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Sample records for potential energy anomaly

  1. Processes affecting the stratification-induced potential energy anomaly on the Skagit Bay tidal flats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavel, V.; Raubenheimer, B.; Elgar, S.; Ralston, D. K.

    2010-12-01

    On the Skagit Bay tidal flats, the stratification resulting from the buoyancy input of the Skagit River is modulated by tides with a 4 m range. Here, field observations and Finite Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM) simulations are used to evaluate the terms in the equation governing the temporal evolution of the stratification-induced potential energy anomaly (Φ) (Burchard and Hofmeister, Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci., 77(4), 2008). Profiles of water density (range of 1000 to 1028 kg/m3) and velocity (up to 0.6 m/s) were measured at locations separated by roughly 600 m over a 4 by 4 km region of the flats (0.5 to 2.5 m mean water depth) for 56 days from early July (river discharge of 570 m3s-1) until late August 2009 (discharge of 140 m3s-1). The FVCOM grid of Skagit Bay and surrounding basins is forced with surface winds from a regional wind model, observed river discharge, and water level based on tidal harmonics and observed low-frequency variability. The model bathymetry incorporates numerous data sources including acoustic and LIDAR surveys performed during summer 2009. Temporal changes in Φ may result from tidal straining (an effect of sheared flows and horizontally varying water density) of the depth-averaged and vertically-dependent densities, along- and across-flat advection, vertical advection, surface and bottom buoyancy fluxes, mixing, changes in water depth, and turbulent transport. FVCOM simulations suggest that the horizontal and vertical resolutions of the observations are sufficient to examine the relative importance of the terms in the equation for Φ. Preliminary results suggest that temporal changes in Φ primarily are owing to cross-flat tidal straining of the depth-averaged density, cross-flat advection, changing water depth, and mixing. However, model results suggest that the relative importance of the terms depends on proximity to the main river channel, river discharge, and tidal range (e.g., spring versus neap tides). Funded by ONR, NSF, and

  2. Understanding Anomalies to Extract Vacuum Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Murad, P.A

    2004-02-04

    Recent Russian literature contains some interesting speculations of potentially wide applicability regarding the physical vacuum. These investigations examined and applied a theory to various anomalies to try and understand what these events may represent. Data were collected by Dmitriev to quantify these events and identify commonalties that indicate the anomalies might have a natural origin. Dyatlov created theories on the Polarized Inhomogeneous Physical Vacuum where he claimed that each anomaly possessed a distinct boundary separate from its surroundings. Within this inhomogeneous boundary, the theory suggests that the magnetic, electric, gravitic, and spin fields would be different from its surroundings. From these findings, he developed equations that resemble the London equations for a superconductor and are somewhat similar to those developed later by Puthoff. The importance of these events is that with additional understanding, they may offer a means for extracting energy from the physical vacuum. Moreover, one may speculate that these anomalies may represent a gravitational vortex or even a portal or a wormhole to look into potential travel within other dimensions.

  3. Modeling of self-potential anomalies near vertical dikes.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fitterman, D.V.

    1983-01-01

    The self-potential (SP) Green's function for an outcropping vertical dike is derived from solutions for the dc resistivity problem for the same geometry. The Green's functions are numerically integrated over rectangular source regions on the contacts between the dike and the surrounding material to obtain the SP anomaly. The analysis is valid for thermoelectrical source mechanisms. Two types of anomalies can be produced by this geometry. When the two source planes are polarized in opposite directions, a monopolar anomaly is produced. This corresponds to the thermoelectrical properties of the dike being in contrast with the surrounding material. When the thermoelectric coefficients change monotonically across the dike, a dipolar anomaly is produced. In either case positive and negative anomalies are possible, and the greatest variation in potential will occur in the most resistive regions. -Author

  4. Supersymmetric Casimir energy and the anomaly polynomial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobev, Nikolay; Bullimore, Mathew; Kim, Hee-Cheol

    2015-09-01

    We conjecture that for superconformal field theories in even dimensions, the supersymmetric Casimir energy on a space with topology S 1 × S D-1 is equal to an equivariant integral of the anomaly polynomial. The equivariant integration is defined with respect to the Cartan subalgebra of the global symmetry algebra that commutes with a given supercharge. We test our proposal extensively by computing the supersymmetric Casimir energy for large classes of superconformal field theories, with and without known Lagrangian descriptions, in two, four and six dimensions.

  5. Anomalies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1999

    1999-01-01

    This theme issue on anomalies includes Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, and additional resources for elementary and junior high school students. Pertinent activities are suggested, and sidebars discuss UFOs, animal anomalies, and anomalies from nature; and resources covering unexplained phenonmenas like crop circles, Easter Island,…

  6. Organized convection ahead of a potential vorticity anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, Geraint; Antonescu, Bogdan; Schultz, David; Dearden, Chris

    2015-04-01

    We present a case study of a convective band that intensified ahead of an upper level trough on September 16 2011, distinguishing the role of the upper-level potential vorticity anomaly from that of low-level forcing. The event occurred during an Intensive Observing Period of two field campaigns, providing the study with detailed measurements from the UK's FAAM research aircraft together with intensive ground-based observations. The WRF model, initialized with ECMWF analyses, was able to simulate the observed structure of the band very well, allowing its development to be analyzed in detail. The band intensified as the result of the merger of two convergence lines which originated in a frontal structure over the Atlantic the previous day, with its morphology influenced by two upper-level features: the remnants of a tropopause fold which capped convection over the south of the band, and a reduction in upper tropospheric static stability over the north of the band which enabled the convection to reach the tropopause. The cause of the band was therefore the low-level forcing (lift) which was manifest as a sharp line of veering wind below 2 km. Accurate forecasting of events such as this require such small-scale boundary-layer features to be accurately captured in the model analyses.

  7. Anomaly and the self-energy of electric charges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frolov, Valeri P.; Zelnikov, Andrei

    2012-11-01

    We study the self-energy of a charged particle located in a static D-dimensional gravitational field. We show that the energy functional for this problem is invariant under an infinite dimensional (gauge) group of transformations parametrized by one scalar function of (D-1)—variables. We demonstrate that the problem of the calculation of the self-energy for a pointlike charge is equivalent to the calculation of the fluctuations ⟨ψ2⟩ for an effective (D-1)—dimensional Euclidean quantum field theory. Using point-splitting regularization we obtain an expression for the self-energy and show that it possesses anomalies. Explicit calculation of the self-energy and its anomaly is done for the higher dimensional Majumdar-Papapetrou spacetimes.

  8. Insights on the Cuprate High Energy Anomaly Observed in ARPES

    SciTech Connect

    Moritz, Brian

    2011-08-16

    Recently, angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy has been used to highlight an anomalously large band renormalization at high binding energies in cuprate superconductors: the high energy 'waterfall' or high energy anomaly (HEA). The anomaly is present for both hole- and electron-doped cuprates as well as the half-filled parent insulators with different energy scales arising on either side of the phase diagram. While photoemission matrix elements clearly play a role in changing the aesthetic appearance of the band dispersion, i.e. creating a 'waterfall'-like appearance, they provide an inadequate description for the physics that underlies the strong band renormalization giving rise to the HEA. Model calculations of the single-band Hubbard Hamiltonian showcase the role played by correlations in the formation of the HEA and uncover significant differences in the HEA energy scale for hole- and electron-doped cuprates. In addition, this approach properly captures the transfer of spectral weight accompanying doping in a correlated material and provides a unifying description of the HEA across both sides of the cuprate phase diagram. We find that the anomaly demarcates a transition, or cross-over, from a quasiparticle band at low binding energies near the Fermi level to valence bands at higher binding energy, assumed to be of strong oxygen character.

  9. Potential Mars 2001 Sites Coincident with Magnetic Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmore, M. S.

    1999-06-01

    Of the areas that meet the engineering criteria for MSP 01, only two are coincident with magnetic anomalies measured by the MAG/ER instrument on MGS. Area A is centered on about 10 deg S, 202 deg W and extends from about 7.5 deg S to 15 S. This area is associated with three bands of magnetic anomalies, two with positive values surrounding an area with negative values. Area B corresponds with a circular high positive magnetic anomaly and is centered at 13.5 deg S, 166 deg W. In addition to magnetic anomalies, the proposed sites have other attributes that make then attractive from of standpoint of meeting the objectives of the Mars Program. The landing site candidates meet the engineering requirements outlined on the Mars '01 landing site page htip://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/2001/landingsite. These are (source of data in parentheses): latitude between 3 deg N and 12 deg S, rock abundance between 5-10% (IRTM), fine-component thermal inertia > 4 cgs units (IRTM), topography < 2.5 km (MOLA). There are three exceptions: 1) Area B contains sites that lie up to about 15 deg S, 2) some sites are considered that have rock abundance values of 3-13%. 3) High resolution Viking coverage may not be available. These exceptions will be noted.

  10. Potential Mars 2001 Sites Coincident with Magnetic Anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilmore, M. S.

    1999-01-01

    Of the areas that meet the engineering criteria for MSP 01, only two are coincident with magnetic anomalies measured by the MAG/ER instrument on MGS. Area A is centered on about 10 deg S, 202 deg W and extends from about 7.5 deg S to 15 S. This area is associated with three bands of magnetic anomalies, two with positive values surrounding an area with negative values. Area B corresponds with a circular high positive magnetic anomaly and is centered at 13.5 deg S, 166 deg W. In addition to magnetic anomalies, the proposed sites have other attributes that make then attractive from of standpoint of meeting the objectives of the Mars Program. The landing site candidates meet the engineering requirements outlined on the Mars '01 landing site page htip://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/2001/landingsite. These are (source of data in parentheses): latitude between 3 deg N and 12 deg S, rock abundance between 5-10% (IRTM), fine-component thermal inertia > 4 cgs units (IRTM), topography < 2.5 km (MOLA). There are three exceptions: 1) Area B contains sites that lie up to about 15 deg S, 2) some sites are considered that have rock abundance values of 3-13%. 3) High resolution Viking coverage may not be available. These exceptions will be noted.

  11. Sensitivity of the International Skating Union's Mathematical Criteria to Flag Potential Scoring Anomalies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Looney, Marilyn A.; Howell, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the "mathematical criteria" employed by the International Skating Union (ISU) to identify potential judging anomalies within competitive figure skating. The mathematical criteria have greater sensitivity to identify scoring anomalies for technical element scores than for the program component scores. This article…

  12. A large self-potential anomaly on Unzen volcano, Shimabra peninsula, Kyushu island, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, T.; Tanaka, Y.

    1995-02-01

    Self-potential (SP) observation was carried out in the summit area of Unzen, one of the active volcanoes in Kyushu island, Japan. We found a positive SP anomaly in the vicinity of the newly extruded lava dome. The potential difference across the anomaly exceeds 1000 mV per 500 m. Streaming potentials associated with subsurface hydrothermal convection seem to be the most reasonable mechanism for the positive anomaly. In association with the first emergence of the lava dome a sharp increase of SP was detected, which is considered to be a result of the growth of the hydro-thermal system.

  13. The trace anomaly and dynamical vacuum energy in cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Mottola, Emil

    2010-04-30

    The trace anomaly of conformal matter implies the existence of massless scalar poles in physical amplitudes involving the stress-energy tensor. These poles may be described by a local effective action with massless scalar fields, which couple to classical sources, contribute to gravitational scattering processes, and can have long range gravitational effects at macroscopic scales. In an effective field theory approach, the effective action of the anomaly is an infrared relevant term that should be added to the Einstein-Hilbert action of classical General Relativity to take account of macroscopic quantum effects. The additional scalar degrees of freedom contained in this effective action may be understood as responsible for both the Casimir effect in flat spacetime and large quantum backreaction effects at the horizon scale of cosmological spacetimes. These effects of the trace anomaly imply that the cosmological vacuum energy is dynamical, and its value depends on macroscopic boundary conditions at the cosmological horizon scale, rather than sensitivity to the extreme ultraviolet Planck scale.

  14. Threshold anomaly for the 7Be +58Ni system at near-Coulomb-barrier energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez Camacho, A.; Aguilera, E. F.

    2014-12-01

    By using recent fusion cross section measurements for the weakly bound system 7Be+58Ni around the Coulomb barrier, a simultaneous χ2 analysis of elastic scattering and fusion cross section data is performed. The analysis is carried out with optical polarization potentials for the fusion and direct reaction processes. That is, the nuclear polarization potential UN is split into a volume part UF which accounts for fusion reactions and a surface part UD R that is responsible for direct reactions. The parameters of fusion and direct reaction Woods-Saxon polarization potentials are determined by the analysis of the data. The presence of the threshold anomaly is investigated from the energy dependence of these polarization potentials. It is found that, contrary to other weakly bound systems, the 7Be+58Ni reaction presents the usual threshold anomaly.

  15. The relevance of individual microphysical processes for potential vorticity anomalies in extratropical cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crezee, Bas; Joos, Hanna; Wernli, Heini

    2016-04-01

    Extratropical cyclones have a large impact on daily weather through their accompanying strong winds and precipitation. The latent heating and cooling associated with microphysical processes like condensation, freezing and melting, sublimation and evaporation leads to the formation of distinct cloud diabatic potential vorticity (CDPV) anomalies. Positive low-level CDPV anomalies - which typically are formed along the fronts and close to the cyclone center - have been shown to interact with upper-level PV anomalies thereby potentially enhancing storm intensification. Here a novel method is applied, which calculates backward trajectories from the mature storm stage, integrates cloud diabatic PV changes due to microphysical processes, and constructs a CDPV budget for each individual anomaly. Thereby we quantify the contributions of, e.g., cloud condensation, depositional growth of snow and melting of snow to the individual anomalies and in turn to the near-surface circulation. First, we apply this method to an idealized mid-latitude cyclone. The formation of the relatively small low-level negative CDPV anomalies is dominated each by one specific process, depending on their location relative to the front. For the large positive PV anomaly we find that the strongest contributions are from in-cloud condensation and below-cloud snow melting and rain evaporation. Although contributions of in-cloud depositional growth of ice are rather small, they cover a very large area and are therefore dynamically significant, i.e., they produce a fairly large-scale but low-amplitude anomaly. In addition the results from the idealized simulations are compared to a wintertime cyclone. It will be discussed how well the method works for real cyclones and how closely the results agree with those from the idealized channel model experiment.

  16. Nonrelativistic inverse square potential, scale anomaly, and complex extension

    SciTech Connect

    Moroz, Sergej Schmidt, Richard

    2010-02-15

    The old problem of a singular, inverse square potential in nonrelativistic quantum mechanics is treated employing a field-theoretic, functional renormalization method. An emergent contact coupling flows to a fixed point or develops a limit cycle depending on the discriminant of its quadratic beta function. We analyze the fixed points in both conformal and nonconformal phases and perform a natural extension of the renormalization group analysis to complex values of the contact coupling. Physical interpretation and motivation for this extension is the presence of an inelastic scattering channel in two-body collisions. We present a geometric description of the complex generalization by considering renormalization group flows on the Riemann sphere. Finally, using bosonization, we find an analytical solution of the extended renormalization group flow equations, constituting the main result of our work.

  17. Inversion of Self Potential Anomalies with Multilayer Perceptron Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaftan, Ilknur; Sındırgı, Petek; Akdemir, Özer

    2014-08-01

    This study investigates the inverse solution on a buried and polarized sphere-shaped body using the self-potential method via multilayer perceptron neural networks (MLPNN). The polarization angle ( α), depth to the centre of sphere ( h), electrical dipole moment ( K) and the zero distance from the origin ( x 0) were estimated. For testing the success of the MLPNN for sphere model, parameters were also estimated by the traditional Damped Least Squares (Levenberg-Marquardt) inversion technique (DLS). The MLPNN was first tested on a synthetic example. The performance of method was also tested for two S/N ratios (5 % and 10 %) by adding noise to the same synthetic data, the estimated model parameters with MLPNN and DLS method are satisfactory. The MLPNN also applied for the field data example in İzmir, Urla district, Turkey, with two cross-section data evaluated by MLPNN and DLS, and the two methods showed good agreement.

  18. GRACE-derived surface water mass anomalies by energy integral approach: application to continental hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramillien, Guillaume; Biancale, R.; Gratton, S.; Vasseur, X.; Bourgogne, S.

    2011-06-01

    We propose an unconstrained approach to recover regional time-variations of surface mass anomalies using Level-1 Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) orbit observations, for reaching spatial resolutions of a few hundreds of kilometers. Potential differences between the twin GRACE vehicles are determined along short satellite tracks using the energy integral method (i.e., integration of orbit parameters vs. time) in a quasi-inertial terrestrial reference frame. Potential differences residuals corresponding mainly to changes in continental hydrology are then obtained after removing the gravitational effects of the known geophysical phenomena that are mainly the static part of the Earth's gravity field and time-varying contributions to gravity (Sun, Moon, planets, atmosphere, ocean, tides, variations of Earth's rotation axis) through ad hoc models. Regional surface mass anomalies are restored from potential difference anomalies of 10 to 30-day orbits onto 1◦ continental grids by regularization techniques based on singular value decomposition. Error budget analysis has been made by considering the important effects of spectrum truncation, the time length of observation (or spatial coverage of the data to invert) and for different levels of noise.

  19. Potential contribution of maximum subsurface temperature anomalies to the climate variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Weihong; Zhu, Yafen; Liang, Jianyin

    2004-02-01

    On the interannual time scale, sea-surface temperature anomalies (SSTAs) that are concerned with climate variability at global and regional scales have been widely investigated in previous studies. Through the analysis of the monthly 46-year (1955-2000) expendable bathythermograph data, we show that subsurface temperature anomalies (STAs) can directly affect the SSTAs in the major air-sea interaction regions. Along the equatorial Pacific, four important features for STAs have been characterized. (1) The STAs and SSTAs are well correlated in the eastern equatorial Pacific (EEP) due to the fact that the thermocline anomalies have only to be mixed with the surface over a very short distance. (2) The STAs are always stronger than SSTAs at any location. (3) In the time between El Niño and La Niña, and vice versa, the STAs propagate eastward along the thermocline without mixing with SSTAs in the central Pacific. (4) An El Niño or La Niña can develop only when the maximum positive or the maximum negative STA propagates to the EEP. Inside and outside the tropical basins the STA was more centred on the thermocline than the 20°C isotherm. These features inform us that the maximum STAs (MSTAs) from each vertical STA profile can be used to indicate the anomalous wave-propagation signal or thermocline variations in the worldwide oceans. This analysis implies that the MSTA is also a potential factor controlling climate variability and is a better indicator than SSTA, because MSTAs memorize the change in air-sea interaction signals and represent a huge deposit of energy in the upper ocean. The correlations between SSTAs and MSTAs with a coefficient of more than 0.60 are predominantly located in the EEP, the northern North Pacific, the southern subtropical Indian Ocean, and the northern North Atlantic Ocean. These correlations are discussed from case and statistical analyses.The leading pattern of SSTAs and MSTAs in the tropical Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans are

  20. Breakup threshold anomaly for the 8B + 58Ni system at near-Coulomb barrier energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez Camacho, A.; Aguilera, E. F.; Gomes, P. R. S.; Lubian, J.

    2011-09-01

    By using recent fusion cross section measurements for the system 8B + 58Ni, a simultaneous analysis of elastic scattering, fusion, and total reaction cross sections is performed for the weakly bound system 8B + 58Ni at energies close to the Coulomb barrier. The analysis is carried out with an optical potential with fusion and direct reaction parts (i.e., the nuclear polarization potential U is split into a volume part UF, which accounts for fusion reactions and a surface part UDR, responsible for direct reactions). The parameters of the Woods-Saxon potentials are determined by a χ2 analysis of the data. The presence of the threshold anomaly is investigated from the energy dependence of both the fusion and direct reaction parts of the polarization potential.

  1. Spherical harmonic expansions of the Earth's gravitational potential to degree 360 using 30' mean anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapp, Richard H.; Cruz, Jaime Y.

    1986-12-01

    Two potential coefficient fields that are complete to degree and order 360 have been computed. One field (OSU86E) excludes geophysically predicted anomalies while the other (OSU86F) includes such anomalies. These fields were computed using a set of 30' mean gravity anomalies derived from satellite altimetry in the ocean areas and from land measurements in North America, Europe, Australia, Japan and a few other areas. Where no 30' data existed, 1 deg x 1 deg mean anomaly estimates were used if available. No rigorous combination of satellite and terrestrial data was carried out. Instead advantage was taken of the adjusted anomalies and potential coefficients from a rigorous combination of the GEML2' potential coefficient set and 1 deg x 1 deg mean gravity anomalies. The two new fields were computed using a quadrature procedure with de-smoothing factors. The spectra of the new fields agree well with the spectra of the fields with 1 deg x 1 deg data out to degree 180. Above degree 180 the new fields have more power. The fields have been tested through comparison of Doppler station geoid undulations with undulations from various geopotential models. The agreement between the two types of undulations is approximately + or - 1.6 m. The use of a 360 field over a 180 field does not significantly improve the comparison. Instead it allows the comparison to be done at some stations where high frequency effects are important. In addition maps made in areas of high frequency information (such as trench areas) clearly reveal the signal in the new fields from degree 181 to 360.

  2. Spherical harmonic expansions of the Earth's gravitational potential to degree 360 using 30' mean anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rapp, Richard H.; Cruz, Jaime Y.

    1986-01-01

    Two potential coefficient fields that are complete to degree and order 360 have been computed. One field (OSU86E) excludes geophysically predicted anomalies while the other (OSU86F) includes such anomalies. These fields were computed using a set of 30' mean gravity anomalies derived from satellite altimetry in the ocean areas and from land measurements in North America, Europe, Australia, Japan and a few other areas. Where no 30' data existed, 1 deg x 1 deg mean anomaly estimates were used if available. No rigorous combination of satellite and terrestrial data was carried out. Instead advantage was taken of the adjusted anomalies and potential coefficients from a rigorous combination of the GEML2' potential coefficient set and 1 deg x 1 deg mean gravity anomalies. The two new fields were computed using a quadrature procedure with de-smoothing factors. The spectra of the new fields agree well with the spectra of the fields with 1 deg x 1 deg data out to degree 180. Above degree 180 the new fields have more power. The fields have been tested through comparison of Doppler station geoid undulations with undulations from various geopotential models. The agreement between the two types of undulations is approximately + or - 1.6 m. The use of a 360 field over a 180 field does not significantly improve the comparison. Instead it allows the comparison to be done at some stations where high frequency effects are important. In addition maps made in areas of high frequency information (such as trench areas) clearly reveal the signal in the new fields from degree 181 to 360.

  3. Effect of attractive interactions on the water-like anomalies of a core-softened model potential.

    PubMed

    Pant, Shashank; Gera, Tarun; Choudhury, Niharendu

    2013-12-28

    It is now well established that water-like anomalies can be reproduced by a spherically symmetric potential with two length scales, popularly known as core-softened potential. In the present study we aim to investigate the effect of attractive interactions among the particles in a model fluid interacting with core-softened potential on the existence and location of various water-like anomalies in the temperature-pressure plane. We employ extensive molecular dynamic simulations to study anomalous nature of various order parameters and properties under isothermal compression. Order map analyses have also been done for all the potentials. We observe that all the systems with varying depth of attractive wells show structural, dynamic, and thermodynamic anomalies. As many of the previous studies involving model water and a class of core softened potentials have concluded that the structural anomaly region encloses the diffusion anomaly region, which in turn, encloses the density anomaly region, the same pattern has also been observed in the present study for the systems with less depth of attractive well. For the systems with deeper attractive well, we observe that the diffusion anomaly region shifts toward higher densities and is not always enclosed by the structural anomaly region. Also, density anomaly region is not completely enclosed by diffusion anomaly region in this case. PMID:24387380

  4. Effect of attractive interactions on the water-like anomalies of a core-softened model potential

    SciTech Connect

    Pant, Shashank; Gera, Tarun; Choudhury, Niharendu E-mail: niharc2002@yahoo.com

    2013-12-28

    It is now well established that water-like anomalies can be reproduced by a spherically symmetric potential with two length scales, popularly known as core-softened potential. In the present study we aim to investigate the effect of attractive interactions among the particles in a model fluid interacting with core-softened potential on the existence and location of various water-like anomalies in the temperature-pressure plane. We employ extensive molecular dynamic simulations to study anomalous nature of various order parameters and properties under isothermal compression. Order map analyses have also been done for all the potentials. We observe that all the systems with varying depth of attractive wells show structural, dynamic, and thermodynamic anomalies. As many of the previous studies involving model water and a class of core softened potentials have concluded that the structural anomaly region encloses the diffusion anomaly region, which in turn, encloses the density anomaly region, the same pattern has also been observed in the present study for the systems with less depth of attractive well. For the systems with deeper attractive well, we observe that the diffusion anomaly region shifts toward higher densities and is not always enclosed by the structural anomaly region. Also, density anomaly region is not completely enclosed by diffusion anomaly region in this case.

  5. Rapid fluid disruption: A source for self-potential anomalies on volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnston, M.J.S.; Byerlee, J.D.; Lockner, D.

    2001-01-01

    Self-potential (SP) anomalies observed above suspected magma reservoirs, dikes, etc., on various volcanoes (Kilauea, Hawaii; Mount Unzen, Japan; Piton de la Fournaise, Reunion Island, Miyake Jima, Japan) result from transient surface electric fields of tens of millivolts per kilometer and generally have a positive polarity. These SP anomalies are usually attributed to electrokinetic effects where properties controlling this process are poorly constrained. We propose an alternate explanation that contributions to electric fields of correct polarity should be expected from charge generation by fluid vaporization/disruption. As liquids are vaporized or removed as droplets by gas transport away from hot dike intrusions, both charge generation and local increase in electrical resistivity by removal of fluids should occur. We report laboratory observations of electric fields in hot rock samples generated by pulses of fluid (water) through the rock at atmospheric pressure. These indicate the relative amplitudes of rapid fluid disruption (RFD) potentials and electrokinetic potentials to be dramatically different and the signals are opposite in sign. Above vaporization temperatures, RFD effects of positive sign in the direction of gas flow dominate, whereas below these temperatures, effects of negative sign dominate. This suggests that the primary contribution to observed self-potential anomalies arises from gas-related charge transport processes at temperatures high enough to produce vigorous boiling and vapor transport. At lower temperatures, the primary contribution is from electrokinetic effects modulated perhaps by changing electrical resistivity and RFD effects from high-pressure but low-temperature CO2 and SO2 gas flow ripping water molecules from saturated crustal rocks. If charge generation is continuous, as could well occur above a newly emplaced dike, positive static potentials will be set up that could be sustained for many years, and the simplest method for

  6. On the gravitational potential and field anomalies due to thin mass layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ockendon, J. R.; Turcotte, D. L.

    1977-01-01

    The gravitational potential and field anomalies for thin mass layers are derived using the technique of matched asymptotic expansions. An inner solution is obtained using an expansion in powers of the thickness and it is shown that the outer solution is given by a surface distribution of mass sources and dipoles. Coefficients are evaluated by matching the inner expansion of the outer solution with the outer expansion of the inner solution. The leading term in the inner expansion for the normal gravitational field gives the Bouguer formula. The leading term in the expansion for the gravitational potential gives an expression for the perturbation to the geoid. The predictions given by this term are compared with measurements by satellite altimetry. The second-order terms in the expansion for the gravitational field are required to predict the gravity anomaly at a continental margin. The results are compared with observations.

  7. Stress tensor for a scalar field in a spatially varying background potential: Divergences, "renormalization", anomalies, and Casimir forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milton, Kimball A.; Fulling, Stephen A.; Parashar, Prachi; Kalauni, Pushpa; Murphy, Taylor

    2016-04-01

    Motivated by a desire to understand quantum fluctuation energy densities and stress within a spatially varying dielectric medium, we examine the vacuum expectation value for the stress tensor of a scalar field with arbitrary conformal parameter, in the background of a given potential that depends on only one spatial coordinate. We regulate the expressions by incorporating a temporal-spatial cutoff in the (imaginary) time and transverse-spatial directions. The divergences are captured by the zeroth- and second-order WKB approximations. Then the stress tensor is "renormalized" by omitting the terms that depend on the cutoff. The ambiguities that inevitably arise in this procedure are both duly noted and restricted by imposing certain physical conditions; one result is that the renormalized stress tensor exhibits the expected trace anomaly. The renormalized stress tensor exhibits no pressure anomaly, in that the principle of virtual work is satisfied for motions in a transverse direction. We then consider a potential that defines a wall, a one-dimensional potential that vanishes for z <0 and rises like zα, α >0 , for z >0 . Previously, the stress tensor had been computed outside of the wall, whereas now we compute all components of the stress tensor in the interior of the wall. The full finite stress tensor is computed numerically for the two cases where explicit solutions to the differential equation are available, α =1 and 2. The energy density exhibits an inverse linear divergence as the boundary is approached from the inside for a linear potential, and a logarithmic divergence for a quadratic potential. Finally, the interaction between two such walls is computed, and it is shown that the attractive Casimir pressure between the two walls also satisfies the principle of virtual work (i.e., the pressure equals the negative derivative of the energy with respect to the distance between the walls).

  8. Interpretation of Self-Potential Anomalies Using Constitutive Relationships for Electrochemical and Thermoelectric Coupling Coefficients

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, R. B.; Kasameyer, P. W.

    1988-01-01

    Constitutive relationships for electrochemical and thermoelectric cross-coupling coefficients are derived using ionic mobilities, applying a general derivative of chemical potential and employing the zero net current condition. The general derivative of chemical potential permits thermal variations which give rise to the thermoelectric effect. It also accounts for nonideal solution behavior. An equation describing electric field strength is similarly derived with the additional assumption of electrical neutrality in the fluid Planck approximation. The Planck approximation implies that self-potential (SP) is caused only by local sources and also that the electric field strength has only first order spatial variations. The derived relationships are applied to the NaCl-KCl concentration cell with predicted and measured voltages agreeing within 0.4 mV. The relationships are also applied to the Long Valley and Yellowstone geothermal systems. There is a high degree of correlation between predicted and measured SP response for both systems, giving supporting evidence for the validity of the approach. Predicted SP amplitude exceeds measured in both cases; this is a possible consequence of the Planck approximation. Electrochemical sources account for more than 90% of the predicted response in both cases while thermoelectric mechanisms account for the remaining 10%; electrokinetic effects are not considered. Predicted electrochemical and thermoelectric voltage coupling coefficients are comparable to values measured in the laboratory. The derived relationships are also applied to arbitrary distributions of temperature and fluid composition to investigate the geometric diversity of observed SP anomalies. Amplitudes predicted for hypothetical saline spring and hot spring environments are less than 40 mV. In contrast, hypothetical near surface steam zones generate very large amplitudes, over 2 V in one case. These results should be viewed with some caution due to the uncertain

  9. A numerical analysis of a deep Mediterranean lee cyclone: sensitivity to mesoscale potential vorticity anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horvath, K.; Ivančan-Picek, B.

