promising strategy for the treatment of advanced cancer. For the development of clinical agents targeting oncogenic signaling pathways, it is important to define the specificity of compounds to the target molecular pathway. Genome-wide transcriptomic analysis is an unbiased approach to evaluate the compound mode of action, but it is still unknown whether the analysis could be widely applicable to classify molecularly targeted anticancer agents. We comprehensively obtained and analyzed 129 transcriptomic datasets of cancer cells treated with 83 anticancer drugs or related agents, covering most clinically used, molecularly targeted drugs alongside promising inhibitors of molecular cancer targets. Hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis revealed that compounds targeting similar target molecules or pathways were clustered together. These results confirmed that the gene signatures of these drugs reflected their modes of action. Of note, inhibitors of oncogenic kinase pathways formed a large unique cluster, showing that these agents affect a shared molecular pathway distinct from classical antitumor agents and other classes of agents. The gene signature analysis further classified kinome-targeting agents depending on their target signaling pathways, and we identified target pathway-selective signature gene sets. The gene expression analysis was also valuable in uncovering unexpected target pathways of some anticancer agents. These results indicate that comprehensive transcriptomic analysis with our database (http://scads.jfcr.or.jp/db/cs/) is a powerful strategy to validate and re-evaluate the target pathways of anticancer compounds. PMID:25911996

  20. Neoadjuvant Window Studies of Metformin and Biomarker Development for Drugs Targeting Cancer Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Lord, Simon R; Patel, Neel; Liu, Dan; Fenwick, John; Gleeson, Fergus; Buffa, Francesca; Harris, Adrian L

    2015-05-01

    There has been growing interest in the potential of the altered metabolic state typical of cancer cells as a drug target. The antidiabetes drug, metformin, is now under intense investigation as a safe method to modify cancer metabolism. Several studies have used window of opportunity in breast cancer patients before neoadjuvant chemotherapy to correlate gene expression analysis, metabolomics, immunohistochemical markers, and metabolic serum markers with those likely to benefit. We review the role metabolite measurement, functional imaging and gene sequencing analysis play in elucidating the effects of metabolically targeted drugs in cancer treatment and determining patient selection. PMID:26063894

  1. One for All? Hitting Multiple Alzheimer's Disease Targets with One Drug.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Rebecca E; Nikolic, Katarina; Ramsay, Rona R

    2016-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS Many AD target combinations are being explored for multi-target drug design.New databases and models increase the potential of computational drug designLiraglutide and other antidiabetics are strong candidates for repurposing to AD.Donecopride a dual 5-HT/AChE inhibitor shows promise in pre-clinical studies Alzheimer's Disease is a complex and multifactorial disease for which the mechanism is still not fully understood. As new insights into disease progression are discovered, new drugs must be designed to target those aspects of the disease that cause neuronal damage rather than just the symptoms currently addressed by single target drugs. It is becoming possible to target several aspects of the disease pathology at once using multi-target drugs (MTDs). Intended as an introduction for non-experts, this review describes the key MTD design approaches, namely structure-based, in silico, and data-mining, to evaluate what is preventing compounds progressing through the clinic to the market. Repurposing current drugs using their off-target effects reduces the cost of development, time to launch, and the uncertainty associated with safety and pharmacokinetics. The most promising drugs currently being investigated for repurposing to Alzheimer's Disease are rasagiline, originally developed for the treatment of Parkinson's Disease, and liraglutide, an antidiabetic. Rational drug design can combine pharmacophores of multiple drugs, systematically change functional groups, and rank them by virtual screening. Hits confirmed experimentally are rationally modified to generate an effective multi-potent lead compound. Examples from this approach are ASS234 with properties similar to rasagiline, and donecopride, a hybrid of an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor and a 5-HT4 receptor agonist with pro-cognitive effects. Exploiting these interdisciplinary approaches, public-private collaborative lead factories promise faster delivery of new drugs to the clinic. PMID:27199640

  2. One for All? Hitting Multiple Alzheimer's Disease Targets with One Drug

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Rebecca E.; Nikolic, Katarina; Ramsay, Rona R.

    2016-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS Many AD target combinations are being explored for multi-target drug design.New databases and models increase the potential of computational drug designLiraglutide and other antidiabetics are strong candidates for repurposing to AD.Donecopride a dual 5-HT/AChE inhibitor shows promise in pre-clinical studies Alzheimer's Disease is a complex and multifactorial disease for which the mechanism is still not fully understood. As new insights into disease progression are discovered, new drugs must be designed to target those aspects of the disease that cause neuronal damage rather than just the symptoms currently addressed by single target drugs. It is becoming possible to target several aspects of the disease pathology at once using multi-target drugs (MTDs). Intended as an introduction for non-experts, this review describes the key MTD design approaches, namely structure-based, in silico, and data-mining, to evaluate what is preventing compounds progressing through the clinic to the market. Repurposing current drugs using their off-target effects reduces the cost of development, time to launch, and the uncertainty associated with safety and pharmacokinetics. The most promising drugs currently being investigated for repurposing to Alzheimer's Disease are rasagiline, originally developed for the treatment of Parkinson's Disease, and liraglutide, an antidiabetic. Rational drug design can combine pharmacophores of multiple drugs, systematically change functional groups, and rank them by virtual screening. Hits confirmed experimentally are rationally modified to generate an effective multi-potent lead compound. Examples from this approach are ASS234 with properties similar to rasagiline, and donecopride, a hybrid of an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor and a 5-HT4 receptor agonist with pro-cognitive effects. Exploiting these interdisciplinary approaches, public-private collaborative lead factories promise faster delivery of new drugs to the clinic. PMID:27199640

  3. Potential for Developing Purinergic Drugs for Gastrointestinal Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ochoa-Cortes, Fernando; Liñán-Rico, Andromeda; Jacobson, Kenneth A.; Christofi, Fievos L.

    2014-01-01

    Treatments for IBD, IBS, FD or motility disorders are not adequate, and purinergic drugs offer exciting new possibilities. GI symptoms that could be targeted for therapy include visceral pain, inflammatory pain, dysmotility, constipation and diarrhea. The focus of this review is on potential for developing purinergic drugs for clinical trials to treat GI symptoms. Purinergic receptors are divided into adenosine P1 (A1,A2A,A2B,A3), ionotropic ATP-gated P2X ion channel (P2X1–7) or metabotropic P2Y1,2,4,6,11–14 receptors. There is good experimental evidence for targeting A2A, A2B, A3, P2X7, P2X3 receptors or increasing endogenous adenosine levels to treat IBD, inflammatory pain, IBS/visceral pain, inflammatory-diarrhea and motility disorders. Purine genes are also potential biomarkers of disease. Advances in medicinal-chemistry have an accelerated pace toward clinical trials: Methotrexate and sulfasalazine, used to treat IBD, act by stimulating CD73-dependent adenosine production. ATP protects against NSAID-induced enteropathy and has pain-relieving properties in humans. A P2X7R antagonist AZD9056 is in clinical trials for CD. A3 AR drugs target inflammatory diseases (e.g. CF101; CF102). Dipyridamole, a nucleoside uptake-inhibitor, is in trials for endotoxemia. Drugs for pain in clinical-trials include P2X3/P2X2/3(AF-219) and P2X7(GSK1482160) antagonists and A1(GW493838) or A2A(BVT.115959) agonists. IberogastR is a phytopharmacon targeting purine-mechanisms with efficacy in IBS and FD. Purinergic drugs have excellent safety/efficacy profile for prospective clinical trials in IBD, IBS, FD and inflammatory-diarrhea. Genetic polymorphisms and caffeine consumption may affect susceptibility to treatment. Further studies in animals can clarify mechanisms and test new-generation drugs. Finally, there is still a huge gap in our knowledge of human pathophysiology of purinergic signaling. PMID:24859298

  4. The Targeted-liposome Delivery System of Antitumor Drugs.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei-dang; Yi, Xiu-lin; Jiang, Li-xin; Li, Ya-zhuo; Gao, Jing; Zeng, Yong; Yi, Rong-da; Dai, Li-peng; Li, Wei; Ci, Xiao-yan; Si, Duan-yun; Liu, Chang-xiao

    2015-01-01

    The liposome delivery system has been intensively explored as novel drug delivery system (DDS) for antitumor drugs, due to its safety, selective cytotoxicity, long circulation and slow elimination in blood, which is favorable for cancer therapy. The liposome-based chemotherapeutics are used to treat a variety of cancers to enhance the therapeutic index of antitumor drugs. Here, the author reviewed the important targets for cancer therapy and the pharmacokinetic behavior of liposomal drugs in vivo, as well as the application of the targeting liposomal system in cancer therapy. Considering further application for clinical use, the great challenges of the liposome-based delivery system were also proposed as follows: 1) prepare stealth liposome with steric stabilization and further enhance the therapeutic effects and safety; 2) explore more safe clinical targets and complementary or different types of targeting liposome; 3) thirdly, more investment is needed on the research of pharmacokinetics of the elements such as the ligands (antibody), PEG and lipids of liposome delivery system as well as safety evaluation. Considering the complex process of the liposomal encapsulation drugs in vivo, the author inferred that there are maybe different forms of the encapsulation drug to be internalized by the tumor tissues at the same time and space, although there are little reports on it. PMID:26652257

  5. New insight into p-glycoprotein as a drug target.

    PubMed

    Breier, Albert; Gibalova, Lenka; Seres, Mario; Barancik, Miroslav; Sulova, Zdenka

    2013-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) of cancer tissue is a phenomenon in which cancer cells exhibit reduced sensitivity to a large group of unrelated drugs with different mechanisms of pharmacological activity. Mechanisms that reduce cell sensitivity to damage induced by a variety of chemicals were found to be caused by diverse, albeit well-defined, phenotypic alterations. The molecular basis of MDR commonly involves overexpression of the plasma membrane drug efflux pump - P-glycoprotein (P-gp). This glycoprotein is an ABCB1 member of the ABC transporter family. Cells that develop MDR of this type express massive amounts of P-gp that can induce a drug resistance of more than 100 times higher than normal cells to several drugs, which are substrates of P-gp. Expression of P-gp could be inherent to cancer cells with regard to the specialized tissues from which the cells originated. This is often designated as intrinsic Pgp- mediated MDR. However, overexpression of P-gp may be induced by selection and/or adaptation of cells during exposure to anticancer drugs; this particular example is known as acquired P-gp-mediated MDR. Drugs that are potential inducers of P-gp are often substrates of this transporter. However, several substances that have been proven to not be transportable by P-gp (such as cisplatin or alltrans retinoic acid) could induce minor improvements in P-gp overexpression. It is generally accepted that the drug efflux activity of Pgp is a major cause of reduced cell sensitivity to several compounds. However, P-gp may have side effects that are independent of its drug efflux activity. Several authors have described a direct influence of P-gp on the function of proteins involved in regulatory pathways, including apoptotic progression (such as p53, caspase-3 and Pokemon). Moreover, alterations of cell regulatory pathways, including protein expression, glycosylation and phosphorylation, have been demonstrated in cells overexpressing P-gp, which may consequently induce

  6. Liposomes and nanotechnology in drug development: focus on neurological targets

    PubMed Central

    Ramos-Cabrer, Pedro; Campos, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Neurological diseases represent a medical, social, and economic problem of paramount importance in developed countries. Although their etiology is generally known, developing therapeutic interventions for the central nervous system is challenging due to the impermeability of the blood–brain barrier. Thus, the fight against neurological diseases usually struggles “at the gates” of the brain. Flooding the bloodstream with drugs, where only a minor fraction reaches its target therapeutic site, is an inefficient, expensive, and dangerous procedure, because of the risk of side effects at nontargeted sites. Currently, advances in the field of nanotechnology have enabled development of a generation of multifunctional molecular platforms that are capable of transporting drugs across the blood–brain barrier, targeting specific cell types or functional states within the brain, releasing drugs in a controlled manner, and enabling visualization of processes in vivo using conventional imaging systems. The marriage between drug delivery and molecular imaging disciplines has resulted in a relatively new discipline, known as theranostics, which represents the basis of the concept of personalized medicine. In this study, we review the concepts of the blood–brain barrier and the strategies used to traverse/bypass it, the role of nanotechnology in theranostics, the wide range of nanoparticles (with emphasis on liposomes) that can be used as stealth drug carriers, imaging probes and targeting devices for the treatment of neurological diseases, and the targets and targeting strategies envisaged in the treatment of different types of brain pathology. PMID:23486739

