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1

Understanding Anomalies to Extract Vacuum Energy  

SciTech Connect

Recent Russian literature contains some interesting speculations of potentially wide applicability regarding the physical vacuum. These investigations examined and applied a theory to various anomalies to try and understand what these events may represent. Data were collected by Dmitriev to quantify these events and identify commonalties that indicate the anomalies might have a natural origin. Dyatlov created theories on the Polarized Inhomogeneous Physical Vacuum where he claimed that each anomaly possessed a distinct boundary separate from its surroundings. Within this inhomogeneous boundary, the theory suggests that the magnetic, electric, gravitic, and spin fields would be different from its surroundings. From these findings, he developed equations that resemble the London equations for a superconductor and are somewhat similar to those developed later by Puthoff. The importance of these events is that with additional understanding, they may offer a means for extracting energy from the physical vacuum. Moreover, one may speculate that these anomalies may represent a gravitational vortex or even a portal or a wormhole to look into potential travel within other dimensions.

Murad, P.A

2004-02-04

2

Automated Verification of Potential GPS Signal-In-Space Anomalies  

E-print Network

using the ground observation data from the International GNSS Service (IGS). For each potential GPS SIS anomaly, our process first determines 10­32 preferred IGS stations, and retrieves their observation, ionospheric delays, and multipaths, from total UREs. Finally, the observation data from each IGS station

Stanford University

3

Automated Verification of Potential GPS Signal-In-Space Anomalies  

E-print Network

using the ground observation data from the International GNSS Service (IGS). For each potential GPS SIS anomaly, our process first determines 10-32 preferred IGS stations, and retrieves their observation, ionospheric delays, and multipaths, from total UREs. Finally, the observation data from each IGS station

Gao, Grace Xingxin

4

Anomaly in the optical potential for deformed nuclei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elastic scattering of 65 MeV polarized protons from Sm isotopes, 164Dy, and 172Yb has been measured. The volume integrals of the real central part and the spin-orbit part of the optical potential show anomalously low values for deformed nuclei. The origins of these anomalies are discussed. NUCLEAR REACTIONS 144Sm, 148Sm, 150Sm, 152Sm, 154Sm, 164Dy, 172Yb(p,p), 164Dy(p,p'), E=65 MeV; measured ?(?), A(?) deduced optical-model parameters, coupled channel parameters, volume integrals for the real central potential, volume integrals for the real spin-orbit potential.

Ohtani, F.; Sakaguchi, H.; Nakamura, M.; Noro, T.; Sakamoto, H.; Ogawa, H.; Ichihara, T.; Yosoi, M.; Kobayashi, S.

1983-07-01

5

Anomalies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This theme issue on anomalies includes Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, and additional resources for elementary and junior high school students. Pertinent activities are suggested, and sidebars discuss UFOs, animal anomalies, and anomalies from nature; and resources covering unexplained phenonmenas like crop circles, Easter Island,…

Online-Offline, 1999

1999-01-01

6

Numerical modeling of self-potential anomalies due to leaky dams: Model and field examples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Substantial self-potential anomalies are known to be associated with zones of discharge in leaky dams. The mechanism for generating these SP anomalies. however, is not well understood. In this paper we apply a two-dimensional computer-code to calculate self-potential anomalies for a model of a leaky dam and then apply the code to some field data for a dam site in

M. J. Wilt; R. F. Corwin

1989-01-01

7

Numerical modeling of self-potential anomalies due to leaky dams: Model and field examples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Substantial self-potential anomalies are known to be associated with zones of discharge in leaky dams. The mechanism for generating these SP anomalies. however, is not well understood. In this paper we apply a two-dimensional computer-code to calculate self-potential anomalies for a model of a leaky dam and then apply the code to some field data for a dam site in

M. Wilt; R. Corwin

8

Anomalies of nuclear criticality  

SciTech Connect

During the development of nuclear energy, a number of apparent anomalies have become evident in nuclear criticality. Some of these have appeared in the open literature and some have not. Yet, a naive extrapolation or application of existing data, without knowledge of the anomalies, could lead to potentially serious consequences. This report discusses several of these anomalies.

Clayton, E.D.

1979-06-01

9

The Aharonov-Casher Theorem and the Axial Anomaly in the Aharonov-Bohm Potential  

E-print Network

The spectral properties of the Dirac Hamiltonian in the the Aharonov-Bohm potential are discussed. By using the Krein-Friedel formula, the density of states (DOS) for different self-adjoint extensions is calculated. As in the nonrelativistic case, whenever a bound state is present in the spectrum it is always accompanied by a (anti)resonance at the energy. The Aharonov-Casher theorem must be corrected for singular field configurations. There are no zero (threshold) modes in the Aharonov-Bohm potential. For our choice of the 2d Dirac Hamiltonian, the phase-shift flip is shown to occur at only positive energies. This flip gives rise to a surplus of the DOS at the lower threshold coming entirely from the continuous part of the spectrum. The results are applied to several physical quantities: the total energy, induced fermion-number, and the axial anomaly.

Alexander Moroz

1995-11-14

10

Sensitivity of the International Skating Union's Mathematical Criteria to Flag Potential Scoring Anomalies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the "mathematical criteria" employed by the International Skating Union (ISU) to identify potential judging anomalies within competitive figure skating. The mathematical criteria have greater sensitivity to identify scoring anomalies for technical element scores than for the program component scores. This article…

Looney, Marilyn A.; Howell, Steven M.

2015-01-01

11

Thermodynamic, Dynamic and Structural Anomalies for Shoulder-like potentials  

E-print Network

upon cooling. This is not the case of water, a liquid where the spe- cific volume at ambient pressure anomalies. PACS numbers: 64.70.Pf, 82.70.Dd, 83.10.Rs, 61.20.Ja 1 #12;I. INTRODUCTION Most liquids contract starts to increase when cooled below T 4o C 1,2 . Besides, in a certain range of pressures, water also

Barbosa, Marcia C. B.

12

Structure order, local potentials, and physical anomalies of water ice  

E-print Network

Hydrogen-bond forms a pair of asymmetric, coupled, H-bridged oscillators with ultra-short-range interactions and memory. hydrogen bond cooperative relaxation and the associated binding electron entrapment and nonbonding electron polarization discriminate water and ice from other usual materials in the physical anomalies. As a strongly correlated fluctuating system, water prefers the statistically mean of tetrahedrally-coordinated structure with a supersolid skin that is elastic, polarized, ice like, hydrophobic, with 3/4 density.

Chang Q Sun

2014-07-11

13

Insights on the Cuprate High Energy Anomaly Observed in ARPES  

SciTech Connect

Recently, angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy has been used to highlight an anomalously large band renormalization at high binding energies in cuprate superconductors: the high energy 'waterfall' or high energy anomaly (HEA). The anomaly is present for both hole- and electron-doped cuprates as well as the half-filled parent insulators with different energy scales arising on either side of the phase diagram. While photoemission matrix elements clearly play a role in changing the aesthetic appearance of the band dispersion, i.e. creating a 'waterfall'-like appearance, they provide an inadequate description for the physics that underlies the strong band renormalization giving rise to the HEA. Model calculations of the single-band Hubbard Hamiltonian showcase the role played by correlations in the formation of the HEA and uncover significant differences in the HEA energy scale for hole- and electron-doped cuprates. In addition, this approach properly captures the transfer of spectral weight accompanying doping in a correlated material and provides a unifying description of the HEA across both sides of the cuprate phase diagram. We find that the anomaly demarcates a transition, or cross-over, from a quasiparticle band at low binding energies near the Fermi level to valence bands at higher binding energy, assumed to be of strong oxygen character.

Moritz, Brian

2011-08-16

14

Threshold anomaly for the 7Be +58Ni system at near-Coulomb-barrier energies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By using recent fusion cross section measurements for the weakly bound system 7Be+58Ni around the Coulomb barrier, a simultaneous ?2 analysis of elastic scattering and fusion cross section data is performed. The analysis is carried out with optical polarization potentials for the fusion and direct reaction processes. That is, the nuclear polarization potential UN is split into a volume part UF which accounts for fusion reactions and a surface part UD R that is responsible for direct reactions. The parameters of fusion and direct reaction Woods-Saxon polarization potentials are determined by the analysis of the data. The presence of the threshold anomaly is investigated from the energy dependence of these polarization potentials. It is found that, contrary to other weakly bound systems, the 7Be+58Ni reaction presents the usual threshold anomaly.

Gómez Camacho, A.; Aguilera, E. F.

2014-12-01

15

The trace anomaly and dynamical vacuum energy in cosmology  

SciTech Connect

The trace anomaly of conformal matter implies the existence of massless scalar poles in physical amplitudes involving the stress-energy tensor. These poles may be described by a local effective action with massless scalar fields, which couple to classical sources, contribute to gravitational scattering processes, and can have long range gravitational effects at macroscopic scales. In an effective field theory approach, the effective action of the anomaly is an infrared relevant term that should be added to the Einstein-Hilbert action of classical General Relativity to take account of macroscopic quantum effects. The additional scalar degrees of freedom contained in this effective action may be understood as responsible for both the Casimir effect in flat spacetime and large quantum backreaction effects at the horizon scale of cosmological spacetimes. These effects of the trace anomaly imply that the cosmological vacuum energy is dynamical, and its value depends on macroscopic boundary conditions at the cosmological horizon scale, rather than sensitivity to the extreme ultraviolet Planck scale.

Mottola, Emil [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01

16

Multiple liquid-liquid critical points and density anomaly in core-softened potentials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relation between liquid-liquid phase transitions and waterlike density anomalies in core-softened potentials of fluids was investigated in an exactly solvable one-dimensional lattice model and in a three-dimensional fluid with a Fermi-like potential, the latter by molecular dynamics. Both systems were shown to present three liquid phases, two liquid-liquid phase transitions closely connected to two distinct regions of anomalous density increase. We propose that an oscillatory behavior observed on the thermal expansion coefficient as a function of pressure can be used as a signature of the connection between the liquid-liquid phase transition and density anomaly.

Barbosa, Marco Aurélio A.; Salcedo, Evy; Barbosa, Marcia C.

2013-03-01

17

Effect of attractive interactions on the water-like anomalies of a core-softened model potential  

SciTech Connect

It is now well established that water-like anomalies can be reproduced by a spherically symmetric potential with two length scales, popularly known as core-softened potential. In the present study we aim to investigate the effect of attractive interactions among the particles in a model fluid interacting with core-softened potential on the existence and location of various water-like anomalies in the temperature-pressure plane. We employ extensive molecular dynamic simulations to study anomalous nature of various order parameters and properties under isothermal compression. Order map analyses have also been done for all the potentials. We observe that all the systems with varying depth of attractive wells show structural, dynamic, and thermodynamic anomalies. As many of the previous studies involving model water and a class of core softened potentials have concluded that the structural anomaly region encloses the diffusion anomaly region, which in turn, encloses the density anomaly region, the same pattern has also been observed in the present study for the systems with less depth of attractive well. For the systems with deeper attractive well, we observe that the diffusion anomaly region shifts toward higher densities and is not always enclosed by the structural anomaly region. Also, density anomaly region is not completely enclosed by diffusion anomaly region in this case.

Pant, Shashank [Department of Chemical Sciences, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research-Kolkata, Mohanpur-741252 (India)] [Department of Chemical Sciences, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research-Kolkata, Mohanpur-741252 (India); Gera, Tarun [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology-Delhi, New Delhi, 110016 (India)] [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology-Delhi, New Delhi, 110016 (India); Choudhury, Niharendu, E-mail: nihcho@barc.gov.in, E-mail: niharc2002@yahoo.com [Theoretical Chemistry Section, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400 085 (India)] [Theoretical Chemistry Section, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400 085 (India)

2013-12-28

18

Spherical harmonic expansions of the Earth's gravitational potential to degree 360 using 30' mean anomalies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two potential coefficient fields that are complete to degree and order 360 have been computed. One field (OSU86E) excludes geophysically predicted anomalies while the other (OSU86F) includes such anomalies. These fields were computed using a set of 30' mean gravity anomalies derived from satellite altimetry in the ocean areas and from land measurements in North America, Europe, Australia, Japan and a few other areas. Where no 30' data existed, 1 deg x 1 deg mean anomaly estimates were used if available. No rigorous combination of satellite and terrestrial data was carried out. Instead advantage was taken of the adjusted anomalies and potential coefficients from a rigorous combination of the GEML2' potential coefficient set and 1 deg x 1 deg mean gravity anomalies. The two new fields were computed using a quadrature procedure with de-smoothing factors. The spectra of the new fields agree well with the spectra of the fields with 1 deg x 1 deg data out to degree 180. Above degree 180 the new fields have more power. The fields have been tested through comparison of Doppler station geoid undulations with undulations from various geopotential models. The agreement between the two types of undulations is approximately + or - 1.6 m. The use of a 360 field over a 180 field does not significantly improve the comparison. Instead it allows the comparison to be done at some stations where high frequency effects are important. In addition maps made in areas of high frequency information (such as trench areas) clearly reveal the signal in the new fields from degree 181 to 360.

Rapp, Richard H.; Cruz, Jaime Y.

1986-01-01

19

Nonrelativistic inverse square potential, scale anomaly, and complex extension  

E-print Network

The old problem of a singular, inverse square potential in nonrelativistic quantum mechanics is treated employing a field-theoretic, functional renormalization method. An emergent contact coupling flows to a fixed point or develops a limit cycle depending on the discriminant of its quadratic beta function. We analyze the fixed points in both conformal and non-conformal phases and perform a natural extension of the renormalization group analysis to complex values of the contact coupling. Physical interpretation and motivation for this extension is the presence of an inelastic scattering channel in two-body collisions. We present a geometric description of the complex generalization by considering renormalization group flows on the Riemann sphere. Finally, using bosonization, we find an analytical solution of the extended renormalization group flow equations, constituting the main result of our work.

Sergej Moroz; Richard Schmidt

2010-01-14

20

Global Biomass Energy Potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intensive use of renewable energy is one of the options to stabilize CO2atmospheric concentration at levels of 350 to 550ppm. A recent evaluation of the global potential of primary renewable energy\\u000a carried out by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) sets a value of at least 2800EJ\\/yr, which is more than the\\u000a most energy-intensive SRES scenario forecast for the

Rua Francisco Dias Velho

2006-01-01

21

Hazard potential ranking of hazardous waste landfill sites and risk of congenital anomalies  

PubMed Central

Background: A 33% increase in the risk of congenital anomalies has been found among residents near hazardous waste landfill sites in a European collaborative study (EUROHAZCON). Aims: To develop and evaluate an expert panel scoring method of the hazard potential of EUROHAZCON landfill sites, and to investigate whether sites classified as posing a greater potential hazard are those with a greater risk of congenital anomaly among nearby residents relative to more distant residents. Methods: A total of 1270 cases of congenital anomaly and 2308 non-malformed control births were selected in 14 study areas around 20 landfill sites. An expert panel of four landfill specialists scored each site in three categories—overall, water, and air hazard—based on readily available, documented data on site characteristics. Tertiles of the average ranking scores defined low, medium, and high hazard sites. Calculation of odds ratios was based on distance of residence from the sites, comparing a 0–3 km "proximate" with a 3–7 km "distant" zone. Results: Agreement between experts measured by intraclass correlation coefficients was 0.50, 0.44, and 0.20 for overall, water, and air hazard before a consensus meeting and 0.60, 0.56, and 0.53 respectively after this meeting. There was no evidence for a trend of increasing odds ratios with increasing overall hazard or air hazard. For non-chromosomal anomalies, odds ratios by water hazard category showed an increasing trend of borderline statistical significance (p = 0.06) from 0.79 in the low hazard category, 1.43 in the medium, to 1.60 in the high water hazard category. Conclusions: There is little evidence for a relation between risk of congenital anomaly in proximate relative to distant zones and hazard potential of landfill sites as classified by the expert panel, but without external validation of the hazard potential scoring method interpretation is difficult. Potential misclassification of sites may have reduced our ability to detect any true dose–response effect. PMID:12409536

Vrijheid, M; Dolk, H; Armstrong, B; Boschi, G; Busby, A; Jorgensen, T; Pointer, P

2002-01-01

22

Differences between discontinuous and continuous soft-core attractive potentials: the appearance of density anomaly  

E-print Network

Soft-core attractive potentials can give rise to a phase diagram with three fluid phases at different densities (gas, low-density liquid and high-density liquid), separated by first order phase transition lines ending in critical points. Experiments show a phase diagram with these features for phosphorous and triphenyl-phosphite. Liquid-liquid phase transition could be relevant for water, silica, liquid metals, colloids and protein solutions, among others. Here we compare two potentials with short-range soft-core repulsion and narrow attraction. One of them is a squared potential that is known to have liquid-liquid phase transition, ending in a critical point, and no anomaly in density. The normal, monotonic, behavior of density for isobaric cooling is surprising if compared with molecular liquids, such as water, where a hypothetical critical point is proposed as rationale for the anomalous behavior of density. The second potential is a continuous version of the first. We show that the phase diagram associated to this new potential has, not only the liquid-liquid phase transition, but also the density anomaly. Our result, therefore, shows that the behavior in density is strongly dependent on the derivative of the potential.

Giancarlo Franzese

2007-04-17

23

Forward modelling and inversion of self-potential anomalies caused by 2D inclined sheets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Self-potential anomalies observed over sulfide ore bodies can be closely associated with electrochemical reactions and the ohmic potential drop within the rocks. Self-potential surveys based on laboratory measurements of electrochemical potentials allow us either to measure the amplitude of the anomalies generated by this mechanism or to determine the model parameters. In order to achieve these goals, two sheets of zinc and copper were joined together to simulate sheet-like ore bodies. Self-potential surveys were conducted over 684 electrodes with the purpose of revealing the influence of various angles of the sheet. In a laboratory experiment, four different inclinations were chosen to perform the forward modelling. The last part of this paper involves the inversion of measured data to recover the distribution of generated self-potential signals. The inversion results show a satisfactory agreement with the laboratory measured data. Finding the geometry of the buried source from the shape of the SP response is not intended as it is fixed in advance. The first aim of this paper is to show how the SP response is affected under the presence of a 2D conductive structure (sheet-like) in tank experiments. The second aim is to obtain one of the model parameters (coefficient M) using data regression.

Roudsari, Mohamad Sadegh; Beitollahi, Ali

2013-06-01

24

Inversion of self-potential anomalies caused by simple-geometry bodies using global optimization algorithms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three naturally inspired meta-heuristic algorithms—the genetic algorithm (GA), simulated annealing (SA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO)—were used to invert some of the self-potential (SP) anomalies originated by some polarized bodies with simple geometries. Both synthetic and field data sets were considered. The tests with the synthetic data comprised of the solutions with both noise-free and noisy data; in the tests with the field data some SP anomalies observed over a copper belt (India), graphite deposits (Germany) and metallic sulfide (Turkey) were inverted. The model parameters included the electric dipole moment, polarization angle, depth, shape factor and origin of the anomaly. The estimated parameters were compared with those from previous studies using various optimization algorithms, mainly least-squares approaches, on the same data sets. During the test studies the solutions by GA, PSO and SA were characterized as being consistent with each other; a good starting model was not a requirement to reach the global minimum. It can be concluded that the global optimization algorithms considered in this study were able to yield compatible solutions with those from widely used local optimization algorithms.

Göktürkler, G.; Balkaya, Ç.

2012-10-01

25

Self-energy anomaly of an electric pointlike dipole in three-dimensional static spacetimes  

E-print Network

We calculate the self-energy anomaly of a pointlike electric dipole located in a static $(2+1)$-dimensional curved spacetime. The energy functional for this problem is invariant under an infinite-dimensional (gauge) group of transformations parameterized by one scalar function of two variables. We demonstrate that the problem of the calculation of the self-energy anomaly for a pointlike dipole can be reduced to the calculation of quantum fluctuations of an effective two-dimensional Euclidean quantum field theory. We reduced the problem in question to the calculation of the conformal anomaly of an effective scalar field in two dimensions and obtained an explicit expression for the self-energy anomaly of an electric dipole in an asymptotically flat, regular $(2+1)$-dimensional spacetime which may have electrically neutral black-hole-like metrics with regular Killing horizon.

Valeri P. Frolov; Andrey A. Shoom; Andrei Zelnikov

2013-03-07

26

Developing global climate anomalies suggest potential disease risks for 2006 – 2007  

PubMed Central

Background El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) related climate anomalies have been shown to have an impact on infectious disease outbreaks. The Climate Prediction Center of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA/CPC) has recently issued an unscheduled El Niño advisory, indicating that warmer than normal sea surface temperatures across the equatorial eastern Pacific may have pronounced impacts on global tropical precipitation patterns extending into the northern hemisphere particularly over North America. Building evidence of the links between ENSO driven climate anomalies and infectious diseases, particularly those transmitted by insects, can allow us to provide improved long range forecasts of an epidemic or epizootic. We describe developing climate anomalies that suggest potential disease risks using satellite generated data. Results Sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the equatorial east Pacific ocean have anomalously increased significantly during July – October 2006 indicating the typical development of El Niño conditions. The persistence of these conditions will lead to extremes in global-scale climate anomalies as has been observed during similar conditions in the past. Positive Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR) anomalies, indicative of severe drought conditions, have been observed across all of Indonesia, Malaysia and most of the Philippines, which are usually the first areas to experience ENSO-related impacts. This dryness can be expected to continue, on average, for the remainder of 2006 continuing into the early part of 2007. During the period November 2006 – January 2007 climate forecasts indicate that there is a high probability for above normal rainfall in the central and eastern equatorial Pacific Islands, the Korean Peninsula, the U.S. Gulf Coast and Florida, northern South America and equatorial east Africa. Taking into consideration current observations and climate forecast information, indications are that the following regions are at increased risk for disease outbreaks: Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand and most of the southeast Asia Islands for increased dengue fever transmission and increased respiratory illness; Coastal Peru, Ecuador, Venezuela, and Colombia for increased risk of malaria; Bangladesh and coastal India for elevated risk of cholera; East Africa for increased risk of a Rift Valley fever outbreak and elevated malaria; southwest USA for increased risk for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome and plague; southern California for increased West Nile virus transmission; and northeast Brazil for increased dengue fever and respiratory illness. Conclusion The current development of El Niño conditions has significant implications for global public health. Extremes in climate events with above normal rainfall and flooding in some regions and extended drought periods in other regions will occur. Forecasting disease is critical for timely and efficient planning of operational control programs. In this paper we describe developing global climate anomalies that suggest potential disease risks that will give decision makers additional tools to make rational judgments concerning implementation of disease prevention and mitigation strategies. PMID:17194307

Anyamba, Assaf; Chretien, Jean-Paul; Small, Jennifer; Tucker, Compton J; Linthicum, Kenneth J

2006-01-01

27

Global Climate Anomalies and Potential Infectious Disease Risks: 2014-2015  

PubMed Central

Background: The El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a global climate phenomenon that impacts human infectious disease risk worldwide through droughts, floods, and other climate extremes. Throughout summer and fall 2014 and winter 2015, El Niño Watch, issued by the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, assessed likely El Niño development during the Northern Hemisphere fall and winter, persisting into spring 2015. Methods: We identified geographic regions where environmental conditions may increase infectious disease transmission if the predicted El Niño occurs using El Niño indicators (Sea Surface Temperature [SST], Outgoing Longwave Radiation [OLR], and rainfall anomalies) and literature review of El Niño-infectious disease associations. Results: SSTs in the equatorial Pacific and western Indian Oceans were anomalously elevated during August-October 2014, consistent with a developing weak El Niño event. Teleconnections with local climate is evident in global precipitation patterns, with positive OLR anomalies (drier than average conditions) across Indonesia and coastal southeast Asia, and negative anomalies across northern China, the western Indian Ocean, central Asia, north-central and northeast Africa, Mexico/Central America, the southwestern United States, and the northeastern and southwestern tropical Pacific. Persistence of these conditions could produce environmental settings conducive to increased transmission of cholera, dengue, malaria, Rift Valley fever, and other infectious diseases in regional hotspots as during previous El Niño events. Discussion and Conclusions: The current development of weak El Niño conditions may have significant potential implications for global public health in winter 2014-spring 2015. Enhanced surveillance and other preparedness measures in predicted infectious disease hotspots could mitigate health impacts. PMID:25685635

Chretien, Jean-Paul; Anyamba, Assaf; Small, Jennifer; Britch, Seth; Sanchez, Jose L.; Halbach, Alaina C.; Tucker, Compton; Linthicum, Kenneth J.

2015-01-01

28

Evaluating Cenozoic equatorial sediment deposition anomalies for potential paleoceanographic and Pacific plate motion applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

If equatorial sediments form characteristic deposits around the equator, they may help to resolve the amount of northwards drift of the Pacific tectonic plate. Relevant to this issue, it has been shown that 230Th has been accumulating on the equatorial seabed faster than its production from radioactive decay in the overlying water column during the Holocene (Marcantonio et al. in Paleoceanography 16:260-267, 2001). Some researchers have argued that this reflects the deposition of particles with adsorbed 230Th carried by bottom currents towards the equator ("focusing"). If correct, this effect may combine with high pelagic productivity, which is also centered on the equator, to yield a characteristic signature of high accumulation rates marking the paleoequator in older deposits. Here we evaluate potential evidence that such an equatorial feature existed in the geological past. Seismic reflection data from seven meridional transects suggest that a band of equatorially enhanced accumulation of restricted latitude was variably developed, both spatially and temporally. It is absent in the interval 14.25-20.1 Ma but is well developed for the interval 8.55-14.25 Ma. We also examined eolian dust accumulation rate histories generated from scientific drilling data. A dust accumulation rate anomaly near the modern equator, which is not obviously related to the inter-tropical convergence zone, is interpreted as caused by focusing. Accumulation rates of Ba and P2O5 (proxies of export production) reveal a static equatorial signature, which suggests that the movement of the Pacific plate over the period 10-25 Ma was modest. The general transition from missing to well-developed focusing signatures around 14.25 Ma in the seismic data coincides with the mid-Miocene development of the western boundary current off New Zealand. This current supplies the Pacific with deep water from Antarctica, and could therefore imply a potential paleoceanographic or paleoclimatic origin. At 10.05-14.25 Ma, the latitudes of the seismic anomalies are up to ~2° different from the paleoequator predicted by Pacific plate-hotspot models, suggesting potentially a small change in the hotspot latitudes relative to the present day (although this inference depends on the precise form of the deposition around the equator). The Ba and P2O5 anomalies, on the other hand, are broadly compatible with plate models predicting slow northward plate movement over 10-25 Ma.