    2009-03-01

    A 12-15 November 2004 cyclone on the lee side of the Atlas Mountains and the related occurrence of severe bora along the eastern Adriatic coast are numerically analyzed using the MM5 mesoscale model. Motivated by the fact that sub-synoptic scales are more sensitive to initialization errors and dominate forecast error growth, this study is designed in order to assess the sensitivity of the mesoscale forecast to the intensity of mesoscale potential vorticity (PV) anomalies. Five sensitivity simulations are performed after subtracting the selected anomalies from the initial conditions, allowing for the analysis of the cyclone intensity and track, and additionally, the associated severe bora in the Adriatic. The results of the ensemble show that the cyclone is highly sensitive to the exact details of the upper-level dynamic forcing. The spread of cyclone intensities is the greatest in the mature phase of the cyclone lifecycle, due to different cyclone advection speeds towards the Mediterranean. However, the cyclone tracks diffluence appears to be the greatest during the cyclone movement out of the Atlas lee, prior to the mature stage of cyclone development, most likely due to the predominant upper-level steering control and its influence on the thermal anomaly creation in the mountain lee. Furthermore, it is quantitatively shown that the southern Adriatic bora is more sensitive to cyclone presence in the Mediterranean then bora in the northern Adriatic, due to unequal influence of the cyclone on the cross-mountain pressure gradient formation. The orographically induced pressure perturbation is strongly correlated with bora in the northern and to a lesser extent in the southern Adriatic, implying the existence of additional controlling mechanisms to bora in the southern part of the basin. In addition, it is shown that the bora intensity in the southern Adriatic is highly sensitive to the precise sub-synoptic pressure distribution in the cyclone itself, indicating a

  10. Global Climate Anomalies and Potential Infectious Disease Risks: 2014-2015

    PubMed Central

    Chretien, Jean-Paul; Anyamba, Assaf; Small, Jennifer; Britch, Seth; Sanchez, Jose L.; Halbach, Alaina C.; Tucker, Compton; Linthicum, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a global climate phenomenon that impacts human infectious disease risk worldwide through droughts, floods, and other climate extremes. Throughout summer and fall 2014 and winter 2015, El Niño Watch, issued by the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, assessed likely El Niño development during the Northern Hemisphere fall and winter, persisting into spring 2015. Methods: We identified geographic regions where environmental conditions may increase infectious disease transmission if the predicted El Niño occurs using El Niño indicators (Sea Surface Temperature [SST], Outgoing Longwave Radiation [OLR], and rainfall anomalies) and literature review of El Niño-infectious disease associations. Results: SSTs in the equatorial Pacific and western Indian Oceans were anomalously elevated during August-October 2014, consistent with a developing weak El Niño event. Teleconnections with local climate is evident in global precipitation patterns, with positive OLR anomalies (drier than average conditions) across Indonesia and coastal southeast Asia, and negative anomalies across northern China, the western Indian Ocean, central Asia, north-central and northeast Africa, Mexico/Central America, the southwestern United States, and the northeastern and southwestern tropical Pacific. Persistence of these conditions could produce environmental settings conducive to increased transmission of cholera, dengue, malaria, Rift Valley fever, and other infectious diseases in regional hotspots as during previous El Niño events. Discussion and Conclusions: The current development of weak El Niño conditions may have significant potential implications for global public health in winter 2014-spring 2015. Enhanced surveillance and other preparedness measures in predicted infectious disease hotspots could mitigate health impacts. PMID:25685635

  11. Mining Building Energy Management System Data Using Fuzzy Anomaly Detection and Linguistic Descriptions

    SciTech Connect

    Dumidu Wijayasekara; Ondrej Linda; Milos Manic; Craig Rieger

    2014-08-01

    Building Energy Management Systems (BEMSs) are essential components of modern buildings that utilize digital control technologies to minimize energy consumption while maintaining high levels of occupant comfort. However, BEMSs can only achieve these energy savings when properly tuned and controlled. Since indoor environment is dependent on uncertain criteria such as weather, occupancy, and thermal state, performance of BEMS can be sub-optimal at times. Unfortunately, the complexity of BEMS control mechanism, the large amount of data available and inter-relations between the data can make identifying these sub-optimal behaviors difficult. This paper proposes a novel Fuzzy Anomaly Detection and Linguistic Description (Fuzzy-ADLD) based method for improving the understandability of BEMS behavior for improved state-awareness. The presented method is composed of two main parts: 1) detection of anomalous BEMS behavior and 2) linguistic representation of BEMS behavior. The first part utilizes modified nearest neighbor clustering algorithm and fuzzy logic rule extraction technique to build a model of normal BEMS behavior. The second part of the presented method computes the most relevant linguistic description of the identified anomalies. The presented Fuzzy-ADLD method was applied to real-world BEMS system and compared against a traditional alarm based BEMS. In six different scenarios, the Fuzzy-ADLD method identified anomalous behavior either as fast as or faster (an hour or more), that the alarm based BEMS. In addition, the Fuzzy-ADLD method identified cases that were missed by the alarm based system, demonstrating potential for increased state-awareness of abnormal building behavior.

  12. Addressing the Challenges of Anomaly Detection for Cyber Physical Energy Grid Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ferragut, Erik M; Laska, Jason A; Melin, Alexander M; Czejdo, Bogdan

    2013-01-01

    The consolidation of cyber communications networks and physical control systems within the energy smart grid introduces a number of new risks. Unfortunately, these risks are largely unknown and poorly understood, yet include very high impact losses from attack and component failures. One important aspect of risk management is the detection of anomalies and changes. However, anomaly detection within cyber security remains a difficult, open problem, with special challenges in dealing with false alert rates and heterogeneous data. Furthermore, the integration of cyber and physical dynamics is often intractable. And, because of their broad scope, energy grid cyber-physical systems must be analyzed at multiple scales, from individual components, up to network level dynamics. We describe an improved approach to anomaly detection that combines three important aspects. First, system dynamics are modeled using a reduced order model for greater computational tractability. Second, a probabilistic and principled approach to anomaly detection is adopted that allows for regulation of false alerts and comparison of anomalies across heterogeneous data sources. Third, a hierarchy of aggregations are constructed to support interactive and automated analyses of anomalies at multiple scales.

  13. Imaging the Formation of High-Energy Dispersion Anomalies in the Actinide UCoGa5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Tanmoy; Durakiewicz, Tomasz; Zhu, Jian-Xin; Joyce, John J.; Sarrao, John L.; Graf, Matthias J.

    2012-10-01

    We use angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy to image the emergence of substantial dispersion and spectral-weight anomalies in the electronic renormalization of the actinide compound UCoGa5 that was presumed to belong to a conventional Fermi-liquid family. Kinks or abrupt breaks in the slope of the quasiparticle dispersion are detected both at low (approximately 130 meV) and high (approximately 1 eV) binding energies below the Fermi energy, ruling out any significant contribution of phonons. We perform numerical calculations to demonstrate that the anomalies are adequately described by coupling between itinerant fermions and spin fluctuations arising from the particle-hole continuum of the spin-orbit-split 5f states of uranium. These anomalies resemble the “waterfall” phenomenon of the high-temperature copper-oxide superconductors, suggesting that spin fluctuations are a generic route toward multiform electronic phases in correlated materials as different as high-temperature superconductors and actinides.

  14. Alaska's renewable energy potential.

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2009-02-01

    This paper delivers a brief survey of renewable energy technologies applicable to Alaska's climate, latitude, geography, and geology. We first identify Alaska's natural renewable energy resources and which renewable energy technologies would be most productive. e survey the current state of renewable energy technologies and research efforts within the U.S. and, where appropriate, internationally. We also present information on the current state of Alaska's renewable energy assets, incentives, and commercial enterprises. Finally, we escribe places where research efforts at Sandia National Laboratories could assist the state of Alaska with its renewable energy technology investment efforts.

  15. Anomalies on capture nets of Hydropsyche slossonae larvae (Trichoptera; Hydropsychidae), a potential indicator of chronic toxicity of malathion (organophosphate insecticide).

    PubMed

    Tessier; Boisvert; Vought; Lacoursière

    2000-08-01

    A laboratory study on the sublethal effects of malathion on the net-spinning behavior of the caddisfly larvae Hydropsyche slossonae was conducted in order to assess the potential of net anomalies as an indicator of chronic exposure to organophosphorus insecticides. Two anomalies were identified after chronic exposure to 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 µg l(-1) malathion. The first was a distortion of the midline meshes where the normal diamond shape structure was disrupted and the meshes were separated by extra strands (called 'midline' anomaly). The second aberration observed was a significant decrease in net symmetry. Both anomalies were highly correlated to the toxic action of malathion, i.e. inhibition of the acetylcholinesterase enzyme (AChE). Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analyses of capture nets did not show any modification of silk polypeptides after exposure to malathion, indicating that net distortions were not related to silk composition. Both anomalies seem to represent the symptoms of the specific toxic action of malathion; nevertheless, they can serve as an index of the physiological condition of the larvae, especially the midline anomaly. The symmetry of the nets decreased significantly after exposure to 0.5 and 1.0 µg l(-1). However, the toxicity curves (EC(50)) showed that the sensitivity threshold for the midline anomaly ranged from 0.11 to 0.28 µg l(-1), which reflect more realistic exposure to concentrations expected to occur in the field. Hence, the use of capture net anomalies of hydropsychid larvae could represent a valuable indicator of sublethal toxicity induced by malathion and other organophosphorus insecticides in running waters. PMID:10930655

  16. Inferring regional surface mass anomalies from GRACE KBRR data by energy integral approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Bo; Luo, Zhicai; Li, Qiong; Zhou, Hao

    2016-04-01

    GRACE mission provides an effective technique to detect the mass redistribution through its effects on Earth gravity. Although the mass anomalies on the earth's surface inferred from the monthly average of the spherical harmonic coefficients has been largely successful, this approach has not revealed the submonthly time scale information and fundamental resolution of the GRACE observations. As the GRACE K-band range rate (KBRR) can reveal the local signature more sensitively, the regional recovered approach based on regional basic function is offered to recovery the local mass redistribution with submonthly and high spatial resolution. We established an approach to estimate regional surface mass anomalies by inverting GRACE-based potential difference anomalies at satellite altitude. Spatial constraints versus spherical distance between the mass concentrations are introduced to stabilize the linear system to eliminate the effects of the north-south striping. The efficiency of our approach has been validated using a closed-loop simulation study over South America. It is demonstrated that spatial constraints assist the solutions on reducing striping error inherent in the measurement configuration and temporal aliasing. Finally, time series of 10-day and 30-day regional surface mass anomalies over Tibet plateau also prove to be consistent with independent hydrological models. The time series of mass anomalies reveal the seasonal changes in the source area of three rivers and the accumulation in the north-east Gan-Qing block and Tibet block. Keywords: regional surface mass anomalies, GRACE KBRR, spatial constraints Acknowledgements: This research was jointly supported by the National 973 Program of China (No.2013CB733302), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No.41474019, No.41131067,No. 41504014).

  17. Low-energy anomalies in electron tunneling through strongly asymmetric Majorana nanowire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shkop, A. D.; Parafilo, A. V.; Krive, I. V.; Shekhter, R. I.

    2016-04-01

    Electron transport through Majorana nanowire with strongly asymmetric couplings to normal metal leads is considered. In three terminal geometry (electrically grounded nanowire) it is shown that the presence of unbiased electrode restores zero-bias anomaly even for strong Majorana energy splitting. For effectively two-terminal geometry we show that electrical current through asymmetric Majorana junction is qualitatively different from the analogous current through a resonant (Breit-Wigner) level.

  18. Evaluating transience of a potential geothermal heat flux anomaly beneath a tributary ice stream of Thwaites Glacier, West Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeSanto, J. B.; Blankenship, D. D.; Young, D. A.; Lavier, L. L.; Choi, E.

    2012-12-01

    The Amundsen Sea Embayment of the West Antarctic ice sheet (WAIS) is currently one of the most rapidly changing sectors of a continental ice sheet. As a marine ice sheet, the WAIS is in a potentially unstable configuration. In addition to known active volcanoes such as Mt. Takahe and Mt. Murphy, subglacial volcanic activity has been identified using ice layer drawdown anomalies. Drawdown anomalies are features identifiable by a characteristic radar signature and represent significant loss of basal ice. We identify several features with the geometry of drawdown anomalies in the Thwaites Glacier along an ice stream tributary near Mt. Takahe. By modeling the flow of ice along the ice stream, we assess the hypothesis that these drawdown anomalies are a coherent feature caused by basal melt that is consistent with subglacial volcanic activity. The melt rate is then used to determine the spatial and temporal variations of geothermal heat flux in the region. We discuss these variations in the context of their geologic, morphologic and glaciologic setting and their implications for local volcanism and its impact on ice flow.

  19. Dependence of the 0.7 anomaly on the curvature of the potential barrier in quantum wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, L. W.; Al-Taie, H.; Lesage, A. A. J.; Sfigakis, F.; See, P.; Griffiths, J. P.; Beere, H. E.; Jones, G. A. C.; Ritchie, D. A.; Hamilton, A. R.; Kelly, M. J.; Smith, C. G.

    2015-06-01

    Ninety-eight one-dimensional channels defined using split gates fabricated on a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure are measured during one cooldown at 1.4 K. The devices are arranged in an array on a single chip and are individually addressed using a multiplexing technique. The anomalous conductance feature known as the "0.7 structure" is studied using statistical techniques. The ensemble of data shows that the 0.7 anomaly becomes more pronounced and occurs at lower values as the curvature of the potential barrier in the transport direction decreases. This corresponds to an increase in the effective length of the device. The 0.7 anomaly is not strongly influenced by other properties of the conductance related to density. The curvature of the potential barrier appears to be the primary factor governing the shape of the 0.7 structure at a given T and B .

  20. Potential relationships between seismo-deformation and seismo-conductivity anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chieh-Hung; Lin, Cheng-Horng; Wang, Chung-Ho; Liu, Jann-Yenq; Yeh, Ta-Kang; Yen, Horng-Yuan; Lin, Tzu-Wei

    2015-12-01

    This study examines the relationships between seismo-deformation and seismo-conductivity anomalies during two M6 earthquakes that occurred on March 27th and June 2nd, 2013 in Taiwan. The Hilbert-Huang Transform is applied on surface displacement data to remove the effects of noise, semi-annual and annual cycles, and the long-term plate movements. The residual displacements have similar orientations when earthquake-related stress accumulates in the crust. Once the accumulated stress approaches the threshold for fault rupture, the orientations of the residual displacements generally become random, except in a small region near the epicenter. Interestingly, high-conductivity anomalies, which can be detected from the 3-component magnetic data via the magnetic transfer function, exist in places very close to this small region near the epicenter. Spatial and temporal correlations between the high-conductivity anomalies and the small region of seismo-deformation anomalies suggest that electric charges may migrate and become trapped in the region during seismogenic processes due to differential stress accumulation. These electric charges form a high-conductivity material that affects the Parkinson vector of the geomagnetic field.

  1. PERINATAL EXPOSURE TO ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS: POTENTIAL ROLE OF HORMONAL ALTERATIONS IN INITIATING ADULT REPRODUCTIVE ANOMALIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary hypothesis to be tested in this series of studies is whether or not exposure to environmental agents, during certain key periods of development, will increase the risk of specific anomalies of the reproductive system. Embedded in this hypothesis is the assumption that...

  2. Global Surface Solar Energy Anomalies Including El Nino and La Nina Years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitlock, C. H.; Brown, D. E.; Chandler, W. S.; DiPasquale, R. C.; Ritchey, Nancy A.; Gupta, Shashi K.; Wilber, Anne C.; Kratz, David P.; Stackhouse, Paul W.

    2001-01-01

    This paper synthesizes past events in an attempt to define the general magnitude, duration, and location of large surface solar anomalies over the globe. Surface solar energy values are mostly a function of solar zenith angle, cloud conditions, column atmospheric water vapor, aerosols, and surface albedo. For this study, solar and meteorological parameters for the 10-yr period July 1983 through June 1993 are used. These data were generated as part of the Release 3 Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) activity under the NASA Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) effort. Release 3 SSE uses upgraded input data and methods relative to previous releases. Cloud conditions are based on recent NASA Version-D International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) global satellite radiation and cloud data. Meteorological inputs are from Version-I Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) reanalysis data that uses both weather station and satellite information. Aerosol transmission for different regions and seasons are for an 'average' year based on historic solar energy data from over 1000 ground sites courtesy of Natural Resources Canada (NRCan). These data are input to a new Langley Parameterized Shortwave Algorithm (LPSA) that calculates surface albedo and surface solar energy. That algorithm is an upgraded version of the 'Staylor' algorithm. Calculations are performed for a 280X280 km equal-area grid system over the globe based on 3-hourly input data. A bi-linear interpolation process is used to estimate data output values on a 1 X 1 degree grid system over the globe. Maximum anomalies are examined relative to El Nino and La Nina events in the tropical Pacific Ocean. Maximum year-to-year anomalies over the globe are provided for a 10-year period. The data may assist in the design of systems with increased reliability. It may also allow for better planning for emergency assistance during some atypical events.

  3. Temperature-resolution anomalies in the reconstruction of time dynamics from energy-loss experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogar, Anshul; Vig, Sean; Gan, Yu; Abbamonte, Peter

    2014-06-01

    Inelastic scattering techniques provide a powerful approach to studying electron and nuclear dynamics, via reconstruction of a propagator that quantifies the time evolution of a system. There is now growing interest in applying such methods to very low energy excitations, such as lattice vibrations, but in this limit the cross section is no longer proportional to a propagator. Significant deviations occur due to the finite temperature Bose statistics of the excitations. Here we consider this issue in the context of high-resolution electron energy-loss experiments on the copper-oxide superconductor Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8. We find that simple division of a Bose factor yields an accurate propagator on energy scales greater than the resolution width. However, at low energy scales, the effects of resolution and finite temperature conspire to create anomalies in the dynamics at long times. We compare two practical ways for dealing with such anomalies, and discuss the range of validity of the technique in light of this comparison.

  4. Global accuracy estimates of point and mean undulation differences obtained from gravity disturbances, gravity anomalies and potential coefficients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jekeli, C.

    1979-01-01

    Through the method of truncation functions, the oceanic geoid undulation is divided into two constituents: an inner zone contribution expressed as an integral of surface gravity disturbances over a spherical cap; and an outer zone contribution derived from a finite set of potential harmonic coefficients. Global, average error estimates are formulated for undulation differences, thereby providing accuracies for a relative geoid. The error analysis focuses on the outer zone contribution for which the potential coefficient errors are modeled. The method of computing undulations based on gravity disturbance data for the inner zone is compared to the similar, conventional method which presupposes gravity anomaly data within this zone.

  5. Renewable energy potential in Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa Guzman, Jose Luis

    2008-12-01

    Renewable energy flows are very large in comparison with humankind's use of energy. In principle, all our energy needs, both now and into the future, can be met by energy from renewable sources. After many years trying to develop the alternative energy potential of Colombia, a major effort is principally being made since 2000 to explore and assess the renewable resources of the entire country. Until 2000, the availability of conventional energy sources in Colombia prevented renewable energy exploration from reaching a higher level. However, the extreme energy crisis of 1992 - 1993 alerted the authorities and the community to the necessity for exploring alternative energy sources. This energy study is a general approach to the current and future renewable energy scenario of Colombia. It was prepared in response to the increased interest around the world and in particular in Colombia to develop its non-fossil energy prospective. It, therefore, represents a working document giving an initial impression of the possible scale of the main renewables sources as a response to the concern about energy security and fossil fuel dependence problems. The assumptions made and calculations reported may therefore be subject to revision as more information becomes available. The aim of this dissertation is not only to improve the public understanding and discussion of renewable energy matters in Colombia but also to stimulate the development and application of renewable energy, wherever they have prospects of economic viability and environmental acceptability. To achieve such goal this paper reviews several renewable technologies, their availability, contribution and feasibility in Colombia.

  6. Unforced surface air temperature anomalies and their opposite relationship with the TOA energy imbalance at local and global scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, P. T.; Li, W.; Jiang, J. H.; Su, H.

    2015-12-01

    Unforced global mean surface air temperature (Tglobal) is stable in the long-term primarily because warm Tglobal anomalies are associated with enhanced outgoing longwave radiation to space and thus a negative global radiative energy imbalance (Nglobal, positive downward) at the top of the atmosphere (TOA). However, it is shown here that at the local spatial scale, warm unforced Tlocal anomalies tend to be associated with anomalously positive Nlocal imbalances over most of the surface of the planet. It is revealed that this occurs mainly because warm Tlocal anomalies are accompanied by anomalously low surface albedo near sea ice margins and over high altitudes, anomalously low cloud albedo over much of the mid/low-latitudes and an anomalously large water-vapor greenhouse effect over the deep tropical ocean. During warm Tglobal years, the largest negative Nlocal anomalies primarily occur over regions of cool or near-neutral Tlocal anomalies. These results help explain how TOA energy imbalances can act to damp unforced Tglobal anomalies while simultaneously amplifying unforced Tlocal anomalies.

  7. A least-squares minimisation approach to depth determination from numerical second horizontal self-potential anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelrahman, El-Sayed Mohamed; Soliman, Khalid; Essa, Khalid Sayed; Abo-Ezz, Eid Ragab; El-Araby, Tarek Mohamed

    2009-06-01

    This paper develops a least-squares minimisation approach to determine the depth of a buried structure from numerical second horizontal derivative anomalies obtained from self-potential (SP) data using filters of successive window lengths. The method is based on using a relationship between the depth and a combination of observations at symmetric points with respect to the coordinate of the projection of the centre of the source in the plane of the measurement points with a free parameter (graticule spacing). The problem of depth determination from second derivative SP anomalies has been transformed into the problem of finding a solution to a non-linear equation of the form f(z)=0. Formulas have been derived for horizontal cylinders, spheres, and vertical cylinders. Procedures are also formulated to determine the electric dipole moment and the polarization angle. The proposed method was tested on synthetic noisy and real SP data. In the case of the synthetic data, the least-squares method determined the correct depths of the sources. In the case of practical data (SP anomalies over a sulfide ore deposit, Sariyer, Turkey and over a Malachite Mine, Jefferson County, Colorado, USA), the estimated depths of the buried structures are in good agreement with the results obtained from drilling and surface geology.

  8. California Industrial Energy Efficiency Potential

    SciTech Connect

    Coito, Fred; Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn; Masanet, Eric; RafaelFriedmann; Rufo, Mike

    2005-06-01

    This paper presents an overview of the modeling approach andhighlights key findings of a California industrial energy efficiencypotential study. In addition to providing estimates of technical andeconomic potential, the study examines achievable program potential undervarious program-funding scenarios. The focus is on electricity andnatural gas savings for manufacturing in the service territories ofCalifornia's investor-owned utilities (IOUs). The assessment is conductedby industry type and by end use. Both crosscutting technologies andindustry-specific process measures are examined. Measure penetration intothe marketplace is modeled as a function of customer awareness, measurecost effectiveness, and perceived market barriers. Data for the studycomes from a variety of sources, including: utility billing records, theEnergy Information Association (EIA) Manufacturing Energy ConsumptionSurvey (MECS), state-sponsored avoided cost studies, energy efficiencyprogram filings, and technology savings and cost data developed throughLawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The study identifies 1,706GWh and 47 Mth (million therms) per year of achievable potential over thenext twelve years under recent levels of program expenditures, accountingfor 5.2 percent of industrial electricity consumption and 1.3 percent ofindustrial natural gas consumption. These estimates grow to 2,748 GWh and192 Mth per year if all cost-effective and achievable opportunities arepursued. Key industrial electricity end uses, in terms of energy savingspotential, include compressed air and pumping systems that combine toaccount for about half of the total achievable potential estimates. Fornatural gas, savings are concentrated in the boiler and process heatingend uses, accounting for over 99 percent to total achievablepotential.

  9. Oxygen Isotope Anomaly in the Carbonate Fractions of Aerosols and its Potential to Assess Urban Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaheen, R.; Abramian, A.; Dominguez, G.; Jackson, T.; Thiemens, M. H.

    2008-12-01

    = 0.887) was observed between oxygen isotope anomaly (Δ17O) in the carbonate fraction of coarse aerosols and urban index, indicating that the isotope anomaly of carbonates can be used as a proxy for urban pollution. Additionally, controlled laboratory experiments to understand the origin of isotope anomaly in the carbonate fraction of aerosols will be discussed.

  10. Anomaly transform methods based on total energy and ocean heat content norms for generating ocean dynamic disturbances for ensemble climate forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanova, Vanya; Hense, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    In our study we use the anomaly transform, a special case of ensemble transform method, in which a selected set of initial oceanic anomalies in space, time and variables are defined and orthogonalized. The resulting orthogonal perturbation patterns are designed such that they pick up typical balanced anomaly structures in space and time and between variables. The metric used to set up the eigen problem is taken either as the weighted total energy with its zonal, meridional kinetic and available potential energy terms having equal contributions, or the weighted ocean heat content in which a disturbance is applied only to the initial temperature fields. The choices of a reference state for defining the initial anomalies are such that either perturbations on seasonal timescales and or on interannual timescales are constructed. These project a-priori only the slow modes of the ocean physical processes, such that the disturbances grow mainly in the Western Boundary Currents, in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the El Nino Southern Oscillation regions. An additional set of initial conditions is designed to fit in a least square sense data from global ocean reanalysis. Applying the AT produced sets of disturbances to oceanic initial conditions initialized by observations of the MPIOM-ESM coupled model on T63L47/GR15 resolution, four ensemble and one hind-cast experiments were performed. The weighted total energy norm is used to monitor the amplitudes and rates of the fastest growing error modes. The results showed minor dependence of the instabilities or error growth on the selected metric but considerable change due to the magnitude of the scaling amplitudes of the perturbation patterns. In contrast to similar atmospheric applications, we find an energy conversion from kinetic to available potential energy, which suggests a different source of uncertainty generation in the ocean than in the atmosphere mainly associated with changes in the density field.

  11. Radiation anomaly detection algorithms for field-acquired gamma energy spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Maurer, Richard; Wolff, Ron; Guss, Paul; Mitchell, Stephen

    2015-08-01

    The Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) is developing a tactical, networked radiation detection system that will be agile, reconfigurable, and capable of rapid threat assessment with high degree of fidelity and certainty. Our design is driven by the needs of users such as law enforcement personnel who must make decisions by evaluating threat signatures in urban settings. The most efficient tool available to identify the nature of the threat object is real-time gamma spectroscopic analysis, as it is fast and has a very low probability of producing false positive alarm conditions. Urban radiological searches are inherently challenged by the rapid and large spatial variation of background gamma radiation, the presence of benign radioactive materials in terms of the normally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), and shielded and/or masked threat sources. Multiple spectral anomaly detection algorithms have been developed by national laboratories and commercial vendors. For example, the Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software (GADRAS) a one-dimensional deterministic radiation transport software capable of calculating gamma ray spectra using physics-based detector response functions was developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The nuisance-rejection spectral comparison ratio anomaly detection algorithm (or NSCRAD), developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, uses spectral comparison ratios to detect deviation from benign medical and NORM radiation source and can work in spite of strong presence of NORM and or medical sources. RSL has developed its own wavelet-based gamma energy spectral anomaly detection algorithm called WAVRAD. Test results and relative merits of these different algorithms will be discussed and demonstrated.

  12. The potential of renewable energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    On June 27 and 28, 1989, the US Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratories were convened to discuss plans for the development of a National Energy Strategy (NES) and, in particular, the analytic needs in support of NES that could be addressed by the laboratories. As a result of that meeting, interlaboratory teams were formed to produce analytic white papers on key topics, and a lead laboratory was designated for each core laboratory team. The broad-ranging renewables assignment is summarized by the following issue statement from the Office of Policy, Planning and Analysis: to what extent can renewable energy technologies contribute to diversifying sources of energy supply What are the major barriers to greater renewable energy use and what is the potential timing of widespread commercialization for various categories of applications This report presents the results of the intensive activity initiated by the June 1989 meeting to produce a white paper on renewable energy. Scores of scientists, analysts, and engineers in the five core laboratories gave generously of their time over the past eight months to produce this document. Their generous, constructive efforts are hereby gratefully acknowledged. 126 refs., 44 figs., 32 tabs.

