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1

Thermodynamic, Dynamic and Structural Anomalies for Shoulder-like potentials  

E-print Network

becomes a deep well the regions in the pressure-temperature phase diagram where the three anomalies- temperature phase diagram with density, diffusion and structural anomalies. However, if the closest scale a simple two- body isotropic potential capable of describing the complicated behavior present in water

Barbosa, Marcia C. B.

2

Streaming electrical potential anomaly along faults in geothermal areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrical potential anomalies are often measured associated with geothermal areas and volcanoes. In these systems, fluid flow is usually mostly restricted to faults and fracture networks. An equation describing electrical potential anomalies of electrokinetic nature associated with fluid upflow induced by a thermal source along faults is derived. The electrical potential anomaly is related to the depth of the thermal reservoir, the temperature difference between the surface and the reservoir of the geothermal area, the thermal expansion of water, and the streaming electrical potential coupling coefficient in the fault zone. A quantitative calculation of the electrokinetic anomaly is provided by comparing this model to a self-potential survey of the Cerro-Prieto geothermal field [Fitterman and Corwin, 1982]. The predictions of the model agree well with the field measurements.

Revil, A.; Pezard, P. A.

3

Modeling of self-potential anomalies near vertical dikes.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The self-potential (SP) Green's function for an outcropping vertical dike is derived from solutions for the dc resistivity problem for the same geometry. The Green's functions are numerically integrated over rectangular source regions on the contacts between the dike and the surrounding material to obtain the SP anomaly. The analysis is valid for thermoelectrical source mechanisms. Two types of anomalies can be produced by this geometry. When the two source planes are polarized in opposite directions, a monopolar anomaly is produced. This corresponds to the thermoelectrical properties of the dike being in contrast with the surrounding material. When the thermoelectric coefficients change monotonically across the dike, a dipolar anomaly is produced. In either case positive and negative anomalies are possible, and the greatest variation in potential will occur in the most resistive regions. -Author

Fitterman, D.V.

1983-01-01

4

Potential Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of a comprehensive physics tutorial for high school students, this page describes potential energy conceptually and mathematically, provides examples enhanced by illustrations, and problems for practice with drop down boxes for your answers and feedback. In the left navigation bar, click on Kinetic Energy to get parallel information on kinetic energy.

2010-01-01

5

Inversion of self-potential anomalies in mineral exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method for the inversion of self-potential anomalies over spherical, cylindrical, and sheet-like sources is proposed. In this method, the computer calculates the initial solution which is modified in an iterative process using nonlinear least-squares regression by employing the Marquardt algorithm. A computer program in FORTRAN 77, directly executable on a VAX-11/750 computer is presented.

Ram Babu, H. V.; Atchuta Rao, D.

6

Singularity analysis of potential fields to enhance weak anomalies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geoanomalies generally are nonlinear, non-stationary and weak, especially in the land cover areas, however, the traditional methods of geoanomaly identification are usually based on linear theory. In past two decades, many power-law function models have been developed based on fractal concept in mineral exploration and mineral resource assessment, such that the density-area (C-A) model and spectrum-area model (S-A) suggested by Qiuming Cheng have played important roles in extracting geophysical and geochemical anomalies. Several power-law relationships are evident in geophysical potential fields, such as field value-distance, power spectrum-wave number as well as density-area models. The singularity index based on density-area model involves the first derivative transformation of the measure. Hence, we introduce the singularity analysis to develop a novel high-pass filter for extracting gravity and magnetic anomalies with the advantage of scale invariance. Furthermore, we suggest that the statistics of singularity indices can provide a new edge detection scheme for the gravity or magnetic source bodies. Meanwhile, theoretical magnetic anomalies are established to verify these assertions. In the case study from Nanling mineral district in south China and Qikou Depression in east China, compared with traditional geophysical filtering methods including multiscale wavelet analysis and total horizontal gradient methods, the singularity method enhances and extracts the weak anomalies caused by buried magmatic rocks more effectively, and provides more distinct boundary information of rocks. Moreover, the singularity mapping results have good correspondence relationship with both the outcropping rocks and known mineral deposits to support future mineral resource exploration. The singularity method based on fractal analysis has potential to be a new useful theory and technique for processing gravity and magnetic anomaly data.

Chen, G.; Cheng, Q.; Liu, T.

2013-12-01

7

Anomalies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This theme issue on anomalies includes Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, and additional resources for elementary and junior high school students. Pertinent activities are suggested, and sidebars discuss UFOs, animal anomalies, and anomalies from nature; and resources covering unexplained phenonmenas like crop circles, Easter Island,…

Online-Offline, 1999

1999-01-01

8

Spectral action, Weyl anomaly and the Higgs-dilaton potential  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show how the bosonic spectral action emerges from the fermionic action by the renormalization flow in the presence of a dilaton and the Weyl anomaly. The induced action comes out to be basically the Chamseddine-Connes spectral action introduced in the context of noncommutative geometry. The entire spectral action describes gauge and Higgs fields coupled with gravity. We then consider the effective potential and show, that it has the desired features of a broken and an unbroken phase, with the roll down.

Andrianov, A. A.; Kurkov, M. A.; Lizzi, Fedele

2011-10-01

9

Potential and kinetic energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What is the difference between potential and kinetic energy? This informational piece, part of a series about the future of energy, introduces students to kinetic and potential energy. The law of conservation of energy is explained, using the example of turning natural gas into electricity. Definitions and examples of potential energy and kinetic energy are provided. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Iowa Public Television. Explore More Project

2004-01-01

10

Softness dependence of the anomalies for the continuous shouldered well potential.  

PubMed

By molecular dynamic simulations we study a system of particles interacting through a continuous isotropic pairwise core-softened potential consisting of a repulsive shoulder and an attractive well. The model displays a phase diagram with three fluid phases: a gas-liquid critical point, a liquid-liquid critical point, and anomalies in density, diffusion, and structure. The hierarchy of the anomalies is the same as for water. Here we study in a systematic way the effect on the anomalies of varying the softness of the potential. We find that, making the soft-core steeper and more penetrable, the regions of density and diffusion anomalies contract in the T-rho plane, while the region of structural anomaly is weakly affected. Therefore, a liquid can have anomalous structural behavior without having density or diffusion anomalies. We show that, by considering as effective distances those corresponding to the maxima of the first two peaks of the radial distribution function g(r) in the high-density liquid, we can generalize to continuous two-scale potentials a criterion for the occurrence of the anomalies of density and diffusion, originally proposed for discontinuous potentials. However, we observe that the knowledge of the structural behavior within the first two coordination shells of the liquid is not enough to establish, in general, the occurrence of the anomalies. By introducing the density derivative of the cumulative order integral of the excess entropy, measuring shell by shell the amount of order in the liquid, we show that the anomalous behavior is regulated by the structural order at distances as large as the fourth coordination shell. By comparing the results for different softness of the potential, we conclude that the disappearance of the density and diffusion anomalies for the steeper potentials is due to a more structured short-range order. All these results increase our understanding on how, knowing the interaction potential, we can evaluate the possible presence of anomalies for a liquid. PMID:20815580

Vilaseca, Pol; Franzese, Giancarlo

2010-08-28

11

Anomaly and the self-energy of electric charges  

E-print Network

We study the self energy of a charged particle located in a static D-dimensional gravitational field. We show that the energy functional for this problem is invariant under an infinite dimensional (gauge) group of transformations parameterized by one scalar function of (D-1)-variables. We demonstrate that the problem of the calculation of the self energy for a pointlike charge is equivalent to the calculation of the fluctuations $$ for an effective (D-1)-dimensional Euclidean quantum field theory. Using point-splitting regularization we obtain an expression for the self energy and show, that it possesses anomalies. Explicit calculation of the self energy and its anomaly is done for the higher dimensional Majumdar-Papapetrou spacetimes.

Frolov, Valeri P

2012-01-01

12

Potential energy for slantwise parcel motion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two formulations for the potential energy for slantwise motion are compared: one which applies strictly only to two-dimensional flows (SCAPE) and a three-dimensional formulation based on a Bernoulli equation. The two formulations share an identical contribution from the vertically integrated buoyancy anomaly and a contribution from different Coriolis terms. The latter arise from the neglect of (different) components of the

S. L. Gray; A. J. Thorpe

2000-01-01

13

Insights on the Cuprate High Energy Anomaly Observed in ARPES  

SciTech Connect

Recently, angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy has been used to highlight an anomalously large band renormalization at high binding energies in cuprate superconductors: the high energy 'waterfall' or high energy anomaly (HEA). The anomaly is present for both hole- and electron-doped cuprates as well as the half-filled parent insulators with different energy scales arising on either side of the phase diagram. While photoemission matrix elements clearly play a role in changing the aesthetic appearance of the band dispersion, i.e. creating a 'waterfall'-like appearance, they provide an inadequate description for the physics that underlies the strong band renormalization giving rise to the HEA. Model calculations of the single-band Hubbard Hamiltonian showcase the role played by correlations in the formation of the HEA and uncover significant differences in the HEA energy scale for hole- and electron-doped cuprates. In addition, this approach properly captures the transfer of spectral weight accompanying doping in a correlated material and provides a unifying description of the HEA across both sides of the cuprate phase diagram. We find that the anomaly demarcates a transition, or cross-over, from a quasiparticle band at low binding energies near the Fermi level to valence bands at higher binding energy, assumed to be of strong oxygen character.

Moritz, Brian

2011-08-16

14

Structure order, local potentials, and physical anomalies of water ice  

E-print Network

Hydrogen-bond forms a pair of asymmetric, coupled, H-bridged oscillators with ultra-short-range interactions and memory. hydrogen bond cooperative relaxation and the associated binding electron entrapment and nonbonding electron polarization discriminate water and ice from other usual materials in the physical anomalies. As a strongly correlated fluctuating system, water prefers the statistically mean of tetrahedrally-coordinated structure with a supersolid skin that is elastic, polarized, ice like, hydrophobic, with 3/4 density.

Chang Q Sun

2014-07-11

15

Threshold anomaly for the 7Be +58Ni system at near-Coulomb-barrier energies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By using recent fusion cross section measurements for the weakly bound system 7Be+58Ni around the Coulomb barrier, a simultaneous ?2 analysis of elastic scattering and fusion cross section data is performed. The analysis is carried out with optical polarization potentials for the fusion and direct reaction processes. That is, the nuclear polarization potential UN is split into a volume part UF which accounts for fusion reactions and a surface part UD R that is responsible for direct reactions. The parameters of fusion and direct reaction Woods-Saxon polarization potentials are determined by the analysis of the data. The presence of the threshold anomaly is investigated from the energy dependence of these polarization potentials. It is found that, contrary to other weakly bound systems, the 7Be+58Ni reaction presents the usual threshold anomaly.

Gómez Camacho, A.; Aguilera, E. F.

2014-12-01

16

The trace anomaly and dynamical vacuum energy in cosmology  

SciTech Connect

The trace anomaly of conformal matter implies the existence of massless scalar poles in physical amplitudes involving the stress-energy tensor. These poles may be described by a local effective action with massless scalar fields, which couple to classical sources, contribute to gravitational scattering processes, and can have long range gravitational effects at macroscopic scales. In an effective field theory approach, the effective action of the anomaly is an infrared relevant term that should be added to the Einstein-Hilbert action of classical General Relativity to take account of macroscopic quantum effects. The additional scalar degrees of freedom contained in this effective action may be understood as responsible for both the Casimir effect in flat spacetime and large quantum backreaction effects at the horizon scale of cosmological spacetimes. These effects of the trace anomaly imply that the cosmological vacuum energy is dynamical, and its value depends on macroscopic boundary conditions at the cosmological horizon scale, rather than sensitivity to the extreme ultraviolet Planck scale.

Mottola, Emil [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01

17

EVAREST - Evaluation of geological models by joint interpretation of potential field anomalies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Structural geological models are often based on the integration of different geophysical datasets. During the last years an increasing interest in the potential field methods, i.e. gravimetry and magnetic, can be observed, even though data acquisition can cause considerable costs and logistic effort. Therefore, the specific advantages and disadvantages of the different methods were analyzed. In a case study, which was conducted in cooperation with RWE Dea and which is located in northern Germany, it was studied to which level of detail gravity and magnetic anomalies can be interpreted jointly by 3D forward modelling. Special attention was paid to the individual residuals, i.e. those parts of the gravity and magnetic anomalies which could not be interpreted satisfactorily by the joint structural / physical model. In a subsequent stage of the workflow this information was analyzed individually for each dataset to improve the geological interpretation and to identify and localize the sources of the anomalies in more detail. For the discussed study several potential field datasets of different resolution were available, which were first analyzed by means of field transformation. While the gravity anomalies are mainly related to the occurrence of salt structures, the magnetic anomalies seem to be controlled by deep structures, most probably by the magnetic basement. Some local magnetic anomalies with amplitudes of less than 10 nT can be related to the rim synclines of the salt structures as well as to buried Pleistocene subglacial valleys. 3D forward models, constrained by existing structural information and rock physical data, have shown that, e.g., a common fitting of both anomaly fields is not possible if homogenous densities and magnetizations are assigned to the different lithological units and while considering the geometry of the source bodies to be the same for both potential field anomalies. To explain the magnetic anomalies a more detailed differentiation of the source bodies in terms of thin layers is required, while for the interpretation of the gravity anomalies vertical density gradients must be considered for specific lithologies. Furthermore, from the magnetic anomalies ideas about the maximum depth of source bodies can be derived.

Skiba, Peter; Gabriel, Gerald; Krawczyk, CharLotte M.

2014-05-01

18

Generalized available potential energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kinetic energy generation in either the dry or moist atmosphere may be estimated by the same relationships if we introduce\\u000a the new concept of generalized available potential energy. The largest magnitude of generalized available potential energy\\u000a and corresponding reference state of either dry or moist atmosphere are calculated in terms of the initial conditions and\\u000a entropy variation of the

Yong L. McHall

1990-01-01

19

Potential Energy\\/Kinetic Energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives:\\u000aStudents will:\\u000a1. use modeling to calculate the spring constant of a super ball\\u000a2. use modeling to predict the elastic bounce (spring constant of other balls)\\u000aThis will help the student understand the elastic potential energy, kinetic energy, restoring force of a ball bounced at an angle, period, frequency of springs in simple harmonic motion Modeling will allow

David Rogers

2004-01-01

20

Inversion of Self Potential Anomalies with Multilayer Perceptron Neural Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates the inverse solution on a buried and polarized sphere-shaped body using the self-potential method via multilayer perceptron neural networks (MLPNN). The polarization angle ( ?), depth to the centre of sphere ( h), electrical dipole moment ( K) and the zero distance from the origin ( x 0) were estimated. For testing the success of the MLPNN for sphere model, parameters were also estimated by the traditional Damped Least Squares (Levenberg-Marquardt) inversion technique (DLS). The MLPNN was first tested on a synthetic example. The performance of method was also tested for two S/N ratios (5 % and 10 %) by adding noise to the same synthetic data, the estimated model parameters with MLPNN and DLS method are satisfactory. The MLPNN also applied for the field data example in ?zmir, Urla district, Turkey, with two cross-section data evaluated by MLPNN and DLS, and the two methods showed good agreement.

Kaftan, Ilknur; S?nd?rg?, Petek; Akdemir, Özer

2014-08-01

21

Anomaly in dispersion intermolecular potential produced by intense radation field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is predicted that a gap of 2? E/3 1/2 appears in the dispersion potential for a pair of ground-state (identical) atoms, or molecules, at distance R such that ?? + (4?? 0) -1( ? 2/3 R3)(1 - 3 cos 2?) = 0, where ? is the electric dipole moment, E is the field strength of an intense radiation field and ? is the angle between the polarization direction of the field and R. The detuning term ? is ? 0-? where ? 0 is the transition frequency of the atom or molecule, and ? is that of the field. The gap is of the order of 10 11 Hz when the intensity of the radiation field is a few MW/cm 2.

Mizushima, Masataka; Power, Edwin A.

1980-03-01

22

Revealing unexposed sources of potential field anomalies at Outokumpu ore province  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prospecting at Outokumpu Cu-ore province, Central Fennoscandian Shield has led to discoveries of several deposits within Outokumpu type association rocks, close to bedrock surface. Reflection seismic studies have indicated that this association may be present in different deep locations down to a depth of several kilometers. A new combined analysis of all available geodata is under way to produce a CEM-model of uppermost crust in the vicinity of the province. In addition to direct and inversion modeling the potential field studies include Fourier analyses of source depths and a comparison of anomaly change between 1980 and 2013 aeromagnetic surveys plus gravity anomalies to assist characterizing geological formations at depth by their remanent magnetization. Regional anomalies of potential fields are aimed to be defined by hierarchical CEM-models by magnetic and gravity anomaly grids of the Fennoscandian Shield and corresponding regional petrophysical data sets. The ultimate goal of the potential field interpretation is to contribute to recommendations for deep ore prospecting in a shield environment.

Korhonen, Juha; Leväniemi, Hanna; Kukkonen, Ilmo

2013-04-01

23

Rapid fluid disruption: A source for self-potential anomalies on volcanoes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Self-potential (SP) anomalies observed above suspected magma reservoirs, dikes, etc., on various volcanoes (Kilauea, Hawaii; Mount Unzen, Japan; Piton de la Fournaise, Reunion Island; Miyake Jima, Japan) result from transient surface electric fields of tens of millivolts per kilometer and generally have a positive polarity. These SP anomalies are usually attributed to electrokinetic effects where properties controlling this process are poorly constrained. We propose an alternate explanation that contributions to electric fields of correct polarity should be expected from charge generation by fluid vaporization/disruption. As liquids are vaporized or removed as droplets by gas transport away from hot dike intrusions, both charge generation and local increase in electrical resistivity by removal of fluids should occur. We report laboratory observations of electric fields in hot rock samples generated by pulses of fluid (water) through the rock at atmospheric pressure. These indicate the relative amplitudes of rapid fluid disruption (RFD) potentials and electrokinetic potentials to be dramatically different and the signals are opposite in sign. Above vaporization temperatures, RFD effects of positive sign in the direction of gas flow dominate, whereas below these temperatures, effects of negative sign dominate. This suggests that the primary contribution to observed self-potential anomalies arises from gas-related charge transport processes at temperatures high enough to produce vigorous boiling and vapor transport. At lower temperatures, the primary contribution is from electrokinetic effects modulated perhaps by changing electrical resistivity and RFD effects from high-pressure but low-temperature CO2 and SO2 gas flow ripping water molecules from saturated crustal rocks. If charge generation is continuous, as could well occur above a newly emplaced dike, positive static potentials will be set up that could be sustained for many years, and the simplest method for identifying these hot, active regions would be to identify the SP anomalies they generate.

Johnston, M. J. S.; Byerlee, J. D.; Lockner, D.

2001-01-01

24

Rapid fluid disruption: A source for self-potential anomalies on volcanoes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Self-potential (SP) anomalies observed above suspected magma reservoirs, dikes, etc., on various volcanoes (Kilauea, Hawaii; Mount Unzen, Japan; Piton de la Fournaise, Reunion Island, Miyake Jima, Japan) result from transient surface electric fields of tens of millivolts per kilometer and generally have a positive polarity. These SP anomalies are usually attributed to electrokinetic effects where properties controlling this process are poorly constrained. We propose an alternate explanation that contributions to electric fields of correct polarity should be expected from charge generation by fluid vaporization/disruption. As liquids are vaporized or removed as droplets by gas transport away from hot dike intrusions, both charge generation and local increase in electrical resistivity by removal of fluids should occur. We report laboratory observations of electric fields in hot rock samples generated by pulses of fluid (water) through the rock at atmospheric pressure. These indicate the relative amplitudes of rapid fluid disruption (RFD) potentials and electrokinetic potentials to be dramatically different and the signals are opposite in sign. Above vaporization temperatures, RFD effects of positive sign in the direction of gas flow dominate, whereas below these temperatures, effects of negative sign dominate. This suggests that the primary contribution to observed self-potential anomalies arises from gas-related charge transport processes at temperatures high enough to produce vigorous boiling and vapor transport. At lower temperatures, the primary contribution is from electrokinetic effects modulated perhaps by changing electrical resistivity and RFD effects from high-pressure but low-temperature CO2 and SO2 gas flow ripping water molecules from saturated crustal rocks. If charge generation is continuous, as could well occur above a newly emplaced dike, positive static potentials will be set up that could be sustained for many years, and the simplest method for identifying these hot, active regions would be to identify the SP anomalies they generate.

Johnston, M.J.S.; Byerlee, J.D.; Lockner, D.

2001-01-01

25

Physics 321 Energy Conservation Potential Energy in  

E-print Network

Physics 321 Hour 7 Energy Conservation ­ Potential Energy in One Dimension Work-Energy Theorem = 1 work increases kinetic energy, negative work decreases kinetic energy Gravity Depending on initial is independent of path. If we know we also know . 1 2 y x Potential Energy If T is dependent only on the end

Hart, Gus

26

Self-energy anomaly of an electric pointlike dipole in three-dimensional static spacetimes  

E-print Network

We calculate the self-energy anomaly of a pointlike electric dipole located in a static $(2+1)$-dimensional curved spacetime. The energy functional for this problem is invariant under an infinite-dimensional (gauge) group of transformations parameterized by one scalar function of two variables. We demonstrate that the problem of the calculation of the self-energy anomaly for a pointlike dipole can be reduced to the calculation of quantum fluctuations of an effective two-dimensional Euclidean quantum field theory. We reduced the problem in question to the calculation of the conformal anomaly of an effective scalar field in two dimensions and obtained an explicit expression for the self-energy anomaly of an electric dipole in an asymptotically flat, regular $(2+1)$-dimensional spacetime which may have electrically neutral black-hole-like metrics with regular Killing horizon.

Valeri P. Frolov; Andrey A. Shoom; Andrei Zelnikov

2013-03-07

27

Interpretation of Self-Potential Anomalies Using Constitutive Relationships for Electrochemical and Thermoelectric Coupling Coefficients  

SciTech Connect

Constitutive relationships for electrochemical and thermoelectric cross-coupling coefficients are derived using ionic mobilities, applying a general derivative of chemical potential and employing the zero net current condition. The general derivative of chemical potential permits thermal variations which give rise to the thermoelectric effect. It also accounts for nonideal solution behavior. An equation describing electric field strength is similarly derived with the additional assumption of electrical neutrality in the fluid Planck approximation. The Planck approximation implies that self-potential (SP) is caused only by local sources and also that the electric field strength has only first order spatial variations. The derived relationships are applied to the NaCl-KCl concentration cell with predicted and measured voltages agreeing within 0.4 mV. The relationships are also applied to the Long Valley and Yellowstone geothermal systems. There is a high degree of correlation between predicted and measured SP response for both systems, giving supporting evidence for the validity of the approach. Predicted SP amplitude exceeds measured in both cases; this is a possible consequence of the Planck approximation. Electrochemical sources account for more than 90% of the predicted response in both cases while thermoelectric mechanisms account for the remaining 10%; electrokinetic effects are not considered. Predicted electrochemical and thermoelectric voltage coupling coefficients are comparable to values measured in the laboratory. The derived relationships are also applied to arbitrary distributions of temperature and fluid composition to investigate the geometric diversity of observed SP anomalies. Amplitudes predicted for hypothetical saline spring and hot spring environments are less than 40 mV. In contrast, hypothetical near surface steam zones generate very large amplitudes, over 2 V in one case. These results should be viewed with some caution due to the uncertain validity of the Planck approximation for these conditions. All amplitudes are controlled by electrochemical mechanisms. Polarities are controlled by the curvature of the concentration or thermal profile. Concave upward thermal profiles produce positive anomalies, for constant fluid concentrations, whereas concave upward concentration profiles produce negative anomalies. Concave downward concentration profiles are characterized by small negative closures bounding a larger, positive SP anomaly.

Knapp, R. B.; Kasameyer, P. W.

1988-01-01

28

Global Climate Anomalies and Potential Infectious Disease Risks: 2014-2015  

PubMed Central

Background: The El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a global climate phenomenon that impacts human infectious disease risk worldwide through droughts, floods, and other climate extremes. Throughout summer and fall 2014 and winter 2015, El Niño Watch, issued by the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, assessed likely El Niño development during the Northern Hemisphere fall and winter, persisting into spring 2015. Methods: We identified geographic regions where environmental conditions may increase infectious disease transmission if the predicted El Niño occurs using El Niño indicators (Sea Surface Temperature [SST], Outgoing Longwave Radiation [OLR], and rainfall anomalies) and literature review of El Niño-infectious disease associations. Results: SSTs in the equatorial Pacific and western Indian Oceans were anomalously elevated during August-October 2014, consistent with a developing weak El Niño event. Teleconnections with local climate is evident in global precipitation patterns, with positive OLR anomalies (drier than average conditions) across Indonesia and coastal southeast Asia, and negative anomalies across northern China, the western Indian Ocean, central Asia, north-central and northeast Africa, Mexico/Central America, the southwestern United States, and the northeastern and southwestern tropical Pacific. Persistence of these conditions could produce environmental settings conducive to increased transmission of cholera, dengue, malaria, Rift Valley fever, and other infectious diseases in regional hotspots as during previous El Niño events. Discussion and Conclusions: The current development of weak El Niño conditions may have significant potential implications for global public health in winter 2014-spring 2015. Enhanced surveillance and other preparedness measures in predicted infectious disease hotspots could mitigate health impacts.

Chretien, Jean-Paul; Anyamba, Assaf; Small, Jennifer; Britch, Seth; Sanchez, Jose L.; Halbach, Alaina C.; Tucker, Compton; Linthicum, Kenneth J.

2015-01-01

29

Evaluating Cenozoic equatorial sediment deposition anomalies for potential paleoceanographic and Pacific plate motion applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

If equatorial sediments form characteristic deposits around the equator, they may help to resolve the amount of northwards drift of the Pacific tectonic plate. Relevant to this issue, it has been shown that 230Th has been accumulating on the equatorial seabed faster than its production from radioactive decay in the overlying water column during the Holocene (Marcantonio et al. in Paleoceanography 16:260-267, 2001). Some researchers have argued that this reflects the deposition of particles with adsorbed 230Th carried by bottom currents towards the equator ("focusing"). If correct, this effect may combine with high pelagic productivity, which is also centered on the equator, to yield a characteristic signature of high accumulation rates marking the paleoequator in older deposits. Here we evaluate potential evidence that such an equatorial feature existed in the geological past. Seismic reflection data from seven meridional transects suggest that a band of equatorially enhanced accumulation of restricted latitude was variably developed, both spatially and temporally. It is absent in the interval 14.25-20.1 Ma but is well developed for the interval 8.55-14.25 Ma. We also examined eolian dust accumulation rate histories generated from scientific drilling data. A dust accumulation rate anomaly near the modern equator, which is not obviously related to the inter-tropical convergence zone, is interpreted as caused by focusing. Accumulation rates of Ba and P2O5 (proxies of export production) reveal a static equatorial signature, which suggests that the movement of the Pacific plate over the period 10-25 Ma was modest. The general transition from missing to well-developed focusing signatures around 14.25 Ma in the seismic data coincides with the mid-Miocene development of the western boundary current off New Zealand. This current supplies the Pacific with deep water from Antarctica, and could therefore imply a potential paleoceanographic or paleoclimatic origin. At 10.05-14.25 Ma, the latitudes of the seismic anomalies are up to ~2° different from the paleoequator predicted by Pacific plate-hotspot models, suggesting potentially a small change in the hotspot latitudes relative to the present day (although this inference depends on the precise form of the deposition around the equator). The Ba and P2O5 anomalies, on the other hand, are broadly compatible with plate models predicting slow northward plate movement over 10-25 Ma.

Mitchell, Neil C.; Dubois, Nathalie

2014-03-01

30

Investigating Kinetic and Potential Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use media resources and an in-class investigation to explore the types of energy within different types of systems. They also use the formulas for kinetic and potential energy to examine the path of a projectile.

WGBH Educational Foundation

2007-04-19

31

Mining Building Energy Management System Data Using Fuzzy Anomaly Detection and Linguistic Descriptions  

SciTech Connect

Building Energy Management Systems (BEMSs) are essential components of modern buildings that utilize digital control technologies to minimize energy consumption while maintaining high levels of occupant comfort. However, BEMSs can only achieve these energy savings when properly tuned and controlled. Since indoor environment is dependent on uncertain criteria such as weather, occupancy, and thermal state, performance of BEMS can be sub-optimal at times. Unfortunately, the complexity of BEMS control mechanism, the large amount of data available and inter-relations between the data can make identifying these sub-optimal behaviors difficult. This paper proposes a novel Fuzzy Anomaly Detection and Linguistic Description (Fuzzy-ADLD) based method for improving the understandability of BEMS behavior for improved state-awareness. The presented method is composed of two main parts: 1) detection of anomalous BEMS behavior and 2) linguistic representation of BEMS behavior. The first part utilizes modified nearest neighbor clustering algorithm and fuzzy logic rule extraction technique to build a model of normal BEMS behavior. The second part of the presented method computes the most relevant linguistic description of the identified anomalies. The presented Fuzzy-ADLD method was applied to real-world BEMS system and compared against a traditional alarm based BEMS. In six different scenarios, the Fuzzy-ADLD method identified anomalous behavior either as fast as or faster (an hour or more), that the alarm based BEMS. In addition, the Fuzzy-ADLD method identified cases that were missed by the alarm based system, demonstrating potential for increased state-awareness of abnormal building behavior.

Dumidu Wijayasekara; Ondrej Linda; Milos Manic; Craig Rieger

2014-08-01

32

Effective Lagrangian for low-energy hadron physics with anomalies  

SciTech Connect

A chiral-invariant effective Lagrangian is constructed from pions and the low-mass mesons taking full account of the Wess-Zumino anomalies. The parameters of the model are determined by theoretical constraints as well as experimental observables in the meson sector. Other observables in the meson sector are then predicted in agreement with experiment. Soliton solutions of this Lagrangian are found. These are used to predict the static properties of baryons. The results obtained compare well with experimental data except for the soliton mass which comes out too high.

Lacombe, M.; Loiseau, B.; Vinh Mau, R.; Cottingham, W.N.

1988-09-01

33

STATEWIDE ENERGY EFFICIENCY POTENTIAL ESTIMATES AND TARGETS  

E-print Network

Energy efficiency, energy savings, demand reduction, electricity consumption, natural gas consumption, electric peak demand reduction, energy efficiency potential estimates, energy efficiency targets, energyCALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION STATEWIDE ENERGY EFFICIENCY POTENTIAL ESTIMATES AND TARGETS

34

Wind energy potential in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lewis's methods are employed to evaluate the wind energy potentials of four selected locations, which have experienced relatively high wind velocities. In addition to Lewis's methods, the relations connecting the instantaneous and average wind powers, total and maximum wind energies for a given period of time are derived. Characteristics of wind energy, including rotor radius and tower height, are estimated

H. Külünk

1993-01-01

35

Chapter 20: Electric Potential and Electric Potential Energy  

E-print Network

. The change in potential energy is the charge times the potential difference (equation 20-2). The change in potential energy equals the gain in kinetic energy, which can then be used to find the speed. 1. Set the kinetic energy equal to the change in potential energy and solve for v: 21 2 2e V mv U e V v m = = = 2

Kioussis, Nicholas

36

Imaging the Formation of High-Energy Dispersion Anomalies in the Actinide UCoGa5  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy to image the emergence of substantial dispersion and spectral-weight anomalies in the electronic renormalization of the actinide compound UCoGa5 that was presumed to belong to a conventional Fermi-liquid family. Kinks or abrupt breaks in the slope of the quasiparticle dispersion are detected both at low (approximately 130 meV) and high (approximately 1 eV) binding energies below the Fermi energy, ruling out any significant contribution of phonons. We perform numerical calculations to demonstrate that the anomalies are adequately described by coupling between itinerant fermions and spin fluctuations arising from the particle-hole continuum of the spin-orbit-split 5f states of uranium. These anomalies resemble the “waterfall” phenomenon of the high-temperature copper-oxide superconductors, suggesting that spin fluctuations are a generic route toward multiform electronic phases in correlated materials as different as high-temperature superconductors and actinides.

Das, Tanmoy; Durakiewicz, Tomasz; Zhu, Jian-Xin; Joyce, John J.; Sarrao, John L.; Graf, Matthias J.

2012-10-01

37

Whole Building Energy Performance Anomaly Detections at TU/e  

E-print Network

will also incorporate expert knowledge to couple energy analysis with analysis regarding system maintenance and failure risk. Proposed research will seek to develop an advanced retro-commissioning analysis methodology to assist with the initial assessment...

Hensen, J. L. M.; Bynum, J. D.

2013-01-01

38

Assessment of Triton Potential Energy  

E-print Network

An assessment is made of the dominant features contributing to the triton potential energy, with the objective of understanding qualitatively their origins and sensitivities. Relativistic effects, short-range repulsion, and OPEP dominance are discussed. A determination of the importance of various regions of nucleon-nucleon separation is made numerically.

J. L. Friar; G. L. Payne

1996-01-26

39

Available equivalent potential energy in moist atmospheres  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The equivalent potential energy of the moist atmosphere is defined as the sum of its total potential energy and latent heat. The available equivalent potential energy is the amount of equivalent potential energy available for conversion into kinetic energy. For the isolated moist atmospheres, we may find the equivalent lowest state which is the limit of the states attained

Y. L. McHall

1991-01-01

40

Frequency of births with potentially avoidable serious chromosomal anomalies in EEC countries, 1979-1982.  

PubMed Central

Child bearing at an early age and prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis in pregnant women of advanced age, combined with selective abortion, make it possible to avoid the birth of many children with serious chromosomal anomalies. To see how many of such births were still avoidable in Europe, data from 16 regional EUROCAT registers of congenital anomalies in nine EEC countries were analysed. In the period 1979-1982 about 30% of children with unbalanced anomalies of autosomes were born (live- and still-births) to mothers over 35 years of age. This amounts to an estimated 1300 cases yearly in the entire population of the nine countries. The approach shows the possible use of registry data for monitoring effects of avoidance strategies. PMID:3251007

Ten Kate, L P; Dolk, H; Cornel, M C; De Wals, P; Te Meerman, G J; Lechat, M F; Weatherall, J A

1988-01-01

41

Anomaly Holography  

E-print Network

We consider, in the effective field theory context, anomalies of gauge field theories on a slice of a five-dimensional, Anti-de Sitter geometry and their four-dimensional, holographic duals. A consistent effective field theory description can always be found, notwithstanding the presence of the anomalies and without modifying the degrees of freedom of the theory. If anomalies do not vanish, the d=4 theory contains additional pseudoscalar states, which are either present in the low-energy theory as physical, light states, or are eaten by (would-be massless) gauge bosons. We show that the pseudoscalars ensure that global anomalies of the four-dimensional dual satisfy the 't Hooft matching condition and comment on the relevance for warped models of electroweak symmetry breaking.

Ben Gripaios; Stephen M. West

2007-04-30

42

PERINATAL EXPOSURE TO ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS: POTENTIAL ROLE OF HORMONAL ALTERATIONS IN INITIATING ADULT REPRODUCTIVE ANOMALIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The primary hypothesis to be tested in this series of studies is whether or not exposure to environmental agents, during certain key periods of development, will increase the risk of specific anomalies of the reproductive system. Embedded in this hypothesis is the assumption that...

43

High-energy dispersion anomalies in actinide compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The observation of a prominent peak-dip-hump feature in the spectral weight in number of actinide compounds including Pu-115 superconductors and non-superconducting U-115 remains an unsolved problem. We have developed a first-principles intermediate coupling model to show that most aspects of these strong correlation features can be understood from the spin-fluctuation interaction.[1] The results show that a strong peak in the spin-fluctuation dressed self-energy is present around 0.5 eV in all these materials, which is mostly created by spin-orbit split 5f bands. These fluctuations couple to the single-particle spectrum and give rise to a peak-dip-hump feature, characteristic of the coexistence of itinerant and localized electronic states. Results are in quantitative agreement with photoemission spectra. Finally, we show that the studied actinides can be understood within the rigid-band filling approach, in which the spin-fluctuation coupling constant follows the same materials dependence as the superconducting transition temperature Tc. Work is supported by US DOE. [4pt] [1] T. Das. J.-X. Zhu, and M. J. Graf, arXiv:1108.0272

Das, T.; Durakiewicz, T.; Zhu, J.-X.; Joyce, J. J.; Graf, Matthias J.

2012-02-01

44

The potential of renewable energy  

SciTech Connect

On June 27 and 28, 1989, the US Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratories were convened to discuss plans for the development of a National Energy Strategy (NES) and, in particular, the analytic needs in support of NES that could be addressed by the laboratories. As a result of that meeting, interlaboratory teams were formed to produce analytic white papers on key topics, and a lead laboratory was designated for each core laboratory team. The broad-ranging renewables assignment is summarized by the following issue statement from the Office of Policy, Planning and Analysis: to what extent can renewable energy technologies contribute to diversifying sources of energy supply What are the major barriers to greater renewable energy use and what is the potential timing of widespread commercialization for various categories of applications This report presents the results of the intensive activity initiated by the June 1989 meeting to produce a white paper on renewable energy. Scores of scientists, analysts, and engineers in the five core laboratories gave generously of their time over the past eight months to produce this document. Their generous, constructive efforts are hereby gratefully acknowledged. 126 refs., 44 figs., 32 tabs.

Not Available

1990-03-01

45

Global Surface Solar Energy Anomalies Including El Nino and La Nina Years  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper synthesizes past events in an attempt to define the general magnitude, duration, and location of large surface solar anomalies over the globe. Surface solar energy values are mostly a function of solar zenith angle, cloud conditions, column atmospheric water vapor, aerosols, and surface albedo. For this study, solar and meteorological parameters for the 10-yr period July 1983 through June 1993 are used. These data were generated as part of the Release 3 Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) activity under the NASA Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) effort. Release 3 SSE uses upgraded input data and methods relative to previous releases. Cloud conditions are based on recent NASA Version-D International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) global satellite radiation and cloud data. Meteorological inputs are from Version-I Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) reanalysis data that uses both weather station and satellite information. Aerosol transmission for different regions and seasons are for an 'average' year based on historic solar energy data from over 1000 ground sites courtesy of Natural Resources Canada (NRCan). These data are input to a new Langley Parameterized Shortwave Algorithm (LPSA) that calculates surface albedo and surface solar energy. That algorithm is an upgraded version of the 'Staylor' algorithm. Calculations are performed for a 280X280 km equal-area grid system over the globe based on 3-hourly input data. A bi-linear interpolation process is used to estimate data output values on a 1 X 1 degree grid system over the globe. Maximum anomalies are examined relative to El Nino and La Nina events in the tropical Pacific Ocean. Maximum year-to-year anomalies over the globe are provided for a 10-year period. The data may assist in the design of systems with increased reliability. It may also allow for better planning for emergency assistance during some atypical events.

Whitlock, C. H.; Brown, D. E.; Chandler, W. S.; DiPasquale, R. C.; Ritchey, Nancy A.; Gupta, Shashi K.; Wilber, Anne C.; Kratz, David P.; Stackhouse, Paul W.

2001-01-01

46

Renewable Energy Potential for Brownfield Redevelopment Strategies  

E-print Network

Renewable Energy Potential for Brownfield Redevelopment Strategies Renewable energy resources are available throughout the United States.The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) performs analysis to identify high-potential sites for renewable energy technologies and can help determine those technologies

47

Potential of geothermal energy in China  

E-print Network

This thesis provides an overview of geothermal power generation and the potential for geothermal energy utilization in China. Geothermal energy is thermal energy stored in the earth's crust and currently the only ubiquitously ...

Sung, Peter On

2010-01-01

48

Energy dependence of nucleon-nucleon potentials  

E-print Network

We investigate the energy dependence of potentials defined through the Bethe-Salpeter wave functions. We analytically evaluate such a potential in the Ising field theory in 2 dimensions and show that its energy dependence is weak at low energy. We then numerically calculate the nucleon-nucleon potential at non-zero energy using quenched QCD with anti-periodic boundary condition. In this case we also observe that the potentials are almost identical at $E\\simeq 0$ and $E\\simeq 50$ MeV, where $E$ is the center of mass kinetic energy.

Sinya Aoki; Janos Balog; Tetsuo Hatsuda; Noriyoshi Ishii; Keiko Murano; Hidekatsu Nemura; Peter Weisz

2008-12-03

49

Geothermal Energy: Tapping the Potential  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ground source geothermal energy enables one to tap into the earth's stored renewable energy for heating and cooling facilities. Proper application of ground-source geothermal technology can have a dramatic impact on the efficiency and financial performance of building energy utilization (30%+). At the same time, using this alternative energy

Johnson, Bill

2008-01-01

50

Biomass energy potential in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomass energy includes fuelwood, agricultural residues, animal wastes, charcoal and other fuels derived from biological sources. It currently accounts for about 14% of world energy consumption. Biomass is the main source of energy for many developed and developing countries. In Turkey energy wood is available in the form of forest chips, fuelwood, wood waste, wood pellets, and it is also

K. Kaygusuz; M. F. Türker

2002-01-01

51

Energy detection based on undecimated discrete wavelet transform and its application in magnetic anomaly detection.  

PubMed

Magnetic anomaly detection (MAD) is a passive approach for detection of a ferromagnetic target, and its performance is often limited by external noises. In consideration of one major noise source is the fractal noise (or called 1/f noise) with a power spectral density of 1/fa (0energy detection method based on undecimated discrete wavelet transform (UDWT) is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the foundations of magnetic anomaly detection and UDWT are introduced in brief, while a possible detection system based on giant magneto-impedance (GMI) magnetic sensor is also given out. Then our proposed energy detection based on UDWT is described in detail, and the probabilities of false alarm and detection for given the detection threshold in theory are presented. It is noticeable that no a priori assumptions regarding the ferromagnetic target or the magnetic noise probability are necessary for our method, and different from the discrete wavelet transform (DWT), the UDWT is shift invariant. Finally, some simulations are performed and the results show that the detection performance of our proposed detector is better than that of the conventional energy detector even utilized in the Gaussian white noise, especially when the spectral parameter ? is less than 1.0. In addition, a real-world experiment was done to demonstrate the advantages of the proposed method. PMID:25343484

Nie, Xinhua; Pan, Zhongming; Zhang, Dasha; Zhou, Han; Chen, Min; Zhang, Wenna

2014-01-01

52

Energy Detection Based on Undecimated Discrete Wavelet Transform and Its Application in Magnetic Anomaly Detection  

PubMed Central

Magnetic anomaly detection (MAD) is a passive approach for detection of a ferromagnetic target, and its performance is often limited by external noises. In consideration of one major noise source is the fractal noise (or called 1/f noise) with a power spectral density of 1/fa (0energy detection method based on undecimated discrete wavelet transform (UDWT) is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the foundations of magnetic anomaly detection and UDWT are introduced in brief, while a possible detection system based on giant magneto-impedance (GMI) magnetic sensor is also given out. Then our proposed energy detection based on UDWT is described in detail, and the probabilities of false alarm and detection for given the detection threshold in theory are presented. It is noticeable that no a priori assumptions regarding the ferromagnetic target or the magnetic noise probability are necessary for our method, and different from the discrete wavelet transform (DWT), the UDWT is shift invariant. Finally, some simulations are performed and the results show that the detection performance of our proposed detector is better than that of the conventional energy detector even utilized in the Gaussian white noise, especially when the spectral parameter ? is less than 1.0. In addition, a real-world experiment was done to demonstrate the advantages of the proposed method. PMID:25343484

Nie, Xinhua; Pan, Zhongming; Zhang, Dasha; Zhou, Han; Chen, Min; Zhang, Wenna

2014-01-01

53

Wind energy potential for Oman  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wind power potential was summarized using data from thirteen weather stations. The overall long term average wind speed for Oman is a moderate 3.67(s.d.=2.13)m\\/s yielding a potential power of 30.30 W. Wind speeds at four stations, Thumrait, Sur, Masirah and Marmul, are appreciably higher than the national average and hence these stations have a great potential for wind power

A. S. S Dorvlo; D. B Ampratwum

2002-01-01

54

Wind energy potential in Palestine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weibull parameters of the wind speed distribution function were computed for 49 weather stations in Palestine. Wind potentials in kWh\\/m2 yr were calculated at the above stations, then contours of wind potential were drawn. Electricity from the wind can be generated, in some locations in the West Bank, at a cost of 0.07 $\\/kWh.

Afif Hasan

1997-01-01

55

1 Estimating aquifer hydraulic properties from the inversion of surface 2 Streaming Potential (SP) anomalies  

E-print Network

1 Estimating aquifer hydraulic properties from the inversion of surface 2 Streaming Potential (SP with the geometry of the water table. It follows that 11 SP measurements can be used to estimate aquifer hydraulic and found that we 14 are able to estimate the hydraulic conductivity and the depth 15 and the thickness

Sailhac, Pascal

56

Gravity Waves Generated by Sheared Three-Dimensional Potential Vorticity Anomalies  

E-print Network

, the disturbance is described ana- lytically using both an exact solution and a WKB approximation; the latter the temporal evolution of the GW field. Ana- lytical and numerical results are also used to establish, spontaneous adjustment is mixed with other mechanisms. For instance, large mountain GWs pro- duce potential

Plougonven, Riwal

57

Do U Txt? Event-Related Potentials to Semantic Anomalies in Standard and Texted English  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Texted English is a hybrid, technology-based language derived from standard English modified to facilitate ease of communication via instant and text messaging. We compared semantic processing of texted and standard English sentences by recording event-related potentials in a classic semantic incongruity paradigm designed to elicit an N400 effect.…

Berger, Natalie I.; Coch, Donna

2010-01-01

58

Differences between discontinuous and continuous soft-core attractive potentials: The appearance of density anomaly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soft-core attractive potentials can give rise to a phase diagram with three fluid phases at different densities (gas, low-density liquid and high-density liquid), separated by first order phase transition lines ending in critical points. Experiments show a phase diagram with these features for phosphorous and triphenyl phosphite. Liquid–liquid phase transition could be relevant for water, silica, liquid metals, colloids and

Giancarlo Franzese; Departament de Fisica Fonamental; Facultat de Fisica

2007-01-01

59

Urban form and renewable energy potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban form, i.e., the layout, density, shape and orientation of buildings within the street grid of a city, affects greatly the potential of using renewable energy sources such as sun and wind for electricity production and climatisation of buildings. This paper outlines the framework of the European research Project PRECis (assessing the Potential for Renewable Energy in Cities) and, in

M. Grosso

1998-01-01

60

Potential Water and Energy Savings from Showerheads  

SciTech Connect

This paper estimates the benefits and costs of six water reduction scenarios. Benefits and costs of showerhead scenarios are ranked in this paper by an estimated water reduction percentage. To prioritize potential water and energy saving scenarios regarding showerheads, six scenarios were analyzed for their potential water and energy savings and the associated dollar savings to the consumer.