  7. Targeting memory processes with drugs to prevent or cure PTSD

    PubMed Central

    Cain, Christopher K.; Maynard, George D.; Kehne, John H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a chronic debilitating psychiatric disorder resulting from exposure to a severe traumatic stressor and an area of great unmet medical need. Advances in pharmacological treatments beyond the currently approved SSRIs are needed. Areas covered Background on PTSD, as well as the neurobiology of stress responding and fear conditioning, is provided. Clinical and preclinical data for investigational agents with diverse pharmacological mechanisms are summarized. Expert opinion Advances in the understanding of stress biology and mechanisms of fear conditioning plasticity provide a rationale for treatment approaches that may reduce hyperarousal and dysfunctional aversive memories in PTSD. One challenge is to determine if these components are independent or reflect a common underlying neurobiological alteration. Numerous agents reviewed have potential for reducing PTSD core symptoms or targeted symptoms in chronic PTSD. Promising early data support drug approaches that seek to disrupt dysfunctional aversive memories by interfering with consolidation soon after trauma exposure, or in chronic PTSD, by blocking reconsolidation and/or enhancing extinction. Challenges remain for achieving selectivity when attempting to alter aversive memories. Targeting the underlying traumatic memory with a combination of pharmacological therapies applied with appropriate chronicity, and in combination with psychotherapy, is expected to substantially improve PTSD treatment. PMID:22834476

  8. Pharmacogenetics in drug regulation: promise, potential and pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Rashmi R

    2005-01-01

    Pharmacogenetic factors operate at pharmacokinetic as well as pharmacodynamic levels—the two components of the dose–response curve of a drug. Polymorphisms in drug metabolizing enzymes, transporters and/or pharmacological targets of drugs may profoundly influence the dose–response relationship between individuals. For some drugs, although retrospective data from case studies suggests that these polymorphisms are frequently associated with adverse drug reactions or failure of efficacy, the clinical utility of such data remains unproven. There is, therefore, an urgent need for prospective data to determine whether pre-treatment genotyping can improve therapy. Various regulatory guidelines already recommend exploration of the role of genetic factors when investigating a drug for its pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, dose–response relationship and drug interaction potential. Arising from the global heterogeneity in the frequency of variant alleles, regulatory guidelines also require the sponsors to provide additional information, usually pharmacogenetic bridging data, to determine whether data from one ethnic population can be extrapolated to another. At present, sponsors explore pharmacogenetic influences in early clinical pharmacokinetic studies but rarely do they carry the findings forward when designing dose–response studies or pivotal studies. When appropriate, regulatory authorities include genotype-specific recommendations in the prescribing information. Sometimes, this may include the need to adjust a dose in some genotypes under specific circumstances. Detailed references to pharmacogenetics in prescribing information and pharmacogenetically based prescribing in routine therapeutics will require robust prospective data from well-designed studies. With greater integration of pharmacogenetics in drug development, regulatory authorities expect to receive more detailed genetic data. This is likely to complicate the drug evaluation process as well as

  9. RGD-modified lipid disks as drug carriers for tumor targeted drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jie; Xie, Cao; Zhang, Mingfei; Wei, Xiaoli; Yan, Zhiqiang; Ren, Yachao; Ying, Man; Lu, Weiyue

    2016-03-01

    Melittin, the major component of the European bee venom, is a potential anticancer candidate due to its lytic properties. However, in vivo applications of melittin are limited due to its main side effect, hemolysis, especially when applied through intravenous administration. The polyethylene glycol-stabilized lipid disk is a novel type of nanocarrier, and the rim of lipid disks has a high affinity to amphiphilic peptides. In our study, a c(RGDyK) modified lipid disk was developed as a tumor targeted drug delivery system for melittin. Cryo-TEM was used to confirm the shape and size of lipid disks with or without c(RGDyK) modification. In vitro and in vivo hemolysis analyses revealed that the hemolysis effect significantly decreased after melittin associated with lipid disks. Importantly, the results of our in vivo biodistribution and tumor growth inhibitory experiments showed that c(RGDyK) modification increased the distribution of lipid disks in the tumor and the anticancer efficacy of melittin loaded lipid disks. Thus, we successfully achieved a targeted drug delivery system for melittin and other amphiphilic peptides with a good therapeutic effect and low side effects.

  10. RGD-modified lipid disks as drug carriers for tumor targeted drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jie; Xie, Cao; Zhang, Mingfei; Wei, Xiaoli; Yan, Zhiqiang; Ren, Yachao; Ying, Man; Lu, Weiyue

    2016-04-01

    Melittin, the major component of the European bee venom, is a potential anticancer candidate due to its lytic properties. However, in vivo applications of melittin are limited due to its main side effect, hemolysis, especially when applied through intravenous administration. The polyethylene glycol-stabilized lipid disk is a novel type of nanocarrier, and the rim of lipid disks has a high affinity to amphiphilic peptides. In our study, a c(RGDyK) modified lipid disk was developed as a tumor targeted drug delivery system for melittin. Cryo-TEM was used to confirm the shape and size of lipid disks with or without c(RGDyK) modification. In vitro and in vivo hemolysis analyses revealed that the hemolysis effect significantly decreased after melittin associated with lipid disks. Importantly, the results of our in vivo biodistribution and tumor growth inhibitory experiments showed that c(RGDyK) modification increased the distribution of lipid disks in the tumor and the anticancer efficacy of melittin loaded lipid disks. Thus, we successfully achieved a targeted drug delivery system for melittin and other amphiphilic peptides with a good therapeutic effect and low side effects. PMID:26972577

  11. Viral proteases as targets for drug design.

    PubMed

    Skoreński, Marcin; Sieńczyk, Marcin

    2013-01-01

    In order to productively infect a host, viruses must enter the cell and force host cell replication mechanisms to produce new infectious virus particles. The success of this process unfortunately results in disease progression and, in the case of infection with many viral species, may cause mortality. The discoveries of Louis Pasteur and Edward Jenner led to one of the greatest advances in modern medicine - the development of vaccines that generate long-lasting memory immune responses to combat viral infection. Widespread use of vaccines has reduced mortality and morbidity associated with viral infection and, in some cases, has completely eradicated virus from the human population. Unfortunately, several viral species maintain a significant ability to mutate and "escape" vaccine-induced immune responses. Thus, novel anti-viral agents are required for treatment and prevention of viral disease. Targeting proteases that are crucial in the viral life cycle has proven to be an effective method to control viral infection, and this avenue of investigation continues to generate anti-viral treatments. Herein, we provide the reader with a brief history as well as a comprehensive review of the most recent advances in the design and synthesis of viral protease inhibitors. PMID:23016690

  12. DRAR-CPI: a server for identifying drug repositioning potential and adverse drug reactions via the chemical-protein interactome.

    PubMed

    Luo, Heng; Chen, Jian; Shi, Leming; Mikailov, Mike; Zhu, Huang; Wang, Kejian; He, Lin; Yang, Lun

    2011-07-01

    Identifying new indications for existing drugs (drug repositioning) is an efficient way of maximizing their potential. Adverse drug reaction (ADR) is one of the leading causes of death among hospitalized patients. As both new indications and ADRs are caused by unexpected chemical-protein interactions on off-targets, it is reasonable to predict these interactions by mining the chemical-protein interactome (CPI). Making such predictions has recently been facilitated by a web server named DRAR-CPI. This server has a representative collection of drug molecules and targetable human proteins built up from our work in drug repositioning and ADR. When a user submits a molecule, the server will give the positive or negative association scores between the user's molecule and our library drugs based on their interaction profiles towards the targets. Users can thus predict the indications or ADRs of their molecule based on the association scores towards our library drugs. We have matched our predictions of drug-drug associations with those predicted via gene-expression profiles, achieving a matching rate as high as 74%. We have also successfully predicted the connections between anti-psychotics and anti-infectives, indicating the underlying relevance of anti-psychotics in the potential treatment of infections, vice versa. This server is freely available at http://cpi.bio-x.cn/drar/. PMID:21558322

  13. KCa 3.1-a microglial target ready for drug repurposing?

    PubMed

    Dale, Elena; Staal, Roland G W; Eder, Claudia; Möller, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    Over the past decade, glial cells have attracted attention for harboring unexploited targets for drug discovery. Several glial targets have attracted de novo drug discovery programs, as highlighted in this GLIA Special Issue. Drug repurposing, which has the objective of utilizing existing drugs as well as abandoned, failed, or not yet pursued clinical development candidates for new indications, might provide a faster opportunity to bring drugs for glial targets to patients with unmet needs. Here, we review the potential of the intermediate-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels KCa 3.1 as the target for such a repurposing effort. We discuss the data on KCa 3.1 expression on microglia in vitro and in vivo and review the relevant literature on the two KCa 3.1 inhibitors TRAM-34 and Senicapoc. Finally, we provide an outlook of what it might take to harness the potential of KCa 3.1 as a bona fide microglial drug target. GLIA 2016;64:1733-1741. PMID:27121595

  14. Recent discoveries of influenza A drug target sites to combat virus replication.

    PubMed

    Patel, Hershna; Kukol, Andreas

    2016-06-15

    Sequence variations in the binding sites of influenza A proteins are known to limit the effectiveness of current antiviral drugs. Clinically, this leads to increased rates of virus transmission and pathogenicity. Potential influenza A inhibitors are continually being discovered as a result of high-throughput cell based screening studies, whereas the application of computational tools to aid drug discovery has further increased the number of predicted inhibitors reported. This review brings together the aspects that relate to the identification of influenza A drug target sites and the findings from recent antiviral drug discovery strategies. PMID:27284062

  15. Pim-1 kinase as cancer drug target: An update

    PubMed Central

    TURSYNBAY, YERNAR; ZHANG, JINFU; LI, ZHI; TOKAY, TURSONJAN; ZHUMADILOV, ZHAXYBAY; WU, DENGLONG; XIE, YINGQIU

    2016-01-01

    Proviral integration site for Moloney murine leukemia virus-1 (Pim-1) is a serine/threonine kinase that regulates multiple cellular functions such as cell cycle, cell survival, drug resistance. Aberrant elevation of Pim-1 kinase is associated with numerous types of cancer. Two distinct isoforms of Pim-1 (Pim-1S and Pim-1L) show distinct cellular functions. Pim-1S predominately localizes to the nucleus and Pim-1L localizes to plasma membrane for drug resistance. Recent studies show that mitochondrial Pim-1 maintains mitochondrial integrity. Pim-1 is emerging as a cancer drug target, particularly in prostate cancer. Recently the potent new functions of Pim-1 in immunotherapy, senescence bypass, metastasis and epigenetic dynamics have been found. The aim of the present updated review is to provide brief information regarding networks of Pim-1 kinase and focus on its recent advances as a novel drug target. PMID:26893828

  16. Drug leads for interactive protein targets with unknown structure.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Ariel; Scott, L Ridgway

    2016-04-01

    The disruption of protein-protein interfaces (PPIs) remains a challenge in drug discovery. The problem becomes daunting when the structure of the target protein is unknown and is even further complicated when the interface is susceptible to disruptive phosphorylation. Based solely on protein sequence and information about phosphorylation-susceptible sites within the PPI, a new technology has been developed to identify drug leads to inhibit protein associations. Here we reveal this technology and contrast it with current structure-based technologies for the generation of drug leads. The novel technology is illustrated by a patented invention to treat heart failure. The success of this technology shows that it is possible to generate drug leads in the absence of target structure. PMID:26484433

  17. Drugs That Target Dynamic Microtubules: A New Molecular Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Stanton, Richard A.; Gernert, Kim M.; Nettles, James H.; Aneja, Ritu

    2011-01-01

    Microtubules have long been considered an ideal target for anticancer drugs because of the essential role they play in mitosis, forming the dynamic spindle apparatus. As such, there is a wide variety of compounds currently in clinical use and in development that act as antimitotic agents by altering microtubule dynamics. Although these diverse molecules are known to affect microtubule dynamics upon binding to one of the three established drug domains (taxane, vinca alkaloid, or colchicine site), the exact mechanism by which each drug works is still an area of intense speculation and research. In this study, we review the effects of microtubule-binding chemotherapeutic agents from a new perspective, considering how their mode of binding induces conformational changes and alters biological function relative to the molecular vectors of microtubule assembly or disassembly. These “biological vectors” can thus be used as a spatiotemporal context to describe molecular mechanisms by which microtubule-targeting drugs work. PMID:21381049

  18. Active Targeted Drug Delivery for Microbes Using Nano-Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yung-Sheng; Lee, Ming-Yuan; Yang, Chih-Hui; Huang, Keng-Shiang

    2015-01-01

    Although vaccines and antibiotics could kill or inhibit microbes, many infectious diseases remain difficult to treat because of acquired resistance and adverse side effects. Nano-carriers-based technology has made significant progress for a long time and is introducing a new paradigm in drug delivery. However, it still has some challenges like lack of specificity toward targeting the infectious site. Nano-carriers utilized targeting ligands on their surface called ‘active target’ provide the promising way to solve the problems like accelerating drug delivery to infectious areas and preventing toxicity or side-effects. In this mini review, we demonstrate the recent studies using the active targeted strategy to kill or inhibit microbes. The four common nano-carriers (e.g. liposomes, nanoparticles, dendrimers and carbon nanotubes) delivering encapsulated drugs are introduced. PMID:25877093

  19. Resistance to targeted cancer drugs through hepatocyte growth factor signaling

    PubMed Central

    Heynen, Guus JJE; Fonfara, Aldona; Bernards, René

    2014-01-01

    Cancer therapeutics that target a signaling pathway to which the cancer cells are addicted can deliver dramatic initial responses, but resistance is nearly always inevitable. A variety of mechanisms that cancer cells employ to escape from targeted cancer drugs have been described. We review here the role of Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF) and its receptor MET in drug resistance. We present data demonstrating that HGF can confer resistance to a number of kinase inhibitors in a variety of cancer cell lines and discuss our results in relation to the findings of others. Together, these data point at a major role for HGF/MET signaling in resistance to a variety of targeted cancer drugs. PMID:25426675

  20. The role of acoustofluidics in targeted drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Bose, Nilanjana; Zhang, Xunli; Maiti, Tapas K.; Chakraborty, Suman

    2015-01-01

    With the fast development of acoustic systems in clinical and therapeutic applications, acoustically driven microbubbles have gained a prominent role as powerful tools to carry, transfer, direct, and target drug molecules in cells, tissues, and tumors in the expanding fields of targeted drug delivery and gene therapy. The aim of the present study is to establish a biocompatible acoustic microfluidic system and to demonstrate the generation of an acoustic field and its effects on microbubbles and biological cells in the microfluidic system. The acoustic field creates non-linear oscillations of the microbubble-clusters, which results in generation of shear stress on cells in such microsystems. This effectively helps in delivering extracellular probes in living cells by sonoporation. The sonoporation is investigated under the combined effects of acoustic stress and hydrodynamic stress during targeted drug and gene delivery. PMID:26339329

  1. Schistosoma mansoni Sirtuins: Characterization and Potential as Chemotherapeutic Targets

    PubMed Central

    Lancelot, Julien; Caby, Stéphanie; Dubois-Abdesselem, Florence; Vanderstraete, Mathieu; Trolet, Jacques; Oliveira, Guilherme; Bracher, Franz; Jung, Manfred; Pierce, Raymond J.

