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1

Processes affecting the stratification-induced potential energy anomaly on the Skagit Bay tidal flats  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the Skagit Bay tidal flats, the stratification resulting from the buoyancy input of the Skagit River is modulated by tides with a 4 m range. Here, field observations and Finite Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM) simulations are used to evaluate the terms in the equation governing the temporal evolution of the stratification-induced potential energy anomaly (Phi) (Burchard and Hofmeister,

V. Pavel; B. Raubenheimer; S. Elgar; D. K. Ralston

2010-01-01

2

Processes affecting the stratification-induced potential energy anomaly on the Skagit Bay tidal flats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the Skagit Bay tidal flats, the stratification resulting from the buoyancy input of the Skagit River is modulated by tides with a 4 m range. Here, field observations and Finite Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM) simulations are used to evaluate the terms in the equation governing the temporal evolution of the stratification-induced potential energy anomaly (?) (Burchard and Hofmeister, Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci., 77(4), 2008). Profiles of water density (range of 1000 to 1028 kg/m3) and velocity (up to 0.6 m/s) were measured at locations separated by roughly 600 m over a 4 by 4 km region of the flats (0.5 to 2.5 m mean water depth) for 56 days from early July (river discharge of 570 m3s-1) until late August 2009 (discharge of 140 m3s-1). The FVCOM grid of Skagit Bay and surrounding basins is forced with surface winds from a regional wind model, observed river discharge, and water level based on tidal harmonics and observed low-frequency variability. The model bathymetry incorporates numerous data sources including acoustic and LIDAR surveys performed during summer 2009. Temporal changes in ? may result from tidal straining (an effect of sheared flows and horizontally varying water density) of the depth-averaged and vertically-dependent densities, along- and across-flat advection, vertical advection, surface and bottom buoyancy fluxes, mixing, changes in water depth, and turbulent transport. FVCOM simulations suggest that the horizontal and vertical resolutions of the observations are sufficient to examine the relative importance of the terms in the equation for ?. Preliminary results suggest that temporal changes in ? primarily are owing to cross-flat tidal straining of the depth-averaged density, cross-flat advection, changing water depth, and mixing. However, model results suggest that the relative importance of the terms depends on proximity to the main river channel, river discharge, and tidal range (e.g., spring versus neap tides). Funded by ONR, NSF, and NSSEFF.

Pavel, V.; Raubenheimer, B.; Elgar, S.; Ralston, D. K.

2010-12-01

3

Local properties of the potential-energy landscape of a model glass:Understanding the low-temperature anomalies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Though the existence of two-level systems (TLS) is widely accepted to explain low temperature anomalies in the sound absorption, heat capacity, thermal conductivity and other quantities, an exact description of their microscopic nature is still lacking. We performed computer simulations for a binary Lennard-Jones system, using a newly developed algorithm to locate double-well potentials (DWP) and thus two-level systems on a systematic basis. We show that the intrinsic limitations of computer simulations like finite time and finite size problems do not hamper this analysis. We discuss how the DWP are embedded in the total potential energy landscape. It turns out that most DWP are connected to the dynamics of the smaller particles and that these DWP are rather localized. However, DWP related to the larger particles are more collective.

Reinisch, J.; Heuer, A.

2004-08-01

4

Local properties of the potential-energy landscape of a model glass:Understanding the low-temperature anomalies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though the existence of two-level systems (TLS) is widely accepted to explain low temperature anomalies in the sound absorption, heat capacity, thermal conductivity and other quantities, an exact description of their microscopic nature is still lacking. We performed computer simulations for a binary Lennard-Jones system, using a newly developed algorithm to locate double-well potentials (DWP) and thus two-level systems on

J. Reinisch; A. Heuer

2004-01-01

5

Potential Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of a comprehensive physics tutorial for high school students, this page describes potential energy conceptually and mathematically, provides examples enhanced by illustrations, and problems for practice with drop down boxes for your answers and feedback. In the left navigation bar, click on Kinetic Energy to get parallel information on kinetic energy.

2010-01-01

6

Singularity analysis of potential fields to enhance weak anomalies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geoanomalies generally are nonlinear, non-stationary and weak, especially in the land cover areas, however, the traditional methods of geoanomaly identification are usually based on linear theory. In past two decades, many power-law function models have been developed based on fractal concept in mineral exploration and mineral resource assessment, such that the density-area (C-A) model and spectrum-area model (S-A) suggested by Qiuming Cheng have played important roles in extracting geophysical and geochemical anomalies. Several power-law relationships are evident in geophysical potential fields, such as field value-distance, power spectrum-wave number as well as density-area models. The singularity index based on density-area model involves the first derivative transformation of the measure. Hence, we introduce the singularity analysis to develop a novel high-pass filter for extracting gravity and magnetic anomalies with the advantage of scale invariance. Furthermore, we suggest that the statistics of singularity indices can provide a new edge detection scheme for the gravity or magnetic source bodies. Meanwhile, theoretical magnetic anomalies are established to verify these assertions. In the case study from Nanling mineral district in south China and Qikou Depression in east China, compared with traditional geophysical filtering methods including multiscale wavelet analysis and total horizontal gradient methods, the singularity method enhances and extracts the weak anomalies caused by buried magmatic rocks more effectively, and provides more distinct boundary information of rocks. Moreover, the singularity mapping results have good correspondence relationship with both the outcropping rocks and known mineral deposits to support future mineral resource exploration. The singularity method based on fractal analysis has potential to be a new useful theory and technique for processing gravity and magnetic anomaly data.

Chen, G.; Cheng, Q.; Liu, T.

2013-12-01

7

Calculations on the threshold anomaly of weakly bound projectiles with São Paulo and Woods-Saxon polarization potentials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A thorough study of the energy dependence of the nuclear optical potential in reactions involving the weakly bound projectiles 8B, 7Be and 6Li on the target 58Ni and 9Be on 27Al is carried out by performing a ?2-analysis of recent measurements of elastic scattering cross sections for energies around and above the Coulomb barrier. For this purpose two different potential types are used: the double folding São Paulo potential and the Woods-Saxon potential. The calculations performed for the energy dependence of the real and imaginary parts of the polarization potentials show that these potentials besides satisfying the dispersion relation, for some nuclear systems the uncertainties on the energy dependence of the polarization potentials allow to conclude that these systems present a behavior consistent with the Breakup Theshold Anomaly. In other cases, due to the large uncertainties, it is not possible to make a definitive conclusion about the anomalies.

Gómez-Camacho, A.; Aguilera, E. F.; Martínez-Quiroz, E.; Gomes, P. R. S.; Lubian, J.; Canto, L. F.

2010-07-01

8

Structure order, local potentials, and physical anomalies of water ice  

E-print Network

Hydrogen-bond forms a pair of asymmetric, coupled, H-bridged oscillators with ultra-short-range interactions and memory. hydrogen bond cooperative relaxation and the associated binding electron entrapment and nonbonding electron polarization discriminate water and ice from other usual materials in the physical anomalies. As a strongly correlated fluctuating system, water prefers the statistically mean of tetrahedrally-coordinated structure with a supersolid skin that is elastic, polarized, ice like, hydrophobic, with 3/4 density.

Chang Q Sun

2014-02-17

9

Insights on the Cuprate High Energy Anomaly Observed in ARPES  

SciTech Connect

Recently, angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy has been used to highlight an anomalously large band renormalization at high binding energies in cuprate superconductors: the high energy 'waterfall' or high energy anomaly (HEA). The anomaly is present for both hole- and electron-doped cuprates as well as the half-filled parent insulators with different energy scales arising on either side of the phase diagram. While photoemission matrix elements clearly play a role in changing the aesthetic appearance of the band dispersion, i.e. creating a 'waterfall'-like appearance, they provide an inadequate description for the physics that underlies the strong band renormalization giving rise to the HEA. Model calculations of the single-band Hubbard Hamiltonian showcase the role played by correlations in the formation of the HEA and uncover significant differences in the HEA energy scale for hole- and electron-doped cuprates. In addition, this approach properly captures the transfer of spectral weight accompanying doping in a correlated material and provides a unifying description of the HEA across both sides of the cuprate phase diagram. We find that the anomaly demarcates a transition, or cross-over, from a quasiparticle band at low binding energies near the Fermi level to valence bands at higher binding energy, assumed to be of strong oxygen character.

Moritz, Brian

2011-08-16

10

Potential and kinetic energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What is the difference between potential and kinetic energy? This informational piece, part of a series about the future of energy, introduces students to kinetic and potential energy. The law of conservation of energy is explained, using the example of turning natural gas into electricity. Definitions and examples of potential energy and kinetic energy are provided. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Project, Iowa P.

2004-01-01

11

Inversion of Self Potential Anomalies with Multilayer Perceptron Neural Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates the inverse solution on a buried and polarized sphere-shaped body using the self-potential method via multilayer perceptron neural networks (MLPNN). The polarization angle ( ?), depth to the centre of sphere ( h), electrical dipole moment ( K) and the zero distance from the origin ( x 0) were estimated. For testing the success of the MLPNN for sphere model, parameters were also estimated by the traditional Damped Least Squares (Levenberg-Marquardt) inversion technique (DLS). The MLPNN was first tested on a synthetic example. The performance of method was also tested for two S/N ratios (5 % and 10 %) by adding noise to the same synthetic data, the estimated model parameters with MLPNN and DLS method are satisfactory. The MLPNN also applied for the field data example in ?zmir, Urla district, Turkey, with two cross-section data evaluated by MLPNN and DLS, and the two methods showed good agreement.

Kaftan, Ilknur; S?nd?rg?, Petek; Akdemir, Özer

2014-08-01

12

Event-related brain potentials elicited by semantic and syntactic anomalies during auditory sentence processing.  

PubMed

The present study examined auditory event-related potential (ERP) responses to sentence-embedded syntactic (phrase structure) and semantic violations. Syntactic violations were found to elicit a centroparietal negativity peaking at around 350 msec, followed by a P600. Semantic anomalies elicited an N400 as well as a late centroparietally distributed positivity. The shorter latency and different morphology of the negativity observed in response to phrase structure violations compared to semantic anomalies indicate that the observed negativities are to some extent functionally different, suggesting that phrase structure information is processed prior to lexical-semantic information. The finding of a P600 in response to semantic anomalies suggests that the latter component reflects processes of reprocessing that are based on syntactic and semantic aspects of the sentence. PMID:16515142

Faustmann, Anja; Murdoch, Bruce E; Finnigan, Simon P; Copland, David A

2005-10-01

13

Virtual Laboratory: Potential Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page provides an introduction to mechanical energy, focusing on gravity. It includes a java simulation of a dropped ball showing the conversion of potential energy into kinetic energy. Non-elastic collisions with the ground are included, although there is no discussion of the resultant lost energy. Users can change the mass, initial energy, and percentage of the energy lost during collisions. This item is part of a larger collection of virtual laboratories for physics, astronomy, and environmental science.

Bothun, Gregory

2007-12-03

14

Hazard potential ranking of hazardous waste landfill sites and risk of congenital anomalies  

PubMed Central

Background: A 33% increase in the risk of congenital anomalies has been found among residents near hazardous waste landfill sites in a European collaborative study (EUROHAZCON). Aims: To develop and evaluate an expert panel scoring method of the hazard potential of EUROHAZCON landfill sites, and to investigate whether sites classified as posing a greater potential hazard are those with a greater risk of congenital anomaly among nearby residents relative to more distant residents. Methods: A total of 1270 cases of congenital anomaly and 2308 non-malformed control births were selected in 14 study areas around 20 landfill sites. An expert panel of four landfill specialists scored each site in three categories—overall, water, and air hazard—based on readily available, documented data on site characteristics. Tertiles of the average ranking scores defined low, medium, and high hazard sites. Calculation of odds ratios was based on distance of residence from the sites, comparing a 0–3 km "proximate" with a 3–7 km "distant" zone. Results: Agreement between experts measured by intraclass correlation coefficients was 0.50, 0.44, and 0.20 for overall, water, and air hazard before a consensus meeting and 0.60, 0.56, and 0.53 respectively after this meeting. There was no evidence for a trend of increasing odds ratios with increasing overall hazard or air hazard. For non-chromosomal anomalies, odds ratios by water hazard category showed an increasing trend of borderline statistical significance (p = 0.06) from 0.79 in the low hazard category, 1.43 in the medium, to 1.60 in the high water hazard category. Conclusions: There is little evidence for a relation between risk of congenital anomaly in proximate relative to distant zones and hazard potential of landfill sites as classified by the expert panel, but without external validation of the hazard potential scoring method interpretation is difficult. Potential misclassification of sites may have reduced our ability to detect any true dose–response effect. PMID:12409536

Vrijheid, M; Dolk, H; Armstrong, B; Boschi, G; Busby, A; Jorgensen, T; Pointer, P

2002-01-01

15

Inversion of self-potential anomalies caused by simple-geometry bodies using global optimization algorithms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three naturally inspired meta-heuristic algorithms—the genetic algorithm (GA), simulated annealing (SA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO)—were used to invert some of the self-potential (SP) anomalies originated by some polarized bodies with simple geometries. Both synthetic and field data sets were considered. The tests with the synthetic data comprised of the solutions with both noise-free and noisy data; in the tests with the field data some SP anomalies observed over a copper belt (India), graphite deposits (Germany) and metallic sulfide (Turkey) were inverted. The model parameters included the electric dipole moment, polarization angle, depth, shape factor and origin of the anomaly. The estimated parameters were compared with those from previous studies using various optimization algorithms, mainly least-squares approaches, on the same data sets. During the test studies the solutions by GA, PSO and SA were characterized as being consistent with each other; a good starting model was not a requirement to reach the global minimum. It can be concluded that the global optimization algorithms considered in this study were able to yield compatible solutions with those from widely used local optimization algorithms.

Göktürkler, G.; Balkaya, Ç.

2012-10-01

16

Spontaneous Potential Anomalies on Active Volcanoes: New Time and Spatial Series from Masaya, Telica, and Cerro Negro, Nicaragua  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Considerable effort worldwide has gone into monitoring heat and mass transfer at active volcanoes because such information may provide clues about changes in volcanic activity and impending eruptions. Here we present new time and spatial series of spontaneous potential (SP) anomalies from Masaya and Telica volcanoes, and spatial series collected at Cerro Negro volcano. Our primary purpose is to investigate correlations between more easily and cheaply monitored SP and CO2 gas flux, measured by an infrared CO2 analysis system. SP data were collected using nonpolarizing Pb-PbCL2 electrodes that we constructed following the approach of Petiau. Mapping at both Masaya, and Cerro Negro reveals broad correlations between SP anomalies and CO2 flux through soils. In addition, we monitored temperature, barometric pressure, and rainfall at one minute intervals from May-August, 2006 at Masaya and Telica volcanoes. During this period it is clear that SP responds to changes in volcanic activity, with transient anomalies of 75 mV as well as atmospheric forcing due to rainfall, producing anomalies of 56 mV and related phenomena. Preliminary lab experiments provide further details of the electrokinetic origin of these SP anomalies. Our preliminary work supports the idea that large and inexpensive networks of electrodes might track changes in SP anomalies associated with changes in mass flow at active volcanoes.

Lehto, H.; Pearson, S.; Connor, C.; Sanford, W.; Saballos, A.

2006-12-01

17

Observation of Anomaly-High Energy Deposition in Exploding Wire Experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anomaly-high energy deposition up to 180 eV\\/atom was observed in a fast nanosecond electrical explosion of polyimide-coated tungsten wires in vacuum. This energy is more than 20 times higher than the vaporization energy for W and 30 times the energy absorbed in uncoated wires. We postulate near total suppression of the shunting plasma shell and extension of the resistive phase

G. S. Sarkisov; K. W. Struve; D. H. McDaniel

2003-01-01

18

Interpretations of magnetic anomalies at a potential repository site located in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada test site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Yucca Mountain area, studies of the relation of magnetic properties to geologic features provided structural information at and near a potential site for storage of radioactive waste. Interpreted features include a tabular mass of magnetized sedimentary rock beneath thick deposits of volcanic rock, and 11 major faults that displace magnetized volcanic rock. The basis for mapping traces of faults and identifying their upthrown sides was developed elsewhere at Yucca fault in the relatively simple volcanic terrains of Yucca Flat. In the site area, analyses of aeromagnetic anomalies from a low altitude, east-west aeromagnetic survey show the Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff as the primary source of anomalies from faulted sequences of volcanic rock. Faults related to belts of positive and negative anomalies surrounding the site were identified. The possibility that an east-west pattern of anomalies is related to structure crossing the site was investigated by an aeromagnetic survey. A significant reduction in amplitude of these anomalies resulted when effects of the deeply buried argillite were removed.

Bath, G. D.; Jahren, C. E.

19

High-energy anomaly in the band dispersion of the ruthenate superconductor.  

PubMed

We reveal a "high-energy anomaly" (HEA) in the band dispersion of the unconventional ruthenate superconductor Sr2RuO4, by means of high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) with tunable energy and polarization of incident photons. This observation provides another class of correlated materials exhibiting this anomaly beyond high-T(c) cuprates. We demonstrate that two distinct types of band renormalization associated with and without the HEA occur as a natural consequence of the energetics in the bandwidth and the energy scale of the HEA. Our results are well reproduced by a simple analytical form of the self-energy based on the Fermi-liquid theory, indicating that the HEA exists at a characteristic energy scale of the multielectron excitations. We propose that the HEA universally emerges if the systems have such a characteristic energy scale inside of the bandwidth. PMID:23006289

Iwasawa, H; Yoshida, Y; Hase, I; Shimada, K; Namatame, H; Taniguchi, M; Aiura, Y

2012-08-10

20

High-Energy Anomaly in the Band Dispersion of the Ruthenate Superconductor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We reveal a “high-energy anomaly” (HEA) in the band dispersion of the unconventional ruthenate superconductor Sr2RuO4, by means of high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) with tunable energy and polarization of incident photons. This observation provides another class of correlated materials exhibiting this anomaly beyond high-Tc cuprates. We demonstrate that two distinct types of band renormalization associated with and without the HEA occur as a natural consequence of the energetics in the bandwidth and the energy scale of the HEA. Our results are well reproduced by a simple analytical form of the self-energy based on the Fermi-liquid theory, indicating that the HEA exists at a characteristic energy scale of the multielectron excitations. We propose that the HEA universally emerges if the systems have such a characteristic energy scale inside of the bandwidth.

Iwasawa, H.; Yoshida, Y.; Hase, I.; Shimada, K.; Namatame, H.; Taniguchi, M.; Aiura, Y.

2012-08-01

21

Biomass Energy Crops: Massachusetts' Potential  

E-print Network

Biomass Energy Crops: Massachusetts' Potential Prepared for: Massachusetts Division of Energy;#12;Executive Summary In Massachusetts, biomass energy has typically meant wood chips derived from the region's extensive forest cover. Yet nationally, biomass energy from dedicated energy crops and from crop residues

Schweik, Charles M.

22

Woods-Saxon and São Paulo optical model calculations of the threshold anomaly of the 6,7Li+28Si systems near Coulomb barrier energies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two types of optical model interactions, namely the double-folding density dependent São Paulo potential (SPP) and the Woods-Saxon potential (WSP) are used to study the appearance of the Theshold Anomaly (TA) or the Breakup Threshold Anomaly (BTA) for the nuclear systems 6,7Li+28Si for energies around the Coulomb barrier. In the first case, the presence of the anomaly is determined from the energy dependence of the normalization parameters NR and NI as found from fittings to elastic scattering angular distributions. In the second case, the presence of the anomaly is investigated by the energy variation of the fusion and direct reaction parts of the Woods-Saxon potential. In this case, the parameters of the fusion and direct reaction potentials are calculated by a simultaneous analysis of elastic scattering, fusion and total reaction cross sections. It is found in both cases that the BTA appears for the 6Li+28Si reaction. As for 7Li+28Si, the calculation with the SPP shows that the usual TA appears but the dispersion relation is not satisfied, however the WSP indicates that indeed the BTA shows up.

Gómez Camacho, A.; Gomes, P. R. S.; Lubian, J.

2011-10-01

23

Investigating Kinetic and Potential Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use media resources and an in-class investigation to explore the types of energy within different types of systems. They also use the formulas for kinetic and potential energy to examine the path of a projectile.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2007-04-19

24

Callan Symanzik equations and low-energy theorems with trace anomalies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on some new and concise forms of the Callan Symanzik equations, the low-energy theorems involving trace anomalies à la Novikov Shifman Vainshtein Zakharov, first advanced and proved in Novikov et al (1980 Nucl. Phys. B 165 67, 1981 Nucl. Phys. B 191 301), are proved as immediate consequences. The proof is valid in any consistent effective field theories and these low-energy theorems are hence generalized. Some brief discussions about related topics are given.

Yang, Ji-Feng

2007-09-01

25

The relationship between sea surface temperature anomaly and wind energy input in the Pacific Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) and wind energy input in the Pacific Ocean over the period of 1949–2003 is studied by using daily-mean NOAA\\/NCEP wind stress and monthly mean Reynolds SST data. The results indicate the strong negative correlation between SSTA and local wind energy input to surface waves in most of the domain at low and

Chuanjiang Huang; Fangli Qiao

2009-01-01

26

An ubiquitous mechanism for waterlike anomalies  

E-print Network

Using collision driven molecular dynamics a system of spherical particles interacting through an effective two length scales potential is studied. The potential can be tuned by means of a single parameter, $\\lambda$, from a ramp $(\\lambda=0.5)$ to a square-shoulder potential $(\\lambda=1.0)$ representing a family of two length scales potential in which the shortest interaction distance has higher potential energy than the largest interaction distance. For all the potentials, ranging between the ramp and the square-shoulder, density and structural anomalies were found, while the diffusion anomaly is found in all but in the square-shoulder potential. The presence anomalies in square-shoulder potential, not observed in previous simulations, confirm the assumption that the two length scales potential is an ubiquitous ingredient for a system to exhibit water-like anomalies

Alan Barros de Oliveira; Paulo A. Netz; Marcia C. Barbosa

2008-04-14

27

PERINATAL EXPOSURE TO ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS: POTENTIAL ROLE OF HORMONAL ALTERATIONS IN INITIATING ADULT REPRODUCTIVE ANOMALIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The primary hypothesis to be tested in this series of studies is whether or not exposure to environmental agents, during certain key periods of development, will increase the risk of specific anomalies of the reproductive system. Embedded in this hypothesis is the assumption that...

28

Global accuracy estimates of point and mean undulation differences obtained from gravity disturbances, gravity anomalies and potential coefficients  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Through the method of truncation functions, the oceanic geoid undulation is divided into two constituents: an inner zone contribution expressed as an integral of surface gravity disturbances over a spherical cap; and an outer zone contribution derived from a finite set of potential harmonic coefficients. Global, average error estimates are formulated for undulation differences, thereby providing accuracies for a relative geoid. The error analysis focuses on the outer zone contribution for which the potential coefficient errors are modeled. The method of computing undulations based on gravity disturbance data for the inner zone is compared to the similar, conventional method which presupposes gravity anomaly data within this zone.

Jekeli, C.

1979-01-01

29

Effects of advancing age on the processing of semantic anomalies in adults: evidence from event-related brain potentials.  

PubMed

Age-related changes in the processing of sentence-embedded semantic anomalies were examined using auditory event-related potentials (ERPs). Semantically incongruous words elicited an N400 effect in middle-aged (50s: 55.6 years) and elderly (60s: 64.1 years) subjects, whereas in older elderly adults (70s: 74.9 years) this effect approached significance. N400 peak latencies were not delayed with advancing age; however, there was a reliable linear decrease in mean and peak amplitude, with slopes being similar to those previously reported for the visual N400 effect. A P600 effect was obtained in response to semantic anomalies and it was neither delayed in latency nor reduced in amplitude with advancing age. However, it was found to be larger over anterior sites in elderly and older elderly subjects. PMID:17886018

Faustmann, Anja; Murdoch, Bruce E; Finnigan, Simon P; Copland, David A

2007-01-01

30

Repair, Evaluation, Maintenance, and Rehabilitation Research Program. Geotechnical Applications of the Self Potential (SP) Method. Report 4. Numerical Modeling of SP Anomalies: Documentation of Program SPPC and Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This manual describes the theory and operations of program SPPC. This code, a microcomputer (PC) version of program SPXCPL, calculates the self potential anomaly due to fluid and thermal sources in geologic media. Fluid and heat flow generate significant ...

D. K. Butler, M. J. Wilt

1990-01-01

31

LHC Physics Potential versus Energy  

SciTech Connect

Parton luminosities are convenient for estimating how the physics potential of Large Hadron Collider experiments depends on the energy of the proton beams. I present parton luminosities, ratios of parton luminosities, and contours of fixed parton luminosity for gg, u{bar d}, and qq interactions over the energy range relevant to the Large Hadron Collider, along with example analyses for specific processes.

Quigg, Chris; /Fermilab

2009-08-01

32

Potential bedrock source of groundwater arsenic anomaly in northeastern Chihuahua City, Chihuahua, Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contaminant sources of arsenic are often very difficult to identify. It is rare that specific rock units can be identified to which groundwater anomalies can be attributed. In this study, primary arsenic minerals, such as a Y-As bearing phase and a Sr-Al-As phase, have been identified in the Cenozoic volcanic tuff from El Mimbre area, at the northeast part of Tabalaopa Basin, the City of Chihuahua. Tabalaopa Basin is one of the sources for groundwater of the City of Chihuahua. The volcanic strata and the unconsolidated Quaternary deposit serve as the groundwater reservoir. The El Mimbre area demonstrates elevated groundwater arsenic concentrations, with 5 wells having values greater than 20 ppb. Small hills of Cenozoic volcanic tuff lie immediately up gradient to the northeast adjacent to the groundwater anomaly. Electron microprobe elemental x-ray maps have been applied to detect arsenic distribution in the samples. The volcanic rocks are reddish welded ash flow tuff and rhyolite with mainly sanidine, quartz, and biotite. The Y-As phase (a possible hydrated chernovite YAsO4) exists as inclusions in the biotite. The Y-As phase could be the primary arsenic mineral formed in the crystallization stage of the magma. After the eruption, the vapor phase from the diagenetic welding of volcanic tuff formed the euhedral Sr-Al- As phase in the lithophysal cavities. The wavelength peak scan and quantitative analysis present that the euhedral arsenic minerals are mainly arsenogoyazite (SrAl3[(OH)5(AsO4)2])H2O. There are euhedral alkali feldspars and ilmenite co-existing with arsenogoyazite, so the arsenogoyazite could be the vapor phase derived. The arsenic mineral petrogenesis sequences can be 1) the formation of chernoviet, 2) vapor stage alteration and the precipitation of arsenogoyazite in the cavities. It is hypothesized that the relative soluble arsenogoyazite is leached by meteoric water and provides the arsenic in the nearby groundwater. Based on current study, the arsenic anomaly in the Tabalaopa Basin aquifer can be mainly from the arsenic minerals in the adjacent volcanic rocks.

Rodrigu, A.; Ren, M.; Goodell, P.

2007-12-01

33

Global Surface Solar Energy Anomalies Including El Nino and La Nina Years  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper synthesizes past events in an attempt to define the general magnitude, duration, and location of large surface solar anomalies over the globe. Surface solar energy values are mostly a function of solar zenith angle, cloud conditions, column atmospheric water vapor, aerosols, and surface albedo. For this study, solar and meteorological parameters for the 10-yr period July 1983 through June 1993 are used. These data were generated as part of the Release 3 Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) activity under the NASA Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) effort. Release 3 SSE uses upgraded input data and methods relative to previous releases. Cloud conditions are based on recent NASA Version-D International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) global satellite radiation and cloud data. Meteorological inputs are from Version-I Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) reanalysis data that uses both weather station and satellite information. Aerosol transmission for different regions and seasons are for an 'average' year based on historic solar energy data from over 1000 ground sites courtesy of Natural Resources Canada (NRCan). These data are input to a new Langley Parameterized Shortwave Algorithm (LPSA) that calculates surface albedo and surface solar energy. That algorithm is an upgraded version of the 'Staylor' algorithm. Calculations are performed for a 280X280 km equal-area grid system over the globe based on 3-hourly input data. A bi-linear interpolation process is used to estimate data output values on a 1 X 1 degree grid system over the globe. Maximum anomalies are examined relative to El Nino and La Nina events in the tropical Pacific Ocean. Maximum year-to-year anomalies over the globe are provided for a 10-year period. The data may assist in the design of systems with increased reliability. It may also allow for better planning for emergency assistance during some atypical events.

Whitlock, C. H.; Brown, D. E.; Chandler, W. S.; DiPasquale, R. C.; Ritchey, Nancy A.; Gupta, Shashi K.; Wilber, Anne C.; Kratz, David P.; Stackhouse, Paul W.

2001-01-01

34

Temperature-resolution anomalies in the reconstruction of time dynamics from energy-loss experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inelastic scattering techniques provide a powerful approach to studying electron and nuclear dynamics, via reconstruction of a propagator that quantifies the time evolution of a system. There is now growing interest in applying such methods to very low energy excitations, such as lattice vibrations, but in this limit the cross section is no longer proportional to a propagator. Significant deviations occur due to the finite temperature Bose statistics of the excitations. Here we consider this issue in the context of high-resolution electron energy-loss experiments on the copper-oxide superconductor Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8. We find that simple division of a Bose factor yields an accurate propagator on energy scales greater than the resolution width. However, at low energy scales, the effects of resolution and finite temperature conspire to create anomalies in the dynamics at long times. We compare two practical ways for dealing with such anomalies, and discuss the range of validity of the technique in light of this comparison.

Kogar, Anshul; Vig, Sean; Gan, Yu; Abbamonte, Peter

2014-06-01

35

Kinetic and Potential Energy of Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students are introduced to both potential energy and kinetic energy as forms of mechanical energy. A hands-on activity demonstrates how potential energy can change into kinetic energy by swinging a pendulum, illustrating the concept of conservation of energy. Students calculate the potential energy of the pendulum and predict how fast it will travel knowing that the potential energy will convert into kinetic energy. They verify their predictions by measuring the speed of the pendulum.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

36

Analysis of Potential Energy Surfaces.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces different methodological strategies in analyzing potential energy surfaces (PES) used in chemical reactivity studies. Discusses the theory of PES and gives examples to be used for student work. Provides procedures for calculating normal coordinates and vibrational properties of an activated complex. (ML)

Fernandez, G. M.; And Others

1988-01-01

37

Cervical spine anomalies in Menkes disease: a radiologic finding potentially confused with child abuse  

PubMed Central

Background Menkes disease is an X-linked recessive disorder of copper transport caused by mutations in ATP7A, a copper-transporting ATPase. Certain radiologic findings reported in this condition overlap with those caused by child abuse. However, cervical spine defects simulating cervical spine fracture, a known result of nonaccidental pediatric trauma, have not been reported previously in this illness. Objective To assess the frequency of cervical spine anomalies in Menkes disease after discovery of an apparent C2 posterior arch defect in a child participating in a clinical trial. Materials and methods We examined cervical spine radiographs obtained in 35 children with Menkes disease enrolled in a clinical trial at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center. Results Four of the 35 children with Menkes disease had apparent C2 posterior arch defects consistent with spondylolysis or incomplete/delayed ossification. Conclusion Defects in C2 were found in 11% of infants and young children with Menkes disease. Discovery of cervical spine defects expands the spectrum of radiologic findings associated with this condition. As with other skeletal abnormalities, this feature simulates nonaccidental trauma. In the context of Menkes disease, suspicions of child abuse should be considered cautiously and tempered by these findings to avoid unwarranted accusations. PMID:22825777

Hill, Suvimol C.; Dwyer, Andrew J.

2012-01-01

38

Vaginal Anomalies: Cloacal Anomalies  

MedlinePLUS

... feces following the procedure? Your child's ability to control either the flow of her urine or elimination of her stool depends on the severity of the anomaly. In milder cases, more than 90 percent of patients have good sphincter control and a nearly normal pattern eliminating stools. Between ...

39

Thermodynamic and dynamic anomalies for a three-dimensional isotropic core-softened potential  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using molecular-dynamics simulations and integral equations (Rogers-Young, Percus-Yevick, and hypernetted chain closures) we investigate the thermodynamics of particles interacting with continuous core-softened intermolecular potential. Dynamic properties are also analyzed by the simulations. We show that, for a chosen shape of the potential, the density, at constant pressure, has a maximum for a certain temperature. The line of temperatures of maximum density (TMD) was determined in the pressure-temperature phase diagram. Similarly the diffusion constant at a constant temperature, D, has a maximum at a density ?max and a minimum at a density ?minpotential lacks directionality, this is the same behavior observed in simple point charge/extended water.

Barros de Oliveira, Alan; Netz, Paulo A.; Colla, Thiago; Barbosa, Marcia C.

2006-02-01

40

The potential of renewable energy  

SciTech Connect

On June 27 and 28, 1989, the US Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratories were convened to discuss plans for the development of a National Energy Strategy (NES) and, in particular, the analytic needs in support of NES that could be addressed by the laboratories. As a result of that meeting, interlaboratory teams were formed to produce analytic white papers on key topics, and a lead laboratory was designated for each core laboratory team. The broad-ranging renewables assignment is summarized by the following issue statement from the Office of Policy, Planning and Analysis: to what extent can renewable energy technologies contribute to diversifying sources of energy supply What are the major barriers to greater renewable energy use and what is the potential timing of widespread commercialization for various categories of applications This report presents the results of the intensive activity initiated by the June 1989 meeting to produce a white paper on renewable energy. Scores of scientists, analysts, and engineers in the five core laboratories gave generously of their time over the past eight months to produce this document. Their generous, constructive efforts are hereby gratefully acknowledged. 126 refs., 44 figs., 32 tabs.

Not Available

1990-03-01

41

1 Estimating aquifer hydraulic properties from the inversion of surface 2 Streaming Potential (SP) anomalies  

E-print Network

1 Estimating aquifer hydraulic properties from the inversion of surface 2 Streaming Potential (SP with the geometry of the water table. It follows that 11 SP measurements can be used to estimate aquifer hydraulic and found that we 14 are able to estimate the hydraulic conductivity and the depth 15 and the thickness

Sailhac, Pascal

42

Do U Txt? Event-Related Potentials to Semantic Anomalies in Standard and Texted English  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Texted English is a hybrid, technology-based language derived from standard English modified to facilitate ease of communication via instant and text messaging. We compared semantic processing of texted and standard English sentences by recording event-related potentials in a classic semantic incongruity paradigm designed to elicit an N400 effect.…

Berger, Natalie I.; Coch, Donna

2010-01-01

43

Energy Detection Based on Undecimated Discrete Wavelet Transform and Its Application in Magnetic Anomaly Detection  

PubMed Central

Magnetic anomaly detection (MAD) is a passive approach for detection of a ferromagnetic target, and its performance is often limited by external noises. In consideration of one major noise source is the fractal noise (or called 1/f noise) with a power spectral density of 1/fa (0energy detection method based on undecimated discrete wavelet transform (UDWT) is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the foundations of magnetic anomaly detection and UDWT are introduced in brief, while a possible detection system based on giant magneto-impedance (GMI) magnetic sensor is also given out. Then our proposed energy detection based on UDWT is described in detail, and the probabilities of false alarm and detection for given the detection threshold in theory are presented. It is noticeable that no a priori assumptions regarding the ferromagnetic target or the magnetic noise probability are necessary for our method, and different from the discrete wavelet transform (DWT), the UDWT is shift invariant. Finally, some simulations are performed and the results show that the detection performance of our proposed detector is better than that of the conventional energy detector even utilized in the Gaussian white noise, especially when the spectral parameter ? is less than 1.0. In addition, a real-world experiment was done to demonstrate the advantages of the proposed method. PMID:25343484

Nie, Xinhua; Pan, Zhongming; Zhang, Dasha; Zhou, Han; Chen, Min; Zhang, Wenna

2014-01-01

44

FERMI CONSTRAINS DARK-MATTER ORIGIN OF HIGH-ENERGY POSITRON ANOMALY  

SciTech Connect

Fermi measurements of the high-latitude {gamma}-ray background strongly constrain a decaying-dark-matter origin for the 1-100 GeV Galactic positron anomaly measured with PAMELA. Inverse Compton scattering of the microwave background by the emergent positrons produces a bump in the diffuse 100-200 MeV {gamma}-ray background that would protrude from the observed background at these energies. The positrons are thus constrained to emerge from the decay process at a typical energy between {approx}100 GeV and {approx}250 GeV. By considering only {gamma}-ray emission of the excess positrons and electrons, we derive a minimum diffuse {gamma}-ray flux that, apart from the positron spectrum assumed, is independent of the actual decay modes. Any {gamma}-rays produced directly by the dark-matter decay leads to an additional signal that makes the observational limits more severe. A similar constraint on the energy of emergent positrons from annihilation in dark-matter substructures is argued to exist, according to recent estimates of enhancement in low-mass dark-matter substructures, and improved simulations of such substructure will further sharpen this constraint.

Pohl, Martin [Institut fuer Physik und Astronomie, Universitaet Potsdam, 14476 Potsdam-Golm (Germany); DESY, 15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Eichler, David [Physics Department, Ben-Gurion University, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)], E-mail: pohlmadq@gmail.com, E-mail: eichler@bgumail.bgu.ac.il

2010-03-20

45

Extreme sensitivity of the spin-splitting and 0.7 anomaly to confining potential in one-dimensional nanoelectronic devices.  

PubMed

Quantum point contacts (QPCs) have shown promise as nanoscale spin-selective components for spintronic applications and are of fundamental interest in the study of electron many-body effects such as the 0.7 × 2e(2)/h anomaly. We report on the dependence of the 1D Landé g-factor g and 0.7 anomaly on electron density and confinement in QPCs with two different top-gate architectures. We obtain g values up to 2.8 for the lowest 1D subband, significantly exceeding previous in-plane g-factor values in AlGaAs/GaAs QPCs and approaching that in InGaAs/InP QPCs. We show that g is highly sensitive to confinement potential, particularly for the lowest 1D subband. This suggests careful management of the QPC's confinement potential may enable the high g desirable for spintronic applications without resorting to narrow-gap materials such as InAs or InSb. The 0.7 anomaly and zero-bias peak are also highly sensitive to confining potential, explaining the conflicting density dependencies of the 0.7 anomaly in the literature. PMID:22830617

Burke, A M; Klochan, O; Farrer, I; Ritchie, D A; Hamilton, A R; Micolich, A P

2012-09-12

46

Potential of geothermal energy in China  

E-print Network

This thesis provides an overview of geothermal power generation and the potential for geothermal energy utilization in China. Geothermal energy is thermal energy stored in the earth's crust and currently the only ubiquitously ...

Sung, Peter On

2010-01-01

47

Geothermal Energy: Tapping the Potential  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ground source geothermal energy enables one to tap into the earth's stored renewable energy for heating and cooling facilities. Proper application of ground-source geothermal technology can have a dramatic impact on the efficiency and financial performance of building energy utilization (30%+). At the same time, using this alternative energy

Johnson, Bill

2008-01-01

48

Energy dependence of nucleon-nucleon potentials  

E-print Network

We investigate the energy dependence of potentials defined through the Bethe-Salpeter wave functions. We analytically evaluate such a potential in the Ising field theory in 2 dimensions and show that its energy dependence is weak at low energy. We then numerically calculate the nucleon-nucleon potential at non-zero energy using quenched QCD with anti-periodic boundary condition. In this case we also observe that the potentials are almost identical at $E\\simeq 0$ and $E\\simeq 50$ MeV, where $E$ is the center of mass kinetic energy.

Sinya Aoki; Janos Balog; Tetsuo Hatsuda; Noriyoshi Ishii; Keiko Murano; Hidekatsu Nemura; Peter Weisz

2008-12-03

49

Energy from Forest Biomass: Potential Economic Impacts  

E-print Network

Energy from Forest Biomass: Potential Economic Impacts in Massachusetts Prepared for: Massachusetts Bioenergy Initiative, a multifaceted study of biomass energy potential in Massachusetts. The economic impact study looks specifically at impacts in the 5 western counties of the Commonwealth, where biomass energy

Schweik, Charles M.

50

A comparison of classical and intelligent methods to detect potential thermal anomalies before the 11 August 2012 Varzeghan, Iran, earthquake (Mw = 6.4)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a number of classical and intelligent methods, including interquartile, autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA), artificial neural network (ANN) and support vector machine (SVM), have been proposed to quantify potential thermal anomalies around the time of the 11 August 2012 Varzeghan, Iran, earthquake (Mw = 6.4). The duration of the data set, which is comprised of Aqua-MODIS land surface temperature (LST) night-time snapshot images, is 62 days. In order to quantify variations of LST data obtained from satellite images, the air temperature (AT) data derived from the meteorological station close to the earthquake epicenter has been taken into account. For the models examined here, results indicate the following: (i) ARIMA models, which are the most widely used in the time series community for short-term forecasting, are quickly and easily implemented, and can efficiently act through linear solutions. (ii) A multilayer perceptron (MLP) feed-forward neural network can be a suitable non-parametric method to detect the anomalous changes of a non-linear time series such as variations of LST. (iii) Since SVMs are often used due to their many advantages for classification and regression tasks, it can be shown that, if the difference between the predicted value using the SVM method and the observed value exceeds the pre-defined threshold value, then the observed value could be regarded as an anomaly. (iv) ANN and SVM methods could be powerful tools in modeling complex phenomena such as earthquake precursor time series where we may not know what the underlying data generating process is. There is good agreement in the results obtained from the different methods for quantifying potential anomalies in a given LST time series. This paper indicates that the detection of the potential thermal anomalies derive credibility from the overall efficiencies and potentialities of the four integrated methods.

Akhoondzadeh, M.

2013-04-01

51

Potential Water and Energy Savings from Showerheads  

SciTech Connect

This paper estimates the benefits and costs of six water reduction scenarios. Benefits and costs of showerhead scenarios are ranked in this paper by an estimated water reduction percentage. To prioritize potential water and energy saving scenarios regarding showerheads, six scenarios were analyzed for their potential water and energy savings and the associated dollar savings to the consumer.

Biermayer, Peter J.

2005-09-28

52

Potential tank waste material anomalies located near the liquid observation wells: Model predicted responses of a neutron moisture detection system  

SciTech Connect

Extensive analyses have been completed to demonstrate that a neutron moisture probe can be used to recognize anomalies in materials and geometry surrounding the liquid observation wells (LOWs). Furthermore, techniques can be developed that will permit the interpretation of detector readings, perturbed by the presence of anomalies, as more accurate moisture concentrations. This analysis effort extends the usefulness of a neutron moisture probe system significantly, especially in the complicated geometries and material conditions that may be encountered in the waste tanks. Both static-source and pulsed-source neutron probes were considered in the analyses. Four different detector configurations were investigated: Thermal and epithermal neutron detectors located in both the near and far field.

Finfrock, S.H.; Toffer, H.; Watson, W.T.

1994-09-01

53

Low-energy electron fluxes in the region of the Brazil magnetic anomaly on the basis of data from the 25th and 28th Meteor satellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental data on the distribution of low-energy electrons in the inner radiation belt near the Brazil magnetic anomaly are presented, as are data on electron energy fluxes (0.1-20 keV). It is noted that the points of reflection of the fluxes upon drift from west to east through the region of the anomaly fall to an altitude of approximately 100 km.