Biermayer, Peter J.

2005-09-28

61

Observation of Anomaly-High Energy Deposition in Exploding Wire Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anomaly-high energy deposition up to 180 eV/atom was observed in a fast nanosecond electrical explosion of polyimide-coated tungsten wires in vacuum. This energy is more than 20 times higher than the vaporization energy for W and 30 times the energy absorbed in uncoated wires. We postulate near total suppression of the shunting plasma shell and extension of the resistive phase of the explosion. Comparison with a fast explosion of a bare 12 mcm W wire shows a five-times increase in the expansion velocity from 0.5 km/s to 2.5 km/s. The rate of visible-light emission is larger by an order of magnitude and demonstrates absence of first light emission peak related with ionization of the plasma shell. Explosion of the coated W wire with a slow current-rise rate does not avoid voltage breakdown, but allows increase in the energy deposition from 2 eV/atom to 10 eV/atom which is similar to Cornell results. The fast explosion of coated wire in vacuum gives totally new regime of wire explosion. The dielectric coating and current rise is critical for suppression of the shunting plasma shell. Our experimental results show new possibilities for creating high-density and high-temperature plasma columns in compact tabletop pulse power installations. It could be useful for high-current wire array Z pinch experiments to eliminate the problem of precursor plasma on axis, and allow achieving 0-D compression trajectories. *Sandia is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC04-94AL8500.

Sarkisov, G. S.; Struve, K. W.; McDaniel, D. H.

2003-10-01

62

Wind energy potential of Algeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mean wind data for 64 stations, 48 of which are located in Algeria and 16 in neighbouring countries has been used to establish the wind energy map of Algeria at a height of 10 m. It is found that the wind speed varies between 1 and 6 m\\/s. The windy regions are located at the west south of Algeria, in

N. Kasbadji Merzouk

2000-01-01

63

Extreme sensitivity of the spin-splitting and 0.7 anomaly to confining potential in one-dimensional nanoelectronic devices.  

PubMed

Quantum point contacts (QPCs) have shown promise as nanoscale spin-selective components for spintronic applications and are of fundamental interest in the study of electron many-body effects such as the 0.7 × 2e(2)/h anomaly. We report on the dependence of the 1D Landé g-factor g and 0.7 anomaly on electron density and confinement in QPCs with two different top-gate architectures. We obtain g values up to 2.8 for the lowest 1D subband, significantly exceeding previous in-plane g-factor values in AlGaAs/GaAs QPCs and approaching that in InGaAs/InP QPCs. We show that g is highly sensitive to confinement potential, particularly for the lowest 1D subband. This suggests careful management of the QPC's confinement potential may enable the high g desirable for spintronic applications without resorting to narrow-gap materials such as InAs or InSb. The 0.7 anomaly and zero-bias peak are also highly sensitive to confining potential, explaining the conflicting density dependencies of the 0.7 anomaly in the literature. PMID:22830617

Burke, A M; Klochan, O; Farrer, I; Ritchie, D A; Hamilton, A R; Micolich, A P

2012-09-12

64

Geothermal Energy Potential in Western United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews types of geothermal energy sources in the western states, including hot brine systems and dry steam systems. Conversion to electrical energy is a major potential use of geothermal energy, although it creates environmental disruptions such as noise, corrosion, and scaling of equipment. (AV)

Pryde, Philip R.

1977-01-01

65

California offshore wind energy potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study combines multi-year mesoscale modeling results, validated using offshore buoys with high-resolution bathymetry to create a wind energy resource assessment for offshore California (CA). The siting of an offshore wind farm is limited by water depth, with shallow water being generally preferable economically. Acceptable depths for offshore wind farms are divided into three categories: ?20m depth for monopile turbine

Michael J. Dvorak; Cristina L. Archer; Mark Z. Jacobson

2010-01-01

66

Chromosome 3 Anomalies Investigated by Genome Wide SNP Analysis of Benign, Low Malignant Potential and Low Grade Ovarian Serous Tumours  

PubMed Central

Ovarian carcinomas exhibit extensive heterogeneity, and their etiology remains unknown. Histological and genetic evidence has led to the proposal that low grade ovarian serous carcinomas (LGOSC) have a different etiology than high grade carcinomas (HGOSC), arising from serous tumours of low malignant potential (LMP). Common regions of chromosome (chr) 3 loss have been observed in all types of serous ovarian tumours, including benign, suggesting that these regions contain genes important in the development of all ovarian serous carcinomas. A high-density genome-wide genotyping bead array technology, which assayed >600,000 markers, was applied to a panel of serous benign and LMP tumours and a small set of LGOSC, to characterize somatic events associated with the most indolent forms of ovarian disease. The genomic patterns inferred were related to TP53, KRAS and BRAF mutations. An increasing frequency of genomic anomalies was observed with pathology of disease: 3/22 (13.6%) benign cases, 40/53 (75.5%) LMP cases and 10/11 (90.9%) LGOSC cases. Low frequencies of chr3 anomalies occurred in all tumour types. Runs of homozygosity were most commonly observed on chr3, with the 3p12-p11 candidate tumour suppressor region the most frequently homozygous region in the genome. An LMP harboured a homozygous deletion on chr6 which created a GOPC-ROS1 fusion gene, previously reported as oncogenic in other cancer types. Somatic TP53, KRAS and BRAF mutations were not observed in benign tumours. KRAS-mutation positive LMP cases displayed significantly more chromosomal aberrations than BRAF-mutation positive or KRAS and BRAF mutation negative cases. Gain of 12p, which harbours the KRAS gene, was particularly evident. A pathology review reclassified all TP53-mutation positive LGOSC cases, some of which acquired a HGOSC status. Taken together, our results support the view that LGOSC could arise from serous benign and LMP tumours, but does not exclude the possibility that HGOSC may derive from LMP tumours. PMID:22163003

Birch, Ashley H.; Arcand, Suzanna L.; Oros, Kathleen K.; Rahimi, Kurosh; Watters, A. Kevin; Provencher, Diane; Greenwood, Celia M.; Mes-Masson, Anne-Marie; Tonin, Patricia N.

2011-01-01

67

Industrial Energy Conservation Potentials in North Carolina  

E-print Network

INDUSTRIAL ENERGY CONSERVATION POTENTIALS IN NORTH CAROLINA MONJED G. BARAKAT Chief Engineer Energy Analysis and Diagnostic Center North Carolina A & T State University HARMOHINDAR SINGH Associate Professor Architectural Engineering...; however, this luxury is not always affordable by the small and medium size manufacturers. The U.S. Department of Energy is helping these smaller companies by supporting Energy Analysis and Diagnostic Centers (EADC) at 13 universities throughout...

Barakat, M. G.; Singh, H.; Mallik, A. K.

68

Energy potential of modern landfills  

SciTech Connect

Methane produced by refuse decomposition in a sanitary landfill can be recovered for commercial use. Landfill methane is currently under-utilized, with commercial recovery at only a small percentage of US landfills. New federal regulations mandating control of landfill gas migration and atmospheric emissions are providing impetus to methane recovery schemes as a means of recovering costs for increased environmental control. The benefits of landfill methane recovery include utilization of an inexpensive renewable energy resource, removal of explosive gas mixtures from the subsurface, and mitigation of observed historic increases in atmospheric methane. Increased commercial interest in landfill methane recovery is dependent on the final form of Clean Air Act amendments pertaining to gaseous emissions from landfills; market shifts in natural gas prices; financial incentives for development of renewable energy resources; and support for applied research and development to develop techniques for increased control of the gas generation process in situ. This paper will discuss the controls on methane generation in landfills. In addition, it will address how landfill regulations affect landfill design and site management practices which, in turn, influence decomposition rates. Finally, future trends in landfilling, and their relationship to gas production, will be examined. 19 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Bogner, J.E.

1990-01-01

69

Energy saving potential of various roof technologies  

E-print Network

Unconventional roof technologies such as cool roofs and green roofs have been shown to reduce building heating and cooling load. Although previous studies suggest potential for energy savings through such technologies, ...

Ray, Stephen D. (Stephen Douglas)

2010-01-01

70

Wind energy potential in Aden-Yemen  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wind energy resource is very large and widely distributed throughout the world as well as in Yemen. Aden possesses a very good potential of wind energy. In this article a number of years data on wind speed in Aden has been studied and presented. A statistical analysis was carried out from which the annual wind speed was found to

Abdulla H. Algifri

1998-01-01

71

Economic Energy Savings Potential in Federal Buildings  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this study was to estimate the current life-cycle cost-effective (i.e., economic) energy savings potential in Federal buildings and the corresponding capital investment required to achieve these savings, with Federal financing. Estimates were developed for major categories of energy efficiency measures such as building envelope, heating system, cooling system, and lighting. The analysis was based on conditions (building stock and characteristics, retrofit technologies, interest rates, energy prices, etc.) existing in the late 1990s. The potential impact of changes to any of these factors in the future was not considered.

Brown, Daryl R.; Dirks, James A.; Hunt, Diane M.

2000-09-04

72

Quantum potential energy as concealed motion  

E-print Network

It is known that the Schroedinger equation may be derived from a hydrodynamic model in which the Lagrangian position coordinates of a continuum of particles represent the quantum state. Using Routh\\s method of ignorable coordinates it is shown that the quantum potential energy of particle interaction that represents quantum effects in this model may be regarded as the kinetic energy of additional concealed freedoms. The method brings an alternative perspective to Planck\\s constant, which plays the role of a hidden variable, and to the canonical quantization procedure, since what is termed kinetic energy in quantum mechanics may be regarded literally as energy due to motion.

Peter Holland

2014-10-01

73

Quantum Potential Energy as Concealed Motion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is known that the Schrödinger equation may be derived from a hydrodynamic model in which the Lagrangian position coordinates of a continuum of particles represent the quantum state. Using Routh's method of ignorable coordinates it is shown that the quantum potential energy of particle interaction that represents quantum effects in this model may be regarded as the kinetic energy of additional `concealed' freedoms. The method brings an alternative perspective to Planck's constant, which plays the role of a hidden variable, and to the canonical quantization procedure, since what is termed `kinetic energy' in quantum mechanics may be regarded literally as energy due to motion.

Holland, Peter

2015-02-01

74

Recto Running Head 1 Available Potential Energy and Exergy in  

E-print Network

Internal Energy · KE: Kinetic Energy · GPE: Gravitational Potential Energy · IE: Internal energy · AMOC: The difference in potential energy between the actual state and Lorenz's reference state. · Available PotentialRecto Running Head 1 Available Potential Energy and Exergy in Stratified Fluids R´emi Tailleux

Tailleux, Remi

75

The wind energy potential of Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wind data collected at ten stations in Malaysia were analysed for wind energy potential. The data were collected over a ten-year period (1982–1991). The results were presented as a Weibull distribution and analysis indicated that the station at Mersing has the greatest potential, with a mean power density of 85.61 W\\/m2 at 10 m above sea level.

K. Sopian; M. Y. Hj. Othman; A. Wirsat

1995-01-01

76

Potential energy function for the hydroperoxyl radical  

SciTech Connect

A switching function formalism is used to derive an analytic potential energy surface for the O + OH in equilibrium HO/sub 2/ in equilibrium H + O/sub 2/ reactive system. Both experimental and ab initio data are used to derive parameters for the potential energy surface. Trajectory calculations for highly excited HO/sub 2/ are performed on this surface. From these trajectories quasi-periodic eigentrajectories are found for vibrational levels near the HO/sub 2/ dissociation threshold with small amounts of quanta in the OH stretch mode and large amounts of quanta in the OO stretch mode.

Lemon, W.J.; Hase, W.L.

1987-03-12

77

Mapping Stratigraphy and Anomalies in Iron-Rich Volcanoclastics Using Ground-Penetrating Radar: Potential for Subsurface Exploration on Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) studies conducted in iron-rich volcanoclastics can yield valuable information for interpreting the subsurface stratigraphy resulting from lava flows and intervening unconsolidated volcanic and sedimentary deposits with different compositions and ages. GPR is also valuable for mapping subsurface anomalies and structures, such as rifts and lava tubes. We performed a geophysical field survey in Craters of the Moon

E. Heggy; S. Clifford; S. Khan; J. Fernandez; E. Wiggs; S. L. Gonzalez; D. Wyrick; R. Grimm; C. Dinwiddie; A. Pommerol

2004-01-01

78

The wind energy potential of western Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study wind data were used to determine the monthly and annual variations of the wind at 13 meterological stations in western Greece. An analysis of the available wind data for the Ionian Sea islands and the western coasts of Greece is carried out to ascertain its potential for wind energy development. The effect of the limited number of

B. D. Katsoulis; D. A. Metaxas

1992-01-01

79

Assessment of wind energy potential in Croatia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, the eolian potential of Croatia (one of the Yugoslav republics) is investigated on the basis of 32 anemograph stations. Mean hourly values were used for calculation of Weibull's distribution parameter c and k, and mean annual and seasonal wind power densities. The vertical extrapolation of wind speeds was based on Justus expression. Mean annual wind energies were

D. Poje; B. Cividini

1988-01-01

80

Higher spins in AdS5 at one loop: vacuum energy, boundary conformal anomalies and AdS/CFT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider general-symmetry higher spin fields in AdS5 and derive the expressions for their one-loop corrections to vacuum energy E c and the associated 4d boundary conformal anomaly a-coefficient. We propose a similar expression for the second conformal anomaly c-coefficient. We show that all the three quantities ( E c , a , c) computed for gauged 5d supergravity are equal to of their values for conformal 4d supergravity and also to twice the values for Maxwell multiplet. This gives a 5d derivation of the fact that the system of conformal supergravity and four Maxwell multiplets is anomaly free. The values of ( E c , a , c) for the states at level p of Kaluza-Klein tower of 10d type IIB supergravity compactified on S 5 turn out to be equal to those for p copies of Maxwell multiplets. This may be related to the fact that these states appear in the tensor product of p superdoubletons. Under a natural regularization of the sum over p, the full 10d supergravity contribution is then minus that of one Maxwell multiplet, in agreement with the standard adjoint AdS/CFT duality (SU( N) SYM contribution is N 2 - 1 times that of one Maxwell multiplet). We also verify the matching of ( E c , a , c) for spin 0 and boundary theory cases of vectorial AdS/CFT duality. The consistency conditions for vectorial AdS/CFT turn out to be equivalent to the cancellation of anomalies in the closely related 4d conformal higher spin theories. In addition, we study novel example of the vectorial AdS/CFT duality when the boundary theory is described by free spin 1 fields and is dual to a particular higher spin theory in AdS5 containing fields in mixed-symmetry representations. We also discuss its supersymmetric generalizations.

Beccaria, Matteo; Tseytlin, Arkady A.

2014-11-01

81

Bangui Anomaly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bangui anomaly is the name given to one of the Earth s largest crustal magnetic anomalies and the largest over the African continent. It covers two-thirds of the Central African Republic and therefore the name derives from the capitol city-Bangui that is also near the center of this feature. From surface magnetic survey data Godivier and Le Donche (1962) were the first to describe this anomaly. Subsequently high-altitude world magnetic surveying by the U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office (Project Magnet) recorded a greater than 1000 nT dipolar, peak-to-trough anomaly with the major portion being negative (figure 1). Satellite observations (Cosmos 49) were first reported in 1964, these revealed a 40nT anomaly at 350 km altitude. Subsequently the higher altitude (417-499km) POGO (Polar Orbiting Geomagnetic Observatory) satellite data recorded peak-to-trough anomalies of 20 nT these data were added to Cosmos 49 measurements by Regan et al. (1975) for a regional satellite altitude map. In October 1979, with the launch of Magsat, a satellite designed to measure crustal magnetic anomalies, a more uniform satellite altitude magnetic map was obtained. These data, computed at 375 km altitude recorded a -22 nT anomaly (figure 2). This elliptically shaped anomaly is approximately 760 by 1000 km and is centered at 6%, 18%. The Bangui anomaly is composed of three segments; there are two positive anomalies lobes north and south of a large central negative field. This displays the classic pattern of a magnetic anomalous body being magnetized by induction in a zero inclination field. This is not surprising since the magnetic equator passes near the center of this body.

Taylor, Patrick T.

2004-01-01

82

Potential energy savings from aquifer thermal energy storage  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest Laboratory researchers developed an aggregate-level model to estimate the short- and long-term potential energy savings from using aquifer thermal storage (ATES) in the United States. The objectives of this effort were to (1) develop a basis from which to recommend whether heat or chill ATES should receive future research focus and (2) determine which market sector (residential, commercial, or industrial) offers the largest potential energy savings from ATES. Information was collected on the proportion of US land area suitable for ATES applications. The economic feasibility of ATES applications was then evaluated. The potential energy savings from ATES applications was calculated. Characteristic energy use in the residential, commercial, and industrial sectors was examined, as was the relationship between waste heat production and consumption by industrial end-users. These analyses provided the basis for two main conclusions: heat ATES applications offer higher potential for energy savings than do chill ATES applications; and the industrial sector can achieve the highest potential energy savings for the large consumption markets. Based on these findings, it is recommended that future ATES research and development efforts be directed toward heat ATES applications in the industrial sector. 11 refs., 6 figs., 9 tabs.

Anderson, M.R.; Weijo, R.O.

1988-07-01

83

Cascade Model of an Anomaly in Blazar Spectra at Very High Energy  

E-print Network

It is well known that the effect of gamma-ray absorption on extragalactic background light (EBL) is weakly expressed in the spectra of some blazars. It is shown that a secondary component generated by electromagnetic cascades might considerably decrease the statistical significance of this anomaly. Observational results indicate the existence of the cascade component in the spectra of extragalactic gamma-ray sources, thus supporting the proposed model.

Dzhatdoev, Timur

2015-01-01

84

IRETHERM: The geothermal energy potential of Irish radiothermal granites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The IRETHERM project is developing a strategic understanding of Ireland's deep geothermal energy potential through integrated modelling of new and existing geophysical and geological data. One aspect of IRETHERM's research focuses on Ireland's radiothermal granites, where increased concentrations of radioelements provide elevated heat-production (HP), surface heat-flow (SHF) and subsurface temperatures. An understanding of the contribution of granites to the thermal field of Ireland is important to assessing the geothermal energy potential of this low-enthalpy setting. This study focuses on the Galway granite in western Ireland, and the Leinster and the buried Kentstown granites in eastern Ireland. Shallow (<250 m) boreholes were drilled into the exposed Caledonian Leinster and Galway granites as part of a 1980's geothermal project. These studies yielded HP = 2-3 ?Wm-3 and HF = 80 mWm-2 at the Sally Gap borehole in the Northern Units of the Leinster granite, to the SW of Dublin. In the Galway granite batholith, on the west coast of Ireland, the Costelloe-Murvey granite returned HP = 7 ?Wm-3 and HF = 77 mWm-2, measured at the Rossaveal borehole. The buried Kentstown granite, 35 km NW of Dublin, has an associated negative Bouguer anomaly and was intersected by two mineral exploration boreholes at depths of 660 m and 490 m. Heat production is measured at 2.4 ?Wm-3 in core samples taken from the weathered top 30 m of the granite. The core of this study consists of a program of magnetotelluric (MT) and audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) data acquisition across the three granite bodies, over three fieldwork seasons. MT and AMT data were collected at 59 locations along two profiles over the Leinster granite. Preliminary results show that the northern units of the Leinster granite (40 km SW of Dublin) extend to depths of 2-5 km. Preliminary results from the southern profile suggest a greater thickness of granite to a depth of 6-9 km beneath the Tullow pluton, 75 km SW of Dublin. Over the Galway granite, MT and AMT data have been collected at a total of 75 sites (33 consist of only AMT data acquisition, with both MT and AMT recorded at the remaining 42). Preliminary results show a deep resistor extending to depths of 15-20 km beneath the central block, with the resistive upper layer extending to depths of 3.5-7 km west of the Shannawona fault, a major structure that cuts the batholith. MT and AMT data acquired along a profile at 22 locations over the Kentstown granite suggests that this buried granite is at a depth of 400 m beneath the centre of the gravity anomaly. The MT and AMT data will be integrated with gravity and seismic refraction data (in the case of the Leinster granite) to identify deeply penetrating faults, which may provide conduits for hydrothermal fluids, and to produce a robust estimation of the volumetric extent of the granites, which is crucial in defining their geothermal energy potential. Thermal conductivity and geochemical data will be incorporated to constrain the heat contribution of granites to the Irish crust.

Farrell, Thomas; Jones, Alan; Muller, Mark; Feely, Martin; Brock, Andrew; Long, Mike; Waters, Tim

2014-05-01

85

Anomaly Transform method for initializing climate forecas.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new approach, an Anomaly Transform method (AT) using a physics based metric, is developed to initialize decadal climate hindcast within the German climate prediction MiKlip project. The method starts from balanced anomaly structures in space and time and between variables derived from control runs and applies an orthogalization to these. Two physics based metric are used to set up the eigen problem (1) the weighted total energy with its zonal, meridional kinetic and available potential energy terms having equal contributions, and (2) the weighted ocean heat content in which a disturbance is applied only to the initial temperature fields. The choice of a reference state defining the anomalies and the selected sequence of anomalies, once on a seasonal timescales and second on an interannual timescales, project a-priori only the slow modes of the ocean physical processes, such that the disturbances grow mainly in the Western Boundary Currents, in the ACC and ENSO regions. An additional set of initial conditions was designed to fit in a least square sense anomalies from the GECCO-2 ocean reanalysis. These sets of AT initial conditions and the MPIOM-ESM coupled model in T63L47/GR15 resolution were used for ensemble experiments and a retrospective forecast. The weighted total energy norm is used to monitor the amplitudes and rates of the fastest growing error modes. The results showed minor dependence of the instability growth on the selected metric but considerable change due to the rescaling coefficients magnitude on the perturbation amplitude. In contrary to similar atmospheric applications, we find an energy conversion from kinetic to available potential energy, which suggests different source of uncertainties mainly associated with changes in density fields.

Romanova, Vanya; Hense, Andreas

2014-05-01

86

Theoretical studies of potential energy surfaces  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this program is to calculate accurate potential energy surfaces (PES) for both reactive and nonreactive systems. To do this the electronic Schrodinger equation must be solved. Our approach to this problem starts with multiconfiguration self-consistent field (MCSCF) reference wavefunctions. These reference wavefunctions are designed to be sufficiently flexible to accurately describe changes in electronic structure over a broad range of geometries. Electron correlation effects are included via multireference, singles and doubles configuration interaction (MRSDCI) calculations. With this approach, the authors are able to provide useful predictions of the energetics for a broad range of systems.

Harding, L.B. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)

1993-12-01

87

Potential energy surfaces for vibrating hexatomic molecules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extension of empirical methods enables potential energy model construction for a vibrating hexatomic molecule. Application of these methods yields a model potential energy function that describes intramolecular vibrational dynamics and spectra of glyoxal, (CHO)2. A functional form is chosen that aids in model development and promotes transferability. It features a simple, modular design, and consists of Morse interactions applied between all atomic pairs. The Morse recipe assists in model development by naturally defining efficient basis functions for representing vibrational states. Solution of a series of sub-problems provides model parameter value estimates by nonlinear least- squares fits to spectroscopic data. Model development proceeds in both rectilinear normal and curvilinear local coordinate sets, letting efficiency determine which circumstance favors one set over the other. For example, the uncoupled harmonic oscillator sub-problem is solved in normal coordinates, while the hindered rotational sub- problem with limited coupling is solved in curvilinear coordinates. Definitive model evaluation is achieved by solving variationally for the energy levels and states of the full vibrational Schrödinger equation, composed of the exact kinetic energy operator and the model potential function. In normal coordinates, both operator and basis are readily defined. In curvilinear coordinates, however, the complex analytic form of the J = 0 kinetic energy operator is derived. Due to careful coordinate selection, terms in the model describing hindered rotational motion separate out, thus promoting development of an excellent contracted basis set. The contracted basis is expanded in terms of Mathieu functions, which are found to provide a rapidly convergent basis for any general one-dimensional hindering problem. Imposing symmetry on the functions further improves the basis. The full vibrational analysis reveals that the Morse functional form is capable of describing stretch, bend, and, surprisingly, torsion motions. The model reproduces structural and spectroscopic data with reasonable accuracy. Although the full calculation is set up and solved far more easily in normal coordinates, large- amplitude states converge slowly and localized states are described poorly. Dramatically improved rates of convergence result when using curvilinear coordinates due to coordinate and basis customization.

Rempe, Susan Lynne Beamis

88

A universal high energy anomaly in angle resolved photoemissionspectra of high temperature superconductors -- possible evidence ofspinon and holon branches  

SciTech Connect

A universal high energy anomaly in the single particlespectral function is reported in three different families of hightemperature superconductors by using angle-resolved photoemissionspectroscopy. As we follow the dispersing peak of the spectral functionfrom the Fermi energy to the valence band complex, we find dispersionanomalies marked by two distinctive high energy scales, E_1 approx 0.38eV and E_2 approx 0.8 eV. E_1 marks the energy above which the dispersionsplits into two branches. One is a continuation of the near parabolicdispersion, albeit with reduced spectral weight, and reaches the bottomof the band at the Gamma point at approx 0.5 eV. The other is given by apeak in the momentum space, nearly independent of energy between E_1 andE_2. Above E_2, a band-like dispersion re-emerges. We conjecture thatthese two energies mark the disintegration of the low energyquasiparticles into a spinon and holon branch in the high T_c cuprates.

Graf, J.; Gweon, G.-H.; McElroy, K.; Zhou, S.Y.; Jozwiak, C.; Rotenberg, E.; Bill, A.; Sasagawa, T.; Eisaki, H.; Uchida, S.; Takagi,H.; Lee, D.-H.; Lanzara A.

2006-12-19

89

Effect of Strong Correlations on the High Energy Anomaly in Hole- and Electron-Doped High-Tc Superconductors  

SciTech Connect

Recently, angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) has been used to highlight an anomalously large band renormalization at high binding energies in cuprate superconductors: the high energy 'waterfall' or high energy anomaly (HEA). This paper demonstrates, using a combination of new ARPES measurements and quantum Monte Carlo simulations, that the HEA is not simply the byproduct of matrix element effects, but rather represents a cross-over from a quasi-particle band at low binding energies near the Fermi level to valence bands at higher binding energy, assumed to be of strong oxygen character, in both hole- and electron-doped cuprates. While photoemission matrix elements clearly play a role in changing the aesthetic appearance of the band dispersion, i.e. the 'waterfall'-like behavior, they provide an inadequate description for the physics that underlies the strong band renormalization giving rise to the HEA. Model calculations of the single-band Hubbard Hamiltonian showcase the role played by correlations in the formation of the HEA and uncover significant differences in the HEA energy scale for hole- and electron-doped cuprates. In addition, this approach properly captures the transfer of spectral weight accompanying both hole and electron doping in a correlated material and provides a unifying description of the HEA across both sides of the cuprate phase diagram.

Moritz, B.; /SLAC, SIMES; Schmitt, F.; /Stanford U., Geballe Lab. /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept.; Meevasana, W.; /Stanford U., Geballe Lab. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Johnston, S.; /SLAC, SIMES /Waterloo U.; Motoyama, E.M.; /Stanford U., Geballe Lab. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Greven, M.; /SLAC, SIMES /Stanford U., Geballe Lab. /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept.; Lu, D.H.; /SLAC, SSRL; Kim, C.; /IPAP, Seoul; Scalettar, R.T.; /UC, Davis; Shen, Z.-X.; /SLAC, SIMES /Stanford U., Geballe Lab. /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Devereaux, T.P.; /SLAC, SIMES

2010-02-15

90

Energy potential of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula)  

SciTech Connect

Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) is a noxious, perennial weed that infests pastures, range land and waste areas in the northern Great Plains. The objective of this study was to determine the productive potential of this species when grown under optimum agronomic conditions. Plants were fertilized and irrigated. Oil, hydrocarbon, total protein, and dry-weight production were measured on 3 harvest dates. Calorimetric analyses were performed to determine the potential of leafy spurge as a fuel crop. The hydrocarbon content of 12 strains of leafy spurge was determined to measure genetic variability for this trait. The addition of fertilizer doubled dry-weight production but did not affect percent oil or hydrocarbon content. Oil and hydrocarbon production averaged 6.8 and 0.6% on a plant dry-weight basis. Maximum production of plant biomass, protein, and hydrocarbon was obtained from a mid-July harvest. Oil content increased later in the growing season. The total protein content of leafy spurge averaged 12%. Whole-plant biomass had a caloric value of 4407 cal/g while the oils contained 10,019 cal/g. Leafy spurge hay can produce 4 times more energy per year than wheat straw; therefore, the immediate potential of leafy spurge whole-plant biomass as a locally grown fuel crop for home-heating purposes is suggested.

Maxwell, B.D.; Wiatr, S.M.; Fay, P.K.

1985-01-01

91

Kinetic and potential energy in the first law of thermodynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kinetic and potential energy are included in the first law of thermodynamics in quite a contradictory way. Whereas in thermodynamics\\u000a the total energy is understood as the sum of internal, kinetic and potential energy, the total energy in continuum mechanics\\u000a incorporates only internal and kinetic energy, the potential energy being part of the work. The Gibbs ' fundamental equation\\u000a is

K. Stephan

1975-01-01

92

Induced Seismicity Potential of Energy Technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquakes attributable to human activities--``induced seismic events''--have received heightened public attention in the United States over the past several years. Upon request from the U.S. Congress and the Department of Energy, the National Research Council was asked to assemble a committee of experts to examine the scale, scope, and consequences of seismicity induced during fluid injection and withdrawal associated with geothermal energy development, oil and gas development, and carbon capture and storage (CCS). The committee's report, publicly released in June 2012, indicates that induced seismicity associated with fluid injection or withdrawal is caused in most cases by change in pore fluid pressure and/or change in stress in the subsurface in the presence of faults with specific properties and orientations and a critical state of stress in the rocks. The factor that appears to have the most direct consequence in regard to induced seismicity is the net fluid balance (total balance of fluid introduced into or removed from the subsurface). Energy technology projects that are designed to maintain a balance between the amount of fluid being injected and withdrawn, such as most oil and gas development projects, appear to produce fewer seismic events than projects that do not maintain fluid balance. Major findings from the study include: (1) as presently implemented, the process of hydraulic fracturing for shale gas recovery does not pose a high risk for inducing felt seismic events; (2) injection for disposal of waste water derived from energy technologies does pose some risk for induced seismicity, but very few events have been documented over the past several decades relative to the large number of disposal wells in operation; and (3) CCS, due to the large net volumes of injected fluids suggested for future large-scale carbon storage projects, may have potential for inducing larger seismic events.

Hitzman, Murray

2013-03-01

93

Certification and the potential energy landscape.  

PubMed

Typically, there is no guarantee that a numerical approximation obtained using standard nonlinear equation solvers is indeed an actual solution, meaning that it lies in the quadratic convergence basin. Instead, it may lie only in the linear convergence basin, or even in a chaotic region, and hence not converge to the corresponding stationary point when further optimization is attempted. In some cases, these non-solutions could be misleading. Proving that a numerical approximation will quadratically converge to a stationary point is termed certification. In this report, we provide details of how Smale's ?-theory can be used to certify numerically obtained stationary points of a potential energy landscape, providing a mathematical proof that the numerical approximation does indeed correspond to an actual stationary point, independent of the precision employed. PMID:24929381

Mehta, Dhagash; Hauenstein, Jonathan D; Wales, David J

2014-06-14

94

Potential gradients produced by pore-space heterogeneities: Application to isothermal frost damage and submarine hydrate anomalies  

E-print Network

Potential gradients produced by pore-space heterogeneities: Application to isothermal frost damage the supply of constituents through a fluid phase. With frost damage, the gradi- ents in chemical potential for constituent supply. We illustrate the consequences and character of isothermal frost damage using the results

Rempel, Alan W.

95

Thermophotovoltaic energy conversion: Technology and market potential  

SciTech Connect

This report contains material displayed on poster panels during the Conference. The purpose of the contribution was to present a summary of the business overview of thermophotovoltaic generation of electricity and its market potential. The market analysis has shown that the TPV market, while currently still in an early nucleation phase, is evolving into a range of small niche markets out of which larger-size opportunities can emerge. Early commercial applications on yachts and recreational vehicles which require a quiet and emission-free compact electrical generator fit the current TPV technology and economics. Follow-on residential applications are attractive since they can combine generation of electricity with space and hot water heating in a co-generation system. Development of future markets in transportation, both private and communal or industrial, will be driven by legislation requiring emission-free vehicles, and by a reduction in TPV systems cost. As a result of {open_quote}{open_quote}moving down the learning curve,{close_quote}{close_quote} growing power and consumer markets are predicted to come into reach of TPV systems, a development favored by high overall energy conversion efficiency due to high radiation energy density and to high electric conversion efficiency available with photovoltaic cells. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Ostrowski, L.J.; Pernisz, U.C. [Dow Corning Corporation, Midland, Michigan 48686 (United States); Fraas, L.M. [JX Crystals, Incorporated, Issaquah, Washington 98027 (United States)

1996-02-01

96

DOWN'S ANOMALY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

BOTH CLINICAL AND PATHOLOGICAL ASPECTS AND MATHEMATICAL ELABORATIONS OF DOWN'S ANOMALY, KNOWN ALSO AS MONGOLISM, ARE PRESENTED IN THIS REFERENCE MANUAL FOR PROFESSIONAL PERSONNEL. INFORMATION PROVIDED CONCERNS (1) HISTORICAL STUDIES, (2) PHYSICAL SIGNS, (3) BONES AND MUSCLES, (4) MENTAL DEVELOPMENT, (5) DERMATOGLYPHS, (6) HEMATOLOGY, (7)…

PENROSE, L.S.; SMITH, G.F.

97

Energy conservation potential in Taiwanese textile industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since Taiwan lacks sufficient self-produced energy, increasing energy efficiency and energy savings are essential aspects of Taiwan’s energy policy. This work summarizes the energy savings implemented by 303 firms in Taiwan’s textile industry from the on-line Energy Declaration System in 2008. It was found that the total implemented energy savings amounted to 46,074ton of oil equivalent (TOE). The energy saving

Gui-Bing Hong; Te-Li Su; Jenq-Daw Lee; Tsung-Chi Hsu; Hua-Wei Chen

2010-01-01

98

Streaming potential and permeability of saturated sandstones under triaxial stress: Consequences for electrotelluric anomalies prior to earthquakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The streaming potential, due to fluid circulation in rock, was measured on saturated sediments (Fontainebleau sandstones). The electrokinetic coupling coefficient, which is the ratio of the streaming potential and the excess pore pressure, is proportional to the fluid resistivity. Additionally, for a fluid conductivity of 10-3 S\\/m, the electrokinetic coupling coefficient varies from 10 to 6642 mV\\/0.1 MPa for sample

Laurence Jouniaux; Jean-Pierre Pozzi

1995-01-01

99

ASSESSMENT OF ENERGY RECOVERY POTENTIAL OF INDUSTRIAL COMBUSTION EQUIPMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

An assessment was conducted to evaluate the waste heat content and energy recovery potential of flue gases from 30 industrial combustion devices. Pollution controls on nine of the devices were evaluated to estimate energy requirements and particulate reduction; energy requirement...

100

Biomass energy in China and its potential Li Jingjing  

E-print Network

energy Coal 25,128 56.9 Crude oil 8,852 20.0 Natural gas 938 2.1 Large-scale hydro power 2,587 5Biomass energy in China and its potential Li Jingjing Asia Alternative Energy Program, Energy.R.China Zhuang Xing Center for Renewable Energy Development, Energy Research Institute, State Development

101

Astrometric solar system anomalies  

SciTech Connect

There are at least four unexplained anomalies connected with astrometric data. perhaps the most disturbing is the fact that when a spacecraft on a flyby trajectory approaches the Earth within 2000 km or less, it often experiences a change in total orbital energy per unit mass. next, a secular change in the astronomical unit AU is definitely a concern. It is increasing by about 15 cm yr{sup -1}. The other two anomalies are perhaps less disturbing because of known sources of nongravitational acceleration. The first is an apparent slowing of the two Pioneer spacecraft as they exit the solar system in opposite directions. Some astronomers and physicists are convinced this effect is of concern, but many others are convinced it is produced by a nearly identical thermal emission from both spacecraft, in a direction away from the Sun, thereby producing acceleration toward the Sun. The fourth anomaly is a measured increase in the eccentricity of the Moon's orbit. Here again, an increase is expected from tidal friction in both the Earth and Moon. However, there is a reported unexplained increase that is significant at the three-sigma level. It is produent to suspect that all four anomalies have mundane explanations, or that one or more anomalies are a result of systematic error. Yet they might eventually be explained by new physics. For example, a slightly modified theory of gravitation is not ruled out, perhaps analogous to Einstein's 1916 explanation for the excess precession of Mercury's perihelion.

Nieto, Michael Martin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Anderson, John D [PROPULSION LABORATORY

2009-01-01

102

A new water anomaly: the temperature dependence of the proton mean kinetic energy  

E-print Network

The mean kinetic energy of protons in water is determined by Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering experiments, performed above and below the temperature of maximum density and in the supercooled phase. The temperature dependence of this energy shows an anomalous behavior, as it occurs for many water properties. In particular two regions of maximum kinetic energy are identified: the first one, in the supercooled phase in the range 269 K - 272 K, and a second one above 273 K. In both these regions the measured proton kinetic energy exceedes the theoretical prediction based on a semi-classical model. Noteworthy, the proton mean kinetic energy has a maximum at 277 K, the temperature of the maximum density of water. In the supercooled metastable phase the measured mean kinetic energy and the proton momentum distribution clearly indicate proton delocalization between two H-bonded oxygens.

Davide Flammini; Fabio Bruni; Maria Antonietta Ricci

2009-01-28

103

A beacon of new physics: The Pioneer anomaly modelled as a path based speed loss driven by the externalisation of aggregate non-inertial QM energy  

E-print Network

This treatise outlines how a non-systematic based Pioneer anomaly, with its implied violation (re: 'low' mass bodies only) of both general relativity's weak equivalence principle and the Newtonian inverse-square law, can be successfully modelled. These theoretical hurdles and various awkward observational constraints, such as the low value of Pioneer 11's anomaly pre-Saturn encounter, have (to date) not been convincingly modelled. Notwithstanding the recent trend to embrace a non-constant Sun/Earth-directed heat based explanation of this anomalous deceleration, the actual: nature, direction, and temporal and spatial variation of the Pioneer anomaly remain an open arena of research. Working backwards from the observational evidence, and rethinking: time, mass, quantum entanglement and non-locality, we hypothesise a mechanism involving a quantum mechanical energy source and a new type of 'gravitational' field; neither of which lie within general relativity's domain of formulation/application. By way of a systemic conservation of energy principle, an internally inexpressible (aggregate) non-inertial energy discrepancy/uncertainty -- involving a myriad of quantum (lunar/third-body residing) atomic and molecular systems moving in analog curved spacetime -- is (non-locally) re-expressed externally as a (rotating) non-Euclidean spatial geometry perturbation. At a moving body each "rotating space-warp" induces sinusoidal proper acceleration and speed perturbations, as well as a path-based constant (per cycle) rate of speed shortfall relative to predictions that omit the additional effect. 'Solutions' of the new model may extend to: the Earth flyby anomaly, solar system related large-scale anomalies in the CMB radiation data, the nature of dark energy, and how a theory of everything unification agenda is inadvertently impeding a deeper understanding of physical reality and quantum entanglement.

Paul G. ten Boom

2012-05-15

104

Potential of renewable energy systems in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Along with high-speed economic development and increasing energy consumption, the Chinese Government faces a growing pressure to maintain the balance between energy supply and demand. In 2009, China has become both the largest energy consumer and CO2 emitting country in the world. In this case, the inappropriate energy consumption structure should be changed. As an alternative, a suitable infrastructure for

Wen Liu; Henrik Lund; Brian Vad Mathiesen; Xiliang Zhang

2011-01-01

105

Potential contribution of biomass to the sustainable energy development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomass is a renewable energy source and its importance will increase as national energy policy and strategy focuses more heavily on renewable sources and conservation. Biomass is considered the renewable energy source with the highest potential to contribute to the energy needs of modern society for both the industrialized and developing countries worldwide. The most important biomass energy sources are

M. Fatih Demirbas; Mustafa Balat; Havva Balat

2009-01-01

106

A snapshot of geothermal energy potential and utilization in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Turkey is one of the countries with significant potential in geothermal energy. It is estimated that if Turkey utilizes all of her geothermal potential, she can meet 14% of her total energy need (heat and electricity) from geothermal sources. Therefore, today geothermal energy is an attractive option in Turkey to replace fossil fuels. Besides, increase in negative effects of fossil

Erkan Erdogdu

2009-01-01

107

Mass Energy Equivalence Formula Must Include Rotational and Vibrational Kinetuic Energies as Well As Potential Energies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Originally Einstein proposed the the mass-energy equivalence at low speeds as E=mc^2 + 1\\/2 mv^2. However, a mass may also be rotating and vibrating as well as moving linearly. Although small, these kinetic energies must be included in formulating a true mathematical statement of the mass-energy equivalence. Also, gravitational, electromagneic and magnetic potential energies must be included in the mass-energy

Stewart Brekke

2010-01-01

108

Gravitational Anomalies in the Solar System?  

E-print Network

Mindful of the anomalous perihelion precession of Mercury discovered by U. Le Verrier in the second half of the nineteenth century and its successful explanation by A. Einstein with his General Theory of Relativity in the early years of the twentieth century, discrepancies among observed effects in our Solar system and their theoretical predictions on the basis of the currently accepted laws of gravitation applied to known bodies have the potential of paving the way for remarkable advances in fundamental physics. This is particularly important now more than ever, given that most of the Universe seems to be made of unknown substances dubbed Dark Matter and Dark Energy. Should this not be directly the case, Solar system's anomalies could anyhow lead to advancements in cumulative science, as shown to us by the discovery of Neptune in the first half of the nineteenth century. Moreover, investigations in one of such directions can serendipitously enrich the other one as well. The current status of some alleged gravitational anomalies in the Solar system is critically reviewed. They are: a) Possible anomalous advances of planetary perihelia; b) Unexplained orbital residuals of a recently discovered moon of Uranus (Mab); c) The lingering unexplained secular increase of the eccentricity of the orbit of the Moon; d) The so-called Faint Young Sun Paradox; e) The secular decrease of the mass parameter of the Sun; f) The Flyby Anomaly; g) The Pioneer Anomaly; and h) The anomalous secular increase of the astronomical unit

Lorenzo Iorio

2015-01-21

109

Gravitational Anomalies in the Solar System?  

E-print Network

Mindful of the anomalous perihelion precession of Mercury discovered by U. Le Verrier in the second half of the nineteenth century and its successful explanation by A. Einstein with his General Theory of Relativity in the early years of the twentieth century, discrepancies among observed effects in our Solar system and their theoretical predictions on the basis of the currently accepted laws of gravitation applied to known bodies have the potential of paving the way for remarkable advances in fundamental physics. This is particularly important now more than ever, given that most of the Universe seems to be made of unknown substances dubbed Dark Matter and Dark Energy. Should this not be directly the case, Solar system's anomalies could anyhow lead to advancements in cumulative science, as shown to us by the discovery of Neptune in the first half of the nineteenth century. Moreover, investigations in one of such directions can serendipitously enrich the other one as well. The current status of some alleged gravitational anomalies in the Solar system is critically reviewed. They are: a) Possible anomalous advances of planetary perihelia; b) Unexplained orbital residuals of a recently discovered moon of Uranus (Mab); c) The lingering unexplained secular increase of the eccentricity of the orbit of the Moon; d) The so-called Faint Young Sun Paradox; e) The secular decrease of the mass parameter of the Sun; f) The Flyby Anomaly; g) The Pioneer Anomaly; and h) The anomalous secular increase of the astronomical unit

Lorenzo Iorio

2014-12-21

110

Solar energy in California industry - Applications, characteristics and potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of a survey to determine the potential applicability of solar thermal energy to industrial processes in California are presented. It is found that if the heat for all industrial processes at temperatures below 212 F were supplied by solar energy, total state energy consumption could be reduced by 100 trillion Btus (2%), while the use of solar energy in

R. H. Barbieri; D. S. Pivirotto

1978-01-01

111

Geochemical anomalies from bottom ash in a road construction--comparison of the leaching potential between an ash road and the surroundings.  

PubMed

A study was performed between June 2001 and December 2004 with the primary objective of assessing long-term leaching from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash in a test road construction in relation to a reference road made up of conventional materials and the natural geochemical conditions in the surroundings. The metal leaching from the test road and the reference road was compared with the natural weathering in the regional surroundings for three time scales: 16, 80 and 1000 years. The results show that Cu and Zn cause a geochemical anomaly from the test road compared with the surroundings. The leaching of Cu from the test road is initially high but will decline with time and will in the long term be exceeded by natural weathering. Zn on the other hand has low initial leaching, which will increase with time and will in the long term exceed that of the test road and the surroundings by a factor of 100-300. For the other metals studied, Al, Na, K and Mg, there is only very limited leaching over time and the potential accumulation will not exceed the background values in a 1000 years. PMID:17306524

Lind, Bo B; Norrman, Jenny; Larsson, Lennart B; Ohlsson, Sten-Ake; Bristav, Henrik

2008-01-01

112

Integral formulas for computing a third-order gravitational tensor from volumetric mass density, disturbing gravitational potential, gravity anomaly and gravity disturbance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new mathematical model for evaluation of the third-order (disturbing) gravitational tensor is formulated in this article. Firstly, we construct corresponding differential operators for the components of the third-order (disturbing) gravitational tensor in a spherical local north-oriented frame. We show that the differential operators may efficiently be decomposed into an azimuthal and an isotropic part. The differential operators are even more simplified for a certain class of isotropic kernels. Secondly, the differential operators are applied to the well-known integrals of Newton, Abel-Poisson, Pizzetti and Hotine. In this way, 40 new integral formulas are derived. The new integral formulas allow for evaluation of the components of the third-order (disturbing) gravitational tensor from density distribution, disturbing gravitational potential, gravity anomalies and gravity disturbances. Thirdly, we investigate the behaviour of the corresponding integral kernels in the spatial domain. The new mathematical formulas extend the theoretical apparatus of geodesy, i.e. the well-known Meissl scheme, and reveal important properties of the third-order gravitational tensor. They may be exploited in geophysical studies, continuation of gravitational field quantities and analysing the gradiometric-geodynamic boundary value problem.