    2013-01-01

    Background The chemotherapy of schistosomiasis currently depends on the use of a single drug, praziquantel. In order to develop novel chemotherapeutic agents we are investigating enzymes involved in the epigenetic modification of chromatin. Sirtuins are NAD+ dependent lysine deacetylases that are involved in a wide variety of cellular processes including histone deacetylation, and have been demonstrated to be therapeutic targets in various pathologies, including cancer. Methodology, Principal Findings In order to determine whether Schistosoma mansoni sirtuins are potential therapeutic targets we first identified and characterized their protein sequences. Five sirtuins (SmSirt) are encoded in the S. mansoni genome and phylogenetic analysis showed that they are orthologues of mammalian Sirt1, Sirt2, Sirt5, Sirt6 and Sirt7. Both SmSirt1 and SmSirt7 have large insertion in the catalytic domain compared to their mammalian orthologues. SmSirt5 is the only mitochondrial sirtuin encoded in the parasite genome (orthologues of Sirt3 and Sirt4 are absent) and transcripts corresponding to at least five splicing isoforms were identified. All five sirtuins are expressed throughout the parasite life-cycle, but with distinct patterns of expression. Sirtuin inhibitors were used to treat both schistosomula and adult worms maintained in culture. Three inhibitors in particular, Sirtinol, Salermide and MS3 induced apoptosis and death of schistosomula, the separation of adult worm pairs, and a reduction in egg laying. Moreover, Salermide treatment led to a marked disruption of the morphology of ovaries and testes. Transcriptional knockdown of SmSirt1 by RNA interference in adult worms led to morphological changes in the ovaries characterized by a marked increase in mature oocytes, reiterating the effects of sirtuin inhibitors and suggesting that SmSirt1 is their principal target. Conclusion, Significance Our data demonstrate the potential of schistosome sirtuins as therapeutic targets

  2. Matrix Metalloproteinases as Drug Targets in Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Palei, Ana C.T.; Granger, Joey P.; Tanus-Santos, Jose E.

    2013-01-01

    Preeclampsia is an important syndrome complicating pregnancy. While the pathogenesis of preeclampsia is not entirely known, poor placental perfusion leading to widespread maternal endothelial dysfunction is accepted as a major mechanism. It has been suggested that altered placental expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) may cause shallow cytotrophoblastic invasion and incomplete remodeling of the spiral arteries. MMPs are also thought to link placental ischemia to the cardiovascular alterations of preeclampsia. In fact, MMPs may promote vasoconstriction and surface receptors cleavage affecting the vasculature. Therefore, the overall goal of this review article is to provide an overview of the pathophisiology of preeclampsia, more specifically regarding the role of MMPs in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia and the potential of MMP inhibitors as therapeutic options. PMID:23316964

  3. Pre-Targeting and Direct Immunotargeting of Liposomal Drug Carriers to Ovarian Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lehtinen, Julia; Raki, Mari; Bergström, Kim A.; Uutela, Päivi; Lehtinen, Katariina; Hiltunen, Annukka; Pikkarainen, Jere; Liang, Huamin; Pitkänen, Sari; Määttä, Ann-Marie; Ketola, Raimo A.; Yliperttula, Marjo; Wirth, Thomas; Urtti, Arto

    2012-01-01

    Background Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is overexpressed in many solid tumor types, such as ovarian carcinoma. Immunoliposome based drug targeting has shown promising results in drug delivery to the tumors. However, the ratio of tumor-to-normal tissue concentrations should be increased to minimize the adverse effects of cytostatic drugs. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied the EGFR-targeted doxorubicin immunoliposomes using pre-targeting and local intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of the liposomes. This approach was used to increase drug delivery to tumors as compared to direct intravenous (i.v.) administration of liposomes. EGFR antibodies were attached on the surface of PEG coated liposomes using biotin-neutravidin binding. Receptor mediated cellular uptake and cytotoxic efficacy of EGFR-targeted liposomes were investigated in human ovarian adenocarcinoma (SKOV-3 and SKOV3.ip1) cells. In vivo distribution of the liposomes in mice was explored using direct and pre-targeting approaches and SPECT/CT imaging. Targeted liposomes showed efficient and specific receptor-mediated binding to ovarian carcinoma cells in vitro, but the difference in cytotoxicity between targeted and non-targeted liposomes remained small. The relatively low cytotoxic efficacy is probably due to insufficient doxorubicin release from the liposomes rather than lack of target binding. Tumor uptake of targeted liposomes in vivo was comparable to that of non-targeted liposomes after both direct and pre-targeting administration. For both EGFR-targeted and non-targeted liposomes, the i.p. administration increased liposome accumulation to the tumors compared to i.v. injections. Conclusions/Significance Intraperitoneal administration of liposomes may be a beneficial approach to treat the tumors in the abdominal cavity. The i.p. pre-targeting method warrants further studies as a potential approach in cancer therapy. PMID:22844475

  4. Formulation, Evaluation and Optimization of Pectin- Bora Rice Beads for Colon Targeted Drug Delivery System

    PubMed Central

    Ramteke, Kuldeep Hemraj; Nath, Lilakant

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research was to established new polysaccharide for the colon targeted drug delivery system, its formulation and in vitro and in vivo evaluation. Methods: Microspheres containing pectin and bora rice were prepared by ionotropic gelation technique using zinc acetate as cross linking agent and model drug used was glipizide. A 32 full factorial design was employed to study the effect of independent variables, polymer to drug ratio (A), and concentration of cross linking agent (B) on dependent variables, particle size, swelling index, drug entrapment efficiency and percentage drug release. Results: Results of trial batches indicated that polymer to drug ratio and concentration of cross linking agent affects characteristics of beads. Beads were discrete, spherical and free flowing. Beads exhibited small particle size and showed higher percentage of drug entrapment efficiency. The optimized batch P2 exhibited satisfactory drug entrapment efficiency 68% and drug release was also controlled for more than 24 hours. The polymer to drug ratio had a more significant effect on the dependent variables. In vivo gamma scintigraphy study of optimized pectin-bora rice beads demonstrated degradation of beads whenever they reached to the colon. Conclusion: Bora rice is potential polysaccharide for colon targeted drug delivery system. PMID:24511481

  5. Targeting protein kinases in the malaria parasite: update of an antimalarial drug target.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Veronica M; Chavchich, Marina; Waters, Norman C

    2012-01-01

    Millions of deaths each year are attributed to malaria worldwide. Transmitted through the bite of an Anopheles mosquito, infection and subsequent death from the Plasmodium species, most notably P. falciparum, can readily spread through a susceptible population. A malaria vaccine does not exist and resistance to virtually every antimalarial drug predicts that mortality and morbidity associated with this disease will increase. With only a few antimalarial drugs currently in the pipeline, new therapeutic options and novel chemotypes are desperately needed. Hit-to-Lead diversity may successfully provide novel inhibitory scaffolds when essential enzymes are targeted, for example, the plasmodial protein kinases. Throughout the entire life cycle of the malaria parasite, protein kinases are essential for growth and development. Ongoing efforts continue to characterize these kinases, while simultaneously pursuing them as antimalarial drug targets. A collection of structural data, inhibitory profiles and target validation has set the foundation and support for targeting the malarial kinome. Pursuing protein kinases as cancer drug targets has generated a wealth of information on the inhibitory strategies that can be useful for antimalarial drug discovery. In this review, progress on selected protein kinases is described. As the search for novel antimalarials continues, an understanding of the phosphor-regulatory pathways will not only validate protein kinase targets, but also will identify novel chemotypes to thwart malaria drug resistance. PMID:22242850

  6. Proline rich motifs as drug targets in immune mediated disorders.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Mythily; Dunker, A Keith

    2012-01-01

    The current version of the human immunome network consists of nearly 1400 interactions involving approximately 600 proteins. Intermolecular interactions mediated by proline-rich motifs (PRMs) are observed in many facets of the immune response. The proline-rich regions are known to preferentially adopt a polyproline type II helical conformation, an extended structure that facilitates transient intermolecular interactions such as signal transduction, antigen recognition, cell-cell communication and cytoskeletal organization. The propensity of both the side chain and the backbone carbonyls of the polyproline type II helix to participate in the interface interaction makes it an excellent recognition motif. An advantage of such distinct chemical features is that the interactions can be discriminatory even in the absence of high affinities. Indeed, the immune response is mediated by well-orchestrated low-affinity short-duration intermolecular interactions. The proline-rich regions are predominantly localized in the solvent-exposed regions such as the loops, intrinsically disordered regions, or between domains that constitute the intermolecular interface. Peptide mimics of the PRM have been suggested as potential antagonists of intermolecular interactions. In this paper, we discuss novel PRM-mediated interactions in the human immunome that potentially serve as attractive targets for immunomodulation and drug development for inflammatory and autoimmune pathologies. PMID:22666276

  7. Proline Rich Motifs as Drug Targets in Immune Mediated Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Mythily; Dunker, A. Keith

    2012-01-01

    The current version of the human immunome network consists of nearly 1400 interactions involving approximately 600 proteins. Intermolecular interactions mediated by proline-rich motifs (PRMs) are observed in many facets of the immune response. The proline-rich regions are known to preferentially adopt a polyproline type II helical conformation, an extended structure that facilitates transient intermolecular interactions such as signal transduction, antigen recognition, cell-cell communication and cytoskeletal organization. The propensity of both the side chain and the backbone carbonyls of the polyproline type II helix to participate in the interface interaction makes it an excellent recognition motif. An advantage of such distinct chemical features is that the interactions can be discriminatory even in the absence of high affinities. Indeed, the immune response is mediated by well-orchestrated low-affinity short-duration intermolecular interactions. The proline-rich regions are predominantly localized in the solvent-exposed regions such as the loops, intrinsically disordered regions, or between domains that constitute the intermolecular interface. Peptide mimics of the PRM have been suggested as potential antagonists of intermolecular interactions. In this paper, we discuss novel PRM-mediated interactions in the human immunome that potentially serve as attractive targets for immunomodulation and drug development for inflammatory and autoimmune pathologies. PMID:22666276

  8. Identifying problematic drugs based on the characteristics of their targets

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Tiago J. S.; Shoemaker, Jason E.; Matsuoka, Yukiko; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Kitano, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    Identifying promising compounds during the early stages of drug development is a major challenge for both academia and the pharmaceutical industry. The difficulties are even more pronounced when we consider multi-target pharmacology, where the compounds often target more than one protein, or multiple compounds are used together. Here, we address this problem by using machine learning and network analysis to process sequence and interaction data from human proteins to identify promising compounds. We used this strategy to identify properties that make certain proteins more likely to cause harmful effects when targeted; such proteins usually have domains commonly found throughout the human proteome. Additionally, since currently marketed drugs hit multiple targets simultaneously, we combined the information from individual proteins to devise a score that quantifies the likelihood of a compound being harmful to humans. This approach enabled us to distinguish between approved and problematic drugs with an accuracy of 60–70%. Moreover, our approach can be applied as soon as candidate drugs are available, as demonstrated with predictions for more than 5000 experimental drugs. These resources are available at http://sourceforge.net/projects/psin/. PMID:26388775

  9. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles in target drug delivery system: A review