V. A. Diachenko; V. A. Lipovetskii; B. V. Marin; V. M. Feigin

1980-01-01

54

SOLAR ENERGY POTENTIAL IN JORDAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is aimed to constitute a database for the researchers interested in utilizing solar power in Jordan. It presents the investigation for seven sites distributed on all territory of the country. Based on long-term measured solar irradiation levels, provided by the National Energy Research Center, solar insolation profiles as well as solar irradiance characteristics are estimated. The obtained results

Yaser Anagreh; Ahmad Bataineh; Muhammad Al-Odat

55

On the Chemical Potential of Dark Energy  

E-print Network

It is widely assumed that the observed universe is accelerating due to the existence of a new fluid component called dark energy. In this article, the thermodynamics consequences of a nonzero chemical potential on the dark energy component is discussed with special emphasis to the phantom fluid case. It is found that if the dark energy fluid is endowed with a negative chemical potential, the phantom field hypothesis becomes thermodynamically consistent with no need of negative temperatures as recently assumed in the literature.

S. H. Pereira

2008-06-23

56

Higher spins in AdS_5 at one loop: vacuum energy, boundary conformal anomalies and AdS/CFT  

E-print Network

We consider general-symmetry higher spin fields in AdS_5 and derive expressions for their one-loop corrections to vacuum energy E and the associated 4d boundary conformal anomaly a-coefficient. We a propose a similar expression for the second conformal anomaly c-coefficient. We show that all the three quantities (E, a, c) computed for N=8 gauged 5d supergravity are -1/2 of the values for N=4 conformal 4d supergravity and also twice the values for N=4 Maxwell multiplet. This gives 5d derivation of the fact that the system of N=4 conformal supergravity and four N=4 Maxwell multiplets is anomaly free. The values of (E, a, c) for the states at level p of Kaluza-Klein tower of 10d type IIB supergravity compactified on S^5 turn out to be equal to those for p copies of N=4 Maxwell multiplets. This may be related to the fact that these states appear in the tensor product of p superdoubletons. Under a natural regularization of the sum over p, the full 10d supergravity contribution is then minus that of the Maxwell mul...

Beccaria, M

2014-01-01

57

Unlocking potential for energy reduction.  

PubMed

In the latest of our series of articles designed to provide healthcare engineers with sound technical guidance on equipment or technology-related topics, John O'Leary, key account manager at Trend Controls (who in April's HEJ discussed the benefits of natural ventilation in healthcare settings), explains the functions of a building energy management system (BEMS), and the vital that role such equipment can play in helping healthcare estates teams reduce carbon emissions and save money, as well as ensuring the most comfortable environment for patients, staff, and visitors. PMID:23763085

O'Leary, John

2013-05-01

58

Energy potential of modern landfills  

SciTech Connect

Methane produced by refuse decomposition in a sanitary landfill can be recovered for commercial use. Landfill methane is currently under-utilized, with commercial recovery at only a small percentage of US landfills. New federal regulations mandating control of landfill gas migration and atmospheric emissions are providing impetus to methane recovery schemes as a means of recovering costs for increased environmental control. The benefits of landfill methane recovery include utilization of an inexpensive renewable energy resource, removal of explosive gas mixtures from the subsurface, and mitigation of observed historic increases in atmospheric methane. Increased commercial interest in landfill methane recovery is dependent on the final form of Clean Air Act amendments pertaining to gaseous emissions from landfills; market shifts in natural gas prices; financial incentives for development of renewable energy resources; and support for applied research and development to develop techniques for increased control of the gas generation process in situ. This paper will discuss the controls on methane generation in landfills. In addition, it will address how landfill regulations affect landfill design and site management practices which, in turn, influence decomposition rates. Finally, future trends in landfilling, and their relationship to gas production, will be examined. 19 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Bogner, J.E.

1990-01-01

59

Zero-point energies in potential-energy surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The definition of potential-energy surfaces (PES) and mass parameters in microscopic collective theories implies a folding over a collective wave packet. Thus the PES contains the zero-point energy (ZPE) of the packet, which should be extracted before using the collective potential any further. This paper concentrates on the kinetic energy part of the ZPE, its influence on the quantization procedure

P. G. Reinhard

1975-01-01

60

Energy saving potential of various roof technologies  

E-print Network

Unconventional roof technologies such as cool roofs and green roofs have been shown to reduce building heating and cooling load. Although previous studies suggest potential for energy savings through such technologies, ...

Ray, Stephen D. (Stephen Douglas)

2010-01-01

61

Industrial Energy Conservation Potentials in North Carolina  

E-print Network

~ The technique involves removing up to half;of the existing tubes and ballasts, and installing the reflectors over the remaining lamps. . , The follOWing equation should be used to estimate the potential energy savings E, when efficient lighting management...~ The technique involves removing up to half;of the existing tubes and ballasts, and installing the reflectors over the remaining lamps. . , The follOWing equation should be used to estimate the potential energy savings E, when efficient lighting management...

Barakat, M. G.; Singh, H.; Mallik, A. K.

62

Dynamic polarization potentials for 6He + 209Bi and 11Li + 208Pb systems at near-barrier energies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Coulomb dipole induced dynamic polarization potentials for 6He + 209Bi and 11Li + 208Pb systems within the framework of Feshbach's formalism with a motive to ascertain the presence or absence of threshold anomaly have been studied. As a result of this study, the threshold anomaly has been found to be present for both systems. It has also been found that at deep sub-barrier energies the imaginary part either starts increasing or at least remains unchanged which indicates the presence of the breakup threshold anomaly. In addition, the Coulomb breakup transmission factors for both systems have been found to have maximum value below and near-barrier energies, but at very high energies due to closure of the breakup channel the breakup transmission coefficients quickly becomes zero.

Duhan, S. S.; Singh, M.; Kharab, R.; Sharma, H. C.

2011-01-01

63

Economic Energy Savings Potential in Federal Buildings  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this study was to estimate the current life-cycle cost-effective (i.e., economic) energy savings potential in Federal buildings and the corresponding capital investment required to achieve these savings, with Federal financing. Estimates were developed for major categories of energy efficiency measures such as building envelope, heating system, cooling system, and lighting. The analysis was based on conditions (building stock and characteristics, retrofit technologies, interest rates, energy prices, etc.) existing in the late 1990s. The potential impact of changes to any of these factors in the future was not considered.

Brown, Daryl R.; Dirks, James A.; Hunt, Diane M.

2000-09-04

64

Applying supersymmetry to energy dependent potentials  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the supersymmetry properties of energy dependent potentials in the D=1 dimensional space. We show the main aspects of supersymmetry to be preserved, namely the factorization of the Hamiltonian, the connections between eigenvalues and wave functions of the partner Hamiltonians. Two methods are proposed. The first one requires the extension of the usual rules via the concept of local equivalent potential. In this case, the superpotential becomes depending on the state. The second method, applicable when the potential depends linearly on the energy, is similar to what has been already achieved by means of the Darboux transform. -- Highlights: •Supersymmetry extended to energy dependent potentials. •Generalization of the concept of superpotential. •An alternative method used for linear E-dependence leads to the same results as Darboux transform.

Yekken, R. [Faculté de Physique, USTHB Bab Ezzouar, Alger (Algeria)] [Faculté de Physique, USTHB Bab Ezzouar, Alger (Algeria); Lassaut, M. [Groupe de Physique Théorique, Institut de Physique Nucléaire, IN2P3 - CNRS, Université Paris-Sud 11, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France)] [Groupe de Physique Théorique, Institut de Physique Nucléaire, IN2P3 - CNRS, Université Paris-Sud 11, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Lombard, R.J., E-mail: roland.lombard@laposte.net [Groupe de Physique Théorique, Institut de Physique Nucléaire, IN2P3 - CNRS, Université Paris-Sud 11, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France)

2013-11-15

65

Magnetic anomalies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The implications and accuracy of anomaly maps produced using Magsat data on the scalar and vector magnetic field of the earth are discussed. Comparisons have been made between the satellite maps and aeromagnetic survey maps, showing smoother data from the satellite maps and larger anomalies in the aircraft data. The maps are being applied to characterize the structure and tectonics of the underlying regions. Investigations are still needed regarding the directions of magnetization within the crust and to generate further correlations between anomaly features and large scale geological structures. Furthermore, an increased data base is recommended for the Pacific Ocean basin in order to develop a better starting model for Pacific tectonic movements. The Pacific basin was large farther backwards in time and subduction zones surround the basin, thereby causing difficulties for describing the complex break-up scenario for Gondwanaland.

Harrison, C. G. A.

1983-04-01

66

Anomaly Transform method for initializing climate forecas.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new approach, an Anomaly Transform method (AT) using a physics based metric, is developed to initialize decadal climate hindcast within the German climate prediction MiKlip project. The method starts from balanced anomaly structures in space and time and between variables derived from control runs and applies an orthogalization to these. Two physics based metric are used to set up the eigen problem (1) the weighted total energy with its zonal, meridional kinetic and available potential energy terms having equal contributions, and (2) the weighted ocean heat content in which a disturbance is applied only to the initial temperature fields. The choice of a reference state defining the anomalies and the selected sequence of anomalies, once on a seasonal timescales and second on an interannual timescales, project a-priori only the slow modes of the ocean physical processes, such that the disturbances grow mainly in the Western Boundary Currents, in the ACC and ENSO regions. An additional set of initial conditions was designed to fit in a least square sense anomalies from the GECCO-2 ocean reanalysis. These sets of AT initial conditions and the MPIOM-ESM coupled model in T63L47/GR15 resolution were used for ensemble experiments and a retrospective forecast. The weighted total energy norm is used to monitor the amplitudes and rates of the fastest growing error modes. The results showed minor dependence of the instability growth on the selected metric but considerable change due to the rescaling coefficients magnitude on the perturbation amplitude. In contrary to similar atmospheric applications, we find an energy conversion from kinetic to available potential energy, which suggests different source of uncertainties mainly associated with changes in density fields.

Romanova, Vanya; Hense, Andreas

2014-05-01

67

Quantum potential energy as concealed motion  

E-print Network

It is known that the Schroedinger equation may be derived from a hydrodynamic model in which the Lagrangian position coordinates of a continuum of particles represent the quantum state. Using Routh\\s method of ignorable coordinates it is shown that the quantum potential energy of particle interaction that represents quantum effects in this model may be regarded as the kinetic energy of additional concealed freedoms. The method brings an alternative perspective to Planck\\s constant, which plays the role of a hidden variable, and to the canonical quantization procedure, since what is termed kinetic energy in quantum mechanics may be regarded literally as energy due to motion.

Peter Holland

2014-10-01

68

Cosmic microwave background anomalies from imperfect dark energy. Confrontation with the data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We test anisotropic dark energy models with the 7-year WMAP temperature observation data. In the presence of imperfect sources, large-scale gradients or anisotropies in the dark energy mean that the CMB sky will be distorted anisotropically on its way to us by the ISW effect. The signal covariance matrix then becomes non-diagonal for small multipoles, but at ? ? 20 the anisotropy is negligible for any reasonably probable values of the already constrained dark energy fluid parameters. As a consequence, only possible large-scale anisotropies are studied in this paper. We parametrize possible violations of rotational invariance in the late universe by the magnitude of a post-Friedmannian deviation from isotropy and its scale dependence, where the deviation from isotropy is modeled through a mismatch between the ? and ? potentials that arise due to anisotropic stresses caused by some (unknown) mechanism. In this sense, our model is general. In this paper we explore the possibility that the stresses are caused by an imperfect dark energy component in the form of a vector field aligned with some axis. This way we may obtain hints of the possible imperfect nature of dark energy and the large-angle anomalous features in the CMB. A robust statistical analysis, subjected to various tests and consistency checks, is performed to compare the predicted correlations with those obtained from the satellite-measured CMB full sky maps. The preferred axis points toward (l,b) = (168°, -31°) and the amplitude of the anisotropy is ?0 = (0.51 ± 0.94) (1? deviation quoted). The best fit model has a steep blue anisotropic spectrum (nde = 3.1 ± 1.5). In light of recent studies, the model provides an interesting extension of the standard model of cosmology, since it is able to account for the apparent deficit in large-scale power in the spectrum through a physically motivated late time ISW effect. Further studies of this class of models are justified by the results of the analysis, which suggest that it cannot be ruled out at present.

Axelsson, Magnus; Hansen, Frode; Koivisto, Tomi; Mota, David F.

2014-04-01

69

DOWN'S ANOMALY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

BOTH CLINICAL AND PATHOLOGICAL ASPECTS AND MATHEMATICAL ELABORATIONS OF DOWN'S ANOMALY, KNOWN ALSO AS MONGOLISM, ARE PRESENTED IN THIS REFERENCE MANUAL FOR PROFESSIONAL PERSONNEL. INFORMATION PROVIDED CONCERNS (1) HISTORICAL STUDIES, (2) PHYSICAL SIGNS, (3) BONES AND MUSCLES, (4) MENTAL DEVELOPMENT, (5) DERMATOGLYPHS, (6) HEMATOLOGY, (7)…

PENROSE, L.S.; SMITH, G.F.

70

Biomass resource potential using energy crops  

SciTech Connect

Biomass energy crops can provide a significant and environmentally beneficial source of renewable energy feedstocks for the future. They can revitalize the agricultural sector of the US economy by providing profitable uses for marginal cropland. Energy crops include fast-growing trees, perennial grasses, and annual grasses, all capable of collecting solar energy and storing it as cellulosic compounds for several months to several years. Once solar energy is thus captured, it can be converted by means of currently available technologies to a wide variety of energy products such as electricity, heat, liquid transportation fuels, and gases. Experimental results from field trials have generated optimism that selected and improved energy crops, established on cropland with moderate limitations for crop production, have the potential for producing high yields. Both trees and grasses, under very good growing conditions, have produced average annual yields of 20 to 40 dry Mg ha{sup {minus}1} year{sup {minus}1}. Sorghum has shown especially high yields in the Midwest. Hybrids between sugar cane and its wild relatives, called energy cane, have yielded as much as 50 dry Mg ha{sup {minus}1} year{sup {minus}1} in Florida. These experimental results demonstrate that some species have the genetic potential for very rapid growth rates. New wood energy crop systems developed by the Department of Energy`s Biofuels Feedstock Development Program offer, at a minimum, a 100% increase in biomass production rates over the 2 to 4 Mg ha{sup {minus}1} year{sup {minus}1} of dry leafless woody biomass produced by most natural forest systems. Experimental data indicate that short rotation wood crops established on cropland with moderate limitations are capable of producing biomass yields of 8--20 dry Mg ha{sup {minus}1} year{sup {minus}1} with a present average about 11 dry Mg ha{sup {minus}1} year{sup {minus}1} on typical cropland sites.

Wright, L.L.; Cushman, J.H.; Martin, S.A.

1993-09-01

71

Potential reduction of DSN uplink energy cost  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

DSN Earth stations typically transmit more power than that required to meet minimum specifications for uplink performance. Energy and cost savings that could result from matching the uplink power to the amount required for specified performance are studied. The Galileo mission was selected as a case study. Although substantial reduction in transmitted energy is possible, potential savings in source energy (oil or electricity) savings are much less. This is because of the rising inefficiency in power conversion and radio frequency power generation that accompanies reduced power output.

Dolinsky, S.; Degroot, N. F.

1982-01-01

72

A theory for the atmospheric energy spectrum: depth-limited temperature anomalies at the tropopause.  

PubMed

The horizontal spectra of atmospheric wind and temperature at the tropopause have a steep -3 slope at synoptic scales, but transition to -5/3 at wavelengths of the order of 500-1,000 km [Nastrom, G. D. & Gage, K. S. (1985) J. Atmos. Sci. 42, 950-960]. Here we demonstrate that a model that assumes zero potential vorticity and constant stratification N over a finite-depth H in the troposphere exhibits the same type of spectra. In this model, temperature perturbations generated at the planetary scale excite a direct cascade of energy with a slope of -3 at large scales, -5/3 at small scales, and a transition near horizontal wavenumber k(t) = f/NH, where f is the Coriolis parameter. Ballpark atmospheric estimates for N, f, and H give a transition wavenumber near that observed, and numerical simulations of the previously undescribed model verify the expected behavior. Despite its simplicity, the model is consistent with a number of perplexing features in the observations and demonstrates that a complete theory for mesoscale dynamics must take temperature advection at boundaries into account. PMID:17001017

Tulloch, R; Smith, K S

2006-10-01

73

Potential gradients produced by pore-space heterogeneities: Application to isothermal frost damage and submarine hydrate anomalies  

E-print Network

Potential gradients produced by pore-space heterogeneities: Application to isothermal frost damage the supply of constituents through a fluid phase. With frost damage, the gradi- ents in chemical potential for constituent supply. We illustrate the consequences and character of isothermal frost damage using the results

Rempel, Alan W.

74

The wind energy potential of western Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study wind data were used to determine the monthly and annual variations of the wind at 13 meterological stations in western Greece. An analysis of the available wind data for the Ionian Sea islands and the western coasts of Greece is carried out to ascertain its potential for wind energy development. The effect of the limited number of

B. D. Katsoulis; D. A. Metaxas

1992-01-01

75

Renewable Energy Potential for Brownfield Redevelopment Strategies  

E-print Network

to identify high-potential sites for renewable energy technologies and can help determine those technologies (see Figure 3). Thus, the decision to install a PV system depends on the power requirements to brownfields. Given economic and technological considerations, the most suitable at this time are growing

76

Molecular spinless energies of the improved Tietz potential energy model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We solve the Klein-Gordon equation with the improved Tietz empirical potential energy model. The bound state energy equation has been obtained by using the supersymmetric shape invariance approach. The relativistic vibrational transition frequencies for the state of Na2 molecule have been computed by using the improved Tietz potential model. The relativistic vibrational transition frequencies are in good agreement with the experimental RKR values.

Liu, Jian-Yi; Du, Jian-Fen; Jia, Chun-Sheng

2013-11-01

77

Potential energy savings from aquifer thermal energy storage  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest Laboratory researchers developed an aggregate-level model to estimate the short- and long-term potential energy savings from using aquifer thermal storage (ATES) in the United States. The objectives of this effort were to (1) develop a basis from which to recommend whether heat or chill ATES should receive future research focus and (2) determine which market sector (residential, commercial, or industrial) offers the largest potential energy savings from ATES. Information was collected on the proportion of US land area suitable for ATES applications. The economic feasibility of ATES applications was then evaluated. The potential energy savings from ATES applications was calculated. Characteristic energy use in the residential, commercial, and industrial sectors was examined, as was the relationship between waste heat production and consumption by industrial end-users. These analyses provided the basis for two main conclusions: heat ATES applications offer higher potential for energy savings than do chill ATES applications; and the industrial sector can achieve the highest potential energy savings for the large consumption markets. Based on these findings, it is recommended that future ATES research and development efforts be directed toward heat ATES applications in the industrial sector. 11 refs., 6 figs., 9 tabs.

Anderson, M.R.; Weijo, R.O.

1988-07-01

78

Sparse representation for a potential energy surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a simple scheme to estimate the potential energy surface (PES) for which the accuracy can be easily controlled and improved. It is based on model selection within the framework of linear regression using the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) technique. Basis functions are selected from a systematic large set of candidate functions. The sparsity of the PES significantly reduces the computational cost of evaluating the energy and force in molecular dynamics simulations without losing accuracy. The usefulness of the scheme for describing the elemental metals Na and Mg is clearly demonstrated.

Seko, Atsuto; Takahashi, Akira; Tanaka, Isao

2014-07-01

79

Transient self-potential anomalies associated with recent lava flows at Piton de la Fournaise volcano (Runion Island, Indian Ocean)  

E-print Network

be used to diagnose the cooling of recent lava flow on shield volcanoes. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights volcano (Réunion Island, Indian Ocean) S. Barde-Cabusson a, ,1 , G. Levieux a,b , J.-F. Lénat a , A Fournaise volcano (Reunion Island, Indian Ocean). Repeated self-potential measurements are used to determine

Duputel, Zacharie

80

Renewable energy in India: Current status and future potentials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable energy sources and technologies have potential to provide solutions to the long-standing energy problems being faced by the developing countries. The renewable energy sources like wind energy, solar energy, geothermal energy, ocean energy, biomass energy and fuel cell technology can be used to overcome energy shortage in India. To meet the energy requirement for such a fast growing economy,

Ashwani Kumar; Kapil Kumar; Naresh Kaushik; Satyawati Sharma; Saroj Mishra

2010-01-01

81

Computed potential energy surfaces for chemical reactions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective was to obtain accurate potential energy surfaces (PES's) for a number of reactions which are important in the H/N/O combustion process. The interest in this is centered around the design of the SCRAM jet engine for the National Aerospace Plane (NASP), which was envisioned as an air-breathing hydrogen-burning vehicle capable of reaching velocities as large as Mach 25. Preliminary studies indicated that the supersonic flow in the combustor region of the scram jet engine required accurate reaction rate data for reactions in the H/N/O system, some of which was not readily available from experiment. The most important class of combustion reactions from the standpoint of the NASP project are radical recombinaton reactions, since these reactions result in most of the heat release in the combustion process. Theoretical characterizations of the potential energy surfaces for these reactions are presented and discussed.

Walch, Stephen P.

1990-01-01

82

A new water anomaly: the temperature dependence of the proton mean kinetic energy  

E-print Network

The mean kinetic energy of protons in water is determined by Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering experiments, performed above and below the temperature of maximum density and in the supercooled phase. The temperature dependence of this energy shows an anomalous behavior, as it occurs for many water properties. In particular two regions of maximum kinetic energy are identified: the first one, in the supercooled phase in the range 269 K - 272 K, and a second one above 273 K. In both these regions the measured proton kinetic energy exceedes the theoretical prediction based on a semi-classical model. Noteworthy, the proton mean kinetic energy has a maximum at 277 K, the temperature of the maximum density of water. In the supercooled metastable phase the measured mean kinetic energy and the proton momentum distribution clearly indicate proton delocalization between two H-bonded oxygens.

Davide Flammini; Fabio Bruni; Maria Antonietta Ricci

2009-01-27

83

[Association between the percentages of typical forms, acrosome abnormalities and the multiple anomalies indices: potential quality indicators?].  

PubMed

In addition to NF EN ISO 15189, the second version of "GBEA AMP", published in the official journal of the French Republic, had set for "AMP" exams, the actions to be implemented in order to achieve an efficient quality management system. As part of continuous improvement of quality, and besides our external and internal quality systems, we have been developping indicators that will allow an early detection of potential drifts within operators performing sperm morphology testing. We have extracted nearly 1900 sperm morphology tests from our database. These tests were performed by three operators. The analysis of the data collected has shown a cross correlation between the percentages of typical forms, malformative acrosomes and "MAI". We have been using these correlations as quality indicators in our laboratory in order to highlight any potential drift in reading sperm morphology tests. PMID:22294144

Laudat, Antoine; Lecourbe, Karine; Joyeux, Claudine; Burc-Struxiano, Laurence

2012-01-01

84

A new water anomaly: The temperature dependence of the proton mean kinetic energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a recent article [Pietropaolo et al., Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 127802 (2008)] we discussed the results of a deep inelastic neutron scattering experiment aimed at the measure of mean kinetic energy, , and momentum distribution of protons in supercooled water. The observed excess of proton mean kinetic energy, with respect to theoretical predictions and measurements in water stable liquid and

Davide Flammini; M. A. Ricci; F. Bruni

2009-01-01

85

Dyonic Anomalies  

E-print Network

We consider the problem of coupling a dyonic p-brane in d = 2p+4 space-time dimensions to a prescribed (p+2)-form field strength. This is particularly subtle when p is odd. For the case p = 1, we explicitly construct a coupling functional, which is a sum of two terms: one which is linear in the prescribed field strength, and one which describes the coupling of the brane to its self-field and takes the form of a Wess-Zumino term depending only on the embedding of the brane world-volume into space-time. We then show that this functional is well-defined only modulo a certain anomaly, related to the Euler class of the normal bundle of the brane world-volume.

Mans Henningson; Erik P. G. Johansson

2005-08-15

86

A beacon of new physics: The Pioneer anomaly modelled as a path based speed loss driven by the externalisation of aggregate non-inertial QM energy  

E-print Network

This treatise outlines how a non-systematic based Pioneer anomaly, with its implied violation (re: 'low' mass bodies only) of both general relativity's weak equivalence principle and the Newtonian inverse-square law, can be successfully modelled. These theoretical hurdles and various awkward observational constraints, such as the low value of Pioneer 11's anomaly pre-Saturn encounter, have (to date) not been convincingly modelled. Notwithstanding the recent trend to embrace a non-constant Sun/Earth-directed heat based explanation of this anomalous deceleration, the actual: nature, direction, and temporal and spatial variation of the Pioneer anomaly remain an open arena of research. Working backwards from the observational evidence, and rethinking: time, mass, quantum entanglement and non-locality, we hypothesise a mechanism involving a quantum mechanical energy source and a new type of 'gravitational' field; neither of which lie within general relativity's domain of formulation/application. By way of a systemic conservation of energy principle, an internally inexpressible (aggregate) non-inertial energy discrepancy/uncertainty -- involving a myriad of quantum (lunar/third-body residing) atomic and molecular systems moving in analog curved spacetime -- is (non-locally) re-expressed externally as a (rotating) non-Euclidean spatial geometry perturbation. At a moving body each "rotating space-warp" induces sinusoidal proper acceleration and speed perturbations, as well as a path-based constant (per cycle) rate of speed shortfall relative to predictions that omit the additional effect. 'Solutions' of the new model may extend to: the Earth flyby anomaly, solar system related large-scale anomalies in the CMB radiation data, the nature of dark energy, and how a theory of everything unification agenda is inadvertently impeding a deeper understanding of physical reality and quantum entanglement.

Paul G. ten Boom

2012-05-15

87

Computed potential energy surfaces for chemical reactions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new global potential energy surface (PES) is being generated for O(P-3) + H2 yields OH + H. This surface is being fit using the rotated Morse oscillator method, which was used to fit the previous POL-CI surface. The new surface is expected to be more accurate and also includes a much more complete sampling of bent geometries. A new study has been undertaken of the reaction N + O2 yields NO + O. The new studies have focused on the region of the surface near a possible minimum corresponding to the peroxy form of NOO. A large portion of the PES for this second reaction has been mapped out. Since state to state cross sections for the reaction are important in the chemistry of high temperature air, these studies will probably be extended to permit generation of a new global potential for reaction.

Walch, Stephen P.; Levin, Eugene

1993-01-01

88

Theoretical studies of potential energy surfaces  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this program is to calculate accurate potential energy surfaces (PES) for both reactive and nonreactive systems. To do this the electronic Schrodinger equation must be solved. Our approach to this problem starts with multiconfiguration self-consistent field (MCSCF) reference wavefunctions. These reference wavefunctions are designed to be sufficiently flexible to accurately describe changes in electronic structure over a broad range of geometries. Electron correlation effects are included via multireference, singles and doubles configuration interaction (MRSDCI) calculations. With this approach, the authors are able to provide useful predictions of the energetics for a broad range of systems.

Harding, L.B. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)

1993-12-01

89

The wind energy potential of western Greece  

SciTech Connect

In this study wind data were used to determine the monthly and annual variations of the wind at 13 meterological stations in western Greece. An analysis of the available wind data for the Ionian Sea islands and the western coasts of Greece is carried out to ascertain its potential for wind energy development. The effect of the limited number of daily observations available on the accuracy of the mean wind speed and annual wind energy estimates is ascertained. The wind speed and direction distributions are represented with Weibull functions. Besides, a mass-consistent numerical mesoscale model was used to give an overview of the wind prospecting and siting problem, and an example of its use for Corfu (Kerkira), an island in the Ionian Sea, is given. The comparison of the accuracy of the stimulation results versus measured wind at an available site is quite encouraging even though it cannot be conclusive since only one station is available.

Katsoulis, B.D.; Metaxas, D.A. (Univ. of Ioannina (Greece))

1992-12-01

90

SU(4) Skyrmions and Activation Energy Anomaly in Bilayer Quantum Hall Systems  

E-print Network

The bilayer QH system has four energy levels in the lowest Landau level, corresponding to the layer and spin degrees of freedom. We investigate the system in the regime where all four levels are nearly degenerate and equally active. The underlying group structure is SU(4). At $\

Z. F. Ezawa; G. Tsitsishvili

2003-11-18

91

Energy potential of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula)  

SciTech Connect

Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) is a noxious, perennial weed that infests pastures, range land and waste areas in the northern Great Plains. The objective of this study was to determine the productive potential of this species when grown under optimum agronomic conditions. Plants were fertilized and irrigated. Oil, hydrocarbon, total protein, and dry-weight production were measured on 3 harvest dates. Calorimetric analyses were performed to determine the potential of leafy spurge as a fuel crop. The hydrocarbon content of 12 strains of leafy spurge was determined to measure genetic variability for this trait. The addition of fertilizer doubled dry-weight production but did not affect percent oil or hydrocarbon content. Oil and hydrocarbon production averaged 6.8 and 0.6% on a plant dry-weight basis. Maximum production of plant biomass, protein, and hydrocarbon was obtained from a mid-July harvest. Oil content increased later in the growing season. The total protein content of leafy spurge averaged 12%. Whole-plant biomass had a caloric value of 4407 cal/g while the oils contained 10,019 cal/g. Leafy spurge hay can produce 4 times more energy per year than wheat straw; therefore, the immediate potential of leafy spurge whole-plant biomass as a locally grown fuel crop for home-heating purposes is suggested.

Maxwell, B.D.; Wiatr, S.M.; Fay, P.K.

1985-01-01

92

Assessment of wind energy potential in Poland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the presentation is to show the suitability of using numerical model wind speed forecasts for the wind power industry applications in Poland. In accordance with the guidelines of the European Union, the consumption of wind energy in Poland is rapidly increasing. According to the report of Energy Regulatory Office from 30 March 2013, the installed capacity of wind power in Poland was 2807MW from 765 wind power stations. Wind energy is strongly dependent on the meteorological conditions. Based on the climatological wind speed data, potential energy zones within the area of Poland have been developed (H. Lorenc). They are the first criterion for assessing the location of the wind farm. However, for exact monitoring of a given wind farm location the prognostic data from numerical model forecasts are necessary. For the practical interpretation and further post-processing, the verification of the model data is very important. Polish Institute Meteorology and Water Management - National Research Institute (IMWM-NRI) runs an operational model COSMO (Consortium for Small-scale Modelling, version 4.8) using two nested domains at horizontal resolutions of 7 km and 2.8 km. The model produces 36 hour and 78 hour forecasts from 00 UTC, for 2.8 km and 7 km domain resolutions respectively. Numerical forecasts were compared with the observation of 60 SYNOP and 3 TEMP stations in Poland, using VERSUS2 (Unified System Verification Survey 2) and R package. For every zone the set of statistical indices (ME, MAE, RMSE) was calculated. Forecast errors for aerological profiles are shown for Polish TEMP stations at Wroc?aw, Legionowo and ?eba. The current studies are connected with a topic of the COST ES1002 WIRE-Weather Intelligence for Renewable Energies.

Starosta, Katarzyna; Linkowska, Joanna; Mazur, Andrzej

2014-05-01

93

Energy flux and hydrogeology of thermal anomalies in the Gulf of Mexico basin. Progress report, June 1992--August 1993  

SciTech Connect

Specific project objectives are to: determine whether or not the observed thermal anomalies in the Gulf of Mexico sedimentary basin can be accounted for by heat conduction only; determine whether or not the present-day groundwater flow system is amenable with the heat advection hypothesis; and determine fluid and heat flux histories that are consistent with the observed data. In support of these objectives, we have collected over 25,000 data points, reflecting pressures and temperatures at depths of up to 16,000 feet in the Texas portion of the Gulf of Mexico basin. These data have been collated into a computerized data base system. In addition, we have begun collection of thermophysical data. This research provides fundamental knowledge and understanding to the geosciences and contributes to the sciences and technology base required for current and future energy technologies. Quantifying the evolution of the hydrodynamic and thermal regimes in sedimentary basins is important for predicting timing of hydrocarbon maturation and migration. The evolving subsurface temperature and hydrodynamic system also have a first-order control on sediment diagenesis, brine evolution, and the formation of ore deposits.

Sharp, J.M. Jr.

1993-09-01

94

Anomaly Structure of Supergravity and Anomaly Cancellation  

E-print Network

We display the full anomaly structure of supergravity, including new D-term contributions to the conformal anomaly. This expression has the super-Weyl and chiral U(1)_K transformation properties that are required for implementation of the Green-Schwarz mechanism for anomaly cancellation. We outline the procedure for full anomaly cancellation. Our results have implications for effective supergravity theories from the weakly coupled heterotic string theory.

Daniel Butter; Mary K. Gaillard

2009-06-18

95

Anomaly Structure of Supergravity and Anomaly Cancellation  

E-print Network

We display the full anomaly structure of supergravity, including new D-term contributions to the conformal anomaly. This expression has the super-Weyl and chiral U(1)_K transformation properties that are required for implementation of the Green-Schwarz mechanism for anomaly cancellation. We outline the procedure for full anomaly cancellation. Our results have implications for effective supergravity theories from the weakly coupled heterotic string theory.

Butter, Daniel

2009-01-01

96

ANOMALY STRUCTURE OF SUPERGRAVITY AND ANOMALY CANCELLATION  

SciTech Connect

We display the full anomaly structure of supergravity, including new D-term contributions to the conformal anomaly. This expression has the super-Weyl and chiral U(1){sub K} transformation properties that are required for implementation of the Green-Schwarz mechanism for anomaly cancellation. We outline the procedure for full anomaly cancellation. Our results have implications for effective supergravity theories from the weakly coupled heterotic string theory.

Butter, Daniel; Gaillard, Mary K.

2009-06-10

97

Anomalies in the theory of viscous energy losses due to shear in rotational MEMS resonators.  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, the effect of viscous wave motion on a micro rotational resonator is discussed. This work shows the inadequacy of developing theory to represent energy losses due to shear motion in air. Existing theory predicts Newtonian losses with little slip at the interface. Nevertheless, experiments showed less effect due to Newtonian losses and elevated levels of slip for small gaps. Values of damping were much less than expected. Novel closed form solutions for the response of components are presented. The stiffness of the resonator is derived using Castigliano's theorem, and viscous fluid motion above and below the resonator is derived using a wave approach. Analytical results are compared with experimental results to determine the utility of existing theory. It was found that existing macro and molecular theory is inadequate to describes measured responses.

Walsh, Timothy Francis; Klody, Kelly Anne; Jenkins, Mark W.; Dohner, Jeffrey Lynn

2003-12-01

98

Anomaly structure of supergravity and anomaly cancellation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We display the full anomaly structure of supergravity, including new contributions to the conformal anomaly. Our result has the super-Weyl and Kähler U(1), transformation properties that are required for implementation of the Green–Schwarz mechanism for anomaly cancellation.

Daniel Butter; Mary K. Gaillard

2009-01-01

99

Energy flux and hydrogeology of thermal anomalies in the Gulf of Mexico Basin: South Texas example  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report covers the period from 1 September 1993 through 28 February 1994. The last Technical Progress Report was submitted in September 1993. In this period, we have focused our efforts on the following activities: (1) Finalizing collection of radiogenic heat production data; (2) Evaluating petrographic controls on thermal conductivity; (3) Modeling one-dimensional heat conduction with sources; (4) Completing base geologic cross-section; (5) Acquiring pressure data to augment data base; (6) Putting map and well data into digital format for analysis; (7) Analyzing salinity, temperate and fluid potential data for propensity of free convection; (8) Finalizing preliminary investigation into depressurization of reservoirs; (9) Preparing presentations for AAPG meeting in Denver; (10) Presenting results at the Geological Society of America Meeting in Boston (October 1993); (11) Collaborating with project members of the DOE funded Global Basins Research Network who are working on a project in the Eugene Island Block, offshore Louisiana; and (12) Collaborating with others working on research in the Gulf of Mexico Basin in our Department and with CSIRO scientists in Adelaide, Australia.

Sharp, J. M., Jr.

1994-03-01

100

Constraints on lithospheric structure from satellite potential field data: Africa and Asia. Analysis and interpretation of MAGSAT anomalies over North Africa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Crustal anomaly detection with MAGSAT data is frustrated by the inherent resolving power of the data and by contamination from the external and core fields. The quality of the data might be tested by modeling specific tectonic features which produce anomalies that fall within the proposed resolution and crustal amplitude capabilities of the MAGSAT fields. To test this hypothesis, the north African hotspots associated with Ahaggar, Tibestia and Darfur have been modeled as magnetic induction anomalies due solely to shallower depth to the Curie isotherm surface beneath these features. The MAGSAT data were reduced by subtracting the external and core fields to isolate the scalar and vertical component crustal signals. The predicted model magnetic signal arising from the surface topography of the uplift and the Curie isotherm surface was calculated at MAGSAT altitudes by the Fourier transform technique modified to allow for variable magnetization. In summary it is suggested that the region beneath Ahaggar is associated with a strong thermal anomaly and the predicted anomaly best fits the associated MAGSAT anomaly if the African plate is moving in a northeasterly direction.

Phillips, R. J.

1986-01-01

101

Field Theory Model of the Flyby Anomaly  

SciTech Connect

Precision tracking of spacecraft on interplanetary missions has turned up several anomalous deviations from predictions of general relativity. The Flyby Anomaly, wherein spacecraft gain or lose energy in an earth-centric frame after an encounter with earth, is clearly associated with the rotation of the earth. The possibility that the missing ingredient is a new type of potential field surrounding the earth is assessed in this write-up. A scalar field with the kinetic energy distribution of the earth as a source is evaluated numerically, with an amplitude parameter adjusted to match the data of Anderson et al.(2008). The new field can be interpreted as a coupling between kinetic energies of objects, a field analogous to fluid mechanics, or a field coupled to acceleration. The potential field violates various aspects of standard physics, such as energy non-conservation.

Lewis, R. A

2009-03-16

102

Energy conservation potential in Taiwanese textile industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since Taiwan lacks sufficient self-produced energy, increasing energy efficiency and energy savings are essential aspects of Taiwan’s energy policy. This work summarizes the energy savings implemented by 303 firms in Taiwan’s textile industry from the on-line Energy Declaration System in 2008. It was found that the total implemented energy savings amounted to 46,074ton of oil equivalent (TOE). The energy saving

Gui-Bing Hong; Te-Li Su; Jenq-Daw Lee; Tsung-Chi Hsu; Hua-Wei Chen

2010-01-01

103

ASSESSMENT OF ENERGY RECOVERY POTENTIAL OF INDUSTRIAL COMBUSTION EQUIPMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

An assessment was conducted to evaluate the waste heat content and energy recovery potential of flue gases from 30 industrial combustion devices. Pollution controls on nine of the devices were evaluated to estimate energy requirements and particulate reduction; energy requirement...

104

Energy Consumption and Conservation Potential at a Georgia Textile Plant  

E-print Network

is air-conditioned, the plant is an intensive user of electricity, fossil fuel, and water. Following completion of the energy analysis, recommendations to conserve energy and water resources were developed. Potential energy savings of approximately thirty...

Gurta, M. E.; Brown, M. L.

105

Spatial mapping of renewable energy potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

An energy resource that is renewed by nature and whose supply is not affected by the rate of consumption is often termed as renewable energy. The need to search for renewable, alternate and non-polluting sources of energy assumes top priority for self-reliance in the regional energy supply. This demands an estimation of available energy resources spatially to evolve better management

T. V. Ramachandraa

106

Biomass energy: the scale of the potential resource  

E-print Network

Biomass energy: the scale of the potential resource Christopher B. Field1 , J. Elliott Campbell1 Avenue, Livermore, CA 94550, USA Increased production of biomass for energy has the potential to offset resources and decrease food security. The net effect of biomass energy agriculture on climate could

107

Potential of solar energy for Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluated is the rapidly growing solar energy program and it is determined which areas are appropriate for immediate development in Texas. Home heating and cooling via solar energy as well as integration of solar energy into electric and gas utilities are considered.

A. F. Hildebrandt

1974-01-01

108

Solar Energy Potential and Applications in Myanmar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy consumption is one of the indices in determining the levels of development of a nation. Therefore, availability of energy supply to all sectors of life in any country is crucial for its development. These exists shortage of all kinds of energy, particularly electricity which is badly needed for economic development. Electricity from the sun which is quite abundant in

Thet Thet; Han Yee; Su Su Win; Nyein Nyein Soe

109

Evaluation of the Energy Saving Potential from Flue Gas Pressurization  

E-print Network

The potential for recovering energy from low pressure furnace flue products is limited when standard heat recovery equipment is utilized. Efficient energy recovery can be accomplished by providing a flue gas side pressure drop across a heat...

Stanton, E. H.

1980-01-01

110

Integrated Potential-field Studies in Support of Energy Resource Assessment in Frontier Areas of Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In frontier areas of Alaska, potential-field studies play an important role in characterizing the geologic structure of sedimentary basins having potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources. Two such areas are the Yukon Flats basin in the east-central interior of Alaska, and the coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) in northeastern Alaska. The Yukon Flats basin is a potential source of hydrocarbon resources for local consumption and possible export. Knowledge of the subsurface configuration of the basin is restricted to a few seismic reflection profiles covering a limited area and one well. The seismic profiles were reprocessed and reinterpreted in preparation for an assessment of the oil and gas resources of the basin. The assessment effort required knowledge of the basin configuration away from the seismic profiles, as well as an understanding of the nature of the underlying basement. To extend the interpretation of the basin thickness across the entire area of the basin, an iterative Jachens-Moring gravity inversion was performed on gridded quasi-isostatic residual gravity anomaly data. The inversion was constrained to agree with the interpreted basement surface along the seismic profiles. In addition to the main sedimentary depocenter interpreted from the seismic data as having over 8 km of fill, the gravity inversion indicated a depocenter with over 7 km of fill in the Crooked Creek sub-basin. Results for the Crooked Creek sub-basin are consistent with magnetic and magnetotelluric modeling, but they await confirmation by drilling or seismic profiling. Whether hydrocarbon source rocks are present in the pre-Cenozoic basement beneath Yukon Flats is difficult to determine because extensive surficial deposits obscure the bedrock geology, and no deep boreholes penetrate basement. The color and texture patterns in a red-green-blue composite image consisting of reduced-to-the-pole aeromagnetic data (red), magnetic potential (blue), and basement gravity (green) highlight domains with common geophysical characteristics and, by inference, lithology. The observed patterns suggest that much of the basin is underlain by Devonian to Jurassic oceanic rocks that probably have little or no potential for hydrocarbon generation. The coastal plain surficial deposits in the northern part of ANWR conceal another frontier basin with hydrocarbon potential. Proprietary aeromagnetic and gravity data were used, along with seismic reflection profiles, to construct a structural and stratigraphic model of this highly deformed sedimentary basin for use in an energy resource assessment. Matched-filtering techniques were used to separate short-wavelength magnetic and gravity anomalies attributed to sources near the top of the sedimentary section from longer-wavelength anomalies attributed to deeper basin and basement sources. Models along the seismic reflection lines indicate that the primary sources of the short-wavelength anomalies are folded and faulted sedimentary beds truncated at the Pleistocene erosion surface. In map view, the aeromagnetic and gravity anomalies produced by the sedimentary units were used to identify possible structural trapping features and geometries, but they also indicated that these features may be significantly disrupted by faulting.

Phillips, J. D.; Saltus, R. W.; Potter, C. J.; Stanley, R. G.; Till, A. B.

2008-05-01

111

LBNL -50132 Assessment of Grid Distributed Energy Resource Potential  

E-print Network

LBNL -50132 Assessment of µGrid Distributed Energy Resource Potential Using DER-CAM and GIS Energy, Office of Power Technologies, Clean Energy Analysis Collaborative of the U.S. Department Berkeley National Laboratory is an equal opportunity employer. #12;Assessment of µGrid Distributed Energy

Kammen, Daniel M.