  13. Energy Detection Based on Undecimated Discrete Wavelet Transform and Its Application in Magnetic Anomaly Detection

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Xinhua; Pan, Zhongming; Zhang, Dasha; Zhou, Han; Chen, Min; Zhang, Wenna

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic anomaly detection (MAD) is a passive approach for detection of a ferromagnetic target, and its performance is often limited by external noises. In consideration of one major noise source is the fractal noise (or called 1/f noise) with a power spectral density of 1/fa (0energy detection method based on undecimated discrete wavelet transform (UDWT) is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the foundations of magnetic anomaly detection and UDWT are introduced in brief, while a possible detection system based on giant magneto-impedance (GMI) magnetic sensor is also given out. Then our proposed energy detection based on UDWT is described in detail, and the probabilities of false alarm and detection for given the detection threshold in theory are presented. It is noticeable that no a priori assumptions regarding the ferromagnetic target or the magnetic noise probability are necessary for our method, and different from the discrete wavelet transform (DWT), the UDWT is shift invariant. Finally, some simulations are performed and the results show that the detection performance of our proposed detector is better than that of the conventional energy detector even utilized in the Gaussian white noise, especially when the spectral parameter α is less than 1.0. In addition, a real-world experiment was done to demonstrate the advantages of the proposed method. PMID:25343484

  14. On the coupling between precipitation and potential evapotranspiration: contributions to decadal drought anomalies in the Southwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shanlei; Chen, Haishan; Ju, Weimin; Wang, Guojie; Sun, Ge; Huang, Jin; Ma, Hedi; Gao, Chujie; Hua, Wenjian; Yan, Guixia

    2016-08-01

    Under the exacerbation of climate change, climate extreme events, especially for drought, happened frequently and intensively across the globe with greater spatial differences. We used the Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index computed from the routine meteorological observations at 269 sites in Southwest China (SWC) to study the drought characteristics (e.g., extent, duration and intensity) and their decadal variations during 1971-2012. It was revealed that the drought, in responses to the coupling between decadal precipitation and potential evapotranspiration (PET) anomalies, differed among regions and periods. For the entire SWC, droughts in 1970s and 2000s+ was generally stronger than in 1980s and 1990s with respect to their spatial extent, duration and intensity, especially in 2000s+. It was well-known that drought was closely related with a lack of precipitation; however, the impact of atmospheric demand of evaporation (reflected by PET here) on drought (e.g., duration and intensity) was rarely paid enough attentions. To that end, a spatial multi-linear regression approach was proposed in this study for quantifying the contributions of decadal PET and precipitation variations to drought duration and intensity. We have found that the contributions of decadal PET anomalies to drought duration and intensity could exceed those of precipitation, e.g., during 1980s and 1990s in SWC. Additionally, despite the strongest droughts in 2000s+, it was suggested that PET could exert comparable impacts on drought anomalies as precipitation. All these findings implied that PET plays a critical role in drought event, which acts to amplify drought duration and intensity. To sum up, this study stressed the need for enough attentions for PET processes in drought studies.

  15. A new parameter-free soft-core potential for silica and its application to simulation of silica anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izvekov, Sergei; Rice, Betsy M.

    2015-12-01

    A core-softening of the effective interaction between oxygen atoms in water and silica systems and its role in developing anomalous thermodynamic, transport, and structural properties have been extensively debated. For silica, the progress with addressing these issues has been hampered by a lack of effective interaction models with explicit core-softening. In this work, we present an extension of a two-body soft-core interatomic force field for silica recently reported by us [S. Izvekov and B. M. Rice, J. Chem. Phys. 136(13), 134508 (2012)] to include three-body forces. Similar to two-body interaction terms, the three-body terms are derived using parameter-free force-matching of the interactions from ab initio MD simulations of liquid silica. The derived shape of the O-Si-O three-body potential term affirms the existence of repulsion softening between oxygen atoms at short separations. The new model shows a good performance in simulating liquid, amorphous, and crystalline silica. By comparing the soft-core model and a similar model with the soft-core suppressed, we demonstrate that the topology reorganization within the local tetrahedral network and the O-O core-softening are two competitive mechanisms responsible for anomalous thermodynamic and kinetic behaviors observed in liquid and amorphous silica. The studied anomalies include the temperature of density maximum locus and anomalous diffusivity in liquid silica, and irreversible densification of amorphous silica. We show that the O-O core-softened interaction enhances the observed anomalies primarily through two mechanisms: facilitating the defect driven structural rearrangements of the silica tetrahedral network and modifying the tetrahedral ordering induced interactions toward multiple characteristic scales, the feature which underlies the thermodynamic anomalies.

  16. A new parameter-free soft-core potential for silica and its application to simulation of silica anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Izvekov, Sergei Rice, Betsy M.

    2015-12-28

    A core-softening of the effective interaction between oxygen atoms in water and silica systems and its role in developing anomalous thermodynamic, transport, and structural properties have been extensively debated. For silica, the progress with addressing these issues has been hampered by a lack of effective interaction models with explicit core-softening. In this work, we present an extension of a two-body soft-core interatomic force field for silica recently reported by us [S. Izvekov and B. M. Rice, J. Chem. Phys. 136(13), 134508 (2012)] to include three-body forces. Similar to two-body interaction terms, the three-body terms are derived using parameter-free force-matching of the interactions from ab initio MD simulations of liquid silica. The derived shape of the O–Si–O three-body potential term affirms the existence of repulsion softening between oxygen atoms at short separations. The new model shows a good performance in simulating liquid, amorphous, and crystalline silica. By comparing the soft-core model and a similar model with the soft-core suppressed, we demonstrate that the topology reorganization within the local tetrahedral network and the O–O core-softening are two competitive mechanisms responsible for anomalous thermodynamic and kinetic behaviors observed in liquid and amorphous silica. The studied anomalies include the temperature of density maximum locus and anomalous diffusivity in liquid silica, and irreversible densification of amorphous silica. We show that the O–O core-softened interaction enhances the observed anomalies primarily through two mechanisms: facilitating the defect driven structural rearrangements of the silica tetrahedral network and modifying the tetrahedral ordering induced interactions toward multiple characteristic scales, the feature which underlies the thermodynamic anomalies.

  17. A new parameter-free soft-core potential for silica and its application to simulation of silica anomalies.

    PubMed

    Izvekov, Sergei; Rice, Betsy M

    2015-12-28

    A core-softening of the effective interaction between oxygen atoms in water and silica systems and its role in developing anomalous thermodynamic, transport, and structural properties have been extensively debated. For silica, the progress with addressing these issues has been hampered by a lack of effective interaction models with explicit core-softening. In this work, we present an extension of a two-body soft-core interatomic force field for silica recently reported by us [S. Izvekov and B. M. Rice, J. Chem. Phys. 136(13), 134508 (2012)] to include three-body forces. Similar to two-body interaction terms, the three-body terms are derived using parameter-free force-matching of the interactions from ab initio MD simulations of liquid silica. The derived shape of the O-Si-O three-body potential term affirms the existence of repulsion softening between oxygen atoms at short separations. The new model shows a good performance in simulating liquid, amorphous, and crystalline silica. By comparing the soft-core model and a similar model with the soft-core suppressed, we demonstrate that the topology reorganization within the local tetrahedral network and the O-O core-softening are two competitive mechanisms responsible for anomalous thermodynamic and kinetic behaviors observed in liquid and amorphous silica. The studied anomalies include the temperature of density maximum locus and anomalous diffusivity in liquid silica, and irreversible densification of amorphous silica. We show that the O-O core-softened interaction enhances the observed anomalies primarily through two mechanisms: facilitating the defect driven structural rearrangements of the silica tetrahedral network and modifying the tetrahedral ordering induced interactions toward multiple characteristic scales, the feature which underlies the thermodynamic anomalies. PMID:26723691

  18. Cluster formation, waterlike anomalies, and re-entrant melting for a family of bounded repulsive interaction potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lascaris, Erik; Malescio, Gianpietro; Buldyrev, Sergey V.; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2010-03-01

    We introduce a family of bounded repulsive potentials, which we call the cut ramp potential, obtained by cutting a linear ramp potential at different heights. We find that for the uncut ramp potential the system shows a region of anomalous re-entrant melting (a negative slope of the melting line in the temperature-pressure phase diagram), with waterlike anomalies in the same pressure range. At high pressure the melting line recovers a positive slope, a feature that we associate with the formation of clusters of particles separated by a more or less density-independent distance, the cluster separation, which is approximately equal to the ramp width σ1 . As the ramp is cut at lower and lower heights, the region of anomalous behavior shrinks and eventually disappears while at the same time the formation of clusters becomes more favored, as it is energetically less unfavorable for particles to “climb up” the ramp. We relate the occurrence of anomalous behavior to the reduced efficacy of the soft repulsive length scale with increasing pressure. The clustering phenomenon partially restores this efficacy, giving rise to an approximately constant distance σ1 between the clusters. Our results may be useful to better understand the phase behavior of macromolecules as well as that of substances with nondirectional interactions that are capable of displaying liquid polymorphism.

  19. Do U Txt? Event-Related Potentials to Semantic Anomalies in Standard and Texted English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Natalie I.; Coch, Donna

    2010-01-01

    Texted English is a hybrid, technology-based language derived from standard English modified to facilitate ease of communication via instant and text messaging. We compared semantic processing of texted and standard English sentences by recording event-related potentials in a classic semantic incongruity paradigm designed to elicit an N400 effect.…

  20. Geothermal Energy: Tapping the Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Bill

    2008-01-01

    Ground source geothermal energy enables one to tap into the earth's stored renewable energy for heating and cooling facilities. Proper application of ground-source geothermal technology can have a dramatic impact on the efficiency and financial performance of building energy utilization (30%+). At the same time, using this alternative energy…

  1. Potential impacts of wintertime soil moisture anomalies from agricultural irrigation at low latitudes on regional and global climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wey, Hao-Wei; Lo, Min-Hui; Lee, Shih-Yu; Yu, Jin-Yi; Hsu, Huang-Hsiung

    2015-10-01

    Anthropogenic water management can change surface energy budgets and the water cycle. In this study, we focused on impacts of Asian low-latitude irrigation on regional and global climates during boreal wintertime. A state-of-the-art Earth system model is used to simulate the land-air interaction processes affected by irrigation and the consequent responses in atmospheric circulation. Perturbed experiments show that wet soil moisture anomalies at low latitudes can reduce the surface temperature on a continental scale through atmospheric feedback. The intensity of prevailing monsoon circulation becomes stronger because of larger land-sea thermal contrast. Furthermore, anomalous upper level convergence over South Asia and midlatitude climatic changes indicate tropical-extratropical teleconnections. The wintertime Aleutian low is deepened and an anomalous warm surface temperature is found in North America. Previous studies have noted this warming but left it unexplained, and we provide plausible mechanisms for these remote impacts coming from the irrigation over Asian low-latitude regions.

  2. Potential energy of a dinuclear system

    SciTech Connect

    Adamyan, G.G.; Antonenko, N.V.; Jolos, R.V.; Ivanova, S.P.; Mel`nikova, O.I.

    1994-11-01

    An effective method for calculating the potential energy of a dinuclear system is proposed. Analytic expressions for calculating the nuclear part of the nucleus-nucleus potential in the double-folding form are obtained. A relationship between this potential and the proximity potential is found. Effects of deformation and mutual orientation of nuclei on the interaction potential are studied. It follows from a comparison of calculated potential energies with nuclear binding energies that excited states of some nuclei can be treated as dinuclear or trinuclear systems. 27 refs., 7 figs.

  3. Potential of renewable and alternative energy sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konovalov, V.; Pogharnitskaya, O.; Rostovshchikova, A.; Matveenko, I.

    2015-11-01

    The article deals with application potential of clean alternative renewable energy sources. By means of system analysis the forecast for consumption of electrical energy in Tomsk Oblast as well as main energy sources of existing energy system have been studied up to 2018. Engineering potential of renewable and alternative energy sources is evaluated. Besides, ranking in the order of their efficiency descending is performed. It is concluded that Tomsk Oblast has high potential of alternative and renewable energy sources, among which the most promising development perspective is implementation of gasification stations to save fuel consumed by diesel power stations as well as building wind-power plants.

  4. Geothermal Energy Potential of Turkey: Inferred from the Aeromagnetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ates, Abdullah; Bilim, Funda; Buyuksarac, Aydin; Bektas, Ozcan

    2010-05-01

    Geothermal energy potential of Turkey is well known. There are lots of hot springs with over 30° C water temperatures. However, the significance of these geothermal energy potential of Turkey is not adequately understood. We believe that the main reason for this; is the lack of exploration methods and tools in a wide area as large as Turkey. We exploited a well known physical property of rocks to estimate the geothermal energy potential. Physically, substances lose their magnetization above a temperature known as the Curie that is the 580° C for magnetite. Properties of the Curie temperature have been exploited to observe the bottom depth of the magnetization. That is the depth where the heat reaches to 580° C. In another word, there is no magnetization below this depth. In normal crust this depth is about 22-24 km. Thus, investigation of the bottom depth of magnetization by using aeromagnetic anomalies can lead to information that if there are any anomalous regions well above the normal crust. The aeromagnetic anomalies of whole of Turkey were surveyed by the Mineral Research and Exploration (MTA) of Turkey. The survey was completed during late 1980's. Five kilometers grid data were available and used for regional exploration purposes. Exploration of the geothermal energy potential of Turkey was done from west to east in the similar way to search for shallow high temperature regions. These are from west to east; i.) Western Turkey: Two major shallow depth regions were determined at the west of Kutahya and the north-east of Denizli. The Curie Point Depths (CPDs) were calculated as about 7 km and about 9 km in Kutahya and Denizli, respectively. Also, high heat flow values and crustal thinning (about 32 km from gravity anomalies of western Turkey) were calculated for western Turkey. ii.) Central Turkey: A CPD depth of 8 km was calculated. This gives us a temperature gradient of 0.073° C/m. Geothermal energy potential was studied using water chemistry and isotopic

  5. Exam Question Exchange: Potential Energy Surfaces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, John J., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Presents three examination questions, graded in difficulty, that explore the topic of potential energy surfaces using a diagrammatic approach. Provides and discusses acceptable solutions including diagrams. (CW)

  6. Nolen-Schiffer anomaly

    SciTech Connect

    Pieper, S.C.; Wiringa, R.B.

    1995-08-01

    The Argonne v{sub 18} potential contains a detailed treatment of the pp, pn and nn electromagnetic potential, including Coulomb, vacuum polarization, Darwin Foldy and magnetic moment terms, all with suitable form factors and was fit to pp and pn data using the appropriate nuclear masses. In addition, it contains a nuclear charge-symmetry breaking (CSB) term adjusted to reproduce the difference in the experimental pp and nn scattering lengths. We have used these potential terms to compute differences in the binding energies of mirror isospin-1/2 nuclei (Nolen-Schiffer [NS] anomaly). Variational Monte Carlo calculations for the {sup 3}He-{sup 3}H system and cluster variational Monte Carlo for the {sup 15}O-{sup 15}N and {sup 17}F-{sup 17}O systems were made. In the first case, the best variational wave function for the A = 3 nuclei was used. However, because our {sup 16}O wave function does not reproduce accurately the {sup 16}O rms radius, to which the NS anomaly is very sensitive, we adjusted the A = 15 and A = 17 wave functions to reproduce the experimental density profiles. Our computed energy differences for these three systems are 0.757 {plus_minus} .001, 3.544 {plus_minus} .018 and 3.458 {plus_minus} .040 MeV respectively, which are to be compared with the experimental differences of 0.764, 3.537, and 3.544 MeV. Most of the theoretical uncertainties are due to uncertainties in the experimental rms radii. The nuclear CSB potential contributes 0.066, 0.188, and 0.090 MeV to these totals. We also attempted calculations for A = 39 and A = 41. However, in these cases, the experimental uncertainties in the rms radius make it impossible to extract useful information about the contribution of the nuclear CSB potential.

  7. Holonomy anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Bagger, J.; Nemeschansky, D.; Yankielowicz, S.

    1985-05-01

    A new type of anomaly is discussed that afflicts certain non-linear sigma models with fermions. This anomaly is similar to the ordinary gauge and gravitational anomalies since it reflects a topological obstruction to the reparametrization invariance of the quantum effective action. Nonlinear sigma models are constructed based on homogeneous spaces G/H. Anomalies arising when the fermions are chiral are shown to be cancelled sometimes by Chern-Simons terms. Nonlinear sigma models are considered based on general Riemannian manifolds. 9 refs. (LEW)

  8. Bangui Anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Patrick T.

    2004-01-01

    Bangui anomaly is the name given to one of the Earth s largest crustal magnetic anomalies and the largest over the African continent. It covers two-thirds of the Central African Republic and therefore the name derives from the capitol city-Bangui that is also near the center of this feature. From surface magnetic survey data Godivier and Le Donche (1962) were the first to describe this anomaly. Subsequently high-altitude world magnetic surveying by the U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office (Project Magnet) recorded a greater than 1000 nT dipolar, peak-to-trough anomaly with the major portion being negative (figure 1). Satellite observations (Cosmos 49) were first reported in 1964, these revealed a 40nT anomaly at 350 km altitude. Subsequently the higher altitude (417-499km) POGO (Polar Orbiting Geomagnetic Observatory) satellite data recorded peak-to-trough anomalies of 20 nT these data were added to Cosmos 49 measurements by Regan et al. (1975) for a regional satellite altitude map. In October 1979, with the launch of Magsat, a satellite designed to measure crustal magnetic anomalies, a more uniform satellite altitude magnetic map was obtained. These data, computed at 375 km altitude recorded a -22 nT anomaly (figure 2). This elliptically shaped anomaly is approximately 760 by 1000 km and is centered at 6%, 18%. The Bangui anomaly is composed of three segments; there are two positive anomalies lobes north and south of a large central negative field. This displays the classic pattern of a magnetic anomalous body being magnetized by induction in a zero inclination field. This is not surprising since the magnetic equator passes near the center of this body.

  9. Energy dependence of the optical potentials for the 9Be +208Pb and 9Be +209Bi systems at near-Coulomb-barrier energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez Camacho, A.; Yu, N.; Zhang, H. Q.; Gomes, P. R. S.; Jia, H. M.; Lubian, J.; Lin, C. J.

    2015-04-01

    We analyze the energy dependence of the interacting optical potential, at near barrier energies, for two systems involving the weakly bound projectile 9Be and the heavy 208Pb and 209Bi targets, by the simultaneous fit of elastic scattering angular distributions and fusion excitation functions. The approach used consists of dividing the optical potential into two parts. A short-range potential VF+i WF that is responsible for fusion, and a superficial potential VDR+i WDR for direct reactions. It is found, for both systems studied, that the fusion imaginary potential WF presents the usual threshold anomaly (TA) observed in tightly bound systems, whereas the direct reaction imaginary potential WDR shows a breakup threshold anomaly (BTA) behavior. Both potentials satisfy the dispersion relation. The direct reaction polarization potential predominates over the fusion potential and so a net overall behavior is found to follow the BTA phenomenon.

  10. Energy potential of modern landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Bogner, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    Methane produced by refuse decomposition in a sanitary landfill can be recovered for commercial use. Landfill methane is currently under-utilized, with commercial recovery at only a small percentage of US landfills. New federal regulations mandating control of landfill gas migration and atmospheric emissions are providing impetus to methane recovery schemes as a means of recovering costs for increased environmental control. The benefits of landfill methane recovery include utilization of an inexpensive renewable energy resource, removal of explosive gas mixtures from the subsurface, and mitigation of observed historic increases in atmospheric methane. Increased commercial interest in landfill methane recovery is dependent on the final form of Clean Air Act amendments pertaining to gaseous emissions from landfills; market shifts in natural gas prices; financial incentives for development of renewable energy resources; and support for applied research and development to develop techniques for increased control of the gas generation process in situ. This paper will discuss the controls on methane generation in landfills. In addition, it will address how landfill regulations affect landfill design and site management practices which, in turn, influence decomposition rates. Finally, future trends in landfilling, and their relationship to gas production, will be examined. 19 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Geothermal Energy Potential in Western United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryde, Philip R.

    1977-01-01

    Reviews types of geothermal energy sources in the western states, including hot brine systems and dry steam systems. Conversion to electrical energy is a major potential use of geothermal energy, although it creates environmental disruptions such as noise, corrosion, and scaling of equipment. (AV)

  12. A comparison of classical and intelligent methods to detect potential thermal anomalies before the 11 August 2012 Varzeghan, Iran, earthquake (Mw = 6.4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhoondzadeh, M.

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, a number of classical and intelligent methods, including interquartile, autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA), artificial neural network (ANN) and support vector machine (SVM), have been proposed to quantify potential thermal anomalies around the time of the 11 August 2012 Varzeghan, Iran, earthquake (Mw = 6.4). The duration of the data set, which is comprised of Aqua-MODIS land surface temperature (LST) night-time snapshot images, is 62 days. In order to quantify variations of LST data obtained from satellite images, the air temperature (AT) data derived from the meteorological station close to the earthquake epicenter has been taken into account. For the models examined here, results indicate the following: (i) ARIMA models, which are the most widely used in the time series community for short-term forecasting, are quickly and easily implemented, and can efficiently act through linear solutions. (ii) A multilayer perceptron (MLP) feed-forward neural network can be a suitable non-parametric method to detect the anomalous changes of a non-linear time series such as variations of LST. (iii) Since SVMs are often used due to their many advantages for classification and regression tasks, it can be shown that, if the difference between the predicted value using the SVM method and the observed value exceeds the pre-defined threshold value, then the observed value could be regarded as an anomaly. (iv) ANN and SVM methods could be powerful tools in modeling complex phenomena such as earthquake precursor time series where we may not know what the underlying data generating process is. There is good agreement in the results obtained from the different methods for quantifying potential anomalies in a given LST time series. This paper indicates that the detection of the potential thermal anomalies derive credibility from the overall efficiencies and potentialities of the four integrated methods.

  13. Wave Energy Potential in the Latvian EEZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beriņš, J.; Beriņš, J.; Kalnačs, J.; Kalnačs, A.

    2016-06-01

    The present article deals with one of the alternative forms of energy - sea wave energy potential in the Latvian Exclusice Economic Zone (EEZ). Results have been achieved using a new method - VEVPP. Calculations have been performed using the data on wave parameters over the past five years (2010-2014). We have also considered wave energy potential in the Gulf of Riga. The conclusions have been drawn on the recommended methodology for the sea wave potential and power calculations for wave-power plant pre-design stage.

  14. Theoretical studies of potential energy surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, L.B.

    1995-07-01

    MRCI (configuration interaction) calculations were used to examine possible pathways for the O{sub 2} + CCH reaction. The H{sub 2} + CN potential surface was examined. An initial survey was made of the HCl + CN potential energy surface at a low level of theory.

  15. Potential of energy production from conserved forages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forages have a potential role in meeting the demand for energy. Perennial forages are attractive for various reasons. One, both the monetary and energy cost of planting is spread over many years. Two, we already have the equipment for harvesting, storing and transporting this source of biomass. Thre...

  16. Wind energy in China: Estimating the potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Jiahai

    2016-07-01

    Persistent and significant curtailment has cast concern over the prospects of wind power in China. A comprehensive assessment of the production of energy from wind has identified grid-integrated wind generation potential at 11.9–14% of China's projected energy demand by 2030.

  17. Tropical Cyclone Signatures in Atmospheric Convective Available Potential Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Studholme, Joshua; Gulev, Sergey

    2016-04-01

    Tropical cyclones play an important role in the climate system providing transports of energy and water vapor, forcing the ocean, and also affecting mid-latitude circulation phenomena. Tropical cyclone tracks experience strong interannual variability and in addition, longer term trend-like changes in all ocean basins. Analysis of recent historical data reveal a poleward shift in the locations of tropical cyclone tracks in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres (Kossin et al. 2014, Nature, 509, 349-352). The physical consequences of these alterations are largely unconstrained. For example, the increasing encroachment of tropical cyclone activity into the extra-tropical environment presents a novel and still poorly understood paradigm for tropical-extratropical interactions. In this respect, the role that the atmospheric convective available potential energy (CAPE) plays in the dynamics of tropical cyclones is highly interesting. The two characteristic global-scale spatial patterns in CAPE are identified using EOF analysis. The first pattern shows an abundance of CAPE in the centre of the Pacific and corresponds to the El Nino Southern Oscillation. The second one is capturing positive CAPE anomalies in the oceanic tropics and negative anomalies over equatorial Africa. Associated with these buoyancy patterns, alterations in tropical cyclone activity occur in all basins forming both zonal and meridional patterns. Atmospheric buoyancy is the trigger for deep convection, and subsequently cyclone genesis. This is the mechanism of impact upon location at the start of cyclone tracks. It is found to have less impact upon where cyclones subsequently move, whether or not they undergo extratropical transition and when and where they experience lysis. It is shown that CAPE plays a critical role in the general circulation in the tropics which in turn is the larger steering context for embedded systems within the Walker and Hadley cells. So this lack of `latter life' impact

  18. Economic Energy Savings Potential in Federal Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Daryl R.; Dirks, James A.; Hunt, Diane M.

    2000-09-04

    The primary objective of this study was to estimate the current life-cycle cost-effective (i.e., economic) energy savings potential in Federal buildings and the corresponding capital investment required to achieve these savings, with Federal financing. Estimates were developed for major categories of energy efficiency measures such as building envelope, heating system, cooling system, and lighting. The analysis was based on conditions (building stock and characteristics, retrofit technologies, interest rates, energy prices, etc.) existing in the late 1990s. The potential impact of changes to any of these factors in the future was not considered.

  19. Spatio-Temporal Sensitivity of MODIS Land Surface Temperature Anomalies Indicates High Potential for Large-Scale Land Cover Change Detection in Permafrost Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muster, S.; Langer, M.; Abnizova, A.; Young, K. L.; Boike, J.

    2014-12-01

    The accelerated warming Arctic climate may alter the surface energy balance locally and regionally of which a changing land surface temperature (LST) is a key indicator. Modelling current and anticipated changes of the surface energy balance requires an understanding of the spatio-temporal interactions between LST and land cover. This paper investigated the accuracy of MODIS LST V5 1 km level 3 product and its spatio-temporal sensitivity to land cover properties in a Canadian High Arctic permafrost landscape. Land cover ranged from fully vegetated moss/segde grass tundra to sparsely vegetated bare soil and barren areas. Daily mean MODIS LST were compared to in-situ radiometer measurements over wet tundra for three summers and two winters in 2008, 2009, and 2010. MODIS LST showed an accuracy of 1.8°C and a RMSE of 3.8°C in the total observation period including both summer and winter. Agreement was lowest during summer 2009 and freeze-back periods which were associated with prevailing overcast conditions. A multi-year anomaly analysis revealed robust spatio-temporal patterns taking into account the found uncertainty and different atmospheric conditions. Summer periods with regional mean LST larger than 5°C showed highest spatial diversity with four distinct anomaly classes. Dry ridge areas heated up most whereas wetland areas and dry barren surfaces with high albedo were coolest. Mean inter-annual differences of LST anomalies for different land cover classes were less than 1°C. However, spatial pattern showed fewer positive anomalies in 2010 suggesting differences in surface moisture due to inter­annual differences in the amount of end-of-winter snow. Presented summer LST anomalies might serve as a baseline against which to evaluate past and future changes in land surface properties with regard to the surface energy balance. Sub-temporal heterogeneity due to snow or ice on/off as well as the effect of subpixel water bodies has to be taken into account. A multi

  20. Effect of Strong Correlations on the High Energy Anomaly in Hole- and Electron-Doped High-Tc Superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Moritz, B.; Schmitt, F.; Meevasana, W.; Johnston, S.; Motoyama, E.M.; Greven, M.; Lu, D.H.; Kim, C.; Scalettar, R.T.; Shen, Z.-X.; Devereaux, T.P.; /SLAC, SIMES

    2010-02-15

    Recently, angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) has been used to highlight an anomalously large band renormalization at high binding energies in cuprate superconductors: the high energy 'waterfall' or high energy anomaly (HEA). This paper demonstrates, using a combination of new ARPES measurements and quantum Monte Carlo simulations, that the HEA is not simply the byproduct of matrix element effects, but rather represents a cross-over from a quasi-particle band at low binding energies near the Fermi level to valence bands at higher binding energy, assumed to be of strong oxygen character, in both hole- and electron-doped cuprates. While photoemission matrix elements clearly play a role in changing the aesthetic appearance of the band dispersion, i.e. the 'waterfall'-like behavior, they provide an inadequate description for the physics that underlies the strong band renormalization giving rise to the HEA. Model calculations of the single-band Hubbard Hamiltonian showcase the role played by correlations in the formation of the HEA and uncover significant differences in the HEA energy scale for hole- and electron-doped cuprates. In addition, this approach properly captures the transfer of spectral weight accompanying both hole and electron doping in a correlated material and provides a unifying description of the HEA across both sides of the cuprate phase diagram.

  1. A universal high energy anomaly in angle resolved photoemissionspectra of high temperature superconductors -- possible evidence ofspinon and holon branches

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, J.; Gweon, G.-H.; McElroy, K.; Zhou, S.Y.; Jozwiak, C.; Rotenberg, E.; Bill, A.; Sasagawa, T.; Eisaki, H.; Uchida, S.; Takagi,H.; Lee, D.-H.; Lanzara A.

    2006-12-19

    A universal high energy anomaly in the single particlespectral function is reported in three different families of hightemperature superconductors by using angle-resolved photoemissionspectroscopy. As we follow the dispersing peak of the spectral functionfrom the Fermi energy to the valence band complex, we find dispersionanomalies marked by two distinctive high energy scales, E_1 approx 0.38eV and E_2 approx 0.8 eV. E_1 marks the energy above which the dispersionsplits into two branches. One is a continuation of the near parabolicdispersion, albeit with reduced spectral weight, and reaches the bottomof the band at the Gamma point at approx 0.5 eV. The other is given by apeak in the momentum space, nearly independent of energy between E_1 andE_2. Above E_2, a band-like dispersion re-emerges. We conjecture thatthese two energies mark the disintegration of the low energyquasiparticles into a spinon and holon branch in the high T_c cuprates.

  2. Potential energy function for the hydroperoxyl radical

    SciTech Connect

    Lemon, W.J.; Hase, W.L.

    1987-03-12

    A switching function formalism is used to derive an analytic potential energy surface for the O + OH in equilibrium HO/sub 2/ in equilibrium H + O/sub 2/ reactive system. Both experimental and ab initio data are used to derive parameters for the potential energy surface. Trajectory calculations for highly excited HO/sub 2/ are performed on this surface. From these trajectories quasi-periodic eigentrajectories are found for vibrational levels near the HO/sub 2/ dissociation threshold with small amounts of quanta in the OH stretch mode and large amounts of quanta in the OO stretch mode.

  3. Geothermal energy and its potential. [Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Berge, C.W.

    1980-06-01

    A brief review of geothermal energy and its potential as a future energy source is presented. The type of geothermal systems and their geologic occurrence is discussed, and the Phillips Petroleum Company's exploration and drilling programs in the Roosevelt Hot Springs area in parts of Iron, Beaver, and Millard Counties, Utah are detailed. A section on the rock behavior and mechanical properties of rocks in the Roosevelt Hot Springs area is included. (JMT)

  4. Biomass resource potential using energy crops

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, L.L.; Cushman, J.H.; Martin, S.A.