Mitchell, Neil C.; Dubois, Nathalie

2014-03-01

29

Quantification of the Potential Energy  

E-print Network

(ICE). Energy from waste has an important role to play in improving energy security in the UK and1 waste up to 2020. To determine the potential2 contribution that energy recovery from residual shows that: potential energy recovery from these residual wastes could account for as much as 17

Columbia University

30

Biomass Energy Crops: Massachusetts' Potential  

E-print Network

Biomass Energy Crops: Massachusetts' Potential Prepared for: Massachusetts Division of Energy Resources and Massachusetts Department of Conservation & Recreation Prepared by: University of Massachusetts;#12;Executive Summary In Massachusetts, biomass energy has typically meant wood chips derived from the region

Schweik, Charles M.

31

Mining Building Energy Management System Data Using Fuzzy Anomaly Detection and Linguistic Descriptions  

SciTech Connect

Building Energy Management Systems (BEMSs) are essential components of modern buildings that utilize digital control technologies to minimize energy consumption while maintaining high levels of occupant comfort. However, BEMSs can only achieve these energy savings when properly tuned and controlled. Since indoor environment is dependent on uncertain criteria such as weather, occupancy, and thermal state, performance of BEMS can be sub-optimal at times. Unfortunately, the complexity of BEMS control mechanism, the large amount of data available and inter-relations between the data can make identifying these sub-optimal behaviors difficult. This paper proposes a novel Fuzzy Anomaly Detection and Linguistic Description (Fuzzy-ADLD) based method for improving the understandability of BEMS behavior for improved state-awareness. The presented method is composed of two main parts: 1) detection of anomalous BEMS behavior and 2) linguistic representation of BEMS behavior. The first part utilizes modified nearest neighbor clustering algorithm and fuzzy logic rule extraction technique to build a model of normal BEMS behavior. The second part of the presented method computes the most relevant linguistic description of the identified anomalies. The presented Fuzzy-ADLD method was applied to real-world BEMS system and compared against a traditional alarm based BEMS. In six different scenarios, the Fuzzy-ADLD method identified anomalous behavior either as fast as or faster (an hour or more), that the alarm based BEMS. In addition, the Fuzzy-ADLD method identified cases that were missed by the alarm based system, demonstrating potential for increased state-awareness of abnormal building behavior.

Dumidu Wijayasekara; Ondrej Linda; Milos Manic; Craig Rieger

2014-08-01

32

Effective Lagrangian for low-energy hadron physics with anomalies  

SciTech Connect

A chiral-invariant effective Lagrangian is constructed from pions and the low-mass mesons taking full account of the Wess-Zumino anomalies. The parameters of the model are determined by theoretical constraints as well as experimental observables in the meson sector. Other observables in the meson sector are then predicted in agreement with experiment. Soliton solutions of this Lagrangian are found. These are used to predict the static properties of baryons. The results obtained compare well with experimental data except for the soliton mass which comes out too high.

Lacombe, M.; Loiseau, B.; Vinh Mau, R.; Cottingham, W.N.

1988-09-01

33

Addressing the Challenges of Anomaly Detection for Cyber Physical Energy Grid Systems  

SciTech Connect

The consolidation of cyber communications networks and physical control systems within the energy smart grid introduces a number of new risks. Unfortunately, these risks are largely unknown and poorly understood, yet include very high impact losses from attack and component failures. One important aspect of risk management is the detection of anomalies and changes. However, anomaly detection within cyber security remains a difficult, open problem, with special challenges in dealing with false alert rates and heterogeneous data. Furthermore, the integration of cyber and physical dynamics is often intractable. And, because of their broad scope, energy grid cyber-physical systems must be analyzed at multiple scales, from individual components, up to network level dynamics. We describe an improved approach to anomaly detection that combines three important aspects. First, system dynamics are modeled using a reduced order model for greater computational tractability. Second, a probabilistic and principled approach to anomaly detection is adopted that allows for regulation of false alerts and comparison of anomalies across heterogeneous data sources. Third, a hierarchy of aggregations are constructed to support interactive and automated analyses of anomalies at multiple scales.

Ferragut, Erik M [ORNL; Laska, Jason A [ORNL; Melin, Alexander M [ORNL; Czejdo, Bogdan [ORNL

2013-01-01

34

Detecting Energy-Greedy Anomalies and Mobile Malware Hahnsang Kim, Joshua Smith, Kang G. Shin  

E-print Network

Detecting Energy-Greedy Anomalies and Mobile Malware Variants Hahnsang Kim, Joshua Smith, Kang G-powered mobile hand- helds, such as PocketPCs and SmartPhones, for their work. However, the limited battery malware targeting de- pletion of battery energy. Such malware are usually diffi- cult to detect

Shihada, Basem

35

Callan-Symanzik equations and low-energy theorems with trace anomalies  

E-print Network

Basing on some new and concise forms of the Callan-Symanzik equations, the low-energy theorems involving trace anomalies \\`a la Novikov-Shifman-Vainshtein-Zakharov, first advanced and proved in Nucl. Phys. \\textbf{B165}, 67 (1980), \\textbf{B191}, 301 (1981), are proved as immediate consequences. The proof is valid in any consistent effective field theories and these low-energy theorems are hence generalized. Some brief discussions about related topics are given.

J. -F. Yang

2007-04-14

36

The relationship between sea surface temperature anomaly and wind energy input in the Pacific Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) and wind energy input in the Pacific Ocean over the period of 1949–2003 is studied by using daily-mean NOAA\\/NCEP wind stress and monthly mean Reynolds SST data. The results indicate the strong negative correlation between SSTA and local wind energy input to surface waves in most of the domain at low and

Chuanjiang Huang; Fangli Qiao

2009-01-01

37

Biomass energy potential in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimation of biomass energy potential including biomass residue and forestry biomass in Thailand was carried out taking into account the amount of biomass residue which has already been used and the possibility of biomass energy plantation in accordance with the National Plan of the Thai Government. According to this estimation, 65 PJ can be derived from agricultural and forestry waste

Shin-ya Yokoyama; Tomoko Ogi; Anan Nalampoon

2000-01-01

38

Detecting energy-greedy anomalies and mobile malware variants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobile users of computation and communication services have been rapidly adopting battery-powered mobile hand- helds, such as PocketPCs and SmartPhones, for their work. However, the limited battery-lifetime of these devices re- stricts their portability and applicability, and this weak- ness can be exacerbated by mobile malware targeting de- pletion of battery energy. Such malware are usually di-- cult to detect

Hahnsang Kim; Joshua Smith; Kang G. Shin

2008-01-01

39

Thermodynamic, Dynamic, Structural and Excess Entropy Anomalies for core-softened potentials  

E-print Network

ways. First, it is the density anomaly. Most liquids contract upon cooling. This is not the case shoulder depths are analyzed. We show that all these systems exhibit a liquid-liquid phase transition between a high density liquid phase and a low density liquid phase ending at a critical point

Barbosa, Marcia C. B.

40

Structural anomalies for a three dimensional isotropic core-softened potential  

E-print Network

important substance for life: It cools, carries, stabilizes, reacts, lu- bricates, dilutes, and much more. Despite of this, many of its characteristics are not well understood. While most liquids contract upon cooling, water expands below T = 4o C at ambient pressure1 . This is known as the density anomaly of water

Barbosa, Marcia C. B.

41

PERINATAL EXPOSURE TO ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS: POTENTIAL ROLE OF HORMONAL ALTERATIONS IN INITIATING ADULT REPRODUCTIVE ANOMALIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The primary hypothesis to be tested in this series of studies is whether or not exposure to environmental agents, during certain key periods of development, will increase the risk of specific anomalies of the reproductive system. Embedded in this hypothesis is the assumption that...

42

Deformed optical potential anomaly in {open_quotes}soft{close_quotes} nuclei  

SciTech Connect

An analysis of the low-energy neutron inelastic scattering in some {open_quotes}soft{close_quotes} nuclei is made in the region of medium atomic-weight nuclei. A combined use of the coupled channel method (CCM) and statistical Hauser-Feshbach theory is applied. As structural model of the target nucleus in the CCM calculation the Davydov-Chaban model (DCM) is used. It is observed that the lineal coefficient of the real part energy dependence of the deformed optical potential becomes unusual and increase with the {open_quotes}softness{close_quotes} of the nucleus. It is shown that in the frame of the DCM it is possible to describe adequately experimental differential, integral and total cross sections in the energy range 1-5 MeV and the structure of the low-lying collective states.

Lubian, J.; Cabezas, R. [Center for Applied Studies to Nuclear Development, Havana (Cuba)

1994-12-31

43

Two key parameters for the El Niño continuum: zonal wind anomalies and Western Pacific subsurface potential temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different types of El Niño (EN) events have recently been discussed. Based on NCEP-NOAA reanalysis data this analysis explores a number of key parameters that cause a range of EN types over the period 1980-2013. EN events are divided into three types depending on the spatial and temporal evolution of the sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA): Central Pacific (CPEN), Eastern Pacific (EPEN), and Hybrid (HBEN). We find that EN is a continuous spectrum of events with CPEN and EPEN as the end members. This spectrum mainly depends on two key parameters: the 130°E-160°E Western Pacific 5-250 m subsurface oceanic potential temperature anomaly about 1 year before the EN peak (typically January and February), and the 140°E-160°W cumulative zonal wind anomaly (ZWA) between onset and peak of the EN event. Using these two parameters, about 70 % of the total variance of the maximum SSTA realised in different Niño regions can already be explained up to 6 months before the maximum SSTA occurs. This offers a rather simple potential for ENSO prediction. A necessary condition for the evolution of an EPEN, the Western Pacific is in the recharged state. Strong and sustained westerly wind anomalies in Western Pacific can then trigger a Kelvin wave propagating to the eastern Pacific. Both parameters, potential temperature and zonal wind anomaly, constructively interfere. For a CPEN, these parameters are much less important. Kelvin wave propagation is not involved in the evolution of the event. Instead, the Central Pacific warming is caused locally by a zonal advection feedback and local air-sea interaction as already demonstrated in previous studies. The HBEN occurs when both parameters interfere in different ways: (1) Western Pacific is weakly charged, but strong westerly ZWA are observed that reduce the equatorial upwelling in the Central Pacific while the triggered Kelvin wave is too weak to have a significant effect; (2) Western Pacific is strongly charged but only weak westerly ZWA develop, so that the resulting Kelvin wave cannot fully extend into the eastern-most Pacific.

Lai, Andy Wang-Chun; Herzog, Michael; Graf, Hans-F.

2015-03-01

44

Assessment of Triton Potential Energy  

E-print Network

An assessment is made of the dominant features contributing to the triton potential energy, with the objective of understanding qualitatively their origins and sensitivities. Relativistic effects, short-range repulsion, and OPEP dominance are discussed. A determination of the importance of various regions of nucleon-nucleon separation is made numerically.

J. L. Friar; G. L. Payne

1996-01-26

45

SST Anomalies + Wind Anomalies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies and sea surface wind anomalies show the development of the 2002-2003 El Nino based on data from NASAs Aqua and QuikSCAT spacecraft. The wind data has been processed using the Variational Analysis Method (VAM).

Greg Shirah

2003-02-03

46

Global Surface Solar Energy Anomalies Including El Nino and La Nina Years  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper synthesizes past events in an attempt to define the general magnitude, duration, and location of large surface solar anomalies over the globe. Surface solar energy values are mostly a function of solar zenith angle, cloud conditions, column atmospheric water vapor, aerosols, and surface albedo. For this study, solar and meteorological parameters for the 10-yr period July 1983 through June 1993 are used. These data were generated as part of the Release 3 Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) activity under the NASA Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) effort. Release 3 SSE uses upgraded input data and methods relative to previous releases. Cloud conditions are based on recent NASA Version-D International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) global satellite radiation and cloud data. Meteorological inputs are from Version-I Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) reanalysis data that uses both weather station and satellite information. Aerosol transmission for different regions and seasons are for an 'average' year based on historic solar energy data from over 1000 ground sites courtesy of Natural Resources Canada (NRCan). These data are input to a new Langley Parameterized Shortwave Algorithm (LPSA) that calculates surface albedo and surface solar energy. That algorithm is an upgraded version of the 'Staylor' algorithm. Calculations are performed for a 280X280 km equal-area grid system over the globe based on 3-hourly input data. A bi-linear interpolation process is used to estimate data output values on a 1 X 1 degree grid system over the globe. Maximum anomalies are examined relative to El Nino and La Nina events in the tropical Pacific Ocean. Maximum year-to-year anomalies over the globe are provided for a 10-year period. The data may assist in the design of systems with increased reliability. It may also allow for better planning for emergency assistance during some atypical events.

Whitlock, C. H.; Brown, D. E.; Chandler, W. S.; DiPasquale, R. C.; Ritchey, Nancy A.; Gupta, Shashi K.; Wilber, Anne C.; Kratz, David P.; Stackhouse, Paul W.

2001-01-01

47

The potential of renewable energy  

SciTech Connect

On June 27 and 28, 1989, the US Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratories were convened to discuss plans for the development of a National Energy Strategy (NES) and, in particular, the analytic needs in support of NES that could be addressed by the laboratories. As a result of that meeting, interlaboratory teams were formed to produce analytic white papers on key topics, and a lead laboratory was designated for each core laboratory team. The broad-ranging renewables assignment is summarized by the following issue statement from the Office of Policy, Planning and Analysis: to what extent can renewable energy technologies contribute to diversifying sources of energy supply What are the major barriers to greater renewable energy use and what is the potential timing of widespread commercialization for various categories of applications This report presents the results of the intensive activity initiated by the June 1989 meeting to produce a white paper on renewable energy. Scores of scientists, analysts, and engineers in the five core laboratories gave generously of their time over the past eight months to produce this document. Their generous, constructive efforts are hereby gratefully acknowledged. 126 refs., 44 figs., 32 tabs.

Not Available

1990-03-01

48

Renewable Energy Potential for Brownfield Redevelopment Strategies  

E-print Network

) Resource Availability Biomass Biomass is a broad category of renewable energy that can be well biomass, producing corn ethanol, and generating biopower. The renewable energy technologyRenewable Energy Potential for Brownfield Redevelopment Strategies Renewable energy resources

49

On the potential of extratropical SST anomalies for improving climate predictions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Skill for initialized decadal predictions for atmospheric and terrestrial variability is posited to reside in successful prediction of sea surface temperatures (SSTs) associated with the low-frequency modes of coupled ocean-atmosphere variability, for example, Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) or Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO). So far, assessments of the skill of atmospheric and terrestrial variability in decadal predictions, however, have not been encouraging. Similarly, in the context of seasonal climate variability, teleconnections between SSTs associated with PDO and AMO and terrestrial climate have also been noted, but the same SST information used in predictive mode has failed to demonstrate convincing gains in skill. Are these results an artifact of model biases, or more a consequence of some fundamental property of coupled evolution of ocean-atmosphere system in extratropical latitudes, and the manner in which extratropical SST anomalies modulate (or constrain) atmospheric variability? Based on revisiting an analysis of a simple model that replicates the essential characteristics of coupled ocean-atmosphere interaction in extratropical latitudes, it is demonstrated that lack of additional skill in predicting atmospheric and terrestrial variability is more a consequence of fundamental characteristics of coupled evolution of ocean-atmosphere system. The results based on simple models are also substantiated following an analysis of a set of seasonal hindcasts with a fully coupled model.

Kumar, Arun; Wang, Hui

2014-11-01

50

High resolution numerical study of the Algiers 2001 flash flood: sensitivity to the upper-level potential vorticity anomaly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From 9 to 11 November 2001, intense cyclogenesis affected the northern coasts of Africa and more particularly the densely populated city of Algiers. During the morning of 10 November, more than 130 mm of precipitation was recorded at Bouzareah and resulted in mudslides which devastated the Bab-el-Oued district. This disaster caused more than 700 casualties and catastrophic damage. Like many other heavy rainstorms in the western Mediterranean, this event was associated with the presence of an upper-level trough materialized by a deep stratospheric intrusion and characterized by high potential vorticity values. In this study, the impact of this synoptic structure on the localization and intensity of the precipitation which affected Algiers is investigated using a potential vorticity (PV) inversion method coupled for the first time with the French non-hydrostatic MESO-NH model. A set of perturbed synoptic environments was designed by slightly modifying the extent and the intensity of the coherent potential vorticity structures in the operational ARPEGE analysis. It is shown that such modifications may have a strong impact on the fine-scale precipitation forecast in the Algiers region, thereby demonstrating the fundamental role played by the potential vorticity anomaly during this exceptional meteorological event.

Argence, S.; Lambert, D.; Richard, E.; Söhne, N.; Chaboureau, J.-P.; Crépin, F.; Arbogast, P.

2006-03-01

51

Certifying the Potential Energy Landscape  

E-print Network

It is highly desirable for a numerical approximation of a stationary point for a potential energy landscape to lie in the quadratic convergence basin of that stationary point. However, it is possible that an approximation may lie only in the linear convergence basin, or even in a chaotic region, and hence not converge to the actual stationary point when further optimization is attempted. Proving that a numerical approximation will quadratically converge to the associated stationary point is termed certifying the numerical approximation. We employ Smale's \\alpha-theory to stationary points, providing a certification that serves as a mathematical proof that the numerical approximation does indeed correspond to an actual stationary point, independent of the precision employed. As a practical example, employing recently developed certification algorithms, we show how the \\alpha-theory can be used to certify all the known minima and transition states of Lennard-Jones LJ$_{N}$ atomic clusters for N = 7, ...,14.

Dhagash Mehta; Jonathan D. Hauenstein; David J. Wales

2013-02-25

52

Thermoelectric and electrochemical self-potential anomalies induced by water injection into hydrocarbon reservoirs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Downhole measurements of electrokinetic (EK) streaming potential, using electrodes mounted on the outside of insulated casing, has been shown to be useful for informing production strategies in oil and gas reservoirs. However, spontaneous potentials due to thermoelectric (TE) and/or electrochemical (EC) effects may also be present during production and may contribute to the signal measured at the production well. We present a study of the contribution of these effects based on numerical models of subsurface potentials during production. We find that the injection of seawater, which typically has a different temperature and salinity to the formation brine, leads to the generation of both TE and EC potential signals in an oil reservoir, which may be measured at the production well along with EK potential signals. In particular, there is a peak in the TE potential before and after the temperature front, with a change in sign occurring close to the midpoint of the front, and the signal decaying with distance from the front. The EC potential has a similar profile, with a change in sign occurring close to the location of the salinity front. In both cases, the absolute magnitude of the signal is related to the overall temperature and/or salinity contrast between the injected fluids and the formation brine, and the magnitude of the TE and EC coupling coefficient. When we use the maximum theoretical magnitude for the TE and EC coupling coefficients, in the case of a perfect membrane, the lag in the temperature front relative to the saturation front leads to a negligible TE potential signal at the production well until long after water breakthrough occurs. In contrast, the EC potential contributes significantly to the spontaneous potential measured at the production well before the waterfront arrives, as the salinity front and the saturation front approximately coincide. The dependence of the TE and EC coupling coefficients upon temperature, salinity and/or partial water saturation is still uncertain. We explore the contribution of the EK and EC potential signals to the overall signal measured at the well as a function of salinity and water saturation. Our results imply that measurements of the spontaneous potential at a production well will combine contributions from both streaming and electrochemical effects, and may be used to detect an advancing waterfront some time before water breakthrough occurs at the well. Moreover, inversion of the measured signals could be used to determine the water saturation in the vicinity of the well, and to regulate flow into the well using control valves in order to maintain or increase oil production.

Gulamali, Murtaza; Leinov, Eli; Jackson, Matthew; Pain, Christopher

2010-05-01

53

Energy Detection Based on Undecimated Discrete Wavelet Transform and Its Application in Magnetic Anomaly Detection  

PubMed Central

Magnetic anomaly detection (MAD) is a passive approach for detection of a ferromagnetic target, and its performance is often limited by external noises. In consideration of one major noise source is the fractal noise (or called 1/f noise) with a power spectral density of 1/fa (0energy detection method based on undecimated discrete wavelet transform (UDWT) is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the foundations of magnetic anomaly detection and UDWT are introduced in brief, while a possible detection system based on giant magneto-impedance (GMI) magnetic sensor is also given out. Then our proposed energy detection based on UDWT is described in detail, and the probabilities of false alarm and detection for given the detection threshold in theory are presented. It is noticeable that no a priori assumptions regarding the ferromagnetic target or the magnetic noise probability are necessary for our method, and different from the discrete wavelet transform (DWT), the UDWT is shift invariant. Finally, some simulations are performed and the results show that the detection performance of our proposed detector is better than that of the conventional energy detector even utilized in the Gaussian white noise, especially when the spectral parameter ? is less than 1.0. In addition, a real-world experiment was done to demonstrate the advantages of the proposed method. PMID:25343484

Nie, Xinhua; Pan, Zhongming; Zhang, Dasha; Zhou, Han; Chen, Min; Zhang, Wenna

2014-01-01

54

Potential of geothermal energy in China  

E-print Network

This thesis provides an overview of geothermal power generation and the potential for geothermal energy utilization in China. Geothermal energy is thermal energy stored in the earth's crust and currently the only ubiquitously ...

Sung, Peter On

2010-01-01

55

1 Estimating aquifer hydraulic properties from the inversion of surface 2 Streaming Potential (SP) anomalies  

E-print Network

1 Estimating aquifer hydraulic properties from the inversion of surface 2 Streaming Potential (SP with the geometry of the water table. It follows that 11 SP measurements can be used to estimate aquifer hydraulic and found that we 14 are able to estimate the hydraulic conductivity and the depth 15 and the thickness

Sailhac, Pascal

56

Penetrating electron fluctuations associated with GEO spacecraft anomalies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Space weather is a known factor in spacecraft anomalies. Solar minimum carries with it an enhanced electron content. Electrons with sufficient energy to penetrate a spacecraft structure pose a hazard. They can accumulate in interior dielectrics creating an electric potential sufficient to cause a spontaneous breakdown. The resulting electrostatic discharge has been a cause of operational anomalies. The physical process

David P. Love; Donald S. Toomb; Daniel C. Wilkinson; J. B. Parkinson

2000-01-01

57

A modified panel of sentinel congenital anomalies for potential use in mutation epidemiology based on birth defects registry data.  

PubMed

Since 1983, several authors have used panels of "sentinel" congenital anomalies that might serve as indicators of the human genome mutation rate. The current study suggests a considerably updated panel, and applies it to public health birth defects registry data to determine the potential number of de novo cases. Data were taken from deliveries in 1999-2009 from the Texas Birth Defects Registry, an active surveillance program. Cases with one of the conditions or syndromes in the panel were identified using codes and text searches. Frequencies and birth prevalence were calculated for the overall panel and subcategories within it. Of the 60 conditions appearing in previous papers on sentinel phenotypes, 21 (35%) were used in the current study along with 27 new phenotypes. We found 1,694 cases. Of those, 1,100 exhibited phenotypes thought to arise de novo in at least 90% of the cases ("all/almost all" subpanel), and 594 considered de novo in roughly 50-90% of cases ("most" subpanel). Chromosomal deletion disorders were present in 523 cases and imprinting disorders in 243. After adjusting for maternal age, occurrence of cases in the total panel, "most" subpanel, and imprinting disorders subpanel were significantly associated with paternal age. Our panel of sentinel phenotypes differs from previous panels due to evolved knowledge of genetic disorders, different approaches with respect to interviewing, and different operational definitions. It is hoped that using an overall panel as well as subpanels may maximize statistical power as well as suggest potential mechanisms. PMID:24917548

Langlois, Peter H; Moffitt, Karen B; Scheuerle, Angela E

2014-09-01

58

Biomass energy potential in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomass energy includes fuelwood, agricultural residues, animal wastes, charcoal and other fuels derived from biological sources. It currently accounts for about 14% of world energy consumption. Biomass is the main source of energy for many developed and developing countries. In Turkey energy wood is available in the form of forest chips, fuelwood, wood waste, wood pellets, and it is also

K. Kaygusuz; M. F. Türker

2002-01-01

59

Geothermal Energy: Tapping the Potential  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ground source geothermal energy enables one to tap into the earth's stored renewable energy for heating and cooling facilities. Proper application of ground-source geothermal technology can have a dramatic impact on the efficiency and financial performance of building energy utilization (30%+). At the same time, using this alternative energy

Johnson, Bill

2008-01-01

60

Geothermal Energy Potential of Turkey: Inferred from the Aeromagnetic data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geothermal energy potential of Turkey is well known. There are lots of hot springs with over 30° C water temperatures. However, the significance of these geothermal energy potential of Turkey is not adequately understood. We believe that the main reason for this; is the lack of exploration methods and tools in a wide area as large as Turkey. We exploited a well known physical property of rocks to estimate the geothermal energy potential. Physically, substances lose their magnetization above a temperature known as the Curie that is the 580° C for magnetite. Properties of the Curie temperature have been exploited to observe the bottom depth of the magnetization. That is the depth where the heat reaches to 580° C. In another word, there is no magnetization below this depth. In normal crust this depth is about 22-24 km. Thus, investigation of the bottom depth of magnetization by using aeromagnetic anomalies can lead to information that if there are any anomalous regions well above the normal crust. The aeromagnetic anomalies of whole of Turkey were surveyed by the Mineral Research and Exploration (MTA) of Turkey. The survey was completed during late 1980's. Five kilometers grid data were available and used for regional exploration purposes. Exploration of the geothermal energy potential of Turkey was done from west to east in the similar way to search for shallow high temperature regions. These are from west to east; i.) Western Turkey: Two major shallow depth regions were determined at the west of Kutahya and the north-east of Denizli. The Curie Point Depths (CPDs) were calculated as about 7 km and about 9 km in Kutahya and Denizli, respectively. Also, high heat flow values and crustal thinning (about 32 km from gravity anomalies of western Turkey) were calculated for western Turkey. ii.) Central Turkey: A CPD depth of 8 km was calculated. This gives us a temperature gradient of 0.073° C/m. Geothermal energy potential was studied using water chemistry and isotopic research borehole called SHK-1. Thermal gradient is about 0.75° C/m (Borehole depth is 1677 m). These independent researches are indicative of high geothermal potential of the region. iii.) Eastern Turkey: The CPD was calculated as the same way as in the west and centre. It was suggested that the individual sources of volcanic regions exhibit geothermal energy source. As a conclusion; Turkey has several important high geothermal rich areas. These thermal regions can also be well correlated with the hot spring areas of the country. Temperatures obtained from the available wells provide additional contribution to understand the geothermal potential. In future, these potential high thermal regions should be explored in detail to utilize the energy potential before hydrocarbon sources becoming scarce.