112

Quantifying National Energy Savings Potential of Lighting Controls in  

E-print Network

in reducing lighting energy use through more efficient lighting systems. The National Electrical ManufacturersQuantifying National Energy Savings Potential of Lighting Controls in Commercial Buildings Alison's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program under Contract No. DE

113

Energy conservation potential of surface modification technologies  

SciTech Connect

This report assesses the energy conservation impact of surface modification technologies on the metalworking industries. The energy conservation impact of surface modification technologies on the metalworking industries is assessed by estimating their friction and wear tribological sinks and the subsequent reduction in these sinks when surface modified tools are used. Ion implantation, coatings, and laser and electron beam surface modifications are considered.

Le, H.K.; Horne, D.M.; Silberglitt, R.S.

1985-09-01

114

Realizing the potential of nuclear energy. [Monograph  

Microsoft Academic Search

The future of nuclear power, just as the future of America, can be viewed with optimism. There is hope in America's record of overcoming obstacles, but growth is essential for that hope to be realized. Despite the downturn in energy demand made possible by conservation, we will need a 35% growth in total energy for new workers and production. Electricity

Walske

1982-01-01

115

Renewable Energy Resources Potential in Lao PDR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable energy resources provide a large share of the total energy consumption of many developing countries. Evaluation of these resources has not been made in many countries and in many cases, data necessary to estimate the resource availability is also not easily available. However, for the profitable and sustained exploitation of these resources, a knowledge of their availability should be

KAYASITH SADETTANH

2004-01-01

116

Expedient Wind Energy Potential in Louisiana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Year after year, the world improves upon new ideas and forms of practical ways of applying green energy to humanity''s daily life. Some of these types include solar, nuclear, and natural gas energy, but wind power is growing in the ranks as far as popularity and usage. Countries such as China, the United States, and Germany have led the interest

Jasmin Honegger; Yucheng Liu

2012-01-01

117

Energy in America: Progress and Potential.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An overview of America's energy situation is presented with emphasis on recent progress, the risk of depending upon foreign oil, and policy choices. Section one reviews the energy problems of the 1970s, issues of the 1980s, concerns for the future, and choices that if made today could alleviate future problems. Section two examines past problems,…

American Petroleum Inst., Washington, DC.

118

Anomaly detection in wireless sensor networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anomaly detection in wireless sensor networks is an important challenge for tasks such as fault diagnosis, intrusion detection, and monitoring applications. The algorithms developed for anomaly detection have to consider the inherent limitations of sensor networks in their design so that the energy consumption in sensor nodes is minimized and the lifetime of the network is maximized. In this survey

SUTHARSHAN RAJASEGARAR; CHRISTOPHER LECKIE; MARIMUTHU PALANISWAMI

2008-01-01

119

Magnetic Anomalies over Iceland.  

PubMed

An aeromagnetic survey of Iceland reveals broad anomalies of large amplitude over zones of recent volcanic activity. The source of the anomalies is ascribed to large masses of basalt that have been coherently remagnetized by intrusive heating. A simple correlation of the Icelandic anomalies with those of the ocean floor therefore appears unjustified. PMID:17836657

Serson, P H; Hannaford, W; Haines, G V

1968-10-18

120

2,0 superconformal anomaly.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The (2,0) supersymmetric Wess-Zumino-Polyakov, action is constructed and the (2,0) superconformal anomaly is given. The anomalous Ward-identity in the right sector is derived and the known operator product expansion of the N = 2 superstress energy tensor ...

T. Lhallabi

1992-01-01

121

Polarizable interaction potential for water from coupled cluster calculations. I. Analysis of dimer potential energy surface  

E-print Network

Polarizable interaction potential for water from coupled cluster calculations. I. Analysis of dimer online 7 March 2008 A six-dimensional interaction potential for the water dimer has been fitted to ab potential energy surface Robert Bukowski,1 Krzysztof Szalewicz,1,a Gerrit C. Groenenboom,2 and Ad van der

122

Potential energy savings on the MIT campus  

E-print Network

The MIT community and the City of Cambridge embarked on initiatives to reduce energy consumption and Greenhouse Gas emissions in accordance with the Kyoto Protocol which calls for a 20 % reduction in 1990 levels of GHG ...

Amanti, Steven Thomas

2006-01-01

123

Astrometric Solar-System Anomalies  

E-print Network

There are at least four unexplained anomalies connected with astrometric data. Perhaps the most disturbing is the fact that when a spacecraft on a flyby trajectory approaches the Earth within 2000 km or less, it often experiences a change in total orbital energy per unit mass. Next, a secular change in the astronomical unit AU is definitely a concern. It is increasing by about 15 cm yr$^{-1}$. The other two anomalies are perhaps less disturbing because of known sources of nongravitational acceleration. The first is an apparent slowing of the two Pioneer spacecraft as they exit the solar system in opposite directions. Some astronomers and physicists are convinced this effect is of concern, but many others are convinced it is produced by a nearly identical thermal emission from both spacecraft, in a direction away from the Sun, thereby producing acceleration toward the Sun. The fourth anomaly is a measured increase in the eccentricity of the Moon's orbit. Here again, an increase is expected from tidal friction in both the Earth and Moon. However, there is a reported unexplained increase that is significant at the three-sigma level. It is prudent to suspect that all four anomalies have mundane explanations, or that one or more anomalies are a result of systematic error. Yet they might eventually be explained by new physics. For example, a slightly modified theory of gravitation is not ruled out, perhaps analogous to Einstein's 1916 explanation for the excess precession of Mercury's perihelion.

John D. Anderson; Michael Martin Nieto

2009-07-14

124

Analysis of spacecraft anomalies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The anomalies from 316 spacecraft covering the entire U.S. space program were analyzed to determine if there were any experimental or technological programs which could be implemented to remove the anomalies from future space activity. Thirty specific categories of anomalies were found to cover nearly 85 percent of all observed anomalies. Thirteen experiments were defined to deal with 17 of these categories; nine additional experiments were identified to deal with other classes of observed and anticipated anomalies. Preliminary analyses indicate that all 22 experimental programs are both technically feasible and economically viable.

Bloomquist, C. E.; Graham, W. C.

1976-01-01

125

ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT POTENTIAL OF CONVENTIONAL AND POTENTIAL ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES IN APPALACHIAN COUNTIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Appalachia has significant potential to contribute to both national energy independence and to achieve regional import substitution in the energy sector. There are significant opportunities for regional and community- scaled industrial development, especially in the areas of bio-fuels. Major choices exist in the selection of a minimum scale of production for many of the new technologies and energy sources. Technologies

Amy Glasmeier; Tom Bell

126

Saturation wind power potential and its implications for wind energy  

E-print Network

Saturation wind power potential and its implications for wind energy Mark Z. Jacobsona,1 to determine the maximum theo- retical wind power potential on Earth, based on the concept of "saturation". The saturation wind power potential (SWPP) is the maximum wind power that can be extracted upon increasing

127

Anomaly detection using topology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present a new topology-based algorithm for anomaly detection in dimensionally large datasets. The motivating application is hyperspectral imaging where the dataset can be a collection of ~ 10 6 points in R k, representing the reflected (or radiometric) spectra of electromagnetic radiation. The algorithm begins by building a graph whose edges connect close pairs of points. The background points are the points in the largest components of this graph and all other points are designated as anomalies. The anomalies are ranked according to their distance to the background. The algorithm is termed Topological Anomaly Detection (TAD). The algorithm is tested on hyperspectral imagery collected with the HYDICE sensor which contains targets of known reflectance and spatial location. Anomaly maps are created and compared to results from the common anomaly detection algorithm RX. We show that the TAD algorithm performs better than RX by achieving greater separation of the anomalies from the background for this dataset.

Basener, Bill; Ientilucci, Emmett J.; Messinger, David W.

2007-04-01

128

Is the Accrual Anomaly a Global Anomaly?  

E-print Network

This paper investigates the subsequent return implications of accruals within a sample of large, developed, international equity markets and assesses whether similar institutional features account for the accrual anomaly ...

LaFond, Ryan

2005-09-23

129

Renewable energy potential and utilization in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable energy sources have been important for humans since the beginning of civilisation. For centuries, and in many ways, biomass has been used for heating, and cooking. Many centuries ago, mankind was already utilizing the clearly visible power of water for mechanical drive purposes, as was also the case with wind. Today, water mills are still used in our villages,

Kamil Kaygusuz; Ahmet Sar?

2003-01-01

130

Energy potential of leafy spurge ( Euphorbia esula )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) is a noxious, perennial weed that infests pastures, rangeland and waste areas in the northern Great Plains. The objective\\u000a of this study was to determine the productive potential of this species when grown under optimum agronomic conditions. Plants\\u000a were fertilized and irrigated. Oil, hydrocarbon, total protein, and dry-weight production were measured on 3 harvest dates.\\u000a Calorimetric

B. D. Maxwell; S. M. Wiatr; P. K. Fay

1985-01-01

131

Geothermal energy—A sustainable resource of enormous potential  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geothermal energy is available at many locations on the earth’s surface. This clean and reliable energy has enormous potential and can be used to partially replace the conventional fuels that are currently used; the total magnitude of this resource is much larger than the potential contained in all of the fossil and uranium reserves worldwide. Geothermal energy will become increasingly significant during the next century; enhanced thermal energy R&D is expected to lead to commercial development some time after 2010, depending on energy costs at that time.

Wright, P. M.

1998-12-01

132

Potential of renewable energy development for water desalination in Tunisia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potential renewable energy sources, which can be harnessed toward brackish and seawater desalination in Tunisia, have been evaluated. These sources of energy, mainly: solar, wind and geothermal, have been identified throughout the country and their suitability for coupling with different desalting technologies have been investigated. Renewable energies are expected to have a flourishing future and an important role in the

F Benjemaa; I Houcine; M. H Chahbani

1999-01-01

133

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion: Potential Environmental Impacts and Fisheries  

E-print Network

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion: Potential Environmental Impacts and Fisheries Christina M Comfort Institute #12;Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) · Renewable energy ­ ocean thermal gradient · Large shock · Plume ­ Changes in local conditions ­ Aquaculture? ­ FAD effects + enhanced productivity? #12

Hawai'i at Manoa, University of

134

Rivers of energy: the hydropower potential. [Monograph  

SciTech Connect

Hydropower, aproven technology that provides 25% of the world's electricity, often has been overlooked by energy planners. Hydropower emits no health-threatening pollutants, produces no harmful wastes, and can be planned to cause minimal damage to the landscape. An overview of the long history of hydropower is followed by an analysis of the opportunities and problems associated with developing water resources. Small-scale hydro in developing countries and in remote areas opens new opportunities for investment and future development. The opportunities in developed countries are primarily in upgrading and rehabilitating existing facilities. New directions are needed to take advantage of the world's hydropower resources: (1) developing countries need to plan a balance of large and small sites, while developed countries should concentrate on small sites; (2) new pricing and allocation policies are needed to discourage waste and to reflect the transition to a new energy era. 87 references, 2 figures, 2 tables. (DCK)

Deudney, D.

1981-01-01

135

Ocean thermal energy: Potentials and pitfalls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal energy in vast reaches of the world's oceans lies waiting to be tapped by a fuel?hungry world. The United States— the one heavily industrialized nation with “OTEC”; waters lapping its shores—is actively developing the technology; Japan and a European consortium are also pressing forward. The resource may be of practical value soon to favorably situated islands (e.g., Hawaii, Puerto

David L. Hurwood

1981-01-01

136

Periodic Discrete Energy for Long-Range Potentials  

E-print Network

We consider periodic energy problems in Euclidean space with a special emphasis on long-range potentials that cannot be defined through the usual infinite sum. One of our main results builds on more recent developments of Ewald summation to define the periodic energy corresponding to a large class of long-range potentials. Two particularly interesting examples are the logarithmic potential and the Riesz potential when the Riesz parameter is smaller than the dimension of the space. For these examples, we use analytic continuation methods to provide concise formulas for the periodic kernel in terms of the Epstein Hurwitz Zeta function. We apply our energy definition to deduce several properties of the minimal energy including the asymptotic order of growth and the distribution of points in energy minimizing configurations as the number of points becomes large. We conclude with some detailed calculations in the case of one dimension, which shows the utility of this approach.

D. P. Hardin; E. B. Saff; Brian Simanek

2014-03-28

137

Energy savings potential from energy-conserving irrigation systems  

SciTech Connect

This report systematically compares, within a consistent framework, the technical and economic characteristics of energy-conserving irrigation systems with those of conventional irrigation systems and to determine total energy savings. Levelized annual costs of owning and operating both energy-conserving and conventional irrigation systems have been developed and compared for all 17 states to account for the differences in energy costs and irrigation conditions in each state. Market penetration of energy-conserving systems is assessed for those systems having lower levelized annual costs than conventional systems performing the same function. Annual energy savings were computed by matching the energy savings per system with an assumed maximum market penetration of 100 percent in those markets where the levelized annual costs of energy-conserving systems are lower than the levelized annual costs of conventional systems.

Wilfert, G.L.; Patton, W.P.; Harrer, B.J.; Clark, M.A.

1982-11-01

138

Analysis of Solar Irradiation Anomalies in Long Term Over India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

India has a high potential for solar energy applications due to its geographic position within the Sun Belt and the large number of cloudless days in many regions of the country. However, certain regions of India, particularly those largely populated, can exhibit large aerosol loading in the atmosphere as a consequence of anthropogenic emissions that could have a negative feedback in the solar resource potential. This effect, named as solar dimming, has already been observed in India, and in some other regions in the world, by some authors using ground data from the last two decades. The recent interest in the promotion of solar energy applications in India highlights the need of extending and improving the knowledge of the solar radiation resources in this country, since most of the long term measurements available correspond to global horizontal radiation and most of them are also located big cities or highly populated areas. In addition, accurate knowledge on the aerosol column quantification and on its dynamical behavior with high spatial resolution is particularly important in the case of India, due to their impact on direct normal irradiation. Long term studies of solar irradiation over India can be performed using monthly means of global hemispheric irradiation measurements from the Indian Meteorological Department. Ground data are available from 1964 till today through the World Radiation Data Centre that publish these values in the web. This work shows a long term analysis of solar irradiation in India using anomalies techniques and trends in ten places over India. Most of the places have exhibit a decreasing trend and negative anomalies confirming thus the darkening effect already reported by solar dimming studies. The analysis of anomalies has also found two periods of different behavior. From 1964 till 1988 the anomalies observed were positive and the last 20 years seems to be a period of negative anomalies. This observation is also consequent with solar dimming effect, apparently increased during the last two decades due to the increase of aerosol loading in the atmosphere. These results remark the important of having accurate knowledge of atmospheric aerosol loading and its dynamics over India with high spatial resolution in the framework of solar energy deployment in the country. It is worth to mention that greater anomalies and a noticeable decreasing trend found in Calcutta could be correlated with the highly population rate, and thus the greater the population density of the area the greater the negative anomalies and the decreasing trend of solar irradiation monthly means.

Cony, M.; Polo, J.; Martin, L.; Navarro, A.; Serra, I.

2012-04-01

139

Global Horizontal Irradiance Anomalies in Long Term Series Over India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

India has a high potential for solar energy applications due to its geographic position within the Sun Belt and the large number of cloudless days in many regions of the country. However, certain regions of India, particularly those largely populated, can exhibit large aerosol loading in the atmosphere as a consequence of anthropogenic emissions that could have a negative feedback in the solar resource potential. This effect, named as solar dimming, has already been observed in India, and in some other regions in the world, by some authors using ground data from the last two decades. The recent interest in the promotion of solar energy applications in India highlights the need of extending and improving the knowledge of the solar radiation resources in this country, since most of the long term measurements available correspond to global horizontal radiation (GHI) and most of them are also located big cities or highly populated areas. In addition, accurate knowledge on the aerosol column quantification and on its dynamical behavior with high spatial resolution is particularly important in the case of India, due to their impact on direct normal irradiation. Long term studies of solar irradiation over India can be performed using monthly means of GHI measurements from the Indian Meteorological Department. Ground data are available from 1964 till today through the World Radiation Data Centre that publish these values in the web. This work shows a long term analysis of GHI using anomalies techniques over ten different sites over India. Besides, techniques of linear trends have been applied for to show the evolution over this period. The analysis of anomalies has also found two periods of different behavior. From 1964 till 1988 the anomalies observed were positive and the last 20 years seems to be a period of negative anomalies. The results exhibit a decreasing trend and negative anomalies confirming thus the darkening effect already reported by solar dimming studies. This observation is also consequent with solar dimming effect, apparently increased during the last two decades due to the increase of aerosol loading in the atmosphere. These results remark the important of having accurate knowledge of atmospheric aerosol loading and its dynamics over India with high spatial resolution in the framework of solar energy deployment in the country. It is worth to mention that greater anomalies and a noticeable decreasing trend found in Calcutta could be correlated with the highly population rate, and thus the greater the population density of the area the greater the negative anomalies and the decreasing trend of solar irradiation monthly means.

Cony, Marco; Liria, Juan; Weisenberg, Ralf; Serrano, Enrique

2014-05-01

140

Global permutationally invariant potential energy surface for ozone forming reaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We constructed new global potential energy surface for O + O2 --> O3 reaction. It is based on high level electronic structure theory calculations and employs fitting by permutationally invariant polynomial functions. This method of surface construction takes full advantage of permutation symmetry of three O nuclei and allows reducing dramatically the number of ab initio data points needed for accurate surface representation. New potential energy surface offers dramatic improvement over older surface of ozone in terms of dissociation energy and behavior along the minimum energy path. It can be used to refine the existing theories of ozone formation.

Ayouz, Mehdi; Babikov, Dmitri

2013-04-01

141

Congenital Anomalies in Bulgaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents data and analysis concerning congenital anomalies in Bulgaria. Assessment is based on statistical data\\u000a reported in the National Statistical Institute Yearbook: Health Protection and the Sofia registry of congenital anomalies\\u000a in the period 1996 – 1999. Forty subgroups of isolated congenital anomalies and congenital diseases, detectable at birth during\\u000a in the first year of life, have been

E. Terlemesian; S. Stoyanov

142

Ab initio Potential Energy Surface for H-H2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ab initio calculations employing large basis sets are performed to determine an accurate potential energy surface for H-H2 interactions for a broad range of separation distances. At large distances, the spherically averaged potential determined from the calculated energies agrees well with the corresponding results determined from dispersion coefficients; the van der Waals well depth is predicted to be 75 +/- (mu)E(sub h). Large basis sets have also been applied to reexamine the accuracy of theoretical repulsive potential energy surfaces. Multipolar expansions of the computed H-H2 potential energy surface are reported for four internuclear separation distances (1.2, 1.401, 1.449, and 1.7a(sub 0) of the hydrogen molecule. The differential elastic scattering cross section calculated from the present results is compared with the measurements from a crossed beam experiment.

Partridge, Harry; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Stallcop, James R.; Levin, Eugene

1993-01-01

143

Potential energy stored by planets and grand minima events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, Wolff & Patrone (2010), have developed a simple but very interesting model by which the movement of the Sun around the barycentre of the Solar system could create potential energy that could be released by flows pre-existing inside the Sun. The authors claim that it is the first mechanism showing how planetary movements can modify internal structure in the Sun that can be related to solar cycle. In this work we point out limitations of mentioned mechanism (which is based on interchange arguments), which could be inapplicable to a real star. Then, we calculate the temporal evolution of potential energy stored in zones of Sun's interior in which the potential energy could be most efficiently stored taking into account detailed barycentric Sun dynamics. We show strong variations of potential energy related to Maunder Minimum, Dalton Minimum and the maximum of Cycle 22, around 1990. We discuss briefly possible implications of this putative mechanism to solar cycle specially Grand Minima events.

Cionco, Rodolfo G.

2012-07-01

144

Opinion Biomass energy: the scale of the potential resource  

E-print Network

Increased production of biomass for energy has the potential to offset substantial use of fossil fuels, but it also has the potential to threaten conservation areas, pollute water resources and decrease food security. The net effect of biomass energy agriculture on climate could be either cooling or warming, depending on the crop, the technology for converting biomass into useable energy, and the difference in carbon stocks and reflectance of solar radiation between the biomass crop and the preexisting vegetation. The area with the greatest potential for yielding biomass energy that reduces net warming and avoids competition with food production is land that was previously used for agriculture or pasture but that has been abandoned and not converted to forest or urban areas. At the global scale, potential above-ground

Christopher B. Field; J. Elliott Campbell; David B. Lobell

145

Semiclassical energy levels and the corresponding potentials in nonhydrogenic ions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A semiclassical expression is derived for the potential seen by an nl-shell electron in a nonhydrogenic ion. Corresponding energies Enl are compared with experimental values and with results of self-consistent-field calculations.

Pankratov, P.; Meyer-Ter-Vehn, J.

1992-11-01

146

The local RG equation and chiral anomalies  

E-print Network

We generalize the local renormalization group (RG) equation to theories with chiral anomalies. We find that a new anomaly is required by the Wess-Zumino consistency conditions. Taking into account the new anomaly, the trace of the energy momentum tensor is expressed in terms of the covariant flavor currents, instead of the consistent ones. This result is used to show that a flavor rotation induced by the RG flow can be eliminated by a choice of scheme even in the presence of chiral anomalies. As part of a general discussion of chiral anomalies in the presence of background sources, we also derive non-renormalization theorems. Finally, we introduce the $\\theta$ parameter as a source, and derive constraints on a perturbative running of this parameter.

Boaz Keren-Zur

2014-06-03

147

The local RG equation and chiral anomalies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We generalize the local renormalization group (RG) equation to theories with chiral anomalies. We find that a new anomaly is required by the Wess-Zumino consistency conditions. Taking into account the new anomaly, the trace of the energy momentum tensor is expressed in terms of the covariant flavor currents, instead of the consistent ones. This result is used to show that a flavor rotation induced by the RG flow can be eliminated by a choice of scheme even in the presence of chiral anomalies. As part of a general discussion of chiral anomalies in the presence of background sources, we also derive non-renormalization theorems. Finally, we introduce the $\\theta$ parameter as a source, and derive constraints on a perturbative running of this parameter.

Keren-Zur, Boaz

2014-09-01

148

Radioactive anomaly discrimination from spectral ratios  

DOEpatents

A method for discriminating a radioactive anomaly from naturally occurring radioactive materials includes detecting a first number of gamma photons having energies in a first range of energy values within a predetermined period of time and detecting a second number of gamma photons having energies in a second range of energy values within the predetermined period of time. The method further includes determining, in a controller, a ratio of the first number of gamma photons having energies in the first range and the second number of gamma photons having energies in the second range, and determining that a radioactive anomaly is present when the ratio exceeds a threshold value.

Maniscalco, James; Sjoden, Glenn; Chapman, Mac Clements

2013-08-20

149

Potential energy: An analysis of world energy technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

General conditions concerning the available energy sources for the world's economy are examined, taking into account the growth in world energy consumption over the period from 1962 to 1972. New uses of coal are considered along with aspects of gasification and liquefaction. Prospects concerning a use of nuclear fission are investigated, taking into account thermal reactors, breeder reactors, the fuel

M. Kenward

1976-01-01

150

Investigating energy-saving potentials in the cloud.  

PubMed

Collecting webpage messages can serve as a sensor for investigating the energy-saving potential of buildings. Focusing on stores, a cloud sensor system is developed to collect data and determine their energy-saving potential. The owner of a store under investigation must register online, report the store address, area, and the customer ID number on the electric meter. The cloud sensor system automatically surveys the energy usage records by connecting to the power company website and calculating the energy use index (EUI) of the store. Other data includes the chain store check, company capital, location price, and the influence of weather conditions on the store; even the exposure frequency of store under investigation may impact the energy usage collected online. After collecting data from numerous stores, a multi-dimensional data array is constructed to determine energy-saving potential by identifying stores with similarity conditions. Similarity conditions refer to analyzed results that indicate that two stores have similar capital, business scale, weather conditions, and exposure frequency on web. Calculating the EUI difference or pure technical efficiency of stores, the energy-saving potential is determined. In this study, a real case study is performed. An 8-dimensional (8D) data array is constructed by surveying web data related to 67 stores. Then, this study investigated the savings potential of the 33 stores, using a site visit, and employed the cloud sensor system to determine the saving potential. The case study results show good agreement between the data obtained by the site visit and the cloud investigation, with errors within 4.17%. Among 33 the samples, eight stores have low saving potentials of less than 5%. The developed sensor on the cloud successfully identifies them as having low saving potential and avoids wasting money on the site visit. PMID:24561405

Lee, Da-Sheng

2014-01-01

151

High-energy anomaly in Nd2-xCexCuO4 investigated by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and quantum Monte Carlo simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent high-binding-energy angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) experiments reveal a change in band dispersion in the high-temperature superconducting cuprates (HTSCs) known as the high-energy anomaly (HEA). Despite considerable experimental and theoretical attention, the origin of the HEA remains a topic of some controversy. In this paper we present systematic and comprehensive experimental evidence on the origin of the HEA from ARPES measurements on the electron-doped HTSC material Nd2-xCexCuO4 at a number of dopings across the phase diagram and over the entire Brillouin zone (BZ). Comparing these new experimental findings to quantum Monte Carlo simulations of the single-band Hubbard model across the BZ and for various dopings demonstrates that this simple model qualitatively reproduces the key experimental features of the HEA and points to significant self-energy and band renormalization effects accompanying strong electron correlations as its origin rather than coupling to any one emergent bosonic mode, e.g., antiferromagnetic spin fluctuations. We conclude from comparison to this simple model that the HEA in these systems should be regarded as a crossover from a coherent quasiparticle band at low binding energies, emergent from the upper Hubbard band in electron-doped HTSCs due to doping and modified by subsequent strong band renormalization effects, to oxygen valence bands at higher binding energy that would be revealed in simulations explicitly incorporating these important orbital degrees of freedom.

Schmitt, F.; Moritz, B.; Johnston, S.; Mo, S.-K.; Hashimoto, M.; Moore, R. G.; Lu, D.-H.; Motoyama, E.; Greven, M.; Devereaux, T. P.; Shen, Z.-X.

2011-05-01

152

Geospatial Analysis of Renewable Energy Technical Potential on Tribal Lands  

SciTech Connect

This technical report uses an established geospatial methodology to estimate the technical potential for renewable energy on tribal lands for the purpose of allowing Tribes to prioritize the development of renewable energy resources either for community scale on-tribal land use or for revenue generating electricity sales.

Doris, E.; Lopez, A.; Beckley, D.

2013-02-01

153

Feature Article Exploring Potential Energy Surfaces for Chemical  

E-print Network

, properties, and reactivities. Recent advances in tools for exploring potential energy surfaces are surveyed in the Born-Oppenheimer and Car-Parrinello approaches are described. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Comput, polarizability, NMR shielding, etc., depend on the response of the energy to applied electric and magnetic fields

Schlegel, H. Bernhard

154

Brazilian waste potential: energy, environmental, social and economic benefits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential energy that could be produced from solid wastes in Brazil tops 50TWh. Equivalent to some 17% of the nation's total power consumption at costs that are competitive with more traditional options, this would also reduce greenhouse gases emissions. Moreover, managing wastes for energy generation purposes could well open up thousands of jobs for unskilled workers. Related to power

Luciano Basto Oliveira; Luiz Pinguelli Rosa

2003-01-01

155

DoD energy vulnerabilities: potential problems and observations  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Defense is almost entirely dependent on civilian energy supplies to meet its needs in both peacetime and periods of heightened conflict. There are a number of potential vulnerabilities to the continual and timely supply of energy to both the civilian and military sectors. These include denial of the energy resources themselves, disruption of critical transportation networks, destruction of storage facilities, and interruption of electrical power. This report briefly reviews the present situation for provision of energy from the civilian sector to the military. General vulnerabilities of the existing energy supply system are identified, along with the potential for armed aggression (including terrorist and sabotage activities) against the energy network. Conclusions and some tentative observations are made as to a proper response to the existing vulnerabilities.

Freiwald, D A; Berger, M E; Roach, J F

1982-08-01

156

Potential energy surface for spin-polarized rubidium trimer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potential energy surface for the lowest quartet state of the rubidium trimer is constructed, making use of the many-body decomposition. Interaction energies are calculated using the coupled-clusters method and interpolated using the reciprocal-power reproducing kernel Hilbert space interpolation method. Both the two-body and three-body nonadditive parts are extrapolated to exhibit the correct long-range behavior. Consequences for the low-energy scattering are

Pavel Solda´n; Ke Karlovu

2010-01-01

157

Dark energy exponential potential models as curvature quintessence  

E-print Network

It has been recently shown that, under some general conditions, it is always possible to find a fourth order gravity theory capable of reproducing the same dynamics of a given dark energy model. Here, we discuss this approach for a dark energy model with a scalar field evolving under the action of an exponential potential. In absence of matter, such a potential can be recovered from a fourth order theory via a conformal transformation. Including the matter term, the function f(R) entering the generalized gravity Lagrangian can be reconstructed according to the dark energy model.

S. Capozziello; V. F. Cardone; E. Piedipalumbo; C. Rubano

2005-07-19

158

Calculations of Potential Energy Surfaces Using Monte Carlo Configuration Interaction  

E-print Network

We apply the method of Monte Carlo configuration interaction (MCCI) to calculate ground-state potential energy curves for a range of small molecules and compare the results with full configuration interaction. We show that the MCCI potential energy curve can be calculated to relatively good accuracy, as quantified using the non-parallelity error, using only a very small fraction of the FCI space. In most cases the potential curve is of better accuracy than its constituent single-point energies. We finally test the MCCI program on systems with basis sets beyond full configuration interaction: a lattice of fifty hydrogen atoms and ethylene. The results for ethylene agree fairly well with other computational work while for the lattice of fifty hydrogens we find that the fraction of the full configuration interaction space we were able to consider appears to be too small as, although some qualitative features are reproduced, the potential curve is less accurate.

Coe, J P; Paterson, M J; 10.1063/1.4767052

2012-01-01

159

On the nuclear interaction. Potential, binding energy and fusion reaction  

E-print Network

The nuclear interaction is responsible for keeping neutrons and protons joined in an atomic nucleus. Phenomenological nuclear potentials, fitted to experimental data, allow one to know about the nuclear behaviour with more or less success where quantum mechanics is hard to be used. A nuclear potential is suggested and an expression for the potential energy of two nuclear entities, either nuclei or nucleons, is developed. In order to estimate parameters in this expression, some nucleon additions to nuclei are considered and a model is suggested as a guide of the addition process. Coulomb barrier and energy for the addition of a proton to each one of several nuclei are estimated by taking into account both the nuclear and electrostatic components of energy. Studies on the binding energies of several nuclei and on the fusion reaction of two nuclei are carried out.

I. Casinos

2008-05-22

160

Free energy and direct photon emission at finite chemical potential  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the evolution of free energy and direct photon production from quark-gluon plasma (QGP) considering finite chemical potential. The evolution of QGP formation at the chemical potential is done through finite value of quark mass. The evolution rate is found to be decreasing with chemical potential. We further study the direct photon emission from the fireball of such QGP and found the result to be increasing function of chemical potential in all the channels of photon production. It also shows enhancement of photon emission in comparison to the other theoretical calculation of direct photon productions.

Somorendro Singh, S.

2014-09-01

161

High-Energy Anomaly in the Angle-Resolved Photoemission Spectra of Nd2-xCexCuO4: Evidence for a Matrix Element Effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use polarization-dependent angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) to study the high-energy anomaly (HEA) in the dispersion of Nd2-xCexCuO4, x =0.123. We find that at particular photon energies the anomalous, waterfall-like dispersion gives way to a broad, continuous band. This suggests that the HEA is a matrix element effect: it arises due to a suppression of the intensity of the broadened quasiparticle band in a narrow momentum range. We confirm this interpretation experimentally, by showing that the HEA appears when the matrix element is suppressed deliberately by changing the light polarization. Calculations of the matrix element using atomic wave functions and simulation of the ARPES intensity with one-step model calculations provide further evidence for this scenario. The possibility to detect the full quasiparticle dispersion further allows us to extract the high-energy self-energy function near the center and at the edge of the Brillouin zone.

Rienks, E. D. L.; ?rrälä, M.; Lindroos, M.; Roth, F.; Tabis, W.; Yu, G.; Greven, M.; Fink, J.

2014-09-01

162

High-Energy Anomaly in the Angle-Resolved Photoemission Spectra of Nd_{2-x}Ce_{x}CuO_{4}: Evidence for a Matrix Element Effect.  

PubMed

We use polarization-dependent angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) to study the high-energy anomaly (HEA) in the dispersion of Nd_{2-x}Ce_{x}CuO_{4}, x=0.123. We find that at particular photon energies the anomalous, waterfall-like dispersion gives way to a broad, continuous band. This suggests that the HEA is a matrix element effect: it arises due to a suppression of the intensity of the broadened quasiparticle band in a narrow momentum range. We confirm this interpretation experimentally, by showing that the HEA appears when the matrix element is suppressed deliberately by changing the light polarization. Calculations of the matrix element using atomic wave functions and simulation of the ARPES intensity with one-step model calculations provide further evidence for this scenario. The possibility to detect the full quasiparticle dispersion further allows us to extract the high-energy self-energy function near the center and at the edge of the Brillouin zone. PMID:25302914

Rienks, E D L; Arrälä, M; Lindroos, M; Roth, F; Tabis, W; Yu, G; Greven, M; Fink, J

2014-09-26

163

Potential for energy conservation in the glass industry  

SciTech Connect

While the glass industry (flat glass, container glass, pressed and blown glass, and insulation fiber glass) has reduced its specific energy use (Btu/ton) by almost 30% since 1972, significant potential for further reduction still remains. State-of-the-art technologies are available which could lead to incremental improvements in glass industry energy productivity; however, these technologies must compete for capital with projects undertaken for other reasons (e.g., capacity expansion, equipment rebuild, labor cost reduction, product quality improvement, or compliance with environmental, health or safety regulations). Narrowing profit margins in the large tonnage segments of the glass industry in recent years and the fact that energy costs represent less than 25% of the value added in glass manufacture have combined to impede the widespread adoption of many state-of-the-art conservation technologies. Savings in energy costs alone have not provided the incentive to justify the capital expenditures required to realize the energy savings. Beyond implementation of state-of-the-art technologies, significant potential energy savings could accrue from advanced technologies which represent a radical departure from current glass making technology. Long-term research and development (R and D) programs, which address the technical and economic barriers associated with advanced, energy-conserving technologies, offer the opportunity to realize this energy-saving potential.

Garrett-Price, B.A.; Fassbender, A.G.; Bruno, G.A.

1986-06-01

164

Potential impact of energy farming for conserving the fossil-fuel energy requirements of food production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of supplying the energy requirements for food production by utilizing waste biomass was investigated. It was found that the energy available was more than sufficient even after conversion of waste biomass to more versatile fuel forms. The concept of utilizing waste biomass has the potential for conserving fossil fuels. Only the energy balance aspects of utilizing waste biomass

R. C. Bailie; D. M. Doner; J. D. Henry

1976-01-01

165

Ab Initio Potential Energy Surface for H-H2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ab initio calculations employing large basis sets are performed to determine an accurate potential energy surface for H-H2 interactions for a broad range of separation distances. At large distances, the spherically averaged potential determined from the calculated energies agrees well with the corresponding results determined from dispersion coefficients; the van der Waals well depth is predicted to be 75 +/- 3 micro E(h). Large basis sets have also been applied to reexamine the accuracy of theoretical repulsive potential energy surfaces (25-70 kcal/mol above the H-H2 asymptote) at small interatomic separations; the Boothroyd, Keogh, Martin, and Peterson (BKMP) potential energy surface is found to agree with results of the present calculations within the expected uncertainty (+/- 1 kcal/mol) of the fit. Multipolar expansions of the computed H-H2 potential energy surface are reported for four internuclear separation distances (1.2, 1.401, 1.449, and 1.7a(0)) of the hydrogen molecule. The differential elastic scattering cross section calculated from the present results is compared with the measurements from a crossed beam experiment.

Patridge, Harry; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Stallcop, James R.; Levin, Eugene

1993-01-01

166

Saturation wind power potential and its implications for wind energy  

PubMed Central

Wind turbines convert kinetic to electrical energy, which returns to the atmosphere as heat to regenerate some potential and kinetic energy. As the number of wind turbines increases over large geographic regions, power extraction first increases linearly, but then converges to a saturation potential not identified previously from physical principles or turbine properties. These saturation potentials are >250 terawatts (TW) at 100 m globally, approximately 80 TW at 100 m over land plus coastal ocean outside Antarctica, and approximately 380 TW at 10 km in the jet streams. Thus, there is no fundamental barrier to obtaining half (approximately 5.75 TW) or several times the world’s all-purpose power from wind in a 2030 clean-energy economy. PMID:23019353

Jacobson, Mark Z.; Archer, Cristina L.

2012-01-01

167

Anomalies on orbifolds  

SciTech Connect

We discuss the form of the chiral anomaly on an S1/Z2 orbifold with chiral boundary conditions. We find that the 4-divergence of the higher-dimensional current evaluated at a given point in the extra dimension is proportional to the probability of finding the chiral zero mode there. Nevertheless the anomaly, appropriately defined as the five dimensional divergence of the current, lives entirely on the orbifold fixed planes and is independent of the shape of the zero mode. Therefore long distance four dimensional anomaly cancellation ensures the consistency of the higher dimensional orbifold theory.

Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Cohen, Andrew G.; Georgi, Howard

2001-03-16

168

Nonrelativistic scale anomaly, and composite operators with complex scaling dimensions  

SciTech Connect

Research Highlights: > Nonrelativistic scale anomaly leads to operators with complex scaling dimensions. > We study an operator O={psi}{psi} in quantum mechanics with 1/r{sup 2} potenial. > The propagator of the composite operator is analytically computed. - Abstract: It is demonstrated that a nonrelativistic quantum scale anomaly manifests itself in the appearance of composite operators with complex scaling dimensions. In particular, we study nonrelativistic quantum mechanics with an inverse square potential and consider a composite s-wave operator O={psi}{psi}. We analytically compute the scaling dimension of this operator and determine the propagator <0|TOO{sup +}|0>. The operator O represents an infinite tower of bound states with a geometric energy spectrum. Operators with higher angular momenta are briefly discussed.

Moroz, Sergej, E-mail: s.moroz@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 16, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

2011-05-15

169

Energy and water potential of the Southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP)  

SciTech Connect

This article gives an overview of energy and water potential of the Southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP) in Turkey. This integrated socioeconomic development project is one of the largest of its kind in the world. The GAP region is rich in water and soil resources. The Euphrates and Tigris Rivers represent over 28% of the nation's water supply by rivers, and the economically irrigatable areas in the region make up 20% of those for the entire country. On the other hand, the GAP region is the richest region of the country in terms of its hydroelectric potential as well as its oil and asphalt reserves. The GAP region has a 22% share of the country's total hydroelectric potential, with plans for 22 dams and 19 hydropower plants. Once completed, 27 billion kWh of electricity will be generated. In addition to this hydropower and oil potential, the GAP region is also the richest region of Turkey as far as solar energy production is concerned. In meeting the energy requirements of the developing regions worldwide and in Turkey, solar energy is being taken into account as an important renewable source of energy.

Kaygusuz, K.

1999-12-01

170

Wayside energy storage for recuperation of potential energy from freight trains  

SciTech Connect

The subject of this paper, involves the potential for use of a wayside energy storage system to recapture part of the braking energy normally dissipated on long descending grades by freight trains employing dynamic braking. 4 refs.

Lawson, L.J.; Koper, J.; Cook, L.M.

1981-01-01

171

Potential structural material problems in a hydrogen energy system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Potential structural material problems that may be encountered in the three components of a hydrogen energy system - production, transmission/storage, and utilization - have been identified. Hydrogen embrittlement, corrosion, oxidation, and erosion may occur during the production of hydrogen. Hydrogen embrittlement is of major concern during both transmission and utilization of hydrogen. Specific materials research and development programs necessary to support a hydrogen energy system are described. An awareness of probable shortages of strategic materials has been maintained in these suggested programs.

Gray, H. R.; Nelson, H. G.; Johnson, R. E.; Mcpherson, W. B.; Howard, F. S.; Swisher, J. H.

1976-01-01

172

Potential structural material problems in a hydrogen energy system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Potential structural material problems that may be encountered in the three components of a hydrogen energy system - production, transmission/storage, and utilization - were identified. Hydrogen embrittlement, corrosion, oxidation, and erosion may occur during the production of hydrogen. Hydrogen embrittlement is of major concern during both transmission and utilization of hydrogen. Specific materials research and development programs necessary to support a hydrogen energy system are described.

Gray, H. R.; Nelson, H. G.; Johnson, R. E.; Mcpherson, B.; Howard, F. S.; Swisher, J. H.

1975-01-01

173

Reaction Path Optimization with Holonomic Constraints and Kinetic Energy Potentials  

SciTech Connect

Two methods are developed to enhance the stability, efficiency, and robustness of reaction path optimization using a chain of replicas. First, distances between replicas are kept equal during path optimization via holonomic constraints. Finding a reaction path is, thus, transformed into a constrained optimization problem. This approach avoids force projections for finding minimum energy paths (MEPs), and fast-converging schemes such as quasi-Newton methods can be readily applied. Second, we define a new objective function - the total Hamiltonian - for reaction path optimization, by combining the kinetic energy potential of each replica with its potential energy function. Minimizing the total Hamiltonian of a chain determines a minimum Hamiltonian path (MHP). If the distances between replicas are kept equal and a consistent force constant is used, then the kinetic energy potentials of all replicas have the same value. The MHP in this case is the most probable isokinetic path. Our results indicate that low-temperature kinetic energy potentials (<5 K) can be used to prevent the development of kinks during path optimization and can significantly reduce the required steps of minimization by 2-3 times without causing noticeable differences between a MHP and MEP. These methods are applied to three test cases, the C?eq-to-Cax isomerization of an alanine dipeptide, the ?C?- to-¹C? transition of an ?-D-glucopyranose, and the helix-to-sheet transition of a GNNQQNY heptapeptide. By applying the methods developed in this work, convergence of reaction path optimization can be achieved for these complex transitions, involving full atomic details and a large number of replicas (>100). For the case of helix-to-sheet transition, we identify pathways whose energy barriers are consistent with experimental measurements. Further, we develop a method based on the work energy theorem to quantify the accuracy of reaction paths and to determine whether the atoms used to define a path are enough to provide quantitative estimation of energy barriers.

Brokaw, Jason B.; Haas, Kevin R.; Chu, Jhih-wei

2009-08-11

174

Energy dependence of the optical potential of weakly and tightly bound nuclei as projectiles on a medium-mass target  

SciTech Connect

Angular distributions for the elastic scattering of the weakly bound {sup 6,7}Li+{sup 144}Sm systems were measured with high accuracy at bombarding energies from 85% up to 170% of the Coulomb barrier. An optical model analysis was performed, and the relevant parameters of the real and imaginary parts of the optical potential were extracted. The results are compared with those previously published for the tightly bound {sup 12}C+{sup 144}Sm and {sup 16}O+{sup 144}Sm systems. The usual threshold anomaly observed in the behavior of the potential of tightly bound systems was not observed for either weakly bound system. This absence is attributed to the repulsion due to breakup coupling which cancels the attraction arising from couplings with bound channels.