    PubMed Central

    Bharti, Charu; Nagaich, Upendra; Pal, Ashok Kumar; Gulati, Neha

    2015-01-01

    Due to lack of specification and solubility of drug molecules, patients have to take high doses of the drug to achieve the desired therapeutic effects for the treatment of diseases. To solve these problems, there are various drug carriers present in the pharmaceuticals, which can used to deliver therapeutic agents to the target site in the body. Mesoporous silica materials become known as a promising candidate that can overcome above problems and produce effects in a controllable and sustainable manner. In particular, mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) are widely used as a delivery reagent because silica possesses favorable chemical properties, thermal stability, and biocompatibility. The unique mesoporous structure of silica facilitates effective loading of drugs and their subsequent controlled release of the target site. The properties of mesoporous, including pore size, high drug loading, and porosity as well as the surface properties, can be altered depending on additives used to prepare MSNs. Active surface enables functionalization to changed surface properties and link therapeutic molecules. They are used as widely in the field of diagnosis, target drug delivery, bio-sensing, cellular uptake, etc., in the bio-medical field. This review aims to present the state of knowledge of silica containing mesoporous nanoparticles and specific application in various biomedical fields. PMID:26258053

  10. Cancer Drug Development: New Targets for Cancer Treatment.

    PubMed

    Curt

    1996-01-01

    cancer drug screening and cancer drug development. At the NCI, for example, the old in vivo mouse screen using mouse lymphomas has been shelved; it discovered compounds with some activity in lymphomas, but not the common solid tumors of adulthood. It has been replaced with an initial in vitro screen of some sixty cell lines, representing the common solid tumors-ovary, G.I., lung, breast, CNS, melanoma and others. The idea was to not only discover new drugs with specific anti-tumor activity but also to use the small volumes required for in vitro screening as a medium to screen for new natural product compounds, one of the richest sources of effective chemotherapy. The cell line project had an unexpected dividend. The pattern of sensitivity in the panel predicted the mechanism of action of unknown compounds. An antifolate suppressed cell growth of the different lines like other antifolates, anti-tubulin compounds suppressed like other anti-tubulins, and so on. It now became possible, at a very early stage of cancer drug screening, to select for drugs with unknown-and potentially novel-mechanisms of action. The idea was taken to the next logical step, and that was to characterize the entire panel for important molecular properties of human malignancy: mutations in the tumor suppressor gene p53, expression of important oncogenes like ras or myc, the gp170 gene which confers multiple drug resistance, protein-specific kinases, and others. It now became possible to use the cell line panel as a tool to detect new drugs which targeted a specific genetic property of the tumor cell. Researchers can now ask whether a given drug is likely to inhibit multiple drug resistance or kill cells which over-express specific oncogenes at the earliest phase of drug discovery. In this issue of The Oncologist, Tom Connors celebrates the fiftieth anniversary of cancer chemotherapy. His focus is on the importance of international collaboration in clinical trials and the negative impact of

  11. Lipid A as a Drug Target and Therapeutic Molecule

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Sang Hoon

    2015-01-01

    In this review, lipid A, from its discovery to recent findings, is presented as a drug target and therapeutic molecule. First, the biosynthetic pathway for lipid A, the Raetz pathway, serves as a good drug target for antibiotic development. Several assay methods used to screen for inhibitors of lipid A synthesis will be presented, and some of the promising lead compounds will be described. Second, utilization of lipid A biosynthetic pathways by various bacterial species can generate modified lipid A molecules with therapeutic value. PMID:26535075

  12. Biodegradable micelles capable of mannose-mediated targeted drug delivery to cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yin, Lichen; Chen, Yongbing; Zhang, Zhonghai; Yin, Qian; Zheng, Nan; Cheng, Jianjun

    2015-03-01

    A targeted micellar drug delivery system is developed from a biocompatible and biodegradable amphiphilic polyester, poly(Lac-OCA)-b-(poly(Tyr(alkynyl)-OCA)-g-mannose) (PLA-b-(PTA-g-mannose), that is synthesized via controlled ring-opening polymerization of O-carboxyanhydride (OCA) and highly efficient "Click" chemistry. Doxorubicin (DOX), a model lipophilic anticancer drug, can be effectively encapsulated into the micelles, and the mannose moiety allows active targeting of the micelles to cancer cells that specifically express mannose receptors, which thereafter enhances the anticancer efficiency of the drug. Comprised entirely of biodegradable and biocompatible polyesters, this micellar system demonstrates promising potentials for targeted drug delivery and cancer therapy. PMID:25619623

  13. Focus on flaviviruses: current and future drug targets

    PubMed Central

    Geiss, Brian J; Stahla, Hillary; Hannah, Amanda M; Gari, Harmid H; Keenan, Susan M

    2009-01-01

    Background Infection by mosquito-borne flaviviruses (family Flaviviridae) is increasing in prevalence worldwide. The vast global, social and economic impact due to the morbidity and mortality associated with the diseases caused by these viruses necessitates therapeutic intervention. There is currently no effective clinical treatment for any flaviviral infection. Therefore, there is a great need for the identification of novel inhibitors to target the virus lifecycle. Discussion In this article, we discuss structural and nonstructural viral proteins that are the focus of current target validation and drug discovery efforts. Both inhibition of essential enzymatic activities and disruption of necessary protein–protein interactions are considered. In addition, we address promising new targets for future research. Conclusion As our molecular and biochemical understanding of the flavivirus life cycle increases, the number of targets for antiviral therapeutic discovery grows and the possibility for novel drug discovery continues to strengthen. PMID:20165556

  14. Drug-eluting microarrays to identify effective chemotherapeutic combinations targeting patient-derived cancer stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Carstens, Matthew R.; Fisher, Robert C.; Acharya, Abhinav P.; Butterworth, Elizabeth A.; Scott, Edward; Huang, Emina H.; Keselowsky, Benjamin G.

    2015-01-01

    A new paradigm in oncology establishes a spectrum of tumorigenic potential across the heterogeneous phenotypes within a tumor. The cancer stem cell hypothesis postulates that a minute fraction of cells within a tumor, termed cancer stem cells (CSCs), have a tumor-initiating capacity that propels tumor growth. An application of this discovery is to target this critical cell population using chemotherapy; however, the process of isolating these cells is arduous, and the rarity of CSCs makes it difficult to test potential drug candidates in a robust fashion, particularly for individual patients. To address the challenge of screening drug libraries on patient-derived populations of rare cells, such as CSCs, we have developed a drug-eluting microarray, a miniaturized platform onto which a minimal quantity of cells can adhere and be exposed to unique treatment conditions. Hundreds of drug-loaded polymer islands acting as drug depots colocalized with adherent cells are surrounded by a nonfouling background, creating isolated culture environments on a solid substrate. Significant results can be obtained by testing <6% of the cells required for a typical 96-well plate. Reliability was demonstrated by an average coefficient of variation of 14% between all of the microarrays and 13% between identical conditions within a single microarray. Using the drug-eluting array, colorectal CSCs isolated from two patients exhibited unique responses to drug combinations when cultured on the drug-eluting microarray, highlighting the potential as a prognostic tool to identify personalized chemotherapeutic regimens targeting CSCs. PMID:26124098

  15. Macrophages associated with tumors as potential targets and therapeutic intermediates.

    PubMed

    Vinogradov, Serguei; Warren, Galya; Wei, Xin

    2014-04-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) form approximately 50% of tumor mass. TAMs were shown to promote tumor growth by suppressing immunocompetent cells, inducing neovascularization and supporting cancer stem cells. TAMs retain mobility in tumor mass, which can potentially be employed for better intratumoral biodistribution of nanocarriers and effective tumor growth inhibition. Due to the importance of TAMs, they are increasingly becoming principal targets of novel therapeutic approaches. In this review, we compare features of macrophages and TAMs that are essential for TAM-directed therapies, and illustrate the advantages of nanomedicine that are related to the preferential capture of nanocarriers by Mϕ in the process of drug delivery. We discuss recent efforts in reprogramming or inhibiting tumor-protecting properties of TAMs, and potential strategies to increase efficacy of conventional chemotherapy by combining with macrophage-associated delivery of nanodrugs. PMID:24827844

  16. Cryptococcal therapies and drug targets: the old, the new and the promising.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Carolina; Casadevall, Arturo

    2016-06-01

    Half a century after the introduction of Amphotericin B the management of cryptococcosis remains unsatisfactory. The disease, caused primarily by the two fungal species Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii, remains responsible for considerable morbidity and mortality despite standard medical care. Current therapeutic options are limited to Amphotericin B, azoles and 5-flucytosine. However, this organism has numerous well-characterized virulence mechanisms that are amenable to pharmacological interference and are thus potential therapeutic targets. Here, we discuss existing approved antifungal drugs, resistance mechanisms to these drugs and non-standard antifungal drugs that have potential in treatment of cryptococcosis, including immunomodulatory strategies that synergize with antifungal drugs, such as cytokine administration or monoclonal antibodies. Finally, we summarize attempts to target well-described virulence factors of Cryptococcus, the capsule or fungal melanin. This review emphasizes the pressing need for new therapeutic alternatives for cryptococcosis. PMID:26990050

  17. The Research and Applications of Quantum Dots as Nano-Carriers for Targeted Drug Delivery and Cancer Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Mei-Xia; Zhu, Bing-Jie

    2016-04-01

    Quantum dots (QDs), nano-carriers for drugs, can help realize the targeting of drugs, and improve the bioavailability of drugs in biological fields. And, a QD nano-carrier system for drugs has the potential to realize early detection, monitoring, and localized treatments of specific disease sites. In addition, QD nano-carrier systems for drugs can improve stability of drugs, lengthen circulation time in vivo, enhance targeted absorption, and improve the distribution and metabolism process of drugs in organization. So, the development of QD nano-carriers for drugs has become a hotspot in the fields of nano-drug research in recent years. In this paper, we review the advantages and applications of the QD nano-carriers for drugs in biological fields.

  18. The Research and Applications of Quantum Dots as Nano-Carriers for Targeted Drug Delivery and Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mei-Xia; Zhu, Bing-Jie

    2016-12-01

    Quantum dots (QDs), nano-carriers for drugs, can help realize the targeting of drugs, and improve the bioavailability of drugs in biological fields. And, a QD nano-carrier system for drugs has the potential to realize early detection, monitoring, and localized treatments of specific disease sites. In addition, QD nano-carrier systems for drugs can improve stability of drugs, lengthen circulation time in vivo, enhance targeted absorption, and improve the distribution and metabolism process of drugs in organization. So, the development of QD nano-carriers for drugs has become a hotspot in the fields of nano-drug research in recent years. In this paper, we review the advantages and applications of the QD nano-carriers for drugs in biological fields. PMID:27090658

  19. Phenotypic side effects prediction by optimizing correlation with chemical and target profiles of drugs.

    PubMed

    Kanji, Rakesh; Sharma, Abhinav; Bagler, Ganesh

    2015-11-01

    Despite technological progresses and improved understanding of biological systems, discovery of novel drugs is an inefficient, arduous and expensive process. Research and development cost of drugs is unreasonably high, largely attributed to the high attrition rate of candidate drugs due to adverse drug reactions. Computational methods for accurate prediction of drug side effects, rooted in empirical data of drugs, have the potential to enhance the efficacy of the drug discovery process. Identification of features critical for specifying side effects would facilitate efficient computational procedures for their prediction. We devised a generalized ordinary canonical correlation model for prediction of drug side effects based on their chemical properties as well as their target profiles. While the former is based on 2D and 3D chemical features, the latter enumerates a systems-level property of drugs. We find that the model incorporating chemical features outperforms that incorporating target profiles. Furthermore we identified the 2D and 3D chemical properties that yield best results, thereby implying their relevance in specifying adverse drug reactions. PMID:26252576

  20. Antibody fragment-conjugated polymeric micelles incorporating platinum drugs for targeted therapy of pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jooyeon; Miura, Yutaka; Yamada, Naoki; Chida, Tsukasa; Liu, Xueying; Kim, Ahram; Sato, Ryuta; Tsumura, Ryo; Koga, Yoshikatsu; Yasunaga, Masahiro; Nishiyama, Nobuhiro; Matsumura, Yasuhiro; Cabral, Horacio; Kataoka, Kazunori

    2015-01-01

    Antibody-mediated therapies including antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) have shown much potential in cancer treatment by tumor-targeted delivery of cytotoxic drugs. However, there is a limitation of payloads that can be delivered by ADCs. Integration of antibodies to drug-loaded nanocarriers broadens the applicability of antibodies to a wide range of therapeutics. Herein, we developed antibody fragment-installed polymeric micelles via maleimide-thiol conjugation for selectively delivering platinum drugs to pancreatic tumors. By tailoring the surface density of maleimide on the micelles, one tissue factor (TF)-targeting Fab' was conjugated to each carrier. Fab'-installed platinum-loaded micelles exhibited more than 15-fold increased cellular binding within 1 h and rapid cellular internalization compared to non-targeted micelles, leading to superior in vitro cytotoxicity. In vivo, Fab'-installed micelles significantly suppressed the growth of pancreatic tumor xenografts for more than 40 days, outperforming non-targeted micelles and free drugs. These results indicate the potential of Fab'-installed polymeric micelles for efficient drug delivery to solid tumors. PMID:25477168