Šprlák, Michal; Novák, Pavel

2015-02-01

113

Energy conservation potential of surface modification technologies  

SciTech Connect

This report assesses the energy conservation impact of surface modification technologies on the metalworking industries. The energy conservation impact of surface modification technologies on the metalworking industries is assessed by estimating their friction and wear tribological sinks and the subsequent reduction in these sinks when surface modified tools are used. Ion implantation, coatings, and laser and electron beam surface modifications are considered.

Le, H.K.; Horne, D.M.; Silberglitt, R.S.

1985-09-01

114

HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS POTENTIAL AT MUON COLLIDERS  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, high energy physics possibilities and future colliders are discussed. The {mu}{sup +} {mu}{sup {minus}} collider and experiments with high intensity muon beams as the stepping phase towards building Higher Energy Muon Colliders (HEMC) are briefly reviewed and encouraged.

PARSA,Z.

2000-04-07

115

Integrated Potential-field Studies in Support of Energy Resource Assessment in Frontier Areas of Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In frontier areas of Alaska, potential-field studies play an important role in characterizing the geologic structure of sedimentary basins having potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources. Two such areas are the Yukon Flats basin in the east-central interior of Alaska, and the coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) in northeastern Alaska. The Yukon Flats basin is a potential source of hydrocarbon resources for local consumption and possible export. Knowledge of the subsurface configuration of the basin is restricted to a few seismic reflection profiles covering a limited area and one well. The seismic profiles were reprocessed and reinterpreted in preparation for an assessment of the oil and gas resources of the basin. The assessment effort required knowledge of the basin configuration away from the seismic profiles, as well as an understanding of the nature of the underlying basement. To extend the interpretation of the basin thickness across the entire area of the basin, an iterative Jachens-Moring gravity inversion was performed on gridded quasi-isostatic residual gravity anomaly data. The inversion was constrained to agree with the interpreted basement surface along the seismic profiles. In addition to the main sedimentary depocenter interpreted from the seismic data as having over 8 km of fill, the gravity inversion indicated a depocenter with over 7 km of fill in the Crooked Creek sub-basin. Results for the Crooked Creek sub-basin are consistent with magnetic and magnetotelluric modeling, but they await confirmation by drilling or seismic profiling. Whether hydrocarbon source rocks are present in the pre-Cenozoic basement beneath Yukon Flats is difficult to determine because extensive surficial deposits obscure the bedrock geology, and no deep boreholes penetrate basement. The color and texture patterns in a red-green-blue composite image consisting of reduced-to-the-pole aeromagnetic data (red), magnetic potential (blue), and basement gravity (green) highlight domains with common geophysical characteristics and, by inference, lithology. The observed patterns suggest that much of the basin is underlain by Devonian to Jurassic oceanic rocks that probably have little or no potential for hydrocarbon generation. The coastal plain surficial deposits in the northern part of ANWR conceal another frontier basin with hydrocarbon potential. Proprietary aeromagnetic and gravity data were used, along with seismic reflection profiles, to construct a structural and stratigraphic model of this highly deformed sedimentary basin for use in an energy resource assessment. Matched-filtering techniques were used to separate short-wavelength magnetic and gravity anomalies attributed to sources near the top of the sedimentary section from longer-wavelength anomalies attributed to deeper basin and basement sources. Models along the seismic reflection lines indicate that the primary sources of the short-wavelength anomalies are folded and faulted sedimentary beds truncated at the Pleistocene erosion surface. In map view, the aeromagnetic and gravity anomalies produced by the sedimentary units were used to identify possible structural trapping features and geometries, but they also indicated that these features may be significantly disrupted by faulting.

Phillips, J. D.; Saltus, R. W.; Potter, C. J.; Stanley, R. G.; Till, A. B.

2008-05-01

116

General Potential-Energy Function for Exchange Reactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general potential-energy function for linear triatomic systems has been developed for use in connection with reaction kinetics calculations. The function is a generalization of the Morse function with a sufficient number of adjustable parameters to permit arbitrary fixing of the location and curvatures of the saddle point of the potential energy surface. The function reduces, of course, to the

Frederick T. Wall; Richard N. Porter

1962-01-01

117

Assessing the wind energy potential projects in Algeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A research program is under way in the SONELGAZ R&D Office with the aim of studying the potential of wind energy in Algeria. This paper presents an analysis of recently collected hourly wind data over a period of almost 5 years between 2002 and 2006, from four selected sites as well as preliminary evaluation of the wind energy potential. The

Y. Himri; S. Himri; A. Boudghene Stambouli

2009-01-01

118

An Analysis of the Wind Energy Potential of Elazig, Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the wind energy potential of Elazig is statistically analyzed based on hourly measured wind speed data over the five-year period from 1998 to 2002. The probability density distributions are derived from cumulative distribution functions. Two probability density functions are fitted to the measured probability distribution on a yearly basis. The wind energy potential of the location is

E. Kavak Akpinar; S. Akpinar

2004-01-01

119

Energy sector and wind energy potential in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Turkey has very limited indigenous energy resources and has to import around 65% of primary energy to meet her needs. It is a large importer of primary energy despite having ample renewable energy sources.Turkey’s vibrant economy has led to increased energy demand in recent years. This situation is expected to continue in the near future because its economy is dependent

R. Tugrul Ogulata

2003-01-01

120

Energy Stored in a Capacitor What is the potential energy, U, of a  

E-print Network

Energy Stored in a Capacitor What is the potential energy, U, of a charged capacitor? Think of U energy by discharging capacitor VqWU == #12;Energy Stored in a Capacitor Charge capacitor by transferring takes positive work to charge capacitor #12;Energy Stored in a Capacitor At given instance potential

Bertulani, Carlos A. - Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A&M University

121

Preliminary evaluation of wind energy potential: Cook Inlet area, Alaska  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes work on a project performed under contract to the Alaska Power Administration (APA). The objective of this research was to make a preliminary assessment of the wind energy potential for interconnection with the Cook Inlet area electric power transmission and distribution systems, to identify the most likely candidate regions (25 to 100 square miles each) for energy potential, and to recommend a monitoring program sufficient to quantify the potential.

Hiester, T.R.

1980-06-01

122

Potential Energy Sources Pose Mining Problem  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes the discussions of a Division of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry symposium on solids handling for synthetic fuels production. Included is a description of technical difficulties with the use of coal seams and deposits of oil shale and oil sand as potential sources of fuel. (CC)

Chemical and Engineering News, 1974

1974-01-01

123

Constraints on lithospheric structure from satellite potential field data: Africa and Asia. Analysis and interpretation of MAGSAT anomalies over North Africa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Crustal anomaly detection with MAGSAT data is frustrated by the inherent resolving power of the data and by contamination from the external and core fields. The quality of the data might be tested by modeling specific tectonic features which produce anomalies that fall within the proposed resolution and crustal amplitude capabilities of the MAGSAT fields. To test this hypothesis, the north African hotspots associated with Ahaggar, Tibestia and Darfur have been modeled as magnetic induction anomalies due solely to shallower depth to the Curie isotherm surface beneath these features. The MAGSAT data were reduced by subtracting the external and core fields to isolate the scalar and vertical component crustal signals. The predicted model magnetic signal arising from the surface topography of the uplift and the Curie isotherm surface was calculated at MAGSAT altitudes by the Fourier transform technique modified to allow for variable magnetization. In summary it is suggested that the region beneath Ahaggar is associated with a strong thermal anomaly and the predicted anomaly best fits the associated MAGSAT anomaly if the African plate is moving in a northeasterly direction.

Phillips, R. J.

1986-01-01

124

Renewable energy potential and utilization in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable energy sources have been important for humans since the beginning of civilisation. For centuries, and in many ways, biomass has been used for heating, and cooking. Many centuries ago, mankind was already utilizing the clearly visible power of water for mechanical drive purposes, as was also the case with wind. Today, water mills are still used in our villages,

Kamil Kaygusuz; Ahmet Sar?

2003-01-01

125

Exotic energy R&D has potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper examines the use of wave power or ocean gradient differential as one aspect of energy production along with the farming of biomass as a feedstock for methane production. Attention is given to various cost estimates for projects such as the conversion of kelp to methane that will hopefully result in a reasonable yield. The design features of a

J. T. Miskell

1980-01-01

126

Periodic discrete energy for long-range potentials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider periodic energy problems in Euclidean space with a special emphasis on long-range potentials that cannot be defined through the usual infinite sum. One of our main results builds on more recent developments of Ewald summation to define the periodic energy corresponding to a large class of long-range potentials. Two particularly interesting examples are the logarithmic potential and the Riesz potential when the Riesz parameter is smaller than the dimension of the space. For these examples, we use analytic continuation methods to provide concise formulas for the periodic kernel in terms of the Epstein Hurwitz Zeta function. We apply our energy definition to deduce several properties of the minimal energy including the asymptotic order of growth and the distribution of points in energy minimizing configurations as the number of points becomes large. We conclude with some detailed calculations in the case of one dimension, which shows the utility of this approach.

Hardin, D. P.; Saff, E. B.; Simanek, B.

2014-12-01

127

Periodic Discrete Energy for Long-Range Potentials  

E-print Network

We consider periodic energy problems in Euclidean space with a special emphasis on long-range potentials that cannot be defined through the usual infinite sum. One of our main results builds on more recent developments of Ewald summation to define the periodic energy corresponding to a large class of long-range potentials. Two particularly interesting examples are the logarithmic potential and the Riesz potential when the Riesz parameter is smaller than the dimension of the space. For these examples, we use analytic continuation methods to provide concise formulas for the periodic kernel in terms of the Epstein Hurwitz Zeta function. We apply our energy definition to deduce several properties of the minimal energy including the asymptotic order of growth and the distribution of points in energy minimizing configurations as the number of points becomes large. We conclude with some detailed calculations in the case of one dimension, which shows the utility of this approach.

D. P. Hardin; E. B. Saff; Brian Simanek

2014-03-28

128

Energy savings potential from energy-conserving irrigation systems  

SciTech Connect

This report systematically compares, within a consistent framework, the technical and economic characteristics of energy-conserving irrigation systems with those of conventional irrigation systems and to determine total energy savings. Levelized annual costs of owning and operating both energy-conserving and conventional irrigation systems have been developed and compared for all 17 states to account for the differences in energy costs and irrigation conditions in each state. Market penetration of energy-conserving systems is assessed for those systems having lower levelized annual costs than conventional systems performing the same function. Annual energy savings were computed by matching the energy savings per system with an assumed maximum market penetration of 100 percent in those markets where the levelized annual costs of energy-conserving systems are lower than the levelized annual costs of conventional systems.

Wilfert, G.L.; Patton, W.P.; Harrer, B.J.; Clark, M.A.

1982-11-01

129

Improved global /?-optical model potentials at low energies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many nuclear astrophysics applications involve radiative /?-particle captures, /? decays and /?-particle transfer reactions. Theoretical estimates of the corresponding reaction rates within the framework of the statistical model of Hauser-Feshbach remain highly uncertain due to the poor knowledge of the /?-nucleus optical model potential, especially at low energies far below the Coulomb barrier. In the present paper we propose a new global /?-optical potential that takes into account the strong energy dependence and nuclear structure effects that characterize the /?-nucleus interaction. The real part of the potential is calculated using a double-folding procedure over the M3Y effective nucleon-nucleon interaction. A Woods-Saxon potential is used for the imaginary potential where now a new parameterization is introduced to describe its energy dependence. The influence of purely volume absorption or volume plus surface absorption on the description of the experimental data is investigated. Finally, the dispersive relation is applied to relate the real and imaginary parts of the optical model potential and reduce the ambiguities in deriving the potential from experimental data. The three potentials considered are able to reproduce well the bulk of experimental data on (/?,?), (/?,n), (/?,p) and (n,?) reactions as well as the existing elastic scattering data at energies of relevance to astrophysical applications. However, when considering reaction rates on experimentally unexplored targets, deviations within a factor of 10 are found. These uncertainties are principally due to the difficulty in constraining the diffuseness of the imaginary potential from analyses of existing experimental data.

Demetriou, P.; Grama, C.; Goriely, S.

2002-08-01

130

New approach to calculating the potential energy of colliding nuclei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The differential method proposed by the present authors earlier for the reduction of volume integrals in calculating the potential energy of a compound nucleus is generalized to the case of two interacting nuclei. The Coulomb interaction energy is obtained for the cases of a sharp and a diffuse boundary of nuclei, while the nuclear interaction energy is found only for nuclei with a sharp boundary, the finiteness of the nuclear-force range being taken into account. The present method of calculations permits reducing the time it takes to compute the potential energy at least by two orders of magnitude.

Kurmanov, R. S.; Kosenko, G. I.

2014-12-01

131

Semiclassical energy levels and the corresponding potentials in nonhydrogenic ions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A semiclassical expression is derived for the potential seen by an nl-shell electron in a nonhydrogenic ion. Corresponding energies Enl are compared with experimental values and with results of self-consistent-field calculations.

Pankratov, P.; Meyer-Ter-Vehn, J.

1992-11-01

132

Energy Savings Potential of Process Control Valve Replacement  

E-print Network

A review of current design methods for industrial process control systems that utilize modulated control valves as their final element is presented. The infornUltion that is available is then used to find the theoretic potential for energy savings...

Holzenthal, L. Jr.

133

Re-examining Potential for Geothermal Energy in United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New technological initiatives, along with potential policy and economic incentives, could help to bring about a resurgence in geothermal energy development in the United States, said several experts at a 22 May forum in Washington, D.C. The forum was sponsored by the House and Senate Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Caucuses, the Sustainable Energy Coalition, and the Environmental and Energy Study Institute. Among these initiatives is an ambitious program of the U.S. Department of Energy to expand existing geothermal energy fields and potentially create new fields through ``enhanced geothermal systems.'' In addition, a program of the Bush administration encourages geothermal development on some public lands, and current legislation would provide tax credits and other incentives for geothermal development.

Showstack, Randy

134

Wind energy potential assessment at four typical locations in Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wind energy potential at four different sites in Ethiopia – Addis Ababa (09:02N, 38:42E), Mekele (13:33N, 39:30E), Nazret (08:32N, 39:22E), and Debrezeit (8:44N, 39:02E) – has been investigated by compiling data from different sources and analyzing it using a software tool. The results relating to wind energy potential are given in terms of the monthly average wind speed, wind

Getachew Bekele; Björn Palm

2009-01-01

135

Chiral anomalies and differential geometry  

SciTech Connect

Some properties of chiral anomalies are described from a geometric point of view. Topics include chiral anomalies and differential forms, transformation properties of the anomalies, identification and use of the anomalies, and normalization of the anomalies. 22 references. (WHK)

Zumino, B.

1983-10-01

136

Wind energy potential in Antakya and ?skenderun regions, Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to establish the potential and the feasibility basis for the wind energy resources in some locations of East Mediterranean region of Turkey and provide suitable data for evaluating the potential wind power. For this purpose, hourly wind data, which were observed between the years 1997 and 2001 at the meteorological stations of Antakya and

M. Bilgili; B. ?ahin; A. Kahraman

2004-01-01

137

Space Weather, Cosmic Rays, and Satellite Anomalies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results are presented of the Satellite Anomaly Project, which aims to improve the methods of safeguarding satellites in the Earth’s magnetosphere from the negative effects of the space environment. Anomaly data from the USSR and Russian “Kosmos” series satellites in the period 1971-1999 are combined into one database, together with similar information on other spacecraft. This database contains, beyond the anomaly information, various characteristics of space weather: geomagnetic activity indices (Ap, AE and Dst), fluxes and fluencies of electrons and protons at different energies, high energy cosmic ray variations and other solar, interplanetary and solar wind data. A comparative analysis of the distribution of each of these parameters relative to satellite anomalies was carried out for the total number of anomalies (about 6000 events), and separately for high altitude orbit satellites ( 5000 events) and low altitude (about 800 events). No relation was found between low and high altitude satellite anomalies. Daily numbers of satellite anomalies, averaged by a superposed epoch method around sudden storm commencements and proton event onsets for high (>1500 km) and low (<1500 km) altitude orbits revealed a big difference in behavior. Satellites were divided into several groups according to their orbital characteristics (altitude and inclination). The relation of satellite anomalies to the environmental parameters was found to be different for various orbits, and this should be taken into account when developing anomaly frequency models. The preliminary anomaly frequency models are presented.

Lev, Dorman

138

Investigating Energy-Saving Potentials in the Cloud  

PubMed Central

Collecting webpage messages can serve as a sensor for investigating the energy-saving potential of buildings. Focusing on stores, a cloud sensor system is developed to collect data and determine their energy-saving potential. The owner of a store under investigation must register online, report the store address, area, and the customer ID number on the electric meter. The cloud sensor system automatically surveys the energy usage records by connecting to the power company website and calculating the energy use index (EUI) of the store. Other data includes the chain store check, company capital, location price, and the influence of weather conditions on the store; even the exposure frequency of store under investigation may impact the energy usage collected online. After collecting data from numerous stores, a multi-dimensional data array is constructed to determine energy-saving potential by identifying stores with similarity conditions. Similarity conditions refer to analyzed results that indicate that two stores have similar capital, business scale, weather conditions, and exposure frequency on web. Calculating the EUI difference or pure technical efficiency of stores, the energy-saving potential is determined. In this study, a real case study is performed. An 8-dimensional (8D) data array is constructed by surveying web data related to 67 stores. Then, this study investigated the savings potential of the 33 stores, using a site visit, and employed the cloud sensor system to determine the saving potential. The case study results show good agreement between the data obtained by the site visit and the cloud investigation, with errors within 4.17%. Among 33 the samples, eight stores have low saving potentials of less than 5%. The developed sensor on the cloud successfully identifies them as having low saving potential and avoids wasting money on the site visit. PMID:24561405

Lee, Da-Sheng

2014-01-01

139

Investigating energy-saving potentials in the cloud.  

PubMed

Collecting webpage messages can serve as a sensor for investigating the energy-saving potential of buildings. Focusing on stores, a cloud sensor system is developed to collect data and determine their energy-saving potential. The owner of a store under investigation must register online, report the store address, area, and the customer ID number on the electric meter. The cloud sensor system automatically surveys the energy usage records by connecting to the power company website and calculating the energy use index (EUI) of the store. Other data includes the chain store check, company capital, location price, and the influence of weather conditions on the store; even the exposure frequency of store under investigation may impact the energy usage collected online. After collecting data from numerous stores, a multi-dimensional data array is constructed to determine energy-saving potential by identifying stores with similarity conditions. Similarity conditions refer to analyzed results that indicate that two stores have similar capital, business scale, weather conditions, and exposure frequency on web. Calculating the EUI difference or pure technical efficiency of stores, the energy-saving potential is determined. In this study, a real case study is performed. An 8-dimensional (8D) data array is constructed by surveying web data related to 67 stores. Then, this study investigated the savings potential of the 33 stores, using a site visit, and employed the cloud sensor system to determine the saving potential. The case study results show good agreement between the data obtained by the site visit and the cloud investigation, with errors within 4.17%. Among 33 the samples, eight stores have low saving potentials of less than 5%. The developed sensor on the cloud successfully identifies them as having low saving potential and avoids wasting money on the site visit. PMID:24561405

Lee, Da-Sheng

2014-01-01

140

The potential role of renewable energy in Moldova  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European Union (EU) is developing an increasingly close relationship with Moldova, going beyond cooperation, to gradual economic integration and a deepening of political cooperation. This fact indicates that eventually the adoption of EU legislation in the energy sector is a necessity. Therefore, the provision of a clear picture of the country’s renewable energy potential is considered essential, bearing in

Charikleia Karakosta; Stamatia Dimopoulou; Haris Doukas; John Psarras

2011-01-01

141

Framework for State-Level Renewable Energy Market Potential Studies  

SciTech Connect

State-level policymakers are relying on estimates of the market potential for renewable energy resources as they set goals and develop policies to accelerate the development of these resources. Therefore, accuracy of such estimates should be understood and possibly improved to appropriately support these decisions. This document provides a framework and next steps for state officials who require estimates of renewable energy market potential. The report gives insight into how to conduct a market potential study, including what supporting data are needed and what types of assumptions need to be made. The report distinguishes between goal-oriented studies and other types of studies, and explains the benefits of each.

Kreycik, C.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Doris, E.

2010-01-01

142

DoD energy vulnerabilities: potential problems and observations  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Defense is almost entirely dependent on civilian energy supplies to meet its needs in both peacetime and periods of heightened conflict. There are a number of potential vulnerabilities to the continual and timely supply of energy to both the civilian and military sectors. These include denial of the energy resources themselves, disruption of critical transportation networks, destruction of storage facilities, and interruption of electrical power. This report briefly reviews the present situation for provision of energy from the civilian sector to the military. General vulnerabilities of the existing energy supply system are identified, along with the potential for armed aggression (including terrorist and sabotage activities) against the energy network. Conclusions and some tentative observations are made as to a proper response to the existing vulnerabilities.

Freiwald, D A; Berger, M E; Roach, J F

1982-08-01

143

Acousto-optically generated potential energy landscapes: potential mapping using colloids under flow.  

PubMed

Optical potential energy landscapes created using acousto-optical deflectors are characterized via solvent-driven colloidal particles. The full potential energy of both single optical traps and complex landscapes composed of multiple overlapping traps are determined using a simple force balance argument. The potential of a single trap is shown to be well described by a Gaussian trap with stiffness found to be consistent with those obtained by a thermal equilibrium method. We also obtain directly the depth of the well, which (as with stiffness) varies with laser power. Finally, various complex systems ranging from double-well potentials to random landscapes are generated from individually controlled optical traps. Predictions of these landscapes as a sum of single Gaussian wells are shown to be a good description of experimental results, offering the potential for fully controlled design of optical landscapes, constructed from single optical traps. PMID:23263108

Juniper, Michael P N; Besseling, Rut; Aarts, Dirk G A L; Dullens, Roel P A

2012-12-17

144

Calculations of potential energy surfaces using Monte Carlo configuration interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We apply the method of Monte Carlo configuration interaction (MCCI) to calculate ground-state potential energy curves for a range of small molecules and compare the results with full configuration interaction. We show that the MCCI potential energy curve can be calculated to relatively good accuracy, as quantified using the non-parallelity error, using only a very small fraction of the full configuration interaction space. In most cases the potential curve is of better accuracy than its constituent single-point energies. We finally test the MCCI program on systems with basis sets beyond full configuration interaction: a lattice of 50 hydrogen atoms and ethylene. The results for ethylene agree fairly well with other computational work while for the lattice of 50 hydrogens we find that the fraction of the full configuration interaction space we were able to consider appears to be too small as, although some qualitative features are reproduced, the potential curve is less accurate.

Coe, Jeremy P.; Taylor, Daniel J.; Paterson, Martin J.

2012-11-01

145

Dark energy exponential potential models as curvature quintessence  

E-print Network

It has been recently shown that, under some general conditions, it is always possible to find a fourth order gravity theory capable of reproducing the same dynamics of a given dark energy model. Here, we discuss this approach for a dark energy model with a scalar field evolving under the action of an exponential potential. In absence of matter, such a potential can be recovered from a fourth order theory via a conformal transformation. Including the matter term, the function f(R) entering the generalized gravity Lagrangian can be reconstructed according to the dark energy model.

S. Capozziello; V. F. Cardone; E. Piedipalumbo; C. Rubano

2005-07-19

146

Renewable energy potential in Bulgaria - Some computer simulations results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents a work, which aims at numerical study of the wind and solar energy potential of the country. The wind/solar energy fields simulations were performed applying the 5th generation PSU/NCAR Meso-Meteorological Model MM5 for years 2000-2007 with a spatial resolution of 3 km over Bulgaria. The computer simulated data base is large and rather comprehensive. In this sense it can be considered as statistically significant ensemble. This allows statistical treatment in order various wind and solar energy potential evaluations to be retrieved from the data base. Some evaluations of the country wind and solar energy potential, based on the simulation output are demonstrated in the paper.

Ganev, K.; Jordanov, G.; Gadzhev, G.; Miloshev, N.; Syrakov, D.; Prodanova, M.

2014-11-01

147

On the nuclear interaction. Potential, binding energy and fusion reaction  

E-print Network

The nuclear interaction is responsible for keeping neutrons and protons joined in an atomic nucleus. Phenomenological nuclear potentials, fitted to experimental data, allow one to know about the nuclear behaviour with more or less success where quantum mechanics is hard to be used. A nuclear potential is suggested and an expression for the potential energy of two nuclear entities, either nuclei or nucleons, is developed. In order to estimate parameters in this expression, some nucleon additions to nuclei are considered and a model is suggested as a guide of the addition process. Coulomb barrier and energy for the addition of a proton to each one of several nuclei are estimated by taking into account both the nuclear and electrostatic components of energy. Studies on the binding energies of several nuclei and on the fusion reaction of two nuclei are carried out.

I. Casinos

2008-05-22

148

Saint Paul Energy Park: the potential for district heating  

SciTech Connect

The results of ANL's study of the energy and economic aspects of using district heating in the St. Paul Energy Park are summarized. The Energy Park is a 6 million ft/sup 2/ residential, commercial office, and light industrial complex to be built in the midway area of St. Paul, Minnesota. Space heating and cooling design loads for the park were calculated assuming that the ASHRAE's 90-75 energy-conserving construction standards would be used in constructing the park's buildings. Based in part on this assumption, ANL estimated the costs and energy use characteristics of six possible energy system options for supplying Energy Park's space heating, space cooling, and domestic hot water heating needs. The results indicate that in today's economy, a central heating and cooling plant with natural gas boilers and electrically driven centrifugal chillers with thermal storage has good potential for energy and economic savings and clearly merits further consideration.

Lee, C.; Kron, R.; Davis, H.

1980-03-01

149

Free energy and direct photon emission at finite chemical potential  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the evolution of free energy and direct photon production from quark-gluon plasma (QGP) considering finite chemical potential. The evolution of QGP formation at the chemical potential is done through finite value of quark mass. The evolution rate is found to be decreasing with chemical potential. We further study the direct photon emission from the fireball of such QGP and found the result to be increasing function of chemical potential in all the channels of photon production. It also shows enhancement of photon emission in comparison to the other theoretical calculation of direct photon productions.

Somorendro Singh, S.

2014-08-01

150

Anomaly Detection for Cybersecurity of the Substations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cybersecurity of the substations in a power system is a major issue as the substations become increasingly dependent on computer and communication networks. This paper is concerned with anomaly detection in the computer network environment of a substation. An anomaly inference algorithm is proposed for early detection of cyber-intrusions at the substations. The potential sce- nario of simultaneous intrusions launched

Chee-Wooi Ten; Junho Hong; Chen-Ching Liu

2011-01-01

151

Energy potential of municipal solid waste is limited  

SciTech Connect

Energy recovery from municipal solid waste has the potential for making only a limited contribution to the nation`s overall energy production. Although the current contribution of waste-derived energy production is less than one-half of 1 percent of the nation`s total energy Supply, DOE has set a goal for energy from waste at 2 percent of the total supply by 2010. The industry`s estimates show a smaller role for waste as an energy source in the future. The energy potential from waste is limited not only by the volume and energy content of the waste itself, but also by the factors affecting the use of waste disposal options, including public opposition and the availability of financing. Energy production from waste combustors and from landfill gases generates pollutants, although these are reduced through current regulations that require the use of emissions control technology and define operational criteria for the facilities. Although DOE estimates that one-third of the energy available from waste is available in the form of energy savings through the recycling of materials, the Department`s research in this area is ongoing.

NONE

1994-09-01

152

Potential for energy conservation in the glass industry  

SciTech Connect

While the glass industry (flat glass, container glass, pressed and blown glass, and insulation fiber glass) has reduced its specific energy use (Btu/ton) by almost 30% since 1972, significant potential for further reduction still remains. State-of-the-art technologies are available which could lead to incremental improvements in glass industry energy productivity; however, these technologies must compete for capital with projects undertaken for other reasons (e.g., capacity expansion, equipment rebuild, labor cost reduction, product quality improvement, or compliance with environmental, health or safety regulations). Narrowing profit margins in the large tonnage segments of the glass industry in recent years and the fact that energy costs represent less than 25% of the value added in glass manufacture have combined to impede the widespread adoption of many state-of-the-art conservation technologies. Savings in energy costs alone have not provided the incentive to justify the capital expenditures required to realize the energy savings. Beyond implementation of state-of-the-art technologies, significant potential energy savings could accrue from advanced technologies which represent a radical departure from current glass making technology. Long-term research and development (R and D) programs, which address the technical and economic barriers associated with advanced, energy-conserving technologies, offer the opportunity to realize this energy-saving potential.

Garrett-Price, B.A.; Fassbender, A.G.; Bruno, G.A.

1986-06-01

153

Optimizing potential energy functions for maximal intrinsic hyperpolarizability  

SciTech Connect

We use numerical optimization to study the properties of (1) the class of one-dimensional potential energy functions and (2) systems of point nuclei in two dimensions that yield the largest intrinsic hyperpolarizabilities, which we find to be within 30% of the fundamental limit. In all cases, we use a one-electron model. It is found that a broad range of optimized potentials, each of very different character, yield the same intrinsic hyperpolarizability ceiling of 0.709. Furthermore, all optimized potential energy functions share common features such as (1) the value of the normalized transition dipole moment to the dominant state, which forces the hyperpolarizability to be dominated by only two excited states and (2) the energy ratio between the two dominant states. All optimized potentials are found to obey the three-level ansatz to within about 1%. Many of these potential energy functions may be implementable in multiple quantum well structures. The subset of potentials with undulations reaffirm that modulation of conjugation may be an approach for making better organic molecules, though there appear to be many others. Additionally, our results suggest that one-dimensional molecules may have larger diagonal intrinsic hyperpolarizability {beta}{sub xxx}{sup int} than higher-dimensional systems.

Zhou Juefei; Szafruga, Urszula B.; Kuzyk, Mark G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164-2814 (United States); Watkins, David S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164-2814 (United States); Department of Mathematics, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164-3113 (United States)

2007-11-15

154

Solar energy in California industry - Applications, characteristics and potential  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of a survey to determine the potential applicability of solar thermal energy to industrial processes in California are presented. It is found that if the heat for all industrial processes at temperatures below 212 F were supplied by solar energy, total state energy consumption could be reduced by 100 trillion Btus (2%), while the use of solar energy in processes between 212 and 350 F could displace 500 trillion Btus. The issues and problems with which solar energy must contend are illustrated by a description of fluid milk processing operations. Solar energy application is found to be technically feasible for processes with thermal energy requirements below 212 F, with design, and degree of technical, economic and management feasibility being site specific. It is recommended that the state provide support for federal and industrial research, development and demonstration programs in order to stimulate acceptance of solar process heat application by industry.

Barbieri, R. H.; Pivirotto, D. S.

1978-01-01

155

Potential energy production from algae on marginal land in China.  

PubMed

This study is aimed to systematically estimate marginal land resources with different grades (total area; land with certain eco-environmental-economic feasibility; centralized reserve land) in China, and evaluate potential energy production from microalgae on marginal lands in the long-, mid- and near-term, based on a model. The annual potential energy production from algae in total marginal land of China (APEMC) was estimated to 4.19 billion standard coal equivalent (tce), far more than total annual energy consumption equivalent in China (TECCE) in 2007. For microalgae with 35% lipid content, the APEMC in the mid-term would be 37.6-65.8% of the TECCE in 2007. The corresponding annual CO(2) emission mitigation by replacement of fossil fuels by algal bioenergy would be 4.27-7.44 billiont. Although Southwest China provides the highest potential algae production in the long-term, Northwest China provides the highest value in the near-term. PMID:21945161

Zhang, Qingtao; Ma, Jiong; Qiu, Guoyu; Li, Li; Geng, Shu; Hasi, E; Li, Cheng; Wang, Guangyi; Li, Xiaoyan

2012-04-01

156

Saturation wind power potential and its implications for wind energy  

PubMed Central

Wind turbines convert kinetic to electrical energy, which returns to the atmosphere as heat to regenerate some potential and kinetic energy. As the number of wind turbines increases over large geographic regions, power extraction first increases linearly, but then converges to a saturation potential not identified previously from physical principles or turbine properties. These saturation potentials are >250 terawatts (TW) at 100 m globally, approximately 80 TW at 100 m over land plus coastal ocean outside Antarctica, and approximately 380 TW at 10 km in the jet streams. Thus, there is no fundamental barrier to obtaining half (approximately 5.75 TW) or several times the world’s all-purpose power from wind in a 2030 clean-energy economy. PMID:23019353

Jacobson, Mark Z.; Archer, Cristina L.

2012-01-01

157

Warm Body Temperature Facilitates Energy Efficient Cortical Action Potentials  

PubMed Central

The energy efficiency of neural signal transmission is important not only as a limiting factor in brain architecture, but it also influences the interpretation of functional brain imaging signals. Action potential generation in mammalian, versus invertebrate, axons is remarkably energy efficient. Here we demonstrate that this increase in energy efficiency is due largely to a warmer body temperature. Increases in temperature result in an exponential increase in energy efficiency for single action potentials by increasing the rate of Na+ channel inactivation, resulting in a marked reduction in overlap of the inward Na+, and outward K+, currents and a shortening of action potential duration. This increase in single spike efficiency is, however, counterbalanced by a temperature-dependent decrease in the amplitude and duration of the spike afterhyperpolarization, resulting in a nonlinear increase in the spike firing rate, particularly at temperatures above approximately 35°C. Interestingly, the total energy cost, as measured by the multiplication of total Na+ entry per spike and average firing rate in response to a constant input, reaches a global minimum between 37–42°C. Our results indicate that increases in temperature result in an unexpected increase in energy efficiency, especially near normal body temperature, thus allowing the brain to utilize an energy efficient neural code. PMID:22511855

Yu, Yuguo; Hill, Adam P.; McCormick, David A.

2012-01-01

158

Exploratory and spatial data analysis (EDA-SDA) for determining regional background levels and anomalies of potentially toxic elements in soils from Catorce-Matehuala, Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The threshold between geochemical background and anomalies can be influenced by the methodology selected for its estimation. Environmental evaluations, particularly those conducted in mineralized areas, must consider this when trying to determinate the natural geochemical status of a study area, quantifying human impacts, or establishing soil restoration values for contaminated sites. Some methods in environmental geochemistry incorporate the premise that anomalies (natural or anthropogenic) and background data are characterized by their own probabilistic distributions. One of these methods uses exploratory data analysis (EDA) on regional geochemical data sets coupled with a geographic information system (GIS) to spatially understand the processes that influence the geochemical landscape in a technique that can be called a spatial data analysis (SDA). This EDA-SDA methodology was used to establish the regional background range from the area of Catorce-Matehuala in north-central Mexico. Probability plots of the data, particularly for those areas affected by human activities, show that the regional geochemical background population is composed of smaller subpopulations associated with factors such as soil type and parent material. This paper demonstrates that the EDA-SDA method offers more certainty in defining thresholds between geochemical background and anomaly than a numeric technique, making it a useful tool for regional geochemical landscape analysis and environmental geochemistry studies.

Chiprés, J.A.; Castro-Larragoitia, J.; Monroy, M.G.

2009-01-01

159

Curvature of the universe and the dark energy potential  

E-print Network

The flatness of an accelerating universe model (characterized by a dark energy scalar field $\\chi$) is mimicked from a curved model that is filled with, apart from the cold dark matter component, a quintessencelike scalar field $Q$. In this process, we characterize the original scalar potential $V(Q)$ and the mimicked scalar potential $V(\\chi)$ associated to the scalar fields $Q$ and $\\chi$, respectively. The parameters of the original model are fixed through the mimicked quantities that we relate to the present astronomical data, such that the equation state parameter $w_{_{\\chi}}$ and the dark energy density parameter $\\Omega_{\\chi}$.

Sergio del Campo

2002-11-20

160

Finding reaction paths using the potential energy as reaction coordinate.  

PubMed

The intrinsic reaction coordinate curve (IRC), normally proposed as a representation of a reaction path, is parametrized as a function of the potential energy rather than the arc-length. This change in the parametrization of the curve implies that the values of the energy of the potential energy surface points, where the IRC curve is located, play the role of reaction coordinate. We use Caratheodory's relation to derive in a rigorous manner the proposed parametrization of the IRC path. Since this Caratheodory's relation is the basis of the theory of calculus of variations, then this fact permits to reformulate the IRC model from this mathematical theory. In this mathematical theory, the character of the variational solution (either maximum or minimum) is given through the Weierstrass E-function. As proposed by Crehuet and Bofill [J. Chem. Phys. 122, 234105 (2005)], we use the minimization of the Weierstrass E-function, as a function of the potential energy, to locate an IRC path between two minima from an arbitrary curve on the potential energy surface, and then join these two minima. We also prove, from the analysis of the Weierstrass E-function, the mathematical bases for the algorithms proposed to locate the IRC path. The proposed algorithm is applied to a set of examples. Finally, the algorithm is used to locate a discontinuous, or broken, IRC path, namely, when the path connects two first order saddle points through a valley-ridged inflection point. PMID:18345872

Aguilar-Mogas, Antoni; Giménez, Xavier; Bofill, Josep Maria

2008-03-14

161

Potential structural material problems in a hydrogen energy system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Potential structural material problems that may be encountered in the three components of a hydrogen energy system - production, transmission/storage, and utilization - have been identified. Hydrogen embrittlement, corrosion, oxidation, and erosion may occur during the production of hydrogen. Hydrogen embrittlement is of major concern during both transmission and utilization of hydrogen. Specific materials research and development programs necessary to support a hydrogen energy system are described. An awareness of probable shortages of strategic materials has been maintained in these suggested programs.

Gray, H. R.; Nelson, H. G.; Johnson, R. E.; Mcpherson, W. B.; Howard, F. S.; Swisher, J. H.

1976-01-01

162

Potential structural material problems in a hydrogen energy system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Potential structural material problems that may be encountered in the three components of a hydrogen energy system - production, transmission/storage, and utilization - were identified. Hydrogen embrittlement, corrosion, oxidation, and erosion may occur during the production of hydrogen. Hydrogen embrittlement is of major concern during both transmission and utilization of hydrogen. Specific materials research and development programs necessary to support a hydrogen energy system are described.

Gray, H. R.; Nelson, H. G.; Johnson, R. E.; Mcpherson, B.; Howard, F. S.; Swisher, J. H.

1975-01-01

163

Potential energy changes and the Boussinesq approximation in stratified fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of the potential energy of an ideal binary fluid mixture that is initially stably stratified is re-examined. The initial stable stratification evolves to a state of uniform density under the influence of molecular diffusion. We derive the appropriate governing equations using either a mass-averaged or a volume-averaged definition of velocity, and develop an energy budget describing the changes

K. Seshadri; J. W. Rottman; K. K. Nomura; D. D. Stretch

2002-01-01

164

Off-Shell NN Potential and Triton Binding Energy  

E-print Network

The NONLOCAL Bonn-B potential predicts 8.0 MeV binding energy for the triton (in a charge-dependent 34-channel Faddeev calculation) which is about 0.4 MeV more than the predictions by LOCAL NN potentials. We pin down origin and size of the nonlocality in the Bonn potential, in analytic and numeric form. The nonlocality is due to the use of the correct off-shell Feynman amplitude of one-boson-exchange avoiding the commonly used on-shell approximations which yield the local potentials. We also illustrate how this off-shell behavior leads to more binding energy. We emphasize that the increased binding energy is not due to on-shell differences (differences in the fit of the NN data or phase shifts). In particular, the Bonn-B potential reproduces accurately the $\\epsilon_1$ mixing parameter up to 350 MeV as determined in the recent Nijmegen multi-energy NN phase-shift analysis. Adding the relativistic effect from the relativistic nucleon propagators in the Faddeev equations, brings the Bonn-B result up to 8.2 MeV triton binding. This leaves a difference of only 0.3 MeV to experiment, which may possibly be explained by refinements in the treatment of relativity and the inclusion of other nonlocalities (e.~g., quark-gluon exchange at short range). Thus, it is conceivable that a realistic NN potential which describes the NN data up to 300 MeV correctly may explain the triton binding energy without recourse to 3-N forces; relativity would play a major role for this result.

Y. Song; R. Machleidt

1994-03-31

165

Ab initio potential energy surfaces for NH,,3 -...NH,,3 -  

E-print Network

Conversely, direct methods such as Stark deceleration14 and buffer gas cooling15 employ a scheme in which pre-space density. At present, direct-cooling methods for NH are limited to temperatures of a few hundredAb initio potential energy surfaces for NH,,3 - ...­NH,,3 - ... with analytical long range Liesbeth

166

Solar Energy Potential of Clusters on Sloped Terrains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid worldwide urbanizations are demanding more land for construction and many cities surrounded by hills have started to expand onto neighbouring slopes. Whilst building on flat terrains is well investigated and documented, there is sill limited published research on the potential of energy conscious building on sloped terrain. The present study is part of a long-term research project which aims

PATRICIA VELOSO DA VEIGA; MOHAMED GADI

167

A highly accurate potential energy curve for the mercury dimer.  

PubMed

The potential energy curve of the electronic ground state of the mercury dimer based on CCSD(T) calculations at the complete basis set (CBS) limit, including corrections for the full triples DeltaT and explicit spin-orbit (SO) interactions at the CCSD(T) level of theory, is presented. In the far long-range part, the potential energy curve is complemented by symmetry-adapted perturbation theory calculations. Potential curves of an analytically simple, extended Lennard-Jones form are obtained from very accurate fits to the CBS/CCSD(T)+SO and CBS/CCSD(T)+SO+DeltaT data. The Hg(2) potential curves yield dissociation energies of D(e)=424/392 cm(-1) and equilibrium distances of r(e)=3.650/3.679 A at the CBS/CCSD(T)+SO and CBS/CCSD(T)+SO+DeltaT levels of theory, respectively. By including perturbative quadruple corrections in our coupled-cluster calculations and corrections from correlating the 4f-core, we arrive at a final dissociation energy of D(e)=405 cm(-1), in excellent agreement with the experimentally estimated value of 407 cm(-1) by Greif and Hensel. In addition, the rotational and vibrational spectroscopic constants as well as the second virial coefficient B(T) in dependence of the temperature T are calculated and validated against available experimental and theoretical data. PMID:20331291

Pahl, Elke; Figgen, Detlev; Thierfelder, Christian; Peterson, Kirk A; Calvo, Florent; Schwerdtfeger, Peter

2010-03-21

168

Biomass energy: the scale of the potential resource  

E-print Network

substantial use of fossil fuels, but it also has the potential to threaten conservation areas, pollute water is large in absolute terms, but it is not enough to replace more than a few percent of current fossil fuel to heighten energy secur- ity in regions without abundant fossil fuel reserves, to increase supplies of liquid

169

A formula for the static potential energy in quantum gravity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We give a general expression for the static potential energy of the gravitational interaction of two massive particles, in terms of an invariant vacuum expectation value of the quantized gravitational field. This formula holds for functional integral formulations of euclidean quantum gravity, regularized to avoid conformal instability. It could be regarded as the analogue of the Wilson loop for gauge

Giovanni Modanese

1993-01-01

170

Use and potential of geothermal energy in Belgium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our basic knowledge of the geothermal potential in Belgium derives from existing geological reconnaissance surveys. As a result of the energy arises in the 1970s and early 1980s, efforts were made by public organisations such as the Belgian National Geological Survey and the Directorate-General for Science, Research and Development of the European Community to acquire further fundamental knowledge in the

Arne Berckmans; Noël Vandenberghe

1998-01-01

171

Unified Technical Concepts. Module 7: Potential and Kinetic Energy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This concept module on potential and kinetic energy is one of thirteen modules that provide a flexible, laboratory-based physics instructional package designed to meet the specialized needs of students in two-year, postsecondary technical schools. Each of the thirteen concept modules discusses a single physics concept and how it is applied to each…

Technical Education Research Center, Waco, TX.

172

Free energy versus internal energy potential for heavy quark systems at finite temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The strength of the J / ? wave function at origin | ? (0) | is calculated by using the finite temperature QCD sum rule with the gluon condensates determined from the lattice QCD. The result is compared with that from a potential model based on the static free or internal energy obtained from lattice calculations. We find that the | ? (0) | decreases with temperature around the deconfinement transition temperature both in the QCD sum rule and in the potential model with the free energy potential. Our result thus suggests that the free energy potential from lattice calculations is appropriate for describing the properties of charmonia at finite temperature.

Song, Taesoo; Lee, Su Houng; Morita, Kenji; Ko, Che Ming

2014-11-01

173

Analytical potential energy functions for some interhalogen diatomic electronic states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The studies of vibrational energies and analytical potential energy functions (APEFs) have been carried out for four interhalogen diatomic electronic states B(3?0 +) and A(3?1) of ClF, A'(3?2u) of Cl2, and the ground state X1? g+ of Br2 by using an improved variational algebraic energy-consistent method (VAECM(4)). The full vibrational energies, the vibrational spectroscopic constants, the force constants fn, and the expansion coefficients an of the ECM (energy-consistent method) potential are tabulated. The VAECM(4) APEF with adjustable variational parameter ? for each electronic state is determined, and is shown to be in excellent agreement with available experimental data and has no any artificial barrier in all the calculation ranges that may appear in some other analytical potentials. Supplementary material in the form of one pdf file available from the Journal web page at http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epjd/e2014-50639-7

Fan, Qunchao; Fan, Zhixiang; Nie, Yanping; Sun, Weiguo; Zhang, Yi; Feng, Hao

2015-01-01

174

N2(+) bound quartet and sextet state potential energy curves  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The N2(+) potential energies have been determined from a complete active space self-consistent field calculation with active 2s and 2p electrons. A (6s 4p 3d 1f) Gaussian basis set was used together with additional higher angular momentum and diffuse functions. The calculated potential energy curves for the states 4Sigma(mu)(+), 4Pi(g), and 6Sigma(g)(+), for which there are no spectroscopic observations, are presented. The corresponding spectroscopic constants have been determined from a polynomial curve fit to the computed energies near the well minima and are shown. The 6Sigma(g)(+) state is found to be significantly bound, with a minimum at 1.72 A.