Ates, Abdullah; Bilim, Funda; Buyuksarac, Aydin; Bektas, Ozcan

2010-05-01

61

Energy from Forest Biomass: Potential Economic Impacts  

E-print Network

Energy from Forest Biomass: Potential Economic Impacts in Massachusetts Prepared for: Massachusetts Bioenergy Initiative, a multifaceted study of biomass energy potential in Massachusetts. The economic impact study looks specifically at impacts in the 5 western counties of the Commonwealth, where biomass energy

Schweik, Charles M.

62

Potential Energy and the Body Electric  

E-print Network

Physics tells us that potential energy is the capacity to do work that a body possesses as a result of its position in electric, magnetic, or gravitational fields. Thinking of “potentiality” in an electric idiom and with ...

Helmreich, Stefan

63

Wind energy potential in Palestine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weibull parameters of the wind speed distribution function were computed for 49 weather stations in Palestine. Wind potentials in kWh\\/m2 yr were calculated at the above stations, then contours of wind potential were drawn. Electricity from the wind can be generated, in some locations in the West Bank, at a cost of 0.07 $\\/kWh.

Afif Hasan

1997-01-01

64

Chromosome 3 Anomalies Investigated by Genome Wide SNP Analysis of Benign, Low Malignant Potential and Low Grade Ovarian Serous Tumours  

PubMed Central

Ovarian carcinomas exhibit extensive heterogeneity, and their etiology remains unknown. Histological and genetic evidence has led to the proposal that low grade ovarian serous carcinomas (LGOSC) have a different etiology than high grade carcinomas (HGOSC), arising from serous tumours of low malignant potential (LMP). Common regions of chromosome (chr) 3 loss have been observed in all types of serous ovarian tumours, including benign, suggesting that these regions contain genes important in the development of all ovarian serous carcinomas. A high-density genome-wide genotyping bead array technology, which assayed >600,000 markers, was applied to a panel of serous benign and LMP tumours and a small set of LGOSC, to characterize somatic events associated with the most indolent forms of ovarian disease. The genomic patterns inferred were related to TP53, KRAS and BRAF mutations. An increasing frequency of genomic anomalies was observed with pathology of disease: 3/22 (13.6%) benign cases, 40/53 (75.5%) LMP cases and 10/11 (90.9%) LGOSC cases. Low frequencies of chr3 anomalies occurred in all tumour types. Runs of homozygosity were most commonly observed on chr3, with the 3p12-p11 candidate tumour suppressor region the most frequently homozygous region in the genome. An LMP harboured a homozygous deletion on chr6 which created a GOPC-ROS1 fusion gene, previously reported as oncogenic in other cancer types. Somatic TP53, KRAS and BRAF mutations were not observed in benign tumours. KRAS-mutation positive LMP cases displayed significantly more chromosomal aberrations than BRAF-mutation positive or KRAS and BRAF mutation negative cases. Gain of 12p, which harbours the KRAS gene, was particularly evident. A pathology review reclassified all TP53-mutation positive LGOSC cases, some of which acquired a HGOSC status. Taken together, our results support the view that LGOSC could arise from serous benign and LMP tumours, but does not exclude the possibility that HGOSC may derive from LMP tumours. PMID:22163003

Birch, Ashley H.; Arcand, Suzanna L.; Oros, Kathleen K.; Rahimi, Kurosh; Watters, A. Kevin; Provencher, Diane; Greenwood, Celia M.; Mes-Masson, Anne-Marie; Tonin, Patricia N.

2011-01-01

65

Potential Energy Total electric potential energy, U, of a system of  

E-print Network

is Bring q2 in from infinity. From definition of potential energy or Charges of like sign, W * and UPotential Energy Total electric potential energy, U, of a system of charges is obtained from of work done by the field, W*= -W. Bring q1 from , W *= 0 since no electric F yet #12;Potential Energy

Bertulani, Carlos A. - Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A&M University

66

Potential Energy Total electric potential energy, U, of a system of  

E-print Network

due to q1 is Bring q2 in from infinity. From definition of potential energy or Charges of like sign, WPotential Energy Total electric potential energy, U, of a system of charges is obtained from of work done by the field, W*= -W. Bring q1 from , W *= 0 since no electric F yet #12;Potential Energy

Bertulani, Carlos A. - Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A&M University

67

Potential gradients produced by pore-space heterogeneities: Application to isothermal frost damage and submarine hydrate anomalies  

E-print Network

and submarine hydrate anomalies Alan W. Rempel1 and Laura J. Van Alst2 1 Department of Geological Sciences; Murton, 2006; Washburn, 1980). At subzero tempera- tures, small amounts of liquid coexist in equilibrium

Rempel, Alan W.

68

Potential Water and Energy Savings from Showerheads  

SciTech Connect

This paper estimates the benefits and costs of six water reduction scenarios. Benefits and costs of showerhead scenarios are ranked in this paper by an estimated water reduction percentage. To prioritize potential water and energy saving scenarios regarding showerheads, six scenarios were analyzed for their potential water and energy savings and the associated dollar savings to the consumer.

Biermayer, Peter J.

2005-09-28

69

Exploring Potential Energy Surfaces for Enzymatic Reactions  

E-print Network

Exploring Potential Energy Surfaces for Enzymatic Reactions Using QM/MM Calculations Prof. H, and wound healing Related to cancer, inflammation and connective tissue diseases Zinc dependent #12;MMP2. B 2010, 114, 1030 S C O HCCH2 S HH O * #12;Exploring the Potential Energy Surface for KDO8P Synthase

Schlegel, H. Bernhard

70

On the Chemical Potential of Dark Energy  

E-print Network

It is widely assumed that the observed universe is accelerating due to the existence of a new fluid component called dark energy. In this article, the thermodynamics consequences of a nonzero chemical potential on the dark energy component is discussed with special emphasis to the phantom fluid case. It is found that if the dark energy fluid is endowed with a negative chemical potential, the phantom field hypothesis becomes thermodynamically consistent with no need of negative temperatures as recently assumed in the literature.

S. H. Pereira

2008-06-23

71

Geothermal Energy Potential in Western United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews types of geothermal energy sources in the western states, including hot brine systems and dry steam systems. Conversion to electrical energy is a major potential use of geothermal energy, although it creates environmental disruptions such as noise, corrosion, and scaling of equipment. (AV)

Pryde, Philip R.

1977-01-01

72

Renewable energy in India: Status and potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

A majority of the Indian population does not have access to convenient energy services (LPG, electricity). Though India has made significant progress in renewable energy, the share of modern renewables in the energy mix is marginal. This paper reviews the status and potential of different renewables (except biomass) in India. This paper documents the trends in the growth of renewables

Indu R. Pillai; Rangan Banerjee

2009-01-01

73

A comparison of classical and intelligent methods to detect potential thermal anomalies before the 11 August 2012 Varzeghan, Iran, earthquake (Mw = 6.4)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a number of classical and intelligent methods, including interquartile, autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA), artificial neural network (ANN) and support vector machine (SVM), have been proposed to quantify potential thermal anomalies around the time of the 11 August 2012 Varzeghan, Iran, earthquake (Mw = 6.4). The duration of the data set, which is comprised of Aqua-MODIS land surface temperature (LST) night-time snapshot images, is 62 days. In order to quantify variations of LST data obtained from satellite images, the air temperature (AT) data derived from the meteorological station close to the earthquake epicenter has been taken into account. For the models examined here, results indicate the following: (i) ARIMA models, which are the most widely used in the time series community for short-term forecasting, are quickly and easily implemented, and can efficiently act through linear solutions. (ii) A multilayer perceptron (MLP) feed-forward neural network can be a suitable non-parametric method to detect the anomalous changes of a non-linear time series such as variations of LST. (iii) Since SVMs are often used due to their many advantages for classification and regression tasks, it can be shown that, if the difference between the predicted value using the SVM method and the observed value exceeds the pre-defined threshold value, then the observed value could be regarded as an anomaly. (iv) ANN and SVM methods could be powerful tools in modeling complex phenomena such as earthquake precursor time series where we may not know what the underlying data generating process is. There is good agreement in the results obtained from the different methods for quantifying potential anomalies in a given LST time series. This paper indicates that the detection of the potential thermal anomalies derive credibility from the overall efficiencies and potentialities of the four integrated methods.

Akhoondzadeh, M.

2013-04-01

74

Energy potential of modern landfills  

SciTech Connect

Methane produced by refuse decomposition in a sanitary landfill can be recovered for commercial use. Landfill methane is currently under-utilized, with commercial recovery at only a small percentage of US landfills. New federal regulations mandating control of landfill gas migration and atmospheric emissions are providing impetus to methane recovery schemes as a means of recovering costs for increased environmental control. The benefits of landfill methane recovery include utilization of an inexpensive renewable energy resource, removal of explosive gas mixtures from the subsurface, and mitigation of observed historic increases in atmospheric methane. Increased commercial interest in landfill methane recovery is dependent on the final form of Clean Air Act amendments pertaining to gaseous emissions from landfills; market shifts in natural gas prices; financial incentives for development of renewable energy resources; and support for applied research and development to develop techniques for increased control of the gas generation process in situ. This paper will discuss the controls on methane generation in landfills. In addition, it will address how landfill regulations affect landfill design and site management practices which, in turn, influence decomposition rates. Finally, future trends in landfilling, and their relationship to gas production, will be examined. 19 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Bogner, J.E.

1990-01-01

75

The extended algebra of observables for Dirac fields and the trace anomaly of their stress-energy tensor  

E-print Network

We discuss from scratch the classical structure of Dirac spinors on an arbitrary globally hyperbolic, Lorentzian spacetime, their formulation as a locally covariant quantum field theory, and the associated notion of a Hadamard state. Eventually, we develop the notion of Wick polynomials for spinor fields, and we employ the latter to construct a covariantly conserved stress-energy tensor suited for back-reaction computations. We shall explicitly calculate its trace anomaly in particular.

Claudio Dappiaggi; Thomas-Paul Hack; Nicola Pinamonti

2009-04-03

76

Energy saving potential of various roof technologies  

E-print Network

Unconventional roof technologies such as cool roofs and green roofs have been shown to reduce building heating and cooling load. Although previous studies suggest potential for energy savings through such technologies, ...

Ray, Stephen D. (Stephen Douglas)

2010-01-01

77

Multivessel Batch Distillation Potential Energy Savings  

E-print Network

Multivessel Batch Distillation ­ Potential Energy Savings Bernd Wittgens and Sigurd Skogestad 1, Norway ABSTRACT ­ A conventional batch distillation column operated under feedback control applying the proposed policy is compared to the multivessel batch distillation column. In some cases we found

Skogestad, Sigurd

78

Potential of energy production from conserved forages  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Forages have a potential role in meeting the demand for energy. Perennial forages are attractive for various reasons. One, both the monetary and energy cost of planting is spread over many years. Two, we already have the equipment for harvesting, storing and transporting this source of biomass. Thre...

79

Hydrodynamics with Triangle Anomalies  

E-print Network

We consider the hydrodynamic regime of theories with quantum anomalies for global currents. We show that a hitherto discarded term in the conserve current is not only allowed by symmetries, but is in fact required by triangle anomalies and the second law of thermodynamics. This term leads to a number of new effects, one of which is chiral separation in a rotating fluid at nonzero chemical potential. The new kinetic coefficients can be expressed, in a unique fashion, through the anomalies coefficients and the equation of state. We briefly discuss the relevance of this new hydrodynamic term for physical situations, including heavy ion collisions.

Dam T. Son; Piotr Surowka

2009-07-13

80

Hydrodynamics with Triangle Anomalies  

SciTech Connect

We consider the hydrodynamic regime of theories with quantum anomalies for global currents. We show that a hitherto discarded term in the conserved current is not only allowed by symmetries, but is in fact required by triangle anomalies and the second law of thermodynamics. This term leads to a number of new effects, one of which is chiral separation in a rotating fluid at nonzero chemical potential. The new kinetic coefficients can be expressed, in a unique fashion, through the anomaly coefficients and the equation of state. We briefly discuss the relevance of this new hydrodynamic term for physical situations, including heavy-ion collisions.

Son, Dam T. [Institute for Nuclear Theory, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-1550 (United States); Surowka, Piotr [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-1560 (United States); Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland)

2009-11-06

81

Learning about Poland Anomaly  

MedlinePLUS

... genetic terms used on this page Learning About Poland Anomaly What is Poland anomaly? What are the ... Anomaly Additional Resources for Poland Anomaly What is Poland anomaly? Named after Sir Alfred Poland, Poland anomaly ( ...

82

Economic Energy Savings Potential in Federal Buildings  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this study was to estimate the current life-cycle cost-effective (i.e., economic) energy savings potential in Federal buildings and the corresponding capital investment required to achieve these savings, with Federal financing. Estimates were developed for major categories of energy efficiency measures such as building envelope, heating system, cooling system, and lighting. The analysis was based on conditions (building stock and characteristics, retrofit technologies, interest rates, energy prices, etc.) existing in the late 1990s. The potential impact of changes to any of these factors in the future was not considered.

Brown, Daryl R.; Dirks, James A.; Hunt, Diane M.

2000-09-04

83

Industrial Energy Conservation Potentials in North Carolina  

E-print Network

. Potential energy savings are also found in the operation of lights, motors, heating ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems, ovens, temperature setting schedules, and many others. Table 2 summarizes the most frequently recommended EGOs..., their corresponding energy and cost savings, and implementation costs. Some of the major energy consuming equipment with related EGOs will be discussed. Table 1 Types of Manufacturers Type /I Savings ImpL MMBTU $ Cost Textile 19 99,374 634,881 376,464 Wood...

Barakat, M. G.; Singh, H.; Mallik, A. K.

84

Dipolar self-potential anomaly associated with carbon dioxide and radon flux at Syabru-Bensi hot springs in central Nepal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Syabru-Bensi hot springs are located at the Main Central Thrust (MCT) zone in central Nepal. High carbon dioxide and radon exhalation fluxes (reaching 19 kg m-2 d-1 and 5 Bq m-2 s-1, respectively) are associated with these hot springs, making this site a promising case to study the relationship between self-potential and fluids (gas and water) exhalation along a fault zone. A high-resolution self-potential map, covering an area of 100 m by 150 m that surrounds the main gas and water discharge spots, exhibits a dipolar self-potential anomaly with a negative peak reaching -180 mV at the main gas discharge spot. The positive lobe of the anomaly reaching 120 mV is located along the terraces above the main gas and water discharge spots. Several electrical resistivity tomograms were performed in this area. The resistivity tomogram crossing the degassing area shows a dipping resistive channel interpreted as a fracture zone channeling the gas and the hot water. We propose a numerical finite difference model to simulate the flow pattern in this area with the constraints imposed by the electrical resistivity tomograms, the self-potential data, the position of the gas vents, and hot water discharge area. This study provides insights on the generation of electrical currents associated with geothermal circulation in a geodynamically active area, a necessary prerequisite to study, using self-potentials, a possible modulation of the geothermal circulation by tectonic activity.

Byrdina, S.; Revil, A.; Pant, S. R.; Koirala, B. P.; Shrestha, P. L.; Tiwari, D. R.; Gautam, U. P.; Shrestha, K.; Sapkota, S. N.; Contraires, S.; Perrier, F.

2009-10-01

85

Bangui Anomaly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bangui anomaly is the name given to one of the Earth s largest crustal magnetic anomalies and the largest over the African continent. It covers two-thirds of the Central African Republic and therefore the name derives from the capitol city-Bangui that is also near the center of this feature. From surface magnetic survey data Godivier and Le Donche (1962) were the first to describe this anomaly. Subsequently high-altitude world magnetic surveying by the U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office (Project Magnet) recorded a greater than 1000 nT dipolar, peak-to-trough anomaly with the major portion being negative (figure 1). Satellite observations (Cosmos 49) were first reported in 1964, these revealed a 40nT anomaly at 350 km altitude. Subsequently the higher altitude (417-499km) POGO (Polar Orbiting Geomagnetic Observatory) satellite data recorded peak-to-trough anomalies of 20 nT these data were added to Cosmos 49 measurements by Regan et al. (1975) for a regional satellite altitude map. In October 1979, with the launch of Magsat, a satellite designed to measure crustal magnetic anomalies, a more uniform satellite altitude magnetic map was obtained. These data, computed at 375 km altitude recorded a -22 nT anomaly (figure 2). This elliptically shaped anomaly is approximately 760 by 1000 km and is centered at 6%, 18%. The Bangui anomaly is composed of three segments; there are two positive anomalies lobes north and south of a large central negative field. This displays the classic pattern of a magnetic anomalous body being magnetized by induction in a zero inclination field. This is not surprising since the magnetic equator passes near the center of this body.

Taylor, Patrick T.

2004-01-01

86

Quantum potential energy as concealed motion  

E-print Network

It is known that the Schroedinger equation may be derived from a hydrodynamic model in which the Lagrangian position coordinates of a continuum of particles represent the quantum state. Using Routh\\s method of ignorable coordinates it is shown that the quantum potential energy of particle interaction that represents quantum effects in this model may be regarded as the kinetic energy of additional concealed freedoms. The method brings an alternative perspective to Planck\\s constant, which plays the role of a hidden variable, and to the canonical quantization procedure, since what is termed kinetic energy in quantum mechanics may be regarded literally as energy due to motion.

Peter Holland

2014-11-13

87

Quantum Potential Energy as Concealed Motion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is known that the Schrödinger equation may be derived from a hydrodynamic model in which the Lagrangian position coordinates of a continuum of particles represent the quantum state. Using Routh's method of ignorable coordinates it is shown that the quantum potential energy of particle interaction that represents quantum effects in this model may be regarded as the kinetic energy of additional `concealed' freedoms. The method brings an alternative perspective to Planck's constant, which plays the role of a hidden variable, and to the canonical quantization procedure, since what is termed `kinetic energy' in quantum mechanics may be regarded literally as energy due to motion.

Holland, Peter

2015-02-01

88

Storing unsteady energy, like photovoltaically generated electric energy, as potential energy  

E-print Network

A proposal to store unsteady energy in potential energy via lifting masses with a rough quantitative overview. Some applications and methods to harvest the potential energy are also given. A focus is put on photovoltaically generated energy.

Nadja Kutz

2012-02-13

89

LEAN ENERGY ANALYSIS: IDENTIFYING, DISCOVERING AND TRACKING ENERGY SAVINGS POTENTIAL  

E-print Network

of lean manufacturing. In terms of lean manufacturing, "any activity that does not add valueLEAN ENERGY ANALYSIS: IDENTIFYING, DISCOVERING AND TRACKING ENERGY SAVINGS POTENTIAL KELLY KISSOCK AND RESOURCE SOLUTIONS HAVERHILL, MASSECHUTSETTS ABSTRACT Energy in manufacturing facilities is used for direct

Kissock, Kelly

90

Higher spins in AdS5 at one loop: vacuum energy, boundary conformal anomalies and AdS/CFT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider general-symmetry higher spin fields in AdS5 and derive the expressions for their one-loop corrections to vacuum energy E c and the associated 4d boundary conformal anomaly a-coefficient. We propose a similar expression for the second conformal anomaly c-coefficient. We show that all the three quantities ( E c , a , c) computed for gauged 5d supergravity are equal to of their values for conformal 4d supergravity and also to twice the values for Maxwell multiplet. This gives a 5d derivation of the fact that the system of conformal supergravity and four Maxwell multiplets is anomaly free. The values of ( E c , a , c) for the states at level p of Kaluza-Klein tower of 10d type IIB supergravity compactified on S 5 turn out to be equal to those for p copies of Maxwell multiplets. This may be related to the fact that these states appear in the tensor product of p superdoubletons. Under a natural regularization of the sum over p, the full 10d supergravity contribution is then minus that of one Maxwell multiplet, in agreement with the standard adjoint AdS/CFT duality (SU( N) SYM contribution is N 2 - 1 times that of one Maxwell multiplet). We also verify the matching of ( E c , a , c) for spin 0 and boundary theory cases of vectorial AdS/CFT duality. The consistency conditions for vectorial AdS/CFT turn out to be equivalent to the cancellation of anomalies in the closely related 4d conformal higher spin theories. In addition, we study novel example of the vectorial AdS/CFT duality when the boundary theory is described by free spin 1 fields and is dual to a particular higher spin theory in AdS5 containing fields in mixed-symmetry representations. We also discuss its supersymmetric generalizations.

Beccaria, Matteo; Tseytlin, Arkady A.

2014-11-01

91

Potential energy function for the hydroperoxyl radical  

SciTech Connect

A switching function formalism is used to derive an analytic potential energy surface for the O + OH in equilibrium HO/sub 2/ in equilibrium H + O/sub 2/ reactive system. Both experimental and ab initio data are used to derive parameters for the potential energy surface. Trajectory calculations for highly excited HO/sub 2/ are performed on this surface. From these trajectories quasi-periodic eigentrajectories are found for vibrational levels near the HO/sub 2/ dissociation threshold with small amounts of quanta in the OH stretch mode and large amounts of quanta in the OO stretch mode.

Lemon, W.J.; Hase, W.L.

1987-03-12

92

Potential energy sputtering of EUVL materials  

SciTech Connect

Of the many candidates employed for understanding the erosion of critical Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUVL) components, potential energy damage remains relatively uninvestigated. Unlike the familiar kinetic energy sputtering, which is a consequence of the momentum transferred by an ion to atoms in the target, potential energy sputtering occurs when an ion rapidly collects charge from the target as it neutralizes. Since the neutralization energy of a singly charged ion is typically on the order of 10 eV, potential energy effects are generally neglected for low charge state ions, and hence the bulk of the sputtering literature. As an ion's charge state is increased, the potential energy (PE) increases rapidly, e.g. PE(Xe{sup 1+})= 11 eV, PE(Xe{sup 10+}) = 810 eV, PE(Xe{sup 20+}) = 4.6 keV, etc. By comparison, the binding energy of a single atom on a surface is typically about 5 eV, so even relatively inefficient energy transfer mechanisms can lead to large quantities of material being removed, e.g. 25% efficiency for Xe{sup 10+} corresponds to {approx} 40 atoms/ion. By comparison, singly charged xenon ions with {approx} 20 keV of kinetic energy sputter only about 5 atoms/ion at normal incidence, and less than 1 atom/ion at typical EUV source energies. EUV light sources are optimized for producing approximately 10{sup 16} xenon ions per shot with an average charge state of q=10 in the core plasma. At operational rates of {approx}10 kHz, the number of ions produced per second becomes a whopping 10{sup 20}. Even if only one in a billion ions reaches the collector, erosion rates could reach {approx}10{sup 12} atoms per second, severely reducing the collector lifetime (for an average yield of 10 atoms/ion). In addition, efforts to reduce contamination effects may contribute to reduced neutralization and even larger potential energy damages rates (discussed further below). In order to provide accurate estimates for collector lifetimes and to develop mitigation schemes, NIST is working to understand and quantify potential energy damage mechanisms on materials relevant to EUVL. Accurate potential energy damage rates can then be used for projecting component lifetimes as source plasma conditions are modified and characterized. This chapter will serve to provide an introduction and some background to the physics of highly charged ions and some of the relevant experimental work in the literature. This chapter will first provide a brief background and an overview of the interaction of highly charged ions (HCIs) with solids as it is currently understood. Secondly, it will present current data from screen test measurements performed to isolate and evaluate the effects of potential energy damage on critical EUVL materials. We will then speculate on the implications of work to date and the outlook for EUVL development and, finally, summarize.

Pomeroy, J M; Ratliff, L P; Gillaspy, J D; Bajt, S

2004-07-02

93

POTENTIAL ENERGY SAVINGS OF MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION  

E-print Network

POTENTIAL ENERGY SAVINGS OF MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION Bernd Wittgens and Sigurd Skogestad 1, Norway ABSTRACT ­ A conventional batch distillation column operated under feedback control applying the proposed policy is compared to the multivessel batch distillation column. In some cases we found

Skogestad, Sigurd

94

Potential reduction of DSN uplink energy cost  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

DSN Earth stations typically transmit more power than that required to meet minimum specifications for uplink performance. Energy and cost savings that could result from matching the uplink power to the amount required for specified performance are studied. The Galileo mission was selected as a case study. Although substantial reduction in transmitted energy is possible, potential savings in source energy (oil or electricity) savings are much less. This is because of the rising inefficiency in power conversion and radio frequency power generation that accompanies reduced power output.

Dolinsky, S.; Degroot, N. F.

1982-01-01

95

Anomaly mediation in local effective theories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phenomenon known as "anomaly mediation" can be understood in a variety of ways. Rather than an anomaly, certain gaugino bilinear terms are required by local supersymmetry and gauge invariance (the derivation of these terms is in some cases related to anomalies in scale invariance or R symmetries). We explain why the gaugino bilinear is required in supersymmetric gauge theories with varying number of colors and flavors. By working in the Higgs phase, gauging a flavor group, or working below the scale of gaugino condensation, each of these theories has a local effective description in which we can identify the bilinear term, establishing its necessity in the microscopic theory. For example, in theories that exhibit gaugino condensation, the potential in the very low energy theory is supersymmetric precisely due to the relation between the nonperturbative superpotential and the gaugino bilinear terms. Similarly, the gravitino mass appears from its coupling to the gaugino bilinear.