  1. Extraction of potential adverse drug events from medical case reports

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The sheer amount of information about potential adverse drug events published in medical case reports pose major challenges for drug safety experts to perform timely monitoring. Efficient strategies for identification and extraction of information about potential adverse drug events from free‐text resources are needed to support pharmacovigilance research and pharmaceutical decision making. Therefore, this work focusses on the adaptation of a machine learning‐based system for the identification and extraction of potential adverse drug event relations from MEDLINE case reports. It relies on a high quality corpus that was manually annotated using an ontology‐driven methodology. Qualitative evaluation of the system showed robust results. An experiment with large scale relation extraction from MEDLINE delivered under‐identified potential adverse drug events not reported in drug monographs. Overall, this approach provides a scalable auto‐assistance platform for drug safety professionals to automatically collect potential adverse drug events communicated as free‐text data. PMID:23256479

  2. A Critical Review of Pro-Cognitive Drug Targets in Psychosis: Convergence on Myelination and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Kroken, Rune A.; Løberg, Else-Marie; Drønen, Tore; Grüner, Renate; Hugdahl, Kenneth; Kompus, Kristiina; Skrede, Silje; Johnsen, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Antipsychotic drugs have thus far focused on dopaminergic antagonism at the D2 receptors, as counteracting the hyperdopaminergia in nigrostriatal and mesolimbic projections has been considered mandatory for the antipsychotic action of the drugs. Current drugs effectively target the positive symptoms of psychosis such as hallucinations and delusions in the majority of patients, whereas effect sizes are smaller for negative symptoms and cognitive dysfunctions. With the understanding that neurocognitive dysfunction associated with schizophrenia have a greater impact on functional outcome than the positive symptoms, the focus in pharmacotherapy for schizophrenia has shifted to the potential effect of future drugs on cognitive enhancement. A major obstacle is, however, that the biological underpinnings of cognitive dysfunction remain largely unknown. With the availability of increasingly sophisticated techniques in molecular biology and brain imaging, this situation is about to change with major advances being made in identifying the neuronal substrates underlying schizophrenia, and putative pro-cognitive drug targets may be revealed. In relation to cognitive effects, this review focuses on evidence from basic neuroscience and clinical studies, taking two separate perspectives. One perspective is the identification of previously under-recognized treatment targets for existing antipsychotic drugs, including myelination and mediators of inflammation. A second perspective is the development of new drugs or novel treatment targets for well-known drugs, which act on recently discovered treatment targets for cognitive enhancement, and which may complement the existing drugs. This might pave the way for personalized treatment regimens for patients with schizophrenia aimed at improved functional outcome. The review also aims at identifying major current constraints for pro-cognitive drug development for patients with schizophrenia. PMID:24550848

  3. Magnetic drug targeting: biodistribution and dependency on magnetic field strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexiou, Ch.; Schmidt, A.; Klein, R.; Hulin, P.; Bergemann, Ch.; Arnold, W.

    2002-11-01

    "Magnetic drug targeting," a model of locoregional chemotherapy showed encouraging results in treatment of VX2-squamous cell carcinoma in rabbits. In the present study we investigated the biokinetic behavior of Iod [123]-labelled ferrofluids in vivo and showed in vitro that the ferrofluid concentration is dependent on the magnetic field strength.

  4. Mitochondrial chaperones may be targets for anti-cancer drugs

    Cancer.gov

    Scientists at NCI have found that a mitochondrial chaperone protein, TRAP1, may act indirectly as a tumor suppressor as well as a novel target for developing anti-cancer drugs. Chaperone proteins, such as TRAP1, help other proteins adapt to stress, but sc

  5. Breakable mesoporous silica nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Maggini, Laura; Cabrera, Ingrid; Ruiz-Carretero, Amparo; Prasetyanto, Eko A; Robinet, Eric; De Cola, Luisa

    2016-04-01

    "Pop goes the particle". Here we report on the preparation of redox responsive mesoporous organo-silica nanoparticles containing disulfide (S-S) bridges (ss-NPs) that, even upon the exohedral grafting of targeting ligands, retained their ability to undergo structural degradation, and increase their local release activity when exposed to a reducing agent. This degradation could be observed also inside glioma C6 cancer cells. Moreover, when anticancer drug-loaded pristine and derivatized ss-NPs were fed to glioma C6 cells, the responsive hybrids were more effective in their cytotoxic action compared to non-breakable particles. The possibility of tailoring the surface functionalization of this hybrid, yet preserving its self-destructive behavior and enhanced drug delivery properties, paves the way for the development of effective biodegradable materials for in vivo targeted drug delivery. PMID:26974603

  6. Computational drug design targeting protein-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Bienstock, Rachelle J

    2012-01-01

    Novel discoveries in molecular disease pathways within the cell, combined with increasing information regarding protein binding partners has lead to a new approach in drug discovery. There is interest in designing drugs to modulate protein-protein interactions as opposed to solely targeting the catalytic active site within a single enzyme or protein. There are many challenges in this new approach to drug discovery, particularly since the protein-protein interface has a larger surface area, can comprise a discontinuous epitope, and is more amorphous and less well defined than the typical drug design target, a small contained enzyme-binding pocket. Computational methods to predict modes of protein-protein interaction, as well as protein interface hot spots, have garnered significant interest, in order to facilitate the development of drugs to successfully disrupt and inhibit protein-protein interactions. This review summarizes some current methods available for computational protein-protein docking, as well as tabulating some examples of the successful design of antagonists and small molecule inhibitors for protein-protein interactions. Several of these drugs are now beginning to appear in the clinic. PMID:22316151

  7. Severe potential drug-drug interactions in older adults with dementia and associated factors

    PubMed Central

    Bogetti-Salazar, Michele; González-González, Cesar; Juárez-Cedillo, Teresa; Sánchez-García, Sergio; Rosas-Carrasco, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify the main severe potential drug-drug interactions in older adults with dementia and to examine the factors associated with these interactions. METHOD: This was a cross-sectional study. The enrolled patients were selected from six geriatrics clinics of tertiary care hospitals across Mexico City. The patients had received a clinical diagnosis of dementia based on the current standards and were further divided into the following two groups: those with severe drug-drug interactions (contraindicated/severe) (n=64) and those with non-severe drug-drug interactions (moderate/minor/absent) (n=117). Additional socio-demographic, clinical and caregiver data were included. Potential drug-drug interactions were identified using Micromedex Drug Reax 2.0® database. RESULTS: A total of 181 patients were enrolled, including 57 men (31.5%) and 124 women (68.5%) with a mean age of 80.11±8.28 years. One hundred and seven (59.1%) patients in our population had potential drug-drug interactions, of which 64 (59.81%) were severe/contraindicated. The main severe potential drug-drug interactions were caused by the combinations citalopram/anti-platelet (11.6%), clopidogrel/omeprazole (6.1%), and clopidogrel/aspirin (5.5%). Depression, the use of a higher number of medications, dementia severity and caregiver burden were the most significant factors associated with severe potential drug-drug interactions. CONCLUSIONS: Older people with dementia experience many severe potential drug-drug interactions. Anti-depressants, antiplatelets, anti-psychotics and omeprazole were the drugs most commonly involved in these interactions. Despite their frequent use, anti-dementia drugs were not involved in severe potential drug-drug interactions. The number and type of medications taken, dementia severity and depression in patients in addition to caregiver burden should be considered to avoid possible drug interactions in this population. PMID:26872079

  8. Breakable mesoporous silica nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggini, Laura; Cabrera, Ingrid; Ruiz-Carretero, Amparo; Prasetyanto, Eko A.; Robinet, Eric; de Cola, Luisa

    2016-03-01

    ``Pop goes the particle''. Here we report on the preparation of redox responsive mesoporous organo-silica nanoparticles containing disulfide (S-S) bridges (ss-NPs) that, even upon the exohedral grafting of targeting ligands, retained their ability to undergo structural degradation, and increase their local release activity when exposed to a reducing agent. This degradation could be observed also inside glioma C6 cancer cells. Moreover, when anticancer drug-loaded pristine and derivatized ss-NPs were fed to glioma C6 cells, the responsive hybrids were more effective in their cytotoxic action compared to non-breakable particles. The possibility of tailoring the surface functionalization of this hybrid, yet preserving its self-destructive behavior and enhanced drug delivery properties, paves the way for the development of effective biodegradable materials for in vivo targeted drug delivery.``Pop goes the particle''. Here we report on the preparation of redox responsive mesoporous organo-silica nanoparticles containing disulfide (S-S) bridges (ss-NPs) that, even upon the exohedral grafting of targeting ligands, retained their ability to undergo structural degradation, and increase their local release activity when exposed to a reducing agent. This degradation could be observed also inside glioma C6 cancer cells. Moreover, when anticancer drug-loaded pristine and derivatized ss-NPs were fed to glioma C6 cells, the responsive hybrids were more effective in their cytotoxic action compared to non-breakable particles. The possibility of tailoring the surface functionalization of this hybrid, yet preserving its self-destructive behavior and enhanced drug delivery properties, paves the way for the development of effective biodegradable materials for in vivo targeted drug delivery. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Full experimental procedures, additional SEM and TEM images of particles, complete UV-Vis and PL-monitored characterization of the breakdown of

  9. Low Beclin-1 expression predicts improved overall survival in patients treated with immunomodulatory drugs for multiple myeloma and identifies autophagy inhibition as a promising potentially druggable new therapeutic target: an analysis from The Austrian Myeloma Registry (AMR).

    PubMed

    Willenbacher, Wolfgang; Thangavadivel, Shanmugapriya; Greil, Richard; Willenbacher, Ella; Weger, Roman; Manzl, Claudia; Jöhrer, Karin; Brunner, Andrea

    2016-10-01

    Beclin-1 is a key regulator of autophagy and has been suggested to be involved in the development of drug resistance in multiple myeloma (MM). We analyzed the expression of Beclin-1 in a retrospective cohort of 70 MMs. Beclin-1 expression did not influence overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with therapy-naïve MM. In patients treated with immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs) lack of or low Beclin-1 expression resulted in a significantly improved OS and PFS compared to those treated with bortezomib or nonnovel agents. Beclin-1 expression was more frequently detected in relapsed MM than in therapy-naïve MM probably being a hallmark of tumor progression and therapy resistance. If validated prospectively, Beclin-1 expression might identify patients prone to profit above average from IMiDs and enable a more rational allocation of antimyeloma therapies. Furthermore, the inhibition of autophagy could be a new promising target to improve response to treatment in the relapsed/refractory setting. PMID:26880040

  10. Drug2Gene: an exhaustive resource to explore effectively the drug-target relation network

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Information about drug-target relations is at the heart of drug discovery. There are now dozens of databases providing drug-target interaction data with varying scope, and focus. Therefore, and due to the large chemical space, the overlap of the different data sets is surprisingly small. As searching through these sources manually is cumbersome, time-consuming and error-prone, integrating all the data is highly desirable. Despite a few attempts, integration has been hampered by the diversity of descriptions of compounds, and by the fact that the reported activity values, coming from different data sets, are not always directly comparable due to usage of different metrics or data formats. Description We have built Drug2Gene, a knowledge base, which combines the compound/drug-gene/protein information from 19 publicly available databases. A key feature is our rigorous unification and standardization process which makes the data truly comparable on a large scale, allowing for the first time effective data mining in such a large knowledge corpus. As of version 3.2, Drug2Gene contains 4,372,290 unified relations between compounds and their targets most of which include reported bioactivity data. We extend this set with putative (i.e. homology-inferred) relations where sufficient sequence homology between proteins suggests they may bind to similar compounds. Drug2Gene provides powerful search functionalities, very flexible export procedures, and a user-friendly web interface. Conclusions Drug2Gene v3.2 has become a mature and comprehensive knowledge base providing unified, standardized drug-target related information gathered from publicly available data sources. It can be used to integrate proprietary data sets with publicly available data sets. Its main goal is to be a ‘one-stop shop’ to identify tool compounds targeting a given gene product or for finding all known targets of a drug. Drug2Gene with its integrated data set of public compound-target

  11. Pericyte-targeting drug delivery and tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Eunah; Shin, Jong Wook

    2016-01-01

    Pericytes are contractile mural cells that wrap around the endothelial cells of capillaries and venules. Depending on the triggers by cellular signals, pericytes have specific functionality in tumor microenvironments, properties of potent stem cells, and plasticity in cellular pathology. These features of pericytes can be activated for the promotion or reduction of angiogenesis. Frontier studies have exploited pericyte-targeting drug delivery, using pericyte-specific peptides, small molecules, and DNA in tumor therapy. Moreover, the communication between pericytes and endothelial cells has been applied to the induction of vessel neoformation in tissue engineering. Pericytes may prove to be a novel target for tumor therapy and tissue engineering. The present paper specifically reviews pericyte-specific drug delivery and tissue engineering, allowing insight into the emerging research targeting pericytes. PMID:27313454