    1993-09-01

    Biomass energy crops can provide a significant and environmentally beneficial source of renewable energy feedstocks for the future. They can revitalize the agricultural sector of the US economy by providing profitable uses for marginal cropland. Energy crops include fast-growing trees, perennial grasses, and annual grasses, all capable of collecting solar energy and storing it as cellulosic compounds for several months to several years. Once solar energy is thus captured, it can be converted by means of currently available technologies to a wide variety of energy products such as electricity, heat, liquid transportation fuels, and gases. Experimental results from field trials have generated optimism that selected and improved energy crops, established on cropland with moderate limitations for crop production, have the potential for producing high yields. Both trees and grasses, under very good growing conditions, have produced average annual yields of 20 to 40 dry Mg ha{sup {minus}1} year{sup {minus}1}. Sorghum has shown especially high yields in the Midwest. Hybrids between sugar cane and its wild relatives, called energy cane, have yielded as much as 50 dry Mg ha{sup {minus}1} year{sup {minus}1} in Florida. These experimental results demonstrate that some species have the genetic potential for very rapid growth rates. New wood energy crop systems developed by the Department of Energy`s Biofuels Feedstock Development Program offer, at a minimum, a 100% increase in biomass production rates over the 2 to 4 Mg ha{sup {minus}1} year{sup {minus}1} of dry leafless woody biomass produced by most natural forest systems. Experimental data indicate that short rotation wood crops established on cropland with moderate limitations are capable of producing biomass yields of 8--20 dry Mg ha{sup {minus}1} year{sup {minus}1} with a present average about 11 dry Mg ha{sup {minus}1} year{sup {minus}1} on typical cropland sites.

  5. Potential reduction of DSN uplink energy cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolinsky, S.; Degroot, N. F.

    1982-01-01

    DSN Earth stations typically transmit more power than that required to meet minimum specifications for uplink performance. Energy and cost savings that could result from matching the uplink power to the amount required for specified performance are studied. The Galileo mission was selected as a case study. Although substantial reduction in transmitted energy is possible, potential savings in source energy (oil or electricity) savings are much less. This is because of the rising inefficiency in power conversion and radio frequency power generation that accompanies reduced power output.

  6. Potential energy studies on silane dimers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahlanen, Riina; Pakkanen, Tapani A.

    2011-04-01

    Intermolecular interactions and parameters for use in MD studies of large molecule systems have earlier been determined for hydrocarbons, carbon tetrahalides and sulfur. The paper reports a model representing nonbonding interactions between silane molecules, which were examined in the same way as hydrocarbons in an earlier (neopentane, isopropane, propane, and ethane) study. Intermolecular potentials were determined for 11 combinations of silane compound pairs (silane SiH 4, disilane Si 2H 6, trisilane Si 3H 8, isotetrasilane Si 4H 10 and neopentasilane Si 5H 12) with MP2/aug(df)-6-311G ∗ab initio calculations. The most stable dimer configurations were identified. With use of the modified Morse potential model to represent the interactions, 276 new potential energy surfaces were generated for silane dimers. Separate and generic pair potentials were calculated for the silanes. The pair potentials can be used in MD studies of silanes.

  7. DOWN'S ANOMALY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PENROSE, L.S.; SMITH, G.F.

    BOTH CLINICAL AND PATHOLOGICAL ASPECTS AND MATHEMATICAL ELABORATIONS OF DOWN'S ANOMALY, KNOWN ALSO AS MONGOLISM, ARE PRESENTED IN THIS REFERENCE MANUAL FOR PROFESSIONAL PERSONNEL. INFORMATION PROVIDED CONCERNS (1) HISTORICAL STUDIES, (2) PHYSICAL SIGNS, (3) BONES AND MUSCLES, (4) MENTAL DEVELOPMENT, (5) DERMATOGLYPHS, (6) HEMATOLOGY, (7)…

  8. Fermi energy dependence of first- and second-order Raman spectra in graphene: Kohn anomaly and quantum interference effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasdeo, Eddwi H.; Nugraha, Ahmad R. T.; Dresselhaus, Mildred S.; Saito, Riichiro

    2016-08-01

    Intensities of the first- and the second-order Raman spectra are calculated as a function of the Fermi energy. We show that the Kohn anomaly effect, i.e., phonon frequency renormalization, in the first-order Raman spectra originates from the phonon renormalization by the interband electron-hole excitation, whereas in the second-order Raman spectra, a competition between the interband and intraband electron-hole excitations takes place. By this calculation, we confirm the presence of different dispersive behaviors of the Raman peak frequency as a function of the Fermi energy for the first- and the second-order Raman spectra, as observed in some previous experiments. Moreover, the calculated results of the Raman intensity sensitively depend on the Fermi energy for both the first- and the second-order Raman spectra, indicating the presence of the quantum interference effect. The electron-phonon matrix element plays an important role in the intensity increase (decrease) of the combination (overtone) phonon modes as a function of the Fermi energy.

  9. Potential energy savings from aquifer thermal energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.R.; Weijo, R.O.

    1988-07-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory researchers developed an aggregate-level model to estimate the short- and long-term potential energy savings from using aquifer thermal storage (ATES) in the United States. The objectives of this effort were to (1) develop a basis from which to recommend whether heat or chill ATES should receive future research focus and (2) determine which market sector (residential, commercial, or industrial) offers the largest potential energy savings from ATES. Information was collected on the proportion of US land area suitable for ATES applications. The economic feasibility of ATES applications was then evaluated. The potential energy savings from ATES applications was calculated. Characteristic energy use in the residential, commercial, and industrial sectors was examined, as was the relationship between waste heat production and consumption by industrial end-users. These analyses provided the basis for two main conclusions: heat ATES applications offer higher potential for energy savings than do chill ATES applications; and the industrial sector can achieve the highest potential energy savings for the large consumption markets. Based on these findings, it is recommended that future ATES research and development efforts be directed toward heat ATES applications in the industrial sector. 11 refs., 6 figs., 9 tabs.

  10. Potential energy hypersurface and molecular flexibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koča, Jaroslav

    1993-02-01

    The molecular flexibility phenomenon is discussed from the conformational potential energy(hyper) surface (PES) point of view. Flexibility is considered as a product of three terms: thermodynamic, kinetic and geometrical. Several expressions characterizing absolute and relative molecular flexibility are introduced, depending on a subspace studied of the entire conformational space, energy level E of PES as well as absolute temperature. Results obtained by programs DAISY, CICADA and PANIC in conjunction with molecular mechanics program MMX for flexibility analysis of isopentane, 2,2-dimethylpentane and isohexane molecules are introduced.

  11. Computed potential energy surfaces for chemical reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walch, Stephen P.

    1994-01-01

    Quantum mechanical methods have been used to compute potential energy surfaces for chemical reactions. The reactions studied were among those believed to be important to the NASP and HSR programs and included the recombination of two H atoms with several different third bodies; the reactions in the thermal Zeldovich mechanism; the reactions of H atom with O2, N2, and NO; reactions involved in the thermal De-NO(x) process; and the reaction of CH(squared Pi) with N2 (leading to 'prompt NO'). These potential energy surfaces have been used to compute reaction rate constants and rates of unimolecular decomposition. An additional application was the calculation of transport properties of gases using a semiclassical approximation (and in the case of interactions involving hydrogen inclusion of quantum mechanical effects).

  12. Computed potential energy surfaces for chemical reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walch, Stephen P.

    1990-01-01

    The objective was to obtain accurate potential energy surfaces (PES's) for a number of reactions which are important in the H/N/O combustion process. The interest in this is centered around the design of the SCRAM jet engine for the National Aerospace Plane (NASP), which was envisioned as an air-breathing hydrogen-burning vehicle capable of reaching velocities as large as Mach 25. Preliminary studies indicated that the supersonic flow in the combustor region of the scram jet engine required accurate reaction rate data for reactions in the H/N/O system, some of which was not readily available from experiment. The most important class of combustion reactions from the standpoint of the NASP project are radical recombinaton reactions, since these reactions result in most of the heat release in the combustion process. Theoretical characterizations of the potential energy surfaces for these reactions are presented and discussed.

  13. Potential Energy Curves of Hydrogen Fluoride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fallon, Robert J.; Vanderslice, Joseph T.; Mason, Edward A.

    1960-01-01

    Potential energy curves for the X(sup 1)sigma+ and V(sup 1)sigma+ states of HF and DF have been calculated by the Rydberg-Klein-Rees method. The results calculated from the different sets of data for HF and DF are found to be in very good agreement. The theoretical results of Karo are compared to the experimental results obtained here.

  14. Energy Savings Potential of Radiative Cooling Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, Nicholas; Wang, Weimin; Alvine, Kyle J.; Katipamula, Srinivas

    2015-11-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Program (BTP), conducted a study to estimate, through simulation, the potential cooling energy savings that could be achieved through novel approaches to capturing free radiative cooling in buildings, particularly photonic ‘selective emittance’ materials. This report documents the results of that study.

  15. Convective Available Potential Energy of World Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Z.; Ingersoll, A. P.; Thompson, A. F.

    2012-12-01

    Here, for the first time, we propose the concept of Ocean Convective Available Potential Energy (OCAPE), which is the maximum kinetic energy (KE) per unit seawater mass achievable by ocean convection. OCAPE occurs through a different mechanism from atmospheric CAPE, and involves the interplay of temperature and salinity on the equation of state of seawater. The thermobaric effect, which arises because the thermal coefficient of expansion increases with depth, is an important ingredient of OCAPE. We develop an accurate algorithm to calculate the OCAPE for a given temperature and salinity profile. We then validate our calculation of OCAPE by comparing it with the conversion of OCAPE to KE in a 2-D numerical model. We propose that OCAPE is an important energy source of ocean deep convection and contributes to deep water formation. OCAPE, like Atmospheric CAPE, can help predict deep convection and may also provide a useful constraint for modelling deep convection in ocean GCMs. We plot the global distribution of OCAPE using data from the World Ocean Atlas 2009 (WOA09) and see many important features. These include large values of OCAPE in the Labrador, Greenland, Weddell and Mediterranean Seas, which are consistent with our present observations and understanding, but also identify some new features like the OCAPE pattern in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC). We propose that the diagnosis of OCAPE can improve our understanding of global patterns of ocean convection and deep water formation as well as ocean stratification, the meridional overturning circulation and mixed layer processes. The background of this work is briefly introduced as below. Open-ocean deep convection can significantly modify water properties both at the ocean surface and throughout the water column (Gordon 1982). Open-ocean convection is also an important mechanism for Ocean Deep Water formation and the transport of heat, freshwater and nutrient (Marshall and Schott 1999). Open

  16. Astrometric solar system anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Nieto, Michael Martin; Anderson, John D

    2009-01-01

    There are at least four unexplained anomalies connected with astrometric data. perhaps the most disturbing is the fact that when a spacecraft on a flyby trajectory approaches the Earth within 2000 km or less, it often experiences a change in total orbital energy per unit mass. next, a secular change in the astronomical unit AU is definitely a concern. It is increasing by about 15 cm yr{sup -1}. The other two anomalies are perhaps less disturbing because of known sources of nongravitational acceleration. The first is an apparent slowing of the two Pioneer spacecraft as they exit the solar system in opposite directions. Some astronomers and physicists are convinced this effect is of concern, but many others are convinced it is produced by a nearly identical thermal emission from both spacecraft, in a direction away from the Sun, thereby producing acceleration toward the Sun. The fourth anomaly is a measured increase in the eccentricity of the Moon's orbit. Here again, an increase is expected from tidal friction in both the Earth and Moon. However, there is a reported unexplained increase that is significant at the three-sigma level. It is produent to suspect that all four anomalies have mundane explanations, or that one or more anomalies are a result of systematic error. Yet they might eventually be explained by new physics. For example, a slightly modified theory of gravitation is not ruled out, perhaps analogous to Einstein's 1916 explanation for the excess precession of Mercury's perihelion.

  17. The Wind Energy Potential of Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawri, Nikolai; Nína Petersen, Guðrún; Bjornsson, Halldór; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Jónasson, Kristján; Bay Hasager, Charlotte; Clausen, Niels-Erik

    2014-05-01

    While Iceland has an abundant wind energy resource, its use for electrical power production has so far been limited. Electricity in Iceland is generated primarily from hydro- and geothermal sources, and adding wind energy has so far not been considered practical or even necessary. However, wind energy is becoming a more viable option, as opportunities for new hydro- or geothermal power installations become limited. In order to obtain an estimate of the wind energy potential of Iceland, a wind atlas has been developed as part of the joint Nordic project 'Improved Forecast of Wind, Waves and Icing' (IceWind). Downscaling simulations performed with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model were used to determine the large-scale wind energy potential of Iceland. Local wind speed distributions are represented by Weibull statistics. The shape parameter across Iceland varies between 1.2 and 3.6, with the lowest values indicative of near-exponential distributions at sheltered locations, and the highest values indicative of normal distributions at exposed locations in winter. Compared with summer, average power density in winter is increased throughout Iceland by a factor of 2.0 - 5.5. In any season, there are also considerable spatial differences in average wind power density. Relative to the average value within 10 km of the coast, power density across Iceland varies between 50 - 250%, excluding glaciers, or between 300 - 1500 W m-2 at 50 m above ground level in winter. At intermediate elevations of 500 - 1000 m above mean sea level, power density is independent of the distance to the coast. In addition to seasonal and spatial variability, differences in average wind speed and power density also exist for different wind directions. Along the coast in winter, power density of onshore winds is higher by 100 - 700 W m-2 than that of offshore winds. The regions with the highest average wind speeds are impractical for wind farms, due to the distances from road

  18. Potential energy surfaces of Polonium isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nerlo-Pomorska, B.; Pomorski, K.; Schmitt, C.; Bartel, J.

    2015-11-01

    The evolution of the potential energy landscape is analysed in detail for ten even-even polonium isotopes in the mass range 188\\lt A\\lt 220 as obtained within the macroscopic-microscopic approach, relying on the Lublin-Strasbourg drop model and the Yukawa-folded single-particle energies for calculating the microscopic shell and pairing corrections. A variant of the modified Funny-Hills nuclear shape parametrization is used to efficiently map possible fission paths. The approach explains the main features of the fragment partition as measured in low-energy fission along the polonium chain. The latter lies in a transitional region of the nuclear chart, and will be essential to consistently understand the evolution of fission properties from neutron-deficient mercury to heavy actinides. The ability of our method to predict fission observables over such an extended region looks promising.

  19. Detection of High-Potential Oil and Gas Fields Using Normalized Full Gradient of Gravity Anomalies: A Case Study in the Tabas Basin, Eastern Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghajani, Hamid; Moradzadeh, Ali; Zeng, Hualin

    2011-10-01

    The normalized full gradient (NFG) represents the full gradient of the gravity anomaly at a point divided by the average of the full gradient at the same point. The NFG minimum between two maxima in an NFG section or a closed minimum surrounded by closed maxima on an NFG map may indicate density-deficient anomalies closely related to possible oil-gas reservoirs. On a cross-section, closed minima can be used to estimate the depth to centers of possible hydrocarbon reservoirs. The NFG map can also be used to locate oil-gas exploratory wells for estimation of the depth of possible reservoirs. The objective of this paper is to use two and three-dimensional (2D and 3D) NFG on gravity data of the Tabas basin in Yazd province, eastern Iran. A hypothetical model is first considered to explore the NFG characteristics and their relationship with the geometry of the model. The physical properties of the model are then studied to simplify the interpretation of real data. Finally 2D and 3D NFG models are developed for real gravity data to predict the location of any possible high potential oil-gas reservoirs. The results obtained indicate two zones in the northern and central parts of the Tabas basin suitable for hydrocarbon prospecting. However, the favorable zone located in the middle of the basin in which anticline E is detected at a depth of 5-7 km is more important for the purpose of hydrocarbon exploration.

  20. Resolving Anomalies in Predicting Electrokinetic Energy Conversion Efficiencies of Nanofluidic Devices

    PubMed Central

    Majumder, Sagardip; Dhar, Jayabrata; Chakraborty, Suman

    2015-01-01

    We devise a new approach for capturing complex interfacial interactions over reduced length scales, towards predicting electrokinetic energy conversion efficiencies of nanofluidic devices. By embedding several aspects of intermolecular interactions in continuum based formalism, we show that our simple theory becomes capable of representing complex interconnections between electro-mechanics and hydrodynamics over reduced length scales. The predictions from our model are supported by reported experimental data, and are in excellent quantitative agreement with molecular dynamics simulations. The present model, thus, may be employed to rationalize the discrepancies between low energy conversion efficiencies of nanofluidic channels that have been realized from experiments, and the impractically high energy conversion efficiencies that have been routinely predicted by the existing theories. PMID:26437925

  1. Evaluation of Süleymanköy (Diyarbakir, Eastern Turkey) and Seferihisar (Izmir, Western Turkey) Self Potential Anomalies with Multilayer Perceptron Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaftan, Ilknur; Sindirgi, Petek

    2013-04-01

    Self-potential (SP) is one of the oldest geophysical methods that provides important information about near-surface structures. Several methods have been developed to interpret SP data using simple geometries. This study investigated inverse solution of a buried, polarized sphere-shaped self-potential (SP ) anomaly via Multilayer Perceptron Neural Networks ( MLPNN ). The polarization angle ( α ) and depth to the centre of sphere ( h )were estimated. The MLPNN is applied to synthetic and field SP data. In order to see the capability of the method in detecting the number of sources, MLPNN was applied to different spherical models at different depths and locations.. Additionally, the performance of MLPNN was tested by adding random noise to the same synthetic test data. The sphere model successfully obtained similar parameters under different S/N ratios. Then, MLPNN method was applied to two field examples. The first one is the cross section taken from the SP anomaly map of the Ergani-Süleymanköy (Turkey) copper mine. MLPNN was also applied to SP data from Seferihisar Izmir (Western Turkey) geothermal field. The MLPNN results showed good agreement with the original synthetic data set. The effect of The technique gave satisfactory results following the addition of 5% and 10% Gaussian noise levels. The MLPNN results were compared to other SP interpretation techniques, such as Normalized Full Gradient (NFG), inverse solution and nomogram methods. All of the techniques showed strong similarity. Consequently, the synthetic and field applications of this study show that MLPNN provides reliable evaluation of the self potential data modelled by the sphere model.

  2. IRETHERM: The geothermal energy potential of Irish radiothermal granites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, Thomas; Jones, Alan; Muller, Mark; Feely, Martin; Brock, Andrew; Long, Mike; Waters, Tim

    2014-05-01

    The IRETHERM project is developing a strategic understanding of Ireland's deep geothermal energy potential through integrated modelling of new and existing geophysical and geological data. One aspect of IRETHERM's research focuses on Ireland's radiothermal granites, where increased concentrations of radioelements provide elevated heat-production (HP), surface heat-flow (SHF) and subsurface temperatures. An understanding of the contribution of granites to the thermal field of Ireland is important to assessing the geothermal energy potential of this low-enthalpy setting. This study focuses on the Galway granite in western Ireland, and the Leinster and the buried Kentstown granites in eastern Ireland. Shallow (<250 m) boreholes were drilled into the exposed Caledonian Leinster and Galway granites as part of a 1980's geothermal project. These studies yielded HP = 2-3 μWm-3 and HF = 80 mWm-2 at the Sally Gap borehole in the Northern Units of the Leinster granite, to the SW of Dublin. In the Galway granite batholith, on the west coast of Ireland, the Costelloe-Murvey granite returned HP = 7 μWm-3 and HF = 77 mWm-2, measured at the Rossaveal borehole. The buried Kentstown granite, 35 km NW of Dublin, has an associated negative Bouguer anomaly and was intersected by two mineral exploration boreholes at depths of 660 m and 490 m. Heat production is measured at 2.4 μWm-3 in core samples taken from the weathered top 30 m of the granite. The core of this study consists of a program of magnetotelluric (MT) and audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) data acquisition across the three granite bodies, over three fieldwork seasons. MT and AMT data were collected at 59 locations along two profiles over the Leinster granite. Preliminary results show that the northern units of the Leinster granite (40 km SW of Dublin) extend to depths of 2-5 km. Preliminary results from the southern profile suggest a greater thickness of granite to a depth of 6-9 km beneath the Tullow pluton, 75 km SW of

  3. Computed potential energy surfaces for chemical reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walch, Stephen P.; Levin, Eugene

    1993-01-01

    A new global potential energy surface (PES) is being generated for O(P-3) + H2 yields OH + H. This surface is being fit using the rotated Morse oscillator method, which was used to fit the previous POL-CI surface. The new surface is expected to be more accurate and also includes a much more complete sampling of bent geometries. A new study has been undertaken of the reaction N + O2 yields NO + O. The new studies have focused on the region of the surface near a possible minimum corresponding to the peroxy form of NOO. A large portion of the PES for this second reaction has been mapped out. Since state to state cross sections for the reaction are important in the chemistry of high temperature air, these studies will probably be extended to permit generation of a new global potential for reaction.

  4. Theoretical studies of potential energy surfaces.

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, L. B.

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this program is to calculate accurate potential energy surfaces for both reactive and nonreactive systems. To do this the electronic Schroedinger equation must be solved. Our approach starts with multiconfiguration self-consistent field (MCSCF) reference wave functions. These reference wavefunctions are designed to be sufficiently flexible to accurately describe changes in electronic structure over a broad range of geometries. Dynamical electron correlation effects are included via multireference, singles and doubles configuration interaction (MRCI) calculations. With this approach, we are able to provide chemically useful predictions of the energetics for many systems. A second aspect of this program is the development of techniques to fit multi-dimensional potential surfaces to convenient, global, analytic functions that can then be used in dynamics calculations.

  5. The wind energy potential of western Greece

    SciTech Connect

    Katsoulis, B.D.; Metaxas, D.A. )

    1992-12-01

    In this study wind data were used to determine the monthly and annual variations of the wind at 13 meterological stations in western Greece. An analysis of the available wind data for the Ionian Sea islands and the western coasts of Greece is carried out to ascertain its potential for wind energy development. The effect of the limited number of daily observations available on the accuracy of the mean wind speed and annual wind energy estimates is ascertained. The wind speed and direction distributions are represented with Weibull functions. Besides, a mass-consistent numerical mesoscale model was used to give an overview of the wind prospecting and siting problem, and an example of its use for Corfu (Kerkira), an island in the Ionian Sea, is given. The comparison of the accuracy of the stimulation results versus measured wind at an available site is quite encouraging even though it cannot be conclusive since only one station is available.

  6. Theoretical studies of potential energy surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, L.B.

    1993-12-01

    The goal of this program is to calculate accurate potential energy surfaces (PES) for both reactive and nonreactive systems. To do this the electronic Schrodinger equation must be solved. Our approach to this problem starts with multiconfiguration self-consistent field (MCSCF) reference wavefunctions. These reference wavefunctions are designed to be sufficiently flexible to accurately describe changes in electronic structure over a broad range of geometries. Electron correlation effects are included via multireference, singles and doubles configuration interaction (MRSDCI) calculations. With this approach, the authors are able to provide useful predictions of the energetics for a broad range of systems.

  7. Anomalies in the theory of viscous energy losses due to shear in rotational MEMS resonators.

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, Timothy Francis; Klody, Kelly Anne; Jenkins, Mark W.; Dohner, Jeffrey Lynn

    2003-12-01

    In this paper, the effect of viscous wave motion on a micro rotational resonator is discussed. This work shows the inadequacy of developing theory to represent energy losses due to shear motion in air. Existing theory predicts Newtonian losses with little slip at the interface. Nevertheless, experiments showed less effect due to Newtonian losses and elevated levels of slip for small gaps. Values of damping were much less than expected. Novel closed form solutions for the response of components are presented. The stiffness of the resonator is derived using Castigliano's theorem, and viscous fluid motion above and below the resonator is derived using a wave approach. Analytical results are compared with experimental results to determine the utility of existing theory. It was found that existing macro and molecular theory is inadequate to describes measured responses.

  8. Concerning the Relationship Between Broken Gauge Symmetry, Pons-Fleischmann Anomalies and Low Energy Nuclear Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubb, Scott; Chubb, Talbot

    2001-03-01

    In 1989, Pons and Fleischmann's claim of anomalous, non-chemical heat release in PdD provoked considerable confusion (C. G. Beaudette, \\underlineExcess Heat: Why Cold Fusion Research Prevailed.) (Oak Grove Press, LLC, ME, 2000). http://www.infinite-energy.com. An important reason for this was their failure to observe the High Energy Particles (HEP) that occur in conventional fusion. However, the assumption that HEP should be present assumes the underlying reaction involves localized particles, with large momenta p (and deBroglie wavelengths λD arrow 0). For this case, p can be defined classically, locally, using the ``usual" definition p=mv, (m=particle mass, v=its velocity). But when λ_D's of many D-nuclei arrow ∞ or preserve perfect periodic order, wave behavior takes over, and p ceases to be locally defined. Then mv=p-e/cA applies, and p may change ``abruptly" (as in the Mossbauer effect). The resulting broken gauge symmetry, which may allow D-nuclei to overlap at many locations simultaneously, can imply a new effect that seems to have been observed in various experiments: D+Darrow ^4He without γ rays or other HEP(http:// www.aps.org/meet/CENT99/BAPS/abs/S9500.html).

  9. Gravitational anomalies in the solar system?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iorio, Lorenzo

    2015-02-01

    Mindful of the anomalous perihelion precession of Mercury discovered by Le Verrier in the second half of the nineteenth century and its successful explanation by Einstein with his General Theory of Relativity in the early years of the twentieth century, discrepancies among observed effects in our Solar system and their theoretical predictions on the basis of the currently accepted laws of gravitation applied to known matter-energy distributions have the potential of paving the way for remarkable advances in fundamental physics. This is particularly important now more than ever, given that most of the universe seems to be made of unknown substances dubbed Dark Matter and Dark Energy. Should this not be directly the case, Solar system's anomalies could anyhow lead to advancements in either cumulative science, as shown to us by the discovery of Neptune in the first half of the nineteenth century, and technology itself. Moreover, investigations in one of such directions can serendipitously enrich the other one as well. The current status of some alleged gravitational anomalies in the Solar system is critically reviewed. They are: (a) Possible anomalous advances of planetary perihelia. (b) Unexplained orbital residuals of a recently discovered moon of Uranus (Mab). (c) The lingering unexplained secular increase of the eccentricity of the orbit of the Moon. (d) The so-called Faint Young Sun Paradox. (e) The secular decrease of the mass parameter of the Sun. (f) The Flyby Anomaly. (g) The Pioneer Anomaly. (h) The anomalous secular increase of the astronomical unit.

  10. Assessment of wind energy potential in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starosta, Katarzyna; Linkowska, Joanna; Mazur, Andrzej

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the presentation is to show the suitability of using numerical model wind speed forecasts for the wind power industry applications in Poland. In accordance with the guidelines of the European Union, the consumption of wind energy in Poland is rapidly increasing. According to the report of Energy Regulatory Office from 30 March 2013, the installed capacity of wind power in Poland was 2807MW from 765 wind power stations. Wind energy is strongly dependent on the meteorological conditions. Based on the climatological wind speed data, potential energy zones within the area of Poland have been developed (H. Lorenc). They are the first criterion for assessing the location of the wind farm. However, for exact monitoring of a given wind farm location the prognostic data from numerical model forecasts are necessary. For the practical interpretation and further post-processing, the verification of the model data is very important. Polish Institute Meteorology and Water Management - National Research Institute (IMWM-NRI) runs an operational model COSMO (Consortium for Small-scale Modelling, version 4.8) using two nested domains at horizontal resolutions of 7 km and 2.8 km. The model produces 36 hour and 78 hour forecasts from 00 UTC, for 2.8 km and 7 km domain resolutions respectively. Numerical forecasts were compared with the observation of 60 SYNOP and 3 TEMP stations in Poland, using VERSUS2 (Unified System Verification Survey 2) and R package. For every zone the set of statistical indices (ME, MAE, RMSE) was calculated. Forecast errors for aerological profiles are shown for Polish TEMP stations at Wrocław, Legionowo and Łeba. The current studies are connected with a topic of the COST ES1002 WIRE-Weather Intelligence for Renewable Energies.

  11. Energy potential of sugarcane and sweet sorghum

    SciTech Connect

    Elawad, S.H.; Gascho, G.J.; Shih, S.F.

    1980-01-01

    The potential of sugarcane and sweet sorghum as raw materials for the production of ethanol and petrochemical substitutes is discussed. Both crops belong to the grass family and are classified as C/sub 4/ malateformers which have the highest rate of photosynthesis among terrestrial plants. Large amounts of biomass are required to supply a significant fraction of US energy consumption. Biomass production could be substantially increased by including tops and leaves, adopting narrow row spacing and improving cultural practices. This presents challenges for cultivating, harvesting, and hauling the biomass to processing centers. Large plants and heavy capital investment are essential for energy production. Ethanol and ammonia are the most promising candidates of a biomass program. If sugarcane were to be used for biomass production, breeding programs should be directed for more fermentable sugars and fiber. Energy research on sweet sorghum should be done with syrup varieties. Sweet sorghum needs to be incorporated with other crops because of its short growing season. The disposal of stillage from an extensive ethanol industry may pose environmental problems.

  12. Anomaly constraints on monopoles and dyons

    SciTech Connect

    Csaki, Csaba; Shirman, Yuri; Terning, John

    2010-06-15

    Fermions with magnetic charges can contribute to anomalies. We derive the axial anomaly and gauge anomalies for monopoles and dyons, and find eight new gauge anomaly cancellation conditions in a general theory with both electric and magnetic charges. As a by-product, we also extend the Zwanziger two-potential formalism to include the {theta} parameter, and elaborate on the condition for CP invariance in theories with fermionic dyons.