Figueira, J. M.; Arazi, A.; Carnelli, P.; Heimann, D. Martinez; Negri, A. E.; Pacheco, A. J. [Laboratorio Tandar, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, B1650KNA San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, C1033AAJ Ciudad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Niello, J. O. Fernandez [Laboratorio Tandar, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, B1650KNA San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, C1033AAJ Ciudad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad de San Martin, B1650BWA San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Capurro, O. A.; Fimiani, L.; Marti, G. V. [Laboratorio Tandar, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, B1650KNA San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Lubian, J.; Monteiro, D. S.; Gomes, P. R. S. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Gragoata, Niteroi, R. J., 24210-340 (Brazil)

2010-02-15

175

The QCD trace anomaly  

E-print Network

In this brief report we compare the predictions of a recent next-to-next-to-leading order hard-thermal-loop perturbation theory (HTLpt) calculation of the QCD trace anomaly to available lattice data. We focus on the trace anomaly scaled by T^2 in two cases: N_f=0 and N_f=3. When using the canonical value of mu = 2 pi T for the renormalization scale, we find that for Yang-Mills theory (N_f=0) agreement between HTLpt and lattice data for the T^2-scaled trace anomaly begins at temperatures on the order of 8 T_c while when including quarks (N_f=3) agreement begins already at temperatures above 2 T_c. In both cases we find that at very high temperatures the T^2-scaled trace anomaly increases with temperature in accordance with the predictions of HTLpt.

Jens O. Andersen; Lars E. Leganger; Michael Strickland; Nan Su

2011-06-02

176

Complex lymphatic anomalies.  

PubMed

Complex lymphatic anomalies include several diagnoses with overlapping patterns of clinical symptoms, anatomic location, imaging features, hematologic alterations, and complications. Lymphatic malformations likely arise through anomalous embryogenesis of the lymphatic system. Analysis of clinical, imaging, histologic, and hematologic features is often needed to reach a diagnosis. Aspiration of fluid collections can readily define fluid as chylous or not. The presence of chyle indicates dysfunction at the mesenteric or retroperitoneal level or above the cisterna chyli due to reflux. The imaging patterns of generalized lymphatic anomaly (GLA) and Gorham-Stout disease have been segregated with distinctive bone lesions and peri-osseous features. More aggressive histology (spindled lymphatic endothelial cells), clinical progression, hemorrhage, or moderate hematologic changes should raise suspicion for kaposiform lymphangiomatosis. Biopsy may be needed for diagnosis, though avoidance of rib biopsy is advised to prevent iatrogenic chronic pleural effusion. Lymphangiography can visualize the anatomy and function of the lymphatic system and may identify dysfunction of the thoracic duct in central conducting lymphatic anomalies. Local control and symptom relief are targeted by resection, laser therapy, and sclerotherapy. Emerging data suggest a role for medical therapies for complications of complex lymphatic anomalies. Outcomes include recurrent effusion, infection, pain, fracture, mortality, and rarely, malignancy. Complex lymphatic anomalies present significant diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Results from a phase 2 study of sirolimus in these and other conditions are expected in 2014. Improved characterization of natural history, predictors of poor outcomes, responses to therapy, and further clinical trials are needed for complex lymphatic anomalies. PMID:25241096

Trenor, Cameron C; Chaudry, Gulraiz

2014-08-01

177

On isostatic geoid anomalies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In regions of slowly varying lateral density changes, the gravity and geoid anomalies may be expressed as power series expansions in topography. Geoid anomalies in isostatically compensated regions can be directly related to the local dipole moment of the density-depth distribution. This relationship is used to obtain theoretical geoid anomalies for different models of isostatic compensation. The classical Pratt and Airy models give geoid height-elevation relationships differing in functional form but predicting geoid anomalies of comparable magnitude. The thermal cooling model explaining ocean floor subsidence away from mid-ocean ridges predicts a linear age-geoid height relationship of 0.16 m/m.y. Geos 3 altimetry profiles were examined to test these theoretical relationships. A profile over the mid-Atlantic ridge is closely matched by the geoid curve derived from the thermal cooling model. The observed geoid anomaly over the Atlantic margin of North America can be explained by Airy compensation. The relation between geoid anomaly and bathymetry across the Bermuda Swell is consistent with Pratt compensation with a 100-km depth of compensation.

Haxby, W. F.; Turcotte, D. L.

1978-01-01

178

Midface anomalies in children.  

PubMed

A variety of congenital midface anomalies occur in children. High-resolution computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging have proved helpful in determining the nature and extent of dysplasia, thereby facilitating treatment planning. A classification system has been developed that groups these anomalies into four categories based on embryogenesis and anatomic location. These categories comprise anomalies that are related to the nasal cavity, nasofrontal region, nasolacrimal apparatus, and craniofacial syndromes. CT is the imaging modality of choice in children with possible choanal atresia, pyriform aperture stenosis, or anomalies of the nasolacrimal duct (eg, nasolacrimal duct stenosis, dacryocystoceles). MR imaging is the modality of choice in patients with congenital midface masses (eg, dermoid and epidermoid cysts, nasal gliomas, encephaloceles) and craniofacial syndromes (eg, Apert syndrome, Crouzon syndrome, Treacher Collins syndrome). In many cases, however, both CT and MR imaging are required to adequately evaluate midface anomalies. Familiarity with the characteristic imaging features of these anomalies along with knowledge of midface embryogenesis and normal developmental anatomy is essential to prevent misinterpretation of anatomic variations that may simulate disease. PMID:10903683

Lowe, L H; Booth, T N; Joglar, J M; Rollins, N K

2000-01-01

179

Investigation of Wind Energy Potential in Kartalkaya-Bolu, Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, wind characteristics and the wind energy potential of the Kartalkaya skinning center in the west of the Black Sea region of Turkey were analyzed using wind speed data collected during the period from 2000 to 2006. The wind speed distribution curves of the investigated location were obtained by using the Weibull and Rayleigh probability density functions based

Aynur Ucar; Figen Balo

2009-01-01

180

Unified Technical Concepts. Module 7: Potential and Kinetic Energy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This concept module on potential and kinetic energy is one of thirteen modules that provide a flexible, laboratory-based physics instructional package designed to meet the specialized needs of students in two-year, postsecondary technical schools. Each of the thirteen concept modules discusses a single physics concept and how it is applied to each…

Technical Education Research Center, Waco, TX.

181

Low energy chiral two pion exchange potential with statistical uncertainties  

E-print Network

We present a new phenomenological Nucleon-Nucleon chiral potential fitted to 925 pp and 1743 np scattering data up to a laboratory energy of $125$ MeV with 20 short distance parameters and three chiral constants $c_1$, $c_3$ and $c_4$ with $\\chi^2/\

Perez, R Navarro; Arriola, E Ruiz

2014-01-01

182

Potentials and policy implications of energy and material efficiency improvement  

SciTech Connect

There is a growing awareness of the serious problems associated with the provision of sufficient energy to meet human needs and to fuel economic growth world-wide. This has pointed to the need for energy and material efficiency, which would reduce air, water and thermal pollution, as well as waste production. Increasing energy and material efficiency also have the benefits of increased employment, improved balance of imports and exports, increased security of energy supply, and adopting environmentally advantageous energy supply. A large potential exists for energy savings through energy and material efficiency improvements. Technologies are not now, nor will they be, in the foreseeable future, the limiting factors with regard to continuing energy efficiency improvements. There are serious barriers to energy efficiency improvement, including unwillingness to invest, lack of available and accessible information, economic disincentives and organizational barriers. A wide range of policy instruments, as well as innovative approaches have been tried in some countries in order to achieve the desired energy efficiency approaches. These include: regulation and guidelines; economic instruments and incentives; voluntary agreements and actions, information, education and training; and research, development and demonstration. An area that requires particular attention is that of improved international co-operation to develop policy instruments and technologies to meet the needs of developing countries. Material efficiency has not received the attention that it deserves. Consequently, there is a dearth of data on the qualities and quantities for final consumption, thus, making it difficult to formulate policies. Available data, however, suggest that there is a large potential for improved use of many materials in industrialized countries.

Worrell, Ernst; Levine, Mark; Price, Lynn; Martin, Nathan; van den Broek, Richard; Block, Kornelis

1997-01-01

183

Turkey's High Temperature Geothermal Energy Resources and Electricity Production Potential  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Turkey is in the first 7 countries in the world in terms of potential and applications. Geothermal energy which is an alternative energy resource has advantages such as low-cost, clean, safe and natural resource. Geothermal energy is defined as hot water and steam which is formed by heat that accumulated in various depths of the Earth's crust; with more than 20oC temperature and which contain more than fused minerals, various salts and gases than normal underground and ground water. It is divided into three groups as low, medium and high temperature. High-temperature fluid is used in electricity generation, low and medium temperature fluids are used in greenhouses, houses, airport runways, animal farms and places such as swimming pools heating. In this study high temperature geothermal fields in Turkey which is suitable for electricity production, properties and electricity production potential was investigated.

Bilgin, Ö.

2012-04-01

184

Asymptotic Energy Expansion for Rational Power Polynomial Potentials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Asymptotic energy expansion method is extended for polynomial potentials having rational powers. New types of recurrence relations are derived for the potentials of the form V (x) = x2n/m + b1xn1/m1 + b2xn2/m2 + ... + bNxnN/mN where n, m, n1, m1, ..., nN, mN are positive integers while coefficients bk ? ?. As in the case of even degree polynomial potentials with integer powers, all the integrals in the expansion can be evaluated analytically in terms of ? functions. With the help of two examples, we demonstrate the usefulness of these expansions in getting analytic insight into the quantum systems having rational power polynomial potentials.

Asiri, Nanayakkara

2012-11-01

185

Technical Potential of Solar Energy to Address Energy Poverty and Avoid GHG Emissions in Africa  

SciTech Connect

This analysis explores the technical potential of photovoltaics (PV) or concentrating solar power (CSP) to address energy poverty in Africa through a geographic information system (GIS) screening of solar resource data developed by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL).

Cowlin, S. C.; Heimiller, D.; Bilello, D.; Renne, D.

2008-01-01

186

An assessement of global energy resource economic potentials  

E-print Network

framework, the marginal cost of energy production using every individual natural energy resource may be compared using a framework such as the LCOE at every level of natural resource use, in or- der to enable comparisons to be made. Furthermore, the poten... that are competitive compared to all al- ternatives. Since the competitiveness of cost levels change 2 with time and on the costs of alternatives, the economic potential corresponds to a quantity function of cost. How- ever, it can be used more conveniently when...

Mercure, Jean-Francois; Salas, Pablo

2012-03-20

187

Bifurcations on Potential Energy Surfaces of Organic Reactions  

PubMed Central

A single transition state may lead to multiple intermediates or products if there is a post-transition state reaction path bifurcation. These bifurcations arise when there are sequential transition states with no intervening energy minimum. For such systems, the shape of the potential energy surface and dynamic effects control selectivity rather than transition state energetics. This minireview covers recent investigations of organic reactions exhibiting reaction pathway bifurcations. Such phenomena are surprisingly general and affect experimental observables such as kinetic isotope effects and product distributions. PMID:18767086

Ess, Daniel H.; Wheeler, Steven E.; Iafe, Robert G.; Xu, Lai; Çelebi-Ölçüm, Nihan; Houk, K. N.

2009-01-01

188

Quintom dark energy models with nearly flat potentials  

SciTech Connect

We examine quintom dark energy models, produced by the combined consideration of a canonical and a phantom field, with nearly flat potentials and dark energy equation-of-state parameter w{sub DE} close to -1. We find that all such models converge to a single expression for w{sub DE}(z), depending only on the initial field values and their derivatives. We show that this quintom paradigm allows for a description of the transition through -1 in the near cosmological past. In addition, we provide the necessary conditions for the determination of the direction of the -1 crossing.

Setare, M. R.; Saridakis, E. N. [Department of Science, Payame Noor University, Bijar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Physics, University of Athens, GR-15771 Athens (Greece)

2009-02-15

189

Magnetic anomalies. [Magsat studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The implications and accuracy of anomaly maps produced using Magsat data on the scalar and vector magnetic field of the earth are discussed. Comparisons have been made between the satellite maps and aeromagnetic survey maps, showing smoother data from the satellite maps and larger anomalies in the aircraft data. The maps are being applied to characterize the structure and tectonics of the underlying regions. Investigations are still needed regarding the directions of magnetization within the crust and to generate further correlations between anomaly features and large scale geological structures. Furthermore, an increased data base is recommended for the Pacific Ocean basin in order to develop a better starting model for Pacific tectonic movements. The Pacific basin was large farther backwards in time and subduction zones surround the basin, thereby causing difficulties for describing the complex break-up scenario for Gondwanaland.

Harrison, C. G. A.

1983-01-01

190

Killing Spinors for the Bosonic String and the Kaluza-Klein Theory with Scalar Potentials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper consists mainly of two parts. In the first part, we obtain well-defined Killing spinor equations for the low-energy effective action of the bosonic string with the conformal anomaly term. We show that the conformal anomaly term is the only scalar potential that one can add into the action that is consistent with the Killing spinor equations. In the

Haishan Liu; H. Lu; Zhao-Long Wang

2011-01-01

191

Free energy generalization of the Peierls potential in iron.  

PubMed

In body-centered-cubic (bcc) crystals, 1/2<111> screw dislocations exhibit high intrinsic lattice friction as a consequence of their nonplanar core structure, which results in a periodic energy landscape known as the Peierls potential U(P). The main features determining plastic flow, including its stress and temperature dependences, can be derived directly from this potential, hence its importance. In this Letter, we use thermodynamic integration to provide a full thermodynamic extension of U(P) for bcc Fe. We compute the Peierls free energy path as a function of stress and temperature and show that the critical stress vanishes at 700 K, supplying the qualitative elements that explain plastic behavior in the athermal limit. PMID:24033045

Gilbert, M R; Schuck, P; Sadigh, B; Marian, J

2013-08-30

192

On the wave energy potential of Western Black Sea shelf  

E-print Network

In the present study we evaluate the approaches to estimate the wave energy potential of the western Black Sea shelf with numerical models. For the purpose of our evaluation and due to the lack of long time series of measurements in the selected area of the Black Sea, we compare the modeled mean wave power flux output from the SWAN wave model with the only available long term measurements from the buoy of Gelendzhik for the period 1997-2003 (with gaps). The forcing meteorological data for the numerical wave models for the selected years is extracted from the ERA Interim reanalysis of ECMWF (European Centre for Medium range Forecasts). For the year 2003 we also compare the estimated wave power with the modeled by SWAN, using ALADIN regional atmospheric model winds. We try to identify the shortcomings and limitations of the numerical modeling approach to the evaluation of the wave energy potential in Black Sea.

Galabov, Vasko

2013-01-01

193

Accurate global potential energy surface for the H + OH+ collision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We mapped the global three-dimensional potential energy surface (3D-PES) of the water cation at the MRCI/aug-cc-pV5Z including the basis set superposition (BSSE) correction. This PES covers the molecular region and the long ranges close to the H + OH+(X3?-), the O + H2+(X2?g+), and the hydrogen exchange channels. The quality of the PES is checked after comparison to previous experimental and theoretical results of the spectroscopic constants of H2O+(tilde X2B1) and of the diatomic fragments, the vibronic spectrum, the dissociation energy, and the barrier to linearity for H2O+(tilde X2B1). Our data nicely approach those measured and computed previously. The long range parts reproduce quite well the diatomic potentials. In whole, a good agreement is found, which validates our 3D-PES.

Gannouni, M. A.; Jaidane, N. E.; Halvick, P.; Stoecklin, T.; Hochlaf, M.

2014-05-01

194

A New Model for Calculating the Binding Energy of Lithium Nucleus under the Generalized Yukawa Potential and Hellmann Potential  

E-print Network

In this paper, the Schr\\"odinger equation for 6-body system is studied. We solved this equation for lithium nucleus by using supersymmetry method with the specific potentials. These potentials are Yukawa potential, the generalized Yukawa potential and Hellmann potential. The results of our model for all calculations show that the ground state binding energy of Lithium nucleus with these potentials are very close to the ones obtained in experiments.

Ghazvini, M; Rajabi, A A

2014-01-01

195

Electronic structure, molecular bonding and potential energy surfaces  

SciTech Connect

By virtue of the universal validity of the generalized Born-Oppenheimer separation, potential energy surfaces (PES`) represent the central conceptual as well as quantitative entities of chemical physics and provide the basis for the understanding of most physicochemical phenomena in many diverse fields. The research in this group deals with the elucidation of general properties of PES` as well as with the quantitative determination of PES` for concrete systems, in particular pertaining to reactions involving carbon, oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen molecules.

Ruedenberg, K. [Ames Laboratory, IA (United States)

1993-12-01

196

MCSCF potential energy surface for photodissociation of formaldehyde  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ground state potential energy surface for the dissociation of formaldehyde (H2CO to H2 and CO) is calculated with the ab initio MCSCF method with an extended (4-31G) basis set. The location, barrier height, and force constants of the transition state are determined, and the normal coordinate analysis is carried out. The calculated barrier height is 4.5 eV. Based on the calculated quantities, the detailed mechanism of the photochemical dissociation is discussed.

Jaffe, R. L.; Morokuma, K.

1976-01-01

197

Evaluation of Global Onshore Wind Energy Potential and Generation Costs  

SciTech Connect

In this study, we develop an updated global estimate of onshore wind energy potential using reanalysis wind speed data, along with updated wind turbine technology performance and cost assumptions as well as explicit consideration of transmission distance in the calculation of transmission costs. We find that wind has the potential to supply a significant portion of world energy needs, although this potential varies substantially by region as well as with assumptions such as on what types of land can be used to site wind farms. Total global wind potential under central assumptions is estimated to be approximately 89 petawatt hours per year at less than 9 cents/kWh with substantial regional variations. One limitation of global wind analyses is that the resolution of current global wind speed reanalysis data can result in an underestimate of high wind areas. A sensitivity analysis of eight key parameters is presented. Wind potential is sensitive to a number of input parameters, particularly those related to land suitability and turbine density as well as cost and financing assumptions which have important policy implications. Transmission cost has a relatively small impact on total wind costs, changing the potential at a given cost by 20-30%. As a result of sensitivities studied here we suggest that further research intended to inform wind supply curve development focus not purely on physical science, such as better resolved wind maps, but also on these less well-defined factors, such as land-suitability, that will also have an impact on the long-term role of wind power.

Zhou, Yuyu; Luckow, Patrick; Smith, Steven J.; Clarke, Leon E.

2012-06-20

198

Data Network Equipment Energy Use and Savings Potential in Buildings  

SciTech Connect

Network connectivity has become nearly ubiquitous, and the energy use of the equipment required for this connectivity is growing. Network equipment consists of devices that primarily switch and route Internet Protocol (IP) packets from a source to a destination, and this category specifically excludes edge devices like PCs, servers and other sources and sinks of IP traffic. This paper presents the results of a study of network equipment energy use and includes case studies of networks in a campus, a medium commercial building, and a typical home. The total energy use of network equipment is the product of the stock of equipment in use, the power of each device, and their usage patterns. This information was gathered from market research reports, broadband market penetration studies, field metering, and interviews with network administrators and service providers. We estimate that network equipment in the USA used 18 TWh, or about 1percent of building electricity, in 2008 and that consumption is expected to grow at roughly 6percent per year to 23 TWh in 2012; world usage in 2008 was 51 TWh. This study shows that office building network switches and residential equipment are the two largest categories of energy use consuming 40percent and 30percent of the total respectively. We estimate potential energy savings for different scenarios using forecasts of equipment stock and energy use, and savings estimates range from 20percent to 50percent based on full market penetration of efficient technologies.

Lanzisera, Steven; Nordman, Bruce; Brown, Richard E.

2010-06-09

199

Market potential for optical fiber sensors in the energy sector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For a long time electric power was taken as a natural unlimited resource. With globalisation the demand for energy has risen. This has brought rising prices for fossil fuels, as well as a diversification of power generation. Besides conventional fossil, nuclear plants are coming up again. Renewable energy sources are gaining importance resulting in recent boom of wind energy plants. In the past reliability and availability and an extremely long lifetime were of paramount importance. Today this has been added by cost, due to the global competition and the high fuel costs. New designs of power components have increased efficiency using lesser material. Higher efficiency causes inevitably higher stress on the materials, of which the machines are built. As a reduction of lifetime is not acceptable and maintenance costs are expected to be at a minimum, condition monitoring systems are going to being used now. This offers potentials for fibre optic sensor application.

Bosselmann, T.

2007-07-01

200

Rubber Balls and Conservation of Energy: A Lesson on Potential and Kinetic Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This teaching resource was developed by a K-12 science teacher in the American Physiologycal Society's 2006 Frontiers in Physiology Program. For more information on this program, please visit www.frontiersinphys.org. The purpose of this lesson is to teach students about how bouncy rubber balls can be used to demonstrate the concepts of kinetic and potential energy. The topics of kinetic and potential energy should be previously covered or introduced. Upon completion of this activity, students will be able to calculate the energy lost between bounces and account for where the missing energy has gone.

William G Mahl (Seymour Middle School)

2006-08-01

201

Trace anomalies in chiral theories revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motivated by the search for possible CP violating terms in the trace of the energy-momentum tensor in theories coupled to gravity we revisit the problem of trace anomalies in chiral theories. We recalculate the latter and ascertain that in the trace of the energy-momentum tensor of theories with chiral fermions at one-loop the Pontryagin density appears with an imaginary coefficient. We argue that this may break unitarity, in which case the trace anomaly has to be used as a selective criterion for theories, analogous to the chiral anomalies in gauge theories. We analyze some remarkable consequences of this fact, that seem to have been overlooked in the literature.

Bonora, Loriano; Giaccari, Stefano; de Souza, Bruno Lima

2014-07-01

202

GIS Assessment of Wind Energy Potential in California and Florida  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy efficiency coupled with renewable energy technologies can provide most of the U.S. carbon emissions reductions needed to contain atmospheric carbon concentrations at 450-500 parts per million, considered by many to be a tipping point in mitigating climate change. Among the leaders in the alternative energy sector is wind power, which is now one of the largest sources of new power generation in the U.S. creating jobs and revenue for rural communities while powering our economy with an emissions-free source of energy. In 2006, wind turbines capable of generating more than 2,400 megawatts of electricity were installed in the U.S. and by 2007 this number had risen to 3,000 megawatts. The U.S. generated 31 billion kilowatt-hours of wind power in 2007, which is enough electricity to power the equivalent of nearly 3 million average homes. It is estimated that generating the same amount of electricity would require burning 16 million tons of coal or 50 million barrels of oil. This study examines the wind power potential of sites near populated areas in Florida and California to determine the practicability of installing wind turbines at these locations. A GIS was developed in order to conduct a spatial analysis of these sites based on mean annual wind speed measured in meters per second and wind power density ratings measured in watts per square meter. The analysis indicates that coastal areas of Cocoa Beach, Key West, Hollywood, and West Palm Beach, respectively, possess the greatest potential for wind energy in Florida with mean annual wind speeds of 4.9 m/s and average wind power density ratings of 171 w/m2 peaking at Cocoa Beach followed by wind speeds of 4.64 m/s and wind power ratings of 115 w/m2 at Key West. California wind energy potential is even greater than that of Florida with Fairfield exhibiting mean annual wind speeds of 5.9 m/s and average wind power density ratings of 327 w/m2 followed by the Mojave and Palmdale areas with mean annual wind speeds of 5.0 m/s and 4.6 m/s, respectively. Wind power density ratings for Mojave are 240 w/m2 and 153 w/m2 at Palmdale. These results help confirm that wind energy continues to offer a clean, cost-effective, inexhaustible, and readily available means of helping to curb global warming while answering the increasing demand for electricity.

Snow, R. K.; Snow, M. M.

2008-05-01

203

Signature of pending earthquake from electromagnetic anomalies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two electromagnetic (EM) anomalies have been detected in the VLF frequency band before the Athens earthquake (EQ) (Mw=5.9, Sept. 7, 1999) with the following characteristics: (i) The first and second anomaly lasted for 12 and 17 hours respectively with a cessation of 12 hours; (ii) The second anomaly ceased at about 9 hours before the EQ; (iii) The larger anomaly, the second one, contains approximately 80% of the total EM energy received; (iv) No EM disturbance has been recorded in the VHF frequency band unlike with other cases, e.g., the Kozani Grevena and Egion-Eratini earthquakes. The fault modeling of the Athens EQ, based on information obtained by radar interferometry, predicts two faults. The main fault segment is responsible for 80% of the total energy released, while the secondary fault segment for the remaining 20%. Moreover, a recent seismic data analysis supports the hypothesis that a two-event solution for the Athens EQ, is more likely than a single event solution. In addition, the absence of surface rupture explains the absence of EM detection in the VHF frequency band. The present analysis reveals that the properties of the preseismic electromagnetic anomalies might be considered as signatures of a pending earthquake.

Eftaxias, K.; Kapiris, P.; Polygiannakis, J.; Bogris, N.; Kopanas, J.; Antonopoulos, G.; Peratzakis, A.; Hadjicontis, V.

204

Theoretical studies of potential energy surfaces and computational methods  

SciTech Connect

This project involves the development, implementation, and application of theoretical methods for the calculation and characterization of potential energy surfaces involving molecular species that occur in hydrocarbon combustion. These potential energy surfaces require an accurate and balanced treatment of reactants, intermediates, and products. This difficult challenge is met with general multiconfiguration self-consistent-field (MCSCF) and multireference single- and double-excitation configuration interaction (MRSDCI) methods. In contrast to the more common single-reference electronic structure methods, this approach is capable of describing accurately molecular systems that are highly distorted away from their equilibrium geometries, including reactant, fragment, and transition-state geometries, and of describing regions of the potential surface that are associated with electronic wave functions of widely varying nature. The MCSCF reference wave functions are designed to be sufficiently flexible to describe qualitatively the changes in the electronic structure over the broad range of geometries of interest. The necessary mixing of ionic, covalent, and Rydberg contributions, along with the appropriate treatment of the different electron-spin components (e.g. closed shell, high-spin open-shell, low-spin open shell, radical, diradical, etc.) of the wave functions, are treated correctly at this level. Further treatment of electron correlation effects is included using large scale multireference CI wave functions, particularly including the single and double excitations relative to the MCSCF reference space. This leads to the most flexible and accurate large-scale MRSDCI wave functions that have been used to date in global PES studies.

Shepard, R. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)

1993-12-01

205

Potential environmental effects of energy conservation measures in northwest industries  

SciTech Connect

The Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) has identified 101 plants in the Pacific Northwest that account for 80% of the region's industrial electricity consumption. These plants offer a precise target for a conservation program. PNL determined that most of these 101 plants were represented by 11 major industries. We then reviewed 36 major conservation technologies used in these 11 industrial settings to determine their potential environmental impacts. Energy efficiency technologies designed for industrial use may result in direct or indirect environmental impacts. Effects may result from the production of the conservation measure technology, changes in the working environment due to different energy and material requirements, or changes to waste streams. Industry type, work-place conditions, worker training, and environmental conditions inside and outside the plant are all key variables that may affect environmental outcomes. To address these issues this report has three objectives: Describe potential conservation measures that Bonneville may employ in industrial programs and discuss potential primary impacts. Characterize industrial systems and processes where the measure may be employed and describe general environmental issues associated with each industry type. Review environmental permitting, licensing, and other regulatory actions required for industries and summarize the type of information available from these sources for further analysis.

Baechler, M C; Gygi, K F; Hendrickson, P L

1992-01-01

206

Intermolecular potential energy surface and thermophysical properties of ethylene oxide.  

PubMed

A six-dimensional potential energy hypersurface (PES) for two interacting rigid ethylene oxide (C2H4O) molecules was determined from high-level quantum-chemical ab initio calculations. The counterpoise-corrected supermolecular approach at the MP2 and CCSD(T) levels of theory was utilized to determine interaction energies for 10178 configurations of two molecules. An analytical site-site potential function with 19 sites per ethylene oxide molecule was fitted to the interaction energies and fine tuned to agree with data for the second acoustic virial coefficient from accurate speed of sound measurements. The PES was validated by computing the second virial coefficient, shear viscosity, and thermal conductivity. The values of these properties are substantiated by the best experimental data as they tend to fall within the uncertainty intervals and also obey the experimental temperature functions, except for viscosity, where experimental data are insufficient. Due to the lack of reliable data, especially for the transport properties, our calculated values are currently the most accurate estimates for these properties of ethylene oxide. PMID:25362314

Crusius, Johann-Philipp; Hellmann, Robert; Hassel, Egon; Bich, Eckard

2014-10-28

207

Microscopic positive-energy potential based on Gogny interaction  

E-print Network

We present nucleon elastic scattering calculation based on Green's function formalism in the Random-Phase Approximation. For the first time, the Gogny effective interaction is used consistently throughout the whole calculation to account for the complex, non-local and energy-dependent optical potential. Effects of intermediate single-particle resonances are included and found to play a crucial role in the account for measured reaction cross section. Double counting of the particle-hole second-order contribution is carefully addressed. The resulting integro-differential Schr\\"odinger equation for the scattering process is solved without localization procedures. The method is applied to neutron and proton elastic scattering from $^{40}$Ca. A successful account for differential and integral cross sections, including analyzing powers, is obtained for incident energies up to 30 MeV. Discrepancies at higher energies are related to much too high volume integral of the real potential for large partial waves. Moreover, this works opens the way for future effective interactions suitable simultaneously for both nuclear structure and reaction.

G. Blanchon; M. Dupuis; H. F. Arellano; N. Vinh Mau

2014-10-28

208

Intermolecular potential energy surface and thermophysical properties of ethylene oxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A six-dimensional potential energy hypersurface (PES) for two interacting rigid ethylene oxide (C2H4O) molecules was determined from high-level quantum-chemical ab initio calculations. The counterpoise-corrected supermolecular approach at the MP2 and CCSD(T) levels of theory was utilized to determine interaction energies for 10178 configurations of two molecules. An analytical site-site potential function with 19 sites per ethylene oxide molecule was fitted to the interaction energies and fine tuned to agree with data for the second acoustic virial coefficient from accurate speed of sound measurements. The PES was validated by computing the second virial coefficient, shear viscosity, and thermal conductivity. The values of these properties are substantiated by the best experimental data as they tend to fall within the uncertainty intervals and also obey the experimental temperature functions, except for viscosity, where experimental data are insufficient. Due to the lack of reliable data, especially for the transport properties, our calculated values are currently the most accurate estimates for these properties of ethylene oxide.

Crusius, Johann-Philipp; Hellmann, Robert; Hassel, Egon; Bich, Eckard

2014-10-01

209

Very High Energy Blazars and the Potential for Cosmological Insight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gamma-ray blazars are among the most extreme astrophysical sources, harboring phenomena far more energetic than those attainable by terrestrial accelerators. These galaxies are understood to be active galactic nuclei that are powered by accretion onto supermassive black holes and have relativistic jets pointed along the Earth line of sight. The emission displayed is variable at all wavelengths and timescales probed thus far, necessitating contemporaneous broadband observations to disentangle the details of the emission processes within the relativistic jets. The very high energy (VHE; E> 100 GeV) photons emitted by these sources are detectable with ground based imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes such as VERITAS. As these photons propagate extragalactic distances, the interaction with the diffuse starlight that pervades the entire Universe results in a distance and energy dependent gamma-ray opacity, offering a unique method for probing photon densities on cosmological scales. These galaxies have also been postulated to be potential sources of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays, a theory which can be examined through the deep gamma-ray observations of sources which probe moderate gamma-ray opacities. Within this talk, I will highlight ongoing research regarding the broadband emission from VERITAS-observed VHE blazars, as well as the potential to use them for cosmological insight.

Furniss, Amy

2014-08-01

210

The NEAR Rendezvous Burn Anomaly  

E-print Network

The NEAR Rendezvous Burn Anomaly of December 1998 Final Report of the NEAR (Near Earth Asteroid Report of the NEAR (Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous) Anomaly Review Board November 1999 ©1999 The Johns .................................................................................................................................................... 4 Reconstructed Timeline

Rhoads, James

211

Redshift Anomalies with Universal Free-Fall  

E-print Network

For most theories which parametrize modifications of General Relativity, including those which violate the equivalence principle, gravitational redshift tests typically offer weaker constraints on such test parameters than do precision measurements of the universality of free fall (UFF) and local Lorentz invariance (LLI). Although redshift anomalies are often linked with violations of UFF or LLI, they do not have to be. We offer a simple model in which particle masses anomalously vary with the gravitational potential. This generates gravitational redshift anomalies unconstrained by existing tests of UFF or LLI. We propose new experiments to limit such effects.

Michael A. Hohensee; Holger Mueller

2010-08-03

212

Strictly anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider an extension of the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model with anomaly mediation as the only source of supersymmetry breaking, and the tachyonic slepton problem solved by a gauged U(1) symmetry. The extra gauge symmetry is broken at high energies in a manner preserving supersymmetry, while also introducing both the seesaw mechanism for neutrino masses, and the Higgs ?-term. We call the model strictly anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking. We present typical spectra for the model and compare them with those from so-called minimal anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking. We find a Standard Model-like Higgs of mass 125 GeV with a gravitino mass of 140 TeV and tan??=16. However, the muon anomalous magnetic moment is 3? away from the experimental value. The model naturally produces a period of hybrid inflation, which can exit to a false vacuum characterized by large Higgs vacuum expectation values, reaching the true ground state after a period of thermal inflation. The scalar spectral index is reduced to approximately 0.975, and the correct abundance of neutralino dark matter can be produced by decays of thermally produced gravitinos, provided the gravitino mass (and hence the Higgs mass) is high. Naturally light cosmic strings are produced, satisfying bounds from the cosmic microwave background. The complementary pulsar timing and cosmic ray bounds require that strings decay primarily via loops into gravitational waves. Unless the loops are extremely small, the next generation pulsar timing array will rule out or detect the string-derived gravitational radiation background in this model.

Hindmarsh, Mark; Jones, D. R. Timothy

2013-04-01

213

Assessing geothermal energy potential in upstate New York. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The potential of geothermal energy for future electric power generation in New York State is evaluated using estimates of temperatures of geothermal reservoir rocks. Bottom hole temperatures from over 2000 oil and gas wells in the region were integrated into subsurface maps of the temperatures for specific geothermal reservoirs. The Theresa/Potsdam formation provides the best potential for extraction of high volumes of geothermal fluids. The evaluation of the Theresa/Potsdam geothermal reservoir in upstate New York suggests that an area 30 miles east of Elmira, New York has the highest temperatures in the reservoir rock. The Theresa/Potsdam reservoir rock should have temperatures about 136 {degrees}C and may have as much as 450 feet of porosity in excess of 8%. Estimates of the volumes of geothermal fluids that can be extracted are provided and environmental considerations for production from a geothermal well is discussed.

Hodge, D.S. [SUNY, Buffalo, NY (United States)

1996-08-01

214

Potential energy surfaces and reaction dynamics of polyatomic molecules  

SciTech Connect

A simple empirical valence bond (EVB) model approach is suggested for constructing global potential energy surfaces for reactions of polyatomic molecular systems. This approach produces smooth and continuous potential surfaces which can be directly utilized in a dynamical study. Two types of reactions are of special interest, the unimolecular dissociation and the unimolecular isomerization. For the first type, the molecular dissociation dynamics of formaldehyde on the ground electronic surface is investigated through classical trajectory calculations on EVB surfaces. The product state distributions and vector correlations obtained from this study suggest very similar behaviors seen in the experiments. The intramolecular hydrogen atom transfer in the formic acid dimer is an example of the isomerization reaction. High level ab initio quantum chemistry calculations are performed to obtain optimized equilibrium and transition state dimer geometries and also the harmonic frequencies.

Chang, Yan-Tyng.

1991-11-01

215

Potential energy surfaces and quantum yields for photochromic diarylethene reactions.  

PubMed

Photochromic diarylethenes (DAEs) are among the most promising molecular switching systems for future molecular electronics. Numerous derivatives have been synthesized recently, and experimental quantum yields (QYs) have been reported for two categories of them. Although the QY is one of the most important properties in various applications, it is also the most difficult property to predict before a molecule is actually synthesized. We have previously reported preliminary theoretical studies on what determines the QYs in both categories of DAE derivatives. Here, reflecting theoretical analyses of potential energy surfaces and recent experimental results, a rational explanation of the general guiding principle for QY design is presented for future molecular design. PMID:23644976

Nakamura, Shinichiro; Uchida, Kingo; Hatakeyama, Makoto

2013-01-01

216

Context Rich Problems Online Archives: Electric Potential Energy Problems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page provides a set of context-rich physics problems relating to electric potential energy. Each context-rich problem is based on a real-world situation, and includes both information that is relevant to solving the problem and extraneous information. Strategies for problem solving are not explicitly provided. Each problem is formulated so it is too difficult for one student to solve alone, yet not too difficult for a group to master. This resource is based on the research results of the Minnesota Physics Education Research group. See Related items on this page for a link to the full collection.

Group, University O.; Heller, Kenneth; Heller, Patricia

2008-09-29

217

Toward an improved ground state potential energy surface of ozone.  

PubMed

A systematic study of the ozone potential energy surface was performed by means of high level ab initio techniques. The methods include icMR-CISD and icMR-AQCC with all electrons correlated using a full valence CAS reference space and basis sets up to sextuple-? quality along with extrapolation to the complete basis set limit. We computed a dense 3D grid as well as 1D cuts along stretching and bending coordinates around the open (C(2v)) equilibrium structure as well as along the minimum energy path to dissociation including the transition state and the van der Waals minimum region. The detailed analysis of our results confirms earlier calculations by the Schinke group and assures that these are not biased by deficiencies of the basis set, lack of relativistic corrections, or core correlation effects. Finally, we discuss possible sources of error that may explain the remaining discrepancies compared to experimental findings. PMID:20825243

Holka, Filip; Szalay, Péter G; Müller, Thomas; Tyuterev, Vladimir G

2010-09-16

218

A Potential Link between Fluid Expulsion and Slope Stability: Geochemical Anomalies Measured in the Gas Blowouts along the U.S. Atlantic Margin Provide New Constraints on their Formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geochemical, bathymetric and AUV based surveys conducted aboard the R/V Cape Hatteras in July 2004 provided new constraints on the formation of large-scale gas blowout features located along the U.S. Atlantic margin. These features, believed to be formed by gas expulsion processes, are ~4km long, ~1km wide and up to 50m deep. The stratal geometry of these features and their location on the shelf-edge has led us to hypothesize that they may indicate incipient slope failure. Interpretation from our chirp seismic reflection data, collected in 2000, showed gas generally was trapped under a thin veneer (several tens of meters) of deltaic sediments, but may be venting along the landward wall of the blowouts. New geochemical data indicate significant methane anomalies above both the seaward and landward walls of the blowouts and reveals that these features are actively venting fluids at the seafloor. Using a METSr sensor mounted on the WHOI Seabed AUV, we observed methane concentrations ranging from 50-100nM in the water column directly above the inner and outer walls, whereas typical methane concentrations in seawater are expected to be 2-4nM. Some of these methane hot spots were also associated with salinity anomalies. Additionally, pore fluids squeezed from a series of piston cores in the blowout region show relatively high alkalinity values (>4-15mM), with a near absence of hydrogen sulfide. These initial results are particularly intriguing since high alkalinity concentrations are commonly associated with high sulfide concentrations. We speculate that there may be a flux of CO2 into the sediments that may be responsible for the high alkalinity and low sulfide. In addition to our geochemical studies, we collected a full suite of bottom photographs, gravity cores, and high resolution bathymetry. Visualization of these data in three dimensions, along with methane concentration profiles, chirp reflection, and sidescan-sonar data has enabled us to build a relatively comprehensive picture of the blowout features. There are strong spatial correlations between trapped gas and the overlying shelf-edge delta deposit, as well as with relatively high methane concentrations in the water column, and indications of inner wall venting in the chirp profiles. Nevertheless, a distinct spatial correlation between the occurrence of biological communities and the fluid expulsion sites was not observed. The active fluid expulsion we measured is consistent with our geophysical observations, and supports our hypothesis that there is a link between upslope fluid migration, downslope creep, and potential slope failure.

Hill, J. C.; Driscoll, N. W.; Weissel, J. K.; Kastner, M.; Singh, H.; Cormier, M.; Camilli, R.; Eustice, R.; Lipscomb, R.; McPhee, N.; Newman, K.; Robertson, G.; Solomon, E.; Tomanka, K.

2004-12-01

219

Global Climate Highlights and Anomalies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NOAA's Global Climate Highlights and Anomalies page offers weekly summaries of global climate highlights and anomalies (warm, cold, wet, dry). Areas experiencing climate anomalies are color-marked on a global map, followed by written summaries of each region's climate conditions. All weeks are posted for the year 2000 (to present), and a link points users to the complete 1999 archive.

1999-01-01

220

Subband anomaly detection and spatial localization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modulating source assumption allows us to specify the problem of anomaly detection as a problem in robust statistics. The demodulation property of the Teager energy operator is used to jointly expose amplitude and frequency features of audio sub-bands. Spectral decomposition is achieved using a scaled wavelet function acting as a band-pass filter which halves its bandwidth for each decomposition

John F. N. Salik

2007-01-01

221

An ab initio potential energy surface and vibrational energy levels of HXeO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential energy surfaces for the electronic ground state of the HXeO molecule is constructed from more than 3500 ab initio points at the internally contracted multi-reference configuration interaction with the Davidson correction (icMRCI + Q) level employing large basis sets. The stabilities and dissociation barriers are identified from the potential energy surfaces. The three-body dissociation channel is found to be the dominate dissociation channel for HXeO. Low-lying vibrational energy levels of both HXeO and DXeO are calculated on the three-dimensional potential energy surface using the Lanczos algorithm, and found to be in good agreement with known experimental band origins.

Huang, Zhengguo

2009-05-01

222

Mass Anomalies on Ganymede  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radio Doppler data from two Ganymede encounters (G1 and G2) on the first two orbits in the Galileo mission have been analyzed previously for gravity information . For a satellite in hydrostatic equilibrium, its gravitational field can be modeled adequately by a truncated spherical harmonic series of degree two. However, a fourth degree field is required in order to fit the second Galileo flyby (G2). This need for a higher degree field strongly suggests that Ganymede s gravitational field is perturbed by a gravity anomaly near the G2 closest approach point (79.29 latitude, 123.68 west longitude). In fact, a plot of the Doppler residuals , after removal of the best-fit model for the zero degree term (GM) and the second degree moments (J2 and C22), suggests that if an anomaly exists, it is located downtrack of the closest approach point, closer to the equator.

Schubert, G.; Anderson, J. D.; Jacobson, R. A.; Lau, E. L.; Moore, W. B.; Palguta, J.

2004-01-01

223

Yearly Arctic Temperature Anomaly  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation shows the yearly temperature anomaly over the Arctic region from 1981-82 through 2002-03. Years run from August 1 through July 31. Blue hues indicate cooling regions; red hues depict warming. Light regions indicate less change while darker regions indicate more. The temperature scale used ranges from -7.0 to +7.0 degrees Celsius in increments of .25 degrees. (See color bar below)

Starr, Cindy; Comiso, Josefino

2003-10-23

224

An Ab Initio Based Potential Energy Surface for Water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report a new determination of the water potential energy surface. A high quality ab initio potential energy surface (PES) and dipole moment function of water have been computed. This PES is empirically adjusted to improve the agreement between the computed line positions and those from the HITRAN 92 data base. The adjustment is small, nonetheless including an estimate of core (oxygen 1s) electron correlation greatly improves the agreement with experiment. Of the 27,245 assigned transitions in the HITRAN 92 data base for H2(O-16), the overall root mean square (rms) deviation between the computed and observed line positions is 0.125/cm. However the deviations do not correspond to a normal distribution: 69% of the lines have errors less than 0.05/cm. Overall, the agreement between the line intensities computed in the present work and those contained in the data base is quite good, however there are a significant number of line strengths which differ greatly.