  12. Reductionism and complexity in nanoparticle-vectored drug targeting.

    PubMed

    Florence, Alexander T

    2012-07-20

    This paper briefly discusses reductionism as a process for dissecting the complexities of drug targeting mediated by nanoparticulate carriers. While reductionism has been said to have been a drawback to enhanced appreciation and understanding of complex biological systems, it is concluded here that the dissection of the individual stages of the procession from injection to final destination in specific targets in a living complex organism is essential. It should allow a decrease in the empiricism from laudable and inventive efforts to achieve high levels of drug delivery to specific diseased targets such as tumours. At the stage of development of the field there have perhaps been fewer than desirable detailed experimental or theoretical investigations of these individual stages. However, there are frequently analogies in the literature from which to draw at least tentative conclusions about the physics, physical chemistry and biology which underpin the processes involved. PMID:22100439

  13. Pericyte-targeting drug delivery and tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Kang, Eunah; Shin, Jong Wook

    2016-01-01

    Pericytes are contractile mural cells that wrap around the endothelial cells of capillaries and venules. Depending on the triggers by cellular signals, pericytes have specific functionality in tumor microenvironments, properties of potent stem cells, and plasticity in cellular pathology. These features of pericytes can be activated for the promotion or reduction of angiogenesis. Frontier studies have exploited pericyte-targeting drug delivery, using pericyte-specific peptides, small molecules, and DNA in tumor therapy. Moreover, the communication between pericytes and endothelial cells has been applied to the induction of vessel neoformation in tissue engineering. Pericytes may prove to be a novel target for tumor therapy and tissue engineering. The present paper specifically reviews pericyte-specific drug delivery and tissue engineering, allowing insight into the emerging research targeting pericytes. PMID:27313454

  14. pH-dependent drug-drug interactions for weak base drugs: potential implications for new drug development.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; Wu, F; Lee, S C; Zhao, H; Zhang, L

    2014-08-01

    Absorption of an orally administered drug with pH-dependent solubility may be altered when it is coadministered with a gastric acid-reducing agent (ARA). Assessing a drug's potential for pH-dependent drug-drug interactions (DDIs), considering study design elements for such DDI studies, and interpreting and communicating study results in the drug labeling to guide drug dosing are important for drug development. We collected pertinent information related to new molecular entities approved from January 2003 to May 2013 by the US Food and Drug Administration for which clinical DDI studies with ARAs were performed. On the basis of assessments of data on pH solubility and in vivo DDIs with ARAs, we proposed a conceptual framework for assessing the need for clinical pH-dependent DDI studies for weak base drugs (WBDs). Important study design considerations include selection of ARAs and timing of dosing of an ARA relative to the WBD in a DDI study. Labeling implications for drugs having DDIs with ARAs are also illustrated. PMID:24733008

  15. Computational design of nanoparticle drug delivery systems for selective targeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, Gregg A.; Bevan, Michael A.

    2015-09-01

    Ligand-functionalized nanoparticles capable of selectively binding to diseased versus healthy cell populations are attractive for improved efficacy of nanoparticle-based drug and gene therapies. However, nanoparticles functionalized with high affinity targeting ligands may lead to undesired off-target binding to healthy cells. In this work, Monte Carlo simulations were used to quantitatively determine net surface interactions, binding valency, and selectivity between targeted nanoparticles and cell surfaces. Dissociation constant, KD, and target membrane protein density, ρR, are explored over a range representative of healthy and cancerous cell surfaces. Our findings show highly selective binding to diseased cell surfaces can be achieved with multiple, weaker affinity targeting ligands that can be further optimized by varying the targeting ligand density, ρL. Using the approach developed in this work, nanomedicines can be optimally designed for exclusively targeting diseased cells and tissues.Ligand-functionalized nanoparticles capable of selectively binding to diseased versus healthy cell populations are attractive for improved efficacy of nanoparticle-based drug and gene therapies. However, nanoparticles functionalized with high affinity targeting ligands may lead to undesired off-target binding to healthy cells. In this work, Monte Carlo simulations were used to quantitatively determine net surface interactions, binding valency, and selectivity between targeted nanoparticles and cell surfaces. Dissociation constant, KD, and target membrane protein density, ρR, are explored over a range representative of healthy and cancerous cell surfaces. Our findings show highly selective binding to diseased cell surfaces can be achieved with multiple, weaker affinity targeting ligands that can be further optimized by varying the targeting ligand density, ρL. Using the approach developed in this work, nanomedicines can be optimally designed for exclusively targeting

  16. Flux Balance Analysis of Mycolic Acid Pathway: Targets for Anti-Tubercular Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Raman, Karthik; Rajagopalan, Preethi; Chandra, Nagasuma

    2005-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the focus of several investigations for design of newer drugs, as tuberculosis remains a major epidemic despite the availability of several drugs and a vaccine. Mycobacteria owe many of their unique qualities to mycolic acids, which are known to be important for their growth, survival, and pathogenicity. Mycolic acid biosynthesis has therefore been the focus of a number of biochemical and genetic studies. It also turns out to be the pathway inhibited by front-line anti-tubercular drugs such as isoniazid and ethionamide. Recent years have seen the emergence of systems-based methodologies that can be used to study microbial metabolism. Here, we seek to apply insights from flux balance analyses of the mycolic acid pathway (MAP) for the identification of anti-tubercular drug targets. We present a comprehensive model of mycolic acid synthesis in the pathogen M. tuberculosis involving 197 metabolites participating in 219 reactions catalysed by 28 proteins. Flux balance analysis (FBA) has been performed on the MAP model, which has provided insights into the metabolic capabilities of the pathway. In silico systematic gene deletions and inhibition of InhA by isoniazid, studied here, provide clues about proteins essential for the pathway and hence lead to a rational identification of possible drug targets. Feasibility studies using sequence analysis of the M. tuberculosis H37Rv and human proteomes indicate that, apart from the known InhA, potential targets for anti-tubercular drug design are AccD3, Fas, FabH, Pks13, DesA1/2, and DesA3. Proteins identified as essential by FBA correlate well with those previously identified experimentally through transposon site hybridisation mutagenesis. This study demonstrates the application of FBA for rational identification of potential anti-tubercular drug targets, which can indeed be a general strategy in drug design. The targets, chosen based on the critical points in the pathway, form a ready shortlist

  17. Targeting survivin overcomes drug resistance in acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eugene; Gang, Eun Ji; Hsieh, Yao-Te; Schaefer, Paul; Chae, Sanna; Klemm, Lars; Huantes, Sandra; Loh, Mignon; Conway, Edward M.; Kang, Eun-Suk; Hoe Koo, Hong; Hofmann, Wolf-Karsten; Heisterkamp, Nora; Pelus, Louis; Keerthivasan, Ganesan; Crispino, John; Kahn, Michael; Müschen, Markus

    2011-01-01

    Relapse of drug-resistant acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has been associated with increased expression of survivin/BIRC5, an inhibitor of apoptosis protein, suggesting a survival advantage for ALL cells. In the present study, we report that inhibition of survivin in patient-derived ALL can eradicate leukemia. Targeting survivin with shRNA in combination with chemotherapy resulted in no detectable minimal residual disease in a xenograft model of primary ALL. Similarly, pharmacologic knock-down of survivin using EZN-3042, a novel locked nucleic acid antisense oligonucleotide, in combination with chemotherapy eliminated drug-resistant ALL cells. These findings show the importance of survivin expression in drug resistance and demonstrate that survivin inhibition may represent a powerful approach to overcoming drug resistance and preventing relapse in patients with ALL. PMID:21715311

  18. Interactions of dendrimers with biological drug targets: reality or mystery - a gap in drug delivery and development research.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Shaimaa; Vepuri, Suresh B; Kalhapure, Rahul S; Govender, Thirumala

    2016-07-21

    Dendrimers have emerged as novel and efficient materials that can be used as therapeutic agents/drugs or as drug delivery carriers to enhance therapeutic outcomes. Molecular dendrimer interactions are central to their applications and realising their potential. The molecular interactions of dendrimers with drugs or other materials in drug delivery systems or drug conjugates have been extensively reported in the literature. However, despite the growing application of dendrimers as biologically active materials, research focusing on the mechanistic analysis of dendrimer interactions with therapeutic biological targets is currently lacking in the literature. This comprehensive review on dendrimers over the last 15 years therefore attempts to identify the reasons behind the apparent lack of dendrimer-receptor research and proposes approaches to address this issue. The structure, hierarchy and applications of dendrimers are briefly highlighted, followed by a review of their various applications, specifically as biologically active materials, with a focus on their interactions at the target site. It concludes with a technical guide to assist researchers on how to employ various molecular modelling and computational approaches for research on dendrimer interactions with biological targets at a molecular level. This review highlights the impact of a mechanistic analysis of dendrimer interactions on a molecular level, serves to guide and optimise their discovery as medicinal agents, and hopes to stimulate multidisciplinary research between scientific, experimental and molecular modelling research teams. PMID:27100841

  19. Multiple Targets for Drug-Induced Mitochondrial Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Kendall B

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial toxicity is rapidly gaining the interest of researchers and practitioners as a prominent liability in drug discovery and development, accounting for a growing proportion of preclinical drug attrition and post-market withdrawals or black box warnings by the U.S. FDA. To date, the focus of registries of drugs that elicit mitochondrial toxicity has been largely restricted to those that either inhibit the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) or uncouple mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Less appreciated are the toxicities that are secondary to the drug affecting either the molecular regulation, assembly or incorporation of the ETC into the inner mitochondrial membrane or those that limit substrate availability. The current article describes the complexities of molecular events and biochemical pathways required to sustain mitochondrial fidelity and substrate homeostasis with examples of drugs that interfere which the various pathways. The principal objective of this review is to shed light on the broader scope of drug-induced mitochondrial toxicities and how these secondary targets may account for a large portion of drug failures. PMID:25973981

  20. Drug carrier interaction with blood: a critical aspect for high-efficient vascular-targeted drug delivery systems

    PubMed Central

    Sobczynski, Daniel J; Fish, Margaret B; Fromen, Catherine A; Carasco-Teja, Mariana; Coleman, Rhima M; Eniola-Adefeso, Omolola

    2015-01-01

    Vascular wall endothelial cells control several physiological processes and are implicated in many diseases, making them an attractive candidate for drug targeting. Vascular-targeted drug carriers (VTCs) offer potential for reduced side effects and improved therapeutic efficacy, however, only limited therapeutic success has been achieved to date. This is perhaps due to complex interactions of VTCs with blood components, which dictate VTC transport and adhesion to endothelial cells. This review focuses on VTC interaction with blood as well as novel ‘bio-inspired’ designs to mimic and exploit features of blood in VTC development. Advanced approaches for enhancing VTCs are discussed along with applications in regenerative medicine, an area of massive potential growth and expansion of VTC utility in the near future. PMID:26272334

  1. Intracarotid Delivery of Drugs: The Potential and the Pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Shailendra; Meyers, Phillip M.; Ornstein, Eugene

    2014-01-01

    The major efforts to selectively deliver drugs to the brain in the last decade have relied on smart molecular techniques to penetrate the blood brain barrier while intraarterial drug delivery has drawn relatively little attention. In the last decade there have been rapid advances in endovascular techniques. Modern endovascular procedures can permit highly targeted drug delivery by intracarotid route. Intracarotid drug delivery can be the primary route of drug delivery or it could be used to facilitate the delivery of smart-neuropharmaceuticals. There have been few attempts to systematically understand the kinetics of intracarotid drugs. Anecdotal data suggests that intracarotid drug delivery is effective in the treatment of cerebral vasospasm, thromboembolic strokes, and neoplasms. Neuroanesthesiologists are frequently involved in the care of such high-risk patients. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the applications of intracarotid drug delivery and the unusual kinetics of intracarotid drugs. PMID:18719453

  2. A Computational Drug Repositioning Approach for Targeting Oncogenic Transcription Factors

    PubMed Central

    Gayvert, Kaitlyn; Dardenne, Etienne; Cheung, Cynthia; Boland, Mary Regina; Lorberbaum, Tal; Wanjala, Jackline; Chen, Yu; Rubin, Mark; Tatonetti, Nicholas P.; Rickman, David; Elemento, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Summary Mutations in transcription factors (TFs) genes are frequently observed in tumors, often leading to aberrant transcriptional activity. Unfortunately, TFs are often considered undruggable due to the absence of targetable enzymatic activity. To address this problem, we developed CRAFTT, a Computational drug-Repositioning Approach For Targeting Transcription factor activity. CRAFTT combines ChIP-seq with drug-induced expression profiling to identify small molecules that can specifically perturb TF activity. Application to ENCODE ChIP-seq datasets revealed known drug-TF interactions and a global drug-protein network analysis further supported these predictions. Application of CRAFTT to ERG, a pro-invasive, frequently over-expressed oncogenic TF predicted that dexamethasone would inhibit ERG activity. Indeed, dexamethasone significantly decreased cell invasion and migration in an ERG-dependent manner. Furthermore, analysis of Electronic Medical Record data indicates a protective role for dexamethasone against prostate cancer. Altogether, our method provides a broadly applicable strategy to identify drugs that specifically modulate TF activity. PMID:27264179

  3. Parasite neuropeptide biology: Seeding rational drug target selection?

    PubMed Central

    McVeigh, Paul; Atkinson, Louise; Marks, Nikki J.; Mousley, Angela; Dalzell, Johnathan J.; Sluder, Ann; Hammerland, Lance; Maule, Aaron G.