  13. Induced Seismicity Potential of Energy Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hitzman, Murray

    2013-03-01

    Earthquakes attributable to human activities-``induced seismic events''-have received heightened public attention in the United States over the past several years. Upon request from the U.S. Congress and the Department of Energy, the National Research Council was asked to assemble a committee of experts to examine the scale, scope, and consequences of seismicity induced during fluid injection and withdrawal associated with geothermal energy development, oil and gas development, and carbon capture and storage (CCS). The committee's report, publicly released in June 2012, indicates that induced seismicity associated with fluid injection or withdrawal is caused in most cases by change in pore fluid pressure and/or change in stress in the subsurface in the presence of faults with specific properties and orientations and a critical state of stress in the rocks. The factor that appears to have the most direct consequence in regard to induced seismicity is the net fluid balance (total balance of fluid introduced into or removed from the subsurface). Energy technology projects that are designed to maintain a balance between the amount of fluid being injected and withdrawn, such as most oil and gas development projects, appear to produce fewer seismic events than projects that do not maintain fluid balance. Major findings from the study include: (1) as presently implemented, the process of hydraulic fracturing for shale gas recovery does not pose a high risk for inducing felt seismic events; (2) injection for disposal of waste water derived from energy technologies does pose some risk for induced seismicity, but very few events have been documented over the past several decades relative to the large number of disposal wells in operation; and (3) CCS, due to the large net volumes of injected fluids suggested for future large-scale carbon storage projects, may have potential for inducing larger seismic events.

  14. Certification and the potential energy landscape

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, Dhagash; Hauenstein, Jonathan D.; Wales, David J.

    2014-06-14

    Typically, there is no guarantee that a numerical approximation obtained using standard nonlinear equation solvers is indeed an actual solution, meaning that it lies in the quadratic convergence basin. Instead, it may lie only in the linear convergence basin, or even in a chaotic region, and hence not converge to the corresponding stationary point when further optimization is attempted. In some cases, these non-solutions could be misleading. Proving that a numerical approximation will quadratically converge to a stationary point is termed certification. In this report, we provide details of how Smale's α-theory can be used to certify numerically obtained stationary points of a potential energy landscape, providing a mathematical proof that the numerical approximation does indeed correspond to an actual stationary point, independent of the precision employed.

  15. Dispersion of overdamped diffusing particles in channel flows coupled to transverse acoustophoretic potentials: Transport regimes and scaling anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giona, Massimiliano; Garofalo, Fabio

    2015-09-01

    We address the dispersion properties of overdamped Brownian particles migrating in a two-dimensional acoustophoretic microchannel, where a pressure-driven axial Stokes flow coexists with a transverse acoustophoretic potential. Depending on the number and symmetries of the stable nodal points of the acoustophoretic force with respect to the axial velocity profile, different convection-enhanced dispersion regimes can be observed. Among these regimes, an anomalous scaling, for which the axial dispersion increases exponentially with the particle Peclét number, is observed whenever two or more stable acoustophoretic nodes are associated with different axial velocities. A theoretical explanation of this regime is derived, based on exact moment homogenization. Attention is also focused on transient dispersion, which can exhibit superballistic behavior <(x- ) 2> ˜t3 ,x being the axial coordinate.

  16. Self-potential Anomalies Around the Earthquake Swarm Area in the Southeastern Flank of Ontake Volcano, Central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimura, R.; Yamazaki, K.; Okada, Y.; Oshiman, N.

    2006-12-01

    Ontake Volcano is located in the southern end of the Norikura Volcanic Chain, central Japan, close to the junction of the Izu Bonin and Mariana and Southwestern Japan volcanic arcs. It is almost conical and made of andesite. Earthquake swarm activity has been continuously observed around the southeastern flank of Mt. Ontake since 1976. A phreatic explosion occurred in 1979 at a fissure on the southwestern slope of the Kengamine, the main peak of Mt. Ontake. And a large earthquake with the depth about 2 km and a magnitude of 6.8 occurred in 1984 in the southeastern flank of the volcano. Recently, Kimata et al. (2004) revealed uplift ground deformation above the earthquake swarm area by using repeated leveling. Furthermore, Magnetotelluric soundings estimated a low resistivity region with the depth about 2km beneath the uplift area [Kasaya et al., 2002]. In order to investigate a relationship between tectonic movements and subsurface low resistivity zone, we carried out self-potential(SP) measurements from 2003 and 2006 around the focal region of the 1984 Earthquake and the summit area of Mt. Ontake. The equipment for measuring surface self-potentials consists of a pair of non-polarizing copper-copper sulfate/silver-silver chloride electrodes, an insulated connecting conductor cable, and a high input impedance digital multimeter. In this survey, profiles totaling to about 90km length (982 sites) were made, with an average measurement interval of 100m. Two distinctive SP features are found around the active earthquake cluster and inside of the aseismic area of southeastern flank of Mt. Ontake. In this presentation, we will report a detail of SP measurements and results.

  17. Molecular Multipole Potential Energy Functions for Water.

    PubMed

    Tan, Ming-Liang; Tran, Kelly N; Pickard, Frank C; Simmonett, Andrew C; Brooks, Bernard R; Ichiye, Toshiko

    2016-03-01

    Water is the most common liquid on this planet, with many unique properties that make it essential for life as we know it. These properties must arise from features in the charge distribution of a water molecule, so it is essential to capture these features in potential energy functions for water to reproduce its liquid state properties in computer simulations. Recently, models that utilize a multipole expansion located on a single site in the water molecule, or "molecular multipole models", have been shown to rival and even surpass site models with up to five sites in reproducing both the electrostatic potential around a molecule and a variety of liquid state properties in simulations. However, despite decades of work using multipoles, confusion still remains about how to truncate the multipole expansions efficiently and accurately. This is particularly important when using molecular multipole expansions to describe water molecules in the liquid state, where the short-range interactions must be accurate, because the higher order multipoles of a water molecule are large. Here, truncation schemes designed for a recent efficient algorithm for multipoles in molecular dynamics simulations are assessed for how well they reproduce results for a simple three-site model of water when the multipole moments and Lennard-Jones parameters of that model are used. In addition, the multipole analysis indicates that site models that do not account for out-of-plane electron density overestimate the stability of a non-hydrogen-bonded conformation, leading to serious consequences for the simulated liquid. PMID:26562223

  18. Energy resource potential of natural gas hydrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collett, T.S.

    2002-01-01

    The discovery of large gas hydrate accumulations in terrestrial permafrost regions of the Arctic and beneath the sea along the outer continental margins of the world's oceans has heightened interest in gas hydrates as a possible energy resource. However, significant to potentially insurmountable technical issues must be resolved before gas hydrates can be considered a viable option for affordable supplies of natural gas. The combined information from Arctic gas hydrate studies shows that, in permafrost regions, gas hydrates may exist at subsurface depths ranging from about 130 to 2000 m. The presence of gas hydrates in offshore continental margins has been inferred mainly from anomalous seismic reflectors, known as bottom-simulating reflectors, that have been mapped at depths below the sea floor ranging from about 100 to 1100 m. Current estimates of the amount of gas in the world's marine and permafrost gas hydrate accumulations are in rough accord at about 20,000 trillion m3. Disagreements over fundamental issues such as the volume of gas stored within delineated gas hydrate accumulations and the concentration of gas hydrates within hydrate-bearing strata have demonstrated that we know little about gas hydrates. Recently, however, several countries, including Japan, India, and the United States, have launched ambitious national projects to further examine the resource potential of gas hydrates. These projects may help answer key questions dealing with the properties of gas hydrate reservoirs, the design of production systems, and, most important, the costs and economics of gas hydrate production.

  19. The Wind Energy Potential of Kurdistan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Arefi, Farzad; Moshtagh, Jamal; Moradi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    In the current work by using statistical methods and available software, the wind energy assessment of prone regions for installation of wind turbines in, Qorveh, has been investigated. Information was obtained from weather stations of Baneh, Bijar, Zarina, Saqez, Sanandaj, Qorveh, and Marivan. The monthly average and maximum of wind speed were investigated between the years 2000–2010 and the related curves were drawn. The Golobad curve (direction and percentage of dominant wind and calm wind as monthly rate) between the years 1997–2000 was analyzed and drawn with plot software. The ten-minute speed (at 10, 30, and 60 m height) and direction (at 37.5 and 10 m height) wind data were collected from weather stations of Iranian new energy organization. The wind speed distribution during one year was evaluated by using Weibull probability density function (two-parametrical), and the Weibull curve histograms were drawn by MATLAB software. According to the average wind speed of stations and technical specifications of the types of turbines, the suitable wind turbine for the station was selected. Finally, the Divandareh and Qorveh sites with favorable potential were considered for installation of wind turbines and construction of wind farms. PMID:27355042

  20. Computed potential energy surfaces for chemical reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walch, Stephen P.

    1988-01-01

    The minimum energy path for the addition of a hydrogen atom to N2 is characterized in CASSCF/CCI calculations using the (4s3p2d1f/3s2p1d) basis set, with additional single point calculations at the stationary points of the potential energy surface using the (5s4p3d2f/4s3p2d) basis set. These calculations represent the most extensive set of ab initio calculations completed to date, yielding a zero point corrected barrier for HN2 dissociation of approx. 8.5 kcal mol/1. The lifetime of the HN2 species is estimated from the calculated geometries and energetics using both conventional Transition State Theory and a method which utilizes an Eckart barrier to compute one dimensional quantum mechanical tunneling effects. It is concluded that the lifetime of the HN2 species is very short, greatly limiting its role in both termolecular recombination reactions and combustion processes.

  1. The Wind Energy Potential of Kurdistan, Iran.

    PubMed

    Arefi, Farzad; Moshtagh, Jamal; Moradi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    In the current work by using statistical methods and available software, the wind energy assessment of prone regions for installation of wind turbines in, Qorveh, has been investigated. Information was obtained from weather stations of Baneh, Bijar, Zarina, Saqez, Sanandaj, Qorveh, and Marivan. The monthly average and maximum of wind speed were investigated between the years 2000-2010 and the related curves were drawn. The Golobad curve (direction and percentage of dominant wind and calm wind as monthly rate) between the years 1997-2000 was analyzed and drawn with plot software. The ten-minute speed (at 10, 30, and 60 m height) and direction (at 37.5 and 10 m height) wind data were collected from weather stations of Iranian new energy organization. The wind speed distribution during one year was evaluated by using Weibull probability density function (two-parametrical), and the Weibull curve histograms were drawn by MATLAB software. According to the average wind speed of stations and technical specifications of the types of turbines, the suitable wind turbine for the station was selected. Finally, the Divandareh and Qorveh sites with favorable potential were considered for installation of wind turbines and construction of wind farms. PMID:27355042

  2. An ab initio method for locating potential energy minima

    SciTech Connect

    Bock, Nicolas; Peery, Travis; Venneri, Giulia; Chisolm, Eric; Wallace, Duane; Lizarraga, Raquel; Holmstrom, Erik

    2009-01-01

    We study the potential energy landscape underlying the motion of monatomic liquids by quenching from random initial configurations (stochastic configurations) to the nearest local minimum of the potential energy. We show that this procedure reveals the underlying potential energy surface directly. This is in contrast to the common technique of quenching from a molecular dynamics trajectory which does not allow a direct view of the underlying potential energy surface, but needs to be corrected for thermodynamic weighting factors.

  3. Gauge anomalies, gravitational anomalies, and superstrings

    SciTech Connect

    Bardeen, W.A.

    1985-08-01

    The structure of gauge and gravitational anomalies will be reviewed. The impact of these anomalies on the construction, consistency, and application of the new superstring theories will be discussed. 25 refs.

  4. ANOMALY STRUCTURE OF SUPERGRAVITY AND ANOMALY CANCELLATION

    SciTech Connect

    Butter, Daniel; Gaillard, Mary K.

    2009-06-10

    We display the full anomaly structure of supergravity, including new D-term contributions to the conformal anomaly. This expression has the super-Weyl and chiral U(1){sub K} transformation properties that are required for implementation of the Green-Schwarz mechanism for anomaly cancellation. We outline the procedure for full anomaly cancellation. Our results have implications for effective supergravity theories from the weakly coupled heterotic string theory.

  5. The elliptic anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janin, G.; Bond, V. R.

    1980-01-01

    An independent variable different from the time for elliptic orbit integration is used. Such a time transformation provides an analytical step-size regulation along the orbit. An intermediate anomaly (an anomaly intermediate between the eccentric and the true anomaly) is suggested for optimum performances. A particular case of an intermediate anomaly (the elliptic anomaly) is defined, and its relation with the other anomalies is developed.

  6. ASSESSMENT OF ENERGY RECOVERY POTENTIAL OF INDUSTRIAL COMBUSTION EQUIPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    An assessment was conducted to evaluate the waste heat content and energy recovery potential of flue gases from 30 industrial combustion devices. Pollution controls on nine of the devices were evaluated to estimate energy requirements and particulate reduction; energy requirement...

  7. Determination of Multidimensional Intermolecular Potential Energy Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Ronald Carl

    High resolution spectroscopy of the low frequency van der Waals vibrations (also referred to as Vibration -Rotation-Tunneling (VRT) spectroscopy) in weakly bound complexes provides the means to probe intermolecular forces with unprecedented detail and precision. We present an overview of the experimental information on intermolecular forces and intermolecular dynamics which has been obtained by far infrared VRT spectroscopy of 18 complexes. We then turn to a detailed examination of the Ar-H_2O complex, a simple prototype for the study of intermolecular forces. The measurement and analysis of 9 VRT bands is described. These data are first used to obtain a qualitative description of the intermolecular potential energy surface (IPS). A new simple and efficient method for calculating the eigenvalues of the multidimensional intermolecular dynamics on the IPS has been developed. This algorithm (an adaptation of the Collocation Method) was then used in a direct fit to obtain an accurate and detailed description of the intermolecular forces acting within the Ar-H_2O complex.

  8. Transportation Energy Use and Conservation Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirst, Eric

    1973-01-01

    Analyzes transportation energy consumption and energy intensiveness for inter-city freight and passenger traffic and urban passenger traffic with the definition of energy intensiveness as Btu per ton-mile or per passenger-mile. Indicates that public education is one of three ways to achieve the goals of energy conservation. (CC)

  9. High-Resolution Distribution of Temperature, Particle and Oxidation/Reduction Potential Anomalies From a Submarine Hydrothermal System: Brothers Volcano, Kermadec Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, S. L.; Baker, E. T.; de Ronde, C. E.; Yoerger, D.; Embley, R. W.; Davy, B.; Merle, S. G.; Resing, J. A.; Nakamura, K.

    2008-12-01

    The complex relationships between geological setting and hydrothermal venting have, to date, largely been explored with ship-based surveys that effectively examine regional relationships, or with remotely operated vehicles (ROV) and manned submersibles which allow close examination of individual vent fields. Higher- resolution surveys than are possible with ship-based techniques and broader surveys than are practical with ROVs and manned submersibles are necessary for more thoroughly understanding hydrothermal systems and their impact on ocean ecosystems. Autonomous vehicles (AUVs), such as the WHOI Autonomous Benthic Explorer (ABE) can be programmed to conduct high-resolution surveys that systematically cover a broad area of seafloor. Brothers volcano, a hydrothermally active submarine caldera volcano located on the Kermadec arc northwest of New Zealand, was surveyed in July-August 2007 using ABE. Brothers caldera is ~3 km in diameter with a floor depth of 1850 m and walls that rise 290-530 m above the caldera floor. A dacite cone with a summit depth of ~1200 m sits within the caldera, partially merging with the southern caldera wall. Prior to the survey, active hydrothermal vents were known to be perched along the NW caldera wall and located at three sites on the cone. The enclosed caldera, presence of known vent fields with differing geochemical characteristics, and existence of at least one currently inactive site made Brothers volcano an ideal site for a high-resolution survey to explore in greater detail the mass, thermal and geochemical exchanges of hydrothermal systems. During our expedition, the caldera walls and dacite cone (~7 km2) were completely surveyed by ABE with 50-60 m trackline spacing at an altitude of 50 m above the seafloor. Hydrothermal plumes were mapped with ABE's integrated CTD (conductivity- temperature-depth) and sensors measuring optical backscatter (particle concentrations) and oxidation- reduction potential (ORP; indicating the

  10. Field Theory Model of the Flyby Anomaly

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, R. A

    2009-03-16

    Precision tracking of spacecraft on interplanetary missions has turned up several anomalous deviations from predictions of general relativity. The Flyby Anomaly, wherein spacecraft gain or lose energy in an earth-centric frame after an encounter with earth, is clearly associated with the rotation of the earth. The possibility that the missing ingredient is a new type of potential field surrounding the earth is assessed in this write-up. A scalar field with the kinetic energy distribution of the earth as a source is evaluated numerically, with an amplitude parameter adjusted to match the data of Anderson et al.(2008). The new field can be interpreted as a coupling between kinetic energies of objects, a field analogous to fluid mechanics, or a field coupled to acceleration. The potential field violates various aspects of standard physics, such as energy non-conservation.

  11. Exploring stereographic surface energy maps of cubic metals via an effective pair-potential approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Su-Hyun; Lee, Ji-Hwan; Jung, Young-Kwang; Soon, Aloysius

    2016-01-01

    A fast and efficient way to calculate and generate an accurate surface energy database (of more than several million surface energy data points) for all bcc and fcc metals is proposed based on an effective pair-wise-potential model. The accuracy of this model is rigorously tested and verified by employing density functional theory calculations, which shows good agreement within a mean absolute error of 0.03 eV/atom. The surface energy database generated by this model is then visualized and mapped in various ways; namely, the surface energy as a function of relative orientation, a orientation-dependent stereographic projection (the so-called Wulff net), and Gibbs-Wulff construction of the equilibrium crystal shape, for comparison and analysis. The Wulff nets (drawn with several million surface energy data points) provide us with characteristic surface energy maps of these cubic metals. In an attempt to explain the surface energy anomaly in bcc Li, we demonstrate how our effective-pair-potential-derived Wulff net can clearly discriminate the strong influence of the second- and third-nearest-neighbor bonds on the high-Miller-index surface energetics of bcc Li.

  12. Constraints on lithospheric structure from satellite potential field data: Africa and Asia. Analysis and interpretation of MAGSAT anomalies over North Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    Crustal anomaly detection with MAGSAT data is frustrated by the inherent resolving power of the data and by contamination from the external and core fields. The quality of the data might be tested by modeling specific tectonic features which produce anomalies that fall within the proposed resolution and crustal amplitude capabilities of the MAGSAT fields. To test this hypothesis, the north African hotspots associated with Ahaggar, Tibestia and Darfur have been modeled as magnetic induction anomalies due solely to shallower depth to the Curie isotherm surface beneath these features. The MAGSAT data were reduced by subtracting the external and core fields to isolate the scalar and vertical component crustal signals. The predicted model magnetic signal arising from the surface topography of the uplift and the Curie isotherm surface was calculated at MAGSAT altitudes by the Fourier transform technique modified to allow for variable magnetization. In summary it is suggested that the region beneath Ahaggar is associated with a strong thermal anomaly and the predicted anomaly best fits the associated MAGSAT anomaly if the African plate is moving in a northeasterly direction.

  13. Potential contribution of the wastewater sector to energy supply.

    PubMed

    Heubeck, S; de Vos, R M; Craggs, R

    2011-01-01

    The biological treatment of wastewater could yield high energy fuels such as methane and alcohols, however most conventional treatment systems do not recover this energy potential. with a simple model of the energy yields of various wastewater treatment technologies it is possible to demonstrate how minor shifts in technology selection can lead the industry from being identified as predominantly energy intensive, to being recognised as a source of energy resources. The future potential energy yield is estimated by applying energy yield factors to alternative use scenarios of the same wastewater loads. The method for identifying the energy potential of wastewater was demonstrated for the New Zealand wastewater sector, but can equally be applied to other countries or regions. The model suggests that by using technologies that maximise the recovery of energy from wastewater, the potential energy yield from this sector would be substantially increased (six fold for New Zealand). PMID:21866779

  14. The Potential Energy of an Autoencoder.

    PubMed

    Kamyshanska, Hanna; Memisevic, Roland

    2015-06-01

    Autoencoders are popular feature learning models, that are conceptually simple, easy to train and allow for efficient inference. Recent work has shown how certain autoencoders can be associated with an energy landscape, akin to negative log-probability in a probabilistic model, which measures how well the autoencoder can represent regions in the input space. The energy landscape has been commonly inferred heuristically, by using a training criterion that relates the autoencoder to a probabilistic model such as a Restricted Boltzmann Machine (RBM). In this paper we show how most common autoencoders are naturally associated with an energy function, independent of the training procedure, and that the energy landscape can be inferred analytically by integrating the reconstruction function of the autoencoder. For autoencoders with sigmoid hidden units, the energy function is identical to the free energy of an RBM, which helps shed light onto the relationship between these two types of model. We also show that the autoencoder energy function allows us to explain common regularization procedures, such as contractive training, from the perspective of dynamical systems. As a practical application of the energy function, a generative classifier based on class-specific autoencoders is presented. PMID:26357347

  15. Energy conservation potential of surface modification technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Le, H.K.; Horne, D.M.; Silberglitt, R.S.

    1985-09-01

    This report assesses the energy conservation impact of surface modification technologies on the metalworking industries. The energy conservation impact of surface modification technologies on the metalworking industries is assessed by estimating their friction and wear tribological sinks and the subsequent reduction in these sinks when surface modified tools are used. Ion implantation, coatings, and laser and electron beam surface modifications are considered.

  16. HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS POTENTIAL AT MUON COLLIDERS

    SciTech Connect

    PARSA,Z.

    2000-04-07

    In this paper, high energy physics possibilities and future colliders are discussed. The {mu}{sup +} {mu}{sup {minus}} collider and experiments with high intensity muon beams as the stepping phase towards building Higher Energy Muon Colliders (HEMC) are briefly reviewed and encouraged.

  17. Energy in America: Progress and Potential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Petroleum Inst., Washington, DC.

    An overview of America's energy situation is presented with emphasis on recent progress, the risk of depending upon foreign oil, and policy choices. Section one reviews the energy problems of the 1970s, issues of the 1980s, concerns for the future, and choices that if made today could alleviate future problems. Section two examines past problems,…

  18. Stretching the inflaton potential with kinetic energy

    SciTech Connect

    Lidsey, James E.

    2007-08-15

    Inflation near a maximum of the potential is studied when nonlocal derivative operators are included in the inflaton Lagrangian. Such terms can impose additional sources of friction on the field. For an arbitrary spacetime geometry, these effects can be quantified in terms of a local field theory with a potential whose curvature around the turning point is strongly suppressed. This implies that a prolonged phase of slow-roll inflation can be achieved with potentials that are otherwise too steep to drive quasiexponential expansion. We illustrate this mechanism within the context of p-adic string theory.

  19. Overgrowth syndromes with vascular anomalies.

    PubMed

    Blei, Francine

    2015-04-01

    Overgrowth syndromes with vascular anomalies encompass entities with a vascular anomaly as the predominant feature vs those syndromes with predominant somatic overgrowth and a vascular anomaly as a more minor component. The focus of this article is to categorize these syndromes phenotypically, including updated clinical criteria, radiologic features, evaluation, management issues, pathophysiology, and genetic information. A literature review was conducted in PubMed using key words "overgrowth syndromes and vascular anomalies" as well as specific literature reviews for each entity and supportive genetic information (e.g., somatic mosaicism). Additional searches in OMIM and Gene Reviews were conducted for each syndrome. Disease entities were categorized by predominant clinical features, known genetic information, and putative affected signaling pathway. Overgrowth syndromes with vascular anomalies are a heterogeneous group of disorders, often with variable clinical expression, due to germline or somatic mutations. Overgrowth can be focal (e.g., macrocephaly) or generalized, often asymmetrically (and/or mosaically) distributed. All germ layers may be affected, and the abnormalities may be progressive. Patients with overgrowth syndromes may be at an increased risk for malignancies. Practitioners should be attentive to patients having syndromes with overgrowth and vascular defects. These patients require proactive evaluation, referral to appropriate specialists, and in some cases, early monitoring for potential malignancies. Progress in identifying vascular anomaly-related overgrowth syndromes and their genetic etiology has been robust in the past decade and is contributing to genetically based prenatal diagnosis and new therapies targeting the putative causative genetic mutations. PMID:25937473

  20. Energy functions for rubber from microscopic potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johal, A. S.; Dunstan, D. J.

    2007-04-01

    The finite deformation theory of rubber and related materials is based on energy functions that describe the macroscopic response of these materials under deformation. Energy functions and elastic constants are here derived from a simple microscopic (ball-and-spring) model. Exact uniaxial force-extension relationships are given for Hooke's Law and for the thermodynamic entropy-based microscopic model using the Gaussian and the inverse Langevin statistical approximations. Methods are given for finding the energy functions as expansions of tensor invariants of deformation, with exact solutions for functions that can be expressed as expansions in even powers of the extension. Comparison with experiment shows good agreement with the neo-Hookean energy function and we show how this derives directly from the simple Gaussian statistical model with a small modification.

  1. Space Weather, Cosmic Rays, and Satellite Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lev, Dorman

    Results are presented of the Satellite Anomaly Project, which aims to improve the methods of safeguarding satellites in the Earth’s magnetosphere from the negative effects of the space environment. Anomaly data from the USSR and Russian “Kosmos” series satellites in the period 1971-1999 are combined into one database, together with similar information on other spacecraft. This database contains, beyond the anomaly information, various characteristics of space weather: geomagnetic activity indices (Ap, AE and Dst), fluxes and fluencies of electrons and protons at different energies, high energy cosmic ray variations and other solar, interplanetary and solar wind data. A comparative analysis of the distribution of each of these parameters relative to satellite anomalies was carried out for the total number of anomalies (about 6000 events), and separately for high altitude orbit satellites ( 5000 events) and low altitude (about 800 events). No relation was found between low and high altitude satellite anomalies. Daily numbers of satellite anomalies, averaged by a superposed epoch method around sudden storm commencements and proton event onsets for high (>1500 km) and low (<1500 km) altitude orbits revealed a big difference in behavior. Satellites were divided into several groups according to their orbital characteristics (altitude and inclination). The relation of satellite anomalies to the environmental parameters was found to be different for various orbits, and this should be taken into account when developing anomaly frequency models. The preliminary anomaly frequency models are presented.

  2. Energy Savings Potential and Research & Development Opportunities for Commercial Refrigeration

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2009-09-01

    This study documents the energy consumption of commercial refrigeration equipment (CRE) in the U.S. and evaluated the energy savings potential of various technologies and energy efficiency measures that could be applied to such equipment. The study provided an overview of CRE applications, assessed the energy-savings potential of CRE in the U.S., outline key barriers to adoption of energy-savings technologies, and recommended opportunities for advanced energy saving technology research. The study was modeled after an earlier 1996 report by Arthur D. Little, Inc., and updated key information, examined more equipment types, and outlined long-term research and development opportunities.

  3. Potential Energy Sources Pose Mining Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Summarizes the discussions of a Division of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry symposium on solids handling for synthetic fuels production. Included is a description of technical difficulties with the use of coal seams and deposits of oil shale and oil sand as potential sources of fuel. (CC)

  4. Integrated Potential-field Studies in Support of Energy Resource Assessment in Frontier Areas of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, J. D.; Saltus, R. W.; Potter, C. J.; Stanley, R. G.; Till, A. B.

    2008-05-01

    basement gravity (green) highlight domains with common geophysical characteristics and, by inference, lithology. The observed patterns suggest that much of the basin is underlain by Devonian to Jurassic oceanic rocks that probably have little or no potential for hydrocarbon generation. The coastal plain surficial deposits in the northern part of ANWR conceal another frontier basin with hydrocarbon potential. Proprietary aeromagnetic and gravity data were used, along with seismic reflection profiles, to construct a structural and stratigraphic model of this highly deformed sedimentary basin for use in an energy resource assessment. Matched-filtering techniques were used to separate short-wavelength magnetic and gravity anomalies attributed to sources near the top of the sedimentary section from longer-wavelength anomalies attributed to deeper basin and basement sources. Models along the seismic reflection lines indicate that the primary sources of the short-wavelength anomalies are folded and faulted sedimentary beds truncated at the Pleistocene erosion surface. In map view, the aeromagnetic and gravity anomalies produced by the sedimentary units were used to identify possible structural trapping features and geometries, but they also indicated that these features may be significantly disrupted by faulting.

  5. Isostasy, Stress and Gravitational Potential Energy in the Southern Atlantic - Insights from Satellite Gravity Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goetze, H. J.; Klinge, L.; Scheck-Wenderoth, M.; Dressel, I.; Sippel, J.

    2015-12-01

    New satellite gravity fields e.g. EGM2008, GoCo3S and very recently EIGEN-6C4 (Förste et al., 2014) provide high-accuracy and globally uniform information of the Earth's gravity field and partly of its gradients. The main goal of this study is to investigate the impact of this new gravity field and its processed anomalies (Bouguer, Free-air and Vening-Meinesz residual fields) on lithospheric modelling of passive plate margins in the area of the Southern Atlantic. In an area fixed by the latitudes 20° N - 50° S and longitudes 70° W - 20° E we calculated station-complete Bouguer anomalies (bathymetry/topography corrected) both on- and offshore and compared them with the gravity effect of a velocity model which bases on S - waves tomography (Schaeffer and Lebedev, 2013). The corresponding maps provide more insight in the abnormal mass distribution of oceanic lithosphere and the ocean-continent transition zones on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean than Free-air anomalies which are masked by bathymetry. In a next step we calculated isostatic residual fields (Vening-Meinesz isostasy with regard to different lithospheric rigidities) to remove global components (long wavelengths) from the satellite gravity. The Isostatic residual field will be compared with the GPE (gravitational potential energy). GPE variations in the Southern Atlantic, relative to the reference state, were calculated as ΔGPE. Often the oceanic lithosphere is characterized by negative ∆GPE values indicating that the ocean basin is in compression. Differences from this observation will be compared with the state of stress in the area of the passive margins of South America and South Africa and the oceanic lithosphere in between. Schaeffer, A. J. and S. Lebedev, Global shear-speed structure of the upper mantle and transition zone. Geophys. J. Int., 194 (1), 417-449, 2013. doi:10.1093/gji/ggt095

  6. Energy savings potential from energy-conserving irrigation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wilfert, G.L.; Patton, W.P.; Harrer, B.J.; Clark, M.A.