Dine, Michael; Draper, Patrick

2014-02-01

96

Potential energy savings from aquifer thermal energy storage  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest Laboratory researchers developed an aggregate-level model to estimate the short- and long-term potential energy savings from using aquifer thermal storage (ATES) in the United States. The objectives of this effort were to (1) develop a basis from which to recommend whether heat or chill ATES should receive future research focus and (2) determine which market sector (residential, commercial, or industrial) offers the largest potential energy savings from ATES. Information was collected on the proportion of US land area suitable for ATES applications. The economic feasibility of ATES applications was then evaluated. The potential energy savings from ATES applications was calculated. Characteristic energy use in the residential, commercial, and industrial sectors was examined, as was the relationship between waste heat production and consumption by industrial end-users. These analyses provided the basis for two main conclusions: heat ATES applications offer higher potential for energy savings than do chill ATES applications; and the industrial sector can achieve the highest potential energy savings for the large consumption markets. Based on these findings, it is recommended that future ATES research and development efforts be directed toward heat ATES applications in the industrial sector. 11 refs., 6 figs., 9 tabs.

Anderson, M.R.; Weijo, R.O.

1988-07-01

97

Sparse representation for a potential energy surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a simple scheme to estimate the potential energy surface (PES) for which the accuracy can be easily controlled and improved. It is based on model selection within the framework of linear regression using the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) technique. Basis functions are selected from a systematic large set of candidate functions. The sparsity of the PES significantly reduces the computational cost of evaluating the energy and force in molecular dynamics simulations without losing accuracy. The usefulness of the scheme for describing the elemental metals Na and Mg is clearly demonstrated.

Seko, Atsuto; Takahashi, Akira; Tanaka, Isao

2014-07-01

98

Computed potential energy surfaces for chemical reactions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Quantum mechanical methods have been used to compute potential energy surfaces for chemical reactions. The reactions studied were among those believed to be important to the NASP and HSR programs and included the recombination of two H atoms with several different third bodies; the reactions in the thermal Zeldovich mechanism; the reactions of H atom with O2, N2, and NO; reactions involved in the thermal De-NO(x) process; and the reaction of CH(squared Pi) with N2 (leading to 'prompt NO'). These potential energy surfaces have been used to compute reaction rate constants and rates of unimolecular decomposition. An additional application was the calculation of transport properties of gases using a semiclassical approximation (and in the case of interactions involving hydrogen inclusion of quantum mechanical effects).

Walch, Stephen P.

1994-01-01

99

Computed potential energy surfaces for chemical reactions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective was to obtain accurate potential energy surfaces (PES's) for a number of reactions which are important in the H/N/O combustion process. The interest in this is centered around the design of the SCRAM jet engine for the National Aerospace Plane (NASP), which was envisioned as an air-breathing hydrogen-burning vehicle capable of reaching velocities as large as Mach 25. Preliminary studies indicated that the supersonic flow in the combustor region of the scram jet engine required accurate reaction rate data for reactions in the H/N/O system, some of which was not readily available from experiment. The most important class of combustion reactions from the standpoint of the NASP project are radical recombinaton reactions, since these reactions result in most of the heat release in the combustion process. Theoretical characterizations of the potential energy surfaces for these reactions are presented and discussed.

Walch, Stephen P.

1990-01-01

100

Modeling cusps in adiabatic potential energy surfaces.  

PubMed

A method for modeling cusps on adiabatic potential energy surfaces without the need for any adiabatic-to-diabatic transformation is presented and shown to be successfully applied to the (2)A? state of NO2. The more complicated case of a system with permutationally equivalent crossing seams is also examined and illustrated by considering the two first (2)A' states of the nitrogen trimer. PMID:25633429

Galvão, B R L; Mota, V C; Varandas, A J C

2015-02-26

101

Energy saving potential of office equipment power management  

Microsoft Academic Search

While many studies have estimated the energy saving potential of office equipment power management, there is no recent study about the energy saving potential of shortening the power management delay time. In this paper, we estimated the energy saving potential of the complete saturation of power management, and also the additional energy saving potential of shortening the power management delay

Kaoru Kawamoto; Yoshiyuki Shimoda; Minoru Mizuno

2004-01-01

102

The Wind Energy Potential of Iceland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While Iceland has an abundant wind energy resource, its use for electrical power production has so far been limited. Electricity in Iceland is generated primarily from hydro- and geothermal sources, and adding wind energy has so far not been considered practical or even necessary. However, wind energy is becoming a more viable option, as opportunities for new hydro- or geothermal power installations become limited. In order to obtain an estimate of the wind energy potential of Iceland, a wind atlas has been developed as part of the joint Nordic project 'Improved Forecast of Wind, Waves and Icing' (IceWind). Downscaling simulations performed with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model were used to determine the large-scale wind energy potential of Iceland. Local wind speed distributions are represented by Weibull statistics. The shape parameter across Iceland varies between 1.2 and 3.6, with the lowest values indicative of near-exponential distributions at sheltered locations, and the highest values indicative of normal distributions at exposed locations in winter. Compared with summer, average power density in winter is increased throughout Iceland by a factor of 2.0 - 5.5. In any season, there are also considerable spatial differences in average wind power density. Relative to the average value within 10 km of the coast, power density across Iceland varies between 50 - 250%, excluding glaciers, or between 300 - 1500 W m-2 at 50 m above ground level in winter. At intermediate elevations of 500 - 1000 m above mean sea level, power density is independent of the distance to the coast. In addition to seasonal and spatial variability, differences in average wind speed and power density also exist for different wind directions. Along the coast in winter, power density of onshore winds is higher by 100 - 700 W m-2 than that of offshore winds. The regions with the highest average wind speeds are impractical for wind farms, due to the distances from road infrastructure and the power grid, as well as due to the harsh winter climate. However, even in easily accessible regions, wind energy potential in Iceland, as measured by annual average power density, is among the highest in Western Europe. Based on these results, 14 test sites were selected for more detailed analyses using the Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program (WAsP). These calculations show that a modest wind farm of ten medium size turbines would produce more energy throughout the year than a small hydro power plant, making wind energy a viable additional option.

Nawri, Nikolai; Nína Petersen, Guðrún; Bjornsson, Halldór; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Jónasson, Kristján; Bay Hasager, Charlotte; Clausen, Niels-Erik

2014-05-01

103

Thermodynamic mechanism of density anomaly of liquid water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although density anomaly of liquid water has long been studied by many different authors up to now, it is not still cleared what thermodynamic mechanism induces the anomaly. The thermodynamic properties of substances are determined by interparticle interactions. We analyze what characteristics of pair potential cause the density anomaly on the basis of statistical mechanics and thermodynamics using a thermodynamically self-consistent Ornstein-Zernike approximation (SCOZA). We consider a fluid of spherical particles with a pair potential given by a hard-core repulsion plus a soft-repulsion and an attraction. We show that the density anomaly occurs when the value of the soft-repulsive potential at hard-core contact is in some proper range, and the range depends on the attraction. Further, we show that the behavior of the excess internal energy plays an essential role in the density anomaly and the behavior is mainly determined by the values of the soft-repulsive potential, especially near the hard core contact. Our results show that most of ideas put forward up to now are not the direct causes of the density anomaly of liquid water.

Yasutomi, Makoto

2015-03-01

104

Effect of Strong Correlations on the High Energy Anomaly in Hole- and Electron-Doped High-Tc Superconductors  

SciTech Connect

Recently, angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) has been used to highlight an anomalously large band renormalization at high binding energies in cuprate superconductors: the high energy 'waterfall' or high energy anomaly (HEA). This paper demonstrates, using a combination of new ARPES measurements and quantum Monte Carlo simulations, that the HEA is not simply the byproduct of matrix element effects, but rather represents a cross-over from a quasi-particle band at low binding energies near the Fermi level to valence bands at higher binding energy, assumed to be of strong oxygen character, in both hole- and electron-doped cuprates. While photoemission matrix elements clearly play a role in changing the aesthetic appearance of the band dispersion, i.e. the 'waterfall'-like behavior, they provide an inadequate description for the physics that underlies the strong band renormalization giving rise to the HEA. Model calculations of the single-band Hubbard Hamiltonian showcase the role played by correlations in the formation of the HEA and uncover significant differences in the HEA energy scale for hole- and electron-doped cuprates. In addition, this approach properly captures the transfer of spectral weight accompanying both hole and electron doping in a correlated material and provides a unifying description of the HEA across both sides of the cuprate phase diagram.

Moritz, B.; /SLAC, SIMES; Schmitt, F.; /Stanford U., Geballe Lab. /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept.; Meevasana, W.; /Stanford U., Geballe Lab. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Johnston, S.; /SLAC, SIMES /Waterloo U.; Motoyama, E.M.; /Stanford U., Geballe Lab. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Greven, M.; /SLAC, SIMES /Stanford U., Geballe Lab. /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept.; Lu, D.H.; /SLAC, SSRL; Kim, C.; /IPAP, Seoul; Scalettar, R.T.; /UC, Davis; Shen, Z.-X.; /SLAC, SIMES /Stanford U., Geballe Lab. /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Devereaux, T.P.; /SLAC, SIMES

2010-02-15

105

IRETHERM: The geothermal energy potential of Irish radiothermal granites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The IRETHERM project is developing a strategic understanding of Ireland's deep geothermal energy potential through integrated modelling of new and existing geophysical and geological data. One aspect of IRETHERM's research focuses on Ireland's radiothermal granites, where increased concentrations of radioelements provide elevated heat-production (HP), surface heat-flow (SHF) and subsurface temperatures. An understanding of the contribution of granites to the thermal field of Ireland is important to assessing the geothermal energy potential of this low-enthalpy setting. This study focuses on the Galway granite in western Ireland, and the Leinster and the buried Kentstown granites in eastern Ireland. Shallow (<250 m) boreholes were drilled into the exposed Caledonian Leinster and Galway granites as part of a 1980's geothermal project. These studies yielded HP = 2-3 ?Wm-3 and HF = 80 mWm-2 at the Sally Gap borehole in the Northern Units of the Leinster granite, to the SW of Dublin. In the Galway granite batholith, on the west coast of Ireland, the Costelloe-Murvey granite returned HP = 7 ?Wm-3 and HF = 77 mWm-2, measured at the Rossaveal borehole. The buried Kentstown granite, 35 km NW of Dublin, has an associated negative Bouguer anomaly and was intersected by two mineral exploration boreholes at depths of 660 m and 490 m. Heat production is measured at 2.4 ?Wm-3 in core samples taken from the weathered top 30 m of the granite. The core of this study consists of a program of magnetotelluric (MT) and audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) data acquisition across the three granite bodies, over three fieldwork seasons. MT and AMT data were collected at 59 locations along two profiles over the Leinster granite. Preliminary results show that the northern units of the Leinster granite (40 km SW of Dublin) extend to depths of 2-5 km. Preliminary results from the southern profile suggest a greater thickness of granite to a depth of 6-9 km beneath the Tullow pluton, 75 km SW of Dublin. Over the Galway granite, MT and AMT data have been collected at a total of 75 sites (33 consist of only AMT data acquisition, with both MT and AMT recorded at the remaining 42). Preliminary results show a deep resistor extending to depths of 15-20 km beneath the central block, with the resistive upper layer extending to depths of 3.5-7 km west of the Shannawona fault, a major structure that cuts the batholith. MT and AMT data acquired along a profile at 22 locations over the Kentstown granite suggests that this buried granite is at a depth of 400 m beneath the centre of the gravity anomaly. The MT and AMT data will be integrated with gravity and seismic refraction data (in the case of the Leinster granite) to identify deeply penetrating faults, which may provide conduits for hydrothermal fluids, and to produce a robust estimation of the volumetric extent of the granites, which is crucial in defining their geothermal energy potential. Thermal conductivity and geochemical data will be incorporated to constrain the heat contribution of granites to the Irish crust.

Farrell, Thomas; Jones, Alan; Muller, Mark; Feely, Martin; Brock, Andrew; Long, Mike; Waters, Tim

2014-05-01

106

Moon Anomalies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners will investigate and try to explain various lunar anomalies. They will present hypotheses (both written and oral) and then debate the merits of each hypothesis, with no right or wrong answers. This activity is in Unit 2 of the teachers guide, Exploring the Moon, which is designed for use especially, but not exclusively, with the Lunar Sample Disk program.

107

The energy eigenvalues of hyperbolical potential functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The energy eigenvalues E(upsilo) of the hyperbolical potential functions V(r)± = hcA{delta - sigma(coth alpha(r - r0))±1}2 were determined with a semiclassical procedure (the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization condition) and a quantum-mechanical method (the Schrödinger equation). The resulting term values G(upsilo) = E(upsilo)\\/hc are different: G(upsilo) = De - A{deltasigma(s + upsilo + 1\\/2)-1 - (s + upsilo + 1\\/2)}2 (for upsilo

Dag Schiöberg

1986-01-01

108

Theoretical studies of potential energy surfaces  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this program is to calculate accurate potential energy surfaces (PES) for both reactive and nonreactive systems. To do this the electronic Schrodinger equation must be solved. Our approach to this problem starts with multiconfiguration self-consistent field (MCSCF) reference wavefunctions. These reference wavefunctions are designed to be sufficiently flexible to accurately describe changes in electronic structure over a broad range of geometries. Electron correlation effects are included via multireference, singles and doubles configuration interaction (MRSDCI) calculations. With this approach, the authors are able to provide useful predictions of the energetics for a broad range of systems.

Harding, L.B. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)

1993-12-01

109

Minor Physical Anomalies, Intelligence, and Cognitive Decline  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Study Context: Minor physical anomalies are thought to be markers of development and increased frequency of such anomalies has been linked to lower levels of intelligence. Here the authors examine a finger curvature anomaly, and evaluate its potential as a marker of the causes of cognitive aging.Methods: Participants were members of the Lothian Birth Cohort 1921 (LBC 1921). Intelligence was

David Hope; Timothy Bates; Alan J. Gow; John M. Starr; Ian J. Deary

2012-01-01

110

Anomalies in low-energy Gamma-Ray Burst spectra with the Fermi Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor  

E-print Network

A Band function has become the standard spectral function used to describe the prompt emission spectra of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). However, deviations from this function have previously been observed in GRBs detected by BATSE and in individual GRBs from the \\textit{Fermi} era. We present a systematic and rigorous search for spectral deviations from a Band function at low energies in a sample of the first two years of high fluence, long bursts detected by the \\textit{Fermi} Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GBM). The sample contains 45 bursts with a fluence greater than 2$\\times10^{-5}$ erg / cm$^{2}$ (10 - 1000 keV). An extrapolated fit method is used to search for low-energy spectral anomalies, whereby a Band function is fit above a variable low-energy threshold and then the best fit function is extrapolated to lower energy data. Deviations are quantified by examining residuals derived from the extrapolated function and the data and their significance is determined via comprehensive simulations which account for the ...

Tierney, Dave; Preece, Robert D; Fitzpatrick, Gerard; Foley, Suzanne; Guiriec, Sylvain; Bissaldi, Elisabetta; Briggs, Michael S; Burgess, J Michael; Connaughton, Valerie; Goldstein, Adam; Greiner, Jochen; Gruber, David; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; McGlynn, Sinead; Paciesas, William S; Pelassa, Veronique; von Kienlin, Andreas

2013-01-01

111

Astrometric solar system anomalies  

SciTech Connect

There are at least four unexplained anomalies connected with astrometric data. perhaps the most disturbing is the fact that when a spacecraft on a flyby trajectory approaches the Earth within 2000 km or less, it often experiences a change in total orbital energy per unit mass. next, a secular change in the astronomical unit AU is definitely a concern. It is increasing by about 15 cm yr{sup -1}. The other two anomalies are perhaps less disturbing because of known sources of nongravitational acceleration. The first is an apparent slowing of the two Pioneer spacecraft as they exit the solar system in opposite directions. Some astronomers and physicists are convinced this effect is of concern, but many others are convinced it is produced by a nearly identical thermal emission from both spacecraft, in a direction away from the Sun, thereby producing acceleration toward the Sun. The fourth anomaly is a measured increase in the eccentricity of the Moon's orbit. Here again, an increase is expected from tidal friction in both the Earth and Moon. However, there is a reported unexplained increase that is significant at the three-sigma level. It is produent to suspect that all four anomalies have mundane explanations, or that one or more anomalies are a result of systematic error. Yet they might eventually be explained by new physics. For example, a slightly modified theory of gravitation is not ruled out, perhaps analogous to Einstein's 1916 explanation for the excess precession of Mercury's perihelion.

Nieto, Michael Martin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Anderson, John D [PROPULSION LABORATORY

2009-01-01

112

Metabolic energy cost of action potential velocity.  

PubMed

The action potential of the unmyelinated nerve is metabolically expensive. Using the energetic cost per unit length for the biophysically modeled action potential of the squid giant axon, we analyze this cost and identify one possible optimization. The energetic cost arising from an action potential is divided into three separate components: 1) the depolarization of the rising phase; 2) the hyperpolarization of the falling phase; and 3) the largest component, the overlapping of positive and negative currents, which has no electrical effect. Using both the Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) model and an improved version of the HH model (HHSFL), we investigate the variation of these three components as a function of easily evolvable parameters, axon diameter and ion channel densities. Assuming conduction velocity is well designed for each organism, the energy component associated with the rising phase attains a minimum near the biological values of the diameter and channel densities. This optimization is explained by the membrane capacitance per unit length. The functional capacitance is the sum of the intrinsic membrane capacitance and the gating capacitance associated with the sodium channel, and this capacitance minimizes at nearly the same values of diameter and channel density. Because capacitance is temperature independent and because this result is independent of the assumed velocity, the result generalizes to unmyelinated mammalian axons. That is, channel density is arguably an evolved property that goes hand-in-hand with the evolutionary stability of the sodium channel. PMID:16554507

Crotty, Patrick; Sangrey, Thomas; Levy, William B

2006-09-01

113

Assessment of wind energy potential in Poland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the presentation is to show the suitability of using numerical model wind speed forecasts for the wind power industry applications in Poland. In accordance with the guidelines of the European Union, the consumption of wind energy in Poland is rapidly increasing. According to the report of Energy Regulatory Office from 30 March 2013, the installed capacity of wind power in Poland was 2807MW from 765 wind power stations. Wind energy is strongly dependent on the meteorological conditions. Based on the climatological wind speed data, potential energy zones within the area of Poland have been developed (H. Lorenc). They are the first criterion for assessing the location of the wind farm. However, for exact monitoring of a given wind farm location the prognostic data from numerical model forecasts are necessary. For the practical interpretation and further post-processing, the verification of the model data is very important. Polish Institute Meteorology and Water Management - National Research Institute (IMWM-NRI) runs an operational model COSMO (Consortium for Small-scale Modelling, version 4.8) using two nested domains at horizontal resolutions of 7 km and 2.8 km. The model produces 36 hour and 78 hour forecasts from 00 UTC, for 2.8 km and 7 km domain resolutions respectively. Numerical forecasts were compared with the observation of 60 SYNOP and 3 TEMP stations in Poland, using VERSUS2 (Unified System Verification Survey 2) and R package. For every zone the set of statistical indices (ME, MAE, RMSE) was calculated. Forecast errors for aerological profiles are shown for Polish TEMP stations at Wroc?aw, Legionowo and ?eba. The current studies are connected with a topic of the COST ES1002 WIRE-Weather Intelligence for Renewable Energies.

Starosta, Katarzyna; Linkowska, Joanna; Mazur, Andrzej

2014-05-01

114

Anomaly constraints on monopoles and dyons  

SciTech Connect

Fermions with magnetic charges can contribute to anomalies. We derive the axial anomaly and gauge anomalies for monopoles and dyons, and find eight new gauge anomaly cancellation conditions in a general theory with both electric and magnetic charges. As a by-product, we also extend the Zwanziger two-potential formalism to include the {theta} parameter, and elaborate on the condition for CP invariance in theories with fermionic dyons.

Csaki, Csaba [Institute for High Energy Phenomenology Newman Laboratory of Elementary Particle Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Shirman, Yuri [Department of Physics, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Terning, John [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); CERN, Physics Department, Theory Unit, Geneva (Switzerland)

2010-06-15

115

Gravitational anomalies in the solar system?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mindful of the anomalous perihelion precession of Mercury discovered by Le Verrier in the second half of the nineteenth century and its successful explanation by Einstein with his General Theory of Relativity in the early years of the twentieth century, discrepancies among observed effects in our Solar system and their theoretical predictions on the basis of the currently accepted laws of gravitation applied to known matter-energy distributions have the potential of paving the way for remarkable advances in fundamental physics. This is particularly important now more than ever, given that most of the universe seems to be made of unknown substances dubbed Dark Matter and Dark Energy. Should this not be directly the case, Solar system's anomalies could anyhow lead to advancements in either cumulative science, as shown to us by the discovery of Neptune in the first half of the nineteenth century, and technology itself. Moreover, investigations in one of such directions can serendipitously enrich the other one as well. The current status of some alleged gravitational anomalies in the Solar system is critically reviewed. They are: (a) Possible anomalous advances of planetary perihelia. (b) Unexplained orbital residuals of a recently discovered moon of Uranus (Mab). (c) The lingering unexplained secular increase of the eccentricity of the orbit of the Moon. (d) The so-called Faint Young Sun Paradox. (e) The secular decrease of the mass parameter of the Sun. (f) The Flyby Anomaly. (g) The Pioneer Anomaly. (h) The anomalous secular increase of the astronomical unit.

Iorio, Lorenzo

2015-03-01

116

Energy potential of sugarcane and sweet sorghum  

SciTech Connect

The potential of sugarcane and sweet sorghum as raw materials for the production of ethanol and petrochemical substitutes is discussed. Both crops belong to the grass family and are classified as C/sub 4/ malateformers which have the highest rate of photosynthesis among terrestrial plants. Large amounts of biomass are required to supply a significant fraction of US energy consumption. Biomass production could be substantially increased by including tops and leaves, adopting narrow row spacing and improving cultural practices. This presents challenges for cultivating, harvesting, and hauling the biomass to processing centers. Large plants and heavy capital investment are essential for energy production. Ethanol and ammonia are the most promising candidates of a biomass program. If sugarcane were to be used for biomass production, breeding programs should be directed for more fermentable sugars and fiber. Energy research on sweet sorghum should be done with syrup varieties. Sweet sorghum needs to be incorporated with other crops because of its short growing season. The disposal of stillage from an extensive ethanol industry may pose environmental problems.

Elawad, S.H.; Gascho, G.J.; Shih, S.F.

1980-01-01

117

A new water anomaly: the temperature dependence of the proton mean kinetic energy  

E-print Network

The mean kinetic energy of protons in water is determined by Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering experiments, performed above and below the temperature of maximum density and in the supercooled phase. The temperature dependence of this energy shows an anomalous behavior, as it occurs for many water properties. In particular two regions of maximum kinetic energy are identified: the first one, in the supercooled phase in the range 269 K - 272 K, and a second one above 273 K. In both these regions the measured proton kinetic energy exceedes the theoretical prediction based on a semi-classical model. Noteworthy, the proton mean kinetic energy has a maximum at 277 K, the temperature of the maximum density of water. In the supercooled metastable phase the measured mean kinetic energy and the proton momentum distribution clearly indicate proton delocalization between two H-bonded oxygens.

Davide Flammini; Fabio Bruni; Maria Antonietta Ricci

2009-01-28

118

Spectroscopy of reactive potential energy surfaces Daniel M. Neumark  

E-print Network

Spectroscopy of reactive potential energy surfaces Daniel M. Neumark Department of Chemistry spectroscopy rather than scattering is used to probe reactive potential energy surfaces. The application of negative ion photodetachment to the transition state spectroscopy of benchmark reactions is described

Neumark, Daniel M.

119

Communication: Certifying the potential energy landscape  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is highly desirable for numerical approximations to stationary points for a potential energy landscape to lie in the corresponding quadratic convergence basin. However, it is possible that an approximation may lie only in the linear convergence basin, or even in a chaotic region, and hence not converge to the actual stationary point when further optimization is attempted. Proving that a numerical approximation will quadratically converge to the associated stationary point is termed certification. Here, we apply Smale's ?-theory to stationary points, providing a certification serving as a mathematical proof that the numerical approximation does indeed correspond to an actual stationary point, independent of the precision employed. As a practical example, employing recently developed certification algorithms, we show how the ?-theory can be used to certify all the known minima and transition states of Lennard-Jones LJN atomic clusters for N = 7, …, 14.

Mehta, Dhagash; Hauenstein, Jonathan D.; Wales, David J.

2013-05-01

120

Certification and the potential energy landscape.  

PubMed

Typically, there is no guarantee that a numerical approximation obtained using standard nonlinear equation solvers is indeed an actual solution, meaning that it lies in the quadratic convergence basin. Instead, it may lie only in the linear convergence basin, or even in a chaotic region, and hence not converge to the corresponding stationary point when further optimization is attempted. In some cases, these non-solutions could be misleading. Proving that a numerical approximation will quadratically converge to a stationary point is termed certification. In this report, we provide details of how Smale's ?-theory can be used to certify numerically obtained stationary points of a potential energy landscape, providing a mathematical proof that the numerical approximation does indeed correspond to an actual stationary point, independent of the precision employed. PMID:24929381

Mehta, Dhagash; Hauenstein, Jonathan D; Wales, David J

2014-06-14

121

Certification and the potential energy landscape  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Typically, there is no guarantee that a numerical approximation obtained using standard nonlinear equation solvers is indeed an actual solution, meaning that it lies in the quadratic convergence basin. Instead, it may lie only in the linear convergence basin, or even in a chaotic region, and hence not converge to the corresponding stationary point when further optimization is attempted. In some cases, these non-solutions could be misleading. Proving that a numerical approximation will quadratically converge to a stationary point is termed certification. In this report, we provide details of how Smale's ?-theory can be used to certify numerically obtained stationary points of a potential energy landscape, providing a mathematical proof that the numerical approximation does indeed correspond to an actual stationary point, independent of the precision employed.

Mehta, Dhagash; Hauenstein, Jonathan D.; Wales, David J.