Partridge, H.; Bauschlicher, C. W., Jr.; Stallcop, J. R.

1985-01-01

175

Microscopic positive-energy potential based on Gogny interaction  

E-print Network

We present nucleon elastic scattering calculation based on Green's function formalism in the Random-Phase Approximation. For the first time, the Gogny effective interaction is used consistently throughout the whole calculation to account for the complex, non-local and energy-dependent optical potential. Effects of intermediate single-particle resonances are included and found to play a crucial role in the account for measured reaction cross section. Double counting of the particle-hole second-order contribution is carefully addressed. The resulting integro-differential Schr\\"odinger equation for the scattering process is solved without localization procedures. The method is applied to neutron and proton elastic scattering from $^{40}$Ca. A successful account for differential and integral cross sections, including analyzing powers, is obtained for incident energies up to 30 MeV. Discrepancies at higher energies are related to much too high volume integral of the real potential for large partial waves. Moreover...

Blanchon, G; Arellano, H F; Mau, N Vinh

2014-01-01

176

Potentials and policy implications of energy and material efficiency improvement  

SciTech Connect

There is a growing awareness of the serious problems associated with the provision of sufficient energy to meet human needs and to fuel economic growth world-wide. This has pointed to the need for energy and material efficiency, which would reduce air, water and thermal pollution, as well as waste production. Increasing energy and material efficiency also have the benefits of increased employment, improved balance of imports and exports, increased security of energy supply, and adopting environmentally advantageous energy supply. A large potential exists for energy savings through energy and material efficiency improvements. Technologies are not now, nor will they be, in the foreseeable future, the limiting factors with regard to continuing energy efficiency improvements. There are serious barriers to energy efficiency improvement, including unwillingness to invest, lack of available and accessible information, economic disincentives and organizational barriers. A wide range of policy instruments, as well as innovative approaches have been tried in some countries in order to achieve the desired energy efficiency approaches. These include: regulation and guidelines; economic instruments and incentives; voluntary agreements and actions, information, education and training; and research, development and demonstration. An area that requires particular attention is that of improved international co-operation to develop policy instruments and technologies to meet the needs of developing countries. Material efficiency has not received the attention that it deserves. Consequently, there is a dearth of data on the qualities and quantities for final consumption, thus, making it difficult to formulate policies. Available data, however, suggest that there is a large potential for improved use of many materials in industrialized countries.

Worrell, Ernst; Levine, Mark; Price, Lynn; Martin, Nathan; van den Broek, Richard; Block, Kornelis

1997-01-01

177

Global Horizontal Irradiance Anomalies in Long Term Series Over India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

India has a high potential for solar energy applications due to its geographic position within the Sun Belt and the large number of cloudless days in many regions of the country. However, certain regions of India, particularly those largely populated, can exhibit large aerosol loading in the atmosphere as a consequence of anthropogenic emissions that could have a negative feedback in the solar resource potential. This effect, named as solar dimming, has already been observed in India, and in some other regions in the world, by some authors using ground data from the last two decades. The recent interest in the promotion of solar energy applications in India highlights the need of extending and improving the knowledge of the solar radiation resources in this country, since most of the long term measurements available correspond to global horizontal radiation (GHI) and most of them are also located big cities or highly populated areas. In addition, accurate knowledge on the aerosol column quantification and on its dynamical behavior with high spatial resolution is particularly important in the case of India, due to their impact on direct normal irradiation. Long term studies of solar irradiation over India can be performed using monthly means of GHI measurements from the Indian Meteorological Department. Ground data are available from 1964 till today through the World Radiation Data Centre that publish these values in the web. This work shows a long term analysis of GHI using anomalies techniques over ten different sites over India. Besides, techniques of linear trends have been applied for to show the evolution over this period. The analysis of anomalies has also found two periods of different behavior. From 1964 till 1988 the anomalies observed were positive and the last 20 years seems to be a period of negative anomalies. The results exhibit a decreasing trend and negative anomalies confirming thus the darkening effect already reported by solar dimming studies. This observation is also consequent with solar dimming effect, apparently increased during the last two decades due to the increase of aerosol loading in the atmosphere. These results remark the important of having accurate knowledge of atmospheric aerosol loading and its dynamics over India with high spatial resolution in the framework of solar energy deployment in the country. It is worth to mention that greater anomalies and a noticeable decreasing trend found in Calcutta could be correlated with the highly population rate, and thus the greater the population density of the area the greater the negative anomalies and the decreasing trend of solar irradiation monthly means.

Cony, Marco; Liria, Juan; Weisenberg, Ralf; Serrano, Enrique

2014-05-01

178

Unified interatomic potential and energy barrier distributions for amorphous oxides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amorphous tantala, titania, and hafnia are important oxides for biomedical implants, optics, and gate insulators. Understanding the effects of oxide doping is crucial to optimize performance in these applications. However, no molecular dynamics potentials have been created to date that combine these and other oxides that would allow computational analyses of doping-dependent structural and mechanical properties. We report a novel set of computationally efficient, two-body potentials modeling van der Waals and covalent interactions that reproduce the structural and elastic properties of both pure and doped amorphous oxides. In addition, we demonstrate that the potential accurately produces energy barrier distributions for pure and doped samples. The distributions can be directly compared to experiment and used to calculate physical quantities such as internal friction to understand how doping affects material properties. Future analyses using these potentials will be of great value to determine optimal doping concentrations and material combinations for myriad material science applications.

Trinastic, J. P.; Hamdan, R.; Wu, Y.; Zhang, L.; Cheng, Hai-Ping

2013-10-01

179

Analysis of spacecraft anomalies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The anomalies from 316 spacecraft covering the entire U.S. space program were analyzed to determine if there were any experimental or technological programs which could be implemented to remove the anomalies from future space activity. Thirty specific categories of anomalies were found to cover nearly 85 percent of all observed anomalies. Thirteen experiments were defined to deal with 17 of these categories; nine additional experiments were identified to deal with other classes of observed and anticipated anomalies. Preliminary analyses indicate that all 22 experimental programs are both technically feasible and economically viable.

Bloomquist, C. E.; Graham, W. C.

1976-01-01

180

U.S. Building-Sector Energy Efficiency Potential  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents an estimate of the potential for energy efficiency improvements in the U.S. building sector by 2030. The analysis uses the Energy Information Administration's AEO 2007 Reference Case as a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario, and applies percentage savings estimates by end use drawn from several prior efficiency potential studies. These prior studies include the U.S. Department of Energy's Scenarios for a Clean Energy Future (CEF) study and a recent study of natural gas savings potential in New York state. For a few end uses for which savings estimates are not readily available, the LBNL study team compiled technical data to estimate savings percentages and costs of conserved energy. The analysis shows that for electricity use in buildings, approximately one-third of the BAU consumption can be saved at a cost of conserved energy of 2.7 cents/kWh (all values in 2007 dollars), while for natural gas approximately the same percentage savings is possible at a cost of between 2.5 and 6.9 $/million Btu. This cost-effective level of savings results in national annual energy bill savings in 2030 of nearly $170 billion. To achieve these savings, the cumulative capital investment needed between 2010 and 2030 is about $440 billion, which translates to a 2-1/2 year simple payback period, or savings over the life of the measures that are nearly 3.5 times larger than the investment required (i.e., a benefit-cost ratio of 3.5).

Brown, Rich; Borgeson, Sam; Koomey, Jon; Biermayer, Peter

2008-09-30

181

Technical Potential of Solar Energy to Address Energy Poverty and Avoid GHG Emissions in Africa  

SciTech Connect

This analysis explores the technical potential of photovoltaics (PV) or concentrating solar power (CSP) to address energy poverty in Africa through a geographic information system (GIS) screening of solar resource data developed by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL).

Cowlin, S. C.; Heimiller, D.; Bilello, D.; Renne, D.

2008-01-01

182

An energy-saving oil drilling rig for recovering potential energy and decreasing motor power  

Microsoft Academic Search

An energy-saving oil drilling rig is researched. A large accumulator is adopted in this rig to store the energy of the motor during the auxiliary time of lifting the drill stem and the potential energy of the drill stem when lowered. The equipped power of this rig decreases remarkably compared with the conventional drilling rig, and this rig can also

Lujun Zhang

2011-01-01

183

Evaluation of global onshore wind energy potential and generation costs.  

PubMed

In this study, we develop an updated global estimate of onshore wind energy potential using reanalysis wind speed data, along with updated wind turbine technology performance, land suitability factors, cost assumptions, and explicit consideration of transmission distance in the calculation of transmission costs. We find that wind has the potential to supply a significant portion of the world energy needs, although this potential varies substantially by region and with assumptions such as on what types of land can be used to site wind farms. Total global economic wind potential under central assumptions, that is, intermediate between optimistic and pessimistic, is estimated to be approximately 119.5 petawatt hours per year (13.6 TW) at less than 9 cents/kWh. A sensitivity analysis of eight key parameters is presented. Wind potential is sensitive to a number of input parameters, particularly wind speed (varying by -70% to +450% at less than 9 cents/kWh), land suitability (by -55% to +25%), turbine density (by -60% to +80%), and cost and financing options (by -20% to +200%), many of which have important policy implications. As a result of sensitivities studied here we suggest that further research intended to inform wind supply curve development focus not purely on physical science, such as better resolved wind maps, but also on these less well-defined factors, such as land-suitability, that will also have an impact on the long-term role of wind power. PMID:22715929

Zhou, Yuyu; Luckow, Patrick; Smith, Steven J; Clarke, Leon

2012-07-17

184

Breakup Threshold Anomaly: New Manifestation of the Dispersion Relation  

E-print Network

It is pointed out that the usual threshold anomaly, found operative in the energy behavior of the imaginary and real parts of the optical potential representing the elastic scattering of tightly bound nuclei at near- and below-barrier energies, suffers a drastic qualitative change in the case of the elastic scattering of weakly bound projectile nuclei. Owing to the strong coupling to the breakup channel even at sub-barrier energies, the imaginary potential strength seems to increase as the energy is lowered down to below the natural, barrier, threshold, accompanied by a decrease in the real potential strength. This feature is consistent with the dispersion relation. It also clearly indicates the effective increase of the barrier height. The systems $^{9}$Be,$^{16}$O + $^{64}$Zn and $^{6,7}$Li + $^{138}$Ba are analyzed to illustrate this new phenomenon.

Chamon, L C; Hussein, M S

2006-01-01

185

NVU dynamics. III. Simulating molecules at constant potential energy.  

PubMed

This is the final paper in a series that introduces geodesic molecular dynamics at constant potential energy. This dynamics is entitled NVU dynamics in analogy to standard energy-conserving Newtonian NVE dynamics. In the first two papers [T. S. Ingebrigtsen, S. Toxvaerd, O. J. Heilmann, T. B. Schrøder, and J. C. Dyre, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 104101 (2011); T. S. Ingebrigtsen, S. Toxvaerd, T. B. Schrøder, and J. C. Dyre, ibid. 135, 104102 (2011)], a numerical algorithm for simulating geodesic motion of atomic systems was developed and tested against standard algorithms. The conclusion was that the NVU algorithm has the same desirable properties as the Verlet algorithm for Newtonian NVE dynamics, i.e., it is time-reversible and symplectic. Additionally, it was concluded that NVU dynamics becomes equivalent to NVE dynamics in the thermodynamic limit. In this paper, the NVU algorithm for atomic systems is extended to be able to simulate the geodesic motion of molecules at constant potential energy. We derive an algorithm for simulating rigid bonds and test this algorithm on three different systems: an asymmetric dumbbell model, Lewis-Wahnström o-terphenyl (OTP) and rigid SPC/E water. The rigid bonds introduce additional constraints beyond that of constant potential energy for atomic systems. The rigid-bond NVU algorithm conserves potential energy, bond lengths, and step length for indefinitely long runs. The quantities probed in simulations give results identical to those of Nosé-Hoover NVT dynamics. Since Nose?-Hoover NVT dynamics is known to give results equivalent to those of NVE dynamics, the latter results show that NVU dynamics becomes equivalent to NVE dynamics in the thermodynamic limit also for molecular systems. PMID:23277922

Ingebrigtsen, Trond S; Dyre, Jeppe C

2012-12-28

186

From Static Potentials to High-Energy Scattering  

E-print Network

We develop a loop-loop correlation model for a unified description of static color dipole potentials, confining QCD strings, and hadronic high-energy reactions with special emphasis on saturation effects manifesting S-matrix unitarity at ultra-high energies. The model combines perturbative gluon exchange with the non-perturbative stochastic vacuum model which describes color confinement via flux-tube formation of color fields. We compute the chromo-field distributions of static color dipoles in various SU(N_c) representations and find Casimir scaling in agreement with recent lattice QCD results. We investigate the energy stored in the confining string and use low-energy theorems to show consistency with the static quark-antiquark potential. We generalize Meggiolaro's analytic continuation from parton-parton to dipole-dipole scattering and obtain a Euclidean approach to high-energy scattering that allows us in principle to calculate S-matrix elements in lattice QCD. In this approach we compute high-energy dipole-dipole scattering with the Euclidean loop-loop correlation model. Together with a universal energy dependence and reaction-specific wave functions, the result forms the basis for a unified description of proton-proton, pion-proton, kaon-proton, photon-proton, and photon-photon reactions in good agreement with experimental data for cross sections, slope parameters, and structure functions. The obtained impact parameter profiles for proton-proton and longitudinal photon-proton reactions and the impact parameter dependent gluon distribution of the proton xG(x,Q^2,b) show saturation at ultra-high energies in accordance with unitarity constraints.

Frank Daniel Steffen

2003-01-13

187

Residential energy efficiency: Progress since 1973 and future potential  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today's 85 million U.S. homes use 100 billion of fuel and electricity (1150/home). If their energy intensity (resource energy/ft2) were still frozen at 1973 levels, they would use 18% more. With well-insulated houses, need for space heat is vanishing. Superinsulated Saskatchewan homes spend annually only 270 for space heat, 150 for water heat, and 400 for appliances, yet they cost only 2000±1000 more than conventional new homes. The concept of Cost of Conserved Energy (CCE) is used to rank conservation technologies for existing and new homes and appliances, and to develop supply curves of conserved energy and a least cost scenario. Calculations are calibrated with the BECA and other data bases. By limiting investments in efficiency to those whose CCE is less than current fuel and electricity prices, the potential residential plus commercial energy use in 2000 AD drops to half of that estimated by DOE, and the number of power plants needed drops by 200. For the whole buildings sector, potential savings by 2000 are 8 Mbod (worth 50B/year), at an average CCE of 10/barrel.

Rosenfeld, Arthur H.

1985-11-01

188

Using peat for energy: Potential environmental restraints. Overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Serious consideration is being given to using peat as an energy resource in Minnesota, North Carolina, Florida, and some New England States. Potential environmental constraints for using peat as an energy resource are associated with disruption of important regional wetland ecosystems. Mining peatlands may significantly modify ground and surface water hydrology, degrade water quality in downstream receiving systems, contribute to the deterioration of local air quality, disrupt or eliminate plant and animal populations having specialized requirements and limited distributions, and destroy unique wetland ecosystems representing important scientific and educational resources. Careful selection of peatlands to be developed and application of appropriate mitigation and monitoring programs will be necessary to offset these impacts.

Reed, R. M.; Voorhees, L. D.; Mulholland, P. J.

189

PBS Learning Media: Investigating Kinetic and Potential Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this 3-5 day multimedia module, students explore concepts of kinetic, potential, and total energy within different types of systems. Watch a video of engineers who recreate a medieval trebuchet (using only 14th century technology) and an animation of energy transformation in a roller coaster. Play with a digital mass-and-spring model and a projectile simulator. Finally, students will use computational reasoning in a hands-on golf ball activity. This lesson was designed to engage multiple sensory paths and styles of learning through video, interactive simulation, animations, lab activities, and informative text.

2013-06-06

190

Quintom dark energy models with nearly flat potentials  

SciTech Connect

We examine quintom dark energy models, produced by the combined consideration of a canonical and a phantom field, with nearly flat potentials and dark energy equation-of-state parameter w{sub DE} close to -1. We find that all such models converge to a single expression for w{sub DE}(z), depending only on the initial field values and their derivatives. We show that this quintom paradigm allows for a description of the transition through -1 in the near cosmological past. In addition, we provide the necessary conditions for the determination of the direction of the -1 crossing.

Setare, M. R.; Saridakis, E. N. [Department of Science, Payame Noor University, Bijar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Physics, University of Athens, GR-15771 Athens (Greece)

2009-02-15

191

Radioactive anomaly discrimination from spectral ratios  

DOEpatents

A method for discriminating a radioactive anomaly from naturally occurring radioactive materials includes detecting a first number of gamma photons having energies in a first range of energy values within a predetermined period of time and detecting a second number of gamma photons having energies in a second range of energy values within the predetermined period of time. The method further includes determining, in a controller, a ratio of the first number of gamma photons having energies in the first range and the second number of gamma photons having energies in the second range, and determining that a radioactive anomaly is present when the ratio exceeds a threshold value.

Maniscalco, James; Sjoden, Glenn; Chapman, Mac Clements

2013-08-20

192

Accurate global potential energy surface for the H + OH+ collision.  

PubMed

We mapped the global three-dimensional potential energy surface (3D-PES) of the water cation at the MRCI/aug-cc-pV5Z including the basis set superposition (BSSE) correction. This PES covers the molecular region and the long ranges close to the H + OH(+)(X(3)?(-)), the O + H2(+)(X(2)?g(+)), and the hydrogen exchange channels. The quality of the PES is checked after comparison to previous experimental and theoretical results of the spectroscopic constants of H2O(+)(X(2)B1) and of the diatomic fragments, the vibronic spectrum, the dissociation energy, and the barrier to linearity for H2O(+)(X(2)B1). Our data nicely approach those measured and computed previously. The long range parts reproduce quite well the diatomic potentials. In whole, a good agreement is found, which validates our 3D-PES. PMID:24832269

Gannouni, M A; Jaidane, N E; Halvick, P; Stoecklin, T; Hochlaf, M

2014-05-14

193

Preliminary evaluation of wind energy potential, Cook Inlet Area, Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Likely candidate regions for windpower utilization were analyzed in blocks of 25 to 100 square miles each. A monitoring system was developed to quantify the energy potential of each area. Screening factors included match between time of occurrance of wind power and load; access to adequate transmission and distribution systems; hazards at the site; environmental considerations of the site; and public acceptance of wind turbines at the site.

Hiester, T. R.

1980-06-01

194

Low Frequency Vibrational Spectra and Potential Energy Surface for Phthalan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The far-infrared and low-frequency Raman spectra of phthalan have been recorded and the ring-puckering and ring-flapping (butterfly) vibrations, which have fundemental frequencies of 31 and 216 cm -1, respectively, have been examined in detail. These two vibrations are strongly coupled, and this interaction results in complex spectra with numerous sum, difference and hot band series. A two-dimensional potential energy surface

Timothy Klots; Sachie Sakurai; Niklas Meinander; Jaan Laane

1996-01-01

195

Topographies and dynamics on multidimensional potential energy surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stochastic master equation is a valuable tool for elucidating potential energy surface (PES) details that govern structural relaxation in clusters, bulk systems, and protein folding. This work develops a comprehensive framework for studying non-equilibrium relaxation dynamics using the master equation. Since our master equations depend upon accurate partition function models for use in Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus (RRK(M) transition state theory, this

Keith Douglas Ball

1998-01-01

196

Electronic structure, molecular bonding and potential energy surfaces  

SciTech Connect

By virtue of the universal validity of the generalized Born-Oppenheimer separation, potential energy surfaces (PES`) represent the central conceptual as well as quantitative entities of chemical physics and provide the basis for the understanding of most physicochemical phenomena in many diverse fields. The research in this group deals with the elucidation of general properties of PES` as well as with the quantitative determination of PES` for concrete systems, in particular pertaining to reactions involving carbon, oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen molecules.

Ruedenberg, K. [Ames Laboratory, IA (United States)

1993-12-01

197

Spectroscopic Properties and Potential Energy Curves of SnF +  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectroscopic properties and potential energy curves of several electronic states of SnF + are computed using the complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) followed by first- and second-order configuration interaction (FOCI, SOCI) methods that include up to 1.6 million configurations. Spin-orbit effects were incorporated using the relativistic configuration interaction (RCI) method. Spectroscopic properties of several excited electronic states of SnF + are reported, none of which is observed at present.

Balasubramanian, K.; Xu, H.

1995-06-01

198

Evaluation of Global Onshore Wind Energy Potential and Generation Costs  

SciTech Connect

In this study, we develop an updated global estimate of onshore wind energy potential using reanalysis wind speed data, along with updated wind turbine technology performance and cost assumptions as well as explicit consideration of transmission distance in the calculation of transmission costs. We find that wind has the potential to supply a significant portion of world energy needs, although this potential varies substantially by region as well as with assumptions such as on what types of land can be used to site wind farms. Total global wind potential under central assumptions is estimated to be approximately 89 petawatt hours per year at less than 9 cents/kWh with substantial regional variations. One limitation of global wind analyses is that the resolution of current global wind speed reanalysis data can result in an underestimate of high wind areas. A sensitivity analysis of eight key parameters is presented. Wind potential is sensitive to a number of input parameters, particularly those related to land suitability and turbine density as well as cost and financing assumptions which have important policy implications. Transmission cost has a relatively small impact on total wind costs, changing the potential at a given cost by 20-30%. As a result of sensitivities studied here we suggest that further research intended to inform wind supply curve development focus not purely on physical science, such as better resolved wind maps, but also on these less well-defined factors, such as land-suitability, that will also have an impact on the long-term role of wind power.

Zhou, Yuyu; Luckow, Patrick; Smith, Steven J.; Clarke, Leon E.

2012-06-20

199

High-Energy Anomaly in the Angle-Resolved Photoemission Spectra of Nd2-xCexCuO4: Evidence for a Matrix Element Effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use polarization-dependent angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) to study the high-energy anomaly (HEA) in the dispersion of Nd2-xCexCuO4, x =0.123. We find that at particular photon energies the anomalous, waterfall-like dispersion gives way to a broad, continuous band. This suggests that the HEA is a matrix element effect: it arises due to a suppression of the intensity of the broadened quasiparticle band in a narrow momentum range. We confirm this interpretation experimentally, by showing that the HEA appears when the matrix element is suppressed deliberately by changing the light polarization. Calculations of the matrix element using atomic wave functions and simulation of the ARPES intensity with one-step model calculations provide further evidence for this scenario. The possibility to detect the full quasiparticle dispersion further allows us to extract the high-energy self-energy function near the center and at the edge of the Brillouin zone.

Rienks, E. D. L.; ?rrälä, M.; Lindroos, M.; Roth, F.; Tabis, W.; Yu, G.; Greven, M.; Fink, J.

2014-09-01

200

High-energy anomaly in the angle-resolved photoemission spectra of Nd(2-x)Ce(x)CuO?: evidence for a matrix element effect.  

PubMed

We use polarization-dependent angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) to study the high-energy anomaly (HEA) in the dispersion of Nd(2-x)Ce(x)CuO?, x=0.123. We find that at particular photon energies the anomalous, waterfall-like dispersion gives way to a broad, continuous band. This suggests that the HEA is a matrix element effect: it arises due to a suppression of the intensity of the broadened quasiparticle band in a narrow momentum range. We confirm this interpretation experimentally, by showing that the HEA appears when the matrix element is suppressed deliberately by changing the light polarization. Calculations of the matrix element using atomic wave functions and simulation of the ARPES intensity with one-step model calculations provide further evidence for this scenario. The possibility to detect the full quasiparticle dispersion further allows us to extract the high-energy self-energy function near the center and at the edge of the Brillouin zone. PMID:25302914

Rienks, E D L; Ärrälä, M; Lindroos, M; Roth, F; Tabis, W; Yu, G; Greven, M; Fink, J

2014-09-26

201

Isotopic dependence of fusion enhancement of various heavy ion systems using energy dependent Woods-Saxon potential  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work, the fusion of symmetric and asymmetric projectile-target combinations are deeply analyzed within the framework of energy dependent Woods-Saxon potential model (EDWSP model) in conjunction with one dimensional Wong formula and the coupled channel code CCFULL. The neutron transfer channels and the inelastic surface excitations of collision partners are dominating mode of couplings and the coupling of relative motion of colliding nuclei to such relevant internal degrees of freedom produces a significant fusion enhancement at sub-barrier energies. It is quite interesting that the effects of dominant intrinsic degrees of freedom such as multi-phonon vibrational states, neutron transfer channels and proton transfer channels can be simulated by introducing the energy dependence in the nucleus-nucleus potential (EDWSP model). In the EDWSP model calculations, a wide range of diffuseness parameter ranging from a = 0.85 fm to a = 0.97 fm, which is much larger than a value (a = 0.65 fm) extracted from the elastic scattering data, is needed to reproduce sub-barrier fusion data. However, such diffuseness anomaly, which might be an artifact of some dynamical effects, has been resolved by trajectory fluctuation dissipation (TFD) model wherein the resulting nucleus-nucleus potential possesses normal diffuseness parameter.

Gautam, Manjeet Singh

2015-01-01

202

WF4 Anomaly Characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A serious anomaly has been found in images from the WF4 CCD in WFPC2. The WF4 CCD bias level appears to have become unstable, resulting in sporadic images with either low or zero bias level. The severity and frequency of the problem is rapidly increasing, and it is possible that WF4 will soon become unusable if no work-around is found. The other three CCDs {PC1, WF2, and WF3} appear to be unaffected and continue to operate properly. The impacts from "low" and "zero" bias are somewhat different, but in both cases the effects are immediately obvious. Images with low bias will tend to have horizontal {x-direction} streaks and stripes with an amplitude of ? about 0.5 DN in WF4. We believe these data should be mostly recoverable with some effort, though at a loss in the detectability of faint targets. "Zero bias" is a much more serious problem and is evidenced by images which are blank in WF4, except for showing occasional cosmic rays, bright targets, and negative pixels from dark subtraction. These images with zero bias are probably unusable for most purposes. Both the CCD gain settings of 7 and 14 are affected. The frequency of the anomaly is rapidly increasing. The first significant instances of low bias appear to have been in late 2004 when a few images were impacted. However, within the last few weeks over half the images are beginning to show the low bias problem. The more serious "zero bias" problem appears to have first occurred in Feb. 2005, but it is also increasing and now impacts 10% to 20% of WFPC2 images. At present there are still many images which appear fine and unaffected, but the situation is quickly evolving. We believe the science impact for most observers will be minimal. Targets are by default placed on either PC1 or WF3 which continue to operate properly. However, observers requiring the full field of view {survey projects, large targets, etc.} will potentially lose one-third of their imaging area. Our understanding of this anomaly is still evolving, and most of the information is tentative. Additional details will be posted on the WFPC2 website as they become available.

Biretta, John

2005-07-01

203

Data Network Equipment Energy Use and Savings Potential in Buildings  

SciTech Connect

Network connectivity has become nearly ubiquitous, and the energy use of the equipment required for this connectivity is growing. Network equipment consists of devices that primarily switch and route Internet Protocol (IP) packets from a source to a destination, and this category specifically excludes edge devices like PCs, servers and other sources and sinks of IP traffic. This paper presents the results of a study of network equipment energy use and includes case studies of networks in a campus, a medium commercial building, and a typical home. The total energy use of network equipment is the product of the stock of equipment in use, the power of each device, and their usage patterns. This information was gathered from market research reports, broadband market penetration studies, field metering, and interviews with network administrators and service providers. We estimate that network equipment in the USA used 18 TWh, or about 1percent of building electricity, in 2008 and that consumption is expected to grow at roughly 6percent per year to 23 TWh in 2012; world usage in 2008 was 51 TWh. This study shows that office building network switches and residential equipment are the two largest categories of energy use consuming 40percent and 30percent of the total respectively. We estimate potential energy savings for different scenarios using forecasts of equipment stock and energy use, and savings estimates range from 20percent to 50percent based on full market penetration of efficient technologies.

Lanzisera, Steven; Nordman, Bruce; Brown, Richard E.

2010-06-09

204

GIS Assessment of Wind Energy Potential in California and Florida  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy efficiency coupled with renewable energy technologies can provide most of the U.S. carbon emissions reductions needed to contain atmospheric carbon concentrations at 450-500 parts per million, considered by many to be a tipping point in mitigating climate change. Among the leaders in the alternative energy sector is wind power, which is now one of the largest sources of new power generation in the U.S. creating jobs and revenue for rural communities while powering our economy with an emissions-free source of energy. In 2006, wind turbines capable of generating more than 2,400 megawatts of electricity were installed in the U.S. and by 2007 this number had risen to 3,000 megawatts. The U.S. generated 31 billion kilowatt-hours of wind power in 2007, which is enough electricity to power the equivalent of nearly 3 million average homes. It is estimated that generating the same amount of electricity would require burning 16 million tons of coal or 50 million barrels of oil. This study examines the wind power potential of sites near populated areas in Florida and California to determine the practicability of installing wind turbines at these locations. A GIS was developed in order to conduct a spatial analysis of these sites based on mean annual wind speed measured in meters per second and wind power density ratings measured in watts per square meter. The analysis indicates that coastal areas of Cocoa Beach, Key West, Hollywood, and West Palm Beach, respectively, possess the greatest potential for wind energy in Florida with mean annual wind speeds of 4.9 m/s and average wind power density ratings of 171 w/m2 peaking at Cocoa Beach followed by wind speeds of 4.64 m/s and wind power ratings of 115 w/m2 at Key West. California wind energy potential is even greater than that of Florida with Fairfield exhibiting mean annual wind speeds of 5.9 m/s and average wind power density ratings of 327 w/m2 followed by the Mojave and Palmdale areas with mean annual wind speeds of 5.0 m/s and 4.6 m/s, respectively. Wind power density ratings for Mojave are 240 w/m2 and 153 w/m2 at Palmdale. These results help confirm that wind energy continues to offer a clean, cost-effective, inexhaustible, and readily available means of helping to curb global warming while answering the increasing demand for electricity.

Snow, R. K.; Snow, M. M.

2008-05-01

205

Theoretical studies of potential energy surfaces and computational methods  

SciTech Connect

This project involves the development, implementation, and application of theoretical methods for the calculation and characterization of potential energy surfaces involving molecular species that occur in hydrocarbon combustion. These potential energy surfaces require an accurate and balanced treatment of reactants, intermediates, and products. This difficult challenge is met with general multiconfiguration self-consistent-field (MCSCF) and multireference single- and double-excitation configuration interaction (MRSDCI) methods. In contrast to the more common single-reference electronic structure methods, this approach is capable of describing accurately molecular systems that are highly distorted away from their equilibrium geometries, including reactant, fragment, and transition-state geometries, and of describing regions of the potential surface that are associated with electronic wave functions of widely varying nature. The MCSCF reference wave functions are designed to be sufficiently flexible to describe qualitatively the changes in the electronic structure over the broad range of geometries of interest. The necessary mixing of ionic, covalent, and Rydberg contributions, along with the appropriate treatment of the different electron-spin components (e.g. closed shell, high-spin open-shell, low-spin open shell, radical, diradical, etc.) of the wave functions, are treated correctly at this level. Further treatment of electron correlation effects is included using large scale multireference CI wave functions, particularly including the single and double excitations relative to the MCSCF reference space. This leads to the most flexible and accurate large-scale MRSDCI wave functions that have been used to date in global PES studies.

Shepard, R. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)

1993-12-01

206

Gravitational potential energy of the earth - A spherical harmonic approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A spherical harmonic equation for the gravitational potential energy of the earth is derived for an arbitrary density distribution by conceptually bringing in mass-elements from infinity and building up the earth shell upon spherical shell. The zeroth degree term in the spherical harmonic expansion agrees with the usual expression for the energy of a radial density distribution. The second degree terms give a maximum nonhydrostatic energy in the crust and mantle of -2.77 x 10 to the 29th ergs, an order of magnitude below McKenzie's (1966) estimate. McKenzie's result stems from mathematical error. Our figure is almost identical with Kaula's (1963) estimate of the minimum shear strain energy in the mantle, a not unexpected result on the basis of the virial theorem. If the earth is assumed to be a homogeneous viscous oblate spheroid relaxing to an equilibrium shape, then a lower limit to the mantle viscosity of 1.3 x 10 to the 20th P is found by assuming that the total geothermal flux is due to viscous dissipation of energy. This number is almost six orders of magnitude below MacDonald's (1966) estimate of the viscosity and removes his objection to convection. If the nonequilibrium figure is dynamically maintained by the earth acting as a heat engine at 1% efficiency, then the viscosity is 10 to the 22nd P, a number preferred by Cathles (1975) and Peltier and Andrew (1976) as the viscosity of the mantle.

Rubincam, D. P.

1979-01-01

207

IRETHERM: Magnetotelluric studies of Irish radiothermal granites and their geothermal energy potential  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The IRETHERM project seeks to develop a strategic understanding of Ireland's deep geothermal energy potential through integrated modeling of new and existing geophysical and geological data. One aspect of IRETHERM's research focuses on Ireland's radiothermal granites, where increased concentrations of radioelements provide elevated heat-production (HP), heat-flow (HF) and subsurface temperatures. An understanding of the contribution of granites to the thermal field of Ireland is of key importance in assessing the geothermal energy potential of this low-enthalpy setting. This study focuses on the Leinster granite, the Galway granite and the buried Kentstown granite. Shallow (<250 m) boreholes were drilled into the exposed Caledonian Leinster and Galway granites as part of an early 1980's EU-funded geothermal project. These studies yielded HP = 2-3 ?Wm-3 and HF = 80 mWm-2 at the Sally Gap borehole in the Northern Units of the Leinster granite. In the Galway granite batholith, the Costelloe-Murvey granite returned HP = 7 ?Wm-3 and HF = 77 mWm-2, measured at the Ros a Mhil borehole. The lower heat-flow encountered at the Ros a Mhil borehole suggests that the associated high heat production does not extend to great depth. The buried Kentstown granite has associated with it a significant negative Bouguer anomaly and was intersected by two mineral exploration boreholes at depths of 660 m and 485 m. Heat production has been measured at 2.4 ?Wm-3 in core samples taken from the weathered top 30m of the granite. The core of this study consists of an ambitious program of magnetotelluric (MT) and audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) data acquisition across the three granite bodies, extending over three fieldwork seasons. MT and AMT data were collected at 59 locations along two profiles over the Leinster granite. Preliminary results show that the northern units of the Leinster granite extend to depths of 2-5 km. Over the Galway granite, MT and AMT data have been collected at a total of 29 sites, with a further 46 sites to be collected in August 2013 (of these 75 sites, 33 will consist of AMT-only data acquisition, with both MT and AMT recorded at the remaining 42). Preliminary results derived from the 29 sites recorded in 2012 show a deep resistor extending to depths of 15-20 km beneath the central block of the batholith, with the resistive body extending to depths of 3.5-7.0 km west of the Shannawona fault. MT and AMT data acquired along a profile at 22 locations over the Kentstown granite suggests that the top of this buried granite is at a depth of 380m beneath the center of the gravity anomaly. The MT and AMT data will be integrated with gravity data and seismic refraction data (in the case of the Leinster granite) to identify deeply penetrating faults, which may provide pathways for hydrothermal fluids, and to produce a robust estimation of the volumetric extent of the granites. Geochemical data will also be incorporated to ultimately constrain the local and regional thermal contribution and geothermal energy potential of the granites.

Farrell, T. F.; Jones, A. G.; Muller, M. R.; Feely, M.

2013-12-01

208

Desalination of water by reverse osmosis using gravitational potential energy and wind energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes an alternative configuration to conventional reverse osmosis (RO) desalination systems by incorporating the use of gravitational potential energy. The proposal suggests a model that can be viewed as the energy station of a RO desalination plant. Conventionally, RO plants use a high-pressure pump, powered by electricity or fossil fuel. The function of the pump is to send

E. A. F. A. Fadigas; J. R. Dias

2009-01-01

209

Solar energy and urban morphology: Scenarios for increasing the renewable energy potential of neighbourhoods in London  

E-print Network

the consumption and the generation of resources need to be assessed. In terms of urban environmental sustainability, the potential to generate renewable energy within the city boundaries is a research topic of growing interest, being solar energy one of the main...

Sarralde, Juan José; Quinn, David James; Wiesmann, Daniel; Steemers, Koen

2014-07-07

210

Microscopic positive-energy potential based on Gogny interaction  

E-print Network

We present nucleon elastic scattering calculation based on Green's function formalism in the Random-Phase Approximation. For the first time, the Gogny effective interaction is used consistently throughout the whole calculation to account for the complex, non-local and energy-dependent optical potential. Effects of intermediate single-particle resonances are included and found to play a crucial role in the account for measured reaction cross section. Double counting of the particle-hole second-order contribution is carefully addressed. The resulting integro-differential Schr\\"odinger equation for the scattering process is solved without localization procedures. The method is applied to neutron and proton elastic scattering from $^{40}$Ca. A successful account for differential and integral cross sections, including analyzing powers, is obtained for incident energies up to 30 MeV. Discrepancies at higher energies are related to much too high volume integral of the real potential for large partial waves. Moreover, this works opens the way for future effective interactions suitable simultaneously for both nuclear structure and reaction.

G. Blanchon; M. Dupuis; H. F. Arellano; N. Vinh Mau

2014-10-28

211

Very High Energy Blazars and the Potential for Cosmological Insight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gamma-ray blazars are among the most extreme astrophysical sources, harboring phenomena far more energetic than those attainable by terrestrial accelerators. These galaxies are understood to be active galactic nuclei that are powered by accretion onto supermassive black holes and have relativistic jets pointed along the Earth line of sight. The emission displayed is variable at all wavelengths and timescales probed thus far, necessitating contemporaneous broadband observations to disentangle the details of the emission processes within the relativistic jets. The very high energy (VHE; E> 100 GeV) photons emitted by these sources are detectable with ground based imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes such as VERITAS. As these photons propagate extragalactic distances, the interaction with the diffuse starlight that pervades the entire Universe results in a distance and energy dependent gamma-ray opacity, offering a unique method for probing photon densities on cosmological scales. These galaxies have also been postulated to be potential sources of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays, a theory which can be examined through the deep gamma-ray observations of sources which probe moderate gamma-ray opacities. Within this talk, I will highlight ongoing research regarding the broadband emission from VERITAS-observed VHE blazars, as well as the potential to use them for cosmological insight.

Furniss, Amy

2014-08-01

212

Microscopic positive-energy potential based on the Gogny interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a nucleon elastic scattering calculation based on Green's function formalism in the random-phase approximation. For the first time, the finite-range Gogny effective interaction is used consistently throughout the whole calculation to account for the complex, nonlocal, and energy-dependent optical potential. Effects of intermediate single-particle resonances are included and found to play a crucial role in the account for measured reaction cross sections. Double counting of the particle-hole second-order contribution is carefully addressed. The resulting integro-differential Schrödinger equation for the scattering process is solved without localization procedures. The method is applied to neutron and proton elastic scattering from 40Ca. A successful account for differential and integral cross sections, including analyzing powers, is obtained for incident energies up to 30 MeV. Discrepancies at higher energies are related to a much-too-high volume integral of the real potential for large partial waves. This work opens the way to simultaneously assess effective interactions suitable for both nuclear structure and reactions.

Blanchon, G.; Dupuis, M.; Arellano, H. F.; Vinh Mau, N.

2015-01-01

213

Intermolecular potential energy surface and thermophysical properties of ethylene oxide.  

PubMed

A six-dimensional potential energy hypersurface (PES) for two interacting rigid ethylene oxide (C2H4O) molecules was determined from high-level quantum-chemical ab initio calculations. The counterpoise-corrected supermolecular approach at the MP2 and CCSD(T) levels of theory was utilized to determine interaction energies for 10178 configurations of two molecules. An analytical site-site potential function with 19 sites per ethylene oxide molecule was fitted to the interaction energies and fine tuned to agree with data for the second acoustic virial coefficient from accurate speed of sound measurements. The PES was validated by computing the second virial coefficient, shear viscosity, and thermal conductivity. The values of these properties are substantiated by the best experimental data as they tend to fall within the uncertainty intervals and also obey the experimental temperature functions, except for viscosity, where experimental data are insufficient. Due to the lack of reliable data, especially for the transport properties, our calculated values are currently the most accurate estimates for these properties of ethylene oxide. PMID:25362314

Crusius, Johann-Philipp; Hellmann, Robert; Hassel, Egon; Bich, Eckard

2014-10-28

214

Potential for energy conservation in the cement industry  

SciTech Connect

This report assesses the potential for energy conservation in the cement industry. Energy consumption per ton of cement decreased 20% between 1972 and 1982. During this same period, the cement industry became heavily dependent on coal and coke as its primary fuel source. Although the energy consumed per ton of cement has declined markedly in the past ten years, the industry still uses more than three and a half times the fuel that is theoretically required to produce a ton of clinker. Improving kiln thermal efficiency offers the greatest opportunity for saving fuel. Improving the efficiency of finish grinding offers the greatest potential for reducing electricity use. Technologies are currently available to the cement industry to reduce its average fuel consumption per ton by product by as much as 40% and its electricity consumption per ton by about 10%. The major impediment to adopting these technologies is the cement industry's lack of capital as a result of low or no profits in recent years.

Garrett-Price, B.A.

1985-02-01

215

Tunnel catch from potential wells and energy detection  

E-print Network

We consider the one-dimensional Schr\\"{o}dinger operator in the semiclassical regime assuming that its double-well potential is the sum of a finite "physically given" well and a square shape probing well whose width or depth can be varied (tuned). We study the dynamics of initial state localized in the physical well. It is shown that if the probing well is not too close to the physical one and if its parameters are specially tuned, then the {\\it tunnel catch effect} appears, i.e. the initial state starts tunneling oscillations between the physical and probing wells. The asymptotic formula for the probability of finding the state in the probing well is obtained. We show that the observation of the tunnel catch effect can be used to determine the energy level of the initial state, and we obtain the corresponding asymptotic formula for the initial state energy. We also calculate the leading term of the tunneling splitting of energy levels in this double well potential.

M. V. Karasev; E. V. Vybornyi

2014-11-17

216

Intermolecular potential energy surface and thermophysical properties of ethylene oxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A six-dimensional potential energy hypersurface (PES) for two interacting rigid ethylene oxide (C2H4O) molecules was determined from high-level quantum-chemical ab initio calculations. The counterpoise-corrected supermolecular approach at the MP2 and CCSD(T) levels of theory was utilized to determine interaction energies for 10178 configurations of two molecules. An analytical site-site potential function with 19 sites per ethylene oxide molecule was fitted to the interaction energies and fine tuned to agree with data for the second acoustic virial coefficient from accurate speed of sound measurements. The PES was validated by computing the second virial coefficient, shear viscosity, and thermal conductivity. The values of these properties are substantiated by the best experimental data as they tend to fall within the uncertainty intervals and also obey the experimental temperature functions, except for viscosity, where experimental data are insufficient. Due to the lack of reliable data, especially for the transport properties, our calculated values are currently the most accurate estimates for these properties of ethylene oxide.

Crusius, Johann-Philipp; Hellmann, Robert; Hassel, Egon; Bich, Eckard

2014-10-01

217

Assessment of market potential of compressed air energy storage systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report describes an assessment of potential roles that EPRI might take to facilitate the commercial acceptance of compressed air energy storage (CAES) systems. The assessment is based on (1) detailed analyses of the market potential of utility storage technologies, (2) interviews with representatives of key participants in the CAES market, and (3) a decision analysis synthesizing much of the information about market and technology status. The results indicate a large potential market for CAES systems if the overall business environment for utilities improves. In addition, it appears that EPRI can have a valuable incremental impact in ensuring that utilities realize the potential of CAES by (1) continuing an aggressive information dissemination and technology transfer program, (2) working to ensure the success of the first United States CAES installation at Soyland Power Cooperative, (3) developing planning methods to allow utilities to evaluate CAES and other storage options more effectively and more realistically, and (4) supporting R and D to resolve residual uncertainties in first-generation CAES cost and performance characteristics. Previously announced in STAR as N83-25121

Boyd, D. W.; Buckley, O. E.; Clark, C. E., Jr.

1983-12-01

218

Global Expression for Representing Diatomic Potential-Energy Curves  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A three-parameter expression that gives an accurate fit to diatomic potential curves over the entire range of separation for charge transfers between 0 and 1. It is based on a generalization of the universal binding-energy relation of Smith et al. (1989) with a modification that describes the crossover from a partially ionic state to the neutral state at large separations. The expression is tested by comparison with first-principles calculations of the potential curves ranging from covalently bonded to ionically bonded. The expression is also used to calculate spectroscopic constants form a curve fit to the first-principles curves. A comparison is made with experimental values of the spectroscopic constants.

Ferrante, John; Schlosser, Herbert; Smith, John R.

1991-01-01

219

Potential energy surfaces and reaction dynamics of polyatomic molecules  

SciTech Connect

A simple empirical valence bond (EVB) model approach is suggested for constructing global potential energy surfaces for reactions of polyatomic molecular systems. This approach produces smooth and continuous potential surfaces which can be directly utilized in a dynamical study. Two types of reactions are of special interest, the unimolecular dissociation and the unimolecular isomerization. For the first type, the molecular dissociation dynamics of formaldehyde on the ground electronic surface is investigated through classical trajectory calculations on EVB surfaces. The product state distributions and vector correlations obtained from this study suggest very similar behaviors seen in the experiments. The intramolecular hydrogen atom transfer in the formic acid dimer is an example of the isomerization reaction. High level ab initio quantum chemistry calculations are performed to obtain optimized equilibrium and transition state dimer geometries and also the harmonic frequencies.

Chang, Yan-Tyng.