    1982-11-01

    This report systematically compares, within a consistent framework, the technical and economic characteristics of energy-conserving irrigation systems with those of conventional irrigation systems and to determine total energy savings. Levelized annual costs of owning and operating both energy-conserving and conventional irrigation systems have been developed and compared for all 17 states to account for the differences in energy costs and irrigation conditions in each state. Market penetration of energy-conserving systems is assessed for those systems having lower levelized annual costs than conventional systems performing the same function. Annual energy savings were computed by matching the energy savings per system with an assumed maximum market penetration of 100 percent in those markets where the levelized annual costs of energy-conserving systems are lower than the levelized annual costs of conventional systems.

  7. Potential production of energy cane for fuel in the Caribbean

    SciTech Connect

    Samuels, G.

    1984-12-01

    Sugarcane presents a tremendous potential as a renewable energy source for the non-oil producing countries of the Caribbean. The energy cane concept is sugarcane managed for maximum dry matter (total fermentable solids for alcohol fuel and combustible solids for electricity) rather than sucrose. The use of sugarcane as a renewable energy source can provide a solution, either partial or total, to the Caribbean energy problem. Sugar cane production and the use of this crop as a renewable energy source are described.

  8. Lymphatic Anomalies Registry

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-26

    Lymphatic Malformation; Generalized Lymphatic Anomaly (GLA); Central Conducting Lymphatic Anomaly; CLOVES Syndrome; Gorham-Stout Disease ("Disappearing Bone Disease"); Blue Rubber Bleb Nevus Syndrome; Kaposiform Lymphangiomatosis; Kaposiform Hemangioendothelioma/Tufted Angioma; Klippel-Trenaunay Syndrome; Lymphangiomatosis

  9. Preliminary evaluation of wind energy potential: Cook Inlet area, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Hiester, T.R.

    1980-06-01

    This report summarizes work on a project performed under contract to the Alaska Power Administration (APA). The objective of this research was to make a preliminary assessment of the wind energy potential for interconnection with the Cook Inlet area electric power transmission and distribution systems, to identify the most likely candidate regions (25 to 100 square miles each) for energy potential, and to recommend a monitoring program sufficient to quantify the potential.

  10. Minor congenital anomalies and ataxic cerebral palsy.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, G

    1989-01-01

    The incidence of minor congenital anomalies was examined in 36 patients with ataxic cerebral palsy, in unaffected family members, and in 100 unrelated control subjects. None of the control subjects or family members had more than four anomalies, and 25 of 36 (69%) of the patients had more than four. The distribution of anomalies differed considerably, with 60% of the index cases having seven or more, and 94% of the controls having three or less. The number occurring in the patients was significantly more than in their relatives. Of the 25 patients with more than four anomalies, 16 (64%) had undergone potentially adverse perinatal or early postnatal events. Thus minor congenital anomalies were considerably more frequent in those with ataxic cerebral palsy than in related or unrelated control subjects. These anomalies may be markers of early prenatal factors that contributed to the adverse outcome either directly or by predisposing to perinatal difficulties. PMID:2751330

  11. Thermal anomalies in stressed Teflon.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S. H.; Wulff, C. A.

    1972-01-01

    In the course of testing polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon) as a calorimetric gasketing material, serendipity revealed a thermal anomaly in stressed film that occurs concomitantly with the well-documented 25 C transition. The magnitude of the excess energy absorption - about 35 cal/g - is suggested to be related to the restricted thermal expansion of the film.

  12. Turbine under Gulf Stream: Potential energy source

    SciTech Connect

    Venezia, W.A.; Holt, J.

    1995-09-01

    Turbine under the Gulf Stream (TUGS) is a project to design, build, and deploy the prototypes necessary to demonstrate the economic and technical feasibility of generating electric power from the Gulf Stream. The project is based in part on new generator designs and emerging materials technologies. Its successful completion would demonstrate the technology and produce prototype turbines that can be mass produced and sold with service support. Past research and experimentation indicates that energy can be generated from the Gulf Stream. Problems exist such as fluctuations in the current`s axis and inconsistency. Above all, the ocean is a difficult environment in which to work. Therefore, the question is not whether or not a generator can be put in the ocean to generate electricity, but rather can it be done in an economically and environmentally sound way and still be practical?

  13. Periodic discrete energy for long-range potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardin, D. P.; Saff, E. B.; Simanek, B.

    2014-12-01

    We consider periodic energy problems in Euclidean space with a special emphasis on long-range potentials that cannot be defined through the usual infinite sum. One of our main results builds on more recent developments of Ewald summation to define the periodic energy corresponding to a large class of long-range potentials. Two particularly interesting examples are the logarithmic potential and the Riesz potential when the Riesz parameter is smaller than the dimension of the space. For these examples, we use analytic continuation methods to provide concise formulas for the periodic kernel in terms of the Epstein Hurwitz Zeta function. We apply our energy definition to deduce several properties of the minimal energy including the asymptotic order of growth and the distribution of points in energy minimizing configurations as the number of points becomes large. We conclude with some detailed calculations in the case of one dimension, which shows the utility of this approach.

  14. Analysis of spacecraft anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomquist, C. E.; Graham, W. C.

    1976-01-01

    The anomalies from 316 spacecraft covering the entire U.S. space program were analyzed to determine if there were any experimental or technological programs which could be implemented to remove the anomalies from future space activity. Thirty specific categories of anomalies were found to cover nearly 85 percent of all observed anomalies. Thirteen experiments were defined to deal with 17 of these categories; nine additional experiments were identified to deal with other classes of observed and anticipated anomalies. Preliminary analyses indicate that all 22 experimental programs are both technically feasible and economically viable.

  15. Exploratory and spatial data analysis (EDA-SDA) for determining regional background levels and anomalies of potentially toxic elements in soils from Catorce-Matehuala, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chiprés, J.A.; Castro-Larragoitia, J.; Monroy, M.G.

    2009-01-01

    The threshold between geochemical background and anomalies can be influenced by the methodology selected for its estimation. Environmental evaluations, particularly those conducted in mineralized areas, must consider this when trying to determinate the natural geochemical status of a study area, quantifying human impacts, or establishing soil restoration values for contaminated sites. Some methods in environmental geochemistry incorporate the premise that anomalies (natural or anthropogenic) and background data are characterized by their own probabilistic distributions. One of these methods uses exploratory data analysis (EDA) on regional geochemical data sets coupled with a geographic information system (GIS) to spatially understand the processes that influence the geochemical landscape in a technique that can be called a spatial data analysis (SDA). This EDA-SDA methodology was used to establish the regional background range from the area of Catorce-Matehuala in north-central Mexico. Probability plots of the data, particularly for those areas affected by human activities, show that the regional geochemical background population is composed of smaller subpopulations associated with factors such as soil type and parent material. This paper demonstrates that the EDA-SDA method offers more certainty in defining thresholds between geochemical background and anomaly than a numeric technique, making it a useful tool for regional geochemical landscape analysis and environmental geochemistry studies.

  16. Scattering with absorptive interaction: Energy-dependent potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassing, W.; Stingl, M.; Weiguny, A.

    1983-05-01

    The energy dependence and analytic structure of the effective interaction for elastic scattering of composite particles are investigated using Feshbach's projection technique. A generalized Levinson theorem is established for complex, nonlocal, and energy-dependent interactions. The analytical results are illustrated by means of Argand diagrams for a solvable model and the effect of energy averaging is discussed. NUCLEAR REACTIONS Scattering theory, S matrix for absorptive, energy-dependent potentials, Levinson theorem.

  17. Exploring wind energy potential off the California coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Qingfang; Doyle, James D.; Haack, Tracy; Dvorak, Michael J.; Archer, Cristina L.; Jacobson, Mark Z.

    2008-10-01

    Wind energy represents the nearest term cost-effective renewable energy source. While efforts have been made to assess wind energy potential over land around the world, offshore wind energy resources are largely unexplored, in part because these regions have relatively sparse wind observations. In this study, the wind energy potential offshore of the California coast is evaluated using a well-tested high-resolution numerical model dataset. We found that along the coastline, the low-level winds exhibit strong spatial variation and are characterized by alternating windspeed maxima and minima near coastal promontories associated with the interaction between the marine boundary layer and coastal topography. Further analysis highlights the enormous and reliable wind energy development potential in these persistent offshore windspeed maxima.

  18. Bandwidth Study on Energy Use and Potential Energy Saving Opportunities in U.S. Chemical Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Sabine Brueske, Caroline Kramer, Aaron Fisher

    2015-06-01

    Energy bandwidth studies of U.S. manufacturing sectors can serve as foundational references in framing the range (or bandwidth) of potential energy savings opportunities. This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. chemical manufacturing. The study relies on multiple sources to estimate the energy used in the production of 74 individual chemicals, representing 57% of sector-wide energy consumption. Energy savings opportunities for individual chemicals and for 15 subsectors of chemicals manufacturing are based on technologies currently in use or under development; these potential savings are then extrapolated to estimate sector-wide energy savings opportunity.

  19. Bandwidth Study on Energy Use and Potential Energy Savings Opportunities in U.S. Petroleum Refining

    SciTech Connect

    Sabine Brueske, Caroline Kramer, Aaron Fisher

    2015-06-01

    Energy bandwidth studies of U.S. manufacturing sectors can serve as foundational references in framing the range (or bandwidth) of potential energy savings opportunities. This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. petroleum refining. The study relies on multiple sources to estimate the energy used in nine individual process areas, representing 68% of sector-wide energy consumption. Energy savings opportunities for individual processes are based on technologies currently in use or under development; these potential savings are then extrapolated to estimate sector-wide energy savings opportunity.

  20. Energy Consumption and Renewable Energy Development Potential on Indian Lands

    EIA Publications

    2000-01-01

    Includes information on the electricity use and needs of Indian households and tribes, the comparative electricity rates that Indian households are paying, and the potential for renewable resources development of Indian lands.

  1. Assessing the Potential for Renewable Energy on Public Lands

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2003-02-01

    This report represents an initial activity of the Bureau of Land Managements (BLM) proposed National Energy Policy Implementation Plan: identify and evaluate renewable energy resources on federal lands and any limitations on accessing them. Ultimately, BLM will prioritize land-use planning activities to increase industrys development of renewable energy resources. These resources include solar, biomass, geothermal, water, and wind energy. To accomplish this, BLM and the Department of Energys National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) established a partnership to conduct an assessment of renewable energy resources on BLM lands in the western United States. The objective of this collaboration was to identify BLM planning units in the western states with the highest potential for private-sector development of renewable resources. The assessment resulted in the following findings: (1) 63 BLM planning units in nine western states have high potential for one or more renewable energy technologies; and (2) 20 BLM planning units in seven western states have high potential for power production from three or more renewable energy sources. This assessment report provides BLM with information needed to prioritize land-use planning activities on the basis of potential for the development of energy from renewable resources.

  2. A Frontier orbital energy approach to redox potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conradie, Jeanet

    2015-09-01

    The prediction of the oxidation and reduction potentials of molecules is important in many research areas. A review of relationships obtained between frontier orbital energies (eV), the calculated ionization potentials (IP in eV), or adiabatic electron affinities (EA in eV) with the experimental oxidation and reduction potentials is presented, for selected series of β- diketones, rhodium-β-diketonato complexes, as well as metal-tris-β-diketonato complexes, with the metal Fe or Mn. The good linear relationships obtained for related series of complexes show that the oxidation and reduction potentials of these complexes can be predicted by their DFT-calculated energies.

  3. New approach to calculating the potential energy of colliding nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Kurmanov, R. S.; Kosenko, G. I.

    2014-12-15

    The differential method proposed by the present authors earlier for the reduction of volume integrals in calculating the potential energy of a compound nucleus is generalized to the case of two interacting nuclei. The Coulomb interaction energy is obtained for the cases of a sharp and a diffuse boundary of nuclei, while the nuclear interaction energy is found only for nuclei with a sharp boundary, the finiteness of the nuclear-force range being taken into account. The present method of calculations permits reducing the time it takes to compute the potential energy at least by two orders of magnitude.

  4. Re-examining Potential for Geothermal Energy in United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    New technological initiatives, along with potential policy and economic incentives, could help to bring about a resurgence in geothermal energy development in the United States, said several experts at a 22 May forum in Washington, D.C. The forum was sponsored by the House and Senate Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Caucuses, the Sustainable Energy Coalition, and the Environmental and Energy Study Institute. Among these initiatives is an ambitious program of the U.S. Department of Energy to expand existing geothermal energy fields and potentially create new fields through ``enhanced geothermal systems.'' In addition, a program of the Bush administration encourages geothermal development on some public lands, and current legislation would provide tax credits and other incentives for geothermal development.

  5. Biomass energy: the scale of the potential resource.

    PubMed

    Field, Christopher B; Campbell, J Elliott; Lobell, David B

    2008-02-01

    Increased production of biomass for energy has the potential to offset substantial use of fossil fuels, but it also has the potential to threaten conservation areas, pollute water resources and decrease food security. The net effect of biomass energy agriculture on climate could be either cooling or warming, depending on the crop, the technology for converting biomass into useable energy, and the difference in carbon stocks and reflectance of solar radiation between the biomass crop and the pre-existing vegetation. The area with the greatest potential for yielding biomass energy that reduces net warming and avoids competition with food production is land that was previously used for agriculture or pasture but that has been abandoned and not converted to forest or urban areas. At the global scale, potential above-ground plant growth on these abandoned lands has an energy content representing approximately 5% of world primary energy consumption in 2006. The global potential for biomass energy production is large in absolute terms, but it is not enough to replace more than a few percent of current fossil fuel usage. Increasing biomass energy production beyond this level would probably reduce food security and exacerbate forcing of climate change. PMID:18215439

  6. Ab initio Potential Energy Surface for H-H2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Partridge, Harry; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Stallcop, James R.; Levin, Eugene

    1993-01-01

    Ab initio calculations employing large basis sets are performed to determine an accurate potential energy surface for H-H2 interactions for a broad range of separation distances. At large distances, the spherically averaged potential determined from the calculated energies agrees well with the corresponding results determined from dispersion coefficients; the van der Waals well depth is predicted to be 75 +/- (mu)E(sub h). Large basis sets have also been applied to reexamine the accuracy of theoretical repulsive potential energy surfaces. Multipolar expansions of the computed H-H2 potential energy surface are reported for four internuclear separation distances (1.2, 1.401, 1.449, and 1.7a(sub 0) of the hydrogen molecule. The differential elastic scattering cross section calculated from the present results is compared with the measurements from a crossed beam experiment.

  7. Teaching Potential Energy Functions and Stability with Slap Bracelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Hook, Stephen J.

    2005-10-01

    The slap bracelet, an inexpensive child's toy, makes it easy to engage students in hands-on exploration of potential energy curves as well as of stable, unstable, and meta-stable states. Rather than just observing the teacher performing a demonstration, the students can manipulate the equipment themselves and make their own observations, which are then pooled to focus a class discussion on potential energy functions and stability.

  8. Potential energy landscapes of elemental and heterogeneous chalcogen clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Mauro, John C.; Loucks, Roger J.; Balakrishnan, Jitendra; Varshneya, Arun K.

    2006-02-15

    We describe the potential energy landscapes of elemental S{sub 8}, Se{sub 8}, and Te{sub 8} clusters using disconnectivity graphs. Inherent structures include both ring and chain configurations, with rings especially dominant in Se{sub 8}. We also map the potential energy landscapes of heterogeneous Se{sub n}(S,Te){sub 8-n} clusters, which offer insights into the structure of heterogeneous chalcogen glasses.

  9. Potential production of energy cane for fuel in the Caribbean

    SciTech Connect

    Samuels, G.

    1984-08-01

    Sugarcane grown as energy cane presents a new potential to the Caribbean countries to provide their own energy needs and to reduce or eliminate fuel oil imports. The use of proper agronomic techniques can convert conventional sugarcane growing to a crop capable of giving energy feedstocks in the form of fiber for boiler fuel for electricity and fermentable solids for alcohol for motor fuel. Sugarcane can still be obtained from the energy cane for domestic consumption and export if desired. The aerable land now devoted to sugarcane can utilized for energy-cane production without causing any serious imbalance in food crop production.

  10. Fusion at deep subbarrier energies: potential inversion revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Hagino, K.; Rowley, N.

    2009-03-04

    For a single potential barrier, the barrier penetrability can be inverted based on the WKB approximation to yield the barrier thickness. We apply this method to heavy-ion fusion reactions at energies well below the Coulomb barrier and directly determine the inter-nucleus potential between the colliding nuclei. To this end, we assume that fusion cross sections at deep subbarrier energies are governed by the lowest barrier in the barrier distribution. The inverted inter-nucleus potentials for the {sup 16}O+{sup 144}Sm and {sup 16}O+{sup 208}Pb reactions show that they are much thicker than phenomenological potentials. We discuss a consequence of such thick potential by fitting the inverted potentials with the Bass function.

  11. Potential geothermal energy applications for Idaho Elks Rehabilitation Hospital

    SciTech Connect

    Austin, J.C.

    1981-11-01

    Several potential applications of geothermal energy for the Idaho Elks Rehabilitation Hospital are outlined. A brief background on the resource and distribution system, is provided; which hospital heating systems should be considered for potential geothermal retrofit is discussed; and technical and economic feasibility are addressed.

  12. The Department of Defense energy vulnerabilities: Potential problems and observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freiwald, D. A.; Berger, M. E.; Roach, J. F.

    1982-08-01

    The Department of Defense is almost entirely dependent on civilian energy supplies to meet its needs in both peacetime and periods of heightened conflict. There are a number of potential vulnerabilities to the continual and timely supply of energy to both the civilian and military sectors. These include denial of the energy resources themselves, disruption of critical transportation networks, destruction of storage facilities, and interruption of electrical power. This report briefly reviews the present situation for provision of energy from the civilian sector to the military. General vulnerabilities of the existing energy supply system are identified, along with the potential for armed aggression (including terrorist and sabotage activities) against the energy network. Conclusions and some tentative observations are made as to a proper response to the existing vulnerabilities.

  13. DoD energy vulnerabilities: potential problems and observations

    SciTech Connect

    Freiwald, D A; Berger, M E; Roach, J F

    1982-08-01

    The Department of Defense is almost entirely dependent on civilian energy supplies to meet its needs in both peacetime and periods of heightened conflict. There are a number of potential vulnerabilities to the continual and timely supply of energy to both the civilian and military sectors. These include denial of the energy resources themselves, disruption of critical transportation networks, destruction of storage facilities, and interruption of electrical power. This report briefly reviews the present situation for provision of energy from the civilian sector to the military. General vulnerabilities of the existing energy supply system are identified, along with the potential for armed aggression (including terrorist and sabotage activities) against the energy network. Conclusions and some tentative observations are made as to a proper response to the existing vulnerabilities.

  14. Gravitational potential as a source of earthquake energy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barrows, L.; Langer, C.J.

    1981-01-01

    Some degree of tectonic stress within the earth originates from gravity acting upon density structures. The work performed by this "gravitational tectonics stress" must have formerly existed as gravitational potential energy contained in the stress-causing density structure. According to the elastic rebound theory (Reid, 1910), the energy of earthquakes comes from an elastic strain field built up by fairly continuous elastic deformation in the period between events. For earthquakes resulting from gravitational tectonic stress, the elastic rebound theory requires the transfer of energy from the gravitational potential of the density structures into an elastic strain field prior to the event. An alternate theory involves partial gravitational collapse of the stress-causing density structures. The earthquake energy comes directly from a net decrease in gravitational potential energy. The gravitational potential energy released at the time of the earthquake is split between the energy released by the earthquake, including work done in the fault zone and an increase in stored elastic strain energy. The stress associated with this elastic strain field should oppose further fault slip. ?? 1981.

  15. Geospatial Analysis of Renewable Energy Technical Potential on Tribal Lands

    SciTech Connect

    Doris, E.; Lopez, A.; Beckley, D.

    2013-02-01

    This technical report uses an established geospatial methodology to estimate the technical potential for renewable energy on tribal lands for the purpose of allowing Tribes to prioritize the development of renewable energy resources either for community scale on-tribal land use or for revenue generating electricity sales.

  16. Investigating energy-saving potentials in the cloud.

    PubMed

    Lee, Da-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Collecting webpage messages can serve as a sensor for investigating the energy-saving potential of buildings. Focusing on stores, a cloud sensor system is developed to collect data and determine their energy-saving potential. The owner of a store under investigation must register online, report the store address, area, and the customer ID number on the electric meter. The cloud sensor system automatically surveys the energy usage records by connecting to the power company website and calculating the energy use index (EUI) of the store. Other data includes the chain store check, company capital, location price, and the influence of weather conditions on the store; even the exposure frequency of store under investigation may impact the energy usage collected online. After collecting data from numerous stores, a multi-dimensional data array is constructed to determine energy-saving potential by identifying stores with similarity conditions. Similarity conditions refer to analyzed results that indicate that two stores have similar capital, business scale, weather conditions, and exposure frequency on web. Calculating the EUI difference or pure technical efficiency of stores, the energy-saving potential is determined. In this study, a real case study is performed. An 8-dimensional (8D) data array is constructed by surveying web data related to 67 stores. Then, this study investigated the savings potential of the 33 stores, using a site visit, and employed the cloud sensor system to determine the saving potential. The case study results show good agreement between the data obtained by the site visit and the cloud investigation, with errors within 4.17%. Among 33 the samples, eight stores have low saving potentials of less than 5%. The developed sensor on the cloud successfully identifies them as having low saving potential and avoids wasting money on the site visit. PMID:24561405

  17. Investigating Energy-Saving Potentials in the Cloud

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Da-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Collecting webpage messages can serve as a sensor for investigating the energy-saving potential of buildings. Focusing on stores, a cloud sensor system is developed to collect data and determine their energy-saving potential. The owner of a store under investigation must register online, report the store address, area, and the customer ID number on the electric meter. The cloud sensor system automatically surveys the energy usage records by connecting to the power company website and calculating the energy use index (EUI) of the store. Other data includes the chain store check, company capital, location price, and the influence of weather conditions on the store; even the exposure frequency of store under investigation may impact the energy usage collected online. After collecting data from numerous stores, a multi-dimensional data array is constructed to determine energy-saving potential by identifying stores with similarity conditions. Similarity conditions refer to analyzed results that indicate that two stores have similar capital, business scale, weather conditions, and exposure frequency on web. Calculating the EUI difference or pure technical efficiency of stores, the energy-saving potential is determined. In this study, a real case study is performed. An 8-dimensional (8D) data array is constructed by surveying web data related to 67 stores. Then, this study investigated the savings potential of the 33 stores, using a site visit, and employed the cloud sensor system to determine the saving potential. The case study results show good agreement between the data obtained by the site visit and the cloud investigation, with errors within 4.17%. Among 33 the samples, eight stores have low saving potentials of less than 5%. The developed sensor on the cloud successfully identifies them as having low saving potential and avoids wasting money on the site visit. PMID:24561405

  18. Saint Paul Energy Park: the potential for district heating

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.; Kron, R.; Davis, H.

    1980-03-01

    The results of ANL's study of the energy and economic aspects of using district heating in the St. Paul Energy Park are summarized. The Energy Park is a 6 million ft/sup 2/ residential, commercial office, and light industrial complex to be built in the midway area of St. Paul, Minnesota. Space heating and cooling design loads for the park were calculated assuming that the ASHRAE's 90-75 energy-conserving construction standards would be used in constructing the park's buildings. Based in part on this assumption, ANL estimated the costs and energy use characteristics of six possible energy system options for supplying Energy Park's space heating, space cooling, and domestic hot water heating needs. The results indicate that in today's economy, a central heating and cooling plant with natural gas boilers and electrically driven centrifugal chillers with thermal storage has good potential for energy and economic savings and clearly merits further consideration.

  19. High-Energy Anomaly in the Angle-Resolved Photoemission Spectra of Nd2-xCexCuO4: Evidence for a Matrix Element Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rienks, E. D. L.; ńrrälä, M.; Lindroos, M.; Roth, F.; Tabis, W.; Yu, G.; Greven, M.; Fink, J.

    2014-09-01

    We use polarization-dependent angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) to study the high-energy anomaly (HEA) in the dispersion of Nd2-xCexCuO4, x =0.123. We find that at particular photon energies the anomalous, waterfall-like dispersion gives way to a broad, continuous band. This suggests that the HEA is a matrix element effect: it arises due to a suppression of the intensity of the broadened quasiparticle band in a narrow momentum range. We confirm this interpretation experimentally, by showing that the HEA appears when the matrix element is suppressed deliberately by changing the light polarization. Calculations of the matrix element using atomic wave functions and simulation of the ARPES intensity with one-step model calculations provide further evidence for this scenario. The possibility to detect the full quasiparticle dispersion further allows us to extract the high-energy self-energy function near the center and at the edge of the Brillouin zone.

  20. High-energy anomaly in the angle-resolved photoemission spectra of Nd(2-x)Ce(x)CuO₄: evidence for a matrix element effect.

    PubMed

    Rienks, E D L; Ärrälä, M; Lindroos, M; Roth, F; Tabis, W; Yu, G; Greven, M; Fink, J

    2014-09-26

    We use polarization-dependent angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) to study the high-energy anomaly (HEA) in the dispersion of Nd(2-x)Ce(x)CuO₄, x=0.123. We find that at particular photon energies the anomalous, waterfall-like dispersion gives way to a broad, continuous band. This suggests that the HEA is a matrix element effect: it arises due to a suppression of the intensity of the broadened quasiparticle band in a narrow momentum range. We confirm this interpretation experimentally, by showing that the HEA appears when the matrix element is suppressed deliberately by changing the light polarization. Calculations of the matrix element using atomic wave functions and simulation of the ARPES intensity with one-step model calculations provide further evidence for this scenario. The possibility to detect the full quasiparticle dispersion further allows us to extract the high-energy self-energy function near the center and at the edge of the Brillouin zone. PMID:25302914

  1. Kappa distribution in the presence of a potential energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livadiotis, George

    2015-02-01

    The present paper develops the theory and formulations of the kappa distributions that describe particle systems characterized by a nonzero potential energy. As yet, kappa distributions were used for the statistical description of the velocity or kinetic energy of particles but not of the potential energy. With the results provided here, it is straightforward to use the developed kappa distributions to describe any particle population of space plasmas subject to a nonnegligible potential energy. Starting from the kappa distribution of the Hamiltonian function, we develop the distributions that describe either the complete phase space or the marginal spaces of positions and velocities. The study shows, among others: (a) The kappa distributions of velocities that describe space plasmas can be vastly different from the standard formulation of the kappa distribution, because of the presence of a potential energy; the correct formulation should be given by the marginal kappa distribution of velocities by integrating the distribution of the Hamiltonian over the potential energy. (b) The long-standing problem of the divergence of the Boltzmannian exponential distribution for bounded radial potentials is solved using kappa distributions of negative kappa index. (c) Anisotropic distributions of velocities can exist in the presence of a velocity-dependent potential. (d) A variety of applications, including derivations/verifications of the following: (i) the Jeans', the most frequent, and the maximum radii in spherical/linear gravitational potentials; (ii) the Virial theorem for power law potentials; (iii) the generalized barometric formula, (iv) the plasma density profiles in Saturnian magnetosphere, and (v) the average electron magnetic moment in Earth's magnetotail.

  2. Separable representation of energy-dependent optical potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlophe, L.; Elster, Ch.

    2016-03-01

    Background: One important ingredient for many applications of nuclear physics to astrophysics, nuclear energy, and stockpile stewardship are cross sections for reactions of neutrons with rare isotopes. Since direct measurements are often not feasible, indirect methods, e.g., (d ,p ) reactions, should be used. Those (d ,p ) reactions may be viewed as three-body reactions and described with Faddeev techniques. Purpose: Faddeev equations in momentum space have a long tradition of utilizing separable interactions in order to arrive at sets of coupled integral equations in one variable. Optical potentials representing the effective interactions in the neutron (proton) nucleus subsystem are usually non-Hermitian as well as energy dependent. Potential matrix elements as well as transition matrix elements calculated with them must fulfill the reciprocity theorem. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a separable, energy-dependent representation of complex, energy-dependent optical potentials that fulfill reciprocity exactly. Methods: Momentum space Lippmann-Schwinger integral equations are solved with standard techniques to obtain the form factors for the separable representation. Results: Starting from a separable, energy-independent representation of global optical potentials based on a generalization of the Ernst-Shakin-Thaler (EST) scheme, a further generalization is needed to take into account the energy dependence. Applications to n +48Ca ,n +208Pb , and p +208Pb are investigated for energies from 0 to 50 MeV with special emphasis on fulfilling reciprocity. Conclusions: We find that the energy-dependent separable representation of complex, energy-dependent phenomenological optical potentials fulfills reciprocity exactly. In addition, taking into account the explicit energy dependence slightly improves the description of the S matrix elements.

  3. Communication: Separable potential energy surfaces from multiplicative artificial neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Werner Zhang, Dong H.

    2014-07-14

    We present a potential energy surface fitting scheme based on multiplicative artificial neural networks. It has the sum of products form required for efficient computation of the dynamics of multidimensional quantum systems with the multi configuration time dependent Hartree method. Moreover, it results in analytic potential energy matrix elements when combined with quantum dynamics methods using Gaussian basis functions, eliminating the need for a local harmonic approximation. Scaling behavior with respect to the complexity of the potential as well as the requested accuracy is discussed.

  4. Framework for State-Level Renewable Energy Market Potential Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Kreycik, C.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Doris, E.

    2010-01-01

    State-level policymakers are relying on estimates of the market potential for renewable energy resources as they set goals and develop policies to accelerate the development of these resources. Therefore, accuracy of such estimates should be understood and possibly improved to appropriately support these decisions. This document provides a framework and next steps for state officials who require estimates of renewable energy market potential. The report gives insight into how to conduct a market potential study, including what supporting data are needed and what types of assumptions need to be made. The report distinguishes between goal-oriented studies and other types of studies, and explains the benefits of each.

  5. [Kimmerle's anomaly and stroke].