Partridge, Harry; Schwenke, David W.; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

1996-01-01

225

Anomaly patterns about strong convective events in the tropics and midlatitudes: Observations from radiosondes and surface weather stations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

use 13 years (1998-2010) of rainfall estimates from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission to identify high rain events located close to radiosondes. This is done in four regions: the Western Tropical Pacific, Tropical Brazil, Southeast China, and Southeast U.S. We then construct composite anomaly patterns of temperature, relative humidity, surface pressure, convective available potential energy (CAPE), geopotential height, mass divergence, relative vorticity, and potential vorticity about these high rain events. One motivation of this analysis is to identify regional differences in the interaction between strong convective events and the background atmosphere. We find, overall, that the changes in meteorological variables which occur during the evolution of strong convective events in midlatitudes are similar to the changes that occur in the tropics. In midlatitudes, however, strong convective events are associated with stronger anomalies in surface pressure and geopotential height and exhibit a warm anomaly in the lower troposphere prior to peak rainfall. In the Southeast U.S., the near-surface layer of positive CAPE that occurs prior to high rain events is thicker than in the Western Tropical Pacific. In the two midlatitude regions, the midlevel potential vorticity maximum that develops during the growth stage of high rain events acquires a downward tilt toward the surface during the decay stage, suggesting downward transport toward the surface. A conceptual model previously used to interpret the anomaly patterns of the 2 day equatorial wave is used to interpret the anomaly patterns associated with more general types of high rain events in the tropics.

Mitovski, Toni; Folkins, Ian

2014-01-01

226

Electric Energy Conservation and Production Project: Vpolume 3: Wind energy potential  

SciTech Connect

A final report has been prepared under the Electric Energy Conservation and Production Project, conducted by the Blackfeet Indian Tribe and its consultants, Black Hawk Associates, Inc. The report addresses two major issues - the heavy reliance on electricity by residents of the Blackfeet Reservation, and the opportunities for electricity production from wind energy resources on the Reservation. The findings of this report (1) help provide a basis for comprehensive energy management planning on the Reservation, (2) analyze the potential for minimizing electricity demand and maximizing the efficiency of electrical end-uses through appropriate conservation measures, (3) assess the potential of wind energy resources located on the Reservation, and (4) identify and assess the technical, financial, legal, institutional, and regulatory issues involved in wind energy development within the Blackfeet Reservation.

Not Available

1984-02-01

227

Reliable prediction of micro-anomalies from macro-observables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A stochastic multi-scale based approach is presented in this work to detect signatures of micro-anomalies from macrolevel response variables. By micro-anomalies, we primarily refer to micro-cracks of size 10-100 ?m (depending on the material), while macro-level response variables imply, e.g., strains, strain energy density of macro-level structures (typical size often varying in the order of 10-100 m). The micro-anomalies referred above are not discernible to the naked eyes. Nevertheless, they can cause catastrophic failures of structural systems due to fatigue cyclic loading that results in initiation of fatigue cracks. Analysis of such precursory state of internal damage evolution, before amacro-crack visibly appears (say, size of a few cms), is beyond the scope of the conventional crack propagation analysis, e.g., classical fracture mechanics. The present work addresses this issue in a certain sense by incorporating the effects of micro-cracks into the macro-scale constitutive material properties (e.g., constitutive elasticity tensors) within a probabilistic formalism based on random matrix theory, maximum entropy principle, and principles of minimum complementary energy and minimum potential energy. Distinct differences are observed in the macro-level response characteristics depending on the presence or absence of micro-cracks. This particular feature can now be used to reliably detect micro-cracks from experimental measurements of macro-observables. The present work, therefore, further proposes an efficient and robust optimization scheme: (1) to identify locations of micro-cracks in macroscopic structural systems, say, in an aircraft wing which is of the size of 10- 100 m, and (2) to determine the weakened (due to the presence of micro-cracks) macroscopic material properties which will be useful in predicting the remaining useful life of structural systems. The proposed optimization scheme achieves better convergence rate and accuracy by exploiting positive-definite structure of the macroscopic constitutive matrices.

Das, Sonjoy; Chakravarty, Sourish

2014-03-01

228

Potential contribution of wind energy to climate change mitigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is still possible to limit greenhouse gas emissions to avoid the 2 °C warming threshold for dangerous climate change. Here we explore the potential role of expanded wind energy deployment in climate change mitigation efforts. At present, most turbines are located in extra-tropical Asia, Europe and North America, where climate projections indicate continuity of the abundant wind resource during this century. Scenarios from international agencies indicate that this virtually carbon-free source could supply 10-31% of electricity worldwide by 2050 (refs , ). Using these projections within Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) climate forcing scenarios, we show that dependent on the precise RCP followed, pursuing a moderate wind energy deployment plan by 2050 delays crossing the 2 °C warming threshold by 1-6 years. Using more aggressive wind turbine deployment strategies delays 2 °C warming by 3-10 years, or in the case of RCP4.5 avoids passing this threshold altogether. To maximize these climate benefits, deployment of non-fossil electricity generation must be coupled with reduced energy use.

Barthelmie, R. J.; Pryor, S. C.

2014-08-01

229

Gravitational potential energy of the earth: A spherical harmonic approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A spherical harmonic equation for the gravitational potential energy of the earth is derived for an arbitrary density distribution by conceptually bringing in mass-elements from infinity and building up the earth shell upon spherical shell. The zeroth degree term in the spherical harmonic equation agrees with the usual expression for the energy of a radial density distribution. The second degree terms give a maximum nonhydrostatic energy in the mantle and crust of -2.77 x 10 to the twenty-ninth power ergs, an order of magnitude. If the earth is assumed to be a homogeneous viscous oblate spheroid relaxing to an equilibrium shape, then a lower limit to the mantle viscosity of 1.3 x 10 to the twentieth power poises is found by assuming the total geothermal flux is due to viscous dissipation. If the nonequilibrium figure is dynamically maintained by the earth acting as a heat engine at one per cent efficiency, then the viscosity is ten to the twenty second power poises, a number preferred by some as the viscosity of the mantle.

Rubincam, D. P.

1977-01-01

230

Steam systems in industry: Energy use and energy efficiency improvement potentials  

SciTech Connect

Steam systems are a part of almost every major industrial process today. Thirty-seven percent of the fossil fuel burned in US industry is burned to produce steam. In this paper we will establish baseline energy consumption for steam systems. Based on a detailed analysis of boiler energy use we estimate current energy use in boilers in U.S. industry at 6.1 Quads (6.4 EJ), emitting almost 66 MtC in CO{sub 2} emissions. We will discuss fuels used and boiler size distribution. We also describe potential savings measures, and estimate the economic energy savings potential in U.S. industry (i.e. having payback period of 3 years or less). We estimate the nationwide economic potential, based on the evaluation of 16 individual measures in steam generation and distribution. The analysis excludes the efficient use of steam and increased heat recovery. Based on the analysis we estimate the economic potential at 18-20% of total boiler energy use, resulting in energy savings approximately 1120-1190 TBtu ( 1180-1260 PJ). This results in a reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions equivalent to 12-13 MtC.

Einstein, Dan; Worrell, Ernst; Khrushch, Marta

2001-07-22

231

French Brittany macroalgae screening: composition and methane potential for potential alternative sources of energy and products.  

PubMed

Macroalgae are biomass resources that represent a valuable feedstock to be used entirely for human consumption or for food additives after some extractions (mainly colloids) and/or for energy production. In order to better develop the algal sector, it is important to determine the capacity of macroalgae to produce these added-values molecules for food and/or for energy industries on the basis of their biochemical characteristics. In this study, ten macroalgae obtained from French Brittany coasts (France) were selected. The global biochemical composition (proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, fibers), the presence and characteristics of added-values molecules (alginates, polyphenols) and the biochemical methane potential of these algae were determined. Regarding its biochemical composition, Palmaria palmata is interesting for food (rich in nutrients) and for anaerobic digestion (0.279 LCH4/gVS). Saccharina latissima could be used for alginate extraction (242 g/kgTS, ratio between mannuronic and guluronic acid M/G=1.4) and Sargassum muticum for polyphenol extraction (19.8 g/kgTS). PMID:23896436

Jard, G; Marfaing, H; Carrère, H; Delgenes, J P; Steyer, J P; Dumas, C

2013-09-01

232

Aquarius surface salinity and the Madden-Julian Oscillation: The role of salinity in surface layer density and potential energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

surface salinity (SSS) data from the Aquarius satellite are analyzed along with auxiliary data to investigate the SSS signature of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) in the equatorial Indian and Pacific Oceans, the effect of evaporation-minus-precipitation (E-P), the implication for the role of ocean dynamics, and the SSS influence on surface density and potential energy. MJO-related SSS changes are consistent with E-P forcing in the western Indian Ocean throughout the MJO cycle and in the central Indian Ocean during the wet phase of the MJO cycle. However, SSS changes cannot be explained by E-P in the central Indian Ocean during the dry phase and in the eastern Indian and western Pacific Oceans throughout the MJO cycle, implying the importance of ocean dynamics. SSS has an overall larger contribution to MJO-related surface density and potential energy anomalies than SST. It partially offsets the SST effect in the western-to-central Indian Ocean and reinforces the SST effect in the eastern Indian and western Pacific Oceans. Ocean modeling and assimilation need to properly account for salinity effects in order to correctly represent mixed layer variability associated with the MJO. Our results also clarify some discrepancy in previous studies about the E-P effect on MJO-related SSS variations.

Guan, Bin; Lee, Tong; Halkides, Daria J.; Waliser, Duane E.

2014-04-01

233

Energy life cycle assessment of rice straw bio-energy derived from potential gasification technologies.  

PubMed

To be a viable alternative, a biofuel should provide a net energy gain and be capable of being produced in large quantities without reducing food supplies. Amounts of agricultural waste are produced and require treatment, with rice straw contributing the greatest source of such potential bio-fuel in Taiwan. Through life-cycle accounting, several energy indicators and four potential gasification technologies (PGT) were evaluated. The input energy steps for the energy life cycle assessment (ELCA) include collection, generator, torrefaction, crushing, briquetting, transportation, energy production, condensation, air pollution control and distribution of biofuels to the point of end use. Every PGT has a positive energy benefit. The input of energy required for the transportation and pre-treatment are major steps in the ELCA. On-site briquetting of refused-derived fuel (RDF) provides an alternative means of reducing transportation energy requirements. Bio-energy sources, such as waste rice straw, provide an ideal material for the bio-fuel plant. PMID:21507625

Shie, Je-Lueng; Chang, Ching-Yuan; Chen, Ci-Syuan; Shaw, Dai-Gee; Chen, Yi-Hung; Kuan, Wen-Hui; Ma, Hsiao-Kan

2011-06-01

234

How does the potential energy of a rising helium-filled balloon change?  

Microsoft Academic Search

I discuss why the buoyant force as given by Archimedes' principle is a conservative force with an associated potential energy. I then provide several arguments why a rising helium balloon loses potential energy.

David Keeports

2002-01-01

235

How does the potential energy of a rising helium-filled balloon change?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I discuss why the buoyant force as given by Archimedes' principle is a conservative force with an associated potential energy. I then provide several arguments why a rising helium balloon loses potential energy.

Keeports, David

2002-03-01

236

Breakup threshold anomaly in the elastic scattering of {sup 6}Li on {sup 27}Al  

SciTech Connect

Elastic scattering of the weakly bound {sup 6}Li on {sup 27}Al was measured at near-barrier energies. The data analysis was performed using a Woods-Saxon shape optical potential and also using the double-folding Sao Paulo potential. The results show the presence of the breakup threshold anomaly (BTA), an anomalous behavior when compared with the scattering of tightly bound nuclei. This behavior is attributed to a repulsive polarization potential produced by the coupling to the continuum breakup states.

Figueira, J. M. [Laboratorio TANDAR, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. General Paz 1499, 1650 San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Departamento de Fisica, FCEyN, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon 1, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Niello, J. O. Fernandez; Abriola, D.; Arazi, A.; Capurro, O. A.; Barbara, E. de; Marti, G. V.; Heimann, D. Martinez; Negri, A. E.; Pacheco, A. J. [Laboratorio TANDAR, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. General Paz 1499, 1650 San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Padron, I.; Gomes, P. R. S.; Lubian, J.; Correa, T.; Paes, B. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Litoranea s/n, Gragoata, Niteroi, R.J., 24210-340 (Brazil)

2007-01-15

237

Potential alternative energy technologies on the Outer Continental Shelf.  

SciTech Connect

This technical memorandum (TM) describes the technology requirements for three alternative energy technologies for which pilot and/or commercial projects on the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) are likely to be proposed within the next five to seven years. For each of the alternative technologies--wind, wave, and ocean current--the TM first presents an overview. After each technology-specific overview, it describes the technology requirements for four development phases: site monitoring and testing, construction, operation, and decommissioning. For each phase, the report covers the following topics (where data are available): facility description, electricity generated, ocean area (surface and bottom) occupied, resource requirements, emissions and noise sources, hazardous materials stored or used, transportation requirements, and accident potential. Where appropriate, the TM distinguishes between pilot-scale (or demonstration-scale) facilities and commercial-scale facilities.

Elcock, D.; Environmental Assessment

2007-04-20

238

Osmosis, colligative properties, entropy, free energy and the chemical potential  

E-print Network

A diffusive model of osmosis is presented that explains currently available experimental data. It makes predictions that distinguish it from the traditional convective flow model of osmosis, some of which have already been confirmed experimentally and others have yet to be tested. It also provides a simple kinetic explanation of Raoult's law and the colligative properties of dilute aqueous solutions. The diffusive model explains that when a water molecule jumps from low to high osmolarity at equilibrium, the free energy change is zero because the work done pressurizing the water molecule is balanced by the entropy of mixing. It also explains that equal chemical potentials are required for particle exchange equilibrium in analogy with the familiar requirement of equal temperatures at thermal equilibrium.

Peter Hugo Nelson

2014-09-13

239

Satellite magnetic anomalies over subduction zones - The Aleutian Arc anomaly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Positive magnetic anomalies seen in MAGSAT average scalar anomaly data overlying some subduction zones can be explained in terms of the magnetization contrast between the cold subducted oceanic slab and the surrounding hotter, nonmagnetic mantle. Three-dimensional modeling studies show that peak anomaly amplitude and location depend on slab length and dip. A model for the Aleutian Arc anomaly matches the general trend of the observed MAGSAT anomaly if a slab thickness of 7 km and a relatively high (induced plus viscous) magnetization contrast of 4 A/m are used. A second source body along the present day continental margin is required to match the observed anomaly in detail, and may be modeled as a relic slab from subduction prior to 60 m.y. ago.

Clark, S. C.; Frey, H.; Thomas, H. H.

1985-01-01

240

Relation between quark-antiquark potential and quark-antiquark free energy in hadronic matter  

E-print Network

We study the relation between the quark-antiquark potential and the quark-antiquark free energy in hadronic matter. While a temperature is over the critical temperature, the potential of a heavy quark and a heavy antiquark almost equals the free energy, otherwise the quark-antiquark potential is substantially larger than the quark-antiquark free energy. While a temperature is below the critical temperature, the quark-antiquark free energy can be taken as the quark-antiquark potential.

Zhen-Yu Shen; Xiao-Ming Xu

2014-06-19

241

Kohn anomaly in phonon driven superconductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anomalies often occur in the physical world. Sometimes quite unexpectedly anomalies may give rise to new insight to an unrecognized phenomenon. In this paper we shall discuss about Kohn anomaly in a conventional phonon-driven superconductor by using a microscopic approach. Recently Aynajian et al.'s experiment showed a striking feature; the energy of phonon at a particular wave-vector is almost exactly equal to twice the energy of the superconducting gap. Although the phonon mechanism of superconductivity is well known for many conventional superconductors, as has been noted by Scalapino, the new experimental results reveal a genuine puzzle. In our recent work we have presented a detailed theoretical analysis with the help of microscopic calculations to unravel this mystery. We probe this aspect of phonon behaviour from the properties of electronic polarizability function in the superconducting phase of a Fermi liquid metal, leading to the appearance of a Kohn singularity. We show the crossover to the standard Kohn anomaly of the normal phase for temperatures above the transition temperature. Our analysis provides a nearly complete explanation of this new experimentally discovered phenomenon. This report is a shorter version of our recent work in JPCM.

Das, M. P.; Chaudhury, R.

2014-08-01

242

Potential for supplying solar thermal energy to industrial unit operations  

SciTech Connect

Previous studies have identified major industries deemed most appropriate for the near-term adoption of solar thermal technology to provide process heat; these studies have been based on surveys that followed standard industrial classifications. This paper presents an alternate, perhaps simpler analysis of this potential, considered in terms of the end-use of energy delivered to industrial unit operations. For example, materials, such as animal feed, can be air dried at much lower temperatures than are currently used. This situation is likely to continue while economic supplies of natural gas are readily available. However, restriction of these supplies could lead to the use of low-temperature processes, which are more easily integrated with solar thermal technology. The adoption of solar technology is also favored by other changes, such as the relative rates of increase of the costs of electricity and natural gas, and by energy conservation measures. Thus, the use of low-pressure steam to provide process heat could be replaced economically with high-temperature hot water systems, which are more compatible with solar technology. On the other hand, for certain operations such as high-temperature catalytic and distillation processes employed in petroleum refining, there is no ready alternative to presently employed fluid fuels.

May, E.K.

1980-04-01

243

Rapid ocean wave teleconnections linking Antarctic salinity anomalies to the equatorial ocean-atmosphere system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coupled climate model FORTE is used to investigate rapid ocean teleconnections between the Southern Ocean and equatorial Pacific Ocean. Salinity anomalies located throughout the Southern Ocean generate barotropic signals that propagate along submerged topographic features and result in the growth of baroclinic energy anomalies around Indonesia and the tropical Pacific. Anomalies in the Ross, Bellingshausen and Amundsen Seas exchange

C. P. Atkinson; N. C. Wells; A. T. Blaker; B. Sinha; V. O. Ivchenko

2009-01-01

244

Online Anomaly Prediction for Real-Time Stream Processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the consideration of real-time stream processing technology, it's important to develop high availability mechanism to guarantee stream-based application not interfered by faults caused by potential anomalies. In this paper, we present a novel online prediction technique for predicting some anomalies which may occur in the near future. Concretely, we first present a value prediction which combines the Hidden Markov Model and the Mixture of Expert Model to predict the values of feature metrics in the near future. Then we employ the Support Vector Machine to do anomaly identification, which is a procedure to identify the kind of anomaly that we are about to alarm. The purpose of our approach is to achieve a tradeoff between fault penalty and resource cost. The experiment results show that our approach is of high accuracy for common anomaly prediction and low runtime overhead.

Huang, Yuanqiang; Luan, Zhongzhi; Qian, Depei; Du, Zhigao; Chen, Ting; Bai, Yuebin

245

Maternal water consumption during pregnancy and congenital cardiac anomalies  

SciTech Connect

This case-control study, conducted in a California county that had a local incident of water contamination in 1981, investigated the relation between a mother's reported consumption of tap water during pregnancy and congenital cardiac anomalies in their offspring born during 1981-1983. Data were obtained from telephone interviews with 145 mothers of children born with a severe cardiac anomaly and 176 mothers of children born without such an anomaly. A positive association between a mother's consumption of home tap water during the first trimester of pregnancy and cardiac anomalies in her infant was unrelated to the incident of water contamination, the mother's race, or her educational level. A negative relation was found between a mother's use of bottled water and cardiac anomalies among the infants. These findings corresponded primarily to births in 1981. These data could not fully distinguish between a potential causal agent in the water and differential reporting of exposure by study subjects.

Shaw, G.M.; Swan, S.H.; Harris, J.A.; Malcoe, L.H. (California Birth Defects Monitoring Program, Emeryville (USA))

1990-05-01

246

Energy Policy 32 (2004) 289297 The potential of solar electric power for meeting future US energy  

E-print Network

forecasting; Energy futures analysis; PV-ANWR comparison Direct comparison of Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) oil production and potential photovoltaics (PV) output (during the 70-year expected pumping lifetime of the ANWR deposit) has been neglected in the recent US policy debate. In part, this is because

Delaware, University of

247

Wind and Solar Energy Potential Assessment for Development of Renewables Energies Applications in Bucaramanga, Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently, the trend of micro-grids and small-scale renewable generation systems implementation in urban environments requires to have historical and detailed information about the energy potential resource in site. In Colombia, this information is limited and do not favor the design of these applications; for this reason, must be made detailed studies of the energy potential in their cities. In this paper is presented the wind and solar energy resource assessment for the city of Bucaramanga, based on the monitoring on four strategic points during the years 2010, 2011 and 2012. According to the analysis, is evidenced a significant solar resource throughout the year ascending on average to 1 734 kWh/m2, equivalent to 4.8 kWh/m2/day. Also, from a wind statistical study based on the Weibull probability distribution and Wind Power Density (WPD) was established the wind potential as Class 1 according to the scale of the Department of Energy of the United States (DOE), since the average speed is near 1.4 m/s. Due this, it is technically unfeasible the using of micro-turbines in the city, even so their potential for natural ventilation of building was analyzed. Finally, is presented a methodology to analyze solar harvesting by sectors in the city, according to the solar motion and shadowing caused by existing structures.

Ordóñez, G.; Osma, G.; Vergara, P.; Rey, J.

2014-06-01

248

Footprinting molecular electrostatic potential surfaces for calculation of solvation energies.  

PubMed

A liquid is composed of an ensemble of molecules that populate a large number of different states, so calculation of the solvation energy of a molecule in solution requires a method for summing the interactions with the environment over all of these states. The surface site interaction model for the properties of liquids at equilibrium (SSIMPLE) simplifies the surface of a molecule to a discrete number of specific interaction sites (SSIPs). The thermodynamic properties of these interaction sites can be characterised experimentally, for example, through measurement of association constants for the formation of simple complexes that feature a single H-bonding interaction. Correlation of experimentally determined solution phase H-bond parameters with gas phase ab initio calculations of maxima and minima on molecular electrostatic potential surfaces (MEPS) provides a method for converting gas phase calculations on isolated molecules to parameters that can be used to estimate solution phase interaction free energies. This approach has been generalised using a footprinting technique that converts an MEPS into a discrete set of SSIPs (each described by a polar interaction parameter, ?i). These SSIPs represent the molecular recognition properties of the entire surface of the molecule. For example, water is described by four SSIPs, two H-bond donor sites and two H-bond acceptor sites. A liquid mixture is described as an ensemble of SSIPs that represent the components of the mixture at appropriate concentrations. Individual SSIPs are assumed to be independent, so speciation of SSIP contacts can be calculated based on properties of the individual SSIP interactions, which are given by the sum of a polar (?i?j) and a non-polar (E(vdW)) interaction term. Results are presented for calculation the free energies of transfer of a range of organic molecules from the pure liquid into water, from the pure liquid into n-hexadecane, from n-hexadecane into water, from n-octanol into water, and for the transfer of water from pure water into a range of organic liquids. The agreement with experiment is accurate to within 1.6-3.9 kJ mol(-1) root mean square difference, which suggests that the SSIMPLE approach is a promising method for estimation of solvation energies in more complex systems. PMID:24064723

Calero, Christian Solis; Farwer, Jochen; Gardiner, Eleanor J; Hunter, Christopher A; Mackey, Mark; Scuderi, Serena; Thompson, Stuart; Vinter, Jeremy G

2013-11-01

249

Probing potential energy curves of C{sub 2}{sup -} by translational energy spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

We present studies on collision induced dissociation of C{sub 2}{sup -} with Ar at an impact energy of 15 keV. The C{sup -} fragment ion kinetic-energy release (KER) distribution is measured and is used to compute the KER in the center of mass (c.m.) frame (KER{sub c.m.}). We employ the reflection method to deduce an effective repulsive potential-energy curve for the molecular anion that is otherwise difficult to evaluate from quantum computational methods. The nuclear wave packet of the molecular ion in the initial ground state is computed by the semiclassical WKB method using the potential-energy curve of the {sup 2}{sigma}{sub g}{sup +} ground electronic state calculated by an ab initio quantum computation method. The ground-state nuclear wave packet is reflected on a parametrized repulsive potential-energy curve where the parameters are determined by fitting the measured KER{sub c.m.} with the calculated KER distribution.

Gupta, A.K. [Nuclear Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Aravind, G.; Krishnamurthy, M. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, 1 Homi Bhabha Road, Bombay 400 005 (India)

2004-03-01

250

Thermodynamics, gravitational anomalies and cones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By studying the Euclidean partition function on a cone, we argue that pure and mixed gravitational anomalies generate a "Casimir momentum" which manifests itself as parity violating coefficients in the hydrodynamic stress tensor and charge current. The coefficients generated by these anomalies enter at a lower order in the hydrodynamic gradient expansion than would be naively expected. In 1 + 1 dimensions, the gravitational anomaly affects coefficients at zeroth order in the gradient expansion. The mixed anomaly in 3 + 1 dimensions controls the value of coefficients at first order in the gradient expansion.

Jensen, Kristan; Loganayagam, R.; Yarom, Amos

2013-02-01

251

Potential system efficiencies for MEMS vibration energy harvesting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reliable power sources are needed for portable micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) devices such as wireless automobile tire pressure sensors. Vibration is an ubiquitous energy source that maybe 'harvested' as electrical energy at the site of the MEMS device. Existing vibration energy harvesting systems use either a piezoelectric or an electromagnetic transducer to convert vibrations into electrical energy. This electrical energy is

S. Behrens

2007-01-01

252

Energy conservation and retrofitting potential in Hellenic hotels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy consumption data from 158 Hellenic hotels and estimated energy savings that result from the use of practical retrofitting techniques, materials and new energy efficient systems are presented. The data were collected during an extensive energy audit of buildings that was carried out in Hellas, within the frame of a National Energy Programme sponsored by the CEC VALOREN Programme, for

M. Santamouris; C. A. Balaras; E. Dascalaki; A. Argiriou; A. Gaglia

1996-01-01

253

Industrial energy utilisation in Karnataka and potential savings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy is essential for industrial production. Because of the past abundance of low-cost energy, historically, the rate of social progress among industrial societies has not been limited by energy availability. Energy cost has not been significant when compared with no energy use. Mechanisation of agriculture, increased use of electrical appliances in the domestic sector and rapid industrialisation to meet the

T. V. Ramachandra; D. K. Subramanian

1997-01-01

254

Structure of Hot Flow Anomaly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hot Flow Anomalies (HFAs) were first discovered in 1980s. These are active processes of hot plasma bulks formation that usually occur at planetary bow shocks. Though HFA were studied for long time it is still not clear if they are reforming structures and what defines particular internal structure of HFA. Our study is based on the Interball Tail Probe data. We used 10-sec measurements of complex plasma analyzer SCA-1 and 1-second magnetic field measurements, and ELECTRON spectrometer 2-dimensional measurements with 3,75-sec temporal resolution. Five anomalies that were observed on the basis of well resolved structure for which we obtained displacement velocity along bow shock, flow velocities within HFA, and estimated the size. We checked if main criteria of HFA formation were fulfilled for each case. The following criteria were satisfied: motional electric field direction was directed toward current sheet at least at one side of it, bow shock was quasi-perpendicular at least at one side of HFA, and angle between current sheet normal and solar wind velocity was large. Convection velocities of plasma within HFA were calculated by subtracting average velocity from measured ion convection velocities along spacecraft trajectory through anomaly. These convection velocities viewed in coordinate system of shock normal and calculated IMF current sheet normal clearly show separation of HFA region in 3 parts: leading part, narrow central part, and trailing part. Ion velocity distributions confirm this triple structure of HFA. Thomsen et al. [1986] identified the region within HFA that they called "internal recovery". It looks like central region that we call narrow central part. Vaisberg et al. [1999] discussed separation of HFA into 2 distinct parts that correspond to leading and trailing parts. Judging from plasma convection pattern within HFAs we assumed that "internal recovery" region is the source of energy and momentum around interplanetary current sheet crossing. HFA formation mechanisms presume that HFA is formed when particles are reflected on bow shock, get swept by motional electric field and are injected back into the area. We tried to calculate the balance of energy in solar wind and within HFA to estimate what amount of reflected particles is needed for "internal recovery" area to be the real energy source. These estimations suggest that this energy balance is nearly fulfilled in 4 of 5 analyzed HFAs, and does not hold for one HFA. This energy balance may be in favor of quasi-stationary nature of HFA structure. References Thomsen, M. F., J. T. Gosling, S. A. Fuselier, S. J. Bame, and C. T. Russell (1986), Hot, diamagnetic cavities upstream from the Earth's bow shock, J. Geophys. Res., 91(A3), 2961-2973, doi:10.1029/JA091iA03p02961. Vaisberg, O.L., J.H.Waite, L.Avanov, V.N.Smirnov, D.Dempsey J.L.Burch and A.A.Skalsky, HFA-like signatures observed with Interball-Tail spacecraft, in: Solar Wind Nine, ed. By S.R.Habbal, R.Esser, J.V.Hollweg, and P.A.Isenberg, AIP 1-56396-865-7, 1999, pp. 551-554.

Shestakov, A.; Vaisberg, O. L.

2012-12-01

255

Material and energy recovery in integrated waste management systems: the potential for energy recovery.  

PubMed

This article is part of a set of six coordinated papers reporting the main findings of a research project carried out by five Italian universities on "Material and energy recovery in Integrated Waste Management Systems (IWMS)". An overview of the project and a summary of the most relevant results can be found in the introductory article of the series. This paper describes the work related to the evaluation of mass and energy balances, which has consisted of three major efforts (i) development of a model for quantifying the energy content and the elemental compositions of the waste streams appearing in a IWMS; (ii) upgrade of an earlier model to predict the performances of Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants; (iii) evaluation of mass and energy balances of all the scenarios and the recovery paths considered in the project. Results show that not only the amount of material available for energy recovery is significantly higher than the Unsorted Residual Waste (URW) left after Separate Collection (SC), because selection and recycling generate significant amounts of residues, but its heating value is higher than that of the original, gross waste. Therefore, the energy potential of what is left after recycling is always higher than the complement to 100% of the Source Separation Level (SSL). Also, increasing SSL has marginal effects on the potential for energy recovery: nearly doubling SSL (from 35% to 65%) reduces the energy potential only by one fourth. Consequently, even at high SSL energy recovery is a fundamental step of a sustainable waste management system. Variations of SSL do bring about variations of the composition, heating value and moisture content of the material fed to WtE plants, but these variations (i) are smaller than one can expect; (ii) have marginal effects on the performances of the WtE plant. These considerations suggest that the mere value of SSL is not a good indicator of the quality of the waste management system, nor of its energy and environmental outcome. Given the well-known dependence of the efficiency of steam power plants with their power output, the efficiency of energy recovery crucially depends on the size of the IWMS served by the WtE plant. A fivefold increase of the amount of gross waste handled in the IWMS (from 150,000 to 750,000 tons per year of gross waste) allows increasing the electric efficiencies of the WtE plant by about 6-7 percentage points (from 21-23% to 28.5% circa). PMID:21689919

Consonni, Stefano; Viganò, Federico

2011-01-01

256

Potential Peak Load Reductions From Residential Energy Efficient Upgrades  

E-print Network

are then combined into a package to assess the synergistic demand and energy impacts. A sensitivity analysis is then performed to assess the impacts of housing characteristics on estimated demand and energy savings. Finally, the demand, energy, and environmental...

Meisegeier, D.; Howes, M.; King, D.; Hall, J.

2002-01-01

257

Material and energy recovery in integrated waste management systems: The potential for energy recovery  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: > The amount of waste available for energy recovery is significantly higher than the Unsorted Residual Waste (URW). > Its energy potential is always higher than the complement to 100% of the Source Separation Level (SSL). > Increasing SSL has marginal effects on the potential for energy recovery. > Variations in the composition of the waste fed to WtE plants affect only marginally their performances. > A large WtE plant with a treatment capacity some times higher than a small plant achieves electric efficiency appreciably higher. - Abstract: This article is part of a set of six coordinated papers reporting the main findings of a research project carried out by five Italian universities on 'Material and energy recovery in Integrated Waste Management Systems (IWMS)'. An overview of the project and a summary of the most relevant results can be found in the introductory article of the series. This paper describes the work related to the evaluation of mass and energy balances, which has consisted of three major efforts (i) development of a model for quantifying the energy content and the elemental compositions of the waste streams appearing in a IWMS; (ii) upgrade of an earlier model to predict the performances of Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants; (iii) evaluation of mass and energy balances of all the scenarios and the recovery paths considered in the project. Results show that not only the amount of material available for energy recovery is significantly higher than the Unsorted Residual Waste (URW) left after Separate Collection (SC), because selection and recycling generate significant amounts of residues, but its heating value is higher than that of the original, gross waste. Therefore, the energy potential of what is left after recycling is always higher than the complement to 100% of the Source Separation Level (SSL). Also, increasing SSL has marginal effects on the potential for energy recovery: nearly doubling SSL (from 35% to 65%) reduces the energy potential only by one fourth. Consequently, even at high SSL energy recovery is a fundamental step of a sustainable waste management system. Variations of SSL do bring about variations of the composition, heating value and moisture content of the material fed to WtE plants, but these variations (i) are smaller than one can expect; (ii) have marginal effects on the performances of the WtE plant. These considerations suggest that the mere value of SSL is not a good indicator of the quality of the waste management system, nor of its energy and environmental outcome. Given the well-known dependence of the efficiency of steam power plants with their power output, the efficiency of energy recovery crucially depends on the size of the IWMS served by the WtE plant. A fivefold increase of the amount of gross waste handled in the IWMS (from 150,000 to 750,000 tons per year of gross waste) allows increasing the electric efficiencies of the WtE plant by about 6-7 percentage points (from 21-23% to 28.5% circa).

Consonni, Stefano [Department of Energy, Politecnico di Milano, Via Lambruschini 4, 20156 Milan (Italy); LEAP - Laboratorio Energia Ambiente Piacenza, Via Bixio 27, 29100 Piacenza (Italy); Vigano, Federico, E-mail: federico.vigano@polimi.it [Department of Energy, Politecnico di Milano, Via Lambruschini 4, 20156 Milan (Italy); LEAP -Laboratorio Energia Ambiente Piacenza, Via Bixio 27, 29100 Piacenza (Italy)

2011-09-15

258

(Molecular understanding of mutagenicity using potential energy methods)  

SciTech Connect

The objective of our work has been, for many year, to elucidate on a molecular level at atomic resolution the structures of DNAs modified by highly mutagenic polycyclic aromatic amines and hydrocarbons, and their less mutagenic chemically related analogs and unmodified DNAs, as controls. The ultimate purpose of this undertaking is to obtain an understanding of the relationship DNA structures and mutagenicity. Our methods for elucidating structures are computational, but we keep in close contact with experimental developments, and have, very recently, been able to incorporate the first experimental information from NMR studies by other workers in our calculations. The specific computational methods we employ are minimized potential energy calculations using the torsion angle space program DUPLEX, developed and written by Dr. Brain Hingerty to yield static views. Molecular dynamics simulations of the important static structures with full solvation and salt are carried out with the program AMBER; this yields mobile views in a milieu that best mimics the natural environment of the cell. In addition, we have been developing new strategies for searching conformation space and building DNA duplexes from favored subunit structures. 30 refs., 12 figs.

Broyde, S.

1990-01-01

259

Molecular understanding of mutagenicity using potential energy methods  

SciTech Connect

Our objective, has been to elucidate on a molecular level, at atomic resolution, the structures of DNAs modified by 2-aminofluorene and its N-acetyl derivative, 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF). The underlying hypothesis is that DNA replicates with reduced fidelity when its normal right-handed B-structure is altered, and one result is a higher mutation rate. This change in structure may occur normally at a low incidence, for example by the formation of hairpin loops in appropriate sequences, but it may be enhanced greatly after covalent modification by a mutagenic substance. We use computational methods and have been able to incorporate the first data from NMR studies in our calculations. Computational approaches are important because x-ray and spectroscopic studies have not succeeded in producing atomic resolution views of mutagen and carcinogen-oligonucleotide adducts. The specific methods that we employ are minimized potential energy calculations using the torsion angle space molecular mechanics program DUPLEX to yield static views. Molecular dynamics simulations, with full solvent and salt, of the important static structures are carried out with the program AMBER; this yields mobile views in a medium that mimics the natural aqueous environment of the cell as well as can be done with current available computing resources.

Broyde, S.; Shapiro, R.

1992-07-01

260

New structural anomaly induced by nanoconfinement  

E-print Network

We explore the structural properties of anomalous fluids confined in a nanopore using Molecular Dynamics simulations. The fluid is modeled by core-softened (CS) potentials that have a repulsive shoulder and an attractive well at a further distance. Changing the attractive well depth of the fluid-fluid interaction potential, we studied the behavior of the anomalies in the translational order parameter $t$ and excess entropy $s_{ex}$ for the particles near to the nanopore wall (contact layer) for systems with two or three layers of particles. When the attractive well of the CS potential is shallow, the systems present a three to two layers transition and, additionally to the usual structural anomaly, a new anomalous region in $t$ and $s_{ex}$. For attractive well deep enough, the systems change from three layers to a bulk-like profile and just one region of anomaly in $t$ and $s_{ex}$ is observed. Our results are discussed in the basis of the fluid-fluid and fluid-surface interactions.

Leandro B. Krott; José Rafael Bordin; Marcia Barbosa

2014-10-21

261

Calculation of free-energy differences and potentials of mean force by a multi-energy gap method  

E-print Network

Calculation of free-energy differences and potentials of mean force by a multi-energy gap method the convergence of free-energy calculations. It introduces a bias factor in Monte Carlo simulations or.e., the difference in energy function between two states, and is therefore specifically designed for calculating free-energy

Weston, Ken

262

Transportation Energy Futures Series: Potential for Energy Efficiency Improvement Beyond the Light-Duty-Vehicle Sector  

SciTech Connect

Considerable research has focused on energy efficiency and fuel substitution options for light-duty vehicles, while much less attention has been given to medium- and heavy-duty trucks, buses, aircraft, marine vessels, trains, pipeline, and off-road equipment. This report brings together the salient findings from an extensive review of literature on future energy efficiency options for these non-light-duty modes. Projected activity increases to 2050 are combined with forecasts of overall fuel efficiency improvement potential to estimate the future total petroleum and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions relative to current levels. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

Vyas, A. D.; Patel, D. M.; Bertram, K. M.

2013-03-01

263

Biomass energy potential and future prospect in Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sudan is an agricultural country with fertile land, plenty of water resources, livestock, forestry resources, and agricultural residues. Sudan is an energy importing country and the energy requirements have been supplied through imports that have caused financial problems. Because of the economical problems in Sudan today, the Sudanese energy policy should be concentrated on assurance of energy supply, reliability, domestic

Abdeen M. Omer

2005-01-01

264

Accuracy of the energy partitioning data obtained by classical trajectory calculations on potential energy surfaces constructed by interpolation  

E-print Network

Accuracy of the energy partitioning data obtained by classical trajectory calculations on potential of the classical trajectory calculation on a potential energy surface PES constructed by interpolation of the difficulties in this method is the need to calculate energies at many points for a faithful rep- resentation

Kim, Myung Soo

265

Major coronary anomalies in childhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major coronary artery anomalies are extremely rare in childhood. We wanted to assess the historical and diagnostic features and the therapeutic options of three distinct types of coronary artery anomalies: abnormal origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA), coronary fistula and coronary stenosis. In a retrospective study, 33 children with these types of coronary artery disease

Daniël Wolf; Tom Vercruysse; Bert Suys; Nico Blom; Dirk Matthys; Jaap Ottenkamp

2002-01-01

266

Anomaly detection in IP networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Network anomaly detection is a vibrant research area. Researchers have approached this problem using various techniques such as artificial intelligence, machine learning, and state machine modeling. In this paper, we first review these anomaly detection methods and then describe in detail a statistical signal processing technique based on abrupt change detection. We show that this signal processing technique is effective

Marina Thottan; Chuanyi Ji

2003-01-01

267

Measuring anomaly with algorithmic entropy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anomaly detection refers to the identification of observations that are considered outside of normal. Since they are unknown to the system prior to training and rare, the anomaly detection problem is particularly challenging. Model based techniques require large quantities of existing data are to build the model. Statistically based techniques result in the use of statistical metrics or thresholds for

Wanda M. Solano

2007-01-01

268

Zero-energy states for a class of quasi-exactly solvable rational potentials  

E-print Network

Quasi-exactly solvable rational potentials with known zero-energy solutions of the Schro\\" odinger equation are constructed by starting from exactly solvable potentials for which the Schr\\" odinger equation admits an so(2,1) potential algebra. For some of them, the zero-energy wave function is shown to be normalizable and to describe a bound state.

B. Bagchi; C. Quesne

1997-03-20

269

By-products: oil sorbents as a potential energy source.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the utilization of an industrial by-product, lignite fly ash, in oil pollution treatment, with the further potential profit of energy production. The properties of lignite fly ash, such as fine particle size, porosity, hydrophobic character, combined with the properties, such as high porosity and low specific gravity, of an agricultural by-product, namely sawdust, resulted in an effective oil-sorbent material. The materials were mixed either in the dry state or in aqueous solution. The oil sorption behaviour of the fly ash-sawdust mixtures was investigated in both marine and dry environments. Mixtures containing fly ash and 15-25% w/w sawdust performed better than each material alone when added to oil spills in a marine environment, as they formed a cohesive semi-solid phase, adsorbing almost no water, floating on the water surface and allowing total oil removal. For the clean-up of an oil spill 0.5 mm thick with surface area 1000 m(2), 225-255 kg of lignite fly ash can be utilized with the addition of 15-25% w/w sawdust. Fly ash-sawdust mixtures have also proved efficient for oil spill clean-up on land, since their oil sorption capacity in dry conditions was at least 0.6-1.4 g oil g(-1) mixture. The higher calorific value of the resultant oil-fly ash-sawdust mixtures increased up to that of bituminous coal and oil and exceeded that of lignite, thereby encouraging their utilization as alternative fuels especially in the cement industry, suggesting that the remaining ash can contribute in clinker production. PMID:23179513

Karakasi, Olga K; Moutsatsou, Angeliki

2013-04-01

270

Calculation of Protein Conformation by Global Optimization of a Potential Energy Function  

E-print Network

Calculation of Protein Conformation by Global Optimization of a Potential Energy Function Jooyoung- vided by CASP3. The approach is based exclusively on the global optimization of a potential energy function for a united-residue model by conformational space annealing, followed by energy refinement using

Lee, Jooyoung

271

Marine renewable energy: potential benefits to biodiversity? An urgent call for research  

E-print Network

Marine renewable energy: potential benefits to biodiversity? An urgent call for research Richard 1 Centre for Ecology and Conservation and Peninsula Research Institute for Marine Renewable Energy. Concerns over the potential impacts on biodiversity of marine renewable energy installations (MREI) include

Exeter, University of

272

PUBLISHED VERSION Free Energy Generalization of the Peierls Potential in Iron  

E-print Network

PUBLISHED VERSION Free Energy Generalization of the Peierls Potential in Iron M. R. Gilbert, P) and may be found at 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.095502 #12;Free Energy Generalization of the Peierls Potential for bcc Fe. We compute the Peierls free energy path as a function of stress and temperature and show

273

Metastable states of ozone calculated on an accurate potential energy surface  

E-print Network

Metastable states of ozone calculated on an accurate potential energy surface Dmitri Babikov 2003 A new potential energy surface for ozone is developed. It is based on high level ab initio data compositions of ozone. Collision lifetimes are obtained over a wide energy range, which gives the spectrum

Reid, Scott A.