1991-11-01

220

Assessing geothermal energy potential in upstate New York. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The potential of geothermal energy for future electric power generation in New York State is evaluated using estimates of temperatures of geothermal reservoir rocks. Bottom hole temperatures from over 2000 oil and gas wells in the region were integrated into subsurface maps of the temperatures for specific geothermal reservoirs. The Theresa/Potsdam formation provides the best potential for extraction of high volumes of geothermal fluids. The evaluation of the Theresa/Potsdam geothermal reservoir in upstate New York suggests that an area 30 miles east of Elmira, New York has the highest temperatures in the reservoir rock. The Theresa/Potsdam reservoir rock should have temperatures about 136 {degrees}C and may have as much as 450 feet of porosity in excess of 8%. Estimates of the volumes of geothermal fluids that can be extracted are provided and environmental considerations for production from a geothermal well is discussed.

Hodge, D.S. [SUNY, Buffalo, NY (United States)

1996-08-01

221

Potential energy curves and collision integrals of air components  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Collision integrals are fundamental quantities required to determine the transport properties of the environment surrounding aerospace vehicles in the upper atmosphere. These collision integrals can be determined as a function of temperature from the potential energy curves describing the atomic and molecular collisions. Ab initio calculations provide a practical method of computing the required interaction potentials. In this work we will discuss recent advances with an emphasis on the accuracy that is obtainable. Results for interactions, e.g. N+N, N+O, O+O, and H+N2 will be reviewed and their application to the determination of transport properties, such as diffusion and viscosity coefficients, will be examined.

Partridge, Harry; Stallcop, James R.; Levin, Eugene; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

1995-01-01

222

Modeling diatomic potential energy curves through the generalized exponential function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work, an alternative family of analytical potential energy curves (PECs) has been developed for diatomic systems. These kinds of functions, that are based on q-exponential, are used here to generalize the usual Bond Order (BO) and Rydberg analytical PECs of diatomic molecular systems. The diatomic systems H2+ and Li 2 have been examined by means of this alternative approach. In particular, the computed vibrational spectra and spectroscopic constants were found to be in good agreement with the available experimental data.

Esteves, C. S.; de Oliveira, H. C. B.; Ribeiro, L.; Gargano, R.; Mundim, K. C.

2006-08-01

223

Potential for energy savings in old and new auto engines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper disucsses the potential for energy savings in the transportation sector through the use of both improved and entirely new automotive engines. Although spark-ignition and diesel internal combustion engines will remain the dominant choices for passenger-car use throughout the rest of this century, improved versions of these engines (lean-burn, low-friction spark-ignition and adiabatic, low-friction diesel engines) could, in the long term, provide a 20-30 percent improvement in fuel economy over what is currently available. The use of new materials, and modifications to both vehicle structure and vehicle transmissions may yield further improvements. Over a longer time frame, the introduction of the high-temperature gas-turbine engine and the use of new synfuels may provide further opportunities for energy conservation.

Reitz, John R.

1985-11-01

224

Stabilized quasi-Newton optimization of noisy potential energy surfaces.  

PubMed

Optimizations of atomic positions belong to the most commonly performed tasks in electronic structure calculations. Many simulations like global minimum searches or characterizations of chemical reactions require performing hundreds or thousands of minimizations or saddle computations. To automatize these tasks, optimization algorithms must not only be efficient but also very reliable. Unfortunately, computational noise in forces and energies is inherent to electronic structure codes. This computational noise poses a severe problem to the stability of efficient optimization methods like the limited-memory Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno algorithm. We here present a technique that allows obtaining significant curvature information of noisy potential energy surfaces. We use this technique to construct both, a stabilized quasi-Newton minimization method and a stabilized quasi-Newton saddle finding approach. We demonstrate with the help of benchmarks that both the minimizer and the saddle finding approach are superior to comparable existing methods. PMID:25612694

Schaefer, Bastian; Alireza Ghasemi, S; Roy, Shantanu; Goedecker, Stefan

2015-01-21

225

Stabilized quasi-Newton optimization of noisy potential energy surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optimizations of atomic positions belong to the most commonly performed tasks in electronic structure calculations. Many simulations like global minimum searches or characterizations of chemical reactions require performing hundreds or thousands of minimizations or saddle computations. To automatize these tasks, optimization algorithms must not only be efficient but also very reliable. Unfortunately, computational noise in forces and energies is inherent to electronic structure codes. This computational noise poses a severe problem to the stability of efficient optimization methods like the limited-memory Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno algorithm. We here present a technique that allows obtaining significant curvature information of noisy potential energy surfaces. We use this technique to construct both, a stabilized quasi-Newton minimization method and a stabilized quasi-Newton saddle finding approach. We demonstrate with the help of benchmarks that both the minimizer and the saddle finding approach are superior to comparable existing methods.

Schaefer, Bastian; Alireza Ghasemi, S.; Roy, Shantanu; Goedecker, Stefan

2015-01-01

226

Domestic refrigeration appliances in Poland: Potential for improving energy efficiency  

SciTech Connect

This report is based on information collected from the main Polish manufacturer of refrigeration appliances. We describe their production facilities, and show that the energy consumption of their models for domestic sale is substantially higher than the average for similar models made in W. Europe. Lack of data and uncertainty about future production costs in Poland limits our evaluation of the cost-effective potential to increase energy efficiency, but it appears likely that considerable improvement would be economic from a societal perspective. Many design options are likely to have a simple payback of less than five years. We found that the production facilities are in need of substantial modernization in order to produce higher quality and more efficient appliances. We discuss policy options that could help to build a market for more efficient appliances in Poland and thereby encourage investment to produce such equipment.

Meyers, S.; Schipper, L. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Lebot, B. [Agence de l`Environnement and de la Maitrise de l`Energie, 6 - Sophia Antipolis (France)

1993-08-01

227

A Search for Anomalies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1965 I have been culling systematically from the literature of science those observations that challenge reigning paradigms. The tangible result of the thousands of hours spent in libraries has been a series of Sourcebooks, Handbooks, and Catalogs that, at present, describe and evaluate roughly 2,000 anomalies— about one-half of my total collection. Some of these anomalies are truly profound

WILLIAM R. CORLISS

228

Generalized curvature and Ricci tensors for a higher spin potential and the trace anomaly in external higher spin fields in AdS 4 space  

Microsoft Academic Search

The curvature of a higher spin potential as constructed in a previous article of the same authors [R. Manvelyan, W. Rühl, The generalized curvature and Christoffel symbols for a higher spin potential in AdSd+1 space, arXiv: 0705.3528 [hep-th

Ruben Manvelyan; Werner Rühl

2008-01-01

229

Steam systems in industry: Energy use and energy efficiency improvement potentials  

SciTech Connect

Steam systems are a part of almost every major industrial process today. Thirty-seven percent of the fossil fuel burned in US industry is burned to produce steam. In this paper we will establish baseline energy consumption for steam systems. Based on a detailed analysis of boiler energy use we estimate current energy use in boilers in U.S. industry at 6.1 Quads (6.4 EJ), emitting almost 66 MtC in CO{sub 2} emissions. We will discuss fuels used and boiler size distribution. We also describe potential savings measures, and estimate the economic energy savings potential in U.S. industry (i.e. having payback period of 3 years or less). We estimate the nationwide economic potential, based on the evaluation of 16 individual measures in steam generation and distribution. The analysis excludes the efficient use of steam and increased heat recovery. Based on the analysis we estimate the economic potential at 18-20% of total boiler energy use, resulting in energy savings approximately 1120-1190 TBtu ( 1180-1260 PJ). This results in a reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions equivalent to 12-13 MtC.

Einstein, Dan; Worrell, Ernst; Khrushch, Marta

2001-07-22

230

Structures and potential energy surface of faujasitic zeolite/water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structures and the potential energy surface of the system faujasitic zeolite/water have been investigated by Hartree-Fock, second-order Moller-Plesset (MP2) and by the density functional theory (DFT) calculations, using five basis sets 6-31G(d), 6-31G(d,p), 6-311G(d), 6-311G(d,p) and 6-311 + G(d,p). The DFT calculations employ the Becke-3-Lee-Yang-Parr (B3LYP) and Becke-Lee-Yang-Parr (BLYP) density functional, and, for comparisons, the local density approximation with the Vosko-Wilk-Nusair (VWN) functional. The B3LYP approach is found to yield better agreement with the corresponding experimental results than the VWM and BLYP functionals. The B3LYP amd MP2 levels of theory yield basically the same results. Results of B3LYP with a 6-311 + G(3df,2p) basis set are also very close to those of the very accurate coupled pair functional (CPF) method. Also proton affinities (PA) computed by B3LYP reproduce the corresponding CPF and G1 results very well. The predicted PA of faujasitic catalyst is estimated to be 294 ± 3 kcal/mol, which is in the range of the experimentally determined value of 291-300 kcal/mol. The interaction of faujasite catalyst with water has revealed that the structures can be stabilized by the formation of two hydrogen bonds with water molecules adsorbed at the bridging hydroxyl groups which can act either as a proton acceptor or as a proton donor. Comparison of the faujasite complexes with silanol and hydrogen halides has demonstrated that the faujasitic zeolite is a strong acid. The potential energy surfaces of faujasite zeolite/water has been investigated and analytical interaction potentials have been derived.

Limtrakul, Jumras; Treesukol, Piti; Ebner, Christoph; Sansone, Roland; Probst, Michael

1997-02-01

231

Potential energy surface and rovibrational energy levels of the H2-CS van der Waals complex.  

PubMed

Owing to its large dipole, astrophysicists use carbon monosulfide (CS) as a tracer of molecular gas in the interstellar medium, often in regions where H(2) is the most abundant collider. Predictions of the rovibrational energy levels of the weakly bound complex CS-H(2) (not yet observed) and also of rate coefficients for rotational transitions of CS in collision with H(2) should help to interpret the observed spectra. This paper deals with the first goal, i.e., the calculation of the rovibrational energy levels. A new four-dimensional intermolecular potential energy surface for the H(2)-CS complex is presented. Ab initio potential energy calculations were carried out at the coupled-cluster level with single and double excitations and a perturbative treatment of triple excitations, using a quadruple-zeta basis set and midbond functions. The potential energy surface was obtained by an analytic fit of the ab initio data. The equilibrium structure of the H(2)-CS complex is found to be linear with the carbon pointing toward H(2) at the intermolecular separation of 8.6 a(o). The corresponding well depth is -173 cm(-1). The potential was used to calculate the rovibrational energy levels of the para-H(2)-CS and ortho-H(2)-CS complexes. The present work provides the first theoretical predictions of these levels. The calculated dissociation energies are found to be 35.9 cm(-1) and 49.9 cm(-1), respectively, for the para and ortho complexes. The second virial coefficient for the H(2)-CS pair has also been calculated for a large range of temperature. These results could be used to assign future experimental spectra and to check the accuracy of the potential energy surface. PMID:23267480

Denis-Alpizar, Otoniel; Stoecklin, Thierry; Halvick, Philippe; Dubernet, Marie-Lise; Marinakis, Sarantos

2012-12-21

232

Potential energy surface and rovibrational energy levels of the H2-CS van der Waals complex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Owing to its large dipole, astrophysicists use carbon monosulfide (CS) as a tracer of molecular gas in the interstellar medium, often in regions where H2 is the most abundant collider. Predictions of the rovibrational energy levels of the weakly bound complex CS-H2 (not yet observed) and also of rate coefficients for rotational transitions of CS in collision with H2 should help to interpret the observed spectra. This paper deals with the first goal, i.e., the calculation of the rovibrational energy levels. A new four-dimensional intermolecular potential energy surface for the H2-CS complex is presented. Ab initio potential energy calculations were carried out at the coupled-cluster level with single and double excitations and a perturbative treatment of triple excitations, using a quadruple-zeta basis set and midbond functions. The potential energy surface was obtained by an analytic fit of the ab initio data. The equilibrium structure of the H2-CS complex is found to be linear with the carbon pointing toward H2 at the intermolecular separation of 8.6 ao. The corresponding well depth is -173 cm-1. The potential was used to calculate the rovibrational energy levels of the para-H2-CS and ortho-H2-CS complexes. The present work provides the first theoretical predictions of these levels. The calculated dissociation energies are found to be 35.9 cm-1 and 49.9 cm-1, respectively, for the para and ortho complexes. The second virial coefficient for the H2-CS pair has also been calculated for a large range of temperature. These results could be used to assign future experimental spectra and to check the accuracy of the potential energy surface.

Denis-Alpizar, Otoniel; Stoecklin, Thierry; Halvick, Philippe; Dubernet, Marie-Lise; Marinakis, Sarantos

2012-12-01

233

Investigation of wind characteristics and wind energy potential in Kirklareli, Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Utilization of wind energy as an energy source has been growing rapidly in the whole world due to environmental pollution, consumption of the limited fossil fuels and global warming. Although Turkey has fairly high wind energy potential, exploitation of the wind energy is still in the crawling level. In the current study, wind characteristics and wind energy potential of K?rklareli

Murat Gökçek; Ahmet Bayülken; ?ükrü Bekdemir

2007-01-01

234

Cadmium tolerance and accumulation in eight potential energy crops.  

PubMed

The production of energy crops that can be used for biodiesel production is a sustainable approach for the removal of metal pollutants by phytoremediation. This study investigated the cadmium (Cd) accumulation and tolerance of eight potential energy crops. After growth for 28 days in substrates containing 0, 50, 100 or 200 mg Cd x kg(-1), seedlings were evaluated for growth parameters, chlorophyll content, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and Cd accumulation. All eight crops were moderately tolerant to Cd toxicity, with four [i.e., hemp (Cannabis sativa), flax (Linum usitatissimum), castor (Ricinus communis) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea)] being more tolerant than the others. Three of these crops (hemp, flax and peanut) had higher Cd accumulation capacities. The roots of peanut and hemp had high bioconcentration factors (BCF>1000), while flax shoots accumulated a higher concentration of Cd (>100 mg/kg). These results demonstrate that it is possible to grow energy crops on Cd-contaminated soil. Hemp, flax and peanut are excellent candidates for phytoremediation. PMID:19393309

Shi, Gangrong; Cai, Qingsheng

2009-01-01

235

Gravitational potential energy of the earth: A spherical harmonic approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A spherical harmonic equation for the gravitational potential energy of the earth is derived for an arbitrary density distribution by conceptually bringing in mass-elements from infinity and building up the earth shell upon spherical shell. The zeroth degree term in the spherical harmonic equation agrees with the usual expression for the energy of a radial density distribution. The second degree terms give a maximum nonhydrostatic energy in the mantle and crust of -2.77 x 10 to the twenty-ninth power ergs, an order of magnitude. If the earth is assumed to be a homogeneous viscous oblate spheroid relaxing to an equilibrium shape, then a lower limit to the mantle viscosity of 1.3 x 10 to the twentieth power poises is found by assuming the total geothermal flux is due to viscous dissipation. If the nonequilibrium figure is dynamically maintained by the earth acting as a heat engine at one per cent efficiency, then the viscosity is ten to the twenty second power poises, a number preferred by some as the viscosity of the mantle.

Rubincam, D. P.

1977-01-01

236

ANNALS OF PHYSICS 113, 294-303 (1978) Trace Anomaly of the Stress-Energy Tensor for Massless Vector  

E-print Network

techniques applied to the Hadamard elementary solution. We correct an error, pointed out by Wald sponsored by the Energy Research and Development Administration, Grant No. E(l l-1)-2220. +Present address: The Harvard Medical School, Vanderbilt Hall, Avenue Louis Pasteur, Boston, Mass. 02115. 0003

Lieberman, Judy

237

Gravitational Anomaly and Transport  

E-print Network

Quantum anomalies give rise to new transport phenomena. In particular a magnetic field can induce an anomalous current via the chiral magnetic effect and a vortex in the relativistic fluid can also induce a current via the chiral vortical effect. The related transport coefficients can be calculated via Kubo formulas. We evaluate the Kubo formula for the anomalous vortical conductivity at weak coupling and show that it receives contributions proportional to the gravitational anomaly coefficient. The gravitational anomaly gives rise to an anomalous vortical effect even for an uncharged fluid.

Karl Landsteiner; Eugenio Megias; Francisco Pena-Benitez

2011-03-25

238

Gravitational Anomaly and Transport  

E-print Network

Quantum anomalies give rise to new transport phenomena. In particular a magnetic field can induce an anomalous current via the chiral magnetic effect and a vortex in the relativistic fluid can also induce a current via the chiral vortical effect. The related transport coefficients can be calculated via Kubo formulas. We evaluate the Kubo formula for the anomalous vortical conductivity at weak coupling and show that it receives contributions proportional to the gravitational anomaly coefficient. The gravitational anomaly gives rise to an anomalous vortical effect even for an uncharged fluid.

Landsteiner, Karl; Pena-Benitez, Francisco

2011-01-01

239

Vascular anomalies in children.  

PubMed

The process of understanding and treating children with vascular anomalies has been hampered by confusing and occasionally incorrect terminology. The most important step when evaluating a maxillofacial vascular anomaly is to determine whether it is a tumor or a malformation. In most cases, this diagnosis can be made by history and physical examination. Selective radiographic imaging is helpful in differentiating vascular malformations or the extent of bony involvement and/or destruction. Children with vascular anomalies should be managed by an interdisciplinary team of trained providers who are committed to following, treating, and studying patients with these complex problems. PMID:22771277

Abramowicz, Shelly; Padwa, Bonnie L

2012-08-01

240

Molecular spinless energies of the modified Rosen-Morse potential energy model in higher spatial dimensions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We solve the Klein-Gordon equation with the modified Rosen-Morse potential energy model in D spatial dimensions. The bound state energy equation has been obtained by using the supersymmetric WKB approximation approach. We find that the inter-dimensional degeneracy symmetry exists for the molecular system represented by the modified Rosen-Morse potential. For fixed vibrational and rotational quantum numbers, the relativistic energies for the 61?u state of the 7Li2 molecule and the X3? state of the SiC radical increase as D increases. We observe that the behavior of the relativistic vibrational energies in higher dimensions remains similar to that of the three-dimensional system.

Jia, Chun-Sheng; Dai, Jian-Wei; Zhang, Lie-Hui; Liu, Jian-Yi; Zhang, Guang-Dong

2015-01-01

241

Energy conservation potential of the US Department of Energy interim commercial building standards  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a project conducted to demonstrate the whole-building energy conservation potential achievable from full implementation of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Interim Energy Conservation Performance Standards for New Commercial and Multi-Family High Rise Residential Buildings. DOE`s development and implementation of energy performance standards for commercial buildings were established by the Energy Conservation Standards for New Buildings Act of 1976, as amended, Public Law (PL) 94-385, 42 USC 6831 et seq., hereinafter referred to as the Act. In accordance with the Act, DOE was to establish performance standards for both federal and private sector buildings ``to achieve the maximum practicable improvements in energy efficiency and use of non-depletable resources for all new buildings``.

Hadley, D.L.; Halverson, M.A.

1993-12-01

242

Relation between quark-antiquark potential and quark-antiquark free energy in hadronic matter  

E-print Network

We study the relation between the quark-antiquark potential and the quark-antiquark free energy in hadronic matter. While a temperature is over the critical temperature, the potential of a heavy quark and a heavy antiquark almost equals the free energy, otherwise the quark-antiquark potential is substantially larger than the quark-antiquark free energy. While a temperature is below the critical temperature, the quark-antiquark free energy can be taken as the quark-antiquark potential.

Zhen-Yu Shen; Xiao-Ming Xu

2014-06-19

243

Potential alternative energy technologies on the Outer Continental Shelf.  

SciTech Connect

This technical memorandum (TM) describes the technology requirements for three alternative energy technologies for which pilot and/or commercial projects on the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) are likely to be proposed within the next five to seven years. For each of the alternative technologies--wind, wave, and ocean current--the TM first presents an overview. After each technology-specific overview, it describes the technology requirements for four development phases: site monitoring and testing, construction, operation, and decommissioning. For each phase, the report covers the following topics (where data are available): facility description, electricity generated, ocean area (surface and bottom) occupied, resource requirements, emissions and noise sources, hazardous materials stored or used, transportation requirements, and accident potential. Where appropriate, the TM distinguishes between pilot-scale (or demonstration-scale) facilities and commercial-scale facilities.

Elcock, D.; Environmental Assessment

2007-04-20

244

Osmosis, colligative properties, entropy, free energy and the chemical potential  

E-print Network

A diffusive model of osmosis is presented that explains currently available experimental data. It makes predictions that distinguish it from the traditional convective flow model of osmosis, some of which have already been confirmed experimentally and others have yet to be tested. It also provides a simple kinetic explanation of Raoult's law and the colligative properties of dilute aqueous solutions. The diffusive model explains that when a water molecule jumps from low to high osmolarity at equilibrium, the free energy change is zero because the work done pressurizing the water molecule is balanced by the entropy of mixing. It also explains that equal chemical potentials are required for particle exchange equilibrium in analogy with the familiar requirement of equal temperatures at thermal equilibrium.

Peter Hugo Nelson

2014-09-13

245

Spectroscopic constants and potential energy curves for OsH  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Complete active space (CASSCF) followed by first-order configuration interaction (FOCI) and second-order CI (SOCI) are carried out on 21 low-lying electronic states of OsH. Spin-orbit effects are investigated using the relativistic CI (RCI) methodology. The ground state of OsH is found to be 4? symmetry with R e = 1.606 Å, ?e = 2138 cm -1, De = 2.317 eV, and ?e = -1.651 D in the absence of spin-orbit interactions, while the ground state is found to be a strong mixture of 4?( {5}/{2}) and 4?( {5}/{2}) including spin-orbit coupling. Potential energy surfaces for 21 low-lying electronic states are reported. Allowed electronic transitions from the ground X4? and some other low-lying states are predicted. The nature and bonding of the low-lying electronic states are analyzed through Mulliken populations.

Benavides-Garcia, M.; Balasubramanian, K.

1991-11-01

246

Spectroscopic Constants and Potential Energy Curves of PbI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spectroscopic constants and potential energy curves of the PbI diatomic were computed using complete active space SCF (CASSCF) followed by first-order CI (FOCI) and second-order CI (SOCI) calculations which included 607 000 configurations. Spin-orbit coupling was studied using the relativistic CI (RCI) method. The spectroscopic properties of the 2? 1/2 state are Re = 2.885 Å, ? e, = 153 cm -1, and De = 2.54(eV), while for the 2? 3/2 state the corresponding values are Re = 2.859 Å, ? e = 162 cm -1, and Te = 8255 cm -1. Our computed constants are in good agreement with experiment for the observed states. We also computed the properties and curves for several excited states which are yet to be observed.

Benavidesgarcia, M.; Balasubramanian, K.

1993-10-01

247

A new local theory of available potential energy for quantifying energy pathways in the oceans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lorenz's theory of available potential energy (APE) has recently received much attention in the context of ocean energetics, for it is increasingly realized to be a key tool for clarifying the relative importance of the surface buoyancy fluxes in powering the ocean circulation, a controversial issue over the past 15 years or so. So far, however, most recent approaches have been restricted to global APE budgets, often for idealized equations of state, which is arguably of limited interest to understand the precise nature of the energy pathways in the oceans. Here, we will present a local extension of the theory of available potential energy, which is developed for the primitive equations that form the basis of most current general ocean circulation models, and which is valid for an arbitrary nonlinear equation of state. Another advantage of the new theory is that it does not require the reference state underlying Lorenz's APE theory to be necessarily the state of minimum potential energy obtained in an adiabatic re-arrangement of the fluid parcels, and hence does not suffer from traditional difficulties pertaining to how to do the sorting of the fluid parcels. The main result of this work is the ability in some instances to link local conversion of APE into kinetic energy directly to the local production of APE by surface fluxes. The framework is also shown to be useful to provide an energy-based characterization of oceanic water masses.

Tailleux, Remi

2013-04-01

248

Top-down free-energy minimization on protein potential energy landscapes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hierarchical properties of potential energy landscapes have been used to gain insight into thermodynamic and kinetic properties of protein ensembles. It also may be possible to use them to direct computational searches for thermodynamically stable macroscopic states, i.e., computational protein folding. To this end, we have developed a top-down search procedure in which conformation space is recursively dissected according

Bruce W. Church; David Shalloway

2001-01-01

249

Complex lymphatic anomalies.  

PubMed

Complex lymphatic anomalies include several diagnoses with overlapping patterns of clinical symptoms, anatomic location, imaging features, hematologic alterations, and complications. Lymphatic malformations likely arise through anomalous embryogenesis of the lymphatic system. Analysis of clinical, imaging, histologic, and hematologic features is often needed to reach a diagnosis. Aspiration of fluid collections can readily define fluid as chylous or not. The presence of chyle indicates dysfunction at the mesenteric or retroperitoneal level or above the cisterna chyli due to reflux. The imaging patterns of generalized lymphatic anomaly (GLA) and Gorham-Stout disease have been segregated with distinctive bone lesions and peri-osseous features. More aggressive histology (spindled lymphatic endothelial cells), clinical progression, hemorrhage, or moderate hematologic changes should raise suspicion for kaposiform lymphangiomatosis. Biopsy may be needed for diagnosis, though avoidance of rib biopsy is advised to prevent iatrogenic chronic pleural effusion. Lymphangiography can visualize the anatomy and function of the lymphatic system and may identify dysfunction of the thoracic duct in central conducting lymphatic anomalies. Local control and symptom relief are targeted by resection, laser therapy, and sclerotherapy. Emerging data suggest a role for medical therapies for complications of complex lymphatic anomalies. Outcomes include recurrent effusion, infection, pain, fracture, mortality, and rarely, malignancy. Complex lymphatic anomalies present significant diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Results from a phase 2 study of sirolimus in these and other conditions are expected in 2014. Improved characterization of natural history, predictors of poor outcomes, responses to therapy, and further clinical trials are needed for complex lymphatic anomalies. PMID:25241096

Trenor, Cameron C; Chaudry, Gulraiz

2014-08-01

250

Astrometric Solar-System Anomalies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are four unexplained anomalies connected with astrometric data. Perhaps the most disturbing is the fact that when a spacecraft on a flyby trajectory approaches the Earth within 2000 km or less, it experiences a gain in total orbital energy per unit mass (Anderson et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 091102). This amounts to a net velocity increase of 13.5 mm/s for the NEAR spacecraft at a closest approach of 539 km, 3.9 mm/s for the Galileo spacecraft at 960 km, and 1.8 mm/s for the Rosetta spacecraft at 1956 km. Next, I suggest the change in the astronomical unit AU is definitely a concern. It is increasing by about 15 cm/yr (Krasinsky and Brumberg, Celes. Mech. & Dynam. Astron. 90, 267). The other two anomalies are perhaps less disturbing because of known sources of nongravitational acceleration. The first is an apparent slowing of the two Pioneer spacecraft as they exit the solar system in opposite directions (Anderson et al., Phys. Rev. D 65, 082004). Some, including me, are convinced this effect is of concern, but many are convinced it is produced by a nearly identical thermal emission from both spacecraft, in a direction away from the Sun, thereby producing acceleration toward the Sun. The fourth anomaly is a measured increase in the eccentricity of the Moon's orbit. Here again, an increase is expected from tidal friction in both the Earth and Moon. However, there is a reported increase that is about three times larger than expected (J. G. Williams, DDA/AAS Brouwer Award Lecture, Halifax, Nova Scotia 2006). We suspect that all four anomalies have mundane explanations. However, the possibility that they will be explained by a new theory of gravitation is not ruled out, perhaps analogous to Einstein's 1916 explanation of the excess precession of Mercury's perihelion.

Anderson, John D.

2009-05-01

251

Material and energy recovery in integrated waste management systems: the potential for energy recovery.  

PubMed

This article is part of a set of six coordinated papers reporting the main findings of a research project carried out by five Italian universities on "Material and energy recovery in Integrated Waste Management Systems (IWMS)". An overview of the project and a summary of the most relevant results can be found in the introductory article of the series. This paper describes the work related to the evaluation of mass and energy balances, which has consisted of three major efforts (i) development of a model for quantifying the energy content and the elemental compositions of the waste streams appearing in a IWMS; (ii) upgrade of an earlier model to predict the performances of Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants; (iii) evaluation of mass and energy balances of all the scenarios and the recovery paths considered in the project. Results show that not only the amount of material available for energy recovery is significantly higher than the Unsorted Residual Waste (URW) left after Separate Collection (SC), because selection and recycling generate significant amounts of residues, but its heating value is higher than that of the original, gross waste. Therefore, the energy potential of what is left after recycling is always higher than the complement to 100% of the Source Separation Level (SSL). Also, increasing SSL has marginal effects on the potential for energy recovery: nearly doubling SSL (from 35% to 65%) reduces the energy potential only by one fourth. Consequently, even at high SSL energy recovery is a fundamental step of a sustainable waste management system. Variations of SSL do bring about variations of the composition, heating value and moisture content of the material fed to WtE plants, but these variations (i) are smaller than one can expect; (ii) have marginal effects on the performances of the WtE plant. These considerations suggest that the mere value of SSL is not a good indicator of the quality of the waste management system, nor of its energy and environmental outcome. Given the well-known dependence of the efficiency of steam power plants with their power output, the efficiency of energy recovery crucially depends on the size of the IWMS served by the WtE plant. A fivefold increase of the amount of gross waste handled in the IWMS (from 150,000 to 750,000 tons per year of gross waste) allows increasing the electric efficiencies of the WtE plant by about 6-7 percentage points (from 21-23% to 28.5% circa). PMID:21689919

Consonni, Stefano; Viganò, Federico

2011-01-01

252

Material and energy recovery in integrated waste management systems: The potential for energy recovery  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: > The amount of waste available for energy recovery is significantly higher than the Unsorted Residual Waste (URW). > Its energy potential is always higher than the complement to 100% of the Source Separation Level (SSL). > Increasing SSL has marginal effects on the potential for energy recovery. > Variations in the composition of the waste fed to WtE plants affect only marginally their performances. > A large WtE plant with a treatment capacity some times higher than a small plant achieves electric efficiency appreciably higher. - Abstract: This article is part of a set of six coordinated papers reporting the main findings of a research project carried out by five Italian universities on 'Material and energy recovery in Integrated Waste Management Systems (IWMS)'. An overview of the project and a summary of the most relevant results can be found in the introductory article of the series. This paper describes the work related to the evaluation of mass and energy balances, which has consisted of three major efforts (i) development of a model for quantifying the energy content and the elemental compositions of the waste streams appearing in a IWMS; (ii) upgrade of an earlier model to predict the performances of Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants; (iii) evaluation of mass and energy balances of all the scenarios and the recovery paths considered in the project. Results show that not only the amount of material available for energy recovery is significantly higher than the Unsorted Residual Waste (URW) left after Separate Collection (SC), because selection and recycling generate significant amounts of residues, but its heating value is higher than that of the original, gross waste. Therefore, the energy potential of what is left after recycling is always higher than the complement to 100% of the Source Separation Level (SSL). Also, increasing SSL has marginal effects on the potential for energy recovery: nearly doubling SSL (from 35% to 65%) reduces the energy potential only by one fourth. Consequently, even at high SSL energy recovery is a fundamental step of a sustainable waste management system. Variations of SSL do bring about variations of the composition, heating value and moisture content of the material fed to WtE plants, but these variations (i) are smaller than one can expect; (ii) have marginal effects on the performances of the WtE plant. These considerations suggest that the mere value of SSL is not a good indicator of the quality of the waste management system, nor of its energy and environmental outcome. Given the well-known dependence of the efficiency of steam power plants with their power output, the efficiency of energy recovery crucially depends on the size of the IWMS served by the WtE plant. A fivefold increase of the amount of gross waste handled in the IWMS (from 150,000 to 750,000 tons per year of gross waste) allows increasing the electric efficiencies of the WtE plant by about 6-7 percentage points (from 21-23% to 28.5% circa).

Consonni, Stefano [Department of Energy, Politecnico di Milano, Via Lambruschini 4, 20156 Milan (Italy); LEAP - Laboratorio Energia Ambiente Piacenza, Via Bixio 27, 29100 Piacenza (Italy); Vigano, Federico, E-mail: federico.vigano@polimi.it [Department of Energy, Politecnico di Milano, Via Lambruschini 4, 20156 Milan (Italy); LEAP -Laboratorio Energia Ambiente Piacenza, Via Bixio 27, 29100 Piacenza (Italy)

2011-09-15

253

Calculation of free-energy differences and potentials of mean force by a multi-energy gap method  

E-print Network

Calculation of free-energy differences and potentials of mean force by a multi-energy gap method the convergence of free-energy calculations. It introduces a bias factor in Monte Carlo simulations or.e., the difference in energy function between two states, and is therefore specifically designed for calculating free-energy

Weston, Ken

254

On the potential energy in an electrostatically bound two-body system  

E-print Network

The potential energy problem in an electrostatically bound two-body system is studied in the framework of a recently proposed impact model of the electrostatic force and in analogy to the potential energy in a gravitationally bound system. The physical processes are described that result in the variation of the potential energy as a function of the distance between the charged bodies. The energy is extracted from distributions of hypothetical interaction entities modified by the charged bodies.

Wilhelm, K

2015-01-01

255

On the potential energy in an electrostatically bound two-body system  

E-print Network

The potential energy problem in an electrostatically bound two-body system is studied in the framework of a recently proposed impact model of the electrostatic force and in analogy to the potential energy in a gravitationally bound system. The physical processes are described that result in the variation of the potential energy as a function of the distance between the charged bodies. The energy is extracted from distributions of hypothetical interaction entities modified by the charged bodies.

K. Wilhelm; B. N. Dwivedi

2014-08-30

256

The potential of energy farming in the southeastern California desert  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of energy forms to provide future sources of energy for California is considered. Marginal desert lands in southeastern California are proposed for the siting of energy farms using acacia, eucalyptus, euphorbia, guayule, jojoba, mesquite, or tamarisk.

Lew, V.

1980-04-01

257

(Molecular understanding of mutagenicity using potential energy methods)  

SciTech Connect

The objective of our work has been, for many year, to elucidate on a molecular level at atomic resolution the structures of DNAs modified by highly mutagenic polycyclic aromatic amines and hydrocarbons, and their less mutagenic chemically related analogs and unmodified DNAs, as controls. The ultimate purpose of this undertaking is to obtain an understanding of the relationship DNA structures and mutagenicity. Our methods for elucidating structures are computational, but we keep in close contact with experimental developments, and have, very recently, been able to incorporate the first experimental information from NMR studies by other workers in our calculations. The specific computational methods we employ are minimized potential energy calculations using the torsion angle space program DUPLEX, developed and written by Dr. Brain Hingerty to yield static views. Molecular dynamics simulations of the important static structures with full solvation and salt are carried out with the program AMBER; this yields mobile views in a milieu that best mimics the natural environment of the cell. In addition, we have been developing new strategies for searching conformation space and building DNA duplexes from favored subunit structures. 30 refs., 12 figs.

Broyde, S.

1990-01-01

258

Molecular understanding of mutagenicity using potential energy methods  

SciTech Connect

Our objective, has been to elucidate on a molecular level, at atomic resolution, the structures of DNAs modified by 2-aminofluorene and its N-acetyl derivative, 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF). The underlying hypothesis is that DNA replicates with reduced fidelity when its normal right-handed B-structure is altered, and one result is a higher mutation rate. This change in structure may occur normally at a low incidence, for example by the formation of hairpin loops in appropriate sequences, but it may be enhanced greatly after covalent modification by a mutagenic substance. We use computational methods and have been able to incorporate the first data from NMR studies in our calculations. Computational approaches are important because x-ray and spectroscopic studies have not succeeded in producing atomic resolution views of mutagen and carcinogen-oligonucleotide adducts. The specific methods that we employ are minimized potential energy calculations using the torsion angle space molecular mechanics program DUPLEX to yield static views. Molecular dynamics simulations, with full solvent and salt, of the important static structures are carried out with the program AMBER; this yields mobile views in a medium that mimics the natural aqueous environment of the cell as well as can be done with current available computing resources.

Broyde, S.; Shapiro, R.

1992-07-01

259

Trace anomalies in chiral theories revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motivated by the search for possible CP violating terms in the trace of the energy-momentum tensor in theories coupled to gravity we revisit the problem of trace anomalies in chiral theories. We recalculate the latter and ascertain that in the trace of the energy-momentum tensor of theories with chiral fermions at one-loop the Pontryagin density appears with an imaginary coefficient. We argue that this may break unitarity, in which case the trace anomaly has to be used as a selective criterion for theories, analogous to the chiral anomalies in gauge theories. We analyze some remarkable consequences of this fact, that seem to have been overlooked in the literature.

Bonora, Loriano; Giaccari, Stefano; de Souza, Bruno Lima

2014-07-01

260

Relationship of the Williams-Poulios and Manning-Rosen Potential Energy Models for Diatomic Molecules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By employing the dissociation energy and the equilibrium bond length for a diatomic molecule as explicit parameters, we generate an improved form of the Williams-Poulios potential energy model. It is found that the negative Williams-Poulios potential model is equivalent to the Manning-Rosen potential model for diatomic molecules. We observe that the Manning-Rosen potential is superior to the Morse potential in reproducing the interaction potential energy curves for the {{a}3 ?u+} state of the 6Li2 molecule and the {{X}1 sum+} state of the SiF+ molecule.

Jia, Chun-Sheng; Liang, Guang-Chuan; Peng, Xiao-Long; Tang, Hong-Ming; Zhang, Lie-Hui

2014-06-01

261

Dealing with Ebstein's anomaly.  

PubMed

Ebstein's anomaly is a complex congenital disorder of the tricuspid valve. Presentation in neonatal life and (early) childhood is common. Disease severity and clinical features vary widely and require a patient-tailored treatment. In this review, we describe the natural history of children and adolescents with Ebstein's anomaly, including symptoms and signs presenting at diagnosis. Current classification strategies of Ebstein's anomaly are discussed. We report on diagnostic methods for establishing the severity of disease that might enhance decision on the timing of surgical intervention. Furthermore, we describe different surgical options for severely ill neonates and multiple surgical interventions after infancy. Only with ample knowledge and understanding of the above, this complex and diverse group of patients can be correctly treated in order to improve not only duration, but also quality of life. PMID:24169373

Geerdink, Lianne M; Kapusta, Livia

2014-04-01

262

Potential Ambient Energy-Harvesting Sources and Techniques  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ambient energy harvesting is also known as energy scavenging or power harvesting, and it is the process where energy is obtained from the environment. A variety of techniques are available for energy scavenging, including solar and wind powers, ocean waves, piezoelectricity, thermoelectricity, and physical motions. For example, some systems…

Yildiz, Faruk

2009-01-01

263

Biomass and biogas energy in Thailand: Potential, opportunity and barriers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomass has been traditional energy source in rural Thailand for decades. Country modernization, instead of reducing the biomass energy consumption, has continuously increased its utilization for both households and production of modern energy. While the GDP\\/capita was triple during 1980–1996, the biomass energy consumption increased by 68%, and expected to be higher as signaled by the increasing number of new

S. Prasertsan; B. Sajjakulnukit

2006-01-01

264

History and potential of renewable energy development in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many years before greenhouse gas emission reduction became a major driver for renewable energy development, New Zealand was an early adopter of several alternative energy technologies, particularly hydroelectricity and geothermal energy. It has achieved a level of 60% of total electricity generation from such sources, and is now pursuing a target of 95% of electricity generation from renewable energy, to

Geoff Kelly

2011-01-01

265

Marine renewable energy: potential benefits to biodiversity? An urgent call for research  

E-print Network

Marine renewable energy: potential benefits to biodiversity? An urgent call for research Richard 1 Centre for Ecology and Conservation and Peninsula Research Institute for Marine Renewable Energy. Concerns over the potential impacts on biodiversity of marine renewable energy installations (MREI) include

Exeter, University of

266

Relationship between the electronic potential energy of a crystal and X-ray scattering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some simple but approximate relationships arc shown to yield the total deformation potential energy of a crystal from a summation of the structure factors and their squares. By application of the virial theorem this deformation potential should be consistent with similar kinetic energy differences obtained from integration of the Compton profiles in addition to being consistent with the cohesive energy

R. J. Weiss

1978-01-01

267

A Cumulus Parameterization Based on the Generalized Convective Available Potential Energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports tests of a cumulus parameterization in which the reference state associated with the generalized convective available potential energy (GCAPE) is chosen as the end-state of the convective adjustment. The GCAPE is defined as the enthalpy difference between the given state and the reference state and represents the total potential energy available for conversion into convective kinetic energy

Junyi Wang; David A. Randall

1996-01-01

268

Boussinesq and Anelastic Approximations Revisited: Potential Energy Release during Thermobaric Instability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expressions are derived for the potential energy of a fluid whose density depends on three variables: temperature, pressure, and salinity. The thermal expansion coefficient is a function of depth, and the application is to thermobaric convection in the oceans. Energy conservation, with conversion between kinetic and potential energies during adiabatic, inviscid motion, exists for the Boussinesq and anelastic approximations but

Andrew P. Ingersoll

2005-01-01

269

By-products: oil sorbents as a potential energy source.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the utilization of an industrial by-product, lignite fly ash, in oil pollution treatment, with the further potential profit of energy production. The properties of lignite fly ash, such as fine particle size, porosity, hydrophobic character, combined with the properties, such as high porosity and low specific gravity, of an agricultural by-product, namely sawdust, resulted in an effective oil-sorbent material. The materials were mixed either in the dry state or in aqueous solution. The oil sorption behaviour of the fly ash-sawdust mixtures was investigated in both marine and dry environments. Mixtures containing fly ash and 15-25% w/w sawdust performed better than each material alone when added to oil spills in a marine environment, as they formed a cohesive semi-solid phase, adsorbing almost no water, floating on the water surface and allowing total oil removal. For the clean-up of an oil spill 0.5 mm thick with surface area 1000 m(2), 225-255 kg of lignite fly ash can be utilized with the addition of 15-25% w/w sawdust. Fly ash-sawdust mixtures have also proved efficient for oil spill clean-up on land, since their oil sorption capacity in dry conditions was at least 0.6-1.4 g oil g(-1) mixture. The higher calorific value of the resultant oil-fly ash-sawdust mixtures increased up to that of bituminous coal and oil and exceeded that of lignite, thereby encouraging their utilization as alternative fuels especially in the cement industry, suggesting that the remaining ash can contribute in clinker production. PMID:23179513

Karakasi, Olga K; Moutsatsou, Angeliki

2013-04-01

270

A satellite investigation of energy flux and inferred potential drop in auroral electron energy spectra  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Because predicted relationship (epsilon directly varies with V squared) between auroral electron energy flux (epsilon) and the inferred acceleration potential drop (V) for accelerated Maxwellian distributions was favorably tested by other using sounding rocket data for the limiting case of eVE 1 (where Ec is the characteristic energy of the accelerated Maxwellian distribution) and for a single inverted-V observed by the Injun 5 satellite, data from Atmosphere D were used to extend these studies over the range .2 eV/Ec 5 and for a wide range of latitudes and local times on both the nightside and the dayside. Results show good agreement with the full accelerated Maxwellian model. An analytical approximation to the electron energy flux was derived which better describes the data over the range .2 eV/Ec approximated 3. Analyses of individual energy spectra at small and large pitch angles through well-defined inverted-V structures suggest that the altitude of the inferred potential drop maximizes near the center of the inverted-V's.

Meniett, J. D.; Burch, J. L.

1981-01-01

271

Modeling And Detecting Anomalies In Scada Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The detection of attacks and intrusions based on anomalies is hampered by the limits of specificity underlying the detection techniques. However, in the case of many critical infrastructure systems, domain-specific knowledge and models can impose constraints that potentially reduce error rates. At the same time, attackers can use their knowledge of system behavior to mask their manipulations, causing adverse effects to observed only after a significant period of time. This paper describes elementary statistical techniques that can be applied to detect anomalies in critical infrastructure networks. A SCADA system employed in liquefied natural gas (LNG) production is used as a case study.

Svendsen, Nils; Wolthusen, Stephen

272

Brownian motor with competing spatial and temporal asymmetry of potential energy.  

PubMed

A Brownian motor is considered which operates due to asymmetric dichotomic fluctuations of the spatially periodic asymmetric potential energy. As shown, the motion direction and stopping points of this motor are dictated by the competition between the spatial and temporal asymmetry of the potential energy (or solely by temporal asymmetry in the case that the potential energy sign fluctuates). For an asymmetric sawtooth potential, the Brownian-particle average velocity is calculated numerically as a function of certain parameters of the model, whereas the low-frequency and low-energy approximations allow the corresponding analytical relationships to be derived for an arbitrarily shaped potential profile. It is shown that temporal asymmetry is not necessary for stopping point occurrence provided that the potential profile fluctuates not only in amplitude but in shape as well. This inference is illustrated by photoinduced fluctuations of the potential energy for a number of substituted arylpyrene molecules on a substrate with symmetrically distributed charge density. PMID:21728503

Rozenbaum, V M; Korochkova, T Ye; Chernova, A A; Dekhtyar, M L

2011-05-01

273

A potential enstrophy and energy conserving scheme for the shallow water equations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To improve the simulation of nonlinear aspects of the flow over steep topography, a potential enstrophy and energy conserving scheme for the shallow water equations is derived. It is pointed out that a family of schemes can conserve total energy for general flow and potential enstrophy for flow with no mass flux divergence. The newly derived scheme is a unique member of this family, that conserves both potential enstrophy and energy for general flow. Comparison by means of numerical experiment with a scheme that conserves (potential) enstrophy for purely horizontal nondivergent flow demonstrated the considerable superiority of the newly derived potential enstrophy and energy conserving scheme, not only in suppressing a spurious energy cascade but also in determining the overall flow regime. The potential enstrophy and energy conserving scheme for a spherical grid is also presented.

Arakawa, A.; Lamb, V. R.

1981-01-01

274

Energy eigenvalues of spherical symmetric potentials with relativistic corrections: analytic results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the investigation of the asymptotic behaviour of the polarization loop function for charged n scalar particles in an external gauge field, we determine the interaction Hamiltonian including the relativistic corrections. The energy eigenvalues of spherical symmetric potentials for two-particle bound state systems with relativistic corrections are analytically derived. The energy spectra of linear and funnel potentials with orbital and radial excitations are determined. The energy spectrum of a superposition of Coulomb and Yukawa potentials is also determined. Our result shows that the energy spectrum with the relativistic corrections for the linear, harmonic oscillator and funnel potentials is smaller than the upper boundaries for the energy spectrum established in the framework of the spinless Salpeter equation for the orbital and radial excited states. The relativistic corrections to the energy spectrum of a superposition of the attractive Coulomb potential and the Yukawa (exponentially screened Coulomb) potentials are very small.