2014-06-01

122

Mining Building Energy Management System Data Using Fuzzy Anomaly Detection and Linguistic Descriptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Building Energy Management Systems (BEMSs) are essential components of modern buildings that are responsible for minimizing energy consumption while maintaining occupant comfort. However, since indoor environment is dependent on many uncertain criteria, performance of BEMS can be suboptimal at times. Unfortunately, complexity of BEMSs, large amount of data, and interrelations between data can make identifying these suboptimal behaviors difficult. This

D. Wijayasekara; O. Linda; M. Manic; C. Rieger

2014-01-01

123

Nov. 30, 2010 Potential Energy Surfaces for Simulating Complex Chemical  

E-print Network

Nov. 30, 2010 Potential Energy Surfaces for Simulating Complex Chemical Processes On Nov. 30, 2010 calculations. The Truhlar group will look at potential energy surfaces for simulating complex chemical will provide potential energy surfaces and force fields for simulating these complex chemical processes

Truhlar, Donald G

124

Feature Article Exploring Potential Energy Surfaces for Chemical  

E-print Network

Feature Article Exploring Potential Energy Surfaces for Chemical Reactions: An Overview of Some series of programs.2 The focus is on potential energy surfaces obtained by quantum chemical methods 48202 Received 25 July 2002; Accepted 4 November 2002 Abstract: Potential energy surfaces form a central

Schlegel, H. Bernhard

125

Kohn anomalies in graphene nanoribbons  

E-print Network

The quantum corrections to the energies of the ? point optical phonon modes (Kohn anomalies) in graphene nanoribbons (NRs) are investigated. We show theoretically that the longitudinal optical (LO) modes undergo a Kohn ...

Dresselhaus, Mildred

126

A beacon of new physics: The Pioneer anomaly modelled as a path based speed loss driven by the externalisation of aggregate non-inertial QM energy  

E-print Network

This treatise outlines how a non-systematic based Pioneer anomaly, with its implied violation (re: 'low' mass bodies only) of both general relativity's weak equivalence principle and the Newtonian inverse-square law, can be successfully modelled. These theoretical hurdles and various awkward observational constraints, such as the low value of Pioneer 11's anomaly pre-Saturn encounter, have (to date) not been convincingly modelled. Notwithstanding the recent trend to embrace a non-constant Sun/Earth-directed heat based explanation of this anomalous deceleration, the actual: nature, direction, and temporal and spatial variation of the Pioneer anomaly remain an open arena of research. Working backwards from the observational evidence, and rethinking: time, mass, quantum entanglement and non-locality, we hypothesise a mechanism involving a quantum mechanical energy source and a new type of 'gravitational' field; neither of which lie within general relativity's domain of formulation/application. By way of a systemic conservation of energy principle, an internally inexpressible (aggregate) non-inertial energy discrepancy/uncertainty -- involving a myriad of quantum (lunar/third-body residing) atomic and molecular systems moving in analog curved spacetime -- is (non-locally) re-expressed externally as a (rotating) non-Euclidean spatial geometry perturbation. At a moving body each "rotating space-warp" induces sinusoidal proper acceleration and speed perturbations, as well as a path-based constant (per cycle) rate of speed shortfall relative to predictions that omit the additional effect. 'Solutions' of the new model may extend to: the Earth flyby anomaly, solar system related large-scale anomalies in the CMB radiation data, the nature of dark energy, and how a theory of everything unification agenda is inadvertently impeding a deeper understanding of physical reality and quantum entanglement.

Paul G. ten Boom

2012-09-04

127

Local 4/5-Law and Energy Dissipation Anomaly in Turbulence  

E-print Network

A strong local form of the ``4/3-law'' in turbulent flow has been proved recently by Duchon and Robert for a triple moment of velocity increments averaged over both a bounded spacetime region and separation vector directions, and for energy dissipation averaged over the same spacetime region. Under precisely stated hypotheses, the two are proved to be proportional, by a constant 4/3, and to appear as a nonnegative defect measure in the local energy balance of singular (distributional) solutions of the incompressible Euler equations. Here we prove that the energy defect measure can be represented also by a triple moment of purely longitudinal velocity increments and by a mixed moment with one longitudinal and two tranverse velocity increments. Thus, we prove that the traditional 4/5- and 4/15-laws of Kolmogorov hold in the same local sense as demonstrated for the 4/3-law by Duchon-Robert.

Gregory L. Eyink

2002-08-05

128

ASSESSMENT OF ENERGY RECOVERY POTENTIAL OF INDUSTRIAL COMBUSTION EQUIPMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

An assessment was conducted to evaluate the waste heat content and energy recovery potential of flue gases from 30 industrial combustion devices. Pollution controls on nine of the devices were evaluated to estimate energy requirements and particulate reduction; energy requirement...

129

Gravitational Anomalies in the Solar System?  

E-print Network

Mindful of the anomalous perihelion precession of Mercury discovered by U. Le Verrier in the second half of the nineteenth century and its successful explanation by A. Einstein with his General Theory of Relativity in the early years of the twentieth century, discrepancies among observed effects in our Solar system and their theoretical predictions on the basis of the currently accepted laws of gravitation applied to known bodies have the potential of paving the way for remarkable advances in fundamental physics. This is particularly important now more than ever, given that most of the Universe seems to be made of unknown substances dubbed Dark Matter and Dark Energy. Should this not be directly the case, Solar system's anomalies could anyhow lead to advancements in cumulative science, as shown to us by the discovery of Neptune in the first half of the nineteenth century. Moreover, investigations in one of such directions can serendipitously enrich the other one as well. The current status of some alleged gravitational anomalies in the Solar system is critically reviewed. They are: a) Possible anomalous advances of planetary perihelia; b) Unexplained orbital residuals of a recently discovered moon of Uranus (Mab); c) The lingering unexplained secular increase of the eccentricity of the orbit of the Moon; d) The so-called Faint Young Sun Paradox; e) The secular decrease of the mass parameter of the Sun; f) The Flyby Anomaly; g) The Pioneer Anomaly; and h) The anomalous secular increase of the astronomical unit

Lorenzo Iorio

2015-03-16

130

Gravitational Anomalies in the Solar System?  

E-print Network

Mindful of the anomalous perihelion precession of Mercury discovered by U. Le Verrier in the second half of the nineteenth century and its successful explanation by A. Einstein with his General Theory of Relativity in the early years of the twentieth century, discrepancies among observed effects in our Solar system and their theoretical predictions on the basis of the currently accepted laws of gravitation applied to known bodies have the potential of paving the way for remarkable advances in fundamental physics. This is particularly important now more than ever, given that most of the Universe seems to be made of unknown substances dubbed Dark Matter and Dark Energy. Should this not be directly the case, Solar system's anomalies could anyhow lead to advancements in cumulative science, as shown to us by the discovery of Neptune in the first half of the nineteenth century. Moreover, investigations in one of such directions can serendipitously enrich the other one as well. The current status of some alleged gravitational anomalies in the Solar system is critically reviewed. They are: a) Possible anomalous advances of planetary perihelia; b) Unexplained orbital residuals of a recently discovered moon of Uranus (Mab); c) The lingering unexplained secular increase of the eccentricity of the orbit of the Moon; d) The so-called Faint Young Sun Paradox; e) The secular decrease of the mass parameter of the Sun; f) The Flyby Anomaly; g) The Pioneer Anomaly; and h) The anomalous secular increase of the astronomical unit

Lorenzo Iorio

2015-01-21

131

Anomalies in the theory of viscous energy losses due to shear in rotational MEMS resonators  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the effect of viscous wave motion on a micro rotational resonator is discussed. This work shows the inadequacy of developing theory to represent energy losses due to shear motion in air. Existing theory predicts Newtonian losses with little slip at the interface. Nevertheless, experiments showed less effect due to Newtonian losses and elevated levels of slip for

Timothy Francis Walsh; Kelly Anne Klody; Mark W. Jenkins; Jeffrey Lynn Dohner

2003-01-01

132

On the Kaon-Nucleus Optical Potential at Low Energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

An optical potential approach at low energy is attempted for the kaon-nucleus interaction. The optical potential is introduced by folding the finite range kaon-nucleon potential with the nuclear ground state wave function. The bar{K}-N potential considered is constructed to reproduce the free bar{K}-N scattering lenghts. Using the optical potential we evaluate elastic cross sections of low energy kaon scattering by

Masaru Atarashi; Kiyoto Hira; Hajime Narumi

1978-01-01

133

MODELZ: Monitoring, Detection, and Analysis of Energy-Greedy Anomalies in Mobile Handsets  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is of great importance to protect rapidly-spreading and widely-used small mobile devices like smartphones and PocketPCs from energy-depletion attacks by monitoring software (processes) and hardware (especially, battery) resources. The ability to use these devices for on- and\\/or off-job functions, and even for medical emergencies or disaster recovery is often dictated by their limited battery capacity. However, traditional malware detection

Hahnsang Kim; Kang G. Shin; Padmanabhan Pillai

2011-01-01

134

Energy flux and hydrogeology of thermal anomalies in the Gulf of Mexico basin. Progress report, June 1992--August 1993  

SciTech Connect

Specific project objectives are to: determine whether or not the observed thermal anomalies in the Gulf of Mexico sedimentary basin can be accounted for by heat conduction only; determine whether or not the present-day groundwater flow system is amenable with the heat advection hypothesis; and determine fluid and heat flux histories that are consistent with the observed data. In support of these objectives, we have collected over 25,000 data points, reflecting pressures and temperatures at depths of up to 16,000 feet in the Texas portion of the Gulf of Mexico basin. These data have been collated into a computerized data base system. In addition, we have begun collection of thermophysical data. This research provides fundamental knowledge and understanding to the geosciences and contributes to the sciences and technology base required for current and future energy technologies. Quantifying the evolution of the hydrodynamic and thermal regimes in sedimentary basins is important for predicting timing of hydrocarbon maturation and migration. The evolving subsurface temperature and hydrodynamic system also have a first-order control on sediment diagenesis, brine evolution, and the formation of ore deposits.

Sharp, J.M. Jr.

1993-09-01

135

Integral formulas for computing a third-order gravitational tensor from volumetric mass density, disturbing gravitational potential, gravity anomaly and gravity disturbance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new mathematical model for evaluation of the third-order (disturbing) gravitational tensor is formulated in this article. Firstly, we construct corresponding differential operators for the components of the third-order (disturbing) gravitational tensor in a spherical local north-oriented frame. We show that the differential operators may efficiently be decomposed into an azimuthal and an isotropic part. The differential operators are even more simplified for a certain class of isotropic kernels. Secondly, the differential operators are applied to the well-known integrals of Newton, Abel-Poisson, Pizzetti and Hotine. In this way, 40 new integral formulas are derived. The new integral formulas allow for evaluation of the components of the third-order (disturbing) gravitational tensor from density distribution, disturbing gravitational potential, gravity anomalies and gravity disturbances. Thirdly, we investigate the behaviour of the corresponding integral kernels in the spatial domain. The new mathematical formulas extend the theoretical apparatus of geodesy, i.e. the well-known Meissl scheme, and reveal important properties of the third-order gravitational tensor. They may be exploited in geophysical studies, continuation of gravitational field quantities and analysing the gradiometric-geodynamic boundary value problem.

Šprlák, Michal; Novák, Pavel

2015-02-01

136

Potential of renewable energy systems in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Along with high-speed economic development and increasing energy consumption, the Chinese Government faces a growing pressure to maintain the balance between energy supply and demand. In 2009, China has become both the largest energy consumer and CO2 emitting country in the world. In this case, the inappropriate energy consumption structure should be changed. As an alternative, a suitable infrastructure for

Wen Liu; Henrik Lund; Brian Vad Mathiesen; Xiliang Zhang

2011-01-01

137

Transportation Energy Use and Conservation Potential  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes transportation energy consumption and energy intensiveness for inter-city freight and passenger traffic and urban passenger traffic with the definition of energy intensiveness as Btu per ton-mile or per passenger-mile. Indicates that public education is one of three ways to achieve the goals of energy conservation. (CC)

Hirst, Eric

1973-01-01

138

An Iterative Global Optimization Algorithm for Potential Energy Minimization  

E-print Network

[1]. The algorithm is tested on two different potential energy functions. The first function algorithms considering the potential functions as sample global optimization test problems. In [12An Iterative Global Optimization Algorithm for Potential Energy Minimization N. P. Moloi and M. M

139

High-Resolution Distribution of Temperature, Particle and Oxidation/Reduction Potential Anomalies From a Submarine Hydrothermal System: Brothers Volcano, Kermadec Arc  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The complex relationships between geological setting and hydrothermal venting have, to date, largely been explored with ship-based surveys that effectively examine regional relationships, or with remotely operated vehicles (ROV) and manned submersibles which allow close examination of individual vent fields. Higher- resolution surveys than are possible with ship-based techniques and broader surveys than are practical with ROVs and manned submersibles are necessary for more thoroughly understanding hydrothermal systems and their impact on ocean ecosystems. Autonomous vehicles (AUVs), such as the WHOI Autonomous Benthic Explorer (ABE) can be programmed to conduct high-resolution surveys that systematically cover a broad area of seafloor. Brothers volcano, a hydrothermally active submarine caldera volcano located on the Kermadec arc northwest of New Zealand, was surveyed in July-August 2007 using ABE. Brothers caldera is ~3 km in diameter with a floor depth of 1850 m and walls that rise 290-530 m above the caldera floor. A dacite cone with a summit depth of ~1200 m sits within the caldera, partially merging with the southern caldera wall. Prior to the survey, active hydrothermal vents were known to be perched along the NW caldera wall and located at three sites on the cone. The enclosed caldera, presence of known vent fields with differing geochemical characteristics, and existence of at least one currently inactive site made Brothers volcano an ideal site for a high-resolution survey to explore in greater detail the mass, thermal and geochemical exchanges of hydrothermal systems. During our expedition, the caldera walls and dacite cone (~7 km2) were completely surveyed by ABE with 50-60 m trackline spacing at an altitude of 50 m above the seafloor. Hydrothermal plumes were mapped with ABE's integrated CTD (conductivity- temperature-depth) and sensors measuring optical backscatter (particle concentrations) and oxidation- reduction potential (ORP; indicating the presence of reduced chemical species). This survey resulted in the first high-resolution map of temperature, particle and ORP anomalies within a hydrothermally active submarine caldera. New details about the extent and structure of the known active vent fields were revealed, and a new area of active venting was discovered along the west caldera wall. Additionally, relationships between source vents, buoyant plumes, and neutrally buoyant regional plumes mapped using standard surface ship methods can be compared. Simultaneously acquired bathymetry and magnetic anomaly data show correlations between the geomorphology of the caldera, magnetic alterations and patterns of past and present hydrothermal venting.

Walker, S. L.; Baker, E. T.; de Ronde, C. E.; Yoerger, D.; Embley, R. W.; Davy, B.; Merle, S. G.; Resing, J. A.; Nakamura, K.

2008-12-01

140

Anomalies in the theory of viscous energy losses due to shear in rotational MEMS resonators.  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, the effect of viscous wave motion on a micro rotational resonator is discussed. This work shows the inadequacy of developing theory to represent energy losses due to shear motion in air. Existing theory predicts Newtonian losses with little slip at the interface. Nevertheless, experiments showed less effect due to Newtonian losses and elevated levels of slip for small gaps. Values of damping were much less than expected. Novel closed form solutions for the response of components are presented. The stiffness of the resonator is derived using Castigliano's theorem, and viscous fluid motion above and below the resonator is derived using a wave approach. Analytical results are compared with experimental results to determine the utility of existing theory. It was found that existing macro and molecular theory is inadequate to describes measured responses.

Walsh, Timothy Francis; Klody, Kelly Anne; Jenkins, Mark W.; Dohner, Jeffrey Lynn

2003-12-01

141

Potential contribution of biomass to the sustainable energy development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomass is a renewable energy source and its importance will increase as national energy policy and strategy focuses more heavily on renewable sources and conservation. Biomass is considered the renewable energy source with the highest potential to contribute to the energy needs of modern society for both the industrialized and developing countries worldwide. The most important biomass energy sources are

M. Fatih Demirbas; Mustafa Balat; Havva Balat

2009-01-01

142

Re-examining Potential for Geothermal Energy in United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

New technological initiatives, along with potential policy and economic incentives, could help to bring about a resurgence in geothermal energy development in the United States, said several experts at a 22 May forum in Washington, D.C. The forum was sponsored by the House and Senate Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Caucuses, the Sustainable Energy Coalition, and the Environmental and Energy

Randy Showstack

2003-01-01

143

Biomass energy: the scale of the potential resource  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased production of biomass for energy has the potential to offset substantial use of fossil fuels, but it also has the potential to threaten conservation areas, pollute water resources and decrease food security. The net effect of biomass energy agriculture on climate could be eithercoolingor warming, depending on the crop,the technology for converting biomass into useable energy, and the difference

B. Field; J. Elliott Campbell; David B. Lobell

2007-01-01

144

Biomass energy: the scale of the potential resource  

E-print Network

Biomass energy: the scale of the potential resource Christopher B. Field1 , J. Elliott Campbell1 Avenue, Livermore, CA 94550, USA Increased production of biomass for energy has the potential to offset resources and decrease food security. The net effect of biomass energy agriculture on climate could

145

A Principled Anomalies as  

E-print Network

Events Anomaly Definition Main Theorem Application Conclusion Standard Methods Mahalanobis distance Mahalanobis Distance Mahalanobis distance generalizes the t-test normalizes distances according Anomalies as Rare Events Anomaly Definition Main Theorem Application Conclusion Mahalanobis Distance

Wang, Xiaorui "Ray"

146

Constraints on lithospheric structure from satellite potential field data: Africa and Asia. Analysis and interpretation of MAGSAT anomalies over North Africa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Crustal anomaly detection with MAGSAT data is frustrated by the inherent resolving power of the data and by contamination from the external and core fields. The quality of the data might be tested by modeling specific tectonic features which produce anomalies that fall within the proposed resolution and crustal amplitude capabilities of the MAGSAT fields. To test this hypothesis, the north African hotspots associated with Ahaggar, Tibestia and Darfur have been modeled as magnetic induction anomalies due solely to shallower depth to the Curie isotherm surface beneath these features. The MAGSAT data were reduced by subtracting the external and core fields to isolate the scalar and vertical component crustal signals. The predicted model magnetic signal arising from the surface topography of the uplift and the Curie isotherm surface was calculated at MAGSAT altitudes by the Fourier transform technique modified to allow for variable magnetization. In summary it is suggested that the region beneath Ahaggar is associated with a strong thermal anomaly and the predicted anomaly best fits the associated MAGSAT anomaly if the African plate is moving in a northeasterly direction.

Phillips, R. J.

1986-01-01

147

Evaluation of the Energy Saving Potential from Flue Gas Pressurization  

E-print Network

The potential for recovering energy from low pressure furnace flue products is limited when standard heat recovery equipment is utilized. Efficient energy recovery can be accomplished by providing a flue gas side pressure drop across a heat...

Stanton, E. H.

1980-01-01

148

Integrated Potential-field Studies in Support of Energy Resource Assessment in Frontier Areas of Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In frontier areas of Alaska, potential-field studies play an important role in characterizing the geologic structure of sedimentary basins having potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources. Two such areas are the Yukon Flats basin in the east-central interior of Alaska, and the coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) in northeastern Alaska. The Yukon Flats basin is a potential source of hydrocarbon resources for local consumption and possible export. Knowledge of the subsurface configuration of the basin is restricted to a few seismic reflection profiles covering a limited area and one well. The seismic profiles were reprocessed and reinterpreted in preparation for an assessment of the oil and gas resources of the basin. The assessment effort required knowledge of the basin configuration away from the seismic profiles, as well as an understanding of the nature of the underlying basement. To extend the interpretation of the basin thickness across the entire area of the basin, an iterative Jachens-Moring gravity inversion was performed on gridded quasi-isostatic residual gravity anomaly data. The inversion was constrained to agree with the interpreted basement surface along the seismic profiles. In addition to the main sedimentary depocenter interpreted from the seismic data as having over 8 km of fill, the gravity inversion indicated a depocenter with over 7 km of fill in the Crooked Creek sub-basin. Results for the Crooked Creek sub-basin are consistent with magnetic and magnetotelluric modeling, but they await confirmation by drilling or seismic profiling. Whether hydrocarbon source rocks are present in the pre-Cenozoic basement beneath Yukon Flats is difficult to determine because extensive surficial deposits obscure the bedrock geology, and no deep boreholes penetrate basement. The color and texture patterns in a red-green-blue composite image consisting of reduced-to-the-pole aeromagnetic data (red), magnetic potential (blue), and basement gravity (green) highlight domains with common geophysical characteristics and, by inference, lithology. The observed patterns suggest that much of the basin is underlain by Devonian to Jurassic oceanic rocks that probably have little or no potential for hydrocarbon generation. The coastal plain surficial deposits in the northern part of ANWR conceal another frontier basin with hydrocarbon potential. Proprietary aeromagnetic and gravity data were used, along with seismic reflection profiles, to construct a structural and stratigraphic model of this highly deformed sedimentary basin for use in an energy resource assessment. Matched-filtering techniques were used to separate short-wavelength magnetic and gravity anomalies attributed to sources near the top of the sedimentary section from longer-wavelength anomalies attributed to deeper basin and basement sources. Models along the seismic reflection lines indicate that the primary sources of the short-wavelength anomalies are folded and faulted sedimentary beds truncated at the Pleistocene erosion surface. In map view, the aeromagnetic and gravity anomalies produced by the sedimentary units were used to identify possible structural trapping features and geometries, but they also indicated that these features may be significantly disrupted by faulting.

Phillips, J. D.; Saltus, R. W.; Potter, C. J.; Stanley, R. G.; Till, A. B.

2008-05-01

149

Potential hydroelectric energy resources of Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data are compiled and presented on 1300 potential hydroelectric power sites in Idaho, on hydropower resource inventories and evaluations, and on existing hydroelectric facilities. The data include geographic location, head, and power capacity. (LCL)

C. C. Warnick; J. R. Filler; P. J. Vance

1981-01-01

150

Calculation of molecular free energies in classical potentials  

E-print Network

Free energy calculations in molecular simulations are used to predict the strength of molecular processes such as binding and solvation. We present an accurate and complete calculation of molecular free energies in standard classical potentials. In this method we transform the molecule by relaxing potential terms that depend on the coordinates of a group of atoms in that molecule and calculate the free energy difference associated with the transformation. Then, since the transformed molecule can be treated as non interacting systems, the free energy associated with these atoms is analytically or numerically calculated. We suggest the potential application of free energy calculation of chemical reactions in classical molecular simulations.

Farhi, Asaf

2015-01-01

151

The Potential for Wind Energy in Atlantic Canada  

E-print Network

of many renewable sources of energy, such as solar, biomass, hydroelectric, and wind. This paper considersThe Potential for Wind Energy in Atlantic Canada Larry Hughes and Sandy Scott Whale Lake Research World Renewable Energy Congress, Reading, September 1992. #12;Hughes/Scott: Wind Energy in Atlantic

Hughes, Larry

152

Energy conservation potential of surface modification technologies  

SciTech Connect

This report assesses the energy conservation impact of surface modification technologies on the metalworking industries. The energy conservation impact of surface modification technologies on the metalworking industries is assessed by estimating their friction and wear tribological sinks and the subsequent reduction in these sinks when surface modified tools are used. Ion implantation, coatings, and laser and electron beam surface modifications are considered.

Le, H.K.; Horne, D.M.; Silberglitt, R.S.

1985-09-01

153

Energy in America: Progress and Potential.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An overview of America's energy situation is presented with emphasis on recent progress, the risk of depending upon foreign oil, and policy choices. Section one reviews the energy problems of the 1970s, issues of the 1980s, concerns for the future, and choices that if made today could alleviate future problems. Section two examines past problems,…

American Petroleum Inst., Washington, DC.

154

HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS POTENTIAL AT MUON COLLIDERS  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, high energy physics possibilities and future colliders are discussed. The {mu}{sup +} {mu}{sup {minus}} collider and experiments with high intensity muon beams as the stepping phase towards building Higher Energy Muon Colliders (HEMC) are briefly reviewed and encouraged.

PARSA,Z.

2000-04-07

155

Polarizable interaction potential for water from coupled cluster calculations. I. Analysis of dimer potential energy surface  

E-print Network

by nonadditive effects which make it impossible to sufficiently accurately represent the energy of water as a sumPolarizable interaction potential for water from coupled cluster calculations. I. Analysis of dimer potential energy surface Robert Bukowski,1 Krzysztof Szalewicz,1,a Gerrit C. Groenenboom,2 and Ad van der

156

Methane hydrates potential as a future energy source  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gas hydrates are crystalline solids that form from mixtures of water and light natural gases such as methane, carbon dioxide, ethane, propane and butane. They are of considerable interest for their potential as an energy resource and for their potential role in global climate change. From an energy resource point of view, the enormous amounts of methane hydrate under the

Sang-Yong Lee; Gerald D. Holder

2001-01-01

157

Potential-energy surfaces for asymmetric heavy-ion reactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We calculate the macroscopic potential energy of deformation as a function of mass asymmetry and distance between mass centers for shape configurations of interest in heavy-ion reactions. For the system300120 we also study the effect of adding microscopic shell and pairing corrections to the macroscopic potential energy. The shape configurations are generated by bringing together two separated spheres of unequal

P. Möller; J. R. Nix

1977-01-01

158

Chiral anomalies and differential geometry  

SciTech Connect

Some properties of chiral anomalies are described from a geometric point of view. Topics include chiral anomalies and differential forms, transformation properties of the anomalies, identification and use of the anomalies, and normalization of the anomalies. 22 references. (WHK)

Zumino, B.

1983-10-01

159

Potential Energy Sources Pose Mining Problem  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes the discussions of a Division of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry symposium on solids handling for synthetic fuels production. Included is a description of technical difficulties with the use of coal seams and deposits of oil shale and oil sand as potential sources of fuel. (CC)

Chemical and Engineering News, 1974

1974-01-01

160

WKB corrections to the energy splitting in double well potentials  

E-print Network

By using the WKB quantization we deduce an analytical formula for the energy splitting in a double--well potential which is the usual Landau formula with additional quantum corrections. Then we analyze the accuracy of our formula for the double square well potential, the inverted harmonic oscillator and the quartic potential.