274

Estimation of CO2 Mitigation Potential through Renewable Energy Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy is vital input for economy and social development in every society. Presently, the global primary energy demands are met largely from oil, natural gas, coal, nuclear and hydroelectric energy among which coal is dominant thermal power stations add to environmental degradation problems through gaseous emissions, particulate matter, fly ash, bottom ash, which are very harmful to human life. The

Mohibullah; Imdadullah; I. Ashraf

2006-01-01

275

Wind energy potential mapping in Karnataka, India, using GIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing negative effects of fossil fuel combustion on the environment in addition to limited stock have forced many countries to explore and change to environmentally friendly alternatives that are renewable to sustain the increasing energy demand. Changing to renewable sources and implementation of effective conservation measures would ensure sustainability. Currently, wind energy is one of the fastest developing renewable energy

T. V. Ramachandra; B. V. Shruthi

2005-01-01

276

Energy requirements and CO2 mitigation potential of PV systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we investigate the energy requirements of PV modules and systems and calculate the Energy Pay-Back Time for two major PV applications. Based on a review of past energy analysis studies we explain the main sources of differences and establish a \\

E. A. Alsema

1998-01-01

277

Power from Perspective: Potential future United States energy portfolios  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents United States energy portfolios for the year 2030, developed from seven different Perspectives. The Perspectives are characterized by different weights placed on fourteen defining values (e.g., cost, social acceptance). The portfolios were constructed to achieve three primary goals, energy independence, energy security, and greenhouse gas reductions. The portfolios are also evaluated over a comprehensive set of secondary

Bruce Tonn; K. C. Healy; Amy Gibson; Ashutosh Ashish; Preston Cody; Drew Beres; Sam Lulla; Jim Mazur; A. J. Ritter

2009-01-01

278

Development of the Potential Energy Savings Estimation (PESE) Toolkit  

E-print Network

the corresponding energy conservation measures (ECMs) in the early phase of an EBCx project or energy retrofit project. Using the tool requires limited information about the building and the built-in HVAC system type, as well as sorted bin weather and energy...

Liu, J.; Baltazar, J. C.; Claridge, D. E.

279

Chiral anomaly in soft collinear effective theory  

E-print Network

Anomalies have infrared and ultraviolet ingredients, and are often realized in effective theories in a nontrivial way. We study the chiral anomaly in soft collinear effective theory (SCET), where the anomaly equation has ...

Waalewijn, Wouter Jonathan

280

A second-generation reactive empirical bond order (REBO) potential energy expression for hydrocarbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

A second-generation potential energy function for solid carbon and hydrocarbon molecules that is based on an empirical bond order formalism is presented. This potential allows for covalent bond breaking and forming with associated changes in atomic hybridization within a classical potential, producing a powerful method for modelling complex chemistry in large many-atom systems. This revised potential contains improved analytic functions

Donald W. Brenner; Olga A. Shenderova; Judith A. Harrison; Steven J. Stuart; Boris Ni; Susan B. Sinnott

2002-01-01

281

Reactor antineutrino anomaly  

SciTech Connect

Recently, new reactor antineutrino spectra have been provided for {sup 235}U, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 241}Pu, and {sup 238}U, increasing the mean flux by about 3%. To a good approximation, this reevaluation applies to all reactor neutrino experiments. The synthesis of published experiments at reactor-detector distances <100 m leads to a ratio of observed event rate to predicted rate of 0.976{+-}0.024. With our new flux evaluation, this ratio shifts to 0.943{+-}0.023, leading to a deviation from unity at 98.6% C.L. which we call the reactor antineutrino anomaly. The compatibility of our results with the existence of a fourth nonstandard neutrino state driving neutrino oscillations at short distances is discussed. The combined analysis of reactor data, gallium solar neutrino calibration experiments, and MiniBooNE-{nu} data disfavors the no-oscillation hypothesis at 99.8% C.L. The oscillation parameters are such that |{Delta}m{sub new}{sup 2}|>1.5 eV{sup 2} (95%) and sin{sup 2}(2{theta}{sub new})=0.14{+-}0.08 (95%). Constraints on the {theta}{sub 13} neutrino mixing angle are revised.

Mention, G.; Fechner, M. [CEA, Irfu, SPP, Centre de Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Lasserre, Th.; Cribier, M. [CEA, Irfu, SPP, Centre de Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Astroparticule et Cosmologie APC, 10 rue Alice Domon et Leonie Duquet, 75205 Paris cedex 13 (France); Mueller, Th. A.; Lhuillier, D.; Letourneau, A. [CEA, Irfu, SPhN, Centre de Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

2011-04-01

282

Reliability of CHAMP Anomaly Continuations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

CHAMP is recording state-of-the-art magnetic and gravity field observations at altitudes ranging over roughly 300 - 550 km. However, anomaly continuation is severely limited by the non-uniqueness of the process and satellite anomaly errors. Indeed, our numerical anomaly simulations from satellite to airborne altitudes show that effective downward continuations of the CHAMP data are restricted to within approximately 50 km of the observation altitudes while upward continuations can be effective over a somewhat larger altitude range. The great unreliability of downward continuation requires that the satellite geopotential observations must be analyzed at satellite altitudes if the anomaly details are to be exploited most fully. Given current anomaly error levels, joint inversion of satellite and near- surface anomalies is the best approach for implementing satellite geopotential observations for subsurface studies. We demonstrate the power of this approach using a crustal model constrained by joint inversions of near-surface and satellite magnetic and gravity observations for Maude Rise, Antarctica, in the southwestern Indian Ocean. Our modeling suggests that the dominant satellite altitude magnetic anomalies are produced by crustal thickness variations and remanent magnetization of the normal polarity Cretaceous Quiet Zone.

vonFrese, Ralph R. B.; Kim, Hyung Rae; Taylor, Patrick T.; Asgharzadeh, Mohammad F.

2003-01-01

283

Compressed-Air Energy Storage: Commercialization Potential and EPRI Roles in the Commercialization Process. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes an assessment of potential roles that EPRI might take to facilitate the commercial acceptance of compressed air energy storage (CAES) systems. The assessment is based on (1) detailed analyses of the market potential of utility storag...

D. W. Boyd, O. E. Buckley, C. E. Clark

1982-01-01

284

Nuclear Data and Measurements Series: The energy dependence of the optical-model potential for fast-neutron scattering from bismuth  

SciTech Connect

Neutron differential-elastic-scattering cross sections of bismuth were measured at 0.5 MeV intervals from 4.5 to 10.0 MeV. At each incident energy greater than or equal to40 differential values were obtained, distributed between 18/sup 0/ and 160/sup 0/. The measured data were combined with lower-energy results previously reported from this laboratory, and others available in the literature, to provide a detailed data base extending from 1.5 to 10.0 MeV. This data base was interpreted in terms of the conventional optical-statistical model and also a model inclusive of the surface-peaked real potential predicted by the dispersion relation. Particular attention was given to the energy dependence of the volume-integral-per-nucleon of the real potential, J/sub v/, to see if there was evidence of the Fermi Surface Anomaly. In the range 3.0 to 10.0 MeV the present data indicate that dJ/sub v//dE is essentially constant, with a relatively large negative value of -6.0 to -9.0 fm/sup 3/, depending on the model used in the analysis. Below 3.0 MeV, there is some evidence for a decrease in the magnitude of dJ/dE. However, the effect is very small and it is only when this trend is combined with considerations of the J/sub v/ values needed to give correct bound-state energies that evidence for the Fermi Surface Anomaly emerges. J/sub v/ and the geometry of the optical potentials found for /sup 209/Bi become equal to those needed to explain the high-energy /sup 208/Pb data at about 10.0 MeV. Since dJ/sub v//dE for the latter is smaller in magnitude than for /sup 209/Bi, a change in dJ/sub v//dE is clearly indicated near 10.0 MeV. This may effect the extrapolation of higher-energy and charged-particle potentials into the lower-energy neutron domain. 47 refs., 9 figs.

Smith, A.B.; Guenther, P.T.; Lawson, R.D.

1987-05-01

285

Deposition of Potential Energy in Solids by Slow, Highly Charged Ions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have measured the deposition of potential energy of slow \\(~6×105 m/s\\), highly charged ions in solids with an ion implanted silicon detector. A large fraction (about 35% or 60 keV) of the potential energy dissipated by Au69+ ions can be traced in electronic excitations deep \\(>50 nm\\) inside the solid. In contrast, only about 10% of the potential energy has been accounted for in measurements of emitted secondary particles.

Schenkel, T.; Barnes, A. V.; Niedermayr, T. R.; Hattass, M.; Newman, M. W.; Machicoane, G. A.; McDonald, J. W.; Hamza, A. V.; Schneider, D. H.

1999-11-01

286

Nesting of thermodynamic, structural, and dynamic anomalies in liquid silicon.  

PubMed

Anomalous behaviour in density, diffusivity, and structural order is investigated for silicon modeled by the Stillinger-Weber potential by performing molecular dynamics simulations. As previously reported in the case of water [J. R. Errington and P. G. Debenedetti, Nature (London) 409, 318 (2001)] and silica [M. S. Shell, P. G. Debenedetti, and A. Z. Panagiotopoulos, Phys. Rev. E 66, 011202 (2002)], a cascading of thermodynamic, dynamic, and structural anomalous regions is also observed in liquid silicon. The region of structural anomaly includes the region of diffusivity anomaly, which in turn encompasses the region of density anomaly (which is unlike water but similar to silica). In the region of structural anomaly, a tight correlation between the translational and tetrahedrality order parameter is found, but the correlation is weaker when a local orientational order parameter (q3) is used as a measure of tetrahedrality. The total excess entropy and the pair correlation entropy are computed across the phase diagram and the correlation between the excess entropy and the regions of anomalies in the phase diagram of liquid silicon is examined. Scaling relations associating the excess entropy with the diffusion coefficient show considerable deviation from the quasi-universal behaviour observed in hard-sphere and Lennard-Jones liquids and some liquid metals. Excess entropy based criteria for diffusivity and structural anomalies fail to capture the observed regions of anomaly. PMID:25273445

Vasisht, Vishwas V; Mathew, John; Sengupta, Shiladitya; Sastry, Srikanth

2014-09-28

287

Solar energy potential atlas for planning energy system off-grid electrification in the Republic of Djibouti  

E-print Network

1 Solar energy potential atlas for planning energy system off-grid electrification in the Republic solar resource can therefore be an interesting mean to produce energy where it is consumed. The aimWh/m². Furthermore, the solar radiation reaching Djibouti corresponded to 20 000 times the total yearly energy

Boyer, Edmond

288

Earth flyby anomalies  

SciTech Connect

In the planet-centric system, a spacecraft should have the same initial and final energies, even though its energy and angular momentum will change in the barycenter of the solar system. However, without explanation, a number of earth flybys have yielded small energy changes.

Nieto, Michael Martin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Anderson, John D [PROPULSION LAB.

2009-01-01

289

Gravitational anomaly and transport phenomena.  

PubMed

Quantum anomalies give rise to new transport phenomena. In particular, a magnetic field can induce an anomalous current via the chiral magnetic effect and a vortex in the relativistic fluid can also induce a current via the chiral vortical effect. The related transport coefficients can be calculated via Kubo formulas. We evaluate the Kubo formula for the anomalous vortical conductivity at weak coupling and show that it receives contributions proportional to the gravitational anomaly coefficient. The gravitational anomaly gives rise to an anomalous vortical effect even for an uncharged fluid. PMID:21797593

Landsteiner, Karl; Megías, Eugenio; Pena-Benitez, Francisco

2011-07-01

290

A critical appraisal of the LSND anomaly  

E-print Network

The so-called 'LSND anomaly', a 3.8 sigma excess of anti-nu_e events interpreted as originating from anti-nu_mu -> anti-nu_e oscillation, gave rise to many theoretical speculations. The MiniBooNE Collaboration reported inconsistency of this interpretation with the findings from their search for nu_mu -> nu_e oscillations. Yet the origin of the LSND anomaly was never clarified. A critical issue is the prediction of the background anti-nu_e flux that was used in the analysis of the LSND experiment. For this, decisive input comes from pion spectra measured with the HARP large-angle spectrometer under conditions that closely resemble the LSND situation: a proton beam with 800 MeV kinetic energy hitting a water target.

I. Boyko

2008-10-08

291

Methodology for the Determination of Potential Energy Savings in Commercial Buildings  

E-print Network

This paper describes a methodology to determine potential energy savings of buildings with limited information. This methodology is based upon the simplified energy analysis procedure of heating, ventilation and air condition (HVAC) systems...

Baltazar-Cervantes, J. C.; Claridge, D. E.

2007-01-01

292

Visual analytics of anomaly detection in large data streams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most data streams usually are multi-dimensional, high-speed, and contain massive volumes of continuous information. They are seen in daily applications, such as telephone calls, retail sales, data center performance, and oil production operations. Many analysts want insight into the behavior of this data. They want to catch the exceptions in flight to reveal the causes of the anomalies and to take immediate action. To guide the user in finding the anomalies in the large data stream quickly, we derive a new automated neighborhood threshold marking technique, called AnomalyMarker. This technique is built on cell-based data streams and user-defined thresholds. We extend the scope of the data points around the threshold to include the surrounding areas. The idea is to define a focus area (marked area) which enables users to (1) visually group the interesting data points related to the anomalies (i.e., problems that occur persistently or occasionally) for observing their behavior; (2) discover the factors related to the anomaly by visualizing the correlations between the problem attribute with the attributes of the nearby data items from the entire multi-dimensional data stream. Mining results are quickly presented in graphical representations (i.e., tooltip) for the user to zoom into the problem regions. Different algorithms are introduced which try to optimize the size and extent of the anomaly markers. We have successfully applied this technique to detect data stream anomalies in large real-world enterprise server performance and data center energy management.

Hao, Ming C.; Dayal, Umeshwar; Keim, Daniel A.; Sharma, Ratnesh K.; Mehta, Abhay

2009-01-01

293

Global energy scenarios and the potential role of fusion energy in the 21st century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global energy usage is increasing at about 2% p.a. The expansion is related to population growth and to demand for economic growth and higher standards of living, despite some economies in energy use per unit GNP. A severalfold increase in global electricity demand by the middle of the 21st century seems inevitable, with the largest increment from large-population developing countries such as China and India. Currently, most electricity is provided by carbon-based fossil fuels, by hydroelectricity and by nuclear fission. Fusion, with its potential to provide electricity from large central power stations could help meet a significant part of this expanding demand. It will have to be broadly competitive with established generating methods. Current advances in fusion research indicate good prospects for technical demonstration of fusion electricity generation. Research and development of materials for fusion energy is needed now not only for demonstration plant, but also to enhance the estimates of the competitivity of fusion and to maximise its economic and environmental potential.

Pease, R. S.

1992-09-01

294

Torque anomaly in quantum field theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The expectation values of energy density and pressure of a quantum field inside a wedge-shaped region appear to violate the expected relationship between torque and total energy as a function of angle. In particular, this is true of the well-known Deutsch-Candelas stress tensor for the electromagnetic field, whose definition requires no regularization except possibly at the vertex. Unlike a similar anomaly in the pressure exerted by a reflecting boundary against a perpendicular wall, this problem cannot be dismissed as an artifact of an ad hoc regularization.

Fulling, S. A.; Mera, F. D.; Trendafilova, C. S.

2013-02-01

295

Potential solar energy utilization for winter residential space heating in Georgia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure for determining mean monthly space heating energy needs, solar radiation availability and solar energy collection is given. For the four Georgia locations of Atlanta, Augusta, Macon and Savannah, results indicate that solar energy may potentially meet a large portion of the total space heating needs for both a modern conventional insulated home and a highly energy efficient home

Suckling

1981-01-01

296

Solar energy for heat and electricity: the potential for mitigating climate change  

E-print Network

Solar energy for heat and electricity: the potential for mitigating climate change Dr N.J. EkiNs-DaukEs Executive summary Why are we interested in using solar energy? Sunlight provides the energy source countries, solar energy can seem less attractive than conventional sources due to its intermittent nature

297

Recognising the potential for renewable energy heating and cooling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heating and cooling in the industrial, commercial, and domestic sectors constitute around 40–50% of total global final energy demand. A wide range of renewable energy heating and cooling (REHC) technologies exists but they are presently only used to meet around 2–3% of total world demand (excluding from traditional biomass). Several of these technologies are mature, their markets are growing, and

Kristin Seyboth; Luuk Beurskens; Ole Langniss; Ralph E. H. Sims

2008-01-01

298

Solar Energy Utilisation Potential of three different Swiss Urban Sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Besides providing a more efficient energy use, a large scale application of solar energy technologies in the urban context will be required in the upcoming decades to achieve a drastic reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in the biosphere. Three different urban sites, representative of three of the largest Swiss cities (Basel, Geneva and Lausanne), were examined in order to assess

M Montavon; J-L Scartezzini; R Compagnon

299

Potential utilization of solar energy for industrial processes in Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last decade, people all over the world are using in alarming rates the costly supply of fossil and conventional fuels as the main source of energy. As the strategic reserves of these natural resources being quickly depleted, it appears as an urgent problem of special importance to mankind to search for alternative natural resources of energy which can

Abd El-Salam

1980-01-01

300

Potential for Altering Energy Partition in the Lactating Cow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Partitioning of nutrients in lactating cows is discussed in terms of processes requiring energy associated with main- tenance and production with emphasis upon kinetic properties that determine patterns and rates of nutrient use and nutrient interactions. Rates of nutrient oxidation by tissues are determined largely by energy expenditures, con- centrations of nutrients in blood, and relative affinities of tissues for

B. R. Baldwin; N. E. Forsberg; C. Y. Hu

1985-01-01

301

Biomass energy in China and its potential Li Jingjing  

E-print Network

Development #12;pollution. Household members, especially women and children, are exposed to pollutant.R.China Zhuang Xing Center for Renewable Energy Development, Energy Research Institute, State Development creates a burden on women and children, which reduces their time available for more productive activities

302

Pacific Temperature Anomalies with Graph  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation shows the El Nino-La Nina Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly from January 1997 through July 1999. A graph inset shows the global average sea surface temperature fluctuation during this time period.

Shirah, Greg; Bridgman, Tom; Starr, Cindy; Busalacchi, Antonio; Schultz, Peter

2003-08-30

303

Solar biomass energy: an overview of u.s. Potential.  

PubMed

The U.S. annual biomass production for food, lumber, paper, and fiber, if used exclusively for energy, would provide 25 percent of current energy requirements. The collection of unharvested wood residues and cull trees for direct use as fuel for small nearby space-heating applications-especially for peak winter conditions-is an important near-term solar energy opportunity. Improved management of hundreds of millions of acres of productive forest land is an important opportunity for the long term. Harvest of cropland residues for energy values, new biomass production using intensive short-rotation silviculture, resubstitution of natural products for petroleum-based synthetics, and forest management for large-scale production of electricity and synthetic fuels are judged to be less appropriate directions for the U.S. energy system to take. PMID:17844401

Burwell, C C

1978-03-10

304

New analytical potential energy function for doubly charged diatomic molecules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new analytical potential function for doubly charged diatomic ions is proposed as V(R) = (?n = 0kanRn-1)exp(-ak+1R)+C/R, where an, ak+1 and C are parameters and R is the nuclear distance. This function can be used to describe the potential curves for doubly charged diatomic ions with both potential minimum and maximum, or without any stationary point. As examples, potential functions of this form for ground states of BH2+, He22+ and HF2+ have been derived. The calculations using the theoretical method QCISD with basis set 6-311++Gast have shown that the potential minimum of BH2+is at Rmin=0.147nm, the maximum at Rmax=0.185nm and ?E = Emax-Emin=0.062 eV; for He22+ Rmin=0.0736nm, Rmax=0.105nm and ?E = Emax-Emin=0.71 eV. It is found that the potential curve for HF2+ is one with a singly repulsive branch. The force constants and spectroscopic data for BH2+ and He22+ have also been worked out.

Wang, Fan-Hou; Yang, Chuan-Lu; Zhu, Zheng-He; Jing, Fu-Qian

2005-02-01

305

Complex absorbing potential based equation-of-motion coupled cluster method for the potential energy curve of CO2- anion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The equation-of-motion coupled cluster method employing the complex absorbing potential has been used to investigate the low energy electron scattering by CO2. We have studied the potential energy curve for the 2?u resonance states of CO2- upon bending as well as symmetric and asymmetric stretching of the molecule. Specifically, we have stretched the C-O bond length from 1.1 Å to 1.5 Å and the bending angles are changed between 180° and 132°. Upon bending, the low energy 2?u resonance state is split into two components, i.e., 2A1, 2B1 due to the Renner-Teller effect, which behave differently as the molecule is bent.

Ghosh, Aryya; Vaval, Nayana; Pal, Sourav; Bartlett, Rodney J.

2014-10-01

306

Energy Analysis of a Kraft Pulp Mill: Potential for Energy Efficiency and Advanced Biomass Cogeneration  

E-print Network

-pressure steam turbine. Higher electricity to heat ratios is an industry wide trend and anticipated at the mill. The potential for self-sufficiency in energy using only black liquor and bark available on-site is assessed based on the analysis of the present... for the mill. The cogeneration analysis considers conventional steam turhine cycles and hlack liquor and hiomass integrated gasification/gas turhine com hi ned cycles. MILL DESCRIPTION The mill produces an annual average of 790 air dry short tons (ADST...

Subbiah, A.; Nilsson, L. J.; Larson, E. D.

307

Microscopic Calculation of IBM Parameters by Potential Energy Surface Mapping  

E-print Network

A coherent state technique is used to generate an Interacting Boson Model (IBM) Hamiltonian energy surface that simulates a mean field energy surface. The method presented here has some significant advantages over previous work. Specifically, that this can be a completely predictive requiring no a priori knowledge of the IBM parameters. The technique allows for the prediction of the low lying energy spectra and electromagnetic transition rates which are of astrophysical interest. Results and comparison with experiment are included for krypton, molybdenum, palladium, cadmium, gadolinium, dysprosium and erbium nuclei.

I. Bentley; S. Frauendorf

2011-02-08

308

Microscopic Calculation of IBM Parameters by Potential Energy Surface Mapping  

E-print Network

A coherent state technique is used to generate an Interacting Boson Model (IBM) Hamiltonian energy surface that simulates a mean field energy surface. The method presented here has some significant advantages over previous work. Specifically, that this can be a completely predictive requiring no a priori knowledge of the IBM parameters. The technique allows for the prediction of the low lying energy spectra and electromagnetic transition rates which are of astrophysical interest. Results and comparison with experiment are included for krypton, molybdenum, palladium, cadmium, gadolinium, dysprosium and erbium nuclei.

Bentley, I

2011-01-01

309

Airports offer unrealized potential for alternative energy production.  

PubMed

Scaling up for alternative energy such as solar, wind, and biofuel raises a number of environmental issues, notably changes in land use and adverse effects on wildlife. Airports offer one of the few land uses where reductions in wildlife abundance and habitat quality are necessary and socially acceptable, due to risk of wildlife collisions with aircraft. There are several uncertainties and limitations to establishing alternative energy production at airports, such as ensuring these facilities do not create wildlife attractants or other hazards. However, with careful planning, locating alternative energy projects at airports could help mitigate many of the challenges currently facing policy makers, developers, and conservationists. PMID:22245856

DeVault, Travis L; Belant, Jerrold L; Blackwell, Bradley F; Martin, James A; Schmidt, Jason A; Wes Burger, L; Patterson, James W

2012-03-01

310

An Integrated Assessment of China’s Wind Energy Potential  

E-print Network

Computable general equilibrium (CGE) models seeking to evaluate the impacts of electricity policy face difficulties incorporating detail on the variable nature of renewable energy resources. To improve the accuracy of ...

Zhang, D.

311

The economic potential of producing energy from agricultural biomass  

E-print Network

Agricultural biomass is a substitute for fossil fuels, which could provide a sustained energy feedstock and possibly reduce further accumulations of greenhouse gases. However, these feedstocks currently face a market dominated by low cost fossil...

Jerko, Christine

2012-06-07

312

Energy Savings Potential of Process Control Valve Replacement  

E-print Network

variable pressure drop element in the process piping system. The hydraulic system characteristics are then modified to suit the desired control conditions by throttling the control valve flow area to increase or decrease the pressure drop across... the valve. This control philosophy is very effective, but is implemented by creating an energy loss in the piping system to balance the unnecessary energy being delivered by the constant speed pump. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM ANALYSIS Figure I shows the flow (Q...

Holzenthal, L. Jr.

313

Assessing the potential of renewable energy sources in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

To meet Turkey’s growing energy demand, the installed electric power capacity of 27.8 GW in 2001 has to be doubled by 2010 and increased fourfold by 2020. The difference between Turkey’s total primary energy supply (TPES) of from its own sources and total final consumption (TFC) is projected grow from 1 quad (1.06–2.06) in 1999 to 5.71 quads (2.79–8.5) in

F Evrendilek; C Ertekin

2003-01-01

314

Consequences of converting graded to action potentials upon neural information coding and energy efficiency.  

PubMed

Information is encoded in neural circuits using both graded and action potentials, converting between them within single neurons and successive processing layers. This conversion is accompanied by information loss and a drop in energy efficiency. We investigate the biophysical causes of this loss of information and efficiency by comparing spiking neuron models, containing stochastic voltage-gated Na(+) and K(+) channels, with generator potential and graded potential models lacking voltage-gated Na(+) channels. We identify three causes of information loss in the generator potential that are the by-product of action potential generation: (1) the voltage-gated Na(+) channels necessary for action potential generation increase intrinsic noise and (2) introduce non-linearities, and (3) the finite duration of the action potential creates a 'footprint' in the generator potential that obscures incoming signals. These three processes reduce information rates by ?50% in generator potentials, to ?3 times that of spike trains. Both generator potentials and graded potentials consume almost an order of magnitude less energy per second than spike trains. Because of the lower information rates of generator potentials they are substantially less energy efficient than graded potentials. However, both are an order of magnitude more efficient than spike trains due to the higher energy costs and low information content of spikes, emphasizing that there is a two-fold cost of converting analogue to digital; information loss and cost inflation. PMID:24465197

Sengupta, Biswa; Laughlin, Simon Barry; Niven, Jeremy Edward

2014-01-01

315

Consequences of Converting Graded to Action Potentials upon Neural Information Coding and Energy Efficiency  

PubMed Central

Information is encoded in neural circuits using both graded and action potentials, converting between them within single neurons and successive processing layers. This conversion is accompanied by information loss and a drop in energy efficiency. We investigate the biophysical causes of this loss of information and efficiency by comparing spiking neuron models, containing stochastic voltage-gated Na+ and K+ channels, with generator potential and graded potential models lacking voltage-gated Na+ channels. We identify three causes of information loss in the generator potential that are the by-product of action potential generation: (1) the voltage-gated Na+ channels necessary for action potential generation increase intrinsic noise and (2) introduce non-linearities, and (3) the finite duration of the action potential creates a ‘footprint’ in the generator potential that obscures incoming signals. These three processes reduce information rates by ?50% in generator potentials, to ?3 times that of spike trains. Both generator potentials and graded potentials consume almost an order of magnitude less energy per second than spike trains. Because of the lower information rates of generator potentials they are substantially less energy efficient than graded potentials. However, both are an order of magnitude more efficient than spike trains due to the higher energy costs and low information content of spikes, emphasizing that there is a two-fold cost of converting analogue to digital; information loss and cost inflation. PMID:24465197

Sengupta, Biswa; Laughlin, Simon Barry; Niven, Jeremy Edward

2014-01-01

316

Diabatic heating fields and the generation of available potential energy during FGGE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Global diabatic heating is estimated using fields of directly computed heating components, in particular those due to shortwave radiation, longwave radiation, sensible heating, and latent heating produced every 6 hours. The role of average fields of diabatic heating in the generation of available potential energy is examined. It is observed that latent heating is most significant in generating available potential energy.

Salstein, David A.; Rosen, Richard D.; Baker, Wayman E.; Kalnay, Eugenia

1986-01-01

317

Adiabatic model of $(d,p)$ reactions with explicitly energy-dependent non-local potentials  

E-print Network

We have developed an approximate way of dealing with explicit energy-dependence of non-local nucleon optical potentials as used to predict the $(d,p)$ cross sections within the adiabatic theory. Within this approximation, the non-local optical potentials have to be evaluated at an energy shifted from half the incident deuteron energy by the $n-p$ kinetic energy averaged over the range of the $n-p$ interaction and then treated as an energy-independent non-local potential. Thus the evaluation of the distorting potential in the incident channel is reduced to a problem solved in our previous work in [{\\it Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 112501(2013) and Phys. Rev. C 87, 064610 (2013)}]. We have demonstrated how our new model works for the case of $^{16}$O$(d,p)^{17}$O, $^{36}$Ar($d,p)^{37}$Ar and $^{40}$Ca$(d,p)^{41}$Ca reactions and highlighted the need for a detailed understanding of energy-dependence of non-local potentials. We have also suggested a simple way of correcting the $d-A$ effective potentials for non-locality when the underlying energy-dependent non-local nucleon potentials are unknown but energy-dependent local phenomenological nucleon potentials are available.

R. C. Johnson; N. K. Timofeyuk

2014-01-14

318

CVRQD ab initio ground-state adiabatic potential energy surfaces for the water molecule  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high accuracy ab initio adiabatic potential energy surfaces (PESs) of the ground electronic state of the water molecule, determined originally by Polyansky et al. [Science 299, 539 (2003)] and called CVRQD, are extended and carefully characterized and analyzed. The CVRQD potential energy surfaces are obtained from extrapolation to the complete basis set of nearly full configuration interaction valence-only electronic

Paolo Barletta; Sergei V. Shirin; Nikolai F. Zobov; Oleg L. Polyansky; Jonathan Tennyson; Edward F. Valeev; Attila G. Császár

2006-01-01

319

High-energy behavior of the nuclear symmetry potential in asymmetric nuclear matter  

E-print Network

Using the relativistic impulse approximation with empirical NN scattering amplitude and the nuclear scalar and vector densities from the relativistic mean-field theory, we evaluate the Dirac optical potential for neutrons and protons in asymmetric nuclear matter. From the resulting Schr\\"{o}% dinger-equivalent potential, the high energy behavior of the nuclear symmetry potential is studied. We find that the symmetry potential at fixed baryon density is essentially constant once the nucleon kinetic energy is greater than about 500 MeV. Moreover, for such high energy nucleon, the symmetry potential is slightly negative below a baryon density of about $% \\rho =0.22$ fm$^{-3}$ and then increases almost linearly to positive values at high densities. Our results thus provide an important constraint on the energy and density dependence of nuclear symmetry potential in asymmetric nuclear matter.

Lie-Wen Chen; Che Ming Ko; Bao-An Li

2005-08-24

320

Examining student ability to interpret and use potential energy diagrams for classical systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Physics Education Group at the University of Washington is examining the extent to which students are able to use graphs of potential energy vs. position to infer kinematic and dynamic quantities for a system. The findings indicate that many students have difficulty in relating the graphs to real-world systems. Some problems seem to be graphical in nature (e.g., interpreting graphs of potential energy vs. position as graphs of position vs. time). Others involve relating the graphs to total, kinetic, and potential energies, especially when the potential energy is negative. The results have implications beyond the introductory level since graphs of potential energy are used in advanced courses on classical and quantum mechanics.

Stephanik, Brian M.; Shaffer, Peter S.

2012-05-15

321

Heat flux boundary anomalies and thermal winds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several studies have shown strong effects of outer boundary heat flux patterns on the dynamo mechanism in planets. For example, the hemispherical field of the ancient Martian dynamo can be explained by a large scale sinusoidal anomaly of the core mantle boundary heat flux triggered by large scale mantle convection or giant impacts. The magnetic fields show typically the desired effect - though dynamo action is locally stronger where the underneath heat flux is higher. However, it remains an open question if these effects still apply for more realistic planetary parameters, such as vigor of the convection (Rayleigh number) or the rotation rate (Ekman). The sinusoidal variation of the CMB heat flux along the colatitude with larger heat flux in the southern and smaller in the northern hemisphere as used for Mars can lead to a concentration of magnetic field in the south. The shape of such a hemispherical dynamo matches the crustal magnetization pattern at the surface and seems therefore an admissible mode for the ancient Martian dynamo. As the consequence of the emerging latitudinal temperature gradients convection and induction are dominated by thermal winds. These zonal flows were found to be equatorial antisymmetric, axisymmetric, ageostrophic, of strong amplitude and have therefore a severe effect on core convection and especially the induction process. We measure the underlying thermal anomalies as a function of Rayleigh and Ekman number and show that they are responsible for the thermal winds. Our results suggest that temperature anomalies decrease clearly with the supercriticality of the convection due to faster stirring and mixing, but show no additional dependence on the Ekman number. Interestingly, the decline of the latitudinal temperature anomaly follows a recently suggested scaling law for the thickness of thermal boundary layers. Even though the convective supercriticality of planetary cores is rather large and therefore only a minor effect of thermal boundary disturbances is expected, we suggest thermal winds can still significantly contribute to the total kinetic energy in real planetary core.

Dietrich, Wieland; Wicht, Johannes

2013-04-01

322

New potential high energy density compounds: Oxadiaziridine derivatives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The -CN, -N3, -NF2, -NH2, -NHNO2, -NO2, and -ONO2 derivatives of oxadiaziridine were studied using B3LYP/6-311G** level of density functional theory. The gas phase heats of formation of oxadiaziridine derivatives were calculated by isodesmic reaction. All these compounds have high and positive heats of formation due to strain energies of small ring. Detonation properties were calculated via Kamlet-Jacobes equations and specific impulse. The effects of substituent groups on detonation performance were discussed. The impact sensitivity was estimated according to the "available free space per molecule in unit cell" and "energy gaps" methods. The similar conclusions were given by two different methods. The effects of substituents on impact sensitivity were discussed. According to the given estimations of detonation performance and sensitivity, some oxadiaziridine derivatives may be considered promising high energies materials.

Yang, Jing; Chi, Wei-Jie

2014-10-01

323

Potential impact of contrails on solar energy gain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the effect of contrails on global shortwave radiation and on solar energy gain. The study was done for days with a high contrail persistence and looking at situations where the contrails were obstructing the sun. Measurements of cloudiness using a fish eye camera, diffuse and direct shortwave measurements and measurements of the short circuit current of three different types of photovoltaic (PV) modules were performed at the solar observatory Kanzelhöhe (1540 m a.s.l.) during a period of one year with a time resolution of one minute. Our results show that contrails moving between sun and observer/sensor may reduce the global radiation by up to 72%. A statistic of contrail persistence and influence of contrails on global irradiance and solar energy gain is presented. The losses in solar energy gain that were recorded may even be critical under some circumstances for PV system performance.

Weihs, P.; Rennhofer, M.; Baumgartner, D.; Gadermaier, J.; Wagner, J.; Laube, W.

2014-08-01

324

The vibrational energies of ozone up to the dissociation threshold: Dynamics calculations on an accurate potential energy surface  

E-print Network

The vibrational energies of ozone up to the dissociation threshold: Dynamics calculations present an ab initio potential energy surface for the ground electronic state of ozone. It is global, i. All bound states of nonrotating ozone up to more than 99% of the dissociation energy are calculated

Farantos, Stavros C.

325

The Potential for Energy Retrofits within the City of Sacramento's Rental Housing Inspection Program  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of an analysis performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the City of Sacramento--under the U.S. Department of Energy’s Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Office of Weatherization and Intergovernmental Projects Technical Assistance Program--to help determine the potential for incorporating energy efficiency standards into the City’s existing Rental Housing Inspection Program as part of Sacramento’s efforts to create a Climate Action Plan.

Iverson, Megan M.; Sande, Susan; Britt, Michelle L.

2011-04-15

326

Virial theorem and energy partitioning in systems with mixed power-law potentials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clausius’ Virial Theorem is often invoked to predict the partitioning of kinetic and potential energies in either classical or quantum systems with simple power-law potentials. Here, the Virial Theorem, and related statistical mechanical identities, are used to investigate energy partitioning in classical systems with mixed power-law potentials, in either one or three dimensions, with either positive or negative mixed power-law

Dor Ben-Amotz

2008-01-01

327

Nov. 30, 2010 Potential Energy Surfaces for Simulating Complex Chemical  

E-print Network

projects funded through the U.S. Department of Energy Innovative and Novel Computational Impact on Theory and Experiment (INCITE) program. The INCITE program gives cutting-edge research projects access to supercomputing electronic structure calculations required for structural characterization and rate constant and dynamics

Truhlar, Donald G

328

Data Network Equipment Energy Use and Savings Potential in Buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Network connectivity has become nearly ubiquitous, and the energy use of the equipment required for this connectivity is growing. Network equipment consists of devices that primarily switch and route Internet Protocol (IP) packets from a source to a destination, and this category specifically excludes edge devices like PCs, servers and other sources and sinks of IP traffic. This paper presents

Steven Lanzisera; Bruce Nordman; Richard E. Brown

2010-01-01

329

Renewable Energy in India: Status and future Potential  

E-print Network

Thermal Solar Photovoltaic Tidal Wave Ocean Thermal #12;Power Generation Options Power Generation;Energy End uses End-uses Cooking Transport Electricity HeatingCooling Cooling Motive Power Lighting Side Management (Solar Water Heater, Passive Solar) #12;Renewables in Power Power generation 6500 PJ

Banerjee, Rangan

330

Biohydrogen as a renewable energy resource—Prospects and potentials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biohydrogen holds the promise for a substantial contribution to the future renewable energy demands. It seems particularly suitable for relatively small-scale, decentralized systems, integrated with agricultural and industrial activities or waste processing facilities. Biohydrogen is considered as an important key to a sustainable world power supply and is currently being seen as the versatile fuel of the future, with the

Shireen Meher Kotay; Debabrata Das

2008-01-01

331

The potential of solar energy use in desiccant cooling cycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of heat produced by solar thermal collectors is an interesting option for thermal driven air conditioning processes. A thermal driven cooling technique which fits well to non-tracking solar collectors is the desiccant cooling technique. Recently several projects have been carried out which focus on the connection of desiccant cooling systems with solar thermal energy for regeneration of the

H-M Henning; T Erpenbeck; C Hindenburg; I. S Santamaria

2001-01-01

332

Estimation of wind characteristics at potential wind energy conversion sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

A physically based three-dimensional computer model which can provide estimates of wind characteristics needed to assess sites for wind energy conversion systems is presented. The model incorporates the effect of underlying terrain and uses conventional wind information from selected weather stations in the area of the site. The required statistical wind characteristics are estimated from the hourly winds synthesized by

C. M. Bhumralkar; F. L. Ludwig; R. L. Mancuso

1978-01-01

333

Island wind-hydrogen energy: A significant potential US resource  

Microsoft Academic Search

Islands offer the advantages of notional deep ocean wind stations without the problems of mounting wind turbines in a hostile marine environment. In principle, island wind-power stations could take advantage of rich (up to Class 7) wind resources. Because connection to an electricity grid will be difficult for most island-based systems, electrical energy could be converted into hydrogen (by electrolyzing

Benjamin K. Sovacool; Richard F. Hirsh

2008-01-01

334

Energy substrates, mitochondrial membrane potential and human preimplantation embryo division  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbohydrate additives to modern embryo culture media are based on three basic energy sources, glucose, pyruvate and lactate. Although the use of these substrates is almost universal, debate continues as to the roles of the individual components in the human. This is mainly due to the lack of human embryos for research and the reliance on animal model systems. In

M Wilding; A Fiorentino; ML De Simone; V Infante; L De Matteo; M Marino; B Dale

2002-01-01

335

Natural Gas Hydrates and their Potential for Future Energy Supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years the topic of naturally occurring gas hydrates have attracted major interest worldwide due to the fact that they may play a dominant role as possible energy resources in the future. Prior to this natural gas hydrates were mainly viewed at as a source of operational problems in gas processing and transportation equipment. The historical background and development

L. R. Oellrich

336

Simulation-assisted evaluation of potential energy savings: Application to an administrative building in France  

E-print Network

Simulation-assisted evaluation of potential energy savings: Application to an administrative building in France F. Randaxhe1, S. Bertagnolio1, V. Lemort1 1 Thermodynamics Laboratory, University of Liege, Chemins des chevreuils 7, 4000 Liege.... The advantages and drawbacks of the applied methods and tools are also discussed. Keywords: Building energy simulation, potential savings, ECO, audit 1. Introduction While our economy is heavily dependent on energy resources, the building sector is directly...

Randaxhe, F.; Bertagnolio, S.; Lemort, V.

2012-01-01

337

Energy Potential of Biomass from Conservation Grasslands in Minnesota, USA  

PubMed Central

Perennial biomass from grasslands managed for conservation of soil and biodiversity can be harvested for bioenergy. Until now, the quantity and quality of harvestable biomass from conservation grasslands in Minnesota, USA, was not known, and the factors that affect bioenergy potential from these systems have not been identified. We measured biomass yield, theoretical ethanol conversion efficiency, and plant tissue nitrogen (N) as metrics of bioenergy potential from mixed-species conservation grasslands harvested with commercial-scale equipment. With three years of data, we used mixed-effects models to determine factors that influence bioenergy potential. Sixty conservation grassland plots, each about 8 ha in size, were distributed among three locations in Minnesota. Harvest treatments were applied annually in autumn as a completely randomized block design. Biomass yield ranged from 0.5 to 5.7 Mg ha?1. May precipitation increased biomass yield while precipitation in all other growing season months showed no affect. Averaged across all locations and years, theoretical ethanol conversion efficiency was 450 l Mg?1 and the concentration of plant N was 7.1 g kg?1, both similar to dedicated herbaceous bioenergy crops such as switchgrass. Biomass yield did not decline in the second or third year of harvest. Across years, biomass yields fluctuated 23% around the average. Surprisingly, forb cover was a better predictor of biomass yield than warm-season grass with a positive correlation with biomass yield in the south and a negative correlation at other locations. Variation in land ethanol yield was almost exclusively due to variation in biomass yield rather than biomass quality; therefore, efforts to increase biomass yield might be more economical than altering biomass composition when managing conservation grasslands for ethanol production. Our measurements of bioenergy potential, and the factors that control it, can serve as parameters for assessing the economic viability of harvesting conservation grasslands for bioenergy. PMID:23577208

Jungers, Jacob M.; Fargione, Joseph E.; Sheaffer, Craig C.; Wyse, Donald L.; Lehman, Clarence

2013-01-01

338

Reconstructing the Potentials for the Quintessence and Tachyon Dark Energy, from the Holographic Principle  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose holographic quintessence and tachyon models of dark energy. The correspondence between the quintessence and tachyon energy densities with the holographic density allows the reconstruction of the potentials and the dynamics for the quintessence and tachyon fields, in the flat FRW background. The proposed infrared cutoff for the holographic energy density works for two cases of the constant alpha:

L. N. Granda

2009-01-01

339

Simulating the energy savings potential in domestic heating scenarios in Switzerland  

E-print Network

a new methodology to prepare weather data for simulating the energy consumption of a heating system when is no lack of models to simulate the energy consumption of a building, few authors have compared their workSimulating the energy savings potential in domestic heating scenarios in Switzerland Wilhelm

340

Overcoming Energetic and Time Scale Barriers Using the Potential Energy Surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sampling stationary points of the potential energy surface provides an intuitive way to coarse-grain calculations of both thermodynamic and dynamic properties. Functions such as internal energy, entropy, free energy and the heat capacity can be obtained from the superposition approximation, where the total partition function is written as a sum of contributions from a database of local minima. Rates can

David J. Wales; Joanne M. Carr; Tim James

341

New Soft-Core Potential Function for Molecular Dynamics Based Alchemical Free Energy Calculations  

E-print Network

New Soft-Core Potential Function for Molecular Dynamics Based Alchemical Free Energy Calculations accurate free energy calculations based on molecular dynamics simulations. A thermodynamic integration scheme is often used to calculate changes in the free energy of a system by integrating the change

de Groot, Bert

342

Potential of Using Poultry Litter as a Feedstock for Energy Production Rangika Perera, Graduate Research Assistant  

E-print Network

Potential of Using Poultry Litter as a Feedstock for Energy Production Rangika Perera, Graduate................................................................................................... 9 5. Environmental and Social Issues of Energy Production using Poultry Litter ....................................... 10 5.1 Issues on the anaerobic digestion of poultry litter for energy production

343

The global technical potential of bio-energy in 2050 considering sustainability constraints  

PubMed Central

Bio-energy, that is, energy produced from organic non-fossil material of biological origin, is promoted as a substitute for non-renewable (e.g., fossil) energy to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and dependency on energy imports. At present, global bio-energy use amounts to approximately 50 EJ/yr, about 10% of humanity's primary energy supply. We here review recent literature on the amount of bio-energy that could be supplied globally in 2050, given current expectations on technology, food demand and environmental targets (‘technical potential’). Recent studies span a large range of global bio-energy potentials from ?30 to over 1000 EJ/yr. In our opinion, the high end of the range is implausible because of (1) overestimation of the area available for bio-energy crops due to insufficient consideration of constraints (e.g., area for food, feed or nature conservation) and (2) too high yield expectations resulting from extrapolation of plot-based studies to large, less productive areas. According to this review, the global technical primary bio-energy potential in 2050 is in the range of 160–270 EJ/yr if sustainability criteria are considered. The potential of bio-energy crops is at the lower end of previously published ranges, while residues from food production and forestry could provide significant amounts of energy based on an integrated optimization (‘cascade utilization’) of biomass flows. PMID:24069093

Haberl, Helmut; Beringer, Tim; Bhattacharya, Sribas C; Erb, Karl-Heinz; Hoogwijk, Monique

2010-01-01

344

Assessment of the potential of halophytes as energy crops for the electric utility industry. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This technical report assesses and estimates the potential of selected halophytes as future renewable energy resources, especially by US electric utilities, and familiarizes nonspecialists with research and development problems that must be resolved before these energy sources can become dependable supplies of energy. A literature search related to both indigenous and exotic species of halophytes has been done and appropriate

Goodin

1984-01-01

345

Introduction For millennia people have known about the sun's energy potential, using it in passive  

E-print Network

Introduction For millennia people have known about the sun's energy potential, using it in passive that with photovoltaic cells, the sun's energy can be put to a more direct task: generation of electricity. Since by equiangular sets of arrows), a panel perpendicular to the sun's rays captures more energy than an obliquely

Aalberts, Daniel P.