Dineykhan, M.; Zhaugasheva, S. A.; Toinbaeva, N. Sh

2010-01-01

275

Solar energy potential atlas for planning energy system off-grid electrification in the Republic of Djibouti  

E-print Network

1 Solar energy potential atlas for planning energy system off-grid electrification in the Republic solar resource can therefore be an interesting mean to produce energy where it is consumed. The aimWh/m². Furthermore, the solar radiation reaching Djibouti corresponded to 20 000 times the total yearly energy

Boyer, Edmond

276

Wind energy potential mapping in Karnataka, India, using GIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing negative effects of fossil fuel combustion on the environment in addition to limited stock have forced many countries to explore and change to environmentally friendly alternatives that are renewable to sustain the increasing energy demand. Changing to renewable sources and implementation of effective conservation measures would ensure sustainability. Currently, wind energy is one of the fastest developing renewable energy

T. V. Ramachandra; B. V. Shruthi

2005-01-01

277

On the regional wind energy potential of Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuous uses of fossil fuels are bound to pollute the atmosphere and consequently unwanted greenhouse and climate change effects will come to dominate every part of the earth. It is, therefore, advised to exploit clean energy resources, and for many nations in the world to try to assess their environmentally friendly, clean energy resources such as wind energy. Hence, it

Ahmet Öztopal; Ahmet D ?ahin; Nezihe Akgün; Zekai ?en

2000-01-01

278

Development of the Potential Energy Savings Estimation (PESE) Toolkit  

E-print Network

the corresponding energy conservation measures (ECMs) in the early phase of an EBCx project or energy retrofit project. Using the tool requires limited information about the building and the built-in HVAC system type, as well as sorted bin weather and energy...

Liu, J.; Baltazar, J. C.; Claridge, D. E.

279

Technical and Economic Potentials of Renewable Energy Development in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy consumption of Thailand has been continually increasing whereas the government policy to import those conventional energy seems to be limited. To sustainably overcome this problem, the development of renewable energy projects are important keys. Among them, bio- fuels projects seem to be the most promising one because of abundant reserves available in the domestic. There have been two groups

Watchara Permchart; Somporn Tanatvanit

280

Venus - Ishtar gravity anomaly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The gravity anomaly associated with Ishtar Terra on Venus is characterized, comparing line-of-sight acceleration profiles derived by differentiating Pioneer Venus Orbiter Doppler residual profiles with an Airy-compensated topographic model. The results are presented in graphs and maps, confirming the preliminary findings of Phillips et al. (1979). The isostatic compensation depth is found to be 150 + or - 30 km.

Sjogren, W. L.; Bills, B. G.; Mottinger, N. A.

1984-01-01

281

Fetal cardiac anomalies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fetal cardiac anomalies are increasingly identified during regular obstetric scanning. About 21000 pregnancies will have an abnormality of the four chamber view and a further 11000 will have an abnormality of the great arteries. These cases can then be referred to the specialist in fetal cardiology for further evaluation and counselling. There is a higher rate of chromosomal and other

Lindsey D. Allan

1996-01-01

282

Reliable prediction of micro-anomalies from macro-observables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A stochastic multi-scale based approach is presented in this work to detect signatures of micro-anomalies from macrolevel response variables. By micro-anomalies, we primarily refer to micro-cracks of size 10-100 ?m (depending on the material), while macro-level response variables imply, e.g., strains, strain energy density of macro-level structures (typical size often varying in the order of 10-100 m). The micro-anomalies referred above are not discernible to the naked eyes. Nevertheless, they can cause catastrophic failures of structural systems due to fatigue cyclic loading that results in initiation of fatigue cracks. Analysis of such precursory state of internal damage evolution, before amacro-crack visibly appears (say, size of a few cms), is beyond the scope of the conventional crack propagation analysis, e.g., classical fracture mechanics. The present work addresses this issue in a certain sense by incorporating the effects of micro-cracks into the macro-scale constitutive material properties (e.g., constitutive elasticity tensors) within a probabilistic formalism based on random matrix theory, maximum entropy principle, and principles of minimum complementary energy and minimum potential energy. Distinct differences are observed in the macro-level response characteristics depending on the presence or absence of micro-cracks. This particular feature can now be used to reliably detect micro-cracks from experimental measurements of macro-observables. The present work, therefore, further proposes an efficient and robust optimization scheme: (1) to identify locations of micro-cracks in macroscopic structural systems, say, in an aircraft wing which is of the size of 10- 100 m, and (2) to determine the weakened (due to the presence of micro-cracks) macroscopic material properties which will be useful in predicting the remaining useful life of structural systems. The proposed optimization scheme achieves better convergence rate and accuracy by exploiting positive-definite structure of the macroscopic constitutive matrices.

Das, Sonjoy; Chakravarty, Sourish

2014-03-01

283

Genetics Home Reference: Peters anomaly  

MedlinePLUS

... the individuals affected with Peters anomaly have low vision early in life and about a quarter are legally blind. Due to a lack of visual stimulation, some individuals develop "lazy eye" (amblyopia). Peters anomaly ...

284

Constraints on the total and kinetic energy of ground states in a class of potential models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is shown that the ground state energy in a central potential is a concave (convex) function of angular momentum l when this potential is a concave (convex) function of r2. A result stronger than concavity is obtained when the Laplacian of the potential is negative. New bounds in the kinetic energy of these states are derived in terms of energy differences and for s states in terms of the wave function at the origin. These bounds can be used to give good estimates of the ground state energies for power law potentials.

Common, A. K.; Martin, A.

1989-03-01

285

Strictly anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider an extension of the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model with anomaly mediation as the only source of supersymmetry breaking, and the tachyonic slepton problem solved by a gauged U(1) symmetry. The extra gauge symmetry is broken at high energies in a manner preserving supersymmetry, while also introducing both the seesaw mechanism for neutrino masses, and the Higgs ?-term. We call the model strictly anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking. We present typical spectra for the model and compare them with those from so-called minimal anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking. We find a Standard Model-like Higgs of mass 125 GeV with a gravitino mass of 140 TeV and tan??=16. However, the muon anomalous magnetic moment is 3? away from the experimental value. The model naturally produces a period of hybrid inflation, which can exit to a false vacuum characterized by large Higgs vacuum expectation values, reaching the true ground state after a period of thermal inflation. The scalar spectral index is reduced to approximately 0.975, and the correct abundance of neutralino dark matter can be produced by decays of thermally produced gravitinos, provided the gravitino mass (and hence the Higgs mass) is high. Naturally light cosmic strings are produced, satisfying bounds from the cosmic microwave background. The complementary pulsar timing and cosmic ray bounds require that strings decay primarily via loops into gravitational waves. Unless the loops are extremely small, the next generation pulsar timing array will rule out or detect the string-derived gravitational radiation background in this model.

Hindmarsh, Mark; Jones, D. R. Timothy

2013-04-01

286

Identifying Anomalies in Gravitational Lens Time Delays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gravitational lensing has become a powerful probe of cold dark matter substructure. Earlier work using anomalous flux ratios in four-image quasar lenses has shown that lensing is sensitive to substructure which raises the exciting prospect of constraining the mass function and spatial distribution of dark matter satellites in galaxies. We examine the ability of gravitational lens time delays to reveal complex structure in lens potentials. We use Monte Carlo simulations to determine the range of time delays that can be produced by realistic smooth lens models consisting of isothermal ellipsoid galaxies with tidal shear. We can then identify outliers as "time-delay anomalies." We find evidence for anomalies in close image pairs in the cusp lenses RX J1131-1231 and B1422+231. The anomalies in RX J1131-1231 provide strong evidence for substructure in the lens potential, while at this point the apparent anomalies in B1422+231 mainly indicate that the time delay measurements need to be improved. We also find evidence for time-delay anomalies in larger-separation image pairs in four additional lenses. We suggest that these anomalies are caused by some combination of substructure and a complex lens environment. Our work argues for a large sample of strong lenses with precisely-measured time delays. The first of these objectives will be readily achievable as the next generation of optical and radio telescopes come online, while the second will require a dedicated one-meter class space-based observatory. Meeting these goals will make it possible to examine the properties of dark matter on sub-galactic scales, which is essential for distinguishing among the various dark matter candidates from particle physics. Part of this work was funded by NSF grant AST-0747311. ABC is currently supported by an appointment to the NASA Postdoctoral Program at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, administered by Oak Ridge Associated Universities through a contract with NASA.

Congdon, Arthur B.; Keeton, C. R.; Nordgren, C. E.

2009-05-01

287

New type of anomaly in turbulence  

E-print Network

The turbulent energy flux through scales, $\\bar{\\epsilon}$, remains constant and non vanishing in the limit of zero viscosity, which results in the fundamental anomaly of time irreversibility. It was considered straightforward to deduce from this the Lagrangian velocity anomaly, $\\left=-4 \\bar{\\epsilon}$ at $t=0$, where $\\vec{u}$ is the velocity difference of a pair of particles, initially separated by a fixed distance. In this letter we demonstrate that this derivation assumed first taking the limit $t \\to 0$ and then $\

Anna Frishman; Gregory Falkovich

2014-01-23

288

Methodology for the Determination of Potential Energy Savings in Commercial Buildings  

E-print Network

This paper describes a methodology to determine potential energy savings of buildings with limited information. This methodology is based upon the simplified energy analysis procedure of heating, ventilation and air condition (HVAC) systems...

Baltazar-Cervantes, J. C.; Claridge, D. E.

2007-01-01

289

Nuclear Data and Measurements Series: The energy dependence of the optical-model potential for fast-neutron scattering from bismuth  

SciTech Connect

Neutron differential-elastic-scattering cross sections of bismuth were measured at 0.5 MeV intervals from 4.5 to 10.0 MeV. At each incident energy greater than or equal to40 differential values were obtained, distributed between 18/sup 0/ and 160/sup 0/. The measured data were combined with lower-energy results previously reported from this laboratory, and others available in the literature, to provide a detailed data base extending from 1.5 to 10.0 MeV. This data base was interpreted in terms of the conventional optical-statistical model and also a model inclusive of the surface-peaked real potential predicted by the dispersion relation. Particular attention was given to the energy dependence of the volume-integral-per-nucleon of the real potential, J/sub v/, to see if there was evidence of the Fermi Surface Anomaly. In the range 3.0 to 10.0 MeV the present data indicate that dJ/sub v//dE is essentially constant, with a relatively large negative value of -6.0 to -9.0 fm/sup 3/, depending on the model used in the analysis. Below 3.0 MeV, there is some evidence for a decrease in the magnitude of dJ/dE. However, the effect is very small and it is only when this trend is combined with considerations of the J/sub v/ values needed to give correct bound-state energies that evidence for the Fermi Surface Anomaly emerges. J/sub v/ and the geometry of the optical potentials found for /sup 209/Bi become equal to those needed to explain the high-energy /sup 208/Pb data at about 10.0 MeV. Since dJ/sub v//dE for the latter is smaller in magnitude than for /sup 209/Bi, a change in dJ/sub v//dE is clearly indicated near 10.0 MeV. This may effect the extrapolation of higher-energy and charged-particle potentials into the lower-energy neutron domain. 47 refs., 9 figs.

Smith, A.B.; Guenther, P.T.; Lawson, R.D.

1987-05-01

290

Potential of energy farming in the southeastern California desert  

SciTech Connect

The California Energy Commission is currently analyzing the use of energy farms to provide future sources of energy for California. Energy farms can be defined as growing plants and converting them to various forms of energy. The use of marginal desert lands in southeastern California for the siting of energy farms using acacia, Eucalyptus, euphorbia, quayule, jojoba, mesquite, or tamarisk is considered. Two hypothetical scenarios using either rainfall, or rainfall and groundwater as water sources were described to determine the maximum amount of energy produced from estimated amounts of suitable land in this area. Considering both scenarios, the maximum range of energy produced is .03 to 0.4 Quads. It is recommended that (1) genetic research be continued to increase biomass yields of these and other candidate plants grown in the desert; and (2) small test plots be established at varying desert locations to collect yield growth, and survival data. Once this information is known, the identification of the best plant(s) to use for energy farming in the California desert area will be known, as well as the cost and quantity of energy produced.

Lew, V.

1980-04-01

291

Vibrations of Tetrahedral Pentatomic Molecules. Part I. Potential Energy. Part II. Kinetic Energy and Normal Frequencies of Vibration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Part I. It is shown that the most general potential energy function consistent with tetrahedral symmetry involves five force constants, also that with a suitable choice of variables this expression may be written in a quite simple form convenient for the discussion of different types of vibration. Special cases of potential energy such as the \\

Jenny E. Rosenthal

1934-01-01

292

New type of anomaly in turbulence.  

PubMed

The turbulent energy flux through scales, ??, remains constant and nonvanishing in the limit of zero viscosity, which results in the fundamental anomaly of time irreversibility. It was considered straightforward to deduce from this the Lagrangian velocity anomaly, ?du(2)/dt?=-4?? at t=0, where u[over ?] is the velocity difference of a pair of particles, initially separated by a fixed distance. Here we demonstrate that this assumed first taking the limit t?0 and then ??0, while a zero-friction anomaly requires taking viscosity to zero first. We find that the limits t?0 and ??0 do not commute if particles deplete (accumulate) in shocks backward (forward) in time on the viscous time scale. We compute analytically the resultant Lagrangian anomaly for one-dimensional Burgers turbulence and find it completely altered: ?du(2)/dt? has different values forward and backward in time. For incompressible flows, on the other hand, we show that the limits commute and the Lagrangian anomaly is still induced by the flux law, apparently due to a homogeneous distribution of fluid particles at all times. PMID:25062187

Frishman, Anna; Falkovich, Gregory

2014-07-11

293

New Type of Anomaly in Turbulence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The turbulent energy flux through scales, ? ¯, remains constant and nonvanishing in the limit of zero viscosity, which results in the fundamental anomaly of time irreversibility. It was considered straightforward to deduce from this the Lagrangian velocity anomaly, ?du2/dt?=-4? ¯ at t =0, where u ? is the velocity difference of a pair of particles, initially separated by a fixed distance. Here we demonstrate that this assumed first taking the limit t?0 and then ??0, while a zero-friction anomaly requires taking viscosity to zero first. We find that the limits t?0 and ??0 do not commute if particles deplete (accumulate) in shocks backward (forward) in time on the viscous time scale. We compute analytically the resultant Lagrangian anomaly for one-dimensional Burgers turbulence and find it completely altered: ?du2/dt? has different values forward and backward in time. For incompressible flows, on the other hand, we show that the limits commute and the Lagrangian anomaly is still induced by the flux law, apparently due to a homogeneous distribution of fluid particles at all times.

Frishman, Anna; Falkovich, Gregory

2014-07-01

294

Cancellation of Kinetic and Potential Energy in Atoms, Molecules, and Solids  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the energy levels of valence electrons in atoms, molecules, solids, and liquids, there is a contribution from the large negative potential energy inside the core of the atom and the large positive kinetic energy which the electron has there. Phillips and Kleinman have shown how the kinetic energy can be represented by a repulsive pseudopotential which cancels most of

Morrel H. Cohen; V. Heine

1961-01-01

295

The analysis of wind data and wind energy potential in Kutahya, Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wind energy is one of the most significant and rapidly developing renewable energy sources in the world and it provides a clean energy resource, which is a promising alternative in the short term in Turkey. The wind energy potential in various parts of Turkey is becoming economical due to reductions in the wind turbine costs, and in fossil fuel

Ramazan Kose; M. Arif Ozgur; Oguzhan Erbas; Abtullah Tugcu

2004-01-01

296

The potential for dynamic distribution systems to create a new energy marketplace  

E-print Network

July 2014 The potential for dynamic distribution systems to create a new energy marketplace be the technology basis to create a new electrical energy marketplace in which electric power is generated with a marketplace that enables energy transactions, such as payments passing between buyers and sellers of energy

Van Veen, Barry D.

297

Computing Ligand Field Potentials and Relative Energies of d Orbitals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a method for calculating the relative energies of d orbitals in various geometric configurations having coordination numbers 1 to 12. Discusses the changes in orbital degeneracies and energies due to symmetry differences. Shows that the addivity principle of Dq values gives results identical to the complete perturbation treatment. Also…

Krishnamurthy, R.; Schaap, Ward B.

1969-01-01

298

Potential prediction needs in support of energy systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The relationship between emerging energy systems and the natural environment is discussed, including selected examples to show that energy systems are tied to global solar terrestrial processess. The interdependence of resources, technology, and environmental impact is considered in terms of needed geophysical, atmospheric, and solar terrestrial data inputs. The need for long term basic research on the solar terrestrial system is emphasized.

Blake, R. L.

1979-01-01

299

Consequences of Converting Graded to Action Potentials upon Neural Information Coding and Energy Efficiency  

PubMed Central

Information is encoded in neural circuits using both graded and action potentials, converting between them within single neurons and successive processing layers. This conversion is accompanied by information loss and a drop in energy efficiency. We investigate the biophysical causes of this loss of information and efficiency by comparing spiking neuron models, containing stochastic voltage-gated Na+ and K+ channels, with generator potential and graded potential models lacking voltage-gated Na+ channels. We identify three causes of information loss in the generator potential that are the by-product of action potential generation: (1) the voltage-gated Na+ channels necessary for action potential generation increase intrinsic noise and (2) introduce non-linearities, and (3) the finite duration of the action potential creates a ‘footprint’ in the generator potential that obscures incoming signals. These three processes reduce information rates by ?50% in generator potentials, to ?3 times that of spike trains. Both generator potentials and graded potentials consume almost an order of magnitude less energy per second than spike trains. Because of the lower information rates of generator potentials they are substantially less energy efficient than graded potentials. However, both are an order of magnitude more efficient than spike trains due to the higher energy costs and low information content of spikes, emphasizing that there is a two-fold cost of converting analogue to digital; information loss and cost inflation. PMID:24465197

Sengupta, Biswa; Laughlin, Simon Barry; Niven, Jeremy Edward

2014-01-01

300

Mass Anomalies on Ganymede  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radio Doppler data from two Ganymede encounters (G1 and G2) on the first two orbits in the Galileo mission have been analyzed previously for gravity information . For a satellite in hydrostatic equilibrium, its gravitational field can be modeled adequately by a truncated spherical harmonic series of degree two. However, a fourth degree field is required in order to fit the second Galileo flyby (G2). This need for a higher degree field strongly suggests that Ganymede s gravitational field is perturbed by a gravity anomaly near the G2 closest approach point (79.29 latitude, 123.68 west longitude). In fact, a plot of the Doppler residuals , after removal of the best-fit model for the zero degree term (GM) and the second degree moments (J2 and C22), suggests that if an anomaly exists, it is located downtrack of the closest approach point, closer to the equator.

Schubert, G.; Anderson, J. D.; Jacobson, R. A.; Lau, E. L.; Moore, W. B.; Palguta, J.

2004-01-01

301

Yearly Arctic Temperature Anomaly  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation shows the yearly temperature anomaly over the Arctic region from 1981-82 through 2002-03. Years run from August 1 through July 31. Blue hues indicate cooling regions; red hues depict warming. Light regions indicate less change while darker regions indicate more. The temperature scale used ranges from -7.0 to +7.0 degrees Celsius in increments of .25 degrees. (See color bar below)

Starr, Cindy; Comiso, Josefino

2003-10-23

302

Anomaly, impulsivity, and addiction  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are two behavioral approaches to addiction: rational and irrational. The rational approach assumes that addicts have higher time preference rates and lower risk-aversion coefficients—parameters that are interpreted as impulsive preferences. On the other hand, the irrational approach argues that addiction is a consequence of anomalies such as non-expected utility and hyperbolically discounted utility. This paper integrates these two approaches

Takanori Ida

2010-01-01

303

Exploring potential mechanisms responsible for observed changes of ultrasonic backscattered energy with temperature variations  

E-print Network

Exploring potential mechanisms responsible for observed changes of ultrasonic backscattered energy on probability variation of backscatter data Med. Phys. 39, 2369 (2012); 10.1118/1.3700235 Ultrasonic backscatter.1121/1.3460109 #12;Exploring potential mechanisms responsible for observed changes of ultrasonic backscattered energy

Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

304

Critical insight into the influence of the potential energy surface on fission dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work is dedicated to a careful investigation of the influence of the potential energy surface on the fission process. The time evolution of nuclei at high excitation energy and angular momentum is studied by means of three-dimensional Langevin calculations performed for two different parametrizations of the macroscopic potential: the Finite Range Liquid Drop Model (FRLDM) and the Lublin-Strasbourg

K. Mazurek; C. Schmitt; J. P. Wieleczko; P. N. Nadtochy; G. Ademard

2011-01-01

305

Concerning analytical derivatives of kinetic and potential energies in the Hartree-Fock theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two analytical procedures for obtaining the derivatives of the kinetic and potential energies in the Hartree–Fock theory are presented. They are the derivation from direct differentiation of the expectation values of the kinetic and potential energies, and that from the virial theorem. Since the molecular orbital wave function in the linear combination of atomic orbitals, in which the scale factor

Hiroaki Tokiwa; Hiroshi Ichikawa; Yoshihiro Osamura

1992-01-01

306

Hamilton's principle: Why is the integrated difference of the kinetic and potential energy minimized?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Why is the integrated difference of the kinetic and potential energies the quantity to be minimized in Hamilton's principle? I use simple arguments to convert the problem of finding the path of a particle connecting two points to that of finding the minimum potential energy of a string. The mapping implies that the configuration of a nonstretchable string of variable

Alberto G. Rojo

2005-01-01

307

A survey on the assessment of wind energy potential in Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present paper a statistical study of the available wind data for Greece is carried out to assess its wind energy potential. It is essential to establish the available wind energy for any given region in order to assess the relative potential at different sites. The applicability of the Weibull distribution is examined and tables and plots of Weibull

B. D. Katsoulis

1993-01-01

308

Pathogenesis of Vascular Anomalies  

PubMed Central

Vascular anomalies are localized defects of vascular development. Most of them occur sporadically, i.e. there is no familial history of lesions, yet in a few cases clear inheritance is observed. These inherited forms are often characterized by multifocal lesions that are mainly small in size and increase in number with patient’s age. On the basis of these inherited forms, molecular genetic studies have unraveled a number of inherited mutations giving direct insight into the pathophysiological cause and the molecular pathways that are implicated. Genetic defects have been identified for hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), inherited cutaneomucosal venous malformation (VMCM), glomuvenous malformation (GVM), capillary malformation - arteriovenous malformation (CM-AVM), cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM) and some isolated and syndromic forms of primary lymphedema. We focus on these disorders, the implicated mutated genes and the underlying pathogenic mechanisms. We also call attention to the concept of Knudson’s double-hit mechanism to explain incomplete penetrance and the large clinical variation in expressivity of inherited vascular anomalies. This variability renders the making of correct diagnosis of the rare inherited forms difficult. Yet, the identification of the pathophysiological causes and pathways involved in them has had an unprecedented impact on our thinking of their etiopathogenesis, and has opened the doors towards a more refined classification of vascular anomalies. It has also made it possible to develop animal models that can be tested for specific molecular therapies, aimed at alleviating the dysfunctions caused by the aberrant genes and proteins. PMID:21095468

Boon, Laurence M.; Ballieux, Fanny; Vikkula, Miikka

2010-01-01

309

Microscopic origin of the '0.7-anomaly' in quantum point contacts.  

PubMed

Quantum point contacts are narrow, one-dimensional constrictions usually patterned in a two-dimensional electron system, for example by applying voltages to local gates. The linear conductance of a point contact, when measured as function of its channel width, is quantized in units of GQ = 2e(2)/h, where e is the electron charge and h is Planck's constant. However, the conductance also has an unexpected shoulder at ?0.7GQ, known as the '0.7-anomaly', whose origin is still subject to debate. Proposed theoretical explanations have invoked spontaneous spin polarization, ferromagnetic spin coupling, the formation of a quasi-bound state leading to the Kondo effect, Wigner crystallization and various treatments of inelastic scattering. However, explicit calculations that fully reproduce the various experimental observations in the regime of the 0.7-anomaly, including the zero-bias peak that typically accompanies it, are still lacking. Here we offer a detailed microscopic explanation for both the 0.7-anomaly and the zero-bias peak: their common origin is a smeared van Hove singularity in the local density of states at the bottom of the lowest one-dimensional subband of the point contact, which causes an anomalous enhancement in the Hartree potential barrier, the magnetic spin susceptibility and the inelastic scattering rate. We find good qualitative agreement between theoretical calculations and experimental results on the dependence of the conductance on gate voltage, magnetic field, temperature, source-drain voltage (including the zero-bias peak) and interaction strength. We also clarify how the low-energy scale governing the 0.7-anomaly depends on gate voltage and interactions. For low energies, we predict and observe Fermi-liquid behaviour similar to that associated with the Kondo effect in quantum dots. At high energies, however, the similarities between the 0.7-anomaly and the Kondo effect end. PMID:23995681

Bauer, Florian; Heyder, Jan; Schubert, Enrico; Borowsky, David; Taubert, Daniela; Bruognolo, Benedikt; Schuh, Dieter; Wegscheider, Werner; von Delft, Jan; Ludwig, Stefan

2013-09-01

310

An Integrated Assessment of China’s Wind Energy Potential  

E-print Network

Computable general equilibrium (CGE) models seeking to evaluate the impacts of electricity policy face difficulties incorporating detail on the variable nature of renewable energy resources. To improve the accuracy of ...

Zhang, D.

311

Energy Use Reduction Potential in the Beet Sugar Industry  

E-print Network

Process energy use data are presented for most of the forty operating beet sugar factories in the United States. Sixty percent of the processing capacity is in states that actively pursue cogeneration projects. Most of the present factories...

Barron, T. S.; Heist, J. A.

1984-01-01

312

The economic potential of producing energy from agricultural biomass  

E-print Network

activities which produce ethanol and biomass electricity. The forced supply of new biomass crops, along with corn, involves several levels of energy production. This forced supply was based on projected ethanol demands and land capability for biomass...

Jerko, Christine

1996-01-01

313

Energy conservation potential of Portland cement particle size distribution control  

SciTech Connect

The main objective of Phase 3 is to develop practical economic methods of controlling the particles size distribution of portland cements using existing or modified mill circuits with the principal aim of reducing electrical energy requirements for cement manufacturing.

Tresouthick, S.W.; Weiss, S.J.

1986-01-01

314

Assessing the potential of renewable energy sources in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

To meet Turkey’s growing energy demand, the installed electric power capacity of 27.8 GW in 2001 has to be doubled by 2010 and increased fourfold by 2020. The difference between Turkey’s total primary energy supply (TPES) of from its own sources and total final consumption (TFC) is projected grow from 1 quad (1.06–2.06) in 1999 to 5.71 quads (2.79–8.5) in

F Evrendilek; C Ertekin

2003-01-01

315

The vibrational energies of ozone up to the dissociation threshold: Dynamics calculations on an accurate potential energy surface  

E-print Network

The vibrational energies of ozone up to the dissociation threshold: Dynamics calculations present an ab initio potential energy surface for the ground electronic state of ozone. It is global, i. All bound states of nonrotating ozone up to more than 99% of the dissociation energy are calculated

Farantos, Stavros C.

316

High-energy behavior of the nuclear symmetry potential in asymmetric nuclear matter  

E-print Network

Using the relativistic impulse approximation with empirical NN scattering amplitude and the nuclear scalar and vector densities from the relativistic mean-field theory, we evaluate the Dirac optical potential for neutrons and protons in asymmetric nuclear matter. From the resulting Schr\\"{o}% dinger-equivalent potential, the high energy behavior of the nuclear symmetry potential is studied. We find that the symmetry potential at fixed baryon density is essentially constant once the nucleon kinetic energy is greater than about 500 MeV. Moreover, for such high energy nucleon, the symmetry potential is slightly negative below a baryon density of about $% \\rho =0.22$ fm$^{-3}$ and then increases almost linearly to positive values at high densities. Our results thus provide an important constraint on the energy and density dependence of nuclear symmetry potential in asymmetric nuclear matter.

Lie-Wen Chen; Che Ming Ko; Bao-An Li

2005-12-07

317

Near-Barrier Elastic Scattering of Weakly Bound Nuclei and the Threshold Anomaly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is pointed out that the usual threshold anomaly, found operative in the energy behavior of the imaginary and real parts of the optical potential representing the elastic scattering of tightly bound nuclei at near- and below-barrier energies, suffers a drastic qualitative change in the case of the elastic scattering of weakly bound projectile nuclei. Owing to the strong coupling to the breakup channel even at sub-barrier energies, the imaginary potential strength seems to increase as the energy is lowered down to below the natural, barrier, threshold, accompanied by a decrease in the real potential strength. This feature is consistent with the dispersion relation. It also clearly indicates the effective increase of the barrier height. The systems 9Be, 16O + 64Zn and 6,7Li + 138Ba are analyzed to illustrate this new phenomenon.

Hussein, M. S.; Chamon, L. C.; Gomes, P. R. S.

2005-10-01

318

Maternal water consumption during pregnancy and congenital cardiac anomalies  

SciTech Connect

This case-control study, conducted in a California county that had a local incident of water contamination in 1981, investigated the relation between a mother's reported consumption of tap water during pregnancy and congenital cardiac anomalies in their offspring born during 1981-1983. Data were obtained from telephone interviews with 145 mothers of children born with a severe cardiac anomaly and 176 mothers of children born without such an anomaly. A positive association between a mother's consumption of home tap water during the first trimester of pregnancy and cardiac anomalies in her infant was unrelated to the incident of water contamination, the mother's race, or her educational level. A negative relation was found between a mother's use of bottled water and cardiac anomalies among the infants. These findings corresponded primarily to births in 1981. These data could not fully distinguish between a potential causal agent in the water and differential reporting of exposure by study subjects.

Shaw, G.M.; Swan, S.H.; Harris, J.A.; Malcoe, L.H. (California Birth Defects Monitoring Program, Emeryville (USA))

1990-05-01

319

Non-classical role of potential energy in adiabatic quantum annealing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adiabatic quantum annealing is a paradigm of analog quantum computation, where a given computational job is converted to the task of finding the global minimum of some classical potential energy function and the search for the global potential minimum is performed by employing external kinetic quantum fluctuations and subsequent slow reduction (annealing) of them. In this method, the entire potential

Arnab Das

2009-01-01

320

Submitted to Renewable Energy, 5 December 2009 The technical potential for off-peak electricity  

E-print Network

October 2009 #12;The technical potential for off-peak electricity to serve as backup in wind. This paper examines the technical potential of off-peak electricity to ensure that wind-charged thermalSubmitted to Renewable Energy, 5 December 2009 ERG/200910 The technical potential for off

Hughes, Larry

321

Gravitational Anomalies in the Solar System?  

E-print Network

Mindful of the anomalous perihelion precession of Mercury discovered by U. Le Verrier in the second half of the nineteenth century and its successful explanation by A. Einstein with his General Theory of Relativity in the early years of the twentieth century, discrepancies among observed effects in our Solar system and their theoretical predictions on the basis of the currently accepted laws of gravitation applied to known bodies have the potential of paving the way for remarkable advances in fundamental physics. This is particularly important now more than ever, given that most of the Universe seems to be made of unknown substances dubbed Dark Matter and Dark Energy. Should this not be directly the case, Solar system's anomalies could anyhow lead to advancements in cumulative science, as shown to us by the discovery of Neptune in the first half of the nineteenth century. Moreover, investigations in one of such directions can serendipitously enrich the other one as well. The current status of some alleged gra...

Iorio, Lorenzo

2014-01-01

322

Rivers of Energy: The Hydropower Potential. Worldwatch Paper No. 44.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described are the history, current status and future potential of hydroelectric power in the world. Issues discussed include the environmental and social impacts of dam construction, and the use of small-scale hydroelectric installations in developing nations. Also considered are hydroelectric development of the world's remote regions, the need to…

Deudney, Daniel

323

Wind energy potential assessment in Naxos Island, Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current paper presents an investigation of the wind power potential of Koronos village, a remote location in the northeastern part of Naxos Island, Greece, using real wind data by a measurement mast. The obtained wind characteristics were statistically analysed using the Weibull and Rayleigh distribution functions. The results from this investigation showed that the selected site falls under Class

Ioannis Fyrippis; Petros J. Axaopoulos; Gregoris Panayiotou

2010-01-01

324

Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (Energy-SMARRT): Surface/Near Surface Indication - Characterization of Surface Anomalies from Magnetic Particle and Liquid Penetrant Indications  

SciTech Connect

The systematic study and characterization of surface indications has never been conducted. Producers and users of castings do not have any data on which they can reliably communicate the nature of these indications or their effect on the performance of parts. Clearly, the ultimate intent of any work in this area is to eliminate indications that do in fact degrade properties. However, it may be impractical physically and/or financially to eliminate all surface imperfections. This project focused on the ones that actually degrade properties. The initial work was to identify those that degrade properties. Accurate numerical simulations of casting service performance allow designers to use the geometric flexibility of castings and the superior properties of steel to produce lighter weight and more energy efficient components for transportation systems (cars and trucks), construction, and mining. Accurate simulations increase the net melting energy efficiency by improving casting yield and reducing rework and scrap. Conservatively assuming a 10% improvement in yield, approximately 1.33 x 1012 BTU/year can be saved with this technology. In addition, CO2 emissions will be reduced by approximately 117,050 tons per year.

Griffin, John [university of Alabama - Birmingham] [university of Alabama - Birmingham

2014-02-20

325

Kohn anomaly in phonon driven superconductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anomalies often occur in the physical world. Sometimes quite unexpectedly anomalies may give rise to new insight to an unrecognized phenomenon. In this paper we shall discuss about Kohn anomaly in a conventional phonon-driven superconductor by using a microscopic approach. Recently Aynajian et al.'s experiment showed a striking feature; the energy of phonon at a particular wave-vector is almost exactly equal to twice the energy of the superconducting gap. Although the phonon mechanism of superconductivity is well known for many conventional superconductors, as has been noted by Scalapino, the new experimental results reveal a genuine puzzle. In our recent work we have presented a detailed theoretical analysis with the help of microscopic calculations to unravel this mystery. We probe this aspect of phonon behaviour from the properties of electronic polarizability function in the superconducting phase of a Fermi liquid metal, leading to the appearance of a Kohn singularity. We show the crossover to the standard Kohn anomaly of the normal phase for temperatures above the transition temperature. Our analysis provides a nearly complete explanation of this new experimentally discovered phenomenon. This report is a shorter version of our recent work in JPCM.

Das, M. P.; Chaudhury, R.

2014-08-01

326

Assessment of the Technical Potential for Achieving Net Zero-Energy Buildings in the Commercial Sector  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the findings from research conducted at NREL to assess the technical potential for zero-energy building technologies and practices to reduce the impact of commercial buildings on the U.S. energy system. Commercial buildings currently account for 18% of annual U.S. energy consumption, and energy use is growing along with overall floor area. Reducing the energy use of this sector will require aggressive research goals and rapid implementation of the research results.

Griffith, B.; Long, N.; Torcellini, P.; Judkoff, R.; Crawley, D.; Ryan, J.

2007-12-01

327

The Potential for Energy Retrofits within the City of Sacramento's Rental Housing Inspection Program  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of an analysis performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the City of Sacramento--under the U.S. Department of Energy’s Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Office of Weatherization and Intergovernmental Projects Technical Assistance Program--to help determine the potential for incorporating energy efficiency standards into the City’s existing Rental Housing Inspection Program as part of Sacramento’s efforts to create a Climate Action Plan.

Iverson, Megan M.; Sande, Susan; Britt, Michelle L.

2011-04-15

328

The Potential for Harvesting Energy from the Movement of Trees  

PubMed Central

Over the last decade, wireless devices have decreased in size and power requirements. These devices generally use batteries as a power source but can employ additional means of power, such as solar, thermal or wind energy. However, sensor networks are often deployed in conditions of minimal lighting and thermal gradient such as densely wooded environments, where even normal wind energy harvesting is limited. In these cases a possible source of energy is from the motion of the trees themselves. We investigated the amount of energy and power available from the motion of a tree in a sheltered position, during Beaufort 4 winds. We measured the work performed by the tree to lift a mass, we measured horizontal acceleration of free movement, and we determined the angular deflection of the movement of the tree trunk, to determine the energy and power available to various types of harvesting devices. We found that the amount of power available from the tree, as demonstrated by lifting a mass, compares favourably with the power required to run a wireless sensor node. PMID:22163695

McGarry, Scott; Knight, Chris

2011-01-01

329

Potential impact of contrails on solar energy gain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the effect of contrails on global shortwave radiation and on solar energy gain. The study was done for days with a high contrail persistence and looking at situations where the contrails were obstructing the sun. Measurements of cloudiness using a fish eye camera, diffuse and direct shortwave measurements and measurements of the short circuit current of three different types of photovoltaic (PV) modules were performed at the solar observatory Kanzelhöhe (1540 m a.s.l.) during a period of one year with a time resolution of one minute. Our results show that contrails moving between sun and observer/sensor may reduce the global radiation by up to 72%. A statistic of contrail persistence and influence of contrails on global irradiance and solar energy gain is presented. The losses in solar energy gain that were recorded may even be critical under some circumstances for PV system performance.

Weihs, P.; Rennhofer, M.; Baumgartner, D.; Gadermaier, J.; Wagner, J.; Laube, W.

2014-08-01

330

Simulation-assisted evaluation of potential energy savings: Application to an administrative building in France  

E-print Network

Simulation-assisted evaluation of potential energy savings: Application to an administrative building in France F. Randaxhe1, S. Bertagnolio1, V. Lemort1 1 Thermodynamics Laboratory, University of Liege, Chemins des chevreuils 7, 4000 Liege.... The advantages and drawbacks of the applied methods and tools are also discussed. Keywords: Building energy simulation, potential savings, ECO, audit 1. Introduction While our economy is heavily dependent on energy resources, the building sector is directly...

Randaxhe, F.; Bertagnolio, S.; Lemort, V.

2012-01-01

331

Estimating the potential CO 2 mitigation from agricultural energy efficiency in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy efficiency in agriculture is an underanalyzed aspect of a potential climate change mitigation strategy. According to\\u000a the Fourth Assessment Report, experts report only medium agreement and medium evidence that energy efficiency can provide\\u000a substantial reductions (Smith et al. 2007). This paper estimates the CO2 mitigation potential achievable through improvements in energy efficiency in the US agriculture sector. The data

Michael Gallaher; Katherine Delhotal; Jeffrey Petrusa

2009-01-01

332

On the potential energy in a gravitationally bound two-body system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential energy problem in a gravitationally bound two-body system is studied in the framework of a recently proposed impact model of gravity (Wilhelm et al., 2013). The concept of a closed system has been modified, before the physical processes resulting in the liberation of the potential energy can be described. The energy is extracted from the background flux of hypothetical interaction entities.

Wilhelm, Klaus; Dwivedi, Bhola N.

2015-01-01

333

Energy Potential of Biomass from Conservation Grasslands in Minnesota, USA  

PubMed Central

Perennial biomass from grasslands managed for conservation of soil and biodiversity can be harvested for bioenergy. Until now, the quantity and quality of harvestable biomass from conservation grasslands in Minnesota, USA, was not known, and the factors that affect bioenergy potential from these systems have not been identified. We measured biomass yield, theoretical ethanol conversion efficiency, and plant tissue nitrogen (N) as metrics of bioenergy potential from mixed-species conservation grasslands harvested with commercial-scale equipment. With three years of data, we used mixed-effects models to determine factors that influence bioenergy potential. Sixty conservation grassland plots, each about 8 ha in size, were distributed among three locations in Minnesota. Harvest treatments were applied annually in autumn as a completely randomized block design. Biomass yield ranged from 0.5 to 5.7 Mg ha?1. May precipitation increased biomass yield while precipitation in all other growing season months showed no affect. Averaged across all locations and years, theoretical ethanol conversion efficiency was 450 l Mg?1 and the concentration of plant N was 7.1 g kg?1, both similar to dedicated herbaceous bioenergy crops such as switchgrass. Biomass yield did not decline in the second or third year of harvest. Across years, biomass yields fluctuated 23% around the average. Surprisingly, forb cover was a better predictor of biomass yield than warm-season grass with a positive correlation with biomass yield in the south and a negative correlation at other locations. Variation in land ethanol yield was almost exclusively due to variation in biomass yield rather than biomass quality; therefore, efforts to increase biomass yield might be more economical than altering biomass composition when managing conservation grasslands for ethanol production. Our measurements of bioenergy potential, and the factors that control it, can serve as parameters for assessing the economic viability of harvesting conservation grasslands for bioenergy. PMID:23577208

Jungers, Jacob M.; Fargione, Joseph E.; Sheaffer, Craig C.; Wyse, Donald L.; Lehman, Clarence

2013-01-01

334

Wind energy potential of Gökçeada Island in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of the present study is to estimate wind power potential of Gökçeada Island in the Northern Aegean Sea in Turkey using the wind data collected at four different locations. Wind data collected over a period of 3 years at U?urlu and Ç?naralt? stations and a period of 10 years at Ayd?nc?k and National Weather Station. In this

N. Eskin; H. Artar; S. Tolun

2008-01-01

335

Renewable Energy in India: Status and future Potential  

E-print Network

Thermal Solar Photovoltaic Tidal Wave Ocean Thermal #12;Power Generation Options Power Generation;Energy End uses End-uses Cooking Transport Electricity HeatingCooling Cooling Motive Power Lighting Side Management (Solar Water Heater, Passive Solar) #12;Renewables in Power Power generation 6500 PJ

Banerjee, Rangan

336

Layered Binary-Dielectrics for Energy Applications: Limitations and Potentials  

SciTech Connect

In this Letter, an attempt is made to illustrate how performance of an electrically insulating material, a dielectric, can be improved by constructing a layered binary-dielectric structure that employs a weak insulator with high dielectric permittivity. It is shown that layered binary-dielectrics could have a signicant impact on energy storage and electrical insulation.

Tuncer, Enis [ORNL

2012-01-01

337

The potential of solar energy use in desiccant cooling cycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of heat produced by solar thermal collectors is an interesting option for thermal driven air conditioning processes. A thermal driven cooling technique which fits well to non-tracking solar collectors is the desiccant cooling technique. Recently several projects have been carried out which focus on the connection of desiccant cooling systems with solar thermal energy for regeneration of the

H-M Henning; T Erpenbeck; C Hindenburg; I. S Santamaria

2001-01-01

338

Potential Peak Load Reductions From Residential Energy Efficient Upgrades  

E-print Network

in manufactured housing. Other monitored sites include the Washington State U. Energy House in Olympia, WA; the Hoak residence in Orlando, FL; two portable classrooms in Marysville, WA; a classroom each in Boise, ID and Portland, OR. See other papers being...

Meisegeier, D.; Howes, M.; King, D.; Hall, J.

2002-01-01

339

Sustainable Development and Energy Geotechnology Potential Roles for Geotechnical Engineering  

SciTech Connect

The world is facing unprecedented challenges related to energy resources, global climate change, material use, and waste generation. Failure to address these challenges will inhibit the growth of the developing world and will negatively impact the standard of living and security of future generations in all nations. The solutions to these challenges will require multidisciplinary research across the social and physical sciences and engineering. Although perhaps not always recognized, geotechnical engineering expertise is critical to the solution of many energy and sustainability-related problems. Hence, geotechnical engineers and academicians have opportunity and responsibility to contribute to the solution of these worldwide problems. Research will need to be extended to non-standard issues such as thermal properties of soils; sediment and rock response to extreme conditions and at very long time scales; coupled hydro-chemo-thermo-bio-mechanical processes; positive feedback systems; the development of discontinuities; biological modification of soil properties; spatial variability; and emergent phenomena. Clearly, the challenges facing geotechnical engineering in the future will require a much broader knowledge base than our traditional educational programs provide. The geotechnical engineering curricula, from undergraduate education through continuing professional education, must address the changing needs of a profession that will increasingly be engaged in alternative/renewable energy production; energy efficiency; sustainable design, enhanced and more efficient use of natural resources, waste management, and underground utilization.

FragaszyProgram Dire, Dr. R. J. [National Science Foundation; Santamarina, Carlos [Georgia Institute of Technology; Espinoza, N. [Georgia Institute of Technology; Jang, J.W. [Georgia Institute of Technology; Jung, J.W. [Georgia Institute of Technology; Tsouris, Costas [ORNL

2011-01-01

340

Potential of cattails as an energy source. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Research on the feasibility of growing cattails as an energy crop is described. The following topics are included: productivity in natural strands, germination requirements for seed, establishing stands by seeding, rhizome dormancy and development, harvesting and stand establishment, and analysis of canopy structure and radiation profiles in a natural community. (MHR)

Pratt, D.C.; Bonnewell, V.; Andrews, N.J.; Kim, J.H.

1980-01-01

341

Energy conservation potential of Portland Cement particle size distribution control  

SciTech Connect

The main objective of Phase 3 is to develop practical economic methods of controlling the particle size distribution of portland cements using exiting or modified mill circuits with the principal aim of reducing electrical energy requirements for cement manufacturing. Because of its scope, the work of Phase 3 will be carried out in 10 main tasks, which will be discussed in this report.

Tresouthick, S.W.; Weiss, S.J.

1986-01-01

342

Energy conservation potential of Portland cement particle size distribution control  

SciTech Connect

The main objective of Phase 3 is to develop practical economic methods of controlling the particle size distribution of portland cements using existing or modified mill circuits with the principal aim of reducing electrical energy requirements for cement manufacturing. Because of its scope, the work of Phase 3 will be carried out in 10 main tasks, which will be discussed in this report.

Tresouthick, S.W.; Weiss, S.J.

1986-01-01

343

Gas production from sanitary landfills as a potential energy resource  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid increase in the cost of energy has increased interest in the recovery and utilization of sanitary landfill gas at locations throughout the World. These solid waste disposal sites are considered untapped sources of methane gas. If methane is not recovered and utilized, it forms an explosive mixture with oxygen and causes environmental damages. The amount of recoverable gas

Alzuydi

1980-01-01

344

Explicit energy expansion for general odd degree polynomial potentials  

E-print Network

In this paper we derive an almost explicit analytic formula for asymptotic eigenenergy expansion of arbitrary odd degree polynomial potentials of the form $V(x)=(ix)^{2N+1}+\\beta _{1}x^{2N}+\\beta _{2}x^{2N-1}+\\cdot \\cdot \\cdot \\cdot \\cdot +\\beta _{2N}x$ where $\\beta _{k}^{\\prime }$s are real or complex for $1\\leq k\\leq 2N$. The formula can be used to find semiclassical analytic expressions for eigenenergies up to any order very efficiently. Each term of the expansion is given explicitly as a multinomial of the parameters $\\beta _{1},\\beta _{2}....$ and $\\beta _{2N}$ of the potential. Unlike in the even degree polynomial case, the highest order term in the potential is pure imaginary and hence the system is non-Hermitian. Therefore all the integrations have been carried out along a contour enclosing two complex turning points which lies within a wedge in the complex plane. With the help of some examples we demonstrate the accuracy of the method for both real and complex eigenspectra.