Marko Robnik; Luca Salasnich; Marko Vranicar

2000-03-29

161

An Iterative Global Optimization Algorithm for Potential Energy Minimization  

E-print Network

[1]. The algorithm is tested on two different potential energy functions. The first function algorithms considering the potential functions as sample global optimization test problems. In [12 the potential functions as sample global optimization problems only for testing our algorithm. We do

162

Energy sector and wind energy potential in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Turkey has very limited indigenous energy resources and has to import around 65% of primary energy to meet her needs. It is a large importer of primary energy despite having ample renewable energy sources.Turkey’s vibrant economy has led to increased energy demand in recent years. This situation is expected to continue in the near future because its economy is dependent

R. Tugrul Ogulata

2003-01-01

163

Space Weather, Cosmic Rays, and Satellite Anomalies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results are presented of the Satellite Anomaly Project, which aims to improve the methods of safeguarding satellites in the Earth’s magnetosphere from the negative effects of the space environment. Anomaly data from the USSR and Russian “Kosmos” series satellites in the period 1971-1999 are combined into one database, together with similar information on other spacecraft. This database contains, beyond the anomaly information, various characteristics of space weather: geomagnetic activity indices (Ap, AE and Dst), fluxes and fluencies of electrons and protons at different energies, high energy cosmic ray variations and other solar, interplanetary and solar wind data. A comparative analysis of the distribution of each of these parameters relative to satellite anomalies was carried out for the total number of anomalies (about 6000 events), and separately for high altitude orbit satellites ( 5000 events) and low altitude (about 800 events). No relation was found between low and high altitude satellite anomalies. Daily numbers of satellite anomalies, averaged by a superposed epoch method around sudden storm commencements and proton event onsets for high (>1500 km) and low (<1500 km) altitude orbits revealed a big difference in behavior. Satellites were divided into several groups according to their orbital characteristics (altitude and inclination). The relation of satellite anomalies to the environmental parameters was found to be different for various orbits, and this should be taken into account when developing anomaly frequency models. The preliminary anomaly frequency models are presented.

Lev, Dorman

164

Biomass energy in China and its potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomass is a significant source of energy in China today, particularly in rural areas. However, most current use of firewood and agricultural residues for cooking and heating brings with it detrimental effects of indoor air pollution and associated adverse health impacts. In addition, the time spent collecting biomass fuels creates a burden on women and children, which reduces their time

Li Jingjing; Zhuang Xing; Pat DeLaquil; Eric D. Larson

2001-01-01

165

Renewable energy potential and utilization in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable energy sources have been important for humans since the beginning of civilisation. For centuries, and in many ways, biomass has been used for heating, and cooking. Many centuries ago, mankind was already utilizing the clearly visible power of water for mechanical drive purposes, as was also the case with wind. Today, water mills are still used in our villages,

Kamil Kaygusuz; Ahmet Sar?

2003-01-01

166

Solar Energy: Potential Powerhouse for Jobs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Components of solar energy systems are described, the development of the solar industry discussed, and implications are drawn for employment opportunities in industries (which may expand into new, solar-related areas) and in the professions, from law to sales, upon the advent of solar heating. (AJ)

McCallion, Tom

1976-01-01

167

Holographic description of gravitational anomalies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The holographic duality can be extended to include quantum theories with the broken coordinate invariance leading to the appearance of the gravitational anomalies. On the gravity side one adds the gravitational Chern-Simons term to the bulk action which is gauge invariant only up to the boundary terms. We analyze in detail how the gravitational anomalies originate from the modified Einstein equations in the bulk. As a side observation, we find that the gravitational Chern-Simons functional has the interesting conformal properties. It is invariant under the conformal transformations. Moreover, its metric variation produces a conformal tensor which is a generalization of the Cotton tensor to dimension d+1 = 4k-1, kinZ. We calculate the modification of the holographic stress-energy tensor that is due to the Chern-Simons term and use the bulk Einstein equations to find its divergence and thus reproduce the gravitational anomaly. The explicit calculation of the anomaly is carried out in dimensions d = 2 and d = 6. The result of the holographic calculation is compared with that of the descent method and an agreement is found. The gravitational Chern-Simons term originates by the Kaluza-Klein mechanism from a one-loop modification of M-theory action. This modification is discussed in the context of the gravitational anomaly in the six-dimensional (2,0) theory. The agreement with the earlier conjectured anomaly is found.

Solodukhin, Sergey N.

2006-07-01

168

Turkey's Renewable Energy Sources: Part 2. Potential and Utilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Turkey, renewable energy sources (RESs) production is the second biggest production source after total coal production. About two-thirds of the need of the RESs is met by biomass, while the remaining is mainly met by hydroelectric energy. This article addresses both potential and utilization relating to Turkey's RESs such as hydroelectric, solar, geothermal, wind energies and biomass, while these

ARIF HEPBASLI; ONDER OZGENER

2004-01-01

169

Potential of renewable energy development for water desalination in Tunisia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potential renewable energy sources, which can be harnessed toward brackish and seawater desalination in Tunisia, have been evaluated. These sources of energy, mainly: solar, wind and geothermal, have been identified throughout the country and their suitability for coupling with different desalting technologies have been investigated. Renewable energies are expected to have a flourishing future and an important role in the

F Benjemaa; I Houcine; M. H Chahbani

1999-01-01

170

Ocean thermal energy: Potentials and pitfalls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal energy in vast reaches of the world's oceans lies waiting to be tapped by a fuel?hungry world. The United States— the one heavily industrialized nation with “OTEC”; waters lapping its shores—is actively developing the technology; Japan and a European consortium are also pressing forward. The resource may be of practical value soon to favorably situated islands (e.g., Hawaii, Puerto

David L. Hurwood

1981-01-01

171

Periodic Discrete Energy for Long-Range Potentials  

E-print Network

We consider periodic energy problems in Euclidean space with a special emphasis on long-range potentials that cannot be defined through the usual infinite sum. One of our main results builds on more recent developments of Ewald summation to define the periodic energy corresponding to a large class of long-range potentials. Two particularly interesting examples are the logarithmic potential and the Riesz potential when the Riesz parameter is smaller than the dimension of the space. For these examples, we use analytic continuation methods to provide concise formulas for the periodic kernel in terms of the Epstein Hurwitz Zeta function. We apply our energy definition to deduce several properties of the minimal energy including the asymptotic order of growth and the distribution of points in energy minimizing configurations as the number of points becomes large. We conclude with some detailed calculations in the case of one dimension, which shows the utility of this approach.

D. P. Hardin; E. B. Saff; Brian Simanek

2014-12-11

172

Anomaly Detection for Cybersecurity of the Substations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cybersecurity of the substations in a power system is a major issue as the substations become increasingly dependent on computer and communication networks. This paper is concerned with anomaly detection in the computer network environment of a substation. An anomaly inference algorithm is proposed for early detection of cyber-intrusions at the substations. The potential sce- nario of simultaneous intrusions launched

Chee-Wooi Ten; Junho Hong; Chen-Ching Liu

2011-01-01

173

Water and other tetrahedral liquids: order, anomalies and solvation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to understand the common features of tetrahedral liquids with water-like anomalies, the relationship between local order and anomalies has been studied using molecular dynamics simulations for three categories of such liquids: (a) atomistic rigid-body models for water (TIP4P, TIP4P/2005, mTIP3P, SPC/E), (b) ionic melts, BeF2 (TRIM model) and SiO2 (BKS potential) and (c) Stillinger-Weber liquids parametrized to model water (mW) and silicon. Rigid-body, atomistic models for water and the Stillinger-Weber liquids show a strong correlation between tetrahedral and pair correlation order and the temperature for the onset of the density anomaly is close to the melting temperature. In contrast, the ionic melts show weaker and more variable degrees of correlation between tetrahedral and pair correlation metrics, and the onset temperature for the density anomaly is more than twice the melting temperature. In the case of water, the relationship between water-like anomalies and solvation is studied by examining the hydration of spherical solutes (Na+, Cl-, Ar) in water models with different temperature regimes of anomalies (SPC/E, TIP4P and mTIP3P). For both ionic and nonpolar solutes, the local structure and energy of water molecules is essentially the same as in bulk water beyond the second-neighbour shell. The local order and binding energy of water molecules are not perturbed by the presence of a hydrophobic solute. In the case of ionic solutes, the perturbation is largely localized within the first hydration shell. The binding energies for the ions are strongly dependent on the water models and clearly indicate that the geometry of the partial charge distributions, and the associated multipole moments, play an important role. However the anomalous behaviour of the water network has been found to be unimportant for polar solvation.

Shadrack Jabes, B.; Nayar, Divya; Dhabal, Debdas; Molinero, Valeria; Chakravarty, Charusita

2012-07-01

174

Water and other tetrahedral liquids: order, anomalies and solvation.  

PubMed

In order to understand the common features of tetrahedral liquids with water-like anomalies, the relationship between local order and anomalies has been studied using molecular dynamics simulations for three categories of such liquids: (a) atomistic rigid-body models for water (TIP4P, TIP4P/2005, mTIP3P, SPC/E), (b) ionic melts, BeF(2) (TRIM model) and SiO(2) (BKS potential) and (c) Stillinger-Weber liquids parametrized to model water (mW) and silicon. Rigid-body, atomistic models for water and the Stillinger-Weber liquids show a strong correlation between tetrahedral and pair correlation order and the temperature for the onset of the density anomaly is close to the melting temperature. In contrast, the ionic melts show weaker and more variable degrees of correlation between tetrahedral and pair correlation metrics, and the onset temperature for the density anomaly is more than twice the melting temperature. In the case of water, the relationship between water-like anomalies and solvation is studied by examining the hydration of spherical solutes (Na(+), Cl(-), Ar) in water models with different temperature regimes of anomalies (SPC/E, TIP4P and mTIP3P). For both ionic and nonpolar solutes, the local structure and energy of water molecules is essentially the same as in bulk water beyond the second-neighbour shell. The local order and binding energy of water molecules are not perturbed by the presence of a hydrophobic solute. In the case of ionic solutes, the perturbation is largely localized within the first hydration shell. The binding energies for the ions are strongly dependent on the water models and clearly indicate that the geometry of the partial charge distributions, and the associated multipole moments, play an important role. However the anomalous behaviour of the water network has been found to be unimportant for polar solvation. PMID:22739063

Jabes, B Shadrack; Nayar, Divya; Dhabal, Debdas; Molinero, Valeria; Chakravarty, Charusita

2012-07-18

175

Energy savings potential from energy-conserving irrigation systems  

SciTech Connect

This report systematically compares, within a consistent framework, the technical and economic characteristics of energy-conserving irrigation systems with those of conventional irrigation systems and to determine total energy savings. Levelized annual costs of owning and operating both energy-conserving and conventional irrigation systems have been developed and compared for all 17 states to account for the differences in energy costs and irrigation conditions in each state. Market penetration of energy-conserving systems is assessed for those systems having lower levelized annual costs than conventional systems performing the same function. Annual energy savings were computed by matching the energy savings per system with an assumed maximum market penetration of 100 percent in those markets where the levelized annual costs of energy-conserving systems are lower than the levelized annual costs of conventional systems.

Wilfert, G.L.; Patton, W.P.; Harrer, B.J.; Clark, M.A.

1982-11-01

176

New approach to calculating the potential energy of colliding nuclei  

SciTech Connect

The differential method proposed by the present authors earlier for the reduction of volume integrals in calculating the potential energy of a compound nucleus is generalized to the case of two interacting nuclei. The Coulomb interaction energy is obtained for the cases of a sharp and a diffuse boundary of nuclei, while the nuclear interaction energy is found only for nuclei with a sharp boundary, the finiteness of the nuclear-force range being taken into account. The present method of calculations permits reducing the time it takes to compute the potential energy at least by two orders of magnitude.

Kurmanov, R. S., E-mail: kurmanovrs@mail.ru [Omsk State Transport University (Russian Federation); Kosenko, G. I., E-mail: kosenkophys@gmail.com [Omsk Tank Engineering Institute (Russian Federation)

2014-12-15

177

Semiclassical energy levels and the corresponding potentials in nonhydrogenic ions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A semiclassical expression is derived for the potential seen by an nl-shell electron in a nonhydrogenic ion. Corresponding energies Enl are compared with experimental values and with results of self-consistent-field calculations.

Pankratov, P.; Meyer-Ter-Vehn, J.

1992-11-01

178

Potential energy surfaces of HgH 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Potential energy surfaces for HgH 2 have been calculated using a non-empirical relativistic effective core potential incorporating configuration interaction by means of the CIPSI algorithm. Core valence polarization and correlation energy are included via a perturbative treatment. Spin-orbit coupling is introduced through an effective Hamiltonian. These theoretical results are used to discuss the experimental results of Breckenridge, Jouvet and Soep for the reaction Hg( 3P 1) + H 2 ? HgH( 2? +)+H.

Bernier, Anne; Millié, Philippe

1987-02-01

179

Re-examining Potential for Geothermal Energy in United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New technological initiatives, along with potential policy and economic incentives, could help to bring about a resurgence in geothermal energy development in the United States, said several experts at a 22 May forum in Washington, D.C. The forum was sponsored by the House and Senate Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Caucuses, the Sustainable Energy Coalition, and the Environmental and Energy Study Institute. Among these initiatives is an ambitious program of the U.S. Department of Energy to expand existing geothermal energy fields and potentially create new fields through ``enhanced geothermal systems.'' In addition, a program of the Bush administration encourages geothermal development on some public lands, and current legislation would provide tax credits and other incentives for geothermal development.

Showstack, Randy

180

SST Anomalies + Wind Anomalies (with dates)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies and sea surface wind anomalies show the development of the 2002-2003 El Nino based on data from NASAs Aqua and QuikSCAT spacecraft. The wind data has been processed using the Variational Analysis Method (VAM).

Greg Shirah

2003-02-03

181

Nonrelativistic scale anomaly, and composite operators with complex scaling dimensions  

E-print Network

It is demonstrated that a nonrelativistic quantum scale anomaly manifests itself in the appearance of composite operators with complex scaling dimensions. In particular, we study nonrelativistic quantum mechanics with an inverse square potential and consider a composite s-wave operator O=\\psi\\psi. We analytically compute the scaling dimension of this operator and determine the propagator . The operator O represents an infinite tower of bound states with a geometric energy spectrum. Operators with higher angular momenta are briefly discussed.

Sergej Moroz

2011-06-09

182

Exploratory and spatial data analysis (EDA-SDA) for determining regional background levels and anomalies of potentially toxic elements in soils from Catorce-Matehuala, Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The threshold between geochemical background and anomalies can be influenced by the methodology selected for its estimation. Environmental evaluations, particularly those conducted in mineralized areas, must consider this when trying to determinate the natural geochemical status of a study area, quantifying human impacts, or establishing soil restoration values for contaminated sites. Some methods in environmental geochemistry incorporate the premise that anomalies (natural or anthropogenic) and background data are characterized by their own probabilistic distributions. One of these methods uses exploratory data analysis (EDA) on regional geochemical data sets coupled with a geographic information system (GIS) to spatially understand the processes that influence the geochemical landscape in a technique that can be called a spatial data analysis (SDA). This EDA-SDA methodology was used to establish the regional background range from the area of Catorce-Matehuala in north-central Mexico. Probability plots of the data, particularly for those areas affected by human activities, show that the regional geochemical background population is composed of smaller subpopulations associated with factors such as soil type and parent material. This paper demonstrates that the EDA-SDA method offers more certainty in defining thresholds between geochemical background and anomaly than a numeric technique, making it a useful tool for regional geochemical landscape analysis and environmental geochemistry studies.

Chiprés, J.A.; Castro-Larragoitia, J.; Monroy, M.G.

2009-01-01

183

Lymphatic Anomalies Registry  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Lymphatic Malformation; Generalized Lymphatic Anomaly (GLA); Central Conducting Lymphatic Anomaly; CLOVES Syndrome; Gorham-Stout Disease ("Disappearing Bone Disease"); Blue Rubber Bleb Nevus Syndrome; Kaposiform Lymphangiomatosis; Kaposiform Hemangioendothelioma/Tufted Angioma; Klippel-Trenaunay Syndrome; Lymphangiomatosis

2015-03-21

184

Kappa distribution in the presence of a potential energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present paper develops the theory and formulations of the kappa distributions that describe particle systems characterized by a nonzero potential energy. As yet, kappa distributions were used for the statistical description of the velocity or kinetic energy of particles but not of the potential energy. With the results provided here, it is straightforward to use the developed kappa distributions to describe any particle population of space plasmas subject to a nonnegligible potential energy. Starting from the kappa distribution of the Hamiltonian function, we develop the distributions that describe either the complete phase space or the marginal spaces of positions and velocities. The study shows, among others: (a) The kappa distributions of velocities that describe space plasmas can be vastly different from the standard formulation of the kappa distribution, because of the presence of a potential energy; the correct formulation should be given by the marginal kappa distribution of velocities by integrating the distribution of the Hamiltonian over the potential energy. (b) The long-standing problem of the divergence of the Boltzmannian exponential distribution for bounded radial potentials is solved using kappa distributions of negative kappa index. (c) Anisotropic distributions of velocities can exist in the presence of a velocity-dependent potential. (d) A variety of applications, including derivations/verifications of the following: (i) the Jeans', the most frequent, and the maximum radii in spherical/linear gravitational potentials; (ii) the Virial theorem for power law potentials; (iii) the generalized barometric formula, (iv) the plasma density profiles in Saturnian magnetosphere, and (v) the average electron magnetic moment in Earth's magnetotail.

Livadiotis, George

2015-02-01

185

Investigating Energy-Saving Potentials in the Cloud  

PubMed Central

Collecting webpage messages can serve as a sensor for investigating the energy-saving potential of buildings. Focusing on stores, a cloud sensor system is developed to collect data and determine their energy-saving potential. The owner of a store under investigation must register online, report the store address, area, and the customer ID number on the electric meter. The cloud sensor system automatically surveys the energy usage records by connecting to the power company website and calculating the energy use index (EUI) of the store. Other data includes the chain store check, company capital, location price, and the influence of weather conditions on the store; even the exposure frequency of store under investigation may impact the energy usage collected online. After collecting data from numerous stores, a multi-dimensional data array is constructed to determine energy-saving potential by identifying stores with similarity conditions. Similarity conditions refer to analyzed results that indicate that two stores have similar capital, business scale, weather conditions, and exposure frequency on web. Calculating the EUI difference or pure technical efficiency of stores, the energy-saving potential is determined. In this study, a real case study is performed. An 8-dimensional (8D) data array is constructed by surveying web data related to 67 stores. Then, this study investigated the savings potential of the 33 stores, using a site visit, and employed the cloud sensor system to determine the saving potential. The case study results show good agreement between the data obtained by the site visit and the cloud investigation, with errors within 4.17%. Among 33 the samples, eight stores have low saving potentials of less than 5%. The developed sensor on the cloud successfully identifies them as having low saving potential and avoids wasting money on the site visit. PMID:24561405

Lee, Da-Sheng

2014-01-01

186

Communication: Separable potential energy surfaces from multiplicative artificial neural networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a potential energy surface fitting scheme based on multiplicative artificial neural networks. It has the sum of products form required for efficient computation of the dynamics of multidimensional quantum systems with the multi configuration time dependent Hartree method. Moreover, it results in analytic potential energy matrix elements when combined with quantum dynamics methods using Gaussian basis functions, eliminating the need for a local harmonic approximation. Scaling behavior with respect to the complexity of the potential as well as the requested accuracy is discussed.

Koch, Werner; Zhang, Dong H.

2014-07-01

187

Framework for State-Level Renewable Energy Market Potential Studies  

SciTech Connect

State-level policymakers are relying on estimates of the market potential for renewable energy resources as they set goals and develop policies to accelerate the development of these resources. Therefore, accuracy of such estimates should be understood and possibly improved to appropriately support these decisions. This document provides a framework and next steps for state officials who require estimates of renewable energy market potential. The report gives insight into how to conduct a market potential study, including what supporting data are needed and what types of assumptions need to be made. The report distinguishes between goal-oriented studies and other types of studies, and explains the benefits of each.

Kreycik, C.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Doris, E.

2010-01-01

188

Communication: Separable potential energy surfaces from multiplicative artificial neural networks  

SciTech Connect

We present a potential energy surface fitting scheme based on multiplicative artificial neural networks. It has the sum of products form required for efficient computation of the dynamics of multidimensional quantum systems with the multi configuration time dependent Hartree method. Moreover, it results in analytic potential energy matrix elements when combined with quantum dynamics methods using Gaussian basis functions, eliminating the need for a local harmonic approximation. Scaling behavior with respect to the complexity of the potential as well as the requested accuracy is discussed.

Koch, Werner, E-mail: wkoch@thethirdrock.net; Zhang, Dong H. [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics and Center for Theoretical Computational Chemistry, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian (China)

2014-07-14

189

Geospatial Analysis of Renewable Energy Technical Potential on Tribal Lands  

SciTech Connect

This technical report uses an established geospatial methodology to estimate the technical potential for renewable energy on tribal lands for the purpose of allowing Tribes to prioritize the development of renewable energy resources either for community scale on-tribal land use or for revenue generating electricity sales.

Doris, E.; Lopez, A.; Beckley, D.

2013-02-01

190

U.S. Carbon offset potential using biomass energy systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A previous analysis had assumed that about 20% of 1990 U.S. C emissions could be avoided by the substitution of biomass energy technologies for fossil energy technologies at some point in the future. Short-rotation woody crop (SRWC) plantations were found to be the dedicated feedstock supply system (DFSS) offering the greatest C emission reduction potential. High efficiency biomass to electricity

L. L. Wright; E. E. Hughes

1993-01-01

191

The potential for energy efficiency in electric end use technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors summarize a recent study conducted by the Electric Power research Institute (EPRI) that contains estimates of potential energy savings that will result if the most efficient electricity technologies readily available immediately attain complete market saturation in the year 2000. They first define and contrast various efficiency scenarios and then summarize the energy savings forecast associated with demand-side management

G. Wikler; A. Faruqui; C. W. Gellings; K. Seiden

1993-01-01

192

Using peat for energy: Potential environmental restraints. Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serious consideration is being given to using peat as an energy resource in Minnesota, North Carolina, Florida, and some New England States. Potential environmental constraints for using peat as an energy resource are associated with disruption of important regional wetland ecosystems. Mining peatlands may significantly modify ground and surface water hydrology, degrade water quality in downstream receiving systems, contribute to

R. M. Reed; L. D. Voorhees; P. J. Mulholland

1981-01-01

193

Overview - using peat for energy: potential environmental constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serious consideration is being given to using peat as an energy resource in Minnesota, North Carolina, Florida, and some New England States. Potential environmental constraints for using peat as an energy resource are associated with disruption of important regional wetland ecosystems. Mining peatlands may significantly modify ground and surface water hydrology, degrade water quality in downstream receiving systems, contribute to

R. M. Reed; L. D. Voorhees; P. J. Mulholland

1981-01-01

194

Bagasse energy cogeneration potential in the Zimbabwean sugar industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cogeneration of steam and electricity has become the norm in the sugarcane industry worldwide. This process has been taken further to a stage where sugar companies can export a substantial amount of energy to the grid. Mauritius and Reunion Islands have implemented state of the art technology in bagasse energy cogeneration. It is on this basis that the potential

Charles Mbohwa

2003-01-01

195

The potential role of renewable energy in Moldova  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European Union (EU) is developing an increasingly close relationship with Moldova, going beyond cooperation, to gradual economic integration and a deepening of political cooperation. This fact indicates that eventually the adoption of EU legislation in the energy sector is a necessity. Therefore, the provision of a clear picture of the country’s renewable energy potential is considered essential, bearing in

Charikleia Karakosta; Stamatia Dimopoulou; Haris Doukas; John Psarras

2011-01-01

196

Brazilian waste potential: energy, environmental, social and economic benefits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential energy that could be produced from solid wastes in Brazil tops 50TWh. Equivalent to some 17% of the nation's total power consumption at costs that are competitive with more traditional options, this would also reduce greenhouse gases emissions. Moreover, managing wastes for energy generation purposes could well open up thousands of jobs for unskilled workers. Related to power

Luciano Basto Oliveira; Luiz Pinguelli Rosa

2003-01-01

197

Dark energy exponential potential models as curvature quintessence  

E-print Network

It has been recently shown that, under some general conditions, it is always possible to find a fourth order gravity theory capable of reproducing the same dynamics of a given dark energy model. Here, we discuss this approach for a dark energy model with a scalar field evolving under the action of an exponential potential. In absence of matter, such a potential can be recovered from a fourth order theory via a conformal transformation. Including the matter term, the function f(R) entering the generalized gravity Lagrangian can be reconstructed according to the dark energy model.

S. Capozziello; V. F. Cardone; E. Piedipalumbo; C. Rubano

2005-07-19

198

On the nuclear interaction. Potential, binding energy and fusion reaction  

E-print Network

The nuclear interaction is responsible for keeping neutrons and protons joined in an atomic nucleus. Phenomenological nuclear potentials, fitted to experimental data, allow one to know about the nuclear behaviour with more or less success where quantum mechanics is hard to be used. A nuclear potential is suggested and an expression for the potential energy of two nuclear entities, either nuclei or nucleons, is developed. In order to estimate parameters in this expression, some nucleon additions to nuclei are considered and a model is suggested as a guide of the addition process. Coulomb barrier and energy for the addition of a proton to each one of several nuclei are estimated by taking into account both the nuclear and electrostatic components of energy. Studies on the binding energies of several nuclei and on the fusion reaction of two nuclei are carried out.

I. Casinos

2008-05-22

199

Renewable energy potential in Bulgaria - Some computer simulations results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents a work, which aims at numerical study of the wind and solar energy potential of the country. The wind/solar energy fields simulations were performed applying the 5th generation PSU/NCAR Meso-Meteorological Model MM5 for years 2000-2007 with a spatial resolution of 3 km over Bulgaria. The computer simulated data base is large and rather comprehensive. In this sense it can be considered as statistically significant ensemble. This allows statistical treatment in order various wind and solar energy potential evaluations to be retrieved from the data base. Some evaluations of the country wind and solar energy potential, based on the simulation output are demonstrated in the paper.