346

A New Methodology for Early Anomaly Detection of BWR Instabilities  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the performed research is to develop an early anomaly detection methodology so as to enhance safety, availability, and operational flexibility of Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) nuclear power plants. The technical approach relies on suppression of potential power oscillations in BWRs by detecting small anomalies at an early stage and taking appropriate prognostic actions based on an anticipated operation schedule. The research utilizes a model of coupled (two-phase) thermal-hydraulic and neutron flux dynamics, which is used as a generator of time series data for anomaly detection at an early stage. The model captures critical nonlinear features of coupled thermal-hydraulic and nuclear reactor dynamics and (slow time-scale) evolution of the anomalies as non-stationary parameters. The time series data derived from this nonlinear non-stationary model serves as the source of information for generating the symbolic dynamics for characterization of model parameter changes that quantitatively represent small anomalies. The major focus of the presented research activity was on developing and qualifying algorithms of pattern recognition for power instability based on anomaly detection from time series data, which later can be used to formulate real-time decision and control algorithms for suppression of power oscillations for a variety of anticipated operating conditions. The research being performed in the framework of this project is essential to make significant improvement in the capability of thermal instability analyses for enhancing safety, availability, and operational flexibility of currently operating and next generation BWRs.

Ivanov, K. N.

2005-11-27

347

Non-Monotonic - and 6Li-POTENTIALS from Energy Density Functional Formalism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present status of the ?-nucleus potential, generated from the energy density functional (EDF) formalism using a realistic two-nucleon potential, which incorporates the Pauli principle, is discussed. The EDF potentials, calculated using a density distribution of ?-particle that yields a binding energy of 20 MeV with a reasonable root-mean-squared radius and observed density distributions of 6Li and various target nuclei, are found to be shallow and non-monotonic in character. This non-monotonic EDF potential reproduces satisfactorily the experimental elastic scattering data, particularly at energies above the Coulomb barrier. Since the elastic scattering data and the binding energies of all nuclei considered herein are well reproduced using the mean field generated from a realistic two-nucleon potential for nuclear and nucleonic matter, one may conclude to have reasonable information on the equation of states of nuclear and nucleonic matter from a very low to the saturation density from the present investigation.

Hossain, S.; Basak, A. K.; Uddin, M. A.; Abdullah, M. N. A.; Reichstein, I.; Malik, F. B.

2009-12-01

348

Graph anomalies in cyber communications  

SciTech Connect

Enterprises monitor cyber traffic for viruses, intruders and stolen information. Detection methods look for known signatures of malicious traffic or search for anomalies with respect to a nominal reference model. Traditional anomaly detection focuses on aggregate traffic at central nodes or on user-level monitoring. More recently, however, traffic is being viewed more holistically as a dynamic communication graph. Attention to the graph nature of the traffic has expanded the types of anomalies that are being sought. We give an overview of several cyber data streams collected at Los Alamos National Laboratory and discuss current work in modeling the graph dynamics of traffic over the network. We consider global properties and local properties within the communication graph. A method for monitoring relative entropy on multiple correlated properties is discussed in detail.

Vander Wiel, Scott A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Storlie, Curtis B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sandine, Gary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hagberg, Aric A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fisk, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-11

349

Measuring anomaly with algorithmic entropy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anomaly detection refers to the identification of observations that are considered outside of normal. Since they are unknown to the system prior to training and rare, the anomaly detection problem is particularly challenging. Model based techniques require large quantities of existing data are to build the model. Statistically based techniques result in the use of statistical metrics or thresholds for determining whether a particular observation is anomalous. I propose a novel approach to anomaly detection using wavelet based algorithmic entropy that does not require modeling or large amounts of data. My method embodies the concept of information distance that rests on the fact that data encodes information. This distance is large when little information is shared, and small when there is greater information sharing. I compare my approach with several techniques in the literature using data obtained from testing of NASA's Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSME)

Solano, Wanda M.

350

Spacecraft environmental anomalies expert system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A microcomputer-based expert system is being developed at the Aerospace Corporation Space Sciences Laboratory to assist in the diagnosis of satellite anomalies caused by the space environment. The expert system is designed to address anomalies caused by surface charging, bulk charging, single event effects and total radiation dose. These effects depend on the orbit of the satellite, the local environment (which is highly variable), the satellite exposure time and the hardness of the circuits and components of the satellite. The expert system is a rule-based system that uses the Texas Instruments Personal Consultant Plus expert system shell. The completed expert system knowledge base will include 150 to 200 rules, as well as a spacecraft attributes database, an historical spacecraft anomalies database, and a space environment database which is updated in near real-time. Currently, the expert system is undergoing development and testing within the Aerospace Corporation Space Sciences Laboratory.

Koons, H. C.; Gorney, D. J.

1988-01-01

351

Locating all transition states and studying the reaction pathways of potential energy surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a new method for calculating all stationary states, including saddle points of all orders, of a potential energy surface based on the ?BB deterministic branch and bound global optimization algorithm. This method is based on rigorous optimization methods and offers a theoretical guarantee of enclosing all solutions to the equation ?V=0. We apply this method to Murrel-Sorbie analytic potential energy surfaces of HCN, HSiN, HBO, and CS2, and to the Empirical Conformational Energy Program for Peptides (ECEPP/3) potential energy surfaces of alanine, alanine dipeptide, and tetra-alanine. For alanine, alanine dipeptide, and tetra-alanine, we proceed to analyze the topography of the potential energy surface by calculating reaction pathways, transition rate matrices, time-evolution of occupation probabilities, and rate disconnectivity graphs.

Westerberg, K. M.; Floudas, C. A.

1999-05-01

352

Branchial Anomalies: Diagnosis and Management  

PubMed Central

Objective. To find out the incidence of involvement of individual arches, anatomical types of lesions, the age and sex incidence, the site and side of predilection, the common clinical features, the common investigations, treatment, and complications of the different anomalies. Setting. Academic Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery. Design. A 10 year retrospective study. Participants. 30 patients with clinically proven branchial anomalies including patients with bilateral disease totaling 34 lesions. Main Outcome Measures. The demographical data, clinical features, type of branchial anomalies, and the management details were recorded and analyzed. Results and Observations. The mean age of presentation was 18.67 years. Male to female sex ratio was 1.27?:?1 with a male preponderance. Of the 34 lesions, maximum incidence was of second arch anomalies (50%) followed by first arch. We had two cases each of third and fourth arch anomalies. Only 1 (3.3%) patients of the 30 presented with lesion at birth. The most common pathological type of lesions was fistula (58.82%) followed by cyst. 41.18% of the lesions occurred on the right side. All the patients underwent surgical excision. None of our patients had involvement of facial nerve in first branchial anomaly. All patients had tracts going superficial to the facial nerve. Conclusion. Confirming the extent of the tract is mandatory before any surgery as these lesions pass in relation to some of the most vital structures of the neck. Surgery should always be the treatment option. injection of dye, microscopic removal and inclusion of surrounding tissue while excising the tract leads to a decreased incidence of recurrence. PMID:24772172

Azeez, Arun; Thada, Nikhil Dinaker; Rao, Pallavi; Prasad, Kishore Chandra

2014-01-01

353

Second order transport from anomalies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study parity odd transport at second order in derivative expansion for a non-conformal charged fluid. We see that there are 27 parity odd transport coefficients, of which 12 are non-vanishing in equilibrium. We use the equilibrium partition function method to express 7 of these in terms of the anomaly, shear viscosity, charge diffusivity and thermodynamic functions. The remaining 5 are constrained by 3 relations which also involve the anomaly. We derive Kubo formulae for 2 of the transport coefficients and show these agree with that derived from the equilibrium partition function.

Bhattacharyya, Sayantani; David, Justin R.; Thakur, Somyadip

2014-01-01

354

Interplanetary Spaceflight Prehistory Flyby Anomalies in EGAs Search for Explanations Outlook Spacecraft Anomalies: An Update  

E-print Network

Interplanetary Spaceflight Prehistory Flyby Anomalies in EGAs Search for Explanations Outlook / 29 Spacecraft Anomalies: An Update #12;Interplanetary Spaceflight Prehistory Flyby Anomalies in EGAs Search for Explanations Outlook Overview 1 Interplanetary Spaceflight Swing-by Deep Space Network

Aste, Andreas

355

Energy dependence of potential barriers and its effect on fusion cross-sections  

E-print Network

Couplings between relative motion and internal structures are known to affect fusion barriers by dynamically modifying the densities of the colliding nuclei. The effect is expected to be stronger at energies near the barrier top, where changes in density have longer time to develop than at higher energies. Quantitatively, modern TDHF calculations are able to predict realistic fusion thresholds. However, the evolution of the potential barrier with bombarding energy remains to be confronted with the experimental data. The aim is to find signatures of the energy dependence of the barrier by comparing fusion cross-sections calculated from potentials obtained at different bombarding energies with the experimental data. This comparison is made for the $^{40}$Ca+$^{40}$Ca and $^{16}$O+$^{208}$Pb systems. Fusion cross-sections are computed from potentials calculated with the density-constrained TDHF method. The couplings decrease the barrier at low-energy in both cases. A deviation from the Woods-Saxon nuclear potent...

Umar, A S; Oberacker, V E

2014-01-01

356

Optical Potential Approach to $K^{+}d$ Scattering at Low Energies  

E-print Network

We study the $K^{+}d$ scattering at low energies using the optical potential. Our optical potential consists of the first-order and second-order terms. The total, integrated elastic and elastic differential cross sections at incident kaon momenta below 800 MeV/c are calculated using our optical potential. We found that our results are consistent with the Faddeev calculation as well as the data and especially the second-order optical potential is essential to reproduce them at low energies. We also discuss the multiple scattering effects in this process.

Takashi Takaki

2009-11-29

357

Residential energy use and potential conservation through reduced laundering temperatures in the United States and Canada.  

PubMed

A residential energy-use model was developed to estimate energy budgets for household laundering practices in the United States and Canada. The thermal energy for heating water and mechanical energy for agitating clothes in conventional washing machines were calculated for representative households in the United States and Canada. Comparisons in energy consumption among hot-, warm-, and cold-water wash and rinse cycles, horizontal- and vertical-axis washing machines, and gas and electric water heaters, were calculated on a per-wash-load basis. Demographic data for current laundering practices in the United States and Canada were then incorporated to estimate household and national energy consumption on an annual basis for each country. On average, the thermal energy required to heat water using either gas or electric energy constitutes 80% to 85% of the total energy consumed per wash in conventional, vertical-axis (top-loading) washing machines. The balance of energy used is mechanical energy. Consequently, the potential energy savings per load in converting from hot-and-warm- to cold-wash temperatures can be significant. Annual potential energy and cost savings and reductions in carbon dioxide emissions are also estimated for each country, assuming full conversion to cold-wash water temperatures. This study provides useful information to consumers for conserving energy in the home, as well as to, manufacturers in the design of more energy-efficient laundry formulations and appliances. PMID:16646382

Sabaliunas, Darius; Pittinger, Charles; Kessel, Cristy; Masscheleyn, Patrick

2006-04-01

358

Little SUSY hierarchy in mixed modulus-anomaly mediation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivated by the KKLT string compactification involving a supersymmetry-breaking uplifting potential, we examine 4D effective supergravity with a generic form of uplifting potential, focusing on the possibility that the resulting mixed modulus-anomaly mediated soft terms realize the little hierarchy between the Higgs boson masses mH and the sparticle masses mSUSY. It is noted that for some type of uplifting potential,

Kiwoon Choi; Kwang Sik Jeong; Tatsuo Kobayashi; Ken-Ichi Okumura

2006-01-01

359

Threshold anomaly in the elastic scattering of the weakly bound projectile 7Li on the medium-mass target 116Sn  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elastic scattering angular distributions using the weakly bound projectile 7Li on medium-mass target 116Sn were measured for 10 different beam energies from much below to above the Coulomb barrier. Optical model (OM) analysis was carried out using the famous double folding São Paulo Potential (SPP) to investigate the energy dependence of the interacting polarizing potentials. The absence of the usual Threshold Anomaly (TA) is observed. Thus this unusual behavior of the interacting potentials indicates the coupling of the breakup channels with the elastic ones.

Deshmukh, N. N.; Mukherjee, S.; Nayak, B. K.; Biswas, D. C.; Santra, S.; Appannababu, S.; Mirgule, E. T.; Saxena, A.; Patel, D.; Choudhury, R. K.; Lubian, J.; Gomes, P. R. S.

2012-02-01

360

Active low-grade energy recovery potential for building energy conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

With environmental protection and energy source posing as the biggest issue of the global problems, human beings have no choice but to reduce energy consumption. One way to accomplish this is to increase the efficiency of energy consumption and sufficiently exploit the low-grade energy in our lives. Low-grade energy recovery devices are of significance to meet the needs for energy

Di Liu; Fu-Yun Zhao; Guang-Fa Tang

2010-01-01

361

Anomaly Detection in Gamma-Ray Vehicle Spectra with Principal Components Analysis and Mahalanobis Distances  

SciTech Connect

The goal of primary radiation monitoring in support of routine screening and emergency response is to detect characteristics in vehicle radiation signatures that indicate the presence of potential threats. Two conceptual approaches to analyzing gamma-ray spectra for threat detection are isotope identification and anomaly detection. While isotope identification is the time-honored method, an emerging technique is anomaly detection that uses benign vehicle gamma ray signatures to define an expectation of the radiation signature for vehicles that do not pose a threat. Newly acquired spectra are then compared to this expectation using statistical criteria that reflect acceptable false alarm rates and probabilities of detection. The gamma-ray spectra analyzed here were collected at a U.S. land Port of Entry (POE) using a NaI-based radiation portal monitor (RPM). The raw data were analyzed to develop a benign vehicle expectation by decimating the original pulse-height channels to 35 energy bins, extracting composite variables via principal components analysis (PCA), and estimating statistically weighted distances from the mean vehicle spectrum with the mahalanobis distance (MD) metric. This paper reviews the methods used to establish the anomaly identification criteria and presents a systematic analysis of the response of the combined PCA and MD algorithm to modeled mono-energetic gamma-ray sources.

Tardiff, Mark F.; Runkle, Robert C.; Anderson, K. K.; Smith, L. E.

2006-01-23

362

Coral can have growth anomalies  

EPA Science Inventory

Coral growth anomalies (GAs) are changes in the coral cells that deposit the calcium carbonate skeleton. They usually appear as raised areas of the skeleton and tissue that are different from the surrounding normal areas on the same colony. The features include abnormal shape a...

363

Monitoring smartphones for anomaly detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we demonstrate how to monitor a smartphone running Symbian OS in order to extract features that de- scribe the state of the device and can be used for anomaly detection. These features are sent to a remote server, be- cause running a complex intrusion detection system (IDS) on this kind of mobile device still is not feasible,

Aubrey-derrick Schmidt; Frank Peters; Florian Lamour; Sahin Albayrak

2008-01-01

364

Archaeological Anomalies in the Bahamas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Controversial claims have been made for the presence of anom- alous underwater archaeological sites in the Bahamas by a number of in- vestigators. The proponents emphasize extraordinary explanations for the anomalies and tend to bypass the scientific journals in favor of popular presentations with little scientific rigor. The skeptics debunk selected claims for some of the sites, do not adequately

DOUGLAS G. RICHARDS

1988-01-01

365

Determining the Intermolecular Potential Energy in a Gas: A Physical Chemistry Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an experiment in which gas viscosity coefficients over a large temperature range are used to determine the parameters of the intermolecular potential energy and other properties such as virial coefficients. (MLH)

Olbregts, J.; Walgraeve, J. P.

1976-01-01

366

Potential of Development and Application of Wave Energy Conversion Technology in the Gulf of Mexico  

E-print Network

This paper focuses on the potential and application of developing wave energy technology in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM). The conditions (weather, wave climate, activity of the oil industry, etc.) in the GOM are assessed and the attributes of wave...

Guiberteau, K. L.; Liu, Y.; Lee, J.; Kozman, T.

2014-01-01

367

Energy dependence of the local optical potential for neutron-nucleus scattering  

Microsoft Academic Search

A systematic study of the energy dependence of the local neutron optical potential up to 80 MeV has been performed using coupled channels analyses of a large set of neutron scattering and reaction observables.

J. P. Delaroche; P. P. Guss; G. M. Honore; C. R. Howell; R. L. Walter; D. C. Larson; D. M. Hetrick; J. A. Harvey

1985-01-01

368

Analysis of the Potential Energy Savings for 14 Office Buildings with VAV Systems  

E-print Network

load calculation, simulation of buildings with multiple types of HVAC systems, AHU shutdown simulation, among others. The improved methodology was used to estimate annual potential energy cost savings for 14 office buildings in Austin, TX with either...

Claridge, D. E.; Liu, J.; Baltazar, J. C.

2010-01-01

369

Influence of potential function asymmetries on the performance of nonlinear energy harvesters under white noise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To improve the broadband transduction capabilities of vibratory energy harvesters (VEHs) under random and non-stationary excitations, many researchers have resorted to purposefully introducing nonlinearities into the restoring force of the harvester. While performing this task, it is often very challenging to maintain a perfectly symmetric restoring force which yields a VEH with an asymmetric potential energy function. This paper investigates the influence of potential function asymmetries on the performance of nonlinear VEHs under white noise inputs. To that end, a quadratic nonlinearity is introduced into the restoring force and its influence on the mean output power of the harvester for mono- and bi-stable quartic potentials is investigated. It is shown that, for VEHs with a mono-stable quartic potential function, the mean output power increases with the degree of potential function asymmetry. On the other hand, for energy harvesters with a bi-stable quartic potential function, asymmetries in the restoring force appear to worsen performance especially for low to moderate noise intensities. When the noise intensity becomes sufficiently large, the influence of the potential function's asymmetry on the mean power diminishes. Results also reveal that a VEH with a symmetric bi-stable quartic potential function produces higher mean power levels than the one with the most asymmetric mono-stable potential. As such, it is concluded that a VEH with a symmetric bi-stable potential is most desirable to improve performance under white noise.

He, Qifan; Daqaq, Mohammed F.

2014-07-01

370

A methodology to pre-screen commercial buildings for potential energy savings using limited information  

E-print Network

categories: The walk-through assessment, the energy survey and analysis, and a detailed 7 analysis of capital-intensive modifications. The walk-through assessment can present an initial judgment of potential savings by assessment of a building... categories: The walk-through assessment, the energy survey and analysis, and a detailed 7 analysis of capital-intensive modifications. The walk-through assessment can present an initial judgment of potential savings by assessment of a building...

Zhu, Yiwen

2006-04-12

371

Evaluation of bioenergy potential with a multi-regional global-land-use-and-energy model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the global bioenergy potential in the future using a multi-regional global-land-use-and-energy model (GLUE-11). The model covers a wide range of biomass flow including food chains from feed to meat, paper recycling, and discharge of biomass residues.Through a set of simulations, the following results are obtained. (1) Supply potential of energy crops produced

Hiromi Yamamoto; Junichi Fujino; Kenji Yamaji

2001-01-01

372

The potential energy surface and chaos in 2D Hamiltonian systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We provide a new insight into the relationship between the geometric property of the potential energy surface and chaotic behavior of 2D Hamiltonian dynamical systems, and give an indicator of chaos based on the geometric property of the potential energy surface by defining Mean Convex Index (MCI). We also discuss a model of unstable Hamiltonian in detail, and show our results in good agreement with HBLSL's (Horwitz, Ben Zion, Lewkowicz, Schiffer and Levitan) new Riemannian geometric criterion.

Li, Jiangdan; Zhang, Suying

2011-02-01

373

A General Method for Conserving Energy and Potential Enstrophy in Shallow-Water Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shallow-water equations may be posed in the form dF\\/dt {F, H, Z}, where H is the energy, Z is the potential enstrophy, and the Nambu bracket {F, H, Z} is completely antisymmetric in its three arguments. This makes it very easy to construct numerical models that conserve analogs of the energy and potential enstrophy; one need only discretize the

Rick Salmon

2007-01-01

374

Overview of thermal energy storage (TES) potential energy savings and climate change mitigation in Spain and Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal energy storage (TES) is nowadays presented as one of the most feasible solutions in achieving energy savings and environmentally correct behaviors. Its potential applications have led to R&D activities and to the development of various technology types. However, so far there is no available data on a national scale in Spain and on a continental level in Europe, to

Pablo Arce; Marc Medrano; Antoni Gil; Eduard Oró; Luisa F. Cabeza

2011-01-01

375

Anomaly Detection in Brain Connectivity Structure: An Application to Epilepsy  

E-print Network

Anomaly Detection in Brain Connectivity Structure: An Application to Epilepsy by Andrew Sweet B to Epilepsy by Andrew Sweet Submitted to the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science-surgical epilepsy patients. Our goal is to investigate the potential of these non-invasive connectivity approaches

Golland, Polina

376

Scalar Field Models: From the Pioneer Anomaly to Astrophysical Constraints  

E-print Network

In this work we study how scalar fields may affect solar observables, and use the constraint on the Sun's central temperature to extract bounds on the parameters of relevant models. Also, a scalar field driven by a suitable potential is shown to produce an anomalous acceleration similar to the one found in the Pioneer anomaly.

J. Paramos

2005-05-17

377

Interpreting the temperature of water at cold springs and the importance of gravitational potential energy  

E-print Network

Interpreting the temperature of water at cold springs and the importance of gravitational potential the temperature of water at cold springs and the importance of gravitational potential energy, Water Resour. Res water can thus be used to infer the geothermal heat flux. If spring water temperature is many degrees

Kirchner, James W.

378

A Simple Volcano Potential with an Analytic, Zero-Energy, Ground State  

E-print Network

We describe a simple volcano potential, which is supersymmetric and has an analytic, zero-energy, ground state. (The KK modes are also analytic.) It is an interior harmonic oscillator potential properly matched to an exterior angular momentum-like tail. Special cases are given to elucidate the physics, which may be intuitively useful in studies of higher-dimensional gravity.

Michael Martin Nieto

2000-05-30

379

Energy systems evaluation of potential for incidents having health or safety impact  

SciTech Connect

The paper discusses the results of safety surveys of Martin Marietta Energy Systems - operated nuclear facilities. The purpose was to identify potential incidents that could cause large numbers of casualties, evaluate existing prevention/response actions, and identify possible improvements. The survey findings indicate the potential for an accident with consequences similar to those at Bhopal, India, is essentially non-existent. (ACR)

Speas, I.G.

1986-01-01

380

Potential effects of geothermal energy conversion on Imperial Valley ecosystems. [Seven workshop presentations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This workshop on potential effcts of geothermal energy conversion on the ecology of Imperial Valley brought together personnel of Lawrence Livermore Laboratory and many collaborators under the sponsorship of the ERDA Imperial Valley Environmental Project (IVEP). The LLL Integrated Assessment Team identified the electric power potential and its associated effluents, discharges, subsidence, water requirements, land use, and noise. The Working

Shinn

1976-01-01

381

MAGSAT scalar and vector anomaly data analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Efforts on the analysis of MAGSAT scalar anomaly data, the application of the scalar analysis results to three component vector data, and the comparison of MAGSAT data with corresponding MAGNET aeromagnetic and free air gravity anomaly data are briefly described.

1982-01-01

382

Applications of TOPS Anomaly Detection Framework to Amazon Drought Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System (TOPS) is a flexible modeling software system that integrates ecosystem models with frequent satellite and surface weather observations to produce ecosystem nowcasts (assessments of current conditions) and forecasts useful in natural resources management, public health and disaster management. We have been extending the Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System (TOPS) to include capability for automated anomaly detection and analysis of both on-line (streaming) and off-line data. While there are large numbers of anomaly detection algorithms for multivariate datasets, we are extending this capability beyond the anomaly detection itself and towards an automated analysis that would discover the possible causes of the anomalies. In order to best capture the knowledge about data hierarchies, Earth science models and implied dependencies between anomalies and occurrences of observable events such as urbanization, deforestation, or fires, we have developed an ontology to serve as a knowledge base. The knowledge is captured using OWL ontology language, where connections are defined in a schema that is later extended by including specific instances of datasets and models. We have integrated this knowledge base with a framework for deploying an ensemble of anomaly detection algorithms on large volumes of Earth science datasets and applied it to specific scientific applications that support research conducted by our group. In one early application, we were able to process large number of MODIS, TRMM, CERES data along with ground-based weather and river flow observations to detect the evolution of 2010 drought in the Amazon, identify the affected area, and publish the results in three weeks. A similar analysis of the 2005 drought using the same data sets took nearly 2 years, highlighting the potential contribution of our anomaly framework in accelerating scientific discoveries.

Votava, P.; Nemani, R. R.; Ganguly, S.; Michaelis, A.; Hashimoto, H.

2011-12-01

383

CO2 Mitigation Potential of Biomass Energy Plantations in DevelopingRegions  

E-print Network

Preliminary Country-by-Country Analysis of Potential Land Availability and Bioenergy Production 8 --Africa 9. Environmental Issues 13 6. Some Socio-Economic Aspects of Biomass Energy Systems in Developing Countries 15 for by Africa and Latin America (Table 1). A recent "global energy prognosis" scenario analysis carried out

384

Identification of Potential Energy Landscape Signatures of Distinct Dynamical Regimes in a Glass Forming Liquid  

E-print Network

Identification of Potential Energy Landscape Signatures of Distinct Dynamical Regimes in a Glass glasses, protein dynamics, protein folding, and population dynamics in addition to glasses is that non of the underlying energy landscape. Concrete evidence for this picture from studies of glass formation, however, has

Stillinger, Frank

385

Analysis of the Energy Savings Potential in K-5 Schools in Hot and Humid Climates  

E-print Network

This paper presents the analysis of the energy savings potential in K-5 schools in hot and humid climates. For the analysis, an existing K-5 school in Central Texas was selected as a case study school, and the building energy related data...

Im, P.; Haberl, J.

386

The potential for energy saving in heating systems through improving boiler controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the UK, heating systems in the built environment consume a substantial proportion of its total energy and are responsible for about 25% of the total carbon emission. A similar pattern is also exhibited in many other European countries. Despite the enormous effort made over the last decades to improve the energy efficiency of these heating systems, a huge potential

Z. Liao; A. L. Dexter

2004-01-01

387

REVIEW OF THE POTENTIAL OF NUCLEAR HYDROGEN FOR ADDRESSING ENERGY SECURITY AND CLIMATE CHANGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear energy has the potential to exert a major positive impact on energy security and climate change by coupling it to the transportation sector, primarily through hydrogen production. In the short term, this coupling will provide carbon-free hydrogen for upgrading increasingly lower quality petroleum resources such as oil sands, offsetting carbon emissions associated with steam methane reforming. In the intermediate

James E. OBrien

2010-01-01

388

Exploring potential mechanisms responsible for observed changes of ultrasonic backscattered energy with temperature variations  

E-print Network

.1118/1.4870964] Key words: change in backscatter energy, ultrasonic thermometry 1. INTRODUCTION HyperthermiaExploring potential mechanisms responsible for observed changes of ultrasonic backscattered energy on probability variation of backscatter data Med. Phys. 39, 2369 (2012); 10.1118/1.3700235 Ultrasonic backscatter

Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

389

Repulsive nature of optical potentials for high-energy heavy-ion scattering  

SciTech Connect

The recent works by the present authors predicted that the real part of heavy-ion optical potentials changes its character from attraction to repulsion around the incident energy per nucleon E/A=200-300 MeV on the basis of the complex G-matrix interaction and the double-folding model (DFM) and revealed that the three-body force plays an important role there. In the present paper, we have precisely analyzed the energy dependence of the calculated DFM potentials and its relation to the elastic-scattering angular distributions in detail in the case of the {sup 12}C+{sup 12}C system in the energy range of E/A=100-400 MeV. The tensor force contributes substantially to the energy dependence of the real part of the DFM potentials and plays an important role to lower the attractive-to-repulsive transition energy. The nearside and farside (N/F) decompositions of the elastic-scattering amplitudes clarify the close relation between the attractive-to-repulsive transition of the potentials and the characteristic evolution of the calculated angular distributions with the increase of the incident energy. Based on the present analysis, we propose experimental measurements for the predicted strong diffraction phenomena of the elastic-scattering angular distribution caused by the N/F interference around the attractive-to-repulsive transition energy together with the reduced diffractions below and above the transition energy.

Furumoto, T.; Sakuragi, Y.; Yamamoto, Y. [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan) and RIKEN Nishina Center, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Department of Physics, Osaka City University, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan) and RIKEN Nishina Center, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Physics Section, Tsuru University, Tsuru, Yamanashi 402-8555 (Japan)

2010-10-15

390

Residential energy use in Mexico: Structure, evolution, environmental impacts, and savings potential  

SciTech Connect

This article examines the characteristics of residential energy use in Mexico, its environmental impacts, and the savings potential of the major end-uses. The main options and barriers to increase the efficiency of energy use are discussed. The energy analysis is based on a disaggregation of residential energy use by end-uses. The dynamics of the evolution of the residential energy sector during the past 20 years are also addressed when the information is available. Major areas for research and for innovative decision-making are identified and prioritized.

Masera, O.; Friedmann, R.; deBuen, O.

1993-05-01

391

Excitation energies and ionization potentials at high electric fields for molecules relevant for electrically insulating liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electric-field dependence of the molecular ionization potential and excitation energies is investigated by density-functional theory calculations. It is demonstrated that the ionization potential has a strong field dependence and decreases with increasing field. The excitation energies depend weakly on the field and the number of available excited states decreases with increasing field since the ionization potential has a stronger field dependence. Above a specific field, different for each molecule, a two-state model is obtained consisting of the electronic ground state and the ionized state. Implications for streamer propagation and electrically insulating materials are discussed.

Davari, N.; Åstrand, P.-O.; Ingebrigtsen, S.; Unge, M.

2013-04-01

392

Use of vegetation to ameliorate building microclimates: an assessment of energy-conservation potentials  

SciTech Connect

The space-conditioning energy conservation potentials of landscapes designed to ameliorate building microclimates are evaluated. The physical bases for vegetative modifications of climate are discussed, and results of past study of the effects of vegetation on space-conditioning energy consumption in buildings are reviewed. The state-of-the-art of energy-conserving landscape designs is assessed and recommendations are presented for further research.

Hutchison, B.A.; Taylor, F.G.; Wendt, R.L.

1982-04-01

393

Reconstructing the potentials for the quintessence and tachyon dark energy, from the holographic principle  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose an holographic quintessence and tachyon models of dark energy. The\\u000acorrespondence between the quintessence and tachyon energy densities with the\\u000aholographic density, allows the reconstruction of the potentials and the\\u000adynamics for the quintessence and tachyon fields, in flat FRW background. The\\u000aproposed infrared cut-off for the holographic energy density works for two\\u000acases of the constant $\\\\alpha$:

L. N. Granda

2008-01-01

394

Energy-conservation mechanisms and potentials of landscape design to ameliorate building microclimates  

Microsoft Academic Search

An assessment of the space-conditioning energy-conservation potentials of landscapes designed to ameliorate building microclimates is made. The physical bases for vegetative modifications of climate are discussed, and results of past studies concerning the effects of vegetation on space-conditioning energy consumption in buildings are reviewed. The state-of-the-art of energy-conserving landscape designs is assessed and recommendations for further research are presented. 92

B. A. Hutchison; F. G. Taylor

1983-01-01

395

Use of vegetation to ameliorate building microclimates: An assessment of energy-conservation potentials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The space-conditioning energy conservation potentials of landscapes designed to ameliorate building microclimates are evaluated. The physical bases for vegetative modifications of climate are discussed and results of past study of the effects of vegetation on space-conditioning energy consumption in buildings are reviewed. The state-of-the-art of energy-conserving landscape designs is assessed and recommendations are presented for further research.

B. A. Hutchison; F. G. Taylor; R. L. Wendt

1982-01-01

396

Student Understanding Of Gravitational Potential Energy And The Motion Of Bodies In A Gravitational Field  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We have been investigating student understanding of energy concepts in the context of introductory courses for non-science majors as well as those for science and engineering majors. We have found that many students develop incomplete and incorrect understandings of the concept of gravitational potential energy. Moreover, students often have incorrect notions about the motion of bodies under the influence of gravity. These incorrect beliefs may prevent the development of a coherent understanding of energy as a conserved quantity.

Loverude, Michael E.

2010-01-18

397

Relativistic correction to the potential energy surface and vibration-rotation levels of water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relativistic correction to the electronic energy of the water molecule is calculated as a function of geometry using CCSD(T) wavefunctions and first-order perturbation theory applied to the one-electron mass-velocity and Darwin terms. Based on the calculated 324 energy points, a fitted relativistic correction surface is constructed. This surface is used with a high-accuracy ab initio non-relativistic Born–Oppenheimer potential energy

Attila G. Császár; J. Sophie Kain; Oleg L. Polyansky; Nikolai F. Zobov; Jonathan Tennyson

1998-01-01

398

Limb Body Wall Complex: A Rare Anomaly  

PubMed Central

We present autopsy findings of a case of limb body wall complex (LBWC). The fetus had encephalocele, genitourinary agenesis, skeletal anomalies and body wall defects. The rare finding in our case is the occurrence of both cranial and urogenital anomalies. The presence of complex anomalies in this fetus, supports embryonal dysplasia theory of pathogenesis for LBWC. PMID:24014975

Chikkannaiah, Panduranga; Dhumale, Hema; Kangle, Ranjit; Shekar, Rosini

2013-01-01

399

Congenital bone anomalies associated with lipomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Congenital bone anomalies are occasionally located adjacent to deep lipomas. These bone dysplasias may take the form of localized overgrowth or osseous malformation. Two patients with iliac anomalies and spinal dysraphism and one with a hypertrophied rib and vertebra associated with lipomas are described. As both the lipomas and osseous anomalies tend to lie in the same sensory nerve distribution,

James M. Sauer; M. B. Ozonoff

1985-01-01

400

Conformal anomaly of some 2-d Z (n) models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a numerical calculation of the conformal anomaly in the case of some two-dimensional statistical models undergoing a second-order phase transition, utilizing a recently developed method to compute the partition function exactly. This computation is carried out on a massively parallel CM2 machine, using the finite size scaling behaviour of the free energy.

William, Peter

1991-01-01

401

Gravitational Anomalies and Thermal Hall effect in Topological Insulators  

E-print Network

It has been suggested that a temperature gradient will induce a Leduc-Righi, or thermal Hall, current in the Majorana quasiparticles localized on the surface of class DIII topological insulators, and that the magnitude of this current can be related {\\it via} an Einstein argument to a Hall-like energy flux induced by gravity. We critically examine this idea, and argue that the gravitational Hall effect is more complicated than its familiar analogue. A conventional Hall current is generated by a {\\it uniform} electric field, but computing the flux from the gravitational Chern-Simons functional shows that gravitational field {\\it gradients} - i.e. tidal forces - are needed to induce a energy-momentum flow. We relate the surface energy-momentum flux to a domain-wall gravitational anomaly {\\it via} the Callan-Harvey inflow mechanism. We stress that the gauge invariance of the combined bulk-plus-boundary theory ensures that the current in the domain wall always experiences a "covariant" rather than "consistent" anomaly. We use this observation to confirm that the tidally induced energy-momentum current exactly accounts for the covariant gravitational anomaly in $(1+1)$ dimensional domain-wall fermions. The same anomaly arises whether we write the Chern-Simons functional in terms of the Christofflel symbol or in terms of the the spin connection.

Michael Stone

2012-01-19

402

Study of magnetic anomalies over archaeological targets in urban environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic prospecting is one of the most widely used methods for investigating archaeological sites in the world. It is often applied before and during various types of industrial development and in agricultural areas. In Israel, most potential archaeological targets are located in urban settings, which substantially complicate their geophysical signatures. Noise from natural factors such as the inclined magnetization (about 44°) complex geological structure of the sites, and uneven terrain relief as well as artificial sources such as modern iron-containing objects, power lines and underground communications can confound the interpretation of magnetic anomalies. For the quantitative analysis of magnetic anomalies from ancient targets in Israel nonconventional procedures ( Khesin et al., 1996; Eppelbaum and Khesin, 2001) were applied. In this paper the effects of power lines on the quantitative analysis of magnetic anomalies indicative of archaeological objects are investigated. The method was tested on two typical models of physical-archaeological ancient remains by using different distances to the power line.

Eppelbaum, Lev V.

403

Conference for Biomass and Energy, Copenhagen, 1996 published by Elsevier BIOMASS ENERGY PRODUCTION: THE GLOBAL POTENTIAL  

E-print Network

9th Conference for Biomass and Energy, Copenhagen, 1996 ­ published by Elsevier 1 BIOMASS ENERGY disturbance of the natural global carbon cycle. The "carbon-neutral" renewable energy carrier biomass seems of biomass for energy purposes. The CEBM comprises a biospheric part being based on the "Osnabrück Biosphere

Keeling, Stephen L.

404

Reasoning Anomalies Associated With Delusions in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Deluded people differ from nondeluded controls on attributional style questionnaires and probabilistic-reasoning and theory-of-mind (ToM) tasks. No study to date has examined the relations between these 3 reasoning anomalies in the same individuals so as to evaluate their functional independence and potentially inform theories of delusion formation. We did so in 35 schizophrenic patients with a history of delusions, 30 of whom were currently deluded, and 34 healthy controls. Compared with healthy controls, patients showed (a) a jumping-to-conclusions bias and a bias to overadjust when confronted with a change of evidence on probabilistic-reasoning tasks, (b) an excessive externalizing attributional bias, and (c) performance deficits on 3 ToM tasks. Probabilistic-reasoning and ToM measures correlated, while attributional-bias scores were independent of other task measures. A general proneness to delusional ideation correlated with probabilistic-reasoning and ToM measures, while externalizing bias was unrelated to the study measures of delusional ideation. Personalizing bias associated specifically with paranoia across the clinical and nonclinical participants. Findings are consistent with a common underlying mechanism in schizophrenia which contributes to the anomalies on probabilistic-reasoning and ToM tasks associated with delusions. We speculate that this mechanism is impairment of the normal capacity to inhibit “perceived reality” (the evidence of our senses), a capacity that evolved as part of the “social brain” to facilitate intersubjective communication within a shared reality. PMID:18622010

Langdon, Robyn; Ward, Philip B.; Coltheart, Max

2010-01-01

405

Cloud-generated radiative heating and its generation of available potential energy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The generation of zonal available potential energy (APE) by cloud radiative heating is discussed. The APE concept was mathematically formulated by Lorenz (1955) as a measure of the maximum amount of total potential energy that is available for conversion by adiabatic processes to kinetic energy. The rate of change of APE is the rate of the generation of APE minus the rate of conversion between potential and kinetic energy. By radiative transfer calculations, a mean cloud-generated radiative heating for a well defined set of cloud classes is derived as a function of cloud optical thickness. The formulation is suitable for using a general cloud parameter data set and has the advantage of taking into account nonlinearities between the microphysical and macrophysical cloud properties and the related radiation field.

Stuhlmann, R.; Smith, G. L.

1989-01-01

406

Green's Function of the Dirac Equation with Complex Energy and Non-singular Central Nuclear Potential  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the further development of an effective approach to construction of the electron Green's function (GF) for the Dirac equation with a complex energy and non-singular central nuclear potential. The nuclear charge distribution and the corresponding nuclear potential are received within the relativistic mean field (RMF) model. The Green's function is usually represented as a combination of two fundamental solutions of the Dirac equation. In the numerical procedure we use the Ivanov-Ivanova effective numerical algorithm and reduce a definition of the Dirac equation fundamental solutions to solving the system of differential equations, which includes the differential equations for the RMF nuclear potential too. As an application, we estimate the self-energy shift correction to atomic levels energies within the Mohr covariant procedure and presented GF approach and calculate the transitions energies for some heavy Li-like multi-charged ions within the QED many-body perturbation theory formalism.

Svinarenko, A. A.; Glushkov, A. V.; Loboda, A. V.; Sukharev, D. E.; Dubrovskaya, Yu. V.; Mudraya, N. V.; Serga, I. N.

2010-05-01

407

Energy-Dependence of Nucleus-Nucleus Potential and Friction Parameter in Fusion Reactions  

E-print Network

Applying a macroscopic reduction procedure on the improved quantum molecular dynamics (ImQMD) model, the energy dependences of the nucleus-nucleus potential, the friction parameter, and the random force characterizing a one-dimensional Langevin-type description of the heavy-ion fusion process are investigated. Systematic calculations with the ImQMD model show that the fluctuation-dissipation relation found in the symmetric head-on fusion reactions at energies just above the Coulomb barrier fades out when the incident energy increases. It turns out that this dynamical change with increasing incident energy is caused by a specific behavior of the friction parameter which directly depends on the microscopic dynamical process, i.e., on how the collective energy of the relative motion is transferred into the intrinsic excitation energy. It is shown microscopically that the energy dissipation in the fusion process is governed by two mechanisms: One is caused by the nucleon exchanges between two fusing nuclei, and the other is due to a rearrangement of nucleons in the intrinsic system. The former mechanism monotonically increases the dissipative energy and shows a weak dependence on the incident energy, while the latter depends on both the relative distance between two fusing nuclei and the incident energy. It is shown that the latter mechanism is responsible for the energy dependence of the fusion potential and explains the fading out of the fluctuation-dissipation relation.