    2011-01-01

    The rationale for identifying drug targets within helminth neuromuscular signalling systems is based on the premise that adequate nerve and muscle function is essential for many of the key behavioural determinants of helminth parasitism, including sensory perception/host location, invasion, locomotion/orientation, attachment, feeding and reproduction. This premise is validated by the tendency of current anthelmintics to act on classical neurotransmitter-gated ion channels present on helminth nerve and/or muscle, yielding therapeutic endpoints associated with paralysis and/or death. Supplementary to classical neurotransmitters, helminth nervous systems are peptide-rich and encompass associated biosynthetic and signal transduction components – putative drug targets that remain to be exploited by anthelmintic chemotherapy. At this time, no neuropeptide system-targeting lead compounds have been reported, and given that our basic knowledge of neuropeptide biology in parasitic helminths remains inadequate, the short-term prospects for such drugs remain poor. Here, we review current knowledge of neuropeptide signalling in Nematoda and Platyhelminthes, and highlight a suite of 19 protein families that yield deleterious phenotypes in helminth reverse genetics screens. We suggest that orthologues of some of these peptidergic signalling components represent appealing therapeutic targets in parasitic helminths. PMID:24533265

  4. Architecture and Conservation of the Bacterial DNA Replication Machinery, an Underexploited Drug Target

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Andrew; Causer, Rebecca J; Dixon, Nicholas E

    2012-01-01

    New antibiotics with novel modes of action are required to combat the growing threat posed by multi-drug resistant bacteria. Over the last decade, genome sequencing and other high-throughput techniques have provided tremendous insight into the molecular processes underlying cellular functions in a wide range of bacterial species. We can now use these data to assess the degree of conservation of certain aspects of bacterial physiology, to help choose the best cellular targets for development of new broad-spectrum antibacterials. DNA replication is a conserved and essential process, and the large number of proteins that interact to replicate DNA in bacteria are distinct from those in eukaryotes and archaea; yet none of the antibiotics in current clinical use acts directly on the replication machinery. Bacterial DNA synthesis thus appears to be an underexploited drug target. However, before this system can be targeted for drug design, it is important to understand which parts are conserved and which are not, as this will have implications for the spectrum of activity of any new inhibitors against bacterial species, as well as the potential for development of drug resistance. In this review we assess similarities and differences in replication components and mechanisms across the bacteria, highlight current progress towards the discovery of novel replication inhibitors, and suggest those aspects of the replication machinery that have the greatest potential as drug targets. PMID:22206257

  5. Potential Drug Development Candidates for Human Soil-Transmitted Helminthiases

    PubMed Central

    Olliaro, Piero; Seiler, Jürg; Kuesel, Annette; Horton, John; Clark, Jeffrey N.; Don, Robert; Keiser, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Background Few drugs are available for soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH); the benzimidazoles albendazole and mebendazole are the only drugs being used for preventive chemotherapy as they can be given in one single dose with no weight adjustment. While generally safe and effective in reducing intensity of infection, they are contra-indicated in first-trimester pregnancy and have suboptimal efficacy against Trichuris trichiura. In addition, drug resistance is a threat. It is therefore important to find alternatives. Methodology We searched the literature and the animal health marketed products and pipeline for potential drug development candidates. Recently registered veterinary products offer advantages in that they have undergone extensive and rigorous animal testing, thus reducing the risk, cost and time to approval for human trials. For selected compounds, we retrieved and summarised publicly available information (through US Freedom of Information (FoI) statements, European Public Assessment Reports (EPAR) and published literature). Concomitantly, we developed a target product profile (TPP) against which the products were compared. Principal Findings The paper summarizes the general findings including various classes of compounds, and more specific information on two veterinary anthelmintics (monepantel, emodepside) and nitazoxanide, an antiprotozoal drug, compiled from the EMA EPAR and FDA registration files. Conclusions/Significance Few of the compounds already approved for use in human or animal medicine qualify for development track decision. Fast-tracking to approval for human studies may be possible for veterinary compounds like emodepside and monepantel, but additional information remains to be acquired before an informed decision can be made. PMID:21695247

  6. Polysaccharide-based micro/nanocarriers for oral colon-targeted drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Sang, Yuan; Feng, Jing; Li, Zhaoming; Zhao, Aili

    2016-08-01

    Oral colon-targeted drug delivery has attracted many researchers because of its distinct advantages of increasing the bioavailability of the drug at the target site and reducing the side effects. Polysaccharides that are precisely activated by the physiological environment of the colon hold greater promise for colon targeting. Considerable research efforts have been directed towards developing polysaccharide-based micro/nanocarriers. Types of polysaccharides for colon targeting and in vitro/in vivo assessments of polysaccharide-based carriers for oral colon-targeted drug delivery are summarised. Polysaccharide-based microspheres have gained increased importance not just for the delivery of the drugs for the treatment of local diseases associated with the colon (colon cancer, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), amoebiasis and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)), but also for it's potential for the delivery of anti-rheumatoid arthritis and anti-chronic stable angina drugs. Besides, Polysaccharide-based micro/nanocarriers such as microbeads, microcapsules, microparticles, nanoparticles, nanogels and nanospheres are also introduced in this review. PMID:26766303

  7. Fatty acid synthase as a potential therapeutic target in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Flavin, Richard; Peluso, Stephane; Nguyen, Paul L; Loda, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Fatty acid synthase (FASN) is a key enzyme involved in neoplastic lipogenesis. Overexpression of FASN is common in many cancers, and accumulating evidence suggests that it is a metabolic oncogene with an important role in tumor growth and survival, making it an attractive target for cancer therapy. Early small-molecule FASN inhibitors such as cerulenin, C75 and orlistat have been shown to induce apoptosis in several cancer cell lines and to induce tumor growth delay in several cancer xenograft models but their mechanism is still not well understood. These molecules suffer from pharmacological limitations and weight loss as a side effect that prevent their development as systemic drugs. Several potent inhibitors have recently been reported that may help to unravel and exploit the full potential of FASN as a target for cancer therapy in the near future. Furthermore, novel sources of FASN inhibitors, such as green tea and dietary soy, make both dietary manipulation and chemoprevention potential alternative modes of therapy in the future. PMID:20373869

  8. Extrahepatic targets and cellular reactivity of drug metabolites.

    PubMed

    Orhan, Hilmi

    2015-01-01

    Biotransformation is one of the key elements of chemically induced toxicity. Although organisms have an intrinsic tendency to diminish the harm posed by chemical exposure with or without structural modification and excretion of the agents (detoxification), this is not always the case; toxification may also occur. The liver has evolved to be the center of biotransformation from the anatomical, physiological and biochemical points of view; it is located alongside the stomach and intestine, it receives more than 25% of the cardiac output and it contains, in general, the richest quantity but also variety of drug metabolizing enzymes. That is why many orally taken drug-induced toxic effects are seen in the liver. Nevertheless, non-hepatic tissues in the organism are also subjected to toxic insult. Although several instances have suggested transport of liver-bioactivated reactive metabolites to the target tissue is responsible, such as monocrotaline-associated lung toxicity, tetraethyl lead- and n-hexane-associated nervous system toxicity and 2-methoxyethanol-associated testis toxicity, etc. [1], the vast majority of data show local bioactivation in the target tissue is responsible for the extrahepatic toxic outcome. The impact of extrahepatic bioactivation and toxicity of drugs can also be seen in cases of drug attrition due to unacceptable toxicity; adverse cardiovascular effects were the foremost reason for drug withdrawals between 1993 and 2006 [2]. On the other hand, the parent drug and/or its stable metabolite( s) may also cause adverse effects such as inhibition of transporters, occlusion of bile secretion (cholestasis) and accumulation in organelles such as mitochondria, causing steatosis in liver and possibly in other organs. However, this review attempts to summarize only extrahepatic bioactivation of drugs/chemicals and their effects at the cellular and tissue level. Specifically, it focuses on the two most perfused organs, lung and heart tissue, as well as

  9. Extracellularly activated nanocarriers: A new paradigm of tumor targeted drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Gullotti, Emily; Yeo, Yoon

    2009-01-01

    One of the main goals of nanomedicine is to develop a nanocarrier that can selectively deliver anti-cancer drugs to the targeted tumors. Extensive efforts have resulted in several tumor-targeted nanocarriers, some of which are approved for clinical use. Most nanocarriers achieve tumor-selective accumulation through the enhanced permeability and retention effect. Targeting molecules such as antibodies, peptides, ligands, or nucleic acids attached to the nanocarriers further enhance their recognition and internalization by the target tissues. While both the stealth and targeting features are important for effective and selective drug delivery to the tumors, achieving both features simultaneously is often found to be difficult. Some of the recent targeting strategies have the potential to overcome this challenge. These strategies utilize the unique extracellular environment of tumors to change the long-circulating nanocarriers to release the drug or interact with cells in a tumor-specific manner. This review discusses the new targeting strategies with recent examples, which utilize the environmental stimuli to activate the nanocarriers. Traditional strategies for tumor-targeted nanocarriers are briefly discussed with an emphasis on their achievements and challenges. PMID:19366234

  10. Biochemical pathway modeling tools for drug target detection in cancer and other complex diseases.

    PubMed

    Marin-Sanguino, Alberto; Gupta, Shailendra K; Voit, Eberhard O; Vera, Julio

    2011-01-01

    In the near future, computational tools and methods based on the mathematical modeling of biomedically relevant networks and pathways will be necessary for the design of therapeutic strategies that fight complex multifactorial diseases. Beyond the use of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic approaches, we propose here the use of dynamic modeling as a tool for describing and analyzing the structure and responses of signaling, genetic and metabolic networks involved in such diseases. Specifically, we discuss the design and construction of meaningful models of biochemical networks, as well as tools, concepts, and strategies for using these models in the search of potential drug targets. We describe three different families of computational tools: predictive model simulations as tools for designing optimal drug profiles and doses; sensitivity analysis as a method to detect key interactions that affect critical outcomes and other characteristics of the network; and other tools integrating mathematical modeling with advanced computation and optimization for detecting potential drug targets. Furthermore, we show how potential drug targets detected with these approaches can be used in a computer-aided context to design or select new drug molecules. All concepts are illustrated with simplified examples and with actual case studies extracted from the recent literature. PMID:21187230

  11. A review on proniosomal drug delivery system for targeted drug action

    PubMed Central

    Radha, G. V.; Rani, T. Sudha; Sarvani, B.

    2013-01-01

    Proniosomes are dry formulation of water soluble carrier particles that are coated with surfactant. They are rehydrated to form niosomal dispersion immediately before use on agitation in hot aqueous media within minutes. Proniosomes are physically stable during the storage and transport. Drug encapsulated in the vesicular structure of proniosomes prolong the existence of drug in the systematic circulation and enhances the penetration into target tissue and reduce toxicity. From a technical point of view, niosomes are promising drug carriers as they possess greater chemical stability and lack of many disadvantages associated with liposomes, such as high- cost and variable purity problems of phospholipids. The present review emphasizes on overall methods of preparation characterization and applicability of proniosomes in targeted drug action. PMID:24808669

  12. Functional liposomes in the cancer-targeted drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Tila, Dena; Ghasemi, Saeed; Yazdani-Arazi, Seyedeh Narjes; Ghanbarzadeh, Saeed

    2015-07-01

    Cancer is considered as one of the most severe health problems and is currently the third most common cause of death in the world after heart and infectious diseases. Novel therapies are constantly being discovered, developed and trialed. Many of the current anticancer agents exhibit non-ideal pharmaceutical and pharmacological properties and are distributed non-specifically throughout the body. This results in death of the both normal healthy and malignant cells and substantially leads to accruing a variety of serious toxic side effects. Therefore, the efficient systemic therapy of cancer is almost impossible due to harmful side effects of anticancer agents to the healthy organs and tissues. Furthermore, several problems such as low bioavailability of the drugs, low drug concentrations at the site of action, lack of drug specificity and drug-resistance also cause many restrictions on clinical applications of these drugs in the tumor therapy. Different types of the liposomal formulations have been used in medicine due to their distinctive advantages associated with their structural flexibility in the encapsulation of various agents with different physicochemical properties. They can also mediate delivery of the cargo to the appropriate cell type and subcellular compartment, reducing the effective dosage and possible side effects which are related to high systemic concentrations. Therefore, these novel systems were found very promising and encouraging dosage forms for the treatment of different types of cancer by increasing efficiency and reducing the systemic toxicity due to the specific drug delivery and targeting. PMID:25823898

  13. Ion Channels as Drug Targets in Central Nervous System Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Waszkielewicz, A.M; Gunia, A; Szkaradek, N; Słoczyńska, K; Krupińska, S; Marona, H