Ganev, K.; Jordanov, G.; Gadzhev, G.; Miloshev, N.; Syrakov, D.; Prodanova, M.

2014-11-01

200

Lunar Orbit Anomaly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Independent experiments show a large anomaly in measurements of lunar orbital evolution, with applications to cosmology and the speed of light. The Moon has long been known to be slowly drifting farther from Earth due to tidal forces. The Lunar Laser Ranging Experiment (LLRE) indicates the Moon's semimajor axis increasing at 3.82 ± .07 cm/yr, anomalously high. If the Moon were today gaining angular momentum at this rate, it would have coincided with Earth less than 2 Gyr ago. Study of tidal rhythmites indicates a rate of 2.9 ± 0.6 cm/yr. Historical eclipse observations independently measure a recession rate of 2.82 ± .08 cm/yr. Detailed numerical simulation of lunar orbital evolution predicts 2.91 cm/yr. LLRE differs from three independent experiments by over12 sigma. A cosmology where speed of light c is related to time t by GM=tc^3 has been suggested to predict the redshifts of Type Ia supernovae, and a 4.507034% proportion of baryonic matter. If c were changing in the amount predicted, lunar orbital distance would appear to increase by an additional 0.935 cm/yr. An anomaly in the lunar orbit may be precisely calculated, shedding light on puzzles of 'dark energy'. In Planck units this cosmology may be summarized as M=R=t.Lunar Recession Rate;

Riofrio, L.

2012-12-01

201

The Amplification of East Pacific Madden-Julian Oscillation Convection and Wind Anomalies during June-November.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) wind and convection anomalies are locally amplified over the northeast Pacific warm pool during June-November. Composite analysis using NCEP reanalysis data indicates that perturbation available potential energy (PAPE) production through the positive correlation of intraseasonal temperature and convective diabatic heating anomalies supports the local intensification of MJO-related east Pacific warm pool wind anomalies. PAPE production is maximum during periods of strong MJO convection and low-level westerly wind perturbations. PAPE is converted to perturbation kinetic energy through positive correlations between intraseasonal temperature and vertical velocity. Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) temperature and NOAA outgoing longwave radiation data support the energy budget results derived from NCEP reanalysis.The amplified east Pacific circulation enhances surface convergence and latent heat flux anomalies during MJO convective periods. The surface convergence anomalies have a strong frictional component. Intraseasonal surface convergence and latent heat flux anomalies are strongly correlated (greater than 0.7) with the negative outgoing longwave radiation anomalies that is associated with east Pacific MJO convective regions. Surface latent heat and convergence variations may therefore be important in modulating MJO convective anomalies over the east Pacific during June-November. Enhanced surface flux and convergence anomalies associated with an enhanced surface circulation may intensify MJO convection, thereby creating a feedback loop that leads to the further intensification of local wind and convection anomalies. Work with mesoscale or general circulation models is needed to confirm that surface latent heat and convergence variations are indeed important for modulating east Pacific MJO convection.Enhanced MJO convection over the boreal summer east Pacific is accompanied by positive water vapor anomalies throughout the troposphere. Column precipitable water anomalies from both NASA Water Vapor Project (NVAP) and NCEP reanalysis are in phase with MJO convection anomalies over the east Pacific. These results support the observations of previous studies that the equatorial troposphere must be sufficiently moistened before significant MJO deep convection can occur. The strongest NCEP reanalysis specific humidity anomalies at lower levels are collocated with positive surface latent heat flux and surface convergence anomalies.

Maloney, Eric. D.; Esbensen, Steven K.

2003-11-01

202

Analysis of spacecraft anomalies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The anomalies from 316 spacecraft covering the entire U.S. space program were analyzed to determine if there were any experimental or technological programs which could be implemented to remove the anomalies from future space activity. Thirty specific categories of anomalies were found to cover nearly 85 percent of all observed anomalies. Thirteen experiments were defined to deal with 17 of these categories; nine additional experiments were identified to deal with other classes of observed and anticipated anomalies. Preliminary analyses indicate that all 22 experimental programs are both technically feasible and economically viable.

Bloomquist, C. E.; Graham, W. C.

1976-01-01

203

Optimizing potential energy functions for maximal intrinsic hyperpolarizability  

SciTech Connect

We use numerical optimization to study the properties of (1) the class of one-dimensional potential energy functions and (2) systems of point nuclei in two dimensions that yield the largest intrinsic hyperpolarizabilities, which we find to be within 30% of the fundamental limit. In all cases, we use a one-electron model. It is found that a broad range of optimized potentials, each of very different character, yield the same intrinsic hyperpolarizability ceiling of 0.709. Furthermore, all optimized potential energy functions share common features such as (1) the value of the normalized transition dipole moment to the dominant state, which forces the hyperpolarizability to be dominated by only two excited states and (2) the energy ratio between the two dominant states. All optimized potentials are found to obey the three-level ansatz to within about 1%. Many of these potential energy functions may be implementable in multiple quantum well structures. The subset of potentials with undulations reaffirm that modulation of conjugation may be an approach for making better organic molecules, though there appear to be many others. Additionally, our results suggest that one-dimensional molecules may have larger diagonal intrinsic hyperpolarizability {beta}{sub xxx}{sup int} than higher-dimensional systems.

Zhou Juefei; Szafruga, Urszula B.; Kuzyk, Mark G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164-2814 (United States); Watkins, David S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164-2814 (United States); Department of Mathematics, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164-3113 (United States)

2007-11-15

204

The metabolic energy cost of action potential velocity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Voltage changes in neurons and other active cells are caused by the passage of ions across the cell membrane. These ionic currents depend on the transmembrane ion concentration gradients, which in unmyelinated axons are maintained during rest and restored after electrical activity by an ATPase sodium-potassium exchanger in the membrane. The amount of ATP consumed by this exchanger can be taken as the metabolic energy cost of any electrical activity in the axon. We use this measure, along with biophysical models of voltage-gated sodium and potassium ion channels, to quantify the energy cost of action potentials propagating in squid giant axons. We find that the energy of an action potential can be naturally divided into three separate components associated with different aspects of the action potential. We calculate these energy components as functions of the ion channel densities and axon diameters and find that the component associated with the rising phase and velocity of the action potential achieves a minimum near the biological values of these parameters. This result, which is robust with respect to other parameters such as temperature, suggests that evolution has optimized the axon for the energy of the action potential wavefront.

Crotty, Patrick; Sangrey, Thomas; Levy, William

2006-03-01

205

Potential for energy conservation in the glass industry  

SciTech Connect

While the glass industry (flat glass, container glass, pressed and blown glass, and insulation fiber glass) has reduced its specific energy use (Btu/ton) by almost 30% since 1972, significant potential for further reduction still remains. State-of-the-art technologies are available which could lead to incremental improvements in glass industry energy productivity; however, these technologies must compete for capital with projects undertaken for other reasons (e.g., capacity expansion, equipment rebuild, labor cost reduction, product quality improvement, or compliance with environmental, health or safety regulations). Narrowing profit margins in the large tonnage segments of the glass industry in recent years and the fact that energy costs represent less than 25% of the value added in glass manufacture have combined to impede the widespread adoption of many state-of-the-art conservation technologies. Savings in energy costs alone have not provided the incentive to justify the capital expenditures required to realize the energy savings. Beyond implementation of state-of-the-art technologies, significant potential energy savings could accrue from advanced technologies which represent a radical departure from current glass making technology. Long-term research and development (R and D) programs, which address the technical and economic barriers associated with advanced, energy-conserving technologies, offer the opportunity to realize this energy-saving potential.

Garrett-Price, B.A.; Fassbender, A.G.; Bruno, G.A.

1986-06-01

206

Lifshitz scale anomalies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyse scale anomalies in Lifshitz field theories, formulated as the relative cohomology of the scaling operator with respect to foliation preserving diffeomorphisms. We construct a detailed framework that enables us to calculate the anomalies for any number of spatial dimensions, and for any value of the dynamical exponent. We derive selection rules, and establish the anomaly structure in diverse universal sectors. We present the complete cohomologies for various examples in one, two and three space dimensions for several values of the dynamical exponent. Our calculations indicate that all the Lifshitz scale anomalies are trivial descents, called B-type in the terminology of conformal anomalies. However, not all the trivial descents are cohomologically non-trivial. We compare the conformal anomalies to Lifshitz scale anomalies with a dynamical exponent equal to one.

Arav, Igal; Chapman, Shira; Oz, Yaron

2015-02-01

207

Global Onshore Wind Energy Potential and Its Uncertainties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wind power, a clean and renewable energy resource, can play an important role in providing energy and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Yet there are substantial and important uncertainties about the potential costs and supplies of wind that influence our ability to understand today the strategic role of wind power in the future. A detailed global assessment of onshore wind energy potential and its uncertainties will help decision-makers develop policies and strategies to meet energy and environmental goals. In this study, we assess the technical and economic potential of onshore wind energy and its spatial distribution using reanalysis wind speed data from the National Centers for Environmental Modeling (Figure 1). The study focuses in particular in exploring a range of uncertainties that impact the economic potential of wind power by constructing quantitative scenarios for eight key physical and economic parameters. We present quantification of the impact of uncertainties in these parameters, focusing on areas relevant to geoscience research (Figure 2). The amount of economic potential of wind energy depends strongly on several uncertain parameters such as wind speed, turbine cost, and land-suitability. The distribution of wind speed at fine temporal and spatial scales is a key parameter, but is not well quantified in many regions of the world. Reanalysis datasets with more accurate wind fields are a first step, along with computationally tractable downscaling methodologies. Another key assumption is land-suitability, which is the fraction of a particular land-cover type assumed to be available for wind farm development. There is currently little scientific basis for land-suitability assumptions. While some of the data needed for progress in these areas is readily available, such as high-resolution land-cover and terrain data, further advances are likely to require new methodologies and inter-disciplinary collaboration. We outline a number of areas where further research is needed to construct improved estimates of global wind energy potential.

Zhou, Y.; Clarke, L.; Luckow, P.; Smith, S.

2011-12-01

208

Global Horizontal Irradiance Anomalies in Long Term Series Over India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

India has a high potential for solar energy applications due to its geographic position within the Sun Belt and the large number of cloudless days in many regions of the country. However, certain regions of India, particularly those largely populated, can exhibit large aerosol loading in the atmosphere as a consequence of anthropogenic emissions that could have a negative feedback in the solar resource potential. This effect, named as solar dimming, has already been observed in India, and in some other regions in the world, by some authors using ground data from the last two decades. The recent interest in the promotion of solar energy applications in India highlights the need of extending and improving the knowledge of the solar radiation resources in this country, since most of the long term measurements available correspond to global horizontal radiation (GHI) and most of them are also located big cities or highly populated areas. In addition, accurate knowledge on the aerosol column quantification and on its dynamical behavior with high spatial resolution is particularly important in the case of India, due to their impact on direct normal irradiation. Long term studies of solar irradiation over India can be performed using monthly means of GHI measurements from the Indian Meteorological Department. Ground data are available from 1964 till today through the World Radiation Data Centre that publish these values in the web. This work shows a long term analysis of GHI using anomalies techniques over ten different sites over India. Besides, techniques of linear trends have been applied for to show the evolution over this period. The analysis of anomalies has also found two periods of different behavior. From 1964 till 1988 the anomalies observed were positive and the last 20 years seems to be a period of negative anomalies. The results exhibit a decreasing trend and negative anomalies confirming thus the darkening effect already reported by solar dimming studies. This observation is also consequent with solar dimming effect, apparently increased during the last two decades due to the increase of aerosol loading in the atmosphere. These results remark the important of having accurate knowledge of atmospheric aerosol loading and its dynamics over India with high spatial resolution in the framework of solar energy deployment in the country. It is worth to mention that greater anomalies and a noticeable decreasing trend found in Calcutta could be correlated with the highly population rate, and thus the greater the population density of the area the greater the negative anomalies and the decreasing trend of solar irradiation monthly means.

Cony, Marco; Liria, Juan; Weisenberg, Ralf; Serrano, Enrique

2014-05-01

209

Analysis of Solar Irradiation Anomalies in Long Term Over India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

India has a high potential for solar energy applications due to its geographic position within the Sun Belt and the large number of cloudless days in many regions of the country. However, certain regions of India, particularly those largely populated, can exhibit large aerosol loading in the atmosphere as a consequence of anthropogenic emissions that could have a negative feedback in the solar resource potential. This effect, named as solar dimming, has already been observed in India, and in some other regions in the world, by some authors using ground data from the last two decades. The recent interest in the promotion of solar energy applications in India highlights the need of extending and improving the knowledge of the solar radiation resources in this country, since most of the long term measurements available correspond to global horizontal radiation and most of them are also located big cities or highly populated areas. In addition, accurate knowledge on the aerosol column quantification and on its dynamical behavior with high spatial resolution is particularly important in the case of India, due to their impact on direct normal irradiation. Long term studies of solar irradiation over India can be performed using monthly means of global hemispheric irradiation measurements from the Indian Meteorological Department. Ground data are available from 1964 till today through the World Radiation Data Centre that publish these values in the web. This work shows a long term analysis of solar irradiation in India using anomalies techniques and trends in ten places over India. Most of the places have exhibit a decreasing trend and negative anomalies confirming thus the darkening effect already reported by solar dimming studies. The analysis of anomalies has also found two periods of different behavior. From 1964 till 1988 the anomalies observed were positive and the last 20 years seems to be a period of negative anomalies. This observation is also consequent with solar dimming effect, apparently increased during the last two decades due to the increase of aerosol loading in the atmosphere. These results remark the important of having accurate knowledge of atmospheric aerosol loading and its dynamics over India with high spatial resolution in the framework of solar energy deployment in the country. It is worth to mention that greater anomalies and a noticeable decreasing trend found in Calcutta could be correlated with the highly population rate, and thus the greater the population density of the area the greater the negative anomalies and the decreasing trend of solar irradiation monthly means.

Cony, M.; Polo, J.; Martin, L.; Navarro, A.; Serra, I.

2012-04-01

210

Solar energy in California industry - Applications, characteristics and potential  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of a survey to determine the potential applicability of solar thermal energy to industrial processes in California are presented. It is found that if the heat for all industrial processes at temperatures below 212 F were supplied by solar energy, total state energy consumption could be reduced by 100 trillion Btus (2%), while the use of solar energy in processes between 212 and 350 F could displace 500 trillion Btus. The issues and problems with which solar energy must contend are illustrated by a description of fluid milk processing operations. Solar energy application is found to be technically feasible for processes with thermal energy requirements below 212 F, with design, and degree of technical, economic and management feasibility being site specific. It is recommended that the state provide support for federal and industrial research, development and demonstration programs in order to stimulate acceptance of solar process heat application by industry.

Barbieri, R. H.; Pivirotto, D. S.

1978-01-01

211

Saturation wind power potential and its implications for wind energy.  

PubMed

Wind turbines convert kinetic to electrical energy, which returns to the atmosphere as heat to regenerate some potential and kinetic energy. As the number of wind turbines increases over large geographic regions, power extraction first increases linearly, but then converges to a saturation potential not identified previously from physical principles or turbine properties. These saturation potentials are >250 terawatts (TW) at 100 m globally, approximately 80 TW at 100 m over land plus coastal ocean outside Antarctica, and approximately 380 TW at 10 km in the jet streams. Thus, there is no fundamental barrier to obtaining half (approximately 5.75 TW) or several times the world's all-purpose power from wind in a 2030 clean-energy economy. PMID:23019353

Jacobson, Mark Z; Archer, Cristina L

2012-09-25

212

Saturation wind power potential and its implications for wind energy  

PubMed Central

Wind turbines convert kinetic to electrical energy, which returns to the atmosphere as heat to regenerate some potential and kinetic energy. As the number of wind turbines increases over large geographic regions, power extraction first increases linearly, but then converges to a saturation potential not identified previously from physical principles or turbine properties. These saturation potentials are >250 terawatts (TW) at 100 m globally, approximately 80 TW at 100 m over land plus coastal ocean outside Antarctica, and approximately 380 TW at 10 km in the jet streams. Thus, there is no fundamental barrier to obtaining half (approximately 5.75 TW) or several times the world’s all-purpose power from wind in a 2030 clean-energy economy. PMID:23019353

Jacobson, Mark Z.; Archer, Cristina L.

2012-01-01

213

Cost-Energy Dynamics of Thermal Insulation: Potential Energy Savings and Policy Recommendations  

E-print Network

the extra cost and extra energy saving. Due to higher costs of energy at present and in the foreseeable future, good opportunities exist to retrofit existing thermal envelopes with extra insulation. Potential costs and savings in the residential, commercial...

Phung, D. L.; Plaza, H.

1980-01-01

214

A hierarchy of potential energy surfaces constructed from energies and energy derivatives calculated on grids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we develop and test a methodology for the generation of Born-Oppenheimer potential energy surfaces (PES) for use in vibrational structure calculations. The method relies on the widely used restricted-mode-coupling expansion of the fully coupled potential surface where only up to n or less vibrational coordinates are coupled in the potential. Low-order derivatives of the energy are then used to extrapolate the higher mode-coupling potential terms; derivative information is thus used in a convenient way for the evaluation of higher mode couplings avoiding their explicit calculation on multidimensional grids. The formulation, which is a variant of the popular modified Shepard interpolation, is general for any extrapolation of (n +p)-mode-coupling terms from n-mode couplings and can be applied to the energy or any other molecular property surface for which derivative information is available. The method depends only on analytical parameter-free weight functions that satisfy important limiting conditions and control the contribution from each direction of extrapolation. The procedure has been applied on a representative set of 13 molecules, and its accuracy has been tested using only gradients and using both gradients and Hessians. The results provide evidence for the importance of higher mode couplings and illustrate the cost efficiency of the proposed approach.

Matito, Eduard; Toffoli, Daniele; Christiansen, Ove

2009-04-01

215

Distribution of vibrational potential energy in molecular systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is shown that for a collection of n classical harmonic oscillators, the long-time distribution of potential energies P is approximated by sinm(?P) for n?4, where m=(8n/?2-1/?2) and P is scaled to lie between 0 and 1. As n??, the distribution tends to a ?-function centered about P=0.5. When coupling is present between the oscillators, the effective value of m is reduced, so that the breadth of the potential energy distribution reflects the degree of randomization in the system.

Pritchard, Huw O.; Raj Vatsya, S.; Shen, DeLin

1999-05-01

216

Ab initio potential energy surface for the HCl dimer  

Microsoft Academic Search

An intermolecular potential energy surface for the dimer of hydrogen chloride in the ground state is calculated at the levels of the second-order (MP2) and fourth-order (MP4) Mo&slash;ller–Plesset approximations using a large basis set containing bond functions. The surface is characterized by the minimum energy pathway through two equivalent hydrogen-bonded structures. The hydrogen-bonded equilibrium geometry has the centers of mass

Fu-Ming Tao; William Klemperer

1995-01-01

217

Reference pressure changes and available potential energy in isobaric coordinates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A formulation of the available potential energy (APE) equation in isobaric coordinates which alleviates the need for computing temporal derivatives of reference pressure and describes how work done relates to changes in the APE of a limited region is presented. The APE budget equation possesses terms analogous to those in Johnson's (1970) isentropic version. It is shown that APE changes result from either mechanical work inside the domain or an exchange of energy via boundary processes with the surrounding environment.

Robertson, F. R.

1985-01-01

218

Potential structural material problems in a hydrogen energy system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Potential structural material problems that may be encountered in the three components of a hydrogen energy system - production, transmission/storage, and utilization - were identified. Hydrogen embrittlement, corrosion, oxidation, and erosion may occur during the production of hydrogen. Hydrogen embrittlement is of major concern during both transmission and utilization of hydrogen. Specific materials research and development programs necessary to support a hydrogen energy system are described.

Gray, H. R.; Nelson, H. G.; Johnson, R. E.; Mcpherson, B.; Howard, F. S.; Swisher, J. H.

1975-01-01

219

Fossil energy savings potential of sugar cane bio-energy systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

One important rationale for bio-energy systems is their potential to save fossil energy. Converting a conventional sugar mill into a bio-energy process plant would contribute to fossil energy savings via the extraction of renewable electricity and ethanol substituting for fossil electricity and gasoline, respectively. This paper takes a closer look at the Thai sugar industry and examines two practical approaches

Thu Lan T. Nguyen; John E. Hermansen; Masayuki Sagisaka

2009-01-01

220

Off-Shell NN Potential and Triton Binding Energy  

E-print Network

The NONLOCAL Bonn-B potential predicts 8.0 MeV binding energy for the triton (in a charge-dependent 34-channel Faddeev calculation) which is about 0.4 MeV more than the predictions by LOCAL NN potentials. We pin down origin and size of the nonlocality in the Bonn potential, in analytic and numeric form. The nonlocality is due to the use of the correct off-shell Feynman amplitude of one-boson-exchange avoiding the commonly used on-shell approximations which yield the local potentials. We also illustrate how this off-shell behavior leads to more binding energy. We emphasize that the increased binding energy is not due to on-shell differences (differences in the fit of the NN data or phase shifts). In particular, the Bonn-B potential reproduces accurately the $\\epsilon_1$ mixing parameter up to 350 MeV as determined in the recent Nijmegen multi-energy NN phase-shift analysis. Adding the relativistic effect from the relativistic nucleon propagators in the Faddeev equations, brings the Bonn-B result up to 8.2 MeV triton binding. This leaves a difference of only 0.3 MeV to experiment, which may possibly be explained by refinements in the treatment of relativity and the inclusion of other nonlocalities (e.~g., quark-gluon exchange at short range). Thus, it is conceivable that a realistic NN potential which describes the NN data up to 300 MeV correctly may explain the triton binding energy without recourse to 3-N forces; relativity would play a major role for this result.

Y. Song; R. Machleidt

1994-03-31

221

Radioactive anomaly discrimination from spectral ratios  

DOEpatents

A method for discriminating a radioactive anomaly from naturally occurring radioactive materials includes detecting a first number of gamma photons having energies in a first range of energy values within a predetermined period of time and detecting a second number of gamma photons having energies in a second range of energy values within the predetermined period of time. The method further includes determining, in a controller, a ratio of the first number of gamma photons having energies in the first range and the second number of gamma photons having energies in the second range, and determining that a radioactive anomaly is present when the ratio exceeds a threshold value.

Maniscalco, James; Sjoden, Glenn; Chapman, Mac Clements

2013-08-20

222

Inverse scattering with fixed energy for dilation-analytic potentials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For N-body Schrödinger operators P = -Dgr + sum1lesienergy lgr > 0 uniquely determines all Vij in the class of dilation-analytic Schwartz potentials. The same question for two-body Schrödinger operators remains open.

Vasy, András; Wang, Xue-Ping

2004-08-01

223

Potential energy surfaces and spectra of superheavy elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential energy surfaces of some superheavy nuclei are determined, using a mapping from the microscopic shell model space to a geometrical model. The content of the shell model space is determined through the knowledge of the absolute deformation and a single-particle spectrum as a function of deformation. Both have to be extracted from a microscopic model. We show that

P. O. Hess; Serban Misicu

2003-01-01

224

Unified Technical Concepts. Module 7: Potential and Kinetic Energy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This concept module on potential and kinetic energy is one of thirteen modules that provide a flexible, laboratory-based physics instructional package designed to meet the specialized needs of students in two-year, postsecondary technical schools. Each of the thirteen concept modules discusses a single physics concept and how it is applied to each…

Technical Education Research Center, Waco, TX.

225

Energy and water potential of the Southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article gives an overview of energy and water potential of the Southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP) in Turkey. This integrated socioeconomic development project is one of the largest of its kind in the world. The GAP region is rich in water and soil resources. The Euphrates and Tigris Rivers represent over 28% of the nation's water supply by rivers, and

Kamil Kaygusuz

1999-01-01

226

Potentials of wind energy development for water pumping in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of the development of water pumping using wind energy in Jordan was studied. Underground water can be pumped using wind power. Based on available wind data eleven wind sites were considered. The results show that these sites can be divided, in terms of the annual amount of pumped water, into three categories. One is considered “favorable”, which includes

Mousa S. Mohsen; Bilal A. Akash

1998-01-01

227

Low energy chiral two pion exchange potential with statistical uncertainties  

E-print Network

We present a new phenomenological Nucleon-Nucleon chiral potential fitted to 925 pp and 1743 np scattering data up to a laboratory energy of $125$ MeV with 20 short distance parameters and three chiral constants $c_1$, $c_3$ and $c_4$ with $\\chi^2/\

R. Navarro Perez; J. E. Amaro; E. Ruiz Arriola

2014-11-05

228

Methods for finding transition states on reduced potential energy surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three new algorithms are presented for determining transition state (TS) structures on the reduced potential energy surface, that is, for problems in which a few important degrees of freedom can be isolated. All three methods use constrained optimization to rapidly find the TS without an initial Hessian evaluation. The algorithms highlight how efficiently the TS can be located on a

Steven K. Burger; Paul W. Ayers

2010-01-01

229

Renewable energy in Kenya: Resource potential and status of exploitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an assessment of renewable energy resource potential and the current status of exploitation in Kenya. As an importer of petroleum fuels, Kenya spends a substantial amount of foreign reserves to import oil. The oil import bill in 2008 consumed 55% of the country's foreign exchange earnings from exports. On the other hand, there is a high dependence

J. K. Kiplagat; R. Z. Wang; T. X. Li

2011-01-01

230

Potential of solar energy development for water pumping in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of solar energy development for water pumping in Jordan was studied. For this purpose, 10 sites were selected based on the available solar radiation data. According to the annual amount of water output, the selected sites can be divided into three different categories: the first one, which includes Taffieleh, Queira, H-4, and H-5, is considered to be “adequate”

Eyad S. Hrayshat; Mohammed S. Al-Soud

2004-01-01

231

Taussig-Bing Anomaly  

PubMed Central

Taussig-Bing anomaly is a rare congenital heart malformation that was first described in 1949 by Helen B. Taussig (1898–1986) and Richard J. Bing (1909–). Although substantial improvement has since been achieved in surgical results of the repair of the anomaly, management of the Taussig-Bing anomaly remains challenging. A history of the original description of the anomaly, the life stories of the individuals who first described it, and the current outcomes of its surgical management are reviewed herein. PMID:20069085

Konstantinov, Igor E.

2009-01-01

232

Collective potential energy surfaces of light mass Kr isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Collective potential energy surface calculations have been performed for 74-80Kr nuclei in the framework of the Gneuss and Greiner model. The collective Hamiltonian is diagonalized in the basis of the five-dimensional quadrupole oscillator. Our calculations suggest that the 78,80Kr nuclei are ? unstable with a triaxial minimum at ?~=40°. The 74,76Kr nuclei have two axially symmetric minima with the 0+1 ground state being located mainly in the deformed minimum, whereas the first excited 0+2 state is located in the spherical minimum. The calculations also indicate that the ground state wave function for 74Kr is spread over both the minima. [NUCLEAR STRUCTURE 74,76,78,80Kr: Calculated potential energy surfaces; compared with experimental energy levels and B(E2) values.

Seiwert, M.; Ramayya, A. V.; Maruhn, J.

1984-01-01

233

Potentials and policy implications of energy and material efficiency improvement  

SciTech Connect

There is a growing awareness of the serious problems associated with the provision of sufficient energy to meet human needs and to fuel economic growth world-wide. This has pointed to the need for energy and material efficiency, which would reduce air, water and thermal pollution, as well as waste production. Increasing energy and material efficiency also have the benefits of increased employment, improved balance of imports and exports, increased security of energy supply, and adopting environmentally advantageous energy supply. A large potential exists for energy savings through energy and material efficiency improvements. Technologies are not now, nor will they be, in the foreseeable future, the limiting factors with regard to continuing energy efficiency improvements. There are serious barriers to energy efficiency improvement, including unwillingness to invest, lack of available and accessible information, economic disincentives and organizational barriers. A wide range of policy instruments, as well as innovative approaches have been tried in some countries in order to achieve the desired energy efficiency approaches. These include: regulation and guidelines; economic instruments and incentives; voluntary agreements and actions, information, education and training; and research, development and demonstration. An area that requires particular attention is that of improved international co-operation to develop policy instruments and technologies to meet the needs of developing countries. Material efficiency has not received the attention that it deserves. Consequently, there is a dearth of data on the qualities and quantities for final consumption, thus, making it difficult to formulate policies. Available data, however, suggest that there is a large potential for improved use of many materials in industrialized countries.

Worrell, Ernst; Levine, Mark; Price, Lynn; Martin, Nathan; van den Broek, Richard; Block, Kornelis

1997-01-01

234

High-energy anomaly in the angle-resolved photoemission spectra of Nd(2-x)Ce(x)CuO?: evidence for a matrix element effect.  

PubMed

We use polarization-dependent angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) to study the high-energy anomaly (HEA) in the dispersion of Nd(2-x)Ce(x)CuO?, x=0.123. We find that at particular photon energies the anomalous, waterfall-like dispersion gives way to a broad, continuous band. This suggests that the HEA is a matrix element effect: it arises due to a suppression of the intensity of the broadened quasiparticle band in a narrow momentum range. We confirm this interpretation experimentally, by showing that the HEA appears when the matrix element is suppressed deliberately by changing the light polarization. Calculations of the matrix element using atomic wave functions and simulation of the ARPES intensity with one-step model calculations provide further evidence for this scenario. The possibility to detect the full quasiparticle dispersion further allows us to extract the high-energy self-energy function near the center and at the edge of the Brillouin zone. PMID:25302914

Rienks, E D L; Ärrälä, M; Lindroos, M; Roth, F; Tabis, W; Yu, G; Greven, M; Fink, J

2014-09-26

235

U.S. Building-Sector Energy Efficiency Potential  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents an estimate of the potential for energy efficiency improvements in the U.S. building sector by 2030. The analysis uses the Energy Information Administration's AEO 2007 Reference Case as a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario, and applies percentage savings estimates by end use drawn from several prior efficiency potential studies. These prior studies include the U.S. Department of Energy's Scenarios for a Clean Energy Future (CEF) study and a recent study of natural gas savings potential in New York state. For a few end uses for which savings estimates are not readily available, the LBNL study team compiled technical data to estimate savings percentages and costs of conserved energy. The analysis shows that for electricity use in buildings, approximately one-third of the BAU consumption can be saved at a cost of conserved energy of 2.7 cents/kWh (all values in 2007 dollars), while for natural gas approximately the same percentage savings is possible at a cost of between 2.5 and 6.9 $/million Btu. This cost-effective level of savings results in national annual energy bill savings in 2030 of nearly $170 billion. To achieve these savings, the cumulative capital investment needed between 2010 and 2030 is about $440 billion, which translates to a 2-1/2 year simple payback period, or savings over the life of the measures that are nearly 3.5 times larger than the investment required (i.e., a benefit-cost ratio of 3.5).

Brown, Rich; Borgeson, Sam; Koomey, Jon; Biermayer, Peter

2008-09-30

236

Potential energy profile of colloidal nanoparticles in optical confinement.  

PubMed

An optical bottle method is developed to determine the potential-energy profile of colloidal Rayleigh nanoparticles in an optical trap. The three-dimensional distribution of fluorescent particles in the trap is measured by laser scanning confocal fluorescence microscopy. At sufficiently low concentrations at which interactions between the particles are negligible, the single-particle trapping potential-energy profile is determined from the equilibrium number-density profile by use of the Boltzmann distribution. Fluorescence imaging as well as calculations based on a discrete dipole approximation show that effects due to scattering forces are negligible for polystyrene particles of size less than 10% of the wavelength of the trapping laser, thus justifying the assumption of conservative forces in the equilibrium potential-energy determinations. The new optical bottle method measures the entire two-dimensional trapping-potential profile for an individual nanoparticle without the restriction that only one particle be contained in the trap, thus obviating the need for high laser power. PMID:24321903

Fu, Jinxin; Zhan, Qiwen; Lim, Min Yao; Li, Zhiyuan; Ou-Yang, H Daniel

2013-10-15

237

Evaluation of global onshore wind energy potential and generation costs.  

PubMed

In this study, we develop an updated global estimate of onshore wind energy potential using reanalysis wind speed data, along with updated wind turbine technology performance, land suitability factors, cost assumptions, and explicit consideration of transmission distance in the calculation of transmission costs. We find that wind has the potential to supply a significant portion of the world energy needs, although this potential varies substantially by region and with assumptions such as on what types of land can be used to site wind farms. Total global economic wind potential under central assumptions, that is, intermediate between optimistic and pessimistic, is estimated to be approximately 119.5 petawatt hours per year (13.6 TW) at less than 9 cents/kWh. A sensitivity analysis of eight key parameters is presented. Wind potential is sensitive to a number of input parameters, particularly wind speed (varying by -70% to +450% at less than 9 cents/kWh), land suitability (by -55% to +25%), turbine density (by -60% to +80%), and cost and financing options (by -20% to +200%), many of which have important policy implications. As a result of sensitivities studied here we suggest that further research intended to inform wind supply curve development focus not purely on physical science, such as better resolved wind maps, but also on these less well-defined factors, such as land-suitability, that will also have an impact on the long-term role of wind power. PMID:22715929

Zhou, Yuyu; Luckow, Patrick; Smith, Steven J; Clarke, Leon

2012-07-17

238

Potential for Materials and Energy RecoveryPotential for Materials and Energy Recovery the Municipal Solid Wastes (the Municipal Solid Wastes (MSWMSW) of Beograd) of Beograd  

E-print Network

Potential for Materials and Energy RecoveryPotential for Materials and Energy Recovery fromfrom%) and glass (15%). · Recovery of energy by anaerobic digestion: The natural organics in MSW react presence of oxygen) · Recovery of energy and some metals: Combusting all organic compounds in waste-to-energy

Columbia University

239

NVU dynamics. III. Simulating molecules at constant potential energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is the final paper in a series that introduces geodesic molecular dynamics at constant potential energy. This dynamics is entitled NVU dynamics in analogy to standard energy-conserving Newtonian NVE dynamics. In the first two papers [T. S. Ingebrigtsen, S. Toxvaerd, O. J. Heilmann, T. B. Schrøder, and J. C. Dyre, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 104101 (2011), 10.1063/1.3623585; T. S. Ingebrigtsen, S. Toxvaerd, T. B. Schrøder, and J. C. Dyre, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 104102 (2011), 10.1063/1.3623586], a numerical algorithm for simulating geodesic motion of atomic systems was developed and tested against standard algorithms. The conclusion was that the NVU algorithm has the same desirable properties as the Verlet algorithm for Newtonian NVE dynamics, i.e., it is time-reversible and symplectic. Additionally, it was concluded that NVU dynamics becomes equivalent to NVE dynamics in the thermodynamic limit. In this paper, the NVU algorithm for atomic systems is extended to be able to simulate the geodesic motion of molecules at constant potential energy. We derive an algorithm for simulating rigid bonds and test this algorithm on three different systems: an asymmetric dumbbell model, Lewis-Wahnström o-terphenyl (OTP) and rigid SPC/E water. The rigid bonds introduce additional constraints beyond that of constant potential energy for atomic systems. The rigid-bond NVU algorithm conserves potential energy, bond lengths, and step length for indefinitely long runs. The quantities probed in simulations give results identical to those of Nosé-Hoover NVT dynamics. Since Nosé-Hoover NVT dynamics is known to give results equivalent to those of NVE dynamics, the latter results show that NVU dynamics becomes equivalent to NVE dynamics in the thermodynamic limit also for molecular systems.

Ingebrigtsen, Trond S.; Dyre, Jeppe C.

2012-12-01

240

NVU dynamics. III. Simulating molecules at constant potential energy.  

PubMed

This is the final paper in a series that introduces geodesic molecular dynamics at constant potential energy. This dynamics is entitled NVU dynamics in analogy to standard energy-conserving Newtonian NVE dynamics. In the first two papers [T. S. Ingebrigtsen, S. Toxvaerd, O. J. Heilmann, T. B. Schrøder, and J. C. Dyre, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 104101 (2011); T. S. Ingebrigtsen, S. Toxvaerd, T. B. Schrøder, and J. C. Dyre, ibid. 135, 104102 (2011)], a numerical algorithm for simulating geodesic motion of atomic systems was developed and tested against standard algorithms. The conclusion was that the NVU algorithm has the same desirable properties as the Verlet algorithm for Newtonian NVE dynamics, i.e., it is time-reversible and symplectic. Additionally, it was concluded that NVU dynamics becomes equivalent to NVE dynamics in the thermodynamic limit. In this paper, the NVU algorithm for atomic systems is extended to be able to simulate the geodesic motion of molecules at constant potential energy. We derive an algorithm for simulating rigid bonds and test this algorithm on three different systems: an asymmetric dumbbell model, Lewis-Wahnström o-terphenyl (OTP) and rigid SPC/E water. The rigid bonds introduce additional constraints beyond that of constant potential energy for atomic systems. The rigid-bond NVU algorithm conserves potential energy, bond lengths, and step length for indefinitely long runs. The quantities probed in simulations give results identical to those of Nosé-Hoover NVT dynamics. Since Nose?-Hoover NVT dynamics is known to give results equivalent to those of NVE dynamics, the latter results show that NVU dynamics becomes equivalent to NVE dynamics in the thermodynamic limit also for molecular systems. PMID:23277922

Ingebrigtsen, Trond S; Dyre, Jeppe C

2012-12-28

241

A global potential energy surface for ArH2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We describe a simple analytic representation of the ArH2 potential energy surface which well reproduces the results of extensive ab initio electronic structure calculations. The analytic representation smoothly interpolates between the dissociated H2 and strong bonding limits. In the fitting process, emphasis is made on accurately reproducing regions of the potential expected to be important for high temperature (ca. 3000 K) collision processes. Overall, the anisotropy and H2 bond length dependence of the analytic representation well reproduce the input data.

Schwenke, David W.; Walch, Stephen P.; Taylor, Peter R.

1992-01-01

242

An exploration of the ozone dimer potential energy surface  

SciTech Connect

The (O{sub 3}){sub 2} dimer potential energy surface is thoroughly explored at the ab initio CCSD(T) computational level. Five minima are characterized with binding energies between 0.35 and 2.24 kcal/mol. The most stable may be characterized as slipped parallel, with the two O{sub 3} monomers situated in parallel planes. Partitioning of the interaction energy points to dispersion and exchange as the prime contributors to the stability, with varying contributions from electrostatic energy, which is repulsive in one case. Atoms in Molecules analysis of the wavefunction presents specific O?O bonding interactions, whose number is related to the overall stability of each dimer. All internal vibrational frequencies are shifted to the red by dimerization, particularly the antisymmetric stretching mode whose shift is as high as 111 cm{sup ?1}. In addition to the five minima, 11 higher-order stationary points are identified.

Azofra, Luis Miguel; Alkorta, Ibon [Instituto de Química Médica, CSIC, Juan de la Cierva 3, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Scheiner, Steve, E-mail: steve.scheiner@usu.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Utah State University, Logan, Utah 84322-0300 (United States)

2014-06-28

243

Search for dark energy potentials in quintessence theory  

E-print Network

The time evolution of the equation of state $w$ for quintessence models with a scalar field as dark energy is studied up to the third derivative ($d^3w/da^3$) with respect to scale factor $a$, in order to predict the future observations and specify the scalar potential parameters with the observables. The third derivative of $w$ for general potential $V$ was derived and applied to several types of potential. They are the inverse power-law ($V=M^{4+\\alpha}/Q^{\\alpha}$), exponential ($V=M^4\\exp{(\\beta M/Q)}$), mixed ( $V=M^{4+\\gamma}\\exp{(\\beta M/Q)}/Q^{\\gamma}$), cosine ($V=M^4(\\cos (Q/f)+1)$) and the Gaussian types ($V=M^4\\exp(-Q^2/\\sigma^2)$), which are prototypical potentials for the freezing and thawing models. If the parameter number for a potential form is $ n$, it is necessary to find at least for $n+2$ independent observations to identify the potential form and the evolution of scalar field ($Q$ and $ \\dot{Q} $). Such observations would be the values of $ \\Omega_Q, w, dw/da. \\cdots $, and $ dw^n/da^n$....

Muromachi, Yusuke; Okada, Daiki; Hara, Tetsuya; Itoh, Yutaka

2015-01-01

244

Potential Energy of Heavy Nuclear System in Low-energy Fusion-fission Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of description of low-energy nuclear dynamics and derivation of multi-dimensional potential energy surface depending on several collective degrees of freedom is discussed. Multi-dimensional adiabatic potential is constructed basing on extended version of the two-center shell model. It has correct asymptotic value and height of the Coulomb barrier in the entrance channel (fusion) and appropriate behavior in the exit one, giving required mass and energy distributions of reaction products and fission fragments. Explicit time-dependence of the driving potential was introduced in order to take into account difference of diabatic and adiabatic regimes of motion of nuclear system at above-barrier energies and also difference of nuclear shapes in fusion and fission channels (neck formation). Derived driving potential is proposed to be used for unified analysis of the processes of deep-inelastic scattering, fusion and fission at low-energy collisions of heavy ions.

Karpov, A. V.; Zagrebaev, V. I.; Aritomo, Y.; Naumenko, M. A.; Greiner, W.

2007-05-01

245

Development of the Potential Energy Savings Estimation (PESE) Toolkit  

E-print Network

DEVELOPMENT OF THE POTENTIAL ENERGY SAVINGS ESTIMATION (PESE) TOOLKIT Jingjing Liu Graduate Research Assistant Juan-Carlos Baltazar, Ph.D. Associate Research Engineer David E. Claridge, Ph.D., P.E. Professor/ Director Energy Systems... FALSE Zone T reset point during unoccupied hours Atot 19,800 ft 2 Te_unocp ?F Ae 7,800 ft 2 ##### of Atot Ti_unocp ?F Ai 12,000 ft 2 ##### of Atot VTD 27,545 cfm Ve cfm Ocpe 20 pep Vi cfm Ocpi 20 pep TCL (setpoint 1) 64 ?F @ TOA1= 25 ?F Ave...

Liu, J.; Baltazar, J. C.; Claridge, D. E.

246

Free Energy Generalization of the Peierls Potential in Iron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In body-centered-cubic (bcc) crystals, 1/2?111? screw dislocations exhibit high intrinsic lattice friction as a consequence of their nonplanar core structure, which results in a periodic energy landscape known as the Peierls potential UP. The main features determining plastic flow, including its stress and temperature dependences, can be derived directly from this potential, hence its importance. In this Letter, we use thermodynamic integration to provide a full thermodynamic extension of UP for bcc Fe. We compute the Peierls free energy path as a function of stress and temperature and show that the critical stress vanishes at 700 K, supplying the qualitative elements that explain plastic behavior in the athermal limit.

Gilbert, M. R.; Schuck, P.; Sadigh, B.; Marian, J.

2013-08-01

247

Accurate global potential energy surface for the H + OH+ collision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We mapped the global three-dimensional potential energy surface (3D-PES) of the water cation at the MRCI/aug-cc-pV5Z including the basis set superposition (BSSE) correction. This PES covers the molecular region and the long ranges close to the H + OH+(X3?-), the O + H2+(X2?g+), and the hydrogen exchange channels. The quality of the PES is checked after comparison to previous experimental and theoretical results of the spectroscopic constants of H2O+(tilde X2B1) and of the diatomic fragments, the vibronic spectrum, the dissociation energy, and the barrier to linearity for H2O+(tilde X2B1). Our data nicely approach those measured and computed previously. The long range parts reproduce quite well the diatomic potentials. In whole, a good agreement is found, which validates our 3D-PES.

Gannouni, M. A.; Jaidane, N. E.; Halvick, P.; Stoecklin, T.; Hochlaf, M.

2014-05-01

248

Accurate global potential energy surface for the H + OH+ collision.  

PubMed

We mapped the global three-dimensional potential energy surface (3D-PES) of the water cation at the MRCI/aug-cc-pV5Z including the basis set superposition (BSSE) correction. This PES covers the molecular region and the long ranges close to the H + OH(+)(X(3)?(-)), the O + H2(+)(X(2)?g(+)), and the hydrogen exchange channels. The quality of the PES is checked after comparison to previous experimental and theoretical results of the spectroscopic constants of H2O(+)(X(2)B1) and of the diatomic fragments, the vibronic spectrum, the dissociation energy, and the barrier to linearity for H2O(+)(X(2)B1). Our data nicely approach those measured and computed previously. The long range parts reproduce quite well the diatomic potentials. In whole, a good agreement is found, which validates our 3D-PES. PMID:24832269

Gannouni, M A; Jaidane, N E; Halvick, P; Stoecklin, T; Hochlaf, M

2014-05-14

249

Vibration–Translational Energy Transfer According to the Morse Potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

A quantum-mechanical analysis of molecular vibration–translational motion energy transfer is obtained using the Morse potential, a one-dimensional model, and the method of distorted waves. All wavefunctions and transition matrix elements are obtained in closed form. In the limit of high temperatures, the results are identical to the Landau–Teller expression. At low temperatures, resonances are found to result from the attractive

Samuel L. Thompson

1968-01-01

250

Electronic structure, molecular bonding and potential energy surfaces  

SciTech Connect

By virtue of the universal validity of the generalized Born-Oppenheimer separation, potential energy surfaces (PES`) represent the central conceptual as well as quantitative entities of chemical physics and provide the basis for the understanding of most physicochemical phenomena in many diverse fields. The research in this group deals with the elucidation of general properties of PES` as well as with the quantitative determination of PES` for concrete systems, in particular pertaining to reactions involving carbon, oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen molecules.

Ruedenberg, K. [Ames Laboratory, IA (United States)

1993-12-01

251

Energy eigenvalues for an arbitrary potential well with N minima  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a general smooth one-dimensional potential well with N minima (containing N?1 barrier humps of arbitrary shape), a phase-integral quantization condition (including ? terms) is obtained, from which the energy eigenvalues can be calculated with an accuracy relative to the chosen order of the Fro¨man phase-integral approximation. The quantization equation is derived from a condition for total transmission through a

1991-01-01

252

Potential Energy as a Plucking Criterion for Liquid Cluster Simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated the liquid state of atomic clusters interacting through a classical pair-wise Lennard-Jones 6-12 potential, using constant energy molecular dynamics simulations. For larger clusters (N ≳ 500-600 atoms) desorption events are frequent and a cluster in the liquid state eventually always converts to a solid state. To study the cluster as it cools, one must isolate the central

Joseph D. Coppock; Benjamin T. Bomstad; David T. Huebner; Jacquelyn P. Strey; Brian G. Moore

2008-01-01

253

Potential for luminosity improvement for low-energy RHIC operation  

SciTech Connect

At the Brookhaven National Laboratory, a physics program, motivated by the search of the QCD phase transition critical point, requires operation of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) with heavy ions at very low beam energies corresponding to 2.5-20 GeV/n. Several physics runs were already successfully performed at these low energies. However, the luminosity is very low at lowest energies of interest (< 10 GeV/n) limited by the intra-beam scattering and space-charge, as well as by machine nonlinearities. At these low energies, electron cooling could be very effective in counteracting luminosity degradation due to the IBS, while it is less effective against other limitations. Overall potential luminosity improvement for low-energy RHIC operation from cooling is summarized for various energies, taking into account all these limitations as well as beam lifetime measured during the low-energy RHIC runs. We also explore a possibility of further luminosity improvement under the space-charge limitation.

Fedotov A. V.

2012-05-20

254

Isotopic dependence of fusion enhancement of various heavy ion systems using energy dependent Woods-Saxon potential  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work, the fusion of symmetric and asymmetric projectile-target combinations are deeply analyzed within the framework of energy dependent Woods-Saxon potential model (EDWSP model) in conjunction with one dimensional Wong formula and the coupled channel code CCFULL. The neutron transfer channels and the inelastic surface excitations of collision partners are dominating mode of couplings and the coupling of relative motion of colliding nuclei to such relevant internal degrees of freedom produces a significant fusion enhancement at sub-barrier energies. It is quite interesting that the effects of dominant intrinsic degrees of freedom such as multi-phonon vibrational states, neutron transfer channels and proton transfer channels can be simulated by introducing the energy dependence in the nucleus-nucleus potential (EDWSP model). In the EDWSP model calculations, a wide range of diffuseness parameter ranging from a = 0.85 fm to a = 0.97 fm, which is much larger than a value (a = 0.65 fm) extracted from the elastic scattering data, is needed to reproduce sub-barrier fusion data. However, such diffuseness anomaly, which might be an artifact of some dynamical effects, has been resolved by trajectory fluctuation dissipation (TFD) model wherein the resulting nucleus-nucleus potential possesses normal diffuseness parameter.

Gautam, Manjeet Singh

2015-01-01

255

The potential impact of hydrogen energy use on the atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy models show very different trajectories for future energy systems (partly as function of future climate policy). One possible option is a transition towards a hydrogen-based energy system. The potential impact of such hydrogen economy on atmospheric emissions is highly uncertain. On the one hand, application of hydrogen in clean fuel cells reduces emissions of local air pollutants, like SOx and NOx. On the other hand, emissions of hydrogen from system leakages are expected to change the atmospheric concentrations and behaviour (see also Price et al., 2007; Sanderson et al., 2003; Schultz et al., 2003; Tromp et al., 2003). The uncertainty arises from several sources: the expected use of hydrogen, the intensity of leakages and emissions, and the atmospheric chemical behaviour of hydrogen. Existing studies to the potential impacts of a hydrogen economy on the atmosphere mostly use hydrogen emission scenarios that are based on simple assumptions. This research combines two different modelling efforts to explore the range of impacts of hydrogen on atmospheric chemistry. First, the potential role of hydrogen in the global energy system and the related emissions of hydrogen and other air pollutants are derived from the global energy system simulation model TIMER (van Vuuren, 2007). A set of dedicated scenarios on hydrogen technology development explores the most pessimistic and optimistic cases for hydrogen deployment (van Ruijven et al., 2008; van Ruijven et al., 2007). These scenarios are combined with different assumptions on hydrogen emission factors. Second, the emissions from the TIMER model are linked to the NCAR atmospheric model (Lamarque et al., 2005; Lamarque et al., 2008), in order to determine the impacts on atmospheric chemistry. By combining an energy system model and an atmospheric model, we are able to consistently explore the boundaries of both hydrogen use, emissions and impacts on atmospheric chemistry. References: Lamarque, J.-F., Kiehl, J. T., Hess, P. G., Collins, W. D., Emmons, L. K., Ginoux, P., Luo, C. and Tie, X. X. (2005). "Response of a coupled chemistry-climate model to changes in aerosol emissions: Global impact on the hydrological cycle and the tropospheric burdens of OH, ozone and NOx." Geophysical Research Letters 32(16). Lamarque, J.-F., Kinnison, D. E., Hess, P. G. and Vitt, F. (2008). "Simulated lower stratospheric trends between 1970 and 2005: identifying the role of climate and composition changes." Journal of Geophysical Research 113(D12301). Price, H., Jaegle, L., Rice, A., Quay, P., Novelli, P. C. and Gammon, R. (2007). "Global budget of molecular hydrogen and its deuterium content: constraints from ground station, cruise, and aircraft observations." Journal of Geophysical Research 112(D22108). Sanderson, M. G., Collins, W. J., Derwent, R. G. and Johnson, C. E. (2003). "Simulation of Global Hydrogen Levels Using a Lagrangian Three-Dimensional Model." Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry 46(1): 15-28. Schultz, M. G., Diehl, T., Brasseur, G. P. and Zittel, W. (2003). "Air Pollution and Climate-Forcing Impacts of a Global Hydrogen Economy." Science 302(5645): 624-627. Tromp, T. K., Shia, R. L., Allen, M., Eiler, J. M. and Yung, Y. L. (2003). "Potential environmental impact of a hydrogen economy on the stratosphere." Science 300(5626): 1740-