    PubMed

    Barsukov, S F; Antonov, G I

    1992-10-01

    The anomaly of cranio-vertebral area can frequently be the reason of acute cerebrovascular disorders in vertebro-basilar field. The frequent C1 pathology in the Kimmerle's anomaly. The anatomic studies has shown that 30% of people had this type of anomaly. This pathology can lead to severe vascular diseases of cerebrum because of the squeezing effect upon vertebral arteries in the zone of osteal ponticulus of the rear arch of atlas. PMID:1481402

  6. Semi-infinite jellium: Thermodynamic potential, chemical potential, and surface energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostrobij, P. P.; Markovych, B. M.

    2015-08-01

    A general expression for the thermodynamic potential of the model of semi-infinite jellium is obtained. By using this expression, the surface energy for the infinite barrier model is calculated. The behavior of the surface energy and of the chemical potential as functions of the Wigner-Seitz radius and the influence of the Coulomb interaction between electrons on the calculated values is studied. It is shown that taking into account the Coulomb interaction between electrons leads to growth of the surface energy. The surface energy is positive in the entire area of the Wigner-Seitz radius. It is shown that taking into account the Coulomb interaction between electrons leads to a decrease of the chemical potential.

  7. Taussig-Bing Anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Konstantinov, Igor E.

    2009-01-01

    Taussig-Bing anomaly is a rare congenital heart malformation that was first described in 1949 by Helen B. Taussig (1898–1986) and Richard J. Bing (1909–). Although substantial improvement has since been achieved in surgical results of the repair of the anomaly, management of the Taussig-Bing anomaly remains challenging. A history of the original description of the anomaly, the life stories of the individuals who first described it, and the current outcomes of its surgical management are reviewed herein. PMID:20069085

  8. Radioactive anomaly discrimination from spectral ratios

    DOEpatents

    Maniscalco, James; Sjoden, Glenn; Chapman, Mac Clements

    2013-08-20

    A method for discriminating a radioactive anomaly from naturally occurring radioactive materials includes detecting a first number of gamma photons having energies in a first range of energy values within a predetermined period of time and detecting a second number of gamma photons having energies in a second range of energy values within the predetermined period of time. The method further includes determining, in a controller, a ratio of the first number of gamma photons having energies in the first range and the second number of gamma photons having energies in the second range, and determining that a radioactive anomaly is present when the ratio exceeds a threshold value.

  9. Savings potential of ENERGY STAR (registered trademark) voluntary labeling programs

    SciTech Connect

    Webber, Carrie A.; Brown, Richard E.

    1998-06-19

    In 1993 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) introduced ENERGY STAR (registered trademark), a voluntary labeling program designed to identify and promote energy-efficient products. Since then EPA, now in partnership with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has introduced programs for more than twenty products, spanning office equipment, residential heating and cooling equipment, new homes, commercial and residential lighting, home electronics, and major appliances. We present potential energy, dollar and carbon savings forecasts for these programs for the period 1998 to 2010. Our target market penetration case represents our best estimate of future ENERGY STAR savings. It is based on realistic market penetration goals for each of the products. We also provide results under the assumption of 100% market penetration; that is, we assume that all purchasers buy ENERGY STAR-compliant products instead of standard efficiency products throughout the analysis period. Finally, we assess the sensitivity of our target penetration case forecasts to greater or lesser marketing success by EPA and DOE, lower-than-expected future energy prices, and higher or lower rates of carbon emission by electricity generators. The potential savings of ENERGY STAR are substantial. If all purchasers chose Energy Star-compliant products instead of standard efficiency products over the next 15 years, they would save more than $100 billion on their energy bills during those 15 years. (Bill savings are in 1995 dollars, discounted at a 4% real discount rate.)

  10. Calculation of molecular free energies in classical potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhi, Asaf; Singh, Bipin

    2016-02-01

    Free energies of molecules can be calculated by quantum chemistry computations or by normal mode classical calculations. However, the first can be computationally impractical for large molecules and the second is based on the assumption of harmonic dynamics. We present a novel, accurate and complete calculation of molecular free energies in standard classical potentials. In this method we transform the molecule by relaxing potential terms which depend on the coordinates of a group of atoms in that molecule and calculate the free energy difference associated with the transformation. Then, since the transformed molecule can be treated as non-interacting systems, the free energy associated with these atoms is analytically or numerically calculated. This two-step calculation can be applied to calculate free energies of molecules or free energy difference between (possibly large) molecules in a general environment. We demonstrate the method in free energy calculations for methanethiol and butane molecules in vacuum and solvent. We suggest the potential application of free energy calculation of chemical reactions in classical molecular simulations.

  11. Potential for energy conservation in the glass industry

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett-Price, B.A.; Fassbender, A.G.; Bruno, G.A.

    1986-06-01

    While the glass industry (flat glass, container glass, pressed and blown glass, and insulation fiber glass) has reduced its specific energy use (Btu/ton) by almost 30% since 1972, significant potential for further reduction still remains. State-of-the-art technologies are available which could lead to incremental improvements in glass industry energy productivity; however, these technologies must compete for capital with projects undertaken for other reasons (e.g., capacity expansion, equipment rebuild, labor cost reduction, product quality improvement, or compliance with environmental, health or safety regulations). Narrowing profit margins in the large tonnage segments of the glass industry in recent years and the fact that energy costs represent less than 25% of the value added in glass manufacture have combined to impede the widespread adoption of many state-of-the-art conservation technologies. Savings in energy costs alone have not provided the incentive to justify the capital expenditures required to realize the energy savings. Beyond implementation of state-of-the-art technologies, significant potential energy savings could accrue from advanced technologies which represent a radical departure from current glass making technology. Long-term research and development (R and D) programs, which address the technical and economic barriers associated with advanced, energy-conserving technologies, offer the opportunity to realize this energy-saving potential.

  12. Global Horizontal Irradiance Anomalies in Long Term Series Over India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cony, Marco; Liria, Juan; Weisenberg, Ralf; Serrano, Enrique

    2014-05-01

    India has a high potential for solar energy applications due to its geographic position within the Sun Belt and the large number of cloudless days in many regions of the country. However, certain regions of India, particularly those largely populated, can exhibit large aerosol loading in the atmosphere as a consequence of anthropogenic emissions that could have a negative feedback in the solar resource potential. This effect, named as solar dimming, has already been observed in India, and in some other regions in the world, by some authors using ground data from the last two decades. The recent interest in the promotion of solar energy applications in India highlights the need of extending and improving the knowledge of the solar radiation resources in this country, since most of the long term measurements available correspond to global horizontal radiation (GHI) and most of them are also located big cities or highly populated areas. In addition, accurate knowledge on the aerosol column quantification and on its dynamical behavior with high spatial resolution is particularly important in the case of India, due to their impact on direct normal irradiation. Long term studies of solar irradiation over India can be performed using monthly means of GHI measurements from the Indian Meteorological Department. Ground data are available from 1964 till today through the World Radiation Data Centre that publish these values in the web. This work shows a long term analysis of GHI using anomalies techniques over ten different sites over India. Besides, techniques of linear trends have been applied for to show the evolution over this period. The analysis of anomalies has also found two periods of different behavior. From 1964 till 1988 the anomalies observed were positive and the last 20 years seems to be a period of negative anomalies. The results exhibit a decreasing trend and negative anomalies confirming thus the darkening effect already reported by solar dimming studies

  13. Solar energy in California industry - Applications, characteristics and potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbieri, R. H.; Pivirotto, D. S.

    1978-01-01

    Results of a survey to determine the potential applicability of solar thermal energy to industrial processes in California are presented. It is found that if the heat for all industrial processes at temperatures below 212 F were supplied by solar energy, total state energy consumption could be reduced by 100 trillion Btus (2%), while the use of solar energy in processes between 212 and 350 F could displace 500 trillion Btus. The issues and problems with which solar energy must contend are illustrated by a description of fluid milk processing operations. Solar energy application is found to be technically feasible for processes with thermal energy requirements below 212 F, with design, and degree of technical, economic and management feasibility being site specific. It is recommended that the state provide support for federal and industrial research, development and demonstration programs in order to stimulate acceptance of solar process heat application by industry.

  14. Scenarios of energy demand and efficiency potential for Bulgaria

    SciTech Connect

    Tzvetanov, P.; Ruicheva, M.; Denisiev, M.

    1996-12-31

    The paper presents aggregated results on macroeconomic and final energy demand scenarios developed within the Bulgarian Country Study on Greenhouse Gas Emissions Mitigation, supported by US Country Studies Program. The studies in this area cover 5 main stages: (1) {open_quotes}Baseline{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}Energy Efficiency{close_quotes} socioeconomic and energy policy philosophy; (2) Modeling of macroeconomic and sectoral development till 2020; (3) Expert assessments on the technological options for energy efficiency increase and GHG mitigation in the Production, Transport and Households and Services Sectors; (4) Bottom-up modeling of final energy demand; and (5) Sectoral and overall energy efficiency potential and policy. Within the Bulgarian Country Study, the presented results have served as a basis for the final integration stage {open_quotes}Assessment of the Mitigation Policy and Measures in the Energy System of Bulgaria{close_quotes}.

  15. Effect of Split Gate Size on the Electrostatic Potential and 0.7 Anomaly within Quantum Wires on a Modulation-Doped GaAs /AlGaAs Heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, L. W.; Al-Taie, H.; Lesage, A. A. J.; Thomas, K. J.; Sfigakis, F.; See, P.; Griffiths, J. P.; Farrer, I.; Jones, G. A. C.; Ritchie, D. A.; Kelly, M. J.; Smith, C. G.

    2016-04-01

    We study 95 split gates of different size on a single chip using a multiplexing technique. Each split gate defines a one-dimensional channel on a modulation-doped GaAs /AlGaAs heterostructure, through which the conductance is quantized. The yield of devices showing good quantization decreases rapidly as the length of the split gates increases. However, for the subset of devices showing good quantization, there is no correlation between the electrostatic length of the one-dimensional channel (estimated using a saddle-point model) and the gate length. The variation in electrostatic length and the one-dimensional subband spacing for devices of the same gate length exceeds the variation in the average values between devices of different lengths. There is a clear correlation between the curvature of the potential barrier in the transport direction and the strength of the "0.7 anomaly": the conductance value of the 0.7 anomaly reduces as the barrier curvature becomes shallower. These results highlight the key role of the electrostatic environment in one-dimensional systems. Even in devices with clean conductance plateaus, random fluctuations in the background potential are crucial in determining the potential landscape in the active device area such that nominally identical gate structures have different characteristics.

  16. Split kinetic energy method for quantum systems with competing potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Mineo, H.; Chao, Sheng D.

    2012-09-15

    For quantum systems with competing potentials, the conventional perturbation theory often yields an asymptotic series and the subsequent numerical outcome becomes uncertain. To tackle such a kind of problems, we develop a general solution scheme based on a new energy dissection idea. Instead of dividing the potential energy into 'unperturbed' and 'perturbed' terms, a partition of the kinetic energy is performed. By distributing the kinetic energy term in part into each individual potential, the Hamiltonian can be expressed as the sum of the subsystem Hamiltonians with respective competing potentials. The total wavefunction is expanded by using a linear combination of the basis sets of respective subsystem Hamiltonians. We first illustrate the solution procedure using a simple system consisting of a particle under the action of double {delta}-function potentials. Next, this method is applied to the prototype systems of a charged harmonic oscillator in strong magnetic field and the hydrogen molecule ion. Compared with the usual perturbation approach, this new scheme converges much faster to the exact solutions for both eigenvalues and eigenfunctions. When properly extended, this new solution scheme can be very useful for dealing with strongly coupling quantum systems. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new basis set expansion method is proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Split kinetic energy method is proposed to solve quantum eigenvalue problems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Significant improvement has been obtained in converging to exact results. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Extension of such methods is promising and discussed.

  17. Ab Initio Potential Energy Surface for H-H2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patridge, Harry; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Stallcop, James R.; Levin, Eugene

    1993-01-01

    Ab initio calculations employing large basis sets are performed to determine an accurate potential energy surface for H-H2 interactions for a broad range of separation distances. At large distances, the spherically averaged potential determined from the calculated energies agrees well with the corresponding results determined from dispersion coefficients; the van der Waals well depth is predicted to be 75 +/- 3 micro E(h). Large basis sets have also been applied to reexamine the accuracy of theoretical repulsive potential energy surfaces (25-70 kcal/mol above the H-H2 asymptote) at small interatomic separations; the Boothroyd, Keogh, Martin, and Peterson (BKMP) potential energy surface is found to agree with results of the present calculations within the expected uncertainty (+/- 1 kcal/mol) of the fit. Multipolar expansions of the computed H-H2 potential energy surface are reported for four internuclear separation distances (1.2, 1.401, 1.449, and 1.7a(0)) of the hydrogen molecule. The differential elastic scattering cross section calculated from the present results is compared with the measurements from a crossed beam experiment.

  18. Observational manifestations of anomaly inflow

    SciTech Connect

    Boyarsky, Alexey; Shaposhnikov, Mikhail

    2005-10-15

    In theories with chiral couplings, one of the important consistency requirements is that of the cancellation of a gauge anomaly. In particular, this is one of the conditions imposed on the hypercharges in the standard model. However, anomaly cancellation condition of the standard model looks unnatural from the perspective of a theory with extra dimensions. Indeed, if our world were embedded into an odd-dimensional space, then the full theory would be automatically anomaly-free. In this paper we discuss the physical consequences of anomaly noncancellation for effective 4-dimensional field theory. We demonstrate that in such a theory parallel electric and magnetic fields get modified. In particular, this happens for any particle possessing both electric charge and magnetic moment. This effect, if observed, can serve as a low energy signature of extra dimensions. On the other hand, if such an effect is absent or is very small, then from the point of view of any theory with extra dimensions it is just another fine-tuning and should acquire theoretical explanation.

  19. Optimizing potential energy functions for maximal intrinsic hyperpolarizability

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Juefei; Szafruga, Urszula B.; Kuzyk, Mark G.; Watkins, David S.

    2007-11-15

    We use numerical optimization to study the properties of (1) the class of one-dimensional potential energy functions and (2) systems of point nuclei in two dimensions that yield the largest intrinsic hyperpolarizabilities, which we find to be within 30% of the fundamental limit. In all cases, we use a one-electron model. It is found that a broad range of optimized potentials, each of very different character, yield the same intrinsic hyperpolarizability ceiling of 0.709. Furthermore, all optimized potential energy functions share common features such as (1) the value of the normalized transition dipole moment to the dominant state, which forces the hyperpolarizability to be dominated by only two excited states and (2) the energy ratio between the two dominant states. All optimized potentials are found to obey the three-level ansatz to within about 1%. Many of these potential energy functions may be implementable in multiple quantum well structures. The subset of potentials with undulations reaffirm that modulation of conjugation may be an approach for making better organic molecules, though there appear to be many others. Additionally, our results suggest that one-dimensional molecules may have larger diagonal intrinsic hyperpolarizability {beta}{sub xxx}{sup int} than higher-dimensional systems.

  20. Indicated preterm birth for fetal anomalies.

    PubMed

    Craigo, Sabrina D

    2011-10-01

    Between 2% and 3% of pregnancies are complicated by fetal anomalies. For most anomalies, there is no advantage to late preterm or early-term delivery. The risks of maternal or fetal complication are specific for each anomaly. Very few anomalies pose potential maternal risk. Some anomalies carry ongoing risks to the fetus, such as an increased risk of fetal death, hemorrhage, or organ damage. In a limited number of select cases, the advantages of late preterm or early-term birth may include avoiding an ongoing risk of fetal death related to the anomaly, allowing delivery in a controlled setting with availability of subspecialists and allowing direct care for the neonate with organ injury. The optimal gestational age for delivery cannot be determined for all pregnancies complicated by fetal anomalies. For most pregnancies complicated by anomalies, there is no change to obstetrical management regarding timing of delivery. For those that may benefit from late preterm or early-term delivery, variability exists such that each management plan should be individualized. PMID:21962626

  1. Warm Body Temperature Facilitates Energy Efficient Cortical Action Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yuguo; Hill, Adam P.; McCormick, David A.

    2012-01-01

    The energy efficiency of neural signal transmission is important not only as a limiting factor in brain architecture, but it also influences the interpretation of functional brain imaging signals. Action potential generation in mammalian, versus invertebrate, axons is remarkably energy efficient. Here we demonstrate that this increase in energy efficiency is due largely to a warmer body temperature. Increases in temperature result in an exponential increase in energy efficiency for single action potentials by increasing the rate of Na+ channel inactivation, resulting in a marked reduction in overlap of the inward Na+, and outward K+, currents and a shortening of action potential duration. This increase in single spike efficiency is, however, counterbalanced by a temperature-dependent decrease in the amplitude and duration of the spike afterhyperpolarization, resulting in a nonlinear increase in the spike firing rate, particularly at temperatures above approximately 35°C. Interestingly, the total energy cost, as measured by the multiplication of total Na+ entry per spike and average firing rate in response to a constant input, reaches a global minimum between 37–42°C. Our results indicate that increases in temperature result in an unexpected increase in energy efficiency, especially near normal body temperature, thus allowing the brain to utilize an energy efficient neural code. PMID:22511855

  2. Wind energy potential analysis in Al-Fattaih-Darnah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjahjana, Dominicus Danardono Dwi Prija; Salem, Abdelkarim Ali; Himawanto, Dwi Aries

    2016-03-01

    In this paper the wind energy potential in Al-Fattaih-Darnah, Libya, had been studied. Wind energy is very attractive because it can provide a clean and renewable energy. Due mostly to the uncertainty caused by the chaotic characteristics of wind near the earth's surface, wind energy characteristic need to be investigated carefully in order to get consistent power generation. This investigation was based on one year wind data measured in 2003. As a result of the analysis, wind speed profile and wind energy potential have been developed. The wind energy potential of the location is looked very promising to generate electricity. The annual wind speed of the site is 8.21 m/s and the wind speed carrying maximum energy is 7.97 m/s. The annual power density of the site is classified into class 3. The Polaris P50-500 wind turbine can produce 768.39 M Wh/year and has capacity factor of 17.54%.

  3. Competing Orders and Anomalies.

    PubMed

    Moon, Eun-Gook

    2016-01-01

    A conservation law is one of the most fundamental properties in nature, but a certain class of conservation "laws" could be spoiled by intrinsic quantum mechanical effects, so-called quantum anomalies. Profound properties of the anomalies have deepened our understanding in quantum many body systems. Here, we investigate quantum anomaly effects in quantum phase transitions between competing orders and striking consequences of their presence. We explicitly calculate topological nature of anomalies of non-linear sigma models (NLSMs) with the Wess-Zumino-Witten (WZW) terms. The non-perturbative nature is directly related with the 't Hooft anomaly matching condition: anomalies are conserved in renormalization group flow. By applying the matching condition, we show massless excitations are enforced by the anomalies in a whole phase diagram in sharp contrast to the case of the Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson theory which only has massive excitations in symmetric phases. Furthermore, we find non-perturbative criteria to characterize quantum phase transitions between competing orders. For example, in 4D, we show the two competing order parameter theories, CP(1) and the NLSM with WZW, describe different universality class. Physical realizations and experimental implication of the anomalies are also discussed. PMID:27499184

  4. Competing Orders and Anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Eun-Gook

    2016-01-01

    A conservation law is one of the most fundamental properties in nature, but a certain class of conservation “laws” could be spoiled by intrinsic quantum mechanical effects, so-called quantum anomalies. Profound properties of the anomalies have deepened our understanding in quantum many body systems. Here, we investigate quantum anomaly effects in quantum phase transitions between competing orders and striking consequences of their presence. We explicitly calculate topological nature of anomalies of non-linear sigma models (NLSMs) with the Wess-Zumino-Witten (WZW) terms. The non-perturbative nature is directly related with the ’t Hooft anomaly matching condition: anomalies are conserved in renormalization group flow. By applying the matching condition, we show massless excitations are enforced by the anomalies in a whole phase diagram in sharp contrast to the case of the Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson theory which only has massive excitations in symmetric phases. Furthermore, we find non-perturbative criteria to characterize quantum phase transitions between competing orders. For example, in 4D, we show the two competing order parameter theories, CP(1) and the NLSM with WZW, describe different universality class. Physical realizations and experimental implication of the anomalies are also discussed. PMID:27499184

  5. Competing Orders and Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Eun-Gook

    2016-08-01

    A conservation law is one of the most fundamental properties in nature, but a certain class of conservation “laws” could be spoiled by intrinsic quantum mechanical effects, so-called quantum anomalies. Profound properties of the anomalies have deepened our understanding in quantum many body systems. Here, we investigate quantum anomaly effects in quantum phase transitions between competing orders and striking consequences of their presence. We explicitly calculate topological nature of anomalies of non-linear sigma models (NLSMs) with the Wess-Zumino-Witten (WZW) terms. The non-perturbative nature is directly related with the ’t Hooft anomaly matching condition: anomalies are conserved in renormalization group flow. By applying the matching condition, we show massless excitations are enforced by the anomalies in a whole phase diagram in sharp contrast to the case of the Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson theory which only has massive excitations in symmetric phases. Furthermore, we find non-perturbative criteria to characterize quantum phase transitions between competing orders. For example, in 4D, we show the two competing order parameter theories, CP(1) and the NLSM with WZW, describe different universality class. Physical realizations and experimental implication of the anomalies are also discussed.

  6. Communication: Fitting potential energy surfaces with fundamental invariant neural network.

    PubMed

    Shao, Kejie; Chen, Jun; Zhao, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Dong H

    2016-08-21

    A more flexible neural network (NN) method using the fundamental invariants (FIs) as the input vector is proposed in the construction of potential energy surfaces for molecular systems involving identical atoms. Mathematically, FIs finitely generate the permutation invariant polynomial (PIP) ring. In combination with NN, fundamental invariant neural network (FI-NN) can approximate any function to arbitrary accuracy. Because FI-NN minimizes the size of input permutation invariant polynomials, it can efficiently reduce the evaluation time of potential energy, in particular for polyatomic systems. In this work, we provide the FIs for all possible molecular systems up to five atoms. Potential energy surfaces for OH3 and CH4 were constructed with FI-NN, with the accuracy confirmed by full-dimensional quantum dynamic scattering and bound state calculations. PMID:27544080

  7. Saturation wind power potential and its implications for wind energy.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Mark Z; Archer, Cristina L

    2012-09-25

    Wind turbines convert kinetic to electrical energy, which returns to the atmosphere as heat to regenerate some potential and kinetic energy. As the number of wind turbines increases over large geographic regions, power extraction first increases linearly, but then converges to a saturation potential not identified previously from physical principles or turbine properties. These saturation potentials are >250 terawatts (TW) at 100 m globally, approximately 80 TW at 100 m over land plus coastal ocean outside Antarctica, and approximately 380 TW at 10 km in the jet streams. Thus, there is no fundamental barrier to obtaining half (approximately 5.75 TW) or several times the world's all-purpose power from wind in a 2030 clean-energy economy. PMID:23019353

  8. Saturation wind power potential and its implications for wind energy

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Mark Z.; Archer, Cristina L.

    2012-01-01

    Wind turbines convert kinetic to electrical energy, which returns to the atmosphere as heat to regenerate some potential and kinetic energy. As the number of wind turbines increases over large geographic regions, power extraction first increases linearly, but then converges to a saturation potential not identified previously from physical principles or turbine properties. These saturation potentials are >250 terawatts (TW) at 100 m globally, approximately 80 TW at 100 m over land plus coastal ocean outside Antarctica, and approximately 380 TW at 10 km in the jet streams. Thus, there is no fundamental barrier to obtaining half (approximately 5.75 TW) or several times the world’s all-purpose power from wind in a 2030 clean-energy economy. PMID:23019353

  9. Potential function and dissociation energy of alkali halide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Abhay P.; Pandey, Anjani K.; Pandey, Brijesh K.

    2016-05-01

    Dissociation energy of some alkali halides have been calculated by using different interaction potential function such as Born-Mayer, Varshani-Shukla and L5 potential model. The theoretical calculation is compared with experimental values. The Result shows that the values of dissociation energy as calculated by using different potential models have an equal amount of deviation with experimental values. The above said deviation with experimental values can be explained by consideration of rotational-vibrational coupling between the constituents of molecules in the limelight of molecular spectroscopy. Findings of present work suggest that the existing potential model need to be reviewed in view of the correction factors solely depending on the rotational, vibrational and electronic coupling between the constituents of molecules.

  10. An adaptive interpolation scheme for molecular potential energy surfaces.

    PubMed

    Kowalewski, Markus; Larsson, Elisabeth; Heryudono, Alfa

    2016-08-28

    The calculation of potential energy surfaces for quantum dynamics can be a time consuming task-especially when a high level of theory for the electronic structure calculation is required. We propose an adaptive interpolation algorithm based on polyharmonic splines combined with a partition of unity approach. The adaptive node refinement allows to greatly reduce the number of sample points by employing a local error estimate. The algorithm and its scaling behavior are evaluated for a model function in 2, 3, and 4 dimensions. The developed algorithm allows for a more rapid and reliable interpolation of a potential energy surface within a given accuracy compared to the non-adaptive version. PMID:27586901

  11. Finding reaction paths using the potential energy as reaction coordinate.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Mogas, Antoni; Giménez, Xavier; Bofill, Josep Maria

    2008-03-14

    The intrinsic reaction coordinate curve (IRC), normally proposed as a representation of a reaction path, is parametrized as a function of the potential energy rather than the arc-length. This change in the parametrization of the curve implies that the values of the energy of the potential energy surface points, where the IRC curve is located, play the role of reaction coordinate. We use Caratheodory's relation to derive in a rigorous manner the proposed parametrization of the IRC path. Since this Caratheodory's relation is the basis of the theory of calculus of variations, then this fact permits to reformulate the IRC model from this mathematical theory. In this mathematical theory, the character of the variational solution (either maximum or minimum) is given through the Weierstrass E-function. As proposed by Crehuet and Bofill [J. Chem. Phys. 122, 234105 (2005)], we use the minimization of the Weierstrass E-function, as a function of the potential energy, to locate an IRC path between two minima from an arbitrary curve on the potential energy surface, and then join these two minima. We also prove, from the analysis of the Weierstrass E-function, the mathematical bases for the algorithms proposed to locate the IRC path. The proposed algorithm is applied to a set of examples. Finally, the algorithm is used to locate a discontinuous, or broken, IRC path, namely, when the path connects two first order saddle points through a valley-ridged inflection point. PMID:18345872

  12. Finding reaction paths using the potential energy as reaction coordinate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar-Mogas, Antoni; Giménez, Xavier; Bofill, Josep Maria

    2008-03-01

    The intrinsic reaction coordinate curve (IRC), normally proposed as a representation of a reaction path, is parametrized as a function of the potential energy rather than the arc-length. This change in the parametrization of the curve implies that the values of the energy of the potential energy surface points, where the IRC curve is located, play the role of reaction coordinate. We use Carathéodory's relation to derive in a rigorous manner the proposed parametrization of the IRC path. Since this Carathéodory's relation is the basis of the theory of calculus of variations, then this fact permits to reformulate the IRC model from this mathematical theory. In this mathematical theory, the character of the variational solution (either maximum or minimum) is given through the Weierstrass E-function. As proposed by Crehuet and Bofill [J. Chem. Phys. 122, 234105 (2005)], we use the minimization of the Weierstrass E-function, as a function of the potential energy, to locate an IRC path between two minima from an arbitrary curve on the potential energy surface, and then join these two minima. We also prove, from the analysis of the Weierstrass E-function, the mathematical bases for the algorithms proposed to locate the IRC path. The proposed algorithm is applied to a set of examples. Finally, the algorithm is used to locate a discontinuous, or broken, IRC path, namely, when the path connects two first order saddle points through a valley-ridged inflection point.

  13. Potential structural material problems in a hydrogen energy system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, H. R.; Nelson, H. G.; Johnson, R. E.; Mcpherson, W. B.; Howard, F. S.; Swisher, J. H.

    1976-01-01

    Potential structural material problems that may be encountered in the three components of a hydrogen energy system - production, transmission/storage, and utilization - have been identified. Hydrogen embrittlement, corrosion, oxidation, and erosion may occur during the production of hydrogen. Hydrogen embrittlement is of major concern during both transmission and utilization of hydrogen. Specific materials research and development programs necessary to support a hydrogen energy system are described. An awareness of probable shortages of strategic materials has been maintained in these suggested programs.

  14. Potential structural material problems in a hydrogen energy system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, H. R.; Nelson, H. G.; Johnson, R. E.; Mcpherson, B.; Howard, F. S.; Swisher, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    Potential structural material problems that may be encountered in the three components of a hydrogen energy system - production, transmission/storage, and utilization - were identified. Hydrogen embrittlement, corrosion, oxidation, and erosion may occur during the production of hydrogen. Hydrogen embrittlement is of major concern during both transmission and utilization of hydrogen. Specific materials research and development programs necessary to support a hydrogen energy system are described.

  15. Reference pressure changes and available potential energy in isobaric coordinates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, F. R.

    1985-01-01

    A formulation of the available potential energy (APE) equation in isobaric coordinates which alleviates the need for computing temporal derivatives of reference pressure and describes how work done relates to changes in the APE of a limited region is presented. The APE budget equation possesses terms analogous to those in Johnson's (1970) isentropic version. It is shown that APE changes result from either mechanical work inside the domain or an exchange of energy via boundary processes with the surrounding environment.

  16. Renewable energy technologies adoption in Kazakhstan: potentials, barriers and solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karatayev, Marat; Marazza, Diego; Contin, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    The growth in environmental pollution alongside an increasing demand for electricity in Kazakhstan calls for a higher level of renewable energy penetration into national power systems. Kazakhstan has great potential for renewable energies from wind, solar, hydro and biomass resources that can be exploited for electricity production. In 2013, the Kazakhstani Ministry of Energy initiated a new power development plan, which aims to bring the share of renewable energy to 3% by 2020 rising to 30% by 2030 and 50% by 2050. The current contribution of renewable energy resources in the national electricity mix, however, is less than 1%. As a developing country, Kazakhstan has faced a number of barriers to increase renewable energy use, which have to be analysed and translated into a comprehensive renewable energy policy framework. This study presents an overview of the current conditions of renewable energy development in Kazakhstan. Secondly, it identifies and describes the main barriers that prevent diffusion of renewable energy technologies in Kazakhstan. Finally, the paper provides solutions to overcome specific barriers in order to successfully develop a renewable energy technology sector in Kazakhstan.