Asiri Nanayakkara; Thilagarajah Mathanaranjan

2014-07-01

345

GIS-Based Assessment of Roof-Mounted Solar Energy Potential in Jiangsu, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to high risk of unstable supply from fossil energy and growing concern with the preservation of the environment, well-developed Jiangsu province in China is hungering for alternative energy resources to catalyze stupendous economic growth. Assessing the technically available potential of solar energy spatially and temporally over the whole province might be able to improve the unfavorable situation. This paper

Guangxu Liu; Wenxiang Wu; Quansheng Ge; Erfu Dai; Zhiwei Wan; Yang Zhou

2011-01-01

346

The global technical potential of bio-energy in 2050 considering sustainability constraints  

PubMed Central

Bio-energy, that is, energy produced from organic non-fossil material of biological origin, is promoted as a substitute for non-renewable (e.g., fossil) energy to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and dependency on energy imports. At present, global bio-energy use amounts to approximately 50 EJ/yr, about 10% of humanity's primary energy supply. We here review recent literature on the amount of bio-energy that could be supplied globally in 2050, given current expectations on technology, food demand and environmental targets (‘technical potential’). Recent studies span a large range of global bio-energy potentials from ?30 to over 1000 EJ/yr. In our opinion, the high end of the range is implausible because of (1) overestimation of the area available for bio-energy crops due to insufficient consideration of constraints (e.g., area for food, feed or nature conservation) and (2) too high yield expectations resulting from extrapolation of plot-based studies to large, less productive areas. According to this review, the global technical primary bio-energy potential in 2050 is in the range of 160–270 EJ/yr if sustainability criteria are considered. The potential of bio-energy crops is at the lower end of previously published ranges, while residues from food production and forestry could provide significant amounts of energy based on an integrated optimization (‘cascade utilization’) of biomass flows. PMID:24069093

Haberl, Helmut; Beringer, Tim; Bhattacharya, Sribas C; Erb, Karl-Heinz; Hoogwijk, Monique

2010-01-01

347

California offshore wind energy potential Michael J. Dvorak a,*, Cristina L. Archer b  

E-print Network

California offshore wind energy potential Michael J. Dvorak a,*, Cristina L. Archer b , Mark Z December 2009 Keywords: Offshore wind energy California Resource assessment MM5 Bathymetry Mesoscale offshore buoys with high- resolution bathymetry to create a wind energy resource assessment for offshore

348

Sources and Sinks of Available Potential Energy in a Moist Atmosphere OLIVIER PAULUIS  

E-print Network

Sources and Sinks of Available Potential Energy in a Moist Atmosphere OLIVIER PAULUIS Courant as the difference between the total static energy of the atmosphere and that of a reference state that minimizes at which APE is generated in the atmosphere allows one to estimate the amount of kinetic energy that can

Pauluis, Olivier M.

349

Renewable hot dry rock geothermal energy source and its potential in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geothermal energy source, one of the viable renewable energy sources, has encouraging potential to generate full base-load electricity, which has not been explored so far in Pakistan. Though the country can be benefited by harnessing the hydro-geothermal options of energy generation in areas where sources exist, but most of these sources lie in extreme remote and inaccessible rugged mountainous ranges

Nayyer Alam Zaigham; Zeeshan Alam Nayyar

2010-01-01

350

Biogas generation potential by anaerobic digestion for sustainable energy development in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of biogas generation from anaerobic digestion of different waste biomass in India has been studied. Renewable energy from biomass is one of the most efficient and effective options among the various other alternative sources of energy currently available. The anaerobic digestion of biomass requires less capital investment and per unit production cost as compared to other renewable energy

P. Venkateswara Rao; Saroj S. Baral; Ranjan Dey; Srikanth Mutnuri

2010-01-01

351

GEOTHERMAL ENERGY FROM THE EARTH:Its Potential Impact as an Environmentally Sustainable Resource  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Geothermal energy technology is reviewed in terms of its current impact and future potential as an energy source. In general, the geothermal energy resource base is large and well distributed globally. Geothermal systems have a number of positive social characteristics (they are simple, safe, and adaptable systems with modular 1-50 MW [thermal (t) or electric (e)] plants capable of

John E. Mock; Jefferson W. Tester; P. Michael Wright

1997-01-01

352

Wave energy potential in the Eastern Mediterranean Levantine Basin. An integrated 10-year study  

E-print Network

but also stable, and hence exploitable, wave energy potential is revealed. However, non-trivial impact of en- ergy, the most crucial of which is the low variability, especially when compared with wind energy that remains to be covered before wave energy science and technology reach the maturity level of its wind

Georgiou, Georgios

353

A rigorous treatment of reactive scattering on a single adiabatic potential energy surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rigorous adiabatic kinetic energy operator has been derived for general adiabatic bimolecular chemical reactions. Three regions, i.e. the reactant, coupling and product regions, are classified in the configuration space by the character of the potential energy surfaces. It is shown that the present adiabatic kinetic energy operator is different from the commonly adopted form only in the coupling region.

Lichang Wang

1998-01-01

354

Overcoming Energetic and Time Scale Barriers Using the Potential Energy Surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sampling stationary points of the potential energy surface provides an intuitive way to coarse-grain calculations of both thermodynamic and dynamic properties. Functions such as internal energy, entropy, free energy and the heat capacity can be obtained from the superposition approximation, where the total partition function is written as a sum of contributions from a database of local minima. Rates can

David J. Wales; Joanne M. Carr; Tim James

355

The Challenges and Potential of Nuclear Energy for Addressing Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The response to climate change and the stabilization of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations has major implications for the global energy system. Stabilization of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations requires a peak and an indefinite decline of global CO2 emissions. Nuclear energy, along with other technologies, has the potential to contribute to the growing demand for energy without emitting CO2. Nuclear

Son H. Kim; James A. Edmonds

2007-01-01

356

New Soft-Core Potential Function for Molecular Dynamics Based Alchemical Free Energy Calculations  

E-print Network

New Soft-Core Potential Function for Molecular Dynamics Based Alchemical Free Energy Calculations accurate free energy calculations based on molecular dynamics simulations. A thermodynamic integration scheme is often used to calculate changes in the free energy of a system by integrating the change

de Groot, Bert

357

Assessment of the potential of halophytes as energy crops for the electric utility industry. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This technical report assesses and estimates the potential of selected halophytes as future renewable energy resources, especially by US electric utilities, and familiarizes nonspecialists with research and development problems that must be resolved before these energy sources can become dependable supplies of energy. A literature search related to both indigenous and exotic species of halophytes has been done and appropriate

Goodin

1984-01-01

358

Natural gas reduction potential associated with selected residential energy efficiency measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus of this report is to explore, in a speculative way, the energy saving potential associated with certain gas-related productive conservation measures for Nebraska homes. Currently, market available energy efficient natural gas furnaces, water heaters, and major appliances offer cost effective and technically feasible energy and dollar saving solutions for consumers. Additionally, in some cases, the retrofit of electronic

Macke

1980-01-01

359

An in-Medium Heavy-Quark Potential from the $Q\\bar{Q}$ Free Energy  

E-print Network

We investigate the problem of extracting a static potential between a quark and its antiquark in a quark-gluon plasma (QGP) from lattice-QCD computations of the singlet free energy, $F_{Q\\bar{Q}}(r)$. We utilize the thermodynamic $T$-matrix formalism to calculate the free energy from an underlying potential ansatz resummed in ladder approximation. Imaginary parts of both $Q\\bar Q$ potential-type and single-quark selfenergies are included as estimated from earlier results of the $T$-matrix approach. We find that the imaginary parts, and in particular their (low-) energy dependence, induce marked deviations of the (real part of the) potential from the calculated free energy. When fitting lattice results of the latter, the extracted potential is characterized by significant long-range contributions from remnants of the confining force. We briefly discuss consequences of this feature for the heavy-quark transport coefficient in the QGP.

Liu, Shuai Y F

2015-01-01

360

Energy conservation potential of Portland Cement particle size distribution control  

SciTech Connect

The main objective of Phase 3 is to develop practical economic methods of controlling the particle size distribution of portland cements using existing or modified mill circuits with the principal aim of reducing electrical energy requirements for cement manufacturing. The work of Phase 3, because of its scope, will be carried out in 10 main tasks, some of which will be handled simultaneously. Progress on each of these tasks is discussed in this paper.

Tresouthick, S.W.; Weiss, S.J.

1985-01-01

361

Physicochemical isotope anomalies  

SciTech Connect

Isotopic composition of refractory elements can be modified, by physical processes such as distillation and sputtering, in unexpected patterns. Distillation enriches the heavy isotopes in the residue and the light isotopes in the vapor. However, current models appear to be inadequate to describe the detailed mass dependence, in particular for large fractionations. Coarse- and fine-grained inclusions from the Allende meteorite exhibit correlated isotope effects in Mg both as mass-dependent fractionation and residual anomalies. This isotope pattern can be duplicated by high temperature distillation in the laboratory. A ubiquitous property of meteoritic inclusions for Mg as well as for most of the other elements, where measurements exist, is mass-dependent fractionation. In contrast, terrestrial materials such as microtektites, tektite buttons as well as lunar orange and green glass spheres have normal Mg isotopic composition. A subset of interplanetary dust particles labelled as chondritic aggregates exhibit excesses in {sup 26}Mg and deuterium anomalies. Sputtering is expected to be a dominant mechanism in the destruction of grains within interstellar dust clouds. An active proto-sun as well as the present solar-wind and solar-flare flux are of sufficient intensity to sputter significant amounts of material. Laboratory experiments in Mg show widespread isotope effects including residual {sup 26}Mg excesses and mass dependent fractionation. It is possible that the {sup 26}Mg excesses in interplanetary dust is related to sputtering by energetic solar-wind particles. The implication if the laboratory distillation and sputtering effects are discussed and contrasted with the anomalies in meteoritic inclusions the other extraterrestrial materials the authors have access to.

Esat, T.M. (Australian National Univ., Canberra)

1988-06-01

362

Numerical Shockwave Anomalies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reliable simulation of shockwaves is critical in the prediction and study of many phenomena, where abrupt changes in material properties due to shockwaves can greatly affect regions of interest and activate physical mechanisms. When a physical shockwave is formed, it moves through the flow with a certain speed, having some finite width determined by physical dissipation until it encounters some event in its path. For numerical shockwaves, however, a numerical width is enforced, often much greater than the physical width. With this numerical width comes the formation of intermediate states having no direct physical interpretation. Even as the mesh is refined, these intermediate states do not go away; they simply occupy less space. The existence of intermediate states does raise some doubt, however, about how closely a captured shockwave may emulate an ideal discontinuous shockwave, or a real physical one. There are in fact several types of error associated with intermediate shock states such as errors in shock position, spurious waves, or unstable shock behavior. These errors can be classified as numerical shockwave anomalies; they are numerical artifacts formed due to the presence of captured shockwaves within the flow solution. Each numerical shockwave anomaly is directly related to the nonlinearity of the jump conditions and to a resulting ambiguity in sub-cell shock position in a stationary shock. Two new flux functions are developed that do not have this ambiguity. On all of the shock anomalies in one-dimension, both flux functions show improvement on existing methods without smearing or diffusing the shock. They are also shown to perform adequately within a second-order framework and on two-dimensional problems, important for the practicality of the method. While they are still susceptible to many of the problems that occur in Roe's Riemann solver and several other known issues, these methods serve to validate the philosophy and approach taken in this thesis: by enforcing a linear shock structure and unambiguous sub-cell shock position, numerical shockwave anomalies are dramatically reduced.

Zaide, Daniel Wei-Ming

363

Effective Potential Energies and Transport Properties for Nitrogen and Oxygen  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of recent theoretical studies for N--N2, O--O2, N2--N2 interactions are applied to the transport properties of nitrogen and oxygen gases. The theoretical results are used to select suitable oxygen interaction energies from previous work for determining the diffusion and viscosity coefficients at high temperatures. A universal formulation is applied to determine the collision integrals for O2--O2 interactions at high temperatures and to calculate certain ratios for determining higher-order collision integrals.

Stallcop, James R.; Partridge, Harry; Levin, Eugene; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

364

Available potential energy of the daily coastal circulation at Zadar (Croatia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The aim of this study is the evaluation of the sea breeze speed on the basis of its energy. Energetics of the sea breeze can\\u000a be studied by means of the available potential energy (APE). Part of this energy is transformed into the kinetic energy of\\u000a the sea breeze. Some similarity exists between the large scale processes of the circulation

T. Trosic ´; N. Šinik; Ž. Troši?

2006-01-01

365

Collinear classical dynamics on a chemically accurate H+H2 potential energy surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exchange in the hydrogen atom–molecule reaction is investigated via classical collinear dynamics on the Yates–Lester potential energy surface. A threshold kinetic energy of 6.4762 kcal\\/mole (0.2808 eV) is determined. Exchange probabilities are found to be, in general, slightly less than those obtained using the energy surface of Shavitt, Stevens, Minn, and Karplus. Energy banding is observed and discontinuities in the

Robert E. Howard; Albert C. Yatest; William A. Lester

1977-01-01

366

Collinear classical dynamics on a chemically accurate H+H2 potential energy surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exchange in the hydrogen atom-molecule reaction is investigated via classical collinear dynamics on the Yates-Lester potential energy surface. A threshold kinetic energy of 6.4762 kcal\\/mole (0.2808 eV) is determined. Exchange probabilities are found to be, in general, slightly less than those obtained using the energy surface of Shavitt, Stevens, Minn, and Karplus. Energy banding is observed and discontinuities in the

Robert E. Howard; Albert C. Yates; William A. Lester

1977-01-01

367

Assessing the theoretical potentials of global solar and wind energy from climate reanalysis data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The physics of energy conversions limit the rate and efficiency of solar and wind energy conversion for human energy use. These limits are reflected in the present-day climate system, where only about 1% of solar energy reaching the Earth's surface results in the generation of wind, defining wind energy as a converted form of solar energy. Here, we use physical thermodynamic limits to energy conversion, combine them with 2001-2011 ECMWF climate reanalysis data to estimate theoretical potentials for solar and wind energy. For solar energy, our estimates of direct and direct+diffuse solar radiation conversion are derived by applying the Carnot limit to the direct and diffuse components of the radiative entropy fluxes. For wind energy, our estimate is derived by quantifying the maximum rate of kinetic energy transport from the free atmosphere to 80-meters above the Earth surface, where wind turbines could convert this kinetic energy to electricity. Both estimates are similar to and consistent with more advanced modeling techniques, while also being easily applied to other climate datasets. These near-surface estimates also show that more than 100-times more solar energy than wind energy could be converted in the present-day climate, while providing both a spatial and temporal context to the renewable energy quantities. In this way, while the present-day limitations of solar or wind energy technologies may suggest that their global potentials are nearly equivalent, we conclude that solar energy has a substantially greater theoretical potential to meet future human energy demands.

Miller, Lee; Gans, Fabian; Kleidon, Axel

2013-04-01

368

Understanding fragility in supercooled Lennard-Jones mixtures. II. Potential energy surface  

E-print Network

We numerically investigated the connection between isobaric fragility and the properties of high-order stationary points of the potential energy surface in different supercooled Lennard-Jones mixtures. The increase of effective activation energies upon supercooling appears to be driven by the increase of average potential energy barriers measured by the energy dependence of the fraction of unstable modes. Such an increase is sharper, the more fragile is the mixture. Correlations between fragility and other properties of high-order stationary points, including the vibrational density of states and the localization features of unstable modes, are also discussed.

D. Coslovich; G. Pastore

2007-10-02

369

SHEAR WAVE VELOCITY FIELD TO DETECT ANOMALIES UNDER ASPHALT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-invasive mapping of anomalies beneath asphalt at depths from 2 m to as deep as 50 m has been successful using MASW in a variety of near-surface settings. Anomalies that include fracture zones within bedrock, dissolution\\/potential subsidence features, voids associated with old mine works, and erosional channels eched into the bedrock surface have been effectively identified in the shear wave

Richard D. Miller; Jianghai Xia; Choon Byong Park; Julian Ivanov

2001-01-01

370

Potential of ozonolysis as a pretreatment for energy grasses.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effect of ozonolysis on Miscanthus × giganteus, Miscanthus sinensis 'Gracillimus', Saccharum arundinaceum and Saccharum ravennae, collectively referred to as 'energy grasses'. Studies were conducted at three different ozone concentrations (40, 50 and 58 mg/l) using two ozone flow configurations - uni-directional and reversed flow. Pretreatment conditions for each variety were optimized based on lignin content and glucan recovery in ozonated solids. Results showed that ozonolysis was effective in removing up to 59.9% lignin without cellulose degradation. However, subsequent hydrolysis of pretreated solids with Cellic® CTec2 at 0.06 g/g raw biomass provided glucan conversion lower than untreated samples suggesting enzyme inhibition by lignin degradation products formed during ozonolysis. Future studies investigating hydrolysis efficiency of washed pretreated solids with higher enzyme loadings are therefore warranted to optimize the hydrolysis process and make it functionally feasible. PMID:24050926

Panneerselvam, Anushadevi; Sharma-Shivappa, Ratna R; Kolar, Praveen; Ranney, Thomas; Peretti, Steven

2013-11-01

371

Greenhouse gas mitigation potential of biomass energy technologies in Vietnam using the long range energy alternative planning system model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation potentials of number of selected Biomass Energy Technologies (BETs) have been assessed in Vietnam. These include Biomass Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (BIGCC) based on wood and bagasse, direct combustion plants based on wood, co-firing power plants and Stirling engine based on wood and cooking stoves. Using the Long-range Energy Alternative Planning (LEAP) model, different scenarios

Amit Kumar; S. C Bhattacharya; H. L Pham

2003-01-01

372

PUBLISHED VERSION Free Energy Generalization of the Peierls Potential in Iron  

E-print Network

PUBLISHED VERSION Free Energy Generalization of the Peierls Potential in Iron M. R. Gilbert, P in Iron M. R. Gilbert,1 P. Schuck,2 B. Sadigh,3 and J. Marian3,* 1 EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham

373

Potential Energy Savings from Optimized Schedule and Economizer Cycles in the Moody Library at UTMB  

E-print Network

This report presents the results of a study which was initiated in order to estimate the potential energy savings due to optimizing the HVAC operation schedule and using economizer cycles in the Moody Library Building located at the University...

Liu, M.; Athar, A.; Reddy, T. A.; Claridge, D. E.; Haberl, J. S.

1993-01-01

374

Determining the Intermolecular Potential Energy in a Gas: A Physical Chemistry Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an experiment in which gas viscosity coefficients over a large temperature range are used to determine the parameters of the intermolecular potential energy and other properties such as virial coefficients. (MLH)

Olbregts, J.; Walgraeve, J. P.

1976-01-01

375

Potential of Development and Application of Wave Energy Conversion Technology in the Gulf of Mexico  

E-print Network

This paper focuses on the potential and application of developing wave energy technology in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM). The conditions (weather, wave climate, activity of the oil industry, etc.) in the GOM are assessed and the attributes of wave...

Guiberteau, K. L.; Liu, Y.; Lee, J.; Kozman, T.

2014-01-01

376

Energy potential and early operational experience for large wind turbines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Projections for the total potential output of large wind turbines in the U.S. are reviewed. NASA has developed nine large windpowered generators, of 100 kW, 200 kW, 2 MW, and 2.5 MW capacities, with rotors 100-300 ft in diameter, and all with horizontal axes. Approximately 214,000 sq miles of the U.S. have been determined as having substantial wind regimes and terrain suitable for large wind turbine siting. This translates into 340,000 Mod 2 (2.5 MW) wind turbines producing 4.9 quads of electricity annually, equivalent to saving 2.5 billion barrels of oil/yr. The cost of electricity is seen as the critical factor in utility acceptance of large wind turbines, and the Mod 2 machines are noted to achieve the 2-4 cents/kWh (1977 dollars) COE which is necessary. Problems such as pollution, including visual, auditory, EM, and land use difficulties are considered, and solutions are indicated.

Robbins, W. H.; Thomas, R. L.

1980-01-01

377

Estimation and Monitoring of Wind/Wave energy potential in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

?he adaptation and use of innovative methodologies for the exploitation of renewable energy marine resources is one of the main issues today for the environmental science community. Within this framework, the exploitation of wind and wave energy potential for coastal and island states seems to be one of the promising solutions and highly interesting from research and technological point of view. In this work, the activities of two projects focusing on the study of wind/wave energy over the area of Eastern Mediterranean Sea are presented. The "Integrated High Resolution System for Monitoring and Quantifying the Wave Energy Potential in the EEZ of Cyprus" (Ewave project) focuses on the estimation, monitoring and forecasting of the wave energy potential over the Levantine Basin with special emphasis to the Exclusive Economical Zone of Cyprus, while the "Development and application of new mathematical and physical models for Monitoring the wind and Sea wave Energy Potential" (MOSEP project) is a platform for developing new mathematical algorithms for the estimation of the wave energy over the Aegean Sea. In both projects, high resolution digital atlases of sea wave/wind climatological characteristics and the distribution of the wind and wave energy potential are developed for the coastal and offshore areas of the East Mediterranean sea . Moreover, new models for the prediction and quantification of wave energy in short and long forecast horizons are proposed. Statistical results concerning the probability density functions of the wind speed, the significant wave height, as well as the energy potential will be presented for selected sea areas in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, while test case studies in certain regions favor to wind/wave renewable energy will be discussed.

Zodiatis, George; Galanis, George; Galanis, George; Emmanouil, George; Emmanouil, George; Hayes, Dan; Nikolaidis, Andreas; Georgiou, Georgios; Kalogeri, Christina; Kallos, George

2013-04-01

378

System for closure of a physical anomaly  

DOEpatents

Systems for closure of a physical anomaly. Closure is accomplished by a closure body with an exterior surface. The exterior surface contacts the opening of the anomaly and closes the anomaly. The closure body has a primary shape for closing the anomaly and a secondary shape for being positioned in the physical anomaly. The closure body preferably comprises a shape memory polymer.

Bearinger, Jane P; Maitland, Duncan J; Schumann, Daniel L; Wilson, Thomas S

2014-11-11

379

Energy spectra and wave function of trigonometric Rosen-Morse potential as an effective quantum chromodynamics potential in D-dimensions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Energy Spectra and Wave Function of Schrodinger equation in D-Dimensions for trigonometric Rosen-Morse potential were investigated analitically using Nikiforov-Uvarov method. This potential captures the essential traits of the quark-gluon dynamics of Quantum Chromodynamics. The approximate energy spectra are given in the close form and the corresponding approximate wave function for arbitary l-state (l ? 0) in D-dimensions are formulated in the form of diferential polynomials. The wave function of this potential unnormalizable for general case. The wave function of this potential unnormalizable for general case. The existence of extra dimensions (centrifugal factor) and this potential increase the energy spectra of system.

Deta, U. A.; Suparmi, Cari, Husein, A. S.; Yuliani, H.; Khaled, I. K. A.; Luqman, H.; Supriyanto

2014-09-01

380

Ultrahigh-Resolution Spin-Echo Measurement of Surface Potential Energy Landscapes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate two approaches that use the recently developed helium spin-echo technique to measure surface potential energy landscapes. For helium-lithium fluoride (100), we use the selective adsorption phenomenon to obtain the complete experimental band structure of atoms in a corrugated surface potential. For carbon monoxide-copper (001), we measure the diffusion-induced energy broadening in the scattered helium beam and extract properties

Andrew P. Jardine; Shechar Dworski; Peter Fouquet; Gil Alexandrowicz; David J. Riley; Gabriel Y. H. Lee; John Ellis; William Allison

2004-01-01

381

An empirical energy potential with a reference state for protein fold and sequence recognition.  

PubMed

We consider modifications of an empirical energy potential for fold and sequence recognition to represent approximately the stabilities of proteins in various environments. A potential used here includes a secondary structure potential representing short-range interactions for secondary structures of proteins, and a tertiary structure potential consisting of a long-range, pairwise contact potential and a repulsive packing potential. This potential is devised to evaluate together the total conformational energy of a protein at the coarse grained residue level. It was previously estimated from the observed frequencies of secondary structures, from contact frequencies between residues, and from the distributions of the number of residues in contact in known protein structures by regarding those distributions as the equilibrium distributions with the Boltzmann factor of these interaction energies. The stability of native structures is assumed as a primary requirement for proteins to fold into their native structures. A collapse energy is subtracted from the contact energies to remove the protein size dependence and to represent protein stabilities for monomeric and multimeric states. The free energy of the whole ensemble of protein conformations that is subtracted from the conformational energy to represent protein stability is approximated as the average energy expected for a typical native structure with the same amino acid composition. This term may be constant in fold recognition but essentially varies in sequence recognition. A simple test of threading sequences into structures without gaps is employed to demonstrate the importance of the present modifications that permit the same potential to be utilized for both fold and sequence recognition. Proteins 1999;36:357-369. Published 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:10409829

Miyazawa, S; Jernigan, R L

1999-08-15

382

Generalized kinetic description of a plasma in an arbitrary field-aligned potential energy structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a general solution to the collisionless Boltzmann (Vlasov) equation for a free-flowing plasma along a magnetic field line using Liouville's theorem, allowing for an arbitrary field-aligned potential energy structure including nonmonotonicities. The constraints of the existing collisionless kinetic transport models are explored, and the need for a more general approach to the problem of self-consistent potential energy calculations

G. V. Khazanov; M. W. Liemohn; E. N. Krivorutsky; T. E. Moore

1998-01-01

383

Thermal lattice-Boltzmann method for non-ideal gases with potential energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a thermal lattice-Boltzmann method for gases with potential energy. In addition to the single particle distribution function, additional distribution functions for the potential energy and the non-ideal part of the pressure tensor are defined which contain information about the two-particle distribution function. Guided by the BBGKY-hierarchy, a set of three coupled kinetic equations for these distribution functions is

T. Ihle; D. M. Kroll

2000-01-01

384

Hamilton’s principle: Why is the integrated difference of the kinetic and potential energy minimized?  

Microsoft Academic Search

I present an intuitive answer to an often asked question: why is the\\u000aintegrated difference K-U between the kinetic and potential energy the quantity\\u000ato be minimized in Hamilton's principle?\\u000a Using elementary arguments, I map the problem of finding the path of a moving\\u000aparticle connecting two points to that of finding the minimum potential energy\\u000aof a static string.

Alberto G. Rojo

2005-01-01

385

A General Method for Conserving Energy and Potential Enstrophy in Shallow-Water Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shallow-water equations may be posed in the form dF\\/dt {F, H, Z}, where H is the energy, Z is the potential enstrophy, and the Nambu bracket {F, H, Z} is completely antisymmetric in its three arguments. This makes it very easy to construct numerical models that conserve analogs of the energy and potential enstrophy; one need only discretize the

Rick Salmon

2007-01-01

386

A Statistical Analysis of Wind Energy Potential in Ibadan, Nigeria, Based on Weibull Distribution Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modeling of wind speed variation is an essential requirement in the estimation of the wind energy potential for a typical site. In this paper, the wind energy potential in Ibadan (Lat. 7.43 0 N; Long. 3.9 0 E; Alt. 227.2m) is statistically analyzed using daily wind speed data for 10 years (1995-2004) obtained from the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture

D. A. Fadare

387

Brittle fracture in a periodic structure with internal potential energy.  

PubMed

We consider a brittle fracture taking account of self-equilibrated distributed stresses existing at microlevel in the absence of external forces. To determine how the latter can affect the crack equilibrium and growth, a model of a structured linearly elastic body is introduced, consisting of two equal symmetrically arranged layers (or half-planes) connected by an interface as a prospective crack path. The interface comprises a discrete set of elastic bonds. In the initial state, the bonds are assumed to be stressed in such a way that tensile and compressive forces of the same value alternate. In the general considerations, the layers are assumed to be of an unspecified periodic structure, where such self-equilibrated stresses may also exist. A two-line chain and a lattice are examined as the specified structure. We consider the states of the body-with-a-crack under such microlevel stresses (MS) and under a combined action of the remote forces and MS. Analytical solutions to the considered problems are presented based on the introduction of a selective discrete transform. We demonstrate that MS can increase as well as decrease the crack resistance depending on the internal energy level. We also discuss different scenarios of the crack growth. PMID:24808756

Mishuris, Gennady S; Slepyan, Leonid I

2014-05-01

388

Low-energy nuclear reactions and the alpha-nucleus optical potential: where do we stand?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent efforts to develop an accurate and reliable alpha-nucleus optical potential at low energies are presented. In view of the advent of new data on alpha elastic scattering and alpha radiative-capture reactions, the global semi-microscopic alpha-nucleus potential is revisited and compared with the updated database. Needs for improvements are discussed.

P. Demetriou; M. Axiotis

2007-01-01

389

Equilibrium isomeric mixtures: potential energy hypersurfaces as the origin of the overall thermodynamics and kinetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potential energy hypersurfaces are now most frequently represented by the location and characterization of their stationary (critical) points. Model studies have demonstrated that hundreds of stationary points can be present on some potential hypersurfaces of chemical interest. Any structure-dependent observed quantity can thus have a convolutional nature, being composed of contributions of relevant stationary points. This article focuses on equilibrium

Zdenek Slaninaj

1987-01-01

390

Simple Bond-Charge Model for Potential-Energy Curves of Homonuclear Diatomic Molecules  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a homonuclear diatomic molecule near its equilibrium internuclear distance Re, in some bound electronic state, a potential-energy function W(R) of the form W = W0 + W1 ? R + W2 ? R2 has previously been shown to be a good approximation to the true potential. From this equation and the molecular virial theorem, there follow expressions for the

Robert G. Parr; Raymond F. Borkman

1968-01-01

391

Simple Bond-Charge Model for Potential-Energy Curves of Heteronuclear Diatomic Molecules  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model for the vibrational potential-energy functions of diatomic molecules, previously applied to homonuclear molecules only, is extended to 54 heteronuclear diatomic molecules in 93 different electronic states. Experimental Re and ke values are used to determine for each species the empirical bond-charge and bond-length parameters, q and ?, in the homopolar model potential W = W0 + (e2 ?

Raymond F. Borkman; Gary Simons; Robert G. Parr

1969-01-01

392

Assessment of wind energy potential locations in Oman using data from existing weather stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes five years hourly wind data from twenty-nine weather stations to identify the potential location for wind energy applications in Oman. Different criteria including theoretical wind power output, vertical profile, turbulence and peak demand fitness were considered to identify the potential locations. Air density and roughness length, which play an important role in the calculation of the wind

Sultan AL-Yahyai; Yassine Charabi; Adel Gastli; Saleh Al-Alawi

2010-01-01

393

The Energy Saving Potential of Membrane-Based Enthalpy Recovery in Vav Systems for Commercial  

E-print Network

the configuration of an enthalpy exchanger for minimum pressure drop and maximum heat recovery effectivenessLBNL-6032E The Energy Saving Potential of Membrane-Based Enthalpy Recovery in Vav Systems POTENTIAL OF MEMBRANE-BASED ENTHALPY RECOVERY IN VAV SYSTEMS FOR COMMERCIAL OFFICE BUILDINGS Liping Wang1

394

Zero-Energy Quantum States for a Class of Noncentral Potentials and an Exact Classical Limit  

Microsoft Academic Search

We extend results of the recent paper by Kobayashi and Shimbori [Phys. Rev. A65, 042108 (2002)] to a large class of noncentral potentials. Namely, we have shown that zero-energy states of the central potentials considered by these Authors [Va(rho )=-a2garho 2(a-1) with rho =&surd; {x2+y2} and anot =0] and noncentral potentials discussed here, have both common set of solutions given

A. J. Makowski; K. J. Gorska

2004-01-01

395

Assessment of the global and regional geographical, technical and economic potential of onshore wind energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The regional and global geographical, technical and economic potential of onshore wind energy is assessed using a grid cell approach. For the economic potential, the regional cost–supply curves of wind electricity are presented. The global technical potential of wind electricity is estimated to be 96 PWh year?1: about 6–7 times the present (2001) world electricity consumption at cut-off costs of

Monique Maria Hoogwijk; Bert de Vries; Wim Turkenburg

2004-01-01

396

The energy of an inhomogeneous electron gas as a functional of the electric potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the framework of the extended Thomas-Fermi statistical theory of many-electron systems, the advantage of potential functionals over density functionals for the ground-state energy is stressed and a general method is proposed to obtain the former from the latter. Using this method a simple potential functional and the corresponding second-order differential equation for the electric potential are obtained which include

A. Mañanes; E. Santos

1987-01-01

397

Hierarchical particle swarm optimizer for minimizing the non-convex potential energy of molecular structure.  

PubMed

The stable conformation of a molecule is greatly important to uncover the secret of its properties and functions. Generally, the conformation of a molecule will be the most stable when it is of the minimum potential energy. Accordingly, the determination of the conformation can be solved in the optimization framework. It is, however, not an easy task to achieve the only conformation with the lowest energy among all the potential ones because of the high complexity of the energy landscape and the exponential computation increasing with molecular size. In this paper, we develop a hierarchical and heterogeneous particle swarm optimizer (HHPSO) to deal with the problem in the minimization of the potential energy. The proposed method is evaluated over a scalable simplified molecular potential energy function with up to 200 degrees of freedom and a realistic energy function of pseudo-ethane molecule. The experimental results are compared with other six PSO variants and four genetic algorithms. The results show HHPSO is significantly better than the compared PSOs with p-value less than 0.01277 over molecular potential energy function. PMID:25459763

Cheung, Ngaam J; Shen, Hong-Bin

2014-11-01

398

Estimation and Monitoring of Wind-Wave energy potential over the Greek seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The exploitation of renewable energy resources is today on the top of the interest for the environmental and political community. In particular, wind and wave energy seems to be promising solutions with great potential from research and technological point of view. This kind of energy is mostly a matter of coastal and island countries, like Greece. In this work, the first results of a project whose main target is the development of an integrated, high resolution system for quantifying and monitoring the energy potential from wind and sea waves in the region of Eastern Mediterranean Sea, with special emphasis to the Greek area, are presented. More specifically, the models for the estimation of the energy potential, from wind and waves over sea areas, will be discussed. Moreover, atmospheric and sea wave numerical models used for the simulation of the environmental parameters that directly affect the wind-wave energy potential will be evaluated. Based on these tools, high resolution maps for the coastal and offshore areas of Greece will be produced, in which sea wave and wind climatological characteristics as well as the relevant distribution of the wave energy potential will be monitoring.

Emmanouil, G.; Galanis, G.; Zodiatis, G.; Kalogeri, C.

2013-12-01

399

Anomaly Structure of Regularized Supergravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On-shell Pauli-Villars regularization of the one-loop divergences of supergravity theories is used to study the anomaly structure of supergravity and the cancellation of field theory anomalies under a U (1 ) gauge transformation and under the T -duality group of modular transformations in effective supergravity theories with three Kähler moduli Ti obtained from orbifold compactification of the weakly coupled heterotic string. This procedure requires constraints on the chiral matter representations of the gauge group that are consistent with known results from orbifold compactifications. Pauli-Villars (PV) regulator fields allow for the cancellation of all quadratic and logarithmic divergences, as well as most linear divergences. If all linear divergences were canceled, the theory would be anomaly free, with noninvariance of the action arising only from Pauli-Villars masses. However there are linear divergences associated with nonrenormalizable gravitino/gaugino interactions that cannot be canceled by PV fields. The resulting chiral anomaly forms a supermultiplet with the corresponding conformal anomaly, provided the ultraviolet cutoff has the appropriate field dependence, in which case total derivative terms, such as Gauss-Bonnet, do not drop out from the effective action. The anomalies can be partially canceled by the four-dimensional version of the Green-Schwarz mechanism, but additional counterterms, and/or a more elaborate set of Pauli-Villars fields and couplings, are needed to cancel the full anomaly, including D -term contributions to the conformal anomaly that are nonlinear in the parameters of the anomalous transformations.

Butter, Daniel; Gaillard, Mary K.

2015-01-01

400

Achieving Land, Energy, and Environmental Compatibility: Utility-Scale Solar Energy Potential and Land-Use in California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar energy is an archetype renewable energy technology with great potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions when substituted for carbon-intensive energy. Utility-scale solar energy (USSE; i.e., > 1 MW) necessitates large quantities of space making the efficient use of land for USSE development critical to realizing its full potential. However, studies elucidating the interaction between land-use and utility-scale solar energy (USSE) are limited. In this study, we assessed 1) the theoretical and technical potential of terrestrial-based USSE systems, and 2) land-use and land-cover change impacts from actual USSE installations (> 20 MW; planned, under construction, operating), using California as a case study due to its early adoption of renewable energy systems, unique constraints on land availability, immense energy demand, and vast natural resources. We used topo-climatic (e.g., slope, irradiance), infrastructural (e.g., proximity to transmission lines), and ecological constraints (e.g., threatened and endangered species) to determine highly favorable, favorable, and unfavorable locations for USSE and to assess its technical potential. We found that the theoretical potential of photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) in California is 26,097 and 29,422 kWh/m2/day, respectively. We identified over 150 planned, under construction, and operating USSE installations in California, ranging in size from 20 to 1,000 MW. Currently, 29% are located on shrub- and scrublands, 23% on cultivated crop land, 13% on pasture/hay areas, 11% on grassland/herbaceous and developed open space, and 7% in the built environment. Understanding current land-use decisions of USSE systems and assessing its future potential can be instructive for achieving land, energy, and environmental compatibility, especially for other global regions that share similar resource demands and limitations.

Hoffacker, M. K.; Hernandez, R. R.; Field, C. B.

2013-12-01

401

High-level ab initio potential energy surfaces and vibrational energies of H2CS.  

PubMed

Six-dimensional (6D) potential energy surfaces (PESs) of H(2)CS have been generated ab initio using the recently proposed explicitly correlated (F12) singles and doubles coupled cluster method including a perturbational estimate of connected triple excitations, CCSD(T)-F12b [T. B. Adler, G. Knizia, and H.-J. Werner, J. Chem. Phys. 127, 221106 (2007)] in conjunction with F12-optimized correlation consistent basis sets. Core-electron correlation, high-order correlation, scalar relativistic, and diagonal Born-Oppenheimer terms were included as additive high-level (HL) corrections. The resulting 6D PESs were represented by analytical functions which were used in variational calculations of the vibrational term values below 5000 cm(-1). The best PESs obtained with and without the HL corrections, VQZ-F12(*HL) and VQZ-F12?, reproduce the fundamental vibrational wavenumbers with mean absolute deviations of 1.13 and 1.22 cm(-1), respectively. A detailed analysis of the effects of the HL corrections shows how the VQZ-F12 results benefit from error cancellation. The present purely ab initio PESs will be useful as starting points for empirical refinements towards an accurate "spectroscopic" PES of H(2)CS. PMID:21861565

Yachmenev, Andrey; Yurchenko, Sergei N; Ribeyre, Tristan; Thiel, Walter

2011-08-21

402

Nesting of thermodynamic, structural, and dynamic anomalies in liquid silicon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anomalous behaviour in density, diffusivity, and structural order is investigated for silicon modeled by the Stillinger-Weber potential by performing molecular dynamics simulations. As previously reported in the case of water [J. R. Errington and P. G. Debenedetti, Nature (London) 409, 318 (2001)] and silica [M. S. Shell, P. G. Debenedetti, and A. Z. Panagiotopoulos, Phys. Rev. E 66, 011202 (2002)], a cascading of thermodynamic, dynamic, and structural anomalous regions is also observed in liquid silicon. The region of structural anomaly includes the region of diffusivity anomaly, which in turn encompasses the region of density anomaly (which is unlike water but similar to silica). In the region of structural anomaly, a tight correlation between the translational and tetrahedrality order parameter is found, but the correlation is weaker when a local orientational order parameter (q3) is used as a measure of tetrahedrality. The total excess entropy and the pair correlation entropy are computed across the phase diagram and the correlation between the excess entropy and the regions of anomalies in the phase diagram of liquid silicon is examined. Scaling relations associating the excess entropy with the diffusion coefficient show considerable deviation from the quasi-universal behaviour observed in hard-sphere and Lennard-Jones liquids and some liquid metals. Excess entropy based criteria for diffusivity and structural anomalies fail to capture the observed regions of anomaly.

Vasisht, Vishwas V.; Mathew, John; Sengupta, Shiladitya; Sastry, Srikanth

2014-09-01

403

Nesting of thermodynamic, structural, and dynamic anomalies in liquid silicon.  

PubMed

Anomalous behaviour in density, diffusivity, and structural order is investigated for silicon modeled by the Stillinger-Weber potential by performing molecular dynamics simulations. As previously reported in the case of water [J. R. Errington and P. G. Debenedetti, Nature (London) 409, 318 (2001)] and silica [M. S. Shell, P. G. Debenedetti, and A. Z. Panagiotopoulos, Phys. Rev. E 66, 011202 (2002)], a cascading of thermodynamic, dynamic, and structural anomalous regions is also observed in liquid silicon. The region of structural anomaly includes the region of diffusivity anomaly, which in turn encompasses the region of density anomaly (which is unlike water but similar to silica). In the region of structural anomaly, a tight correlation between the translational and tetrahedrality order parameter is found, but the correlation is weaker when a local orientational order parameter (q3) is used as a measure of tetrahedrality. The total excess entropy and the pair correlation entropy are computed across the phase diagram and the correlation between the excess entropy and the regions of anomalies in the phase diagram of liquid silicon is examined. Scaling relations associating the excess entropy with the diffusion coefficient show considerable deviation from the quasi-universal behaviour observed in hard-sphere and Lennard-Jones liquids and some liquid metals. Excess entropy based criteria for diffusivity and structural anomalies fail to capture the observed regions of anomaly. PMID:25273445

Vasisht, Vishwas V; Mathew, John; Sengupta, Shiladitya; Sastry, Srikanth

2014-09-28

404

Recovery of potential energy and chromium values from leather tannery wastes  

SciTech Connect

A method of recovering chromium values and potential energy from liquid and solid leather tannery wastes comprising pyrolyzing the tannery wastes to produce a burnable fuel product comprising gases and liquids and a substantially solid chromium-containing residue, recovering chromium compounds from the solid residue and using the fuel to supply energy for the system.

Muralidhara, H.

1982-06-01

405

POTENTIAL OF TREE SHADE FOR REDUCING RESIDENTIAL ENERGY USE IN CALIFORNIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric utilities in California currently sponsor planting of approximately 75,000 yard trees annually as an energy conservation measure. In this study we evaluated the potential effects of tree shade on residential air conditioning and heating energy use for a range of tree orientations, building insulation levels and climate zones in California using computer simulation. Trees shading a home's west exposure

James R. Simpson; E. Gregory McPherson

406

Potential Impacts of Mexico's Energy Reform on Texas' Transportation System 1 Testimony of Jolanda Prozzi  

E-print Network

of oil, condensate, and natural gas.i Exploration of Mexico's shale reserves that are located south the monopoly of the oil company Petróleos Mexicanos (Pemex) and encourage foreign investment in Mexico's energyPotential Impacts of Mexico's Energy Reform on Texas' Transportation System 1 Testimony of Jolanda

407

The wind potential impact on the maximum wind energy penetration in autonomous electrical grids  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to long-term wind speed measurements the Aegean Archipelago possesses excellent wind potential, hence properly designed wind energy applications can substantially contribute to fulfill the energy requirements of the island societies. On top of this, in most islands the electricity production cost is extremely high, while significant insufficient power supply problems are often encountered, especially during the summer. Unfortunately, the

J. K. Kaldellis

2008-01-01

408

REVIEW OF THE POTENTIAL OF NUCLEAR HYDROGEN FOR ADDRESSING ENERGY SECURITY AND CLIMATE CHANGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear energy has the potential to exert a major positive impact on energy security and climate change by coupling it to the transportation sector, primarily through hydrogen production. In the short term, this coupling will provide carbon-free hydrogen for upgrading increasingly lower quality petroleum resources such as oil sands, offsetting carbon emissions associated with steam methane reforming. In the intermediate

James E. OBrien

2010-01-01

409

Analysis of the Energy Savings Potential in K-5 Schools in Hot and Humid Climates  

E-print Network

This paper presents the analysis of the energy savings potential in K-5 schools in hot and humid climates. For the analysis, an existing K-5 school in Central Texas was selected as a case study school, and the building energy related data...

Im, P.; Haberl, J.

410

Gravity wave kinetic, potential, and vertical fluctuation energies as indicators of different frequency gravity waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

An advantage of examining atmospheric gravity waves using high vertical-resolution radiosonde data over other measurement techniques is that horizontal wind, temperature, and vertical ascent rate can be measured directly. This allows the kinetic, potential, and vertical velocity fluctuation energies to be derived independently. Each of these gravity wave energies is shown to have sensitivity to different gravity wave frequencies. Observed

Marvin A. Geller; Jie Gong

2010-01-01

411

A Reexamination of Limited-Area Available Potential Energy Budget Equations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous formulations of the limited area available potential energy (APE) budget equations in isobaric coordinates are examined based on computations performed on cyclone systems. It is shown that two terms can be two orders of magnitude greater than other APE and kinetic energy budget terms. These two terms are nearly equal in magnitude and opposite in sign.A new formulation of

Harold J. Edmon Jr.

1978-01-01

412

Action Potential Energy Efficiency Varies Among Neuron Types in Vertebrates and Invertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The initiation and propagation of action potentials (APs) places high demands on the energetic resources of neural tissue. Each AP forces ATP-driven ion pumps to work harder to restore the ionic concentration gradients, thus consuming more energy. Here, we ask whether the ionic currents underlying the AP can be predicted theoretically from the principle of minimum energy consumption. A long-held

Biswa Sengupta; Martin Stemmler; Simon B. Laughlin; Jeremy E. Niven

2010-01-01

413

A survey on the assessment of wind energy potential in Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, wind data obtained from the Egyptian Meteorological Authority are used to assess monthly and annual wind power and wind energy. The study is based on data from 15 anemometer meteorological stations, distributed all over Egypt and covering a period ranging from 1973 to 1994. For these stations the wind data are summarized. The wind energy potential at

A. Azzam

1997-01-01

414

Projecting yield and utilization potential of switchgrass as an energy crop  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The potential utilization of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) as a cellulosic energy crop was evaluated as a component of a projected future national network of biorefineries designed to increase national reliance on renewable energy from American farms. Empirical data on current yields of switchg...