Kai Wen; Fumihiko Sakata; Zhu-Xia Li; Xi-Zhen Wu; Ying-Xun Zhang; Shan-Gui Zhou

2014-07-22

408

Refining the anomaly consistency condition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the extended antifield formalism, a quantum BRST differential for anomalous gauge theories is constructed. Local BRST cohomological classes are characterized, in addition to the form degree and the ghost number, by the length of their descents and of their lifts, and this both in the standard and the extended antifield formalism. It is shown that during the BRST invariant renormalization of a local BRST cohomological class, the anomaly that can appear is constrained to be a local BRST cohomological class with a shorter descent and a longer lift than the given class. As an application of both results, a simple approach to the Adler-Bardeen theorem for the non-Abelian gauge anomaly is proposed. It applies independently of the gauge fixing, of power counting restrictions, and does not rely on the use of the Callan-Symanzik equation.

Barnich, Glenn

2000-08-01

409

Survey of Anomaly Detection Methods  

SciTech Connect

This survey defines the problem of anomaly detection and provides an overview of existing methods. The methods are categorized into two general classes: generative and discriminative. A generative approach involves building a model that represents the joint distribution of the input features and the output labels of system behavior (e.g., normal or anomalous) then applies the model to formulate a decision rule for detecting anomalies. On the other hand, a discriminative approach aims directly to find the decision rule, with the smallest error rate, that distinguishes between normal and anomalous behavior. For each approach, we will give an overview of popular techniques and provide references to state-of-the-art applications.

Ng, B

2006-10-12

410

Monitoring Smartphones for Anomaly Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we demonstrate how to monitor a smartphone running Symbian operating system and Windows Mobile in order to extract\\u000a features for anomaly detection. These features are sent to a remote server because running a complex intrusion detection system\\u000a on this kind of mobile device still is not feasible due to capability and hardware limitations. We give examples on

Aubrey-derrick Schmidt; Frank Peters; Florian Lamour; Christian Scheel; Seyit Ahmet Çamtepe; Sahin Albayrak

2009-01-01

411

Bart syndrome with associated anomalies.  

PubMed

Bart syndrome is an inherited condition characterized by epidermolysis bullosa and congenital absence of skin. It has been associated with other anomalies including pyloric atresia. The genetic abnormality has been linked to chromosome 3, with an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. We present a case of Bart syndrome that was associated with pyloric atresia. The literature is reviewed pertaining to this unusual association. Recommendations are offered regarding genetic counseling and anticipatory guidance for affected families. PMID:16215923

Bart, Bruce J; Lussky, Richard C

2005-10-01

412

Anomalies and Discrete Chiral Symmetries  

SciTech Connect

The quantum anomaly that breaks the U(1) axial symmetry of massless multi-flavored QCD leaves behind a discrete flavor-singlet chiral invariance. With massive quarks, this residual symmetry has a close connection with the strong CP-violating parameter theta. One result is that if the lightest quarks are degenerate, then a first order transition will occur when theta passes through pi. The resulting framework helps clarify when the rooting prescription for extrapolating in the number of flavors is valid.

Creutz, M.

2009-09-07

413

Dyslexia: Anomaly or normal variation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is an interim report on a large-scale survey. The background to the authors’ research into dyslexia is briefly\\u000a outlined. Next comes an explication of the contrast between “anomaly” and “normal variation.” Some details are then provided\\u000a of a survey of 12,905 children, age ten, who were given a variety of educational and cognitive tests relevant to a diagnosis

T. R. Miles; Mary N. Haslum

1986-01-01

414

Cloacal anomaly with bladder tumor  

PubMed Central

A rare case of squamous cell carcinoma of bladder occurring in a 36-year-old female with persistent cloacal anomaly who presented with frequency, urgency, dysuria, and recurrent urinary tract infection is reported. Contrast Enhanced Computed Tomography with three dimensional reconstruction showed presence of bladder tumor and persistent cloaca. She underwent pelvic exenteration and wet colostomy. Histopathologic findings revealed locally advanced moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:23956519

Seth, Amlesh; Ram, Ishwar

2013-01-01

415

Columbus Payloads Flow Rate Anomalies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Columbus Active Thermal Control System (ATCS) is the main thermal bus for the pressurized racks working inside the European laboratory. One of the ATCS goals is to provide proper water flow rate to each payload (P/L) by controlling actively the pressure drop across the common plenum distribution piping. Overall flow measurement performed by the Water Pump Assembly (WPA) is the only flow rate monitor available at system level and is not part of the feedback control system. At rack activation the flow rate provided by the system is derived on ground by computing the WPA flow increase. With this approach, several anomalies were raised during these 3 years on-orbit, with the indication of low flow rate conditions on the European racks FSL, BioLab, EDR and EPM. This paper reviews the system and P/Ls calibration approach, the anomalies occurred, the engineering evaluation on the measurement approach and the accuracy improvements proposed, the on-orbit test under evaluation with NASA and finally discusses possible short and long term solutions in case of anomaly confirmation.

Quaranta, Albino; Bufano, Gaetana; DePalo, Savino; Holt, James M.; Szigetvari, Zoltan; Palumberi, Sergio; Hinderer, S.

2011-01-01

416

Hawking radiation of a vector field and gravitational anomalies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, the relation between Hawking radiation and gravitational anomalies has been used to estimate the flux of Hawking radiation for a large class of black objects. In this paper, we extend the formalism, originally proposed by Robinson and Wilczek, to the Hawking radiation of vector particles (photons). It is explicitly shown, with the Hamiltonian formalism, that the theory of an electromagnetic field on d-dimensional spherical black holes reduces to one of an infinite number of massive complex scalar fields on 2-dimensional spacetime, for which the usual anomaly-cancellation method is available. It is found that the total energy emitted from the horizon for the electromagnetic field is just (d-2) times that for a scalar field. The results support the picture that Hawking radiation can be regarded as an anomaly eliminator on horizons. Possible extensions and applications of the analysis are discussed.

Murata, Keiju; Miyamoto, Umpei

2007-10-01

417

Energy end-use analysis and DSM potential estimation of industrial sector  

SciTech Connect

The object of this study is to analyze electric energy use by end-use and to estimate the DSM potential (energy and peak demand) in the industrial sector for the period from 1997 to 2010 in Korea. The modeling system used in this study is a combination of top-down analysis using system-level consumption data for the sector and bottom-up analysis using specific information of DSM technologies. Energy consumption in industrial sector is segmented by SIC 3 digit industries and disaggregated by end-use. A library of energy conservation measures applicable to each end-use or apparatus is developed, and energy savings and other factors are applied to the baseline demand estimation of consumption to produce potential savings estimation. This system is structured in a modular fashion so that more refined information will be available and modification may be effectively made to the model.

Rhee, C.H.; Park, J.J.; Jo, I.S.

1999-07-01

418

Experimental and Simulation Study on the Performance of Daylighting in an Industrial Building and its Energy Saving Potential  

E-print Network

. Keywords: Large space building, Daylighting performance, Energy saving potential, Field measurement on the performance of daylighting in an industrial building and its energy saving potential," Energy and Buildings interest in incorporating daylighting with architectural and building designs to save building energy

Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

419

Potential energy function information from quantum phase shift using the variable phase method.  

PubMed

The present work discusses quantum phase shift sensitivity analysis with respect to the potential energy function. A set of differential equations for the functional derivative of the quantum phase shift with respect to the potential energy function was established and coupled with the variable phase equation. This set of differential equations provides a simple, exact and straightforward way to establish the sensitivity matrix. The present procedure is easier to use than the finite difference approach, in which several direct problems have to be addressed. Furthermore, integration of the established equations can be used to demonstrate how the sensitivity phase shift is accumulated as a function of the interatomic distance. The potential energy function was refined to produce a better quality function. The average error on the phase shift decreased from 9.8% in the original potential function to 0.13% in the recovered potential. The present procedure is an important initial step for further work towards recovering potential energy functions in upper dimensions or to recovering this function from cross sections. PMID:24935112

Lemes, Nelson H T; Braga, João P; Alves, Márcio O; Costa, Éderson D'M

2014-07-01

420

Critical insight into the influence of the potential energy surface on fission dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work is dedicated to a careful investigation of the influence of the potential energy surface on the fission process. The time evolution of nuclei at high excitation energy and angular momentum is studied by means of three-dimensional Langevin calculations performed for two different parametrizations of the macroscopic potential: the Finite Range Liquid Drop Model (FRLDM) and the Lublin-Strasbourg Drop (LSD) prescription. Depending on the mass of the system, the topology of the potential throughout the deformation space of interest in fission is observed to noticeably differ within these two approaches, due to the treatment of curvature effects. When utilized in the dynamical calculation as the driving potential, the FRLDM and LSD models yield similar results in the heavy-mass region, whereas the predictions can be strongly dependent on the Potential Energy Surface (PES) for medium-mass nuclei. In particular, the mass, charge, and total kinetic energy distributions of the fission fragments are found to be narrower with the LSD prescription. The influence of critical model parameters on our findings is carefully investigated. The present study sheds light on the experimental conditions and signatures well suited for constraining the parametrization of the macroscopic potential. Its implication regarding the interpretation of available experimental data is briefly discussed.

Mazurek, K.; Schmitt, C.; Wieleczko, J. P.; Nadtochy, P. N.; Ademard, G.

2011-07-01

421

Regional prediction of long-term landfill gas to energy potential.  

PubMed

Quantifying landfill gas to energy (LFGTE) potential as a source of renewable energy is difficult due to the challenges involved in modeling landfill gas (LFG) generation. In this paper a methodology is presented to estimate LFGTE potential on a regional scale over a 25-year timeframe with consideration of modeling uncertainties. The methodology was demonstrated for the US state of Florida, as a case study, and showed that Florida could increase the annual LFGTE production by more than threefold by 2035 through installation of LFGTE facilities at all landfills. The estimated electricity production potential from Florida LFG is equivalent to removing some 70 million vehicles from highways or replacing over 800 million barrels of oil consumption during the 2010-2035 timeframe. Diverting food waste could significantly reduce fugitive LFG emissions, while having minimal effect on the LFGTE potential; whereas, achieving high diversion goals through increased recycling will result in reduced uncollected LFG and significant loss of energy production potential which may be offset by energy savings from material recovery and reuse. Estimates showed that the power density for Florida LFGTE production could reach as high as 10 Wm(-2) with optimized landfill operation and energy production practices. The environmental benefits from increased lifetime LFG collection efficiencies magnify the value of LFGTE projects. PMID:21703844

Amini, Hamid R; Reinhart, Debra R

2011-01-01

422

Assessment of the potential of halophytes as energy crops for the electric utility industry. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This technical report assesses and estimates the potential of selected halophytes as future renewable energy resources, especially by US electric utilities, and familiarizes nonspecialists with research and development problems that must be resolved before these energy sources can become dependable supplies of energy. A literature search related to both indigenous and exotic species of halophytes has been done and appropriate terrestrial species have been selected. Selection criteria include: total biomass potential, genetic constraints, establishment and cultivation requirements, regions of suitability, secondary credits, and a number of other factors. Based on these selection criteria, for the arid western states with high levels of salinity in water and/or soils, there is little potential for energy feedstocks derived from grasses and herbaceous forbs. Likewise, coastal marshes, estuaries, and mangrove swamps, although excellent biomass producers, are too limited by region and have too many ecological and environmental problems for consideration. The deep-rooted, perennial woody shrubs indigenous to many saline regions of the west provide the best potential. The number of species in this group is limited, and Atriplex canescens, Sarcobatus vermiculatus, and Chrysothamnus nauseosus are the three species with the greatest biological potential. These shrubs would receive minimal energy inputs in cultivation, would not compete with agricultural land, and would restore productivity to severely disturbed sites. One might logically expect to achieve biomass feedstock yields of three to five tons/acre/yr on a long-term sustainable basis. The possibility also exists that exotic species might be introduced. 67 references, 1 figure, 5 tables.

Goodin, J.R.

1984-09-01

423

Monitoring energy use of copiers to determine program design and potential savings for the Energy Star Copier program  

SciTech Connect

In the past five years, considerable attention has been focused on the electricity use of office equipment in commercial office buildings. Several groups have monitored energy use of PCs, monitors, printers and fax machines. However, little attention has been paid to monitoring energy use of copiers. Procedures for testing energy usage and usage profiles of copiers are needed to make valid comparisons between machines and to determine overall energy use and potential energy savings. In this paper, the authors present a method to analyze the energy use and usage profiles of copiers. This method is determined through long-term measurements from a Watt-hour meter connected to the copier and by measuring light flashes from the copier. Energy use from the copier can also be estimated by using a test procedure developed by Dandridge. Results from using the long term monitoring methods will be presented for several different sized copiers, and compared to the estimated energy use derived from the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) method. After summarizing these results, the authors determine criteria for a program to recognize energy-efficient copiers. These criteria were submitted as an Energy Star Copier program to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The new Energy Star Copier Program was announced in July 1995, with criteria based on these suggestions. Using the final Energy Star Copier program criteria and this data, the authors determine potential future savings for the program. The ability to automatically turn the copier off at night is the greatest energy-saving feature most copiers can have. The best way to reduce overall office costs is to have the copier set automatically to make double-sided copies.

Dandridge, C.B. [ReEnergize Consortium, Berkeley, CA (United States); Norford, L.K. [Massachussetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Nordman, B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

1996-08-01

424

Feet on the potential energy surface, head in the pie clouds  

SciTech Connect

This work presents explorations of the potential energy surface of clusters of atoms and of the interactions between molecules. First, structures of small aluminum clusters are examined and classified as ground states, transition states, or higher-order saddle points. Subsequently, the focus shifts to dispersion-dominated ?-? interactions when the potential energy surfaces of benzene, substituted benzene, and pyridine dimers are explored. Because DNA nucleotide bases can be thought of as substituted heterocycles, a natural extension of the substituted benzene and pyridine investigations is to model paired nucleotide bases. Finally, the success of the dispersion studies inspires the development of an extension to the computational method used, which will enable the dispersion energy to be modeled – and the potential energy surface explored – in additional chemical systems. The effective fragment potential (EFP) method is described, as well as various quantum mechanical methods. An ab inito quantum mechanical study of 13-atom aluminum clusters is described. EFP studies of aromatic dimers are reported in which dispersion energy makes a significant contribution to the attraction between monomers. Theory and code development toward a means of computing dispersion energy in mixed ab inito-EFP systems are described.

Smith, Quentin

2012-07-12

425

6d, Coulomb branch anomaly matching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

6d QFTs are constrained by the analog of 't Hooft anomaly matching: all anomalies for global symmetries and metric backgrounds are constants of RG flows, and for all vacua in moduli spaces. We discuss an anomaly matching mechanism for 6d theories on their Coulomb branch. It is a global symmetry analog of Green-Schwarz-West-Sagnotti anomaly cancellation, and requires the apparent anomaly mismatch to be a perfect square, . Then ? I 8 is cancelled by making X 4 an electric/magnetic source for the tensor multiplet, so background gauge field instantons yield charged strings. This requires the coefficients in X 4 to be integrally quantized. We illustrate this for theories. We also consider the SCFTs from N small E8 instantons, verifying that the recent result for its anomaly polynomial fits with the anomaly matching mechanism.

Intriligator, Kenneth

2014-10-01

426

The torsion space nucleic acids molecular mechanics program DUPLEX: Surveying conformation space by potential energy minimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The molecular mechanics program DUPLE-X has proven useful in surveying the conformation space of unmodified DNA's and RNA's, and covalently damaged DNA's, by potential energy minimization. The reduced variable set of torsion angle space, together with search strategies that flat explore small subunits, permit location of low energy structures from high energy positions. Prediction of structure in the absence of data, though difficult is possible with large numbers of trials. With NMR data to guide the searches in first stage trials, generation of final unrestrained low energy forms that are within bounds of the data is achieved with fewer trials.

Hingerty, Brian E.; Broyde, Suse

427

Height-season structure of the available potential energy and kinetic energy in the lower and middle atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distributions of kinetic energy (KE) and available potential energy (APE) in the lower and middle atmosphere of the Northern\\u000a and Southern hemispheres over the period 1992–2003 are investigated. Annual mean values of the amplitude and phase of annual\\u000a and semiannual oscillations in the zonal and eddy forms of KE and APE are calculated in the height range 0–55 km

A. N. Fakhrutdinova; V. V. Gur’yanov; A. Yu. El’kin

2006-01-01

428

Energy Consumption Status of Public Buildings and the Analysis of the Potential on Energy Efficiency in Xiamen  

E-print Network

Limin Chen Xiaodong Zhang Jianxian Chen School of Mechanical Engineering Jimei University Xiamen?361021, CHINA peixiuying@sina.com Abstract? Based on the survey on the preset and applied situation of the central air conditioning systems.... We expects a potential future for XiaMen's energy saving REFERENCES [1]Xuejun CHEN, Several Recommendations About Energy Science and Engineering Development, Journal of Chinese Academy of Sciences Institute,2005, 6 [2]Fengxiang TU...

Pei, X.; Zhang, S.; Chen, L.; Zhang, X.; Chen, J.

2006-01-01

429

Energy efficiency monitoring and economic analysis for energy saving potential in UNITEN  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses on energy efficiency survey for typical buildings in Universiti Tenaga Nasional (UNITEN). Undeniably, wastage of energy will cause the increase of operation cost and depletion of fossil fuel resources which contributes to the climate change issue in the world. UNITEN was commenced in the late 1990s and most of the buildings in this university are not equipped with energy management system. Such system is the solution to reduce energy use while maximizing the comfort levels of the occupants. Disregard to the energy management system, the implementation of other energy saving measures is the main objective of this paper. By taking the right measures, the energy wastage in the buildings of this university can be reduced.

Reyasudin Basir Khan, M.; Jidin, Razali; Pasupuleti, Jagadeesh; Yew, Kang Chin; Azwa Shaaya, Sharifah

2013-06-01

430

Vacuum State Energies of Anharmonic Potentials by Method of Undetermined Amplitudes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is an examination of the applications of a method of undetermined amplitudes to the quantization of polynomial potentials leading to the determination of the exact vacuum state energies for several important potentials. The potentials studied include the simple harmonic oscillator (SHO) x^2, x^4, x^2n, ±x^2+x^4, ±x^2+x^6, ±x^2+x^10 and others. The ground state and vacuum state energies are determined analytically and all have branch point singularities as functions of the coupling parameters and thus cannot be reached by perturbative series expansions. The excited state spectrum must usually be determined numerically, but is determined exactly for the systems where Bohr-Sommerfeld integrals can be solved for the energy.

Bowen, Samuel P.; Mancini, Jay D.; Fessatidis, Vassilios

2013-03-01

431

Analytical potential curves of some hydride molecules using algebraic and energy-consistent method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the algebraic method (AM) and the energy consistent method (ECM), an AM-ECM protocol for analytical potential energy curves of stable diatomic electronic states is proposed as functions of the internuclear distance. Applications of the AM-ECM to the 6 hydride electronic states of HF-X1?+, DF-X1?+, D35Cl-X1?+, 6LiH-X1?+, 7LiH-X1?+, and 7LiD-X1?+ show that the AM-ECM potentials are in excellent agreement with the experimental RKR data and the full AM-RKR data, and that the AM-ECM can obtain reliable analytical potential energies in the molecular asymptotic and dissociation region for these molecular electronic states.

Fan, Qunchao; Sun, Weiguo; Feng, Hao; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Qi

2014-01-01

432

Ab initio potential energy surfaces and nonadiabatic collision dynamics in H++O2 system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The adiabatic potential energy surfaces for the lowest five electronic states of 3A'' symmetry for the H++O2 collision system have been obtained at the multireference configuration interaction level of accuracy using Dunning's correlation consistent polarized valence triple zeta basis set. The radial nonadiabatic coupling terms and the mixing angle between the lowest two electronic states (1 3A'' and 2 3A''), which adiabatically correlate in the asymptotic limit to H(2S)+O2+(X 2?g) and H++O2(X 3?g-), respectively, have been computed using ab initio procedures at the same level of accuracy to yield the corresponding quasidiabatic potential energy matrix. The computed strengths of the vibrational coupling matrix elements reflect the trend observed for inelastic vibrational excitations of O2 in the experiments at collision energy of 9.5 eV. The quantum dynamics has been preformed on the newly obtained coupled quasidiabatic potential energy surfaces under the vibrational close-coupling rotational infinite-order sudden framework at the experimental collision energy of 9.5 eV. The present theoretical results for vibrational elastic/inelastic excitations of O2 are in overall good agreement with the available experimental data obtained from the proton energy-loss spectra in molecular beam experiments [F. A. Gianturco et al., J. Phys. B 14, 667 (1981)]. The results for the complementary charge transfer processes are also presented at this collision energy.

Amaran, Saieswari; Kumar, Sanjay

2008-04-01

433

Potential hazards of compressed air energy storage in depleted natural gas reservoirs.  

SciTech Connect

This report is a preliminary assessment of the ignition and explosion potential in a depleted hydrocarbon reservoir from air cycling associated with compressed air energy storage (CAES) in geologic media. The study identifies issues associated with this phenomenon as well as possible mitigating measures that should be considered. Compressed air energy storage (CAES) in geologic media has been proposed to help supplement renewable energy sources (e.g., wind and solar) by providing a means to store energy when excess energy is available, and to provide an energy source during non-productive or low productivity renewable energy time periods. Presently, salt caverns represent the only proven underground storage used for CAES. Depleted natural gas reservoirs represent another potential underground storage vessel for CAES because they have demonstrated their container function and may have the requisite porosity and permeability; however reservoirs have yet to be demonstrated as a functional/operational storage media for compressed air. Specifically, air introduced into a depleted natural gas reservoir presents a situation where an ignition and explosion potential may exist. This report presents the results of an initial study identifying issues associated with this phenomena as well as possible mitigating measures that should be considered.

Cooper, Paul W.; Grubelich, Mark Charles; Bauer, Stephen J.

2011-09-01

434

Use of MAGSAT anomaly data for crustal structure and mineral resources in the US Midcontinent  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Personnel matters related to the processing and interpretation of MAGSAT data are reported. Efforts are being initiated to determine the crustal geology, structure, and potential economic consequences to be deduced from the satellite magnetic anomalies in conjuction with correlative data.

Carmichael, R. S. (principal investigator)

1982-01-01

435

Energy flux and hydrogeology of thermal anomalies in the Gulf of Mexico Basin -- South Texas example. Progress report, [1 September 1993--28 February 1994  

SciTech Connect

This report covers the period from 1 September 1993 through 28 February 1994. The last Technical Progress Report was submitted in September 1993. In this period, we have focused our efforts on the following activities (a more detailed description of each effort is (1) Finalizing collection of radiogenic heat production data; (2) Evaluating petrographic controls on thermal conductivity; (3) Modeling one-dimensional heat conduction with sources; (4) Completing base geologic cross-section; (5) Acquiring pressure data to augment data base; (6).Putting map and well data into digital format for analysis; (7) Analyzing salinity, temperate and fluid potential data for propensity of free convection; (8) Finalizing preliminary investigation into depressurization of reservoirs; (9) Preparing presentations for AAPG meeting in Denver; (10) Presenting results at the Geological Society of America Meeting in Boston (October 1993); (11) Collaborating with project members of the DOE funded Global Basins Research Network who are working on a project in the Eugene Island Block, offshore Louisiana; and (12) Collaborating with others working on research in the Gulf of Mexico Basin in our Department and with CSIRO scientists in Adelaide, Australia.

Sharp, J.M. Jr.

1994-03-01

436

Anomaly Mediated Supersymmetry Breaking without R-Parity  

E-print Network

We analyze the low energy features of a supersymmetric standard model where the anomaly--induced contributions to the soft parameters are dominant in a scenario with bilinear $R$--parity violation. This class of models leads to mixings between the standard model particles and supersymmetric ones which change the low energy phenomenology and searches for supersymmetry. In addition, $R$--parity violation interactions give rise to small neutrino masses which we show to be consistent with the present observations.

F. de Campos; M. A. Diaz; O. J. P. Eboli; M. B. Magro; P. G. Mercadante

2001-10-03

437

Foraging on the potential energy surface: a swarm intelligence-based optimizer for molecular geometry.  

PubMed

We present a stochastic, swarm intelligence-based optimization algorithm for the prediction of global minima on potential energy surfaces of molecular cluster structures. Our optimization approach is a modification of the artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm which is inspired by the foraging behavior of honey bees. We apply our modified ABC algorithm to the problem of global geometry optimization of molecular cluster structures and show its performance for clusters with 2-57 particles and different interatomic interaction potentials. PMID:23181297

Wehmeyer, Christoph; Falk von Rudorff, Guido; Wolf, Sebastian; Kabbe, Gabriel; Schärf, Daniel; Kühne, Thomas D; Sebastiani, Daniel

2012-11-21

438

Potential energies and IR spectra for homopolar diatomic adsorbates over ion-exchanged ZSM-5 zeolites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potential energies for N2, D2, and O2 entrapped in pores of MeZSM-5 (Me = Li, Na, K, Rb, and Cs) zeolites have been investigated theoretically as a basis for understanding the characteristic IR spectra of the adsorption systems. The adsorption potential proposed gives a reasonable value for the initial heat of adsorption qst\\/0 and enables us to predict the mode

Tatsuya Yamazaki; Isao Watanuki; Sentaro Ozawa; Yoshisada Ogino

1991-01-01

439

Foraging on the potential energy surface: A swarm intelligence-based optimizer for molecular geometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a stochastic, swarm intelligence-based optimization algorithm for the prediction of global minima on potential energy surfaces of molecular cluster structures. Our optimization approach is a modification of the artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm which is inspired by the foraging behavior of honey bees. We apply our modified ABC algorithm to the problem of global geometry optimization of molecular cluster structures and show its performance for clusters with 2-57 particles and different interatomic interaction potentials.

Wehmeyer, Christoph; Falk von Rudorff, Guido; Wolf, Sebastian; Kabbe, Gabriel; Schärf, Daniel; Kühne, Thomas D.; Sebastiani, Daniel

2012-11-01

440

Gridless retarding potential analyzer for use in very-low-energy charged particle detection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The theory of the hyperbolic retarding potential analyzer in the electrostatic mode is developed in detail and verified in the laboratory. A monoenergetic electron beam is used for the laboratory investigation. The analyzer (acronym HARP) has advantages over other conventional electrostatic analyzers; among them are less contact potential influence and high throughput because of the symmetry shape of the analyzer. The most useful application of the HARP is in detecting low-energy charged particles. A sample of low-energy particle data obtained in the earth's ionosphere is given.

Shyn, T. W.; Sharp, W. E.; Hays, P. B.

1976-01-01

441

Energy Efficiency Potential in Existing Commercial Buildings: Review of Selected Recent Studies  

SciTech Connect

This report reviews six recent studies (from 2002 through 2006) by states and utilities to assess the energy saving potential in existing commercial buildings. The studies cover all or portions of California, Connecticut, Vermont, Colorado, Illinois, and the Pacific Northwest. The studies clearly reveal that lighting remains the single largest and most cost effective end use that can be reduced to save energy. Overall the study indicated that with existing technologies and costs, a reasonable range of economic savings potential in existing commercial buildings is between 10 and 20 percent of current energy use. While not a focus of the study, an additional conclusion is that implementation of commercial building monitoring and controls would also play an important role in the nation’s efforts to improve energy efficiency of existing buildings.

Belzer, David B.

2009-04-03

442

Prediction of Tetraoxygen Reaction Mechanism with Sulfur Atom on the Singlet Potential Energy Surface  

PubMed Central

The mechanism of S+O4 (D2h) reaction has been investigated at the B3LYP/6-311+G(3df) and CCSD levels on the singlet potential energy surface. One stable complex has been found for the S+O4 (D2h) reaction, IN1, on the singlet potential energy surface. For the title reaction, we obtained four kinds of products at the B3LYP level, which have enough thermodynamic stability. The results reveal that the product P3 is spontaneous and exothermic with ?188.042 and ?179.147?kcal/mol in Gibbs free energy and enthalpy of reaction, respectively. Because P1 adduct is produced after passing two low energy level transition states, kinetically, it is the most favorable adduct in the 1S+1O4 (D2h) atmospheric reactions. PMID:24587763

Khademzadeh, Ashraf; Vahedpour, Morteza; Karami, Fereshte

2014-01-01

443

Criticality of the electron-nucleus cusp condition to local effective potential-energy theories  

SciTech Connect

Local(multiplicative) effective potential energy-theories of electronic structure comprise the transformation of the Schroedinger equation for interacting Fermi systems to model noninteracting Fermi or Bose systems whereby the equivalent density and energy are obtained. By employing the integrated form of the Kato electron-nucleus cusp condition, we prove that the effective electron-interaction potential energy of these model fermions or bosons is finite at a nucleus. The proof is general and valid for arbitrary system whether it be atomic, molecular, or solid state, and for arbitrary state and symmetry. This then provides justification for all prior work in the literature based on the assumption of finiteness of this potential energy at a nucleus. We further demonstrate the criticality of the electron-nucleus cusp condition to such theories by an example of the hydrogen molecule. We show thereby that both model system effective electron-interaction potential energies, as determined from densities derived from accurate wave functions, will be singular at the nucleus unless the wave function satisfies the electron-nucleus cusp condition.

Pan Xiaoyin; Sahni, Viraht [Department of Physics, Brooklyn College of the City University of New York, 2900 Bedford Avenue, Brooklyn, New York 11210 (United States); Graduate School of the City University of New York, 360 Fifth Avenue, New York, New York 10016 (United States)

2003-01-01

444

Cost-Energy Dynamics of Thermal Insulation: Potential Energy Savings and Policy Recommendations  

E-print Network

with the synthetic fuel program. REFERENCES 1. Doan L. Phung et al. (1980). "Assessment of In dustrial Energy Conservation by Unit Processes," Report ORAU/IEA-80-4(M), Institute for Energy Analysis, OakRidge Associated Universities, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. 430... with the synthetic fuel program. REFERENCES 1. Doan L. Phung et al. (1980). "Assessment of In dustrial Energy Conservation by Unit Processes," Report ORAU/IEA-80-4(M), Institute for Energy Analysis, OakRidge Associated Universities, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. 430...

Phung, D. L.; Plaza, H.

1980-01-01

445

ArHF vibrational predissociation dynamics using the diatomics-in-molecule potential energy surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrational predissociation dynamics of ArHF and ArDF complexes is investigated theoretically for the first time owing to the use of three-dimensional potential energy surfaces (PES's) based on the diatomics-in-molecule approach [J. Chem. Phys. 104, 5510 (1996)]. The original PES is improved empirically to yield a reasonable description of the lowest vibrational energy levels of the ArHF complex at J=0. Predissociation

A. A. Buchachenko; N. F. Stepanov; B. L. Grigorenko; A. V. Nemukhin

1999-01-01

446

ArHF vibrational predissociation dynamics using the diatomics-in-molecule potential energy surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrational predissociation dynamics of ArHF and ArDF complexes is investigated theoretically for the first time owing to the use of three-dimensional potential energy surfaces (PES’s) based on the diatomics-in-molecule approach [J. Chem. Phys. 104, 5510 (1996)]. The original PES is improved empirically to yield a reasonable description of the lowest vibrational energy levels of the ArHF complex at J=0. Predissociation

A. A. Buchachenko; N. F. Stepanov; B. L. Grigorenko; A. V. Nemukhin

1999-01-01

447

Accurate potential energy surfaces with a DFT+U(R) approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce an improvement to the Hubbard U augmented density functional approach known as DFT+U that incorporates variations in the value of self-consistently calculated, linear-response U with changes in geometry. This approach overcomes the one major shortcoming of previous DFT+U studies, i.e., the use of an averaged Hubbard U when comparing energies for different points along a potential energy surface

Heather J. Kulik; Nicola Marzari

2011-01-01

448

Examination of Potential Benefits of an Energy Imbalance Market in the Western Interconnection  

SciTech Connect

In the Western Interconnection, there is significant interest in improving approaches to wide-area coordinated operations of the bulk electric power system, in part because of the increasing penetration of variable generation. One proposed solution is an energy imbalance market. This study focused on that approach alone, with the goal of identifying the potential benefits of an energy imbalance market in the year 2020.

Milligan, M.; Clark, K.; King, J.; Kirby, B.; Guo, T.; Liu, G.

2013-03-01

449

Assessment of (mu)grid distributed energy resource potential using DER-CAM and GIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report outlines an approach to assess the local potential for deployment of distributed energy resources (DER), small power-generation installations located close to the point where the energy they produce will be consumed. Although local restraints, such as zoning, building codes, and on-site physical barriers are well-known frustrations to DER deployment, no analysis method has been developed to address them

Jennifer L. Edwards; Chris Marnay; Emily Bartholomew; Boubekeur Ouaglal; Afzal S. Siddiqui; Kristina S. H. LaCommare

2002-01-01

450

Energy of Brain Potentials Evoked During Visual Stimulus: A New Biometric?  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We further explore the possibility of using the energy of brain potentials evoked during processing of visual stimuli (VS)\\u000a as a new biometric tool, where biometric features representing the energy of high frequency electroencephalogram (EEG) spectra\\u000a are used in the person identification paradigm. For convenience and ease of processing of cognitive processing, in the experiments,\\u000a simple black and white drawings

Ramaswamy Palaniappan; Danilo P. Mandic

2005-01-01

451

Potential Coastal Pumped Hydroelectric Energy Storage Locations Identified using GIS-based Topographic Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large-scale electrical energy storage could accommodate variable, weather dependent energy resources such as wind and solar. Pumped hydroelectric energy storage (PHS) and compressed energy storage area (CAES) have life cycle energy and financial costs that are an order of magnitude lower than conventional electrochemical storage technologies. However PHS and CAES storage technologies require specific geologic conditions. Conventional PHS requires an upper and lower reservoir separated by at least 100 m of head, but no more than 10 km in horizontal distance. Conventional PHS also impacts fresh water supplies, riparian ecosystems, and hydrologic environments. A PHS facility that uses the ocean as the lower reservoir benefits from a smaller footprint, minimal freshwater impact, and the potential to be located near off shore wind resources and population centers. Although technologically nascent, today one coastal PHS facility exists. The storage potential for coastal PHS is unknown. Can coastal PHS play a significant role in augmenting future power grids with a high faction of renewable energy supply? In this study we employ GIS-based topographic analysis to quantify the coastal PHS potential of several geographic locations, including California, Chile and Peru. We developed automated techniques that seek local topographic minima in 90 m spatial resolution shuttle radar topography mission (SRTM) digital elevation models (DEM) that satisfy the following criteria conducive to PHS: within 10 km from the sea; minimum elevation 150 m; maximum elevation 1000 m. Preliminary results suggest the global potential for coastal PHS could be very significant. For example, in northern Chile we have identified over 60 locations that satisfy the above criteria. Two of these locations could store over 10 million cubic meters of water or several GWh of energy. We plan to report a global database of candidate coastal PHS locations and to estimate their energy storage capacity.

Parsons, R.; Barnhart, C. J.; Benson, S. M.

2013-12-01

452

Survival of children born with congenital anomalies  

PubMed Central

Aim: To describe the survival to age 5 years of children born with congenital anomalies. Methods: Between 1980 and 1997, 6153 live born cases of congenital anomaly were diagnosed and registered by the population based Glasgow Register of Congenital Anomalies. They were retrospectively followed to assess their survival status from birth up to the age of 5 years. Results: The proportions of all live born infants with congenital anomalies surviving to the end of the first week, and first and fifth year were 94%, 89%, and 88%, respectively. Survival to age 5, the end point of follow up, was significantly poorer for infants with chromosomal anomalies (48%) compared to neural tube defects (72%), respiratory system anomalies (74%), congenital heart disease (75%), nervous system anomalies (77%), and Down's syndrome (84%). Conclusion: Although almost 90% of all live born infants with congenital anomalies survive to 5 years, there are notable variations in survival between anomaly types. Our findings should be useful for both clinicians and geneticists to assess the prognosis of congenital anomalies. This information is also important for affected families and for the planning of health care needs for this high risk population. PMID:12716706

Dastgiri, S; Gilmour, W; Stone, D

2003-01-01

453

The Potential for Biomass District Energy Production in Port Graham, Alaska  

SciTech Connect

This project was a collaboration between The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) and Chugachmiut – A Tribal organization Serving the Chugach Native People of Alaska and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Tribal Energy Program. It was conducted to determine the economic and technical feasibility for implementing a biomass energy system to service the Chugachmiut community of Port Graham, Alaska. The Port Graham tribe has been investigating opportunities to reduce energy costs and reliance on energy imports and support subsistence. The dramatic rise in the prices of petroleum fuels have been a hardship to the village of Port Graham, located on the Kenai Peninsula of Alaska. The Port Graham Village Council views the forest timber surrounding the village and the established salmon industry as potential resources for providing biomass energy power to the facilities in their community. Benefits of implementing a biomass fuel include reduced energy costs, energy independence, economic development, and environmental improvement. Fish oil–diesel blended fuel and indoor wood boilers are the most economical and technically viable options for biomass energy in the village of Port Graham. Sufficient regional biomass resources allow up to 50% in annual heating savings to the user, displacing up to 70% current diesel imports, with a simple payback of less than 3 years for an estimated capital investment under $300,000. Distributive energy options are also economically viable and would displace all imported diesel, albeit offering less savings potential and requiring greater capital. These include a large-scale wood combustion system to provide heat to the entire village, a wood gasification system for cogeneration of heat and power, and moderate outdoor wood furnaces providing heat to 3–4 homes or community buildings per furnace. Coordination of biomass procurement and delivery, ensuring resource reliability and technology acceptance, and arbitrating equipment maintenance mitigation for the remote village are challenges to a biomass energy system in Port Graham that can be addressed through comprehensive planning prior to implementation.

Charles Sink, Chugachmiut; Keeryanne Leroux, EERC

2008-05-08

454

Energy deposition by heavy ions: Additivity of kinetic and potential energy contributions in hillock formation on CaF2  

PubMed Central

Modification of surface and bulk properties of solids by irradiation with ion beams is a widely used technique with many applications in material science. In this study, we show that nano-hillocks on CaF2 crystal surfaces can be formed by individual impact of medium energy (3 and 5?MeV) highly charged ions (Xe22+ to Xe30+) as well as swift (kinetic energies between 12 and 58?MeV) heavy xenon ions. For very slow highly charged ions the appearance of hillocks is known to be linked to a threshold in potential energy (Ep) while for swift heavy ions a minimum electronic energy loss per unit length (Se) is necessary. With our results we bridge the gap between these two extreme cases and demonstrate, that with increasing energy deposition via Se the Ep-threshold for hillock production can be lowered substantially. Surprisingly, both mechanisms of energy deposition in the target surface seem to contribute in an additive way, which can be visualized in a phase diagram. We show that the inelastic thermal spike model, originally developed to describe such material modifications for swift heavy ions, can be extended to the case where both kinetic and potential energies are deposited into the surface. PMID:25034006

Wang, Y. Y.; Grygiel, C.; Dufour, C.; Sun, J. R.; Wang, Z. G.; Zhao, Y. T.; Xiao, G. Q.; Cheng, R.; Zhou, X. M.; Ren, J. R.; Liu, S. D.; Lei, Y.; Sun, Y. B.; Ritter, R.; Gruber, E.; Cassimi, A.; Monnet, I.; Bouffard, S.; Aumayr, F.; Toulemonde, M.

2014-01-01

455

Circum-Arctic Magnetic Anomalies - Challenges of Compilation and the Value of Regional Interpretation in a Frontier Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Important societal issues are driving increased attention to polar regions. The arctic, in particular, is the focus of scientific studies relating to climate change as well as resource exploration and territorial claims. The news and entertainment media are picking up on polar themes and driving interest within popular culture. Part of the attraction and mystique of the ends of the Earth lies in their relative inaccessibility and harsh environment. These same attributes make it difficult to conduct even basic scientific investigation, and therefore, the arctic remains a scientific frontier in many respects. Delineation of a robust tectonic framework for the top of the world is an essential prerequisite to resource assessment. The difficulty of making direct geologic observations beneath ice and sea requires remote measurement. Regional magnetic anomaly mapping provides important constraining information for the development of tectonic models for this structurally complex region. In addition to the obvious logistical challenges to detailed magnetic field measurement in the high arctic, noise and instability in the magnetic field itself at high latitudes presents difficulties. Nevertheless, regional magnetic anomaly data have been collected over the past 50 years for much of the arctic. The available surveys are diverse in vintage and survey design; the amplitude and frequency content of measured anomalies are widely variable. Availability of metadata and other documentation are also inconsistent for these surveys. This leads to significant challenges in constructing accurate regional magnetic anomaly maps. Preliminary maps from a new international cooperation effort (CAMP-GM, under the direction of Carmen Gaina, Geological Survey of Norway) provide the most consistent view yet of magnetic anomalies for the tectonically complex arctic basins and surrounding continents. Careful attention to digital compilation details allows the new grids to be mathematically filtered to assist in the regional characterization of magnetic domains and boundaries. The frequency content, amplitudes, and patterns of regional magnetic anomalies provide a window into the tectonic character and structure of the crust. Continental, oceanic, and various types of transitional crust each have a distinctive magnetic anomaly signature that can be used to define a fundamental tectonic framework of the circum-arctic. Interpretation can be extended by including additional data such as regional bathymetry (an indicator of crustal buoyancy and isostatic equilibrium) and free air gravity (an independent indicator of crustal density balance and composition). Used together with magnetic domains these data reveal a composite geodynamic subdivision of the arctic. This subdivision provides a framework for investigations of mineral and energy resource potential, tectonic reconstruction, and long-term climate dynamics.

Saltus, R. W.; Gaina, C.; Brown, P. J.

2007-12-01

456

Anomaly detection for internet surveillance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many threats in the real world can be related to activity of persons on the internet. Internet surveillance aims to predict and prevent attacks and to assist in finding suspects based on information from the web. However, the amount of data on the internet rapidly increases and it is time consuming to monitor many websites. In this paper, we present a novel method to automatically monitor trends and find anomalies on the internet. The system was tested on Twitter data. The results showed that it can successfully recognize abnormal changes in activity or emotion.

Bouma, Henri; Raaijmakers, Stephan; Halma, Arvid; Wedemeijer, Harry

2012-06-01

457

Endocrine disruptors and congenital anomalies.  

PubMed

The specialized literature was reviewed concerning the suspected increasing secular trends in the frequency of female births, male genital congenital anomalies, abnormal sperm counts, and testicular cancer. Although no risk factors could be identified yet, the observed sex ratio decline during the last decades has been considered to be an effect of certain pollutants on normal hormone activity, and human reproductive development. Reported increasing trends in the frequencies of hypospadias and cryptorchidism are very difficult to be interpreted due to the large variability in the registered frequency of these malformations due to operational as well as biological reasons. PMID:11923883

Rittler, Mônica; Castilla, Eduardo E

2002-01-01

458

Hot Flow Anomalies at Venus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present a multi-instrument study of a hot flow anomaly (HFA) observed by the Venus Express spacecraft in the Venusian foreshock, on 22 March 2008, incorporating both Venus Express Magnetometer and Analyzer of Space Plasmas and Energetic Atoms (ASPERA) plasma observations. Centered on an interplanetary magnetic field discontinuity with inward convective motional electric fields on both sides, with a decreased core field strength, ion observations consistent with a flow deflection, and bounded by compressive heated edges, the properties of this event are consistent with those of HFAs observed at other planets within the solar system.

Collinson, G. A.; Sibeck, David Gary; Boardsen, Scott A.; Moore, Tom; Barabash, S.; Masters, A.; Shane, N.; Slavin, J.A.; Coates, A.J.; Zhang, T. L.; Sarantos, M.

2012-01-01

459

Hydrodynamic anomalies in supercritical fluid.  

PubMed

Using the molecular dynamics simulations we investigate properties of velocity autocorrelation function of Lennard-Jones fluid at long and inter