  17. IDENTIFYING ANOMALIES IN GRAVITATIONAL LENS TIME DELAYS

    SciTech Connect

    Congdon, Arthur B.; Keeton, Charles R.; Nordgren, C. Erik E-mail: keeton@physics.rutgers.ed

    2010-02-01

    We examine the ability of gravitational lens time delays to reveal complex structure in lens potentials. In a previous paper, we predicted how the time delay between the bright pair of images in a 'fold' lens scales with the image separation, for smooth lens potentials. Here we show that the proportionality constant increases with the quadrupole moment of the lens potential, and depends only weakly on the position of the source along the caustic. We use Monte Carlo simulations to determine the range of time delays that can be produced by realistic smooth lens models consisting of isothermal ellipsoid galaxies with tidal shear. We can then identify outliers as 'time delay anomalies'. We find evidence for anomalies in close image pairs in the cusp lenses RX J1131 - 1231 and B1422+231. The anomalies in RX J1131 - 1231 provide strong evidence for substructure in the lens potential, while at this point the apparent anomalies in B1422+231 mainly indicate that the time delay measurements need to be improved. We also find evidence for time delay anomalies in larger-separation image pairs in the fold lenses, B1608+656 and WFI 2033 - 4723, and the cusp lens RX J0911+0551. We suggest that these anomalies are caused by some combination of substructure and a complex lens environment. Finally, to assist future monitoring campaigns we use our smooth models with shear to predict the time delays for all known four-image lenses.

  18. LHC Physics Potential vs. Energy: Considerations for the 2011 Run

    SciTech Connect

    Quigg, Chris; /Fermilab /CERN

    2011-02-01

    Parton luminosities are convenient for estimating how the physics potential of Large Hadron Collider experiments depends on the energy of the proton beams. I quantify the advantage of increasing the beam energy from 3.5 TeV to 4 TeV. I present parton luminosities, ratios of parton luminosities, and contours of fixed parton luminosity for gg, u {bar d}, qq, and gq interactions over the energy range relevant to the Large Hadron Collider, along with example analyses for specific processes. This note extends the analysis presented in Ref. [1]. Full-size figures are available as pdf files at lutece.fnal.gov/PartonLum11/.

  19. Energy savings potential in air conditioners and chiller systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kaya, Durmus; Alidrisi, Hisham

    2014-01-22

    In the current paper we quantified and evaluated the energy saving potential in air conditioners and chiller systems. Here, we also showed how to reduce the cost of air conditioners and chiller systems in existing facilities on the basis of payback periods. Among the measures investigated were: (1) installing higher efficiency air conditioners, (2) installing higher efficiency chillers, (3) duty cycling air conditioning units, and (4) utilizing existing economizers on air conditioning units. For each method, examples were provided from Arizona, USA. In these examples, the amount of saved energy, the financial evaluation of this energy, and the investment cost and pay back periods were calculated.

  20. Energy savings potential in air conditioners and chiller systems

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kaya, Durmus; Alidrisi, Hisham

    2014-01-22

    In the current paper we quantified and evaluated the energy saving potential in air conditioners and chiller systems. Here, we also showed how to reduce the cost of air conditioners and chiller systems in existing facilities on the basis of payback periods. Among the measures investigated were: (1) installing higher efficiency air conditioners, (2) installing higher efficiency chillers, (3) duty cycling air conditioning units, and (4) utilizing existing economizers on air conditioning units. For each method, examples were provided from Arizona, USA. In these examples, the amount of saved energy, the financial evaluation of this energy, and the investment costmore » and pay back periods were calculated.« less

  1. Assessing the role of nuclear effects in the interpretation of the MiniBooNE low-energy anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ericson, M.; Garzelli, M. V.; Giunti, C.; Martini, M.

    2016-04-01

    We study the impact of the effect of multinucleon interactions in the reconstruction of the neutrino energy on the fit of the MiniBooNE data in terms of neutrino oscillations. We obtain some improvement of the fit of the MiniBooNE low-energy excess in the framework of two-neutrino oscillations and a shift of the allowed region in the sin22 ϑ -Δ m2 plane toward smaller values of sin22 ϑ and larger values of Δ m2. However, this effect is not enough to solve the problem of the appearance-disappearance tension in the global fit of short-baseline neutrino oscillation data.

  2. Pseudospectral Gaussian quantum dynamics: Efficient sampling of potential energy surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heaps, Charles W.; Mazziotti, David A.

    2016-04-01

    Trajectory-based Gaussian basis sets have been tremendously successful in describing high-dimensional quantum molecular dynamics. In this paper, we introduce a pseudospectral Gaussian-based method that achieves accurate quantum dynamics using efficient, real-space sampling of the time-dependent basis set. As in other Gaussian basis methods, we begin with a basis set expansion using time-dependent Gaussian basis functions guided by classical mechanics. Unlike other Gaussian methods but characteristic of the pseudospectral and collocation methods, the basis set is tested with N Dirac delta functions, where N is the number of basis functions, rather than using the basis function as test functions. As a result, the integration for matrix elements is reduced to function evaluation. Pseudospectral Gaussian dynamics only requires O ( N ) potential energy calculations, in contrast to O ( N 2 ) evaluations in a variational calculation. The classical trajectories allow small basis sets to sample high-dimensional potentials. Applications are made to diatomic oscillations in a Morse potential and a generalized version of the Henon-Heiles potential in two, four, and six dimensions. Comparisons are drawn to full analytical evaluation of potential energy integrals (variational) and the bra-ket averaged Taylor (BAT) expansion, an O ( N ) approximation used in Gaussian-based dynamics. In all cases, the pseudospectral Gaussian method is competitive with full variational calculations that require a global, analytical, and integrable potential energy surface. Additionally, the BAT breaks down when quantum mechanical coherence is particularly strong (i.e., barrier reflection in the Morse oscillator). The ability to obtain variational accuracy using only the potential energy at discrete points makes the pseudospectral Gaussian method a promising avenue for on-the-fly dynamics, where electronic structure calculations become computationally significant.

  3. Pseudospectral Gaussian quantum dynamics: Efficient sampling of potential energy surfaces.

    PubMed

    Heaps, Charles W; Mazziotti, David A

    2016-04-28

    Trajectory-based Gaussian basis sets have been tremendously successful in describing high-dimensional quantum molecular dynamics. In this paper, we introduce a pseudospectral Gaussian-based method that achieves accurate quantum dynamics using efficient, real-space sampling of the time-dependent basis set. As in other Gaussian basis methods, we begin with a basis set expansion using time-dependent Gaussian basis functions guided by classical mechanics. Unlike other Gaussian methods but characteristic of the pseudospectral and collocation methods, the basis set is tested with N Dirac delta functions, where N is the number of basis functions, rather than using the basis function as test functions. As a result, the integration for matrix elements is reduced to function evaluation. Pseudospectral Gaussian dynamics only requires O(N) potential energy calculations, in contrast to O(N(2)) evaluations in a variational calculation. The classical trajectories allow small basis sets to sample high-dimensional potentials. Applications are made to diatomic oscillations in a Morse potential and a generalized version of the Henon-Heiles potential in two, four, and six dimensions. Comparisons are drawn to full analytical evaluation of potential energy integrals (variational) and the bra-ket averaged Taylor (BAT) expansion, an O(N) approximation used in Gaussian-based dynamics. In all cases, the pseudospectral Gaussian method is competitive with full variational calculations that require a global, analytical, and integrable potential energy surface. Additionally, the BAT breaks down when quantum mechanical coherence is particularly strong (i.e., barrier reflection in the Morse oscillator). The ability to obtain variational accuracy using only the potential energy at discrete points makes the pseudospectral Gaussian method a promising avenue for on-the-fly dynamics, where electronic structure calculations become computationally significant. PMID:27131532

  4. Müllerian anomalies.

    PubMed

    Gell, Jennifer S

    2003-11-01

    The reproductive organs in both males and females consist of gonads, internal ductal structures, and external genitalia. Normal sexual differentiation is dependent on the genetic sex determined by the presence or absence of the Y chromosome at fertilization. Testes develop under the influence of the Y chromosome and ovaries develop when no Y chromosome is present. In the absence of testes and their normal hormonal products, sexual differentiation proceeds along the female pathway, resulting in a normal female phenotype. Anatomic gynecologic anomalies occur when there is failure of normal embryologic ductal development. These anomalies include congenital absence of the vagina as well as defects in lateral and vertical fusion of the Müllerian ducts. Treatment of müllerian anomalies begins with the correct identification of the anomaly and an understanding of the embryologic origin. This includes evaluation for other associated anomalies such as renal or skeletal abnormalities. After correct identification, treatment options include nonsurgical as well as surgical intervention. This chapter serves to review the embryology and development of the reproductive system and to describe common genital tract anomalies. Details of surgical or nonsurgical correction of these anomalies are presented. PMID:14724770

  5. Potentials and policy implications of energy and material efficiency improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Worrell, Ernst; Levine, Mark; Price, Lynn; Martin, Nathan; van den Broek, Richard; Block, Kornelis

    1997-01-01

    There is a growing awareness of the serious problems associated with the provision of sufficient energy to meet human needs and to fuel economic growth world-wide. This has pointed to the need for energy and material efficiency, which would reduce air, water and thermal pollution, as well as waste production. Increasing energy and material efficiency also have the benefits of increased employment, improved balance of imports and exports, increased security of energy supply, and adopting environmentally advantageous energy supply. A large potential exists for energy savings through energy and material efficiency improvements. Technologies are not now, nor will they be, in the foreseeable future, the limiting factors with regard to continuing energy efficiency improvements. There are serious barriers to energy efficiency improvement, including unwillingness to invest, lack of available and accessible information, economic disincentives and organizational barriers. A wide range of policy instruments, as well as innovative approaches have been tried in some countries in order to achieve the desired energy efficiency approaches. These include: regulation and guidelines; economic instruments and incentives; voluntary agreements and actions, information, education and training; and research, development and demonstration. An area that requires particular attention is that of improved international co-operation to develop policy instruments and technologies to meet the needs of developing countries. Material efficiency has not received the attention that it deserves. Consequently, there is a dearth of data on the qualities and quantities for final consumption, thus, making it difficult to formulate policies. Available data, however, suggest that there is a large potential for improved use of many materials in industrialized countries.

  6. Teaching Field Concept and Potential Energy at A-Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poon, C. H.

    1986-01-01

    Argues for a greater emphasis on the reality of fields in electronics and gravitation instruction. Advocates that the potential energy in a system be regarded as stored in the field rather than in the material bodies of the system. Provides a rationale and examples for this position. (ML)

  7. Unified Technical Concepts. Module 7: Potential and Kinetic Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technical Education Research Center, Waco, TX.

    This concept module on potential and kinetic energy is one of thirteen modules that provide a flexible, laboratory-based physics instructional package designed to meet the specialized needs of students in two-year, postsecondary technical schools. Each of the thirteen concept modules discusses a single physics concept and how it is applied to each…

  8. High energy scattering of Dirac particles on smooth potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Nguyen Suan; Dung, Le Anh; Xuan, Nguyen Nhu; Thang, Vu Toan

    2016-08-01

    The derivation of the Glauber type representation for the high energy scattering amplitude of particles of spin 1/2 is given within the framework of the Dirac equation in the Foldy-Wouthuysen (FW) representation and two-component formalism. The differential cross-sections on the Yukawa and Gaussian potentials are also considered and discussed.

  9. Global Potential of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling Programs

    SciTech Connect

    McNeil, Michael A; McNeil, Michael A.; Letschert, Virginie; de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2008-06-15

    This report estimates the global potential reductions in greenhouse gas emissions by 2030 for energy efficiency improvements associated with equipment (appliances, lighting, and HVAC) in buildings by means of energy efficiency standards and labels (EES&L). A consensus has emerged among the world's scientists and many corporate and political leaders regarding the need to address the threat of climate change through emissions mitigation and adaptation. A further consensus has emerged that a central component of these strategies must be focused around energy, which is the primary generator of greenhouse gas emissions. Two important questions result from this consensus: 'what kinds of policies encourage the appropriate transformation to energy efficiency' and 'how much impact can these policies have'? This report aims to contribute to the dialogue surrounding these issues by considering the potential impacts of a single policy type, applied on a global scale. The policy addressed in this report is Energy Efficient Standards and Labeling (EES&L) for energy-consuming equipment, which has now been implemented in over 60 countries. Mandatory energy performance standards are important because they contribute positively to a nation's economy and provide relative certainty about the outcome (both timing and magnitudes). Labels also contribute positively to a nation's economy and importantly increase the awareness of the energy-consuming public. Other policies not analyzed here (utility incentives, tax credits) are complimentary to standards and labels and also contribute in significant ways to reducing greenhouse gas emissions. We believe the analysis reported here to be the first systematic attempt to evaluate the potential of savings from EES&L for all countries and for such a large set of products. The goal of the analysis is to provide an assessment that is sufficiently well-quantified and accurate to allow comparison and integration with other strategies under

  10. Behavioral economics without anomalies.

    PubMed Central

    Rachlin, H

    1995-01-01

    Behavioral economics is often conceived as the study of anomalies superimposed on a rational system. As research has progressed, anomalies have multiplied until little is left of rationality. Another conception of behavioral economics is based on the axiom that value is always maximized. It incorporates so-called anomalies either as conflicts between temporal patterns of behavior and the individual acts comprising those patterns or as outcomes of nonexponential time discounting. This second conception of behavioral economics is both empirically based and internally consistent. PMID:8551195

  11. Three-dimensional potential energy surface of Ar–CO

    SciTech Connect

    Sumiyoshi, Yoshihiro; Endo, Yasuki

    2015-01-14

    A three-dimensional intermolecular potential energy surface of the Ar–CO complex has been determined by fitting most of the previously reported spectroscopic data, where observed transition frequencies by microwave, millimeter-wave, submillimeter-wave, and infrared spectroscopy were reproduced simultaneously within their experimental accuracies. A free rotor model Hamiltonian considering all the freedom of motions for an atom-diatom system was applied to calculate vibration-rotation energies. A three-dimensional potential energy surface obtained by ab initio calculations at the CCSD(T)-F12b/aug-cc-pV5Z level of theory was parameterized by a model function consisting of 46 parameters. They were used as initial values for the least-squares analysis of the experimental data. A total of 20 parameters were optimized to reproduce all the spectroscopic data.

  12. Global interior eddy available potential energy diagnosed from Argo floats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roullet, Guillaume; Capet, Xavier; Maze, Guillaume

    2014-03-01

    By combining all Argo profiles for the period 2002 to present, a cumulative density function is constructed on a 3-D grid of the global ocean. This function quantifies the statistics of isopycnals: time-averaged density, root-mean square of isopycnal displacement, and eddy available potential energy (EAPE). EAPE is the analogue of the eddy kinetic energy, but for the potential energy reservoir. Because it is essentially tied to the spatial structure and magnitude of mesoscale activity, EAPE is an important quantity that should be useful to evaluate eddy resolving/permitting model turbulence and circulation. Among other striking features are the turbulent behavior of Pacific and southern Atlantic Tsuchiya jets and subsurface EAPE maxima in some parts of the ocean, particularly in the Southern Ocean.

  13. Understanding Potential Climate Variability Impacts on the Offshore Energy Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stear, J.

    2014-12-01

    Climate variability may have important implications for the offshore energy industry. Scenarios of increased storm activity and changes in sea level could require the retrofit of existing offshore platforms and coastal infrastructure, the decommissioning of facilities for which upgrade or relocation is not economically viable, and the development of new methods and equipment which are removed from or less sensitive to environmental loads. Over the past years the energy industry has been actively involved in collaborative research efforts with government and academia to identify the potential changes in the offshore operating environment, and corresponding risk implications. This presentation will review several of these efforts, and for several of the hypothetical climate variation scenarios, review the potential impacts on and possible mitigations for offshore and coastal energy infrastructure and operations.

  14. Contrastive studies of potential energy functions of some diatomic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdallah, Hassan H.; Abdullah, Hewa Y.

    2016-03-01

    It was proposed that iron hydride, FeH, would be formed only on grains at the clouds through the reaction of the adsorbed H atoms or H2 molecules with the adsorbed Fe atoms on the grains. The importance of FeH in Astrophysics presents an additional motivation to study its energetic, spectroscopic constants and Potential Energy Curves. The structural optimization for ground state of FeH was calculated by different theoretical methods, namely, Hartree-Fock (HF), the density functional theory (DFT), B3LYP, MP2 method and QCISD(T) methods and compared with available data from the literature. The single ionized forms, cation and anion, were also obtained at the same level of calculations. Charges, dipole moment, geometrical parameters, molecular orbital energies and spectroscopic parameters were calculated and reported. In addition, the molecular ionization potential, electron affinity and dissociation energy were investigated.

  15. Heterobarrier for converting hot-phonon energy to electric potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Seungha; Melnick, Corey; Kaviany, Massoud

    2013-02-01

    We show that hot phonons emitted in energy conversion or resistive processes can be converted to electric potential in heterobarrier structures. Using phonon and electron interaction kinetics and self-consistent ensemble Monte Carlo, we find the favorable conditions for unassisted absorption of hot phonons and design graded heterobarriers for their direct conversion into electric energy. Tandem barriers with nearly optical-phonon height allow for substantial potential gain without current loss. We find that 19% of hot phonons can be harvested with an optimized GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs barrier structure over a range of current and electron densities, thus enhancing the overall energy conversion efficiency and reducing waste heat.

  16. Jamming anomaly in PT-symmetric systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barashenkov, I. V.; Zezyulin, D. A.; Konotop, V. V.

    2016-07-01

    The Schrödinger equation with a { P }{ T }-symmetric potential is used to model an optical structure consisting of an element with gain coupled to an element with loss. At low gain–loss amplitudes γ, raising the amplitude results in the energy flux from the active to the leaky element being boosted. We study the anomalous behaviour occurring for larger γ, where the increase of the amplitude produces a drop of the flux across the gain–loss interface. We show that this jamming anomaly is either a precursor of the exceptional point, where two real eigenvalues coalesce and acquire imaginary parts, or precedes the eigenvalue's immersion in the continuous spectrum.

  17. Technical Potential of Solar Energy to Address Energy Poverty and Avoid GHG Emissions in Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Cowlin, S. C.; Heimiller, D.; Bilello, D.; Renne, D.

    2008-01-01

    This analysis explores the technical potential of photovoltaics (PV) or concentrating solar power (CSP) to address energy poverty in Africa through a geographic information system (GIS) screening of solar resource data developed by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL).

  18. U.S. Building-Sector Energy Efficiency Potential

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Rich; Borgeson, Sam; Koomey, Jon; Biermayer, Peter

    2008-09-30

    This paper presents an estimate of the potential for energy efficiency improvements in the U.S. building sector by 2030. The analysis uses the Energy Information Administration's AEO 2007 Reference Case as a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario, and applies percentage savings estimates by end use drawn from several prior efficiency potential studies. These prior studies include the U.S. Department of Energy's Scenarios for a Clean Energy Future (CEF) study and a recent study of natural gas savings potential in New York state. For a few end uses for which savings estimates are not readily available, the LBNL study team compiled technical data to estimate savings percentages and costs of conserved energy. The analysis shows that for electricity use in buildings, approximately one-third of the BAU consumption can be saved at a cost of conserved energy of 2.7 cents/kWh (all values in 2007 dollars), while for natural gas approximately the same percentage savings is possible at a cost of between 2.5 and 6.9 $/million Btu. This cost-effective level of savings results in national annual energy bill savings in 2030 of nearly $170 billion. To achieve these savings, the cumulative capital investment needed between 2010 and 2030 is about $440 billion, which translates to a 2-1/2 year simple payback period, or savings over the life of the measures that are nearly 3.5 times larger than the investment required (i.e., a benefit-cost ratio of 3.5).

  19. Decadal predictability of regional scale wind speed and wind energy potentials over Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moemken, Julia; Reyers, Mark; Buldmann, Benjamin; Pinto, Joaquim G.

    2016-04-01

    weather type with strong pressure gradients over Central Europe is identified as potential source for the skill for wind energy potentials, showing similar forecast skill and a high correlation with Eout anomalies. These results are promising regarding the establishment of a decadal prediction system for wind energy for Central Europe.

  20. The effect of split gate dimensions on the electrostatic potential and 0.7 anomaly within one-dimensional quantum wires on a modulation doped GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, L. W.; Al-Taie, H.; Lesage, A. A. J.; Thomas, K. J.; Sfigakis, F.; See, P.; Griffiths, J. P.; Farrer, I.; Jones, G. A. C.; Ritchie, D. A.; Kelly, M. J.; Smith, C. G.

    We use a multiplexing scheme to measure the conductance properties of 95 split gates of 7 different gate dimensions fabricated on a GaAs/AlGaAs chip, in a single cool down. The number of devices for which conductance is accurately quantized reduces as the gate length increases. However, even the devices for which conductance is accurately quantized in units of 2e2 / h show no correlation between the length of electrostatic potential barrier in the channel and the gate length, using a saddle point model to estimate the barrier length. Further, the strength of coupling between the gates and the 1D channel does not increase with gate length beyond 0.7 μm. The background electrostatic profile appears as significant as the gate dimension in determining device behavior. We find a clear correlation between the curvature of the electrostatic barrier along the channel and the strength of the ``0.7 anomaly'' which identifies the electrostatic length of the channel as the principal factor governing the conductance of the 0.7 anomaly. Present address: Wisconsin Institute for Quantum Information, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI.

  1. Anomalies and entanglement entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishioka, Tatsuma; Yarom, Amos

    2016-03-01

    We initiate a systematic study of entanglement and Rényi entropies in the presence of gauge and gravitational anomalies in even-dimensional quantum field theories. We argue that the mixed and gravitational anomalies are sensitive to boosts and obtain a closed form expression for their behavior under such transformations. Explicit constructions exhibiting the dependence of entanglement entropy on boosts is provided for theories on spacetimes with non-trivial magnetic fluxes and (or) non-vanishing Pontryagin classes.

  2. Dual diaphragmatic anomalies.

    PubMed

    Padmanabhan, Arjun; Thomas, Abin Varghese

    2016-01-01

    Although diaphragmatic anomalies such as an eventration and hiatus hernia are commonly encountered in incidental chest X-ray imaging, the presence of concomitant multiple anomalies is extremely rare. This is all the more true in adults. Herein, we present the case of a 75-year-old female, while undergoing a routine chest X-ray imaging, was found to have eventration of right hemidiaphragm along with a hiatus hernia as well. PMID:27625457

  3. Dual diaphragmatic anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Padmanabhan, Arjun; Thomas, Abin Varghese

    2016-01-01

    Although diaphragmatic anomalies such as an eventration and hiatus hernia are commonly encountered in incidental chest X-ray imaging, the presence of concomitant multiple anomalies is extremely rare. This is all the more true in adults. Herein, we present the case of a 75-year-old female, while undergoing a routine chest X-ray imaging, was found to have eventration of right hemidiaphragm along with a hiatus hernia as well.

  4. An exploration of the ozone dimer potential energy surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azofra, Luis Miguel; Alkorta, Ibon; Scheiner, Steve

    2014-06-01

    The (O3)2 dimer potential energy surface is thoroughly explored at the ab initio CCSD(T) computational level. Five minima are characterized with binding energies between 0.35 and 2.24 kcal/mol. The most stable may be characterized as slipped parallel, with the two O3 monomers situated in parallel planes. Partitioning of the interaction energy points to dispersion and exchange as the prime contributors to the stability, with varying contributions from electrostatic energy, which is repulsive in one case. Atoms in Molecules analysis of the wavefunction presents specific O⋯O bonding interactions, whose number is related to the overall stability of each dimer. All internal vibrational frequencies are shifted to the red by dimerization, particularly the antisymmetric stretching mode whose shift is as high as 111 cm-1. In addition to the five minima, 11 higher-order stationary points are identified.

  5. An exploration of the ozone dimer potential energy surface.

    PubMed

    Azofra, Luis Miguel; Alkorta, Ibon; Scheiner, Steve

    2014-06-28

    The (O3)2 dimer potential energy surface is thoroughly explored at the ab initio CCSD(T) computational level. Five minima are characterized with binding energies between 0.35 and 2.24 kcal/mol. The most stable may be characterized as slipped parallel, with the two O3 monomers situated in parallel planes. Partitioning of the interaction energy points to dispersion and exchange as the prime contributors to the stability, with varying contributions from electrostatic energy, which is repulsive in one case. Atoms in Molecules analysis of the wavefunction presents specific O⋯O bonding interactions, whose number is related to the overall stability of each dimer. All internal vibrational frequencies are shifted to the red by dimerization, particularly the antisymmetric stretching mode whose shift is as high as 111 cm(-1). In addition to the five minima, 11 higher-order stationary points are identified. PMID:24985642

  6. An exploration of the ozone dimer potential energy surface

    SciTech Connect

    Azofra, Luis Miguel; Alkorta, Ibon; Scheiner, Steve

    2014-06-28

    The (O{sub 3}){sub 2} dimer potential energy surface is thoroughly explored at the ab initio CCSD(T) computational level. Five minima are characterized with binding energies between 0.35 and 2.24 kcal/mol. The most stable may be characterized as slipped parallel, with the two O{sub 3} monomers situated in parallel planes. Partitioning of the interaction energy points to dispersion and exchange as the prime contributors to the stability, with varying contributions from electrostatic energy, which is repulsive in one case. Atoms in Molecules analysis of the wavefunction presents specific O⋯O bonding interactions, whose number is related to the overall stability of each dimer. All internal vibrational frequencies are shifted to the red by dimerization, particularly the antisymmetric stretching mode whose shift is as high as 111 cm{sup −1}. In addition to the five minima, 11 higher-order stationary points are identified.

  7. On isostatic geoid anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haxby, W. F.; Turcotte, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    In regions of slowly varying lateral density changes, the gravity and geoid anomalies may be expressed as power series expansions in topography. Geoid anomalies in isostatically compensated regions can be directly related to the local dipole moment of the density-depth distribution. This relationship is used to obtain theoretical geoid anomalies for different models of isostatic compensation. The classical Pratt and Airy models give geoid height-elevation relationships differing in functional form but predicting geoid anomalies of comparable magnitude. The thermal cooling model explaining ocean floor subsidence away from mid-ocean ridges predicts a linear age-geoid height relationship of 0.16 m/m.y. Geos 3 altimetry profiles were examined to test these theoretical relationships. A profile over the mid-Atlantic ridge is closely matched by the geoid curve derived from the thermal cooling model. The observed geoid anomaly over the Atlantic margin of North America can be explained by Airy compensation. The relation between geoid anomaly and bathymetry across the Bermuda Swell is consistent with Pratt compensation with a 100-km depth of compensation.

  8. Evaluation of global onshore wind energy potential and generation costs.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yuyu; Luckow, Patrick; Smith, Steven J; Clarke, Leon

    2012-07-17

    In this study, we develop an updated global estimate of onshore wind energy potential using reanalysis wind speed data, along with updated wind turbine technology performance, land suitability factors, cost assumptions, and explicit consideration of transmission distance in the calculation of transmission costs. We find that wind has the potential to supply a significant portion of the world energy needs, although this potential varies substantially by region and with assumptions such as on what types of land can be used to site wind farms. Total global economic wind potential under central assumptions, that is, intermediate between optimistic and pessimistic, is estimated to be approximately 119.5 petawatt hours per year (13.6 TW) at less than 9 cents/kWh. A sensitivity analysis of eight key parameters is presented. Wind potential is sensitive to a number of input parameters, particularly wind speed (varying by -70% to +450% at less than 9 cents/kWh), land suitability (by -55% to +25%), turbine density (by -60% to +80%), and cost and financing options (by -20% to +200%), many of which have important policy implications. As a result of sensitivities studied here we suggest that further research intended to inform wind supply curve development focus not purely on physical science, such as better resolved wind maps, but also on these less well-defined factors, such as land-suitability, that will also have an impact on the long-term role of wind power. PMID:22715929

  9. Residential energy efficiency: Progress since 1973 and future potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenfeld, Arthur H.

    1985-11-01

    Today's 85 million U.S. homes use 100 billion of fuel and electricity (1150/home). If their energy intensity (resource energy/ft2) were still frozen at 1973 levels, they would use 18% more. With well-insulated houses, need for space heat is vanishing. Superinsulated Saskatchewan homes spend annually only 270 for space heat, 150 for water heat, and 400 for appliances, yet they cost only 2000±1000 more than conventional new homes. The concept of Cost of Conserved Energy (CCE) is used to rank conservation technologies for existing and new homes and appliances, and to develop supply curves of conserved energy and a least cost scenario. Calculations are calibrated with the BECA and other data bases. By limiting investments in efficiency to those whose CCE is less than current fuel and electricity prices, the potential residential plus commercial energy use in 2000 AD drops to half of that estimated by DOE, and the number of power plants needed drops by 200. For the whole buildings sector, potential savings by 2000 are 8 Mbod (worth 50B/year), at an average CCE of 10/barrel.

  10. Potential for luminosity improvement for low-energy RHIC operation

    SciTech Connect

    Fedotov A. V.

    2012-05-20

    At the Brookhaven National Laboratory, a physics program, motivated by the search of the QCD phase transition critical point, requires operation of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) with heavy ions at very low beam energies corresponding to 2.5-20 GeV/n. Several physics runs were already successfully performed at these low energies. However, the luminosity is very low at lowest energies of interest (< 10 GeV/n) limited by the intra-beam scattering and space-charge, as well as by machine nonlinearities. At these low energies, electron cooling could be very effective in counteracting luminosity degradation due to the IBS, while it is less effective against other limitations. Overall potential luminosity improvement for low-energy RHIC operation from cooling is summarized for various energies, taking into account all these limitations as well as beam lifetime measured during the low-energy RHIC runs. We also explore a possibility of further luminosity improvement under the space-charge limitation.