415

Energy conserving and potential-enstrophy dissipating schemes for the shallow water equations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To incorporate potential enstrophy dissipation into discrete shallow water equations with no or arbitrarily small energy dissipation, a family of finite-difference schemes have been derived with which potential enstrophy is guaranteed to decrease while energy is conserved (when the mass flux is nondivergent and time is continuous). Among this family of schemes, there is a member that minimizes the spurious impact of infinite potential vorticities associated with infinitesimal fluid depth. The scheme is, therefore, useful for problems in which the free surface may intersect with the lower boundary.

Arakawa, Akio; Hsu, Yueh-Jiuan G.

1990-01-01

416

Residential energy use in Mexico: Structure, evolution, environmental impacts, and savings potential  

SciTech Connect

This article examines the characteristics of residential energy use in Mexico, its environmental impacts, and the savings potential of the major end-uses. The main options and barriers to increase the efficiency of energy use are discussed. The energy analysis is based on a disaggregation of residential energy use by end-uses. The dynamics of the evolution of the residential energy sector during the past 20 years are also addressed when the information is available. Major areas for research and for innovative decision-making are identified and prioritized.

Masera, O.; Friedmann, R.; deBuen, O.

1993-05-01

417

Analysis of Loads and Wind Energy Potential for Remote Power Stations in Alaska University of Massachusetts Amherst  

E-print Network

Analysis of Loads and Wind Energy Potential for Remote Power Stations in Alaska Mia Devine@avec.org ABSTRACT This report addresses the potential of utilizing wind energy in remote communities of Alaska. This report evaluates the village electric usage patterns, wind energy resource potential, and wind

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

418

Galerkin’s method, monotonicity and linking for indefinite Hamiltonian systems with bounded potential energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combination of Galerkin’s method and linking theory with monotonicity in the calculus of variations is used to study Hamiltonian systems in which the kinetic-energy functional is a (not necessarily definite) quadratic form and the potential-energy functional may be bounded. The existence of non-constant brake periodic orbits for almost all prescribed energies is established. An example of a Hamiltonian system

D. J. Crispin; J. F. Toland

2005-01-01

419

Spectroscopically determined potential energy surface of H216O up to 25 000 cm-1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A potential energy surface for the major isotopomer of water is constructed by fitting to observed vibration-rotation energy levels of the system using the exact kinetic energy operator nuclear motion program DVR3D. The starting point for the fit is the ab initio Born-Oppenheimer surface of Partridge and Schwenke [J. Chem. Phys. 106, 4618 (1997)] and corrections to it: both one-

Sergei V. Shirin; Oleg L. Polyansky; Nikolai F. Zobov; Paolo Barletta; Jonathan Tennyson

2003-01-01

420

Use of vegetation to ameliorate building microclimates: an assessment of energy-conservation potentials  

SciTech Connect

The space-conditioning energy conservation potentials of landscapes designed to ameliorate building microclimates are evaluated. The physical bases for vegetative modifications of climate are discussed, and results of past study of the effects of vegetation on space-conditioning energy consumption in buildings are reviewed. The state-of-the-art of energy-conserving landscape designs is assessed and recommendations are presented for further research.

Hutchison, B.A.; Taylor, F.G.; Wendt, R.L.

1982-04-01

421

Reconstructing the potentials for the quintessence and tachyon dark energy, from the holographic principle  

E-print Network

We propose an holographic quintessence and tachyon models of dark energy. The correspondence between the quintessence and tachyon energy densities with the holographic density, allows the reconstruction of the potentials and the dynamics for the quintessence and tachyon fields, in flat FRW background. The proposed infrared cut-off for the holographic energy density works for two cases of the constant $\\alpha$: for $\\alpha1$ was also reconstructed for the holographic quintessence and tachyon models.

L. N. Granda

2008-11-25

422

An ab initio study of the potential energy surfaces for Na+I 2 system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three ab initio potential energy surfaces of 2B2, 2A1 and 2? states for the Na+I 2 collision system are calculated on the QCISD(T)/LANL2DZ level. Three reaction channels, neutral reaction, chemical ionization and collision ionization, have been obtained based on analyzing the minimum energy reaction paths. The valence potential energy surfaces 2A1 and the ionic state 2B2 are crossed approximately at Rc=0.508 nm. Na+I 2?Na ++I 2- is an electronic non-adiabatic process.

Feng, Dacheng; Kang, Congmin; Qi, Chuansong; Cai, Zhengting

2002-04-01

423

Potential for the Use of Energy Savings Performance Contracts to Reduce Energy Consumption and Provide Energy and Cost Savings in Non-Building Applications  

SciTech Connect

The findings of this study indicate that potential exists in non-building applications to save energy and costs. This potential could save billions of federal dollars, reduce reliance on fossil fuels, increase energy independence and security, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The Federal Government has nearly twenty years of experience with achieving similar energy cost reductions, and letting the energy costs savings pay for themselves, by applying energy savings performance contracts (ESPC) inits buildings. Currently, the application of ESPCs is limited by statute to federal buildings. This study indicates that ESPCs can be a compatible and effective contracting tool for achieving savings in non-building applications.

Williams, Charles; Green, Andrew S.; Dahle, Douglas; Barnett, John; Butler, Pat; Kerner, David

2013-08-01

424

Hot-electron-mediated desorption rates calculated from excited-state potential energy surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a model for desorption induced by (multiple) electronic transitions [DIET (DIMET)] based on potential energy surfaces calculated with the delta self-consistent field extension of density-functional theory. We calculate potential energy surfaces of CO and NO molecules adsorbed on various transition-metal surfaces and show that classical nuclear dynamics does not suffice for propagation in the excited state. We present a simple Hamiltonian describing the system with parameters obtained from the excited-state potential energy surface and show that this model can describe desorption dynamics in both the DIET and DIMET regimes and reproduce the power-law behavior observed experimentally. We observe that the internal stretch degree of freedom in the molecules is crucial for the energy transfer between the hot electrons and the molecule when the coupling to the surface is strong.

Olsen, Thomas; Gavnholt, Jeppe; Schiøtz, Jakob

2009-01-01

425

Green's Function of the Dirac Equation with Complex Energy and Non-singular Central Nuclear Potential  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the further development of an effective approach to construction of the electron Green's function (GF) for the Dirac equation with a complex energy and non-singular central nuclear potential. The nuclear charge distribution and the corresponding nuclear potential are received within the relativistic mean field (RMF) model. The Green's function is usually represented as a combination of two fundamental solutions of the Dirac equation. In the numerical procedure we use the Ivanov-Ivanova effective numerical algorithm and reduce a definition of the Dirac equation fundamental solutions to solving the system of differential equations, which includes the differential equations for the RMF nuclear potential too. As an application, we estimate the self-energy shift correction to atomic levels energies within the Mohr covariant procedure and presented GF approach and calculate the transitions energies for some heavy Li-like multi-charged ions within the QED many-body perturbation theory formalism.

Svinarenko, A. A.; Glushkov, A. V.; Loboda, A. V.; Sukharev, D. E.; Dubrovskaya, Yu. V.; Mudraya, N. V.; Serga, I. N.

2010-05-01

426

Modeling the crystallization of gold nanoclusters—the effect of the potential energy function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The crystallization dynamics of 5083 atom gold nanoclusters, which were quenched from the melt, were studied by molecular dynamics (MD) using the EAM 'Glue' and 'Force-matched' potentials to compare and contrast how the crystallization dynamics is affected by these potential energy functions. MD simulations from each potential showed the formation of gold nanoclusters of icosahedral morphology during the quenching process, which is in good agreement with the experimental studies of gold nanoclusters formed under vacuum. The effect of the potential on the evolution of cluster (surface and interior) morphology during the crystallization process is discussed.

Chui, Yu Hang; Opletal, George; Snook, Ian K.; Russo, Salvy P.

2009-04-01

427

Potential energy surface for the benzene dimer and perturbational analysis of pi-pi interactions.  

PubMed

We present a complete 6-dimensional potential energy surface for the benzene dimer obtained using symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT) of intermolecular interactions based on Kohn-Sham's description of monomers. Ab initio calculations were performed for 491 dimer geometries in a triple-zeta-quality basis set supplemented by bond functions. An accurate analytic fit to the ab initio results has been developed and low-energy stationary points on the potential energy surface have been found. We have determined that there are three minima on the surface. Two of them, the tilted T-shape and the parallel-displaced, are nearly isoenergetic with interaction energies of -2.77 and -2.74 kcal/mol, respectively. The third minimum, a twisted edge-to-edge conformation, is significantly less attractive, with the interaction energy equal to -1.82 kcal/mol. Both the T-shape and sandwich geometries, sometimes assumed to be minima, are shown to be only saddle points. The potential energy surface is extremely flat between the two lowest minima, the barrier being only 0.10 kcal/mol above the global minimum. The second-virial coefficient obtained with the new potential agrees well with experimental results over a wide range of temperatures. The SAPT approach rigorously decomposes the interaction energy into physical components. The relative importance of these components has been analyzed. PMID:16928128

Podeszwa, Rafa?; Bukowski, Robert; Szalewicz, Krzysztof

2006-08-31

428

Numerical study of the wind energy potential in Bulgaria - Some preliminary results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new energy efficiency politics of the EU requires till year 2020 16% of Bulgarian electricity to be produced from renewable sources. The wind is one of renewable energy sources. The ecological benefits of all the kinds of "green" energy are obvious. It is desirable, however, the utilization of renewable energy sources to be as much as possible economically effective. This means that installment of the respective devices (wind farms, solar farms, etc.) should be based on a detailed and reliable evaluation of the real potential of the country. Detailed study of the wind energy potential of the country - spatial distribution, temporal variation, mean and extreme values, fluctuations and statistical characteristics; evaluation from a point of view of industrial applicability can not be made only on the basis of the existing routine meteorological data - the measuring network is not dense enough to catch all the details of the local flow systems, hence of the real wind energy potential of the country spatial distribution. That is why the measurement data has to be supplemented by numerical modeling. The wind field simulations were performed applying the 5th generation PSU/NCAR Meso-Meteorological Model MM5 for years 2000-2007 with a spatial resolution of 3 km over Bulgaria. Some preliminary evaluations of the country wind energy potential, based on the simulation output are demonstrated in the paper.

Jordanov, G.; Gadzhev, G.; Ganev, K.; Miloshev, N.; Syrakov, D.; Prodanova, M.

2012-10-01

429

Reliability of CHAMP Anomaly Continuations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

CHAMP is recording state-of-the-art magnetic and gravity field observations at altitudes ranging over roughly 300 - 550 km. However, anomaly continuation is severely limited by the non-uniqueness of the process and satellite anomaly errors. Indeed, our numerical anomaly simulations from satellite to airborne altitudes show that effective downward continuations of the CHAMP data are restricted to within approximately 50 km of the observation altitudes while upward continuations can be effective over a somewhat larger altitude range. The great unreliability of downward continuation requires that the satellite geopotential observations must be analyzed at satellite altitudes if the anomaly details are to be exploited most fully. Given current anomaly error levels, joint inversion of satellite and near- surface anomalies is the best approach for implementing satellite geopotential observations for subsurface studies. We demonstrate the power of this approach using a crustal model constrained by joint inversions of near-surface and satellite magnetic and gravity observations for Maude Rise, Antarctica, in the southwestern Indian Ocean. Our modeling suggests that the dominant satellite altitude magnetic anomalies are produced by crustal thickness variations and remanent magnetization of the normal polarity Cretaceous Quiet Zone.

vonFrese, Ralph R. B.; Kim, Hyung Rae; Taylor, Patrick T.; Asgharzadeh, Mohammad F.

2003-01-01

430

Variational nature of the frozen density energy in density-based energy decomposition analysis and its application to torsional potentials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The density-based energy decomposition analysis (DEDA) is the first of its kind to calculate the frozen density energy variationally. Defined with the constrained search formulation of density functional theory, the frozen density energy is optimized in practice using the Wu-Yang (WY) method for constrained minimizations. This variational nature of the frozen density energy, a possible reason behind some novel findings of DEDA, will be fully investigated in this work. In particular, we systematically study the dual basis set dependence in WY: the potential basis set used to expand the Lagrangian multiplier function and the regular orbital basis set. We explain how the convergence progresses differently on these basis sets and how an apparent basis-set independence is achieved. We then explore a new development of DEDA in frozen energy calculations of the ethane molecule, focusing on the internal rotation around the carbon-carbon bond and the energy differences between staggered and eclipsed conformations. We argue that the frozen density energy change at fixed bond lengths and bond angles is purely steric effects. Our results show that the frozen density energy profile follows closely that of the total energy when the dihedral angle is the only varying geometry parameter. We can further analyze the contributions from electrostatics and Pauli repulsions. These results lead to a meaningful DEDA of the torsional potential in ethane.

Wu, Qin

2014-06-01

431

Surface tension, surface energy, and chemical potential due to their difference.  

PubMed

It is well-known that surface tension and surface energy are distinct quantities for solids. Each can be regarded as a thermodynamic property related first by Shuttleworth. Mullins and others have suggested that the difference between surface tension and surface energy cannot be sustained and that the two will approach each other over time. In this work we show that in a single-component system where changes in elastic energy can be neglected, the chemical potential difference between the surface and bulk is proportional to the difference between surface tension and surface energy. By further assuming that mass transfer is driven by this chemical potential difference, we establish a model for the kinetics by which mass transfer removes the difference between surface tension and surface energy. PMID:23926928

Hui, C-Y; Jagota, A

2013-09-10

432

Effect of external fields on the energies of hydrogenic donor with the anharmonic confinement potential  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impurity binding energy in the GaAs -Ga1-xAlx As system is studied with an anharmonic type confinement potential by taking into account the influence of the external electric and magnetic fields within the framework of the effective mass approximation and asymptotic iteration method (AIM). The influence of the external electromagnetic fields and anharmonicity on a donor binding energy is examined systematically. It is shown that the donor binding energy is highly dependent on the external electric and magnetic fields and the confinement potential shapes. Both the electric and magnetic fields are increased, the binding energies increase for each of them. However, the behaviors of increase in the weak and strong fields' regimes have different character a bit. Furthermore, when the more anharmonicity is considered, the binding energy of donor slightly increases as well.

Aciksoz, E.; Bayrak, O.; Soylu, A.

2015-01-01

433

Critical insight into the influence of the potential energy surface on fission dynamics  

SciTech Connect

The present work is dedicated to a careful investigation of the influence of the potential energy surface on the fission process. The time evolution of nuclei at high excitation energy and angular momentum is studied by means of three-dimensional Langevin calculations performed for two different parametrizations of the macroscopic potential: the Finite Range Liquid Drop Model (FRLDM) and the Lublin-Strasbourg Drop (LSD) prescription. Depending on the mass of the system, the topology of the potential throughout the deformation space of interest in fission is observed to noticeably differ within these two approaches, due to the treatment of curvature effects. When utilized in the dynamical calculation as the driving potential, the FRLDM and LSD models yield similar results in the heavy-mass region, whereas the predictions can be strongly dependent on the Potential Energy Surface (PES) for medium-mass nuclei. In particular, the mass, charge, and total kinetic energy distributions of the fission fragments are found to be narrower with the LSD prescription. The influence of critical model parameters on our findings is carefully investigated. The present study sheds light on the experimental conditions and signatures well suited for constraining the parametrization of the macroscopic potential. Its implication regarding the interpretation of available experimental data is briefly discussed.

Mazurek, K. [Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, PAN, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Grand Accelerateur National d'Ions Lourds (GANIL), CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, F-14076 Caen (France); Schmitt, C.; Wieleczko, J. P.; Ademard, G. [Grand Accelerateur National d'Ions Lourds (GANIL), CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, F-14076 Caen (France); Nadtochy, P. N. [Omsk State University, Department of Theoretical Physics, 644077 Omsk (Russian Federation)

2011-07-15

434

Energy dependence of potential barriers and its effect on fusion cross sections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Background: Couplings between relative motion and internal structures are known to affect fusion barriers by dynamically modifying the densities of the colliding nuclei. The effect is expected to be stronger at energies near the barrier top, where changes in density have longer time to develop than at higher energies. This gives rise to an energy dependence of the barriers as predicted by modern time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) calculations [K. Washiyama and D. Lacroix, Phys. Rev. C 78, 024610 (2008), 10.1103/PhysRevC.78.024610]. Quantitatively, modern TDHF calculations are able to predict realistic fusion thresholds. However, the evolution of the potential barrier with bombarding energy remains to be confronted with the experimental data. Purpose: The aim is to find signatures of the energy dependence of the barrier by comparing fusion cross-sections calculated from potentials obtained at different bombarding energies with the experimental data. Method: This comparison is made for the 40Ca+40Ca and 16O+208Pb systems. Fusion cross-sections are computed from potentials calculated with the density-constrained TDHF method. Results: The couplings decrease the barrier at low-energy in both cases. A deviation from the Woods-Saxon nuclear potential is also observed at the lowest energies. In general, fusion cross-sections around a given energy are better reproduced by the potential calculated at this energy. The coordinate-dependent mass plays a crucial role for the reproduction of sub-barrier fusion cross-sections. Effects of the energy dependence of the potential can be found in experimental barrier distributions only if the variation of the barrier is significant in the energy-range spanned by the distribution. It appears to be the case for 16O+208Pb but not for 40Ca+40Ca. Conclusions: These results show that the energy dependence of the barrier predicted in TDHF calculations is realistic. This confirms that the TDHF approach can be used to study the couplings between relative motion and internal degrees of freedom in heavy-ion collisions.

Umar, A. S.; Simenel, C.; Oberacker, V. E.

2014-03-01

435

Gravitational anomaly and transport phenomena.  

PubMed

Quantum anomalies give rise to new transport phenomena. In particular, a magnetic field can induce an anomalous current via the chiral magnetic effect and a vortex in the relativistic fluid can also induce a current via the chiral vortical effect. The related transport coefficients can be calculated via Kubo formulas. We evaluate the Kubo formula for the anomalous vortical conductivity at weak coupling and show that it receives contributions proportional to the gravitational anomaly coefficient. The gravitational anomaly gives rise to an anomalous vortical effect even for an uncharged fluid. PMID:21797593

Landsteiner, Karl; Megías, Eugenio; Pena-Benitez, Francisco

2011-07-01

436

New Classes of Potentials for which the Radial Schrodinger Equation can be solved at Zero Energy  

E-print Network

Given two spherically symmetric and short range potentials $V_0$ and V_1 for which the radial Schrodinger equation can be solved explicitely at zero energy, we show how to construct a new potential $V$ for which the radial equation can again be solved explicitely at zero energy. The new potential and its corresponding wave function are given explicitely in terms of V_0 and V_1, and their corresponding wave functions \\phi_0 and \\phi_1. V_0 must be such that it sustains no bound states (either repulsive, or attractive but weak). However, V_1 can sustain any (finite) number of bound states. The new potential V has the same number of bound states, by construction, but the corresponding (negative) energies are, of course, different. Once this is achieved, one can start then from V_0 and V, and construct a new potential \\bar{V} for which the radial equation is again solvable explicitely. And the process can be repeated indefinitely. We exhibit first the construction, and the proof of its validity, for regular short range potentials, i.e. those for which rV_0(r) and rV_1(r) are L^1 at the origin. It is then seen that the construction extends automatically to potentials which are singular at r= 0. It can also be extended to V_0 long range (Coulomb, etc.). We give finally several explicit examples.

K. Chadan; R. Kobayashi

2005-10-12

437

Energy Consumption Status of Public Buildings and the Analysis of the Potential on Energy Efficiency in Xiamen  

E-print Network

Limin Chen Xiaodong Zhang Jianxian Chen School of Mechanical Engineering Jimei University Xiamen?361021, CHINA peixiuying@sina.com Abstract? Based on the survey on the preset and applied situation of the central air conditioning systems.... We expects a potential future for XiaMen's energy saving REFERENCES [1]Xuejun CHEN, Several Recommendations About Energy Science and Engineering Development, Journal of Chinese Academy of Sciences Institute,2005, 6 [2]Fengxiang TU...

Pei, X.; Zhang, S.; Chen, L.; Zhang, X.; Chen, J.

2006-01-01

438

Feet on the potential energy surface, head in the pie clouds  

SciTech Connect

This work presents explorations of the potential energy surface of clusters of atoms and of the interactions between molecules. First, structures of small aluminum clusters are examined and classified as ground states, transition states, or higher-order saddle points. Subsequently, the focus shifts to dispersion-dominated ?-? interactions when the potential energy surfaces of benzene, substituted benzene, and pyridine dimers are explored. Because DNA nucleotide bases can be thought of as substituted heterocycles, a natural extension of the substituted benzene and pyridine investigations is to model paired nucleotide bases. Finally, the success of the dispersion studies inspires the development of an extension to the computational method used, which will enable the dispersion energy to be modeled – and the potential energy surface explored – in additional chemical systems. The effective fragment potential (EFP) method is described, as well as various quantum mechanical methods. An ab inito quantum mechanical study of 13-atom aluminum clusters is described. EFP studies of aromatic dimers are reported in which dispersion energy makes a significant contribution to the attraction between monomers. Theory and code development toward a means of computing dispersion energy in mixed ab inito-EFP systems are described.

Smith, Quentin

2012-07-12

439

Energy efficiency monitoring and economic analysis for energy saving potential in UNITEN  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses on energy efficiency survey for typical buildings in Universiti Tenaga Nasional (UNITEN). Undeniably, wastage of energy will cause the increase of operation cost and depletion of fossil fuel resources which contributes to the climate change issue in the world. UNITEN was commenced in the late 1990s and most of the buildings in this university are not equipped with energy management system. Such system is the solution to reduce energy use while maximizing the comfort levels of the occupants. Disregard to the energy management system, the implementation of other energy saving measures is the main objective of this paper. By taking the right measures, the energy wastage in the buildings of this university can be reduced.

Reyasudin Basir Khan, M.; Jidin, Razali; Pasupuleti, Jagadeesh; Yew, Kang Chin; Azwa Shaaya, Sharifah

2013-06-01

440

Ultrahigh-resolution spin-echo measurement of surface potential energy landscapes.  

PubMed

We demonstrate two approaches that use the recently developed helium spin-echo technique to measure surface potential energy landscapes. For helium-lithium fluoride (100), we use the selective adsorption phenomenon to obtain the complete experimental band structure of atoms in a corrugated surface potential. For carbon monoxide-copper (001), we measure the diffusion-induced energy broadening in the scattered helium beam and extract properties of the adsorbate-substrate potential. The measurements are made possible by the resolution of our new spectrometer, which improves on existing resolution by three orders of magnitude. We show that it is possible to produce benchmark energy landscapes to assist evaluation and development of first-principles theory in the problematic van der Waals/weak chemisorption regime. PMID:15205531

Jardine, Andrew P; Dworski, Shechar; Fouquet, Peter; Alexandrowicz, Gil; Riley, David J; Lee, Gabriel Y H; Ellis, John; Allison, William

2004-06-18

441

Simple prescription for computing the interparticle potential energy for D-dimensional gravity systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A straightforward prescription for computing the D-dimensional potential energy of gravitational models, which is strongly based on the Feynman path integral, is built up. Using this method, the static potential energy for the interaction of two masses is found in the context of D-dimensional higher-derivative gravity models, and its behavior is analyzed afterwards in both ultraviolet and infrared regimes. As a consequence, two new gravity systems in which the potential energy is finite at the origin, respectively, in D = 5 and D = 6, are found. Since the aforementioned prescription is equivalent to that based on the marriage between quantum mechanics (to leading order, i.e., in the first Born approximation) and the nonrelativistic limit of quantum field theory, and bearing in mind that the latter relies basically on the calculation of the nonrelativistic Feynman amplitude ({{M}NR}), a trivial expression for computing {{M}NR} is obtained from our prescription as an added bonus.

Accioly, Antonio; Helayël-Neto, José; Barone, F. E.; Herdy, Wallace

2015-02-01

442

Analytical potential curves of some hydride molecules using algebraic and energy-consistent method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the algebraic method (AM) and the energy consistent method (ECM), an AM-ECM protocol for analytical potential energy curves of stable diatomic electronic states is proposed as functions of the internuclear distance. Applications of the AM-ECM to the 6 hydride electronic states of HF-X1?+, DF-X1?+, D35Cl-X1?+, 6LiH-X1?+, 7LiH-X1?+, and 7LiD-X1?+ show that the AM-ECM potentials are in excellent agreement with the experimental RKR data and the full AM-RKR data, and that the AM-ECM can obtain reliable analytical potential energies in the molecular asymptotic and dissociation region for these molecular electronic states.

Fan, Qunchao; Sun, Weiguo; Feng, Hao; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Qi

2014-01-01

443

Potential energy surface and bound states of the NH3-Ar and ND3-Ar complexes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new, four-dimensional potential energy surface for the interaction of NH3 and ND3 with Ar is computed using the coupled-cluster method with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations and large basis sets. The umbrella motion of the ammonia molecule is explicitly taken into account. The bound states of both NH3-Ar and ND3-Ar are calculated on this potential for total angular momentum values from J = 0 to 10, with the inclusion of Coriolis interactions. The energies and splittings of the rovibrational levels are in excellent agreement with the extensive high-resolution spectroscopic data accumulated over the years in the infrared and microwave regions for both complexes, which demonstrates the quality of the potential energy surface.

Loreau, J.; Liévin, J.; Scribano, Y.; van der Avoird, A.

2014-12-01

444

Potential energy surface and bound states of the NH3-Ar and ND3-Ar complexes.  

PubMed

A new, four-dimensional potential energy surface for the interaction of NH3 and ND3 with Ar is computed using the coupled-cluster method with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations and large basis sets. The umbrella motion of the ammonia molecule is explicitly taken into account. The bound states of both NH3-Ar and ND3-Ar are calculated on this potential for total angular momentum values from J = 0 to 10, with the inclusion of Coriolis interactions. The energies and splittings of the rovibrational levels are in excellent agreement with the extensive high-resolution spectroscopic data accumulated over the years in the infrared and microwave regions for both complexes, which demonstrates the quality of the potential energy surface. PMID:25494745

Loreau, J; Liévin, J; Scribano, Y; van der Avoird, A

2014-12-14

445

Potential hazards of compressed air energy storage in depleted natural gas reservoirs.  

SciTech Connect

This report is a preliminary assessment of the ignition and explosion potential in a depleted hydrocarbon reservoir from air cycling associated with compressed air energy storage (CAES) in geologic media. The study identifies issues associated with this phenomenon as well as possible mitigating measures that should be considered. Compressed air energy storage (CAES) in geologic media has been proposed to help supplement renewable energy sources (e.g., wind and solar) by providing a means to store energy when excess energy is available, and to provide an energy source during non-productive or low productivity renewable energy time periods. Presently, salt caverns represent the only proven underground storage used for CAES. Depleted natural gas reservoirs represent another potential underground storage vessel for CAES because they have demonstrated their container function and may have the requisite porosity and permeability; however reservoirs have yet to be demonstrated as a functional/operational storage media for compressed air. Specifically, air introduced into a depleted natural gas reservoir presents a situation where an ignition and explosion potential may exist. This report presents the results of an initial study identifying issues associated with this phenomena as well as possible mitigating measures that should be considered.

Cooper, Paul W.; Grubelich, Mark Charles; Bauer, Stephen J.

2011-09-01

446

Classifying sex biased congenital anomalies  

SciTech Connect

The reasons for sex biases in congenital anomalies that arise before structural or hormonal dimorphisms are established has long been unclear. A review of such disorders shows that patterning and tissue anomalies are female biased, and structural findings are more common in males. This suggests different gender dependent susceptibilities to developmental disturbances, with female vulnerabilities focused on early blastogenesis/determination, while males are more likely to involve later organogenesis/morphogenesis. A dual origin for some anomalies explains paradoxical reductions of sex biases with greater severity (i.e., multiple rather than single malformations), presumably as more severe events increase the involvement of an otherwise minor process with opposite biases to those of the primary mechanism. The cause for these sex differences is unknown, but early dimorphisms, such as differences in growth or presence of H-Y antigen, may be responsible. This model provides a useful rationale for understanding and classifying sex-biased congenital anomalies. 42 refs., 7 tabs.

Lubinsky, M.S. [Medical College of Wisconsin and Children`s Hospital, Milwaukee, WI (United States)] [Medical College of Wisconsin and Children`s Hospital, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

1997-03-31

447

Global and Regional Future Potential for Energy from Municipal Solid Waste  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) is a low-cost form of alternative energy with a large potential for future expansion. MSW is already collected and aggregated at population centers where energy demands are high. In addition, it is non-seasonal, and using MSW as an energy source reduces land demand for waste disposal sites in urban areas where land pressures are high. Across the world, the MSW generation rate and its composition vary greatly, but detailed historical data on MSW are not well archived for most of the world. In this study, material flows into the MSW stream are estimated by analyzing production and trade statistics of food, wood, and paper. A life cycle analysis for consumption is used to estimate the amount and composition of MSW for all countries of the world. The primary energy available is estimated based on the energy content of the various waste components. The relationship between GDP, population, per capita GDP, and MSW generation is determined via a regression model. The ObjECTS MiniCAM (integrated assessment model) is used to project the demand for waste-to-energy for the next century for different regions of the world under various international climate policy scenarios. MSW is potentially a low net carbon energy source that can displace fossil energy, and as such, demand for waste-to-energy increases under a climate policy that places a price on carbon emissions.

Gregg, J. S.; Smith, S. J.

2008-12-01

448

Modeling In-stream Tidal Energy Extraction and Its Potential Environmental Impacts  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, there has been growing interest in harnessing in-stream tidal energy in response to concerns of increasing energy demand and to mitigate climate change impacts. While many studies have been conducted to assess and map tidal energy resources, efforts for quantifying the associated potential environmental impacts have been limited. This paper presents the development of a tidal turbine module within a three-dimensional unstructured-grid coastal ocean model and its application for assessing the potential environmental impacts associated with tidal energy extraction. The model is used to investigate in-stream tidal energy extraction and associated impacts on estuarine hydrodynamic and biological processes in a tidally dominant estuary. A series of numerical experiments with varying numbers and configurations of turbines installed in an idealized estuary were carried out to assess the changes in the hydrodynamics and biological processes due to tidal energy extraction. Model results indicated that a large number of turbines are required to extract the maximum tidal energy and cause significant reduction of the volume flux. Preliminary model results also indicate that extraction of tidal energy increases vertical mixing and decreases flushing rate in a stratified estuary. The tidal turbine model was applied to simulate tidal energy extraction in Puget Sound, a large fjord-like estuary in the Pacific Northwest coast.

Yang, Zhaoqing; Wang, Taiping; Copping, Andrea; Geerlofs, Simon H.

2014-09-30

449

Foraging on the potential energy surface: a swarm intelligence-based optimizer for molecular geometry.  

PubMed

We present a stochastic, swarm intelligence-based optimization algorithm for the prediction of global minima on potential energy surfaces of molecular cluster structures. Our optimization approach is a modification of the artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm which is inspired by the foraging behavior of honey bees. We apply our modified ABC algorithm to the problem of global geometry optimization of molecular cluster structures and show its performance for clusters with 2-57 particles and different interatomic interaction potentials. PMID:23181297

Wehmeyer, Christoph; Falk von Rudorff, Guido; Wolf, Sebastian; Kabbe, Gabriel; Schärf, Daniel; Kühne, Thomas D; Sebastiani, Daniel

2012-11-21

450

Foraging on the potential energy surface: A swarm intelligence-based optimizer for molecular geometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a stochastic, swarm intelligence-based optimization algorithm for the prediction of global minima on potential energy surfaces of molecular cluster structures. Our optimization approach is a modification of the artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm which is inspired by the foraging behavior of honey bees. We apply our modified ABC algorithm to the problem of global geometry optimization of molecular cluster structures and show its performance for clusters with 2-57 particles and different interatomic interaction potentials.

Wehmeyer, Christoph; Falk von Rudorff, Guido; Wolf, Sebastian; Kabbe, Gabriel; Schärf, Daniel; Kühne, Thomas D.; Sebastiani, Daniel

2012-11-01

451

Effect of Anharmonicity on the WKB Energy Splitting in a Double Well Potential  

E-print Network

We investigate the effect of anharmonicity on the WKB approximation in a double well potential. By incorporating the anharmonic perturbation into the WKB energy splitting formula we show that the WKB approximation can be greatly improved in the region over which the tunneling is appreciable. We also observe that the usual WKB results can be obtained from our formalism as a limiting case in which the two potential minima are far apart.

Chang Soo Park; Soo-Young Lee; Jae-Rok Kahng; Sahng-Kyoon Yoo; D. K. Park; C. H. Lee; Eui-Soon Yim

1996-09-09

452

A new ab initio potential energy surface and infrared spectra for the Ar-CS? complex.  

PubMed

We report a new three-dimensional potential energy surface for Ar-CS2 involving the Q3 normal mode for the ?3 antisymmetric stretching vibration of the CS2 molecule. The potential energies were calculated using the supermolecular method at the coupled-cluster singles and doubles level with noniterative inclusion of connected triples, using augmented correlation-consistent quadruple-zeta basis set plus midpoint bond functions. Two vibrationally averaged potentials with CS2 at both the ground (? = 0) and the first excited (? = 1)?3 vibrational states were generated from the integration of the three-dimensional potential over the Q3 coordinate. Each potential was found to have a T-shaped global minimum and two equivalent linear local minima. The radial discrete variable representation /angular finite basis representation method and the Lanczos algorithm were applied to calculate the rovibrational energy levels. The calculated band origin shift of the complex (0.0622?cm(-1)) is very close to the observed one (0.0671 cm(-1)). The predicted infrared spectra and spectroscopic parameters based on the two averaged potentials are in excellent agreement with the available experimental data. PMID:25217915

Yuan, Ting; Sun, Xueli; Hu, Yi; Zhu, Hua

2014-09-14

453

Generalized gradient approximation exchange energy functional with correct asymptotic behavior of the corresponding potential.  

PubMed

A new non-empirical exchange energy functional of the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) type, which gives an exchange potential with the correct asymptotic behavior, is developed and explored. In combination with the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) correlation energy functional, the new CAP-PBE (CAP stands for correct asymptotic potential) exchange-correlation functional gives heats of formation, ionization potentials, electron affinities, proton affinities, binding energies of weakly interacting systems, barrier heights for hydrogen and non-hydrogen transfer reactions, bond distances, and harmonic frequencies on standard test sets that are fully competitive with those obtained from other GGA-type functionals that do not have the correct asymptotic exchange potential behavior. Distinct from them, the new functional provides important improvements in quantities dependent upon response functions, e.g., static and dynamic polarizabilities and hyperpolarizabilities. CAP combined with the Lee-Yang-Parr correlation functional gives roughly equivalent results. Consideration of the computed dynamical polarizabilities in the context of the broad spectrum of other properties considered tips the balance to the non-empirical CAP-PBE combination. Intriguingly, these improvements arise primarily from improvements in the highest occupied and lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals, and not from shifts in the associated eigenvalues. Those eigenvalues do not change dramatically with respect to eigenvalues from other GGA-type functionals that do not provide the correct asymptotic behavior of the potential. Unexpected behavior of the potential at intermediate distances from the nucleus explains this unexpected result and indicates a clear route for improvement. PMID:25662634

Carmona-Espíndola, Javier; Gázquez, José L; Vela, Alberto; Trickey, S B

2015-02-01

454

Global potential energy minima of C60(H2O)n clusters.  

PubMed

Likely candidates for the global potential energy minima of C60(H2O)n clusters with n < or = 21 are found using basin-hopping global optimization. The potential energy surfaces are constructed using the TIP4P intermolecular potential for the water molecules, a Lennard-Jones water-fullerene potential, and a water-fullerene polarization potential, which depends on the first few nonvanishing C60 multipole polarizabilities. This combination produces a rather hydrophobic water-fullerene interaction. As a consequence, the water component of the lowest C60(H2O)n minima is quite closely related to low-lying minima of the corresponding TIP4P (H2O)n clusters. In most cases, the geometrical substructure of the water molecules in the C60(H2O)n global minimum coincides with that of the corresponding free water cluster. Exceptions occur when the interaction with C60 induces a change in geometry. This qualitative picture does not change significantly if we use the TIP3P model for the water-water interaction. Structures such as C60@(H2O)60, in which the water molecules surround the C60 fullerene, correspond to local minima with much higher potential energies. For such a structure to become the global minimum, the magnitude of the water-fullerene interaction must be increased to an unphysical value. PMID:16821854

Hernández-Rojas, J; Bretón, J; Gomez Llorente, J M; Wales, D J

2006-07-13

455

Energy deposition by heavy ions: Additivity of kinetic and potential energy contributions in hillock formation on CaF2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modification of surface and bulk properties of solids by irradiation with ion beams is a widely used technique with many applications in material science. In this study, we show that nano-hillocks on CaF2 crystal surfaces can be formed by individual impact of medium energy (3 and 5 MeV) highly charged ions (Xe22+ to Xe30+) as well as swift (kinetic energies between 12 and 58 MeV) heavy xenon ions. For very slow highly charged ions the appearance of hillocks is known to be linked to a threshold in potential energy (Ep) while for swift heavy ions a minimum electronic energy loss per unit length (Se) is necessary. With our results we bridge the gap between these two extreme cases and demonstrate, that with increasing energy deposition via Se the Ep-threshold for hillock production can be lowered substantially. Surprisingly, both mechanisms of energy deposition in the target surface seem to contribute in an additive way, which can be visualized in a phase diagram. We show that the inelastic thermal spike model, originally developed to describe such material modifications for swift heavy ions, can be extended to the case where both kinetic and potential energies are deposited into the surface.

Wang, Y. Y.; Grygiel, C.; Dufour, C.; Sun, J. R.; Wang, Z. G.; Zhao, Y. T.; Xiao, G. Q.; Cheng, R.; Zhou, X. M.; Ren, J. R.; Liu, S. D.; Lei, Y.; Sun, Y. B.; Ritter, R.; Gruber, E.; Cassimi, A.; Monnet, I.; Bouffard, S.; Aumayr, F.; Toulemonde, M.

2014-07-01

456

Energy deposition by heavy ions: additivity of kinetic and potential energy contributions in hillock formation on CaF2.  

PubMed

Modification of surface and bulk properties of solids by irradiation with ion beams is a widely used technique with many applications in material science. In this study, we show that nano-hillocks on CaF2 crystal surfaces can be formed by individual impact of medium energy (3 and 5 MeV) highly charged ions (Xe(22+) to Xe(30+)) as well as swift (kinetic energies between 12 and 58 MeV) heavy xenon ions. For very slow highly charged ions the appearance of hillocks is known to be linked to a threshold in potential energy (Ep) while for swift heavy ions a minimum electronic energy loss per unit length (Se) is necessary. With our results we bridge the gap between these two extreme cases and demonstrate, that with increasing energy deposition via Se the Ep-threshold for hillock production can be lowered substantially. Surprisingly, both mechanisms of energy deposition in the target surface seem to contribute in an additive way, which can be visualized in a phase diagram. We show that the inelastic thermal spike model, originally developed to describe such material modifications for swift heavy ions, can be extended to the case where both kinetic and potential energies are deposited into the surface. PMID:25034006

Wang, Y Y; Grygiel, C; Dufour, C; Sun, J R; Wang, Z G; Zhao, Y T; Xiao, G Q; Cheng, R; Zhou, X M; Ren, J R; Liu, S D; Lei, Y; Sun, Y B; Ritter, R; Gruber, E; Cassimi, A; Monnet, I; Bouffard, S; Aumayr, F; Toulemonde, M

2014-01-01

457

Energy Efficiency Potential in Existing Commercial Buildings: Review of Selected Recent Studies  

SciTech Connect

This report reviews six recent studies (from 2002 through 2006) by states and utilities to assess the energy saving potential in existing commercial buildings. The studies cover all or portions of California, Connecticut, Vermont, Colorado, Illinois, and the Pacific Northwest. The studies clearly reveal that lighting remains the single largest and most cost effective end use that can be reduced to save energy. Overall the study indicated that with existing technologies and costs, a reasonable range of economic savings potential in existing commercial buildings is between 10 and 20 percent of current energy use. While not a focus of the study, an additional conclusion is that implementation of commercial building monitoring and controls would also play an important role in the nation’s efforts to improve energy efficiency of existing buildings.

Belzer, David B.

2009-04-03

458

The effect of scale on the interpretation of geochemical anomalies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The purpose of geochemical surveys changes with scale. Regional surveys identify areas where mineral deposits are most likely to occur, whereas intermediate surveys identify and prioritize specific targets. At detailed scales specific deposit models may be applied and deposits delineated. The interpretation of regional geochemical surveys must take into account scale-dependent difference in the nature and objectives of this type of survey. Overinterpretation of regional data should be resisted, as should recommendations to restrict intermediate or detailed follow-up surveys to the search for specific deposit types or to a too limited suite of elements. Regional surveys identify metallogenic provinces within which a variety of deposit types and metals are most likely to be found. At intermediate scale, these regional provinces often dissipate into discrete clusters of anomalous areas. At detailed scale, individual anomalous areas reflect local conditions of mineralization and may seem unrelated to each other. Four examples from arid environments illustrate the dramatic change in patterns of anomalies between regional and more detailed surveys. On the Arabian Shield, a broad regional anomaly reflects the distribution of highly differentiated anorogenic granites. A particularly prominent part of the regional anomaly includes, in addition to the usual elements related to the granites, the assemblage of Mo, W and Sn. Initial interpretation suggested potential for granite-related, stockwork Mo deposits. Detailed work identified three separate sources for the anomaly: a metal-rich granite, a silicified and stockwork-veined area with scheelite and molybdenite, and scheelite/powellite concentrations in skarn deposits adjacent to a ring-dike complex. Regional geochemical, geophysical and remote-sensing data in the Sonoran Desert, Mexico, define a series of linear features interpreted to reflect fundamental, northeast-trending fractures in the crust that served as the prime conduits for mineralizing fluids. At a larger scale, the linear, northeast-trending anomalies can be shown to result from a series of discrete mineralized systems with different ages and mineral assemblages. The linear pattern of anomalies disintegrates. A regional geochemical survey in the Sonoran Desert in southwestern Arizona displays a cluster of samples anomalous in Pb, Mo, Bi and W. In detail, the original regional anomaly separates into four discrete anomalous areas, each with its own distinctive suite of elements, geographic distribution and age of mineralization. A prominent regional gold anomaly in the Gobi Desert, Xinjiang, Peoples Republic of China, extends southeastward for 30 km from known lode gold deposits. Because the anomaly cuts both lithologic units and the structural grain, and because it parallels the prevailing direction of high-velocity winds, it was originally attributed to eolian dispersion. In detail, the regional anomaly consists of several east-west-trending anomalies, parallel to local lithology and structure that most likely reflect independent sources of lode gold. The regional anomaly results from smoothing of an en-echelon set of local anomalies. These examples emphasize that interpretation of regional anomalies must be tempered to consider regional-sized geologic features. Attempts to overinterpret anomalies by assigning deposit-scale attributes to regional anomalies can lead to confusion and incorrect interpretations. Potential targets that can be readily resolved only at intermediate or detailed scales of study may be overlooked. ?? 1991.

Theobald, P.K.; Eppinger, R.G.; Turner, R.L.; Shiquan, S.

1991-01-01

459

Structural Stability and Energetics of Carbon Clusters: Tersoff Potential Energy Function Calculation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structural stability and energy of carbon clusters Cn,(n =3-60) have been investigated by using the Tersoff empirical many body potential energy function which was parametrized for this element, and satisfies the bulk properties of diamond and graphite forms of carbon. The energy of the most stable microcluster with 3? n ? 8 have been investigated, as well as the energy for 5? n ? 59 small clusters formed as shell like geometry in bcc, fcc, hcp(i) and diamond crystaline structures. Two dimensional structures for microclusters with n = 3-8, have been found energetically most stable. The shell like clusters in diamond crystalline form have been found to have the lowest energies among the shell like clusters investigated in crystaline structures. The energy for n = 60, the buckminsterfullerene, has also been calculated.

Türelý, Marta Vidal; Erkoç, Þakir

1996-09-01

460

Potential Coastal Pumped Hydroelectric Energy Storage Locations Identified using GIS-based Topographic Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large-scale electrical energy storage could accommodate variable, weather dependent energy resources such as wind and solar. Pumped hydroelectric energy storage (PHS) and compressed energy storage area (CAES) have life cycle energy and financial costs that are an order of magnitude lower than conventional electrochemical storage technologies. However PHS and CAES storage technologies require specific geologic conditions. Conventional PHS requires an upper and lower reservoir separated by at least 100 m of head, but no more than 10 km in horizontal distance. Conventional PHS also impacts fresh water supplies, riparian ecosystems, and hydrologic environments. A PHS facility that uses the ocean as the lower reservoir benefits from a smaller footprint, minimal freshwater impact, and the potential to be located near off shore wind resources and population centers. Although technologically nascent, today one coastal PHS facility exists. The storage potential for coastal PHS is unknown. Can coastal PHS play a significant role in augmenting future power grids with a high faction of renewable energy supply? In this study we employ GIS-based topographic analysis to quantify the coastal PHS potential of several geographic locations, including California, Chile and Peru. We developed automated techniques that seek local topographic minima in 90 m spatial resolution shuttle radar topography mission (SRTM) digital elevation models (DEM) that satisfy the following criteria conducive to PHS: within 10 km from the sea; minimum elevation 150 m; maximum elevation 1000 m. Preliminary results suggest the global potential for coastal PHS could be very significant. For example, in northern Chile we have identified over 60 locations that satisfy the above criteria. Two of these locations could store over 10 million cubic meters of water or several GWh of energy. We plan to report a global database of candidate coastal PHS locations and to estimate their energy storage capacity.

Parsons, R.; Barnhart, C. J.; Benson, S. M.

2013-12-01