    2013-01-01

    Ion channel targeted drugs have always been related with either the central nervous system (CNS), the peripheral nervous system, or the cardiovascular system. Within the CNS, basic indications of drugs are: sleep disorders, anxiety, epilepsy, pain, etc. However, traditional channel blockers have multiple adverse events, mainly due to low specificity of mechanism of action. Lately, novel ion channel subtypes have been discovered, which gives premises to drug discovery process led towards specific channel subtypes. An example is Na+ channels, whose subtypes 1.3 and 1.7-1.9 are responsible for pain, and 1.1 and 1.2 – for epilepsy. Moreover, new drug candidates have been recognized. This review is focusing on ion channels subtypes, which play a significant role in current drug discovery and development process. The knowledge on channel subtypes has developed rapidly, giving new nomenclatures of ion channels. For example, Ca2+ channels are not any more divided to T, L, N, P/Q, and R, but they are described as Cav1.1-Cav3.3, with even newer nomenclature α1A-α1I and α1S. Moreover, new channels such as P2X1-P2X7, as well as TRPA1-TRPV1 have been discovered, giving premises for new types of analgesic drugs. PMID:23409712

  14. Iron Deprivation Affects Drug Susceptibilities of Mycobacteria Targeting Membrane Integrity

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Rahul; Hameed, Saif; Fatima, Zeeshan

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) acquired by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) through continuous deployment of antitubercular drugs warrants immediate search for novel targets and mechanisms. The ability of MTB to sense and become accustomed to changes in the host is essential for survival and confers the basis of infection. A crucial condition that MTB must surmount is iron limitation, during the establishment of infection, since iron is required by both bacteria and humans. This study focuses on how iron deprivation affects drug susceptibilities of known anti-TB drugs in Mycobacterium smegmatis, a “surrogate of MTB.” We showed that iron deprivation leads to enhanced potency of most commonly used first line anti-TB drugs that could be reverted upon iron supplementation. We explored that membrane homeostasis is disrupted upon iron deprivation as revealed by enhanced membrane permeability and hypersensitivity to membrane perturbing agent leading to increased passive diffusion of drug and TEM images showing detectable differences in cell envelope thickness. Furthermore, iron seems to be indispensable to sustain genotoxic stress suggesting its possible role in DNA repair machinery. Taken together, we for the first time established a link between cellular iron and drug susceptibility of mycobacteria suggesting iron as novel determinant to combat MDR. PMID:26779346

  15. Metformin and cancer stem cells: old drug, new targets.

    PubMed

    Bednar, Filip; Simeone, Diane M

    2012-03-01

    In this issue of the journal, Bao and colleagues report (beginning on page 355) that the antidiabetic drug metformin targets pancreatic cancer stem cells through, at least partially, the modulation of miRNA expression and subsequent regulation of stem cell renewal and signaling factors. In this Perspective, we briefly discuss the cancer stem cell hypothesis, its clinical relevance, and how targeting the mTOR pathway may yield an avenue for disrupting the cancer stem cell compartment and thus yield long-term therapeutic benefit in multiple cancers. PMID:22389436

  16. Predicting Molecular Targets for Small-Molecule Drugs with a Ligand-Based Interaction Fingerprint Approach.

    PubMed

    Cao, Ran; Wang, Yanli

    2016-06-20

    The computational prediction of molecular targets for small-molecule drugs remains a great challenge. Herein we describe a ligand-based interaction fingerprint (LIFt) approach for target prediction. Together with physics-based docking and sampling methods, we assessed the performance systematically by modeling the polypharmacology of 12 kinase inhibitors in three stages. First, we examined the capacity of this approach to differentiate true targets from false targets with the promiscuous binder staurosporine, based on native complex structures. Second, we performed large-scale profiling of kinase selectivity on the clinical drug sunitinib by means of computational simulation. Third, we extended the study beyond kinases by modeling the cross-inhibition of bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4) for 10 well-established kinase inhibitors. On this basis, we made prospective predictions by exploring new kinase targets for the anticancer drug candidate TN-16, originally known as a colchicine site binder and microtubule disruptor. As a result, p38α was highlighted from a panel of 187 different kinases. Encouragingly, our prediction was validated by an in vitro kinase assay, which showed TN-16 as a low-micromolar p38α inhibitor. Collectively, our results suggest the promise of the LIFt approach in predicting potential targets for small-molecule drugs. PMID:26222196

  17. Drug Scene Syllabus, A Manual on Drugs and Volatile Chemical of Potential Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Robert B.; And Others

    A brief historical review of attempts to control the abuse of drugs introduces a series of tables listing pertinent information about drugs of potential abuse. Each table provides the common commercial and slang names for the drugs, their medical and legal classification, their potential for emotional and physical dependence, whether the user…

  18. From hybrid compounds to targeted drug delivery in antimalarial therapy.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Rudi; Miranda, Daniela; Magalhães, Joana; Capela, Rita; Perry, Maria J; O'Neill, Paul M; Moreira, Rui; Lopes, Francisca

    2015-08-15

    The discovery of new drugs to treat malaria is a continuous effort for medicinal chemists due to the emergence and spread of resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum to nearly all used antimalarials. The rapid adaptation of the malaria parasite remains a major limitation to disease control. Development of hybrid antimalarial agents has been actively pursued as a promising strategy to overcome the emergence of resistant parasite strains. This review presents the journey that started with simple combinations of two active moieties into one chemical entity and progressed into a delivery/targeted system based on major antimalarial classes of drugs. The rationale for providing different mechanisms of action against a single or additional targets involved in the multiple stages of the parasite's life-cycle is highlighted. Finally, a perspective for this polypharmacologic approach is presented. PMID:25913864

  19. The human microbiome is a source of therapeutic drug targets.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Bret D; Redinbo, Matthew R

    2013-06-01

    It was appreciated early in drug discovery that the microbiota play an important role in the efficacy of therapeutic compounds. Indeed, the first antibiotic sulfa drugs were shown in the 1940s to be transformed by the bacteria that encode what we now call the intestinal microbiome. Here we briefly review the roles symbiotic bacteria play in the chemistry of human health, and we focus on the emerging appreciation that specific enzyme targets expressed by microbial symbiotes can be selectively disrupted to achieve clinical outcomes. We conclude that components of the microbiome should be considered 'druggable targets,' and we suggest that our rapidly evolving understanding of the chemical biology of mammalian-microbial symbiosis will translate into improved human health. PMID:23680493

  20. The Human Microbiome is a Source of Therapeutic Drug Targets

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Bret D.; Redinbo, Matthew R.

    2013-01-01

    It was appreciated early in drug discovery that the microbiota play an important role in the efficacy of therapeutic compounds. Indeed, the first antibiotic sulfa drugs were shown in the 1940s to be transformed by the bacteria that encode what we now call the intestinal microbiome. Here we briefly review the roles symbiotic bacteria play in the chemistry of human health, and we focus on the emerging appreciation that specific enzyme targets expressed by microbial symbiotes can be selectively disrupted to achieve clinical outcomes. We conclude that components of the microbiome should be considered “druggable targets,” and we suggest that our rapidly evolving understanding of the chemical biology of mammalian-microbial symbiosis will translate into improved human health. PMID:23680493

  1. Membrane-targeting liquid crystal nanoparticles (LCNPs) for drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nag, Okhil K.; Naciri, Jawad; Spillmann, Christopher M.; Delehanty, James B.

    2016-03-01

    In addition to maintaining the structural integrity of the cell, the plasma membrane regulates multiple important cellular processes, such as endocytosis and trafficking, apoptotic pathways and drug transport. The modulation or tracking of such cellular processes by means of controlled delivery of drugs or imaging agents via nanoscale delivery systems is very attractive. Nanoparticle-mediated delivery systems that mediate long-term residence (e.g., days) and controlled release of the cargoes in the plasma membrane while simultaneously not interfering with regular cellular physiology would be ideal for this purpose. Our laboratory has developed a plasma membrane-targeted liquid crystal nanoparticle (LCNP) formulation that can be loaded with dyes or drugs which can be slowly released from the particle over time. Here we highlight the utility of these nanopreparations for membrane delivery and imaging.

  2. Recent Advances in Targeted Drug Delivery Approaches Using Dendritic Polymers

    PubMed Central

    Bugno, Jason; Hsu, Hao-Jui; Hong, Seungpyo

    2014-01-01

    Since they were first synthesized over 30 years ago, dendrimers have seen rapid translation into various biomedical applications. A number of reports have not only demonstrated their clinical utility, but also revealed novel design approaches and strategies based on the elucidation of underlying mechanisms governing their biological interactions. This review focuses on presenting the latest advances in dendrimer design, discussing the current mechanistic understandings, and highlighting recent developments and targeted approaches using dendrimers in drug/gene delivery. PMID:26221937

  3. Exploring the relationship between hub proteins and drug targets based on GO and intrinsic disorder.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yuanyuan; Guo, Yanzhi; Wang, Yuelong; Luo, Jiesi; Pu, Xuemei; Li, Menglong; Zhang, Zhihang

    2015-06-01

    Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) play essential roles in many biological processes. In protein-protein interaction networks, hubs involve in numbers of PPIs and may constitute an important source of drug targets. The intrinsic disorder proteins (IDPs) with unstable structures can promote the promiscuity of hubs and also involve in many disease pathways, so they also could serve as potential drug targets. Moreover, proteins with similar functions measured by semantic similarity of gene ontology (GO) terms tend to interact with each other. Here, the relationship between hub proteins and drug targets based on GO terms and intrinsic disorder was explored. The semantic similarities of GO terms and genes between two proteins, and the rate of intrinsic disorder residues of each protein were extracted as features to characterize the functional similarity between two interacting proteins. Only using 8 feature variables, prediction models by support vector machine (SVM) were constructed to predict PPIs. The accuracy of the model on the PPI data from human hub proteins is as high as 83.72%, which is very promising compared with other PPI prediction models with hundreds or even thousands of features. Then, 118 of 142 PPIs between hubs are correctly predicted that the two interacting proteins are targets of the same drugs. The results indicate that only 8 functional features are fully efficient for representing PPIs. In order to identify new targets from IDP dataset, the PPIs between hubs and IDPs are predicted by the SVM model and the model yields a prediction accuracy of 75.84%. Further research proves that 3 of 5 PPIs between hubs and IDPs are correctly predicted that the two interacting proteins are targets of the same drugs. All results demonstrate that the model with only 8-dimensional features from GO terms and intrinsic disorder still gives a good performance in predicting PPIs and further identifying drug targets. PMID:25854804

  4. Glutamatergic Targets for Enhancing Extinction Learning in Drug Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Cleva, R.M; Gass, J.T; Widholm, J.J; Olive, M.F

    2010-01-01

    The persistence of the motivational salience of drug-related environmental cues and contexts is one of the most problematic obstacles to successful treatment of drug addiction. Behavioral approaches to extinguishing the salience of drug-associated cues, such as cue exposure therapy, have generally produced disappointing results which have been attributed to, among other things, the context specificity of extinction and inadequate consolidation of extinction learning. Extinction of any behavior or conditioned response is a process of new and active learning, and increasing evidence suggests that glutamatergic neurotransmission, a key component of the neural plasticity that underlies normal learning and memory, is also involved in extinction learning. This review will summarize findings from both animal and human studies that suggest that pharmacological enhancement of glutamatergic neurotransmission facilitates extinction learning in the context of drug addiction. Pharmacological agents that have shown potential efficacy include NMDA partial agonists, mGluR5 receptor positive allosteric modulators, inhibitors of the GlyT1 glycine transporter, AMPA receptor potentiators, and activators of the cystine-glutamate exchanger. These classes of cognition-enhancing compounds could potentially serve as novel pharmacological adjuncts to cue exposure therapy to increase success rates in attenuating cue-induced drug craving and relapse. PMID:21629446

  5. Tetanus toxin C fragment conjugated nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery to neurons

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Seth A.; Evrony, Gilad D.; Gu, Frank X.; Schulze, Martin P.; Brown, Robert H.; Langer, Robert S.

    2008-01-01

    The use of nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery is often facilitated by specific conjugation of functional targeting molecules to the nanoparticle surface. We compared different biotin binding proteins (avidin, streptavidin, or neutravidin) as crosslinkers to conjugate proteins to biodegradable nanoparticles prepared from PLGA-PEG-biotin polymers. Avidin gave the highest levels of overall protein conjugation, whereas neutravidin minimized protein non-specific binding to the polymer. The tetanus toxin C fragment (TTC), which is efficiently retrogradely transported in neurons and binds to neurons with high specificity and affinity, retained the ability to bind to neuroblastoma cells following amine group modifications. TTC was conjugated to nanoparticles using neutravidin, and the resulting nanoparticles were shown to selectively target neuroblastoma cells in vitro. TTC-conjugated nanoparticles have the potential to serve as drug delivery vehicles targeted to the central nervous system. PMID:17854886

  6. Mitochondria as a Drug Target in Ischemic Heart Disease and Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Walters, Andrew M; Porter, George A; Brookes, Paul S.

    2012-01-01

    Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in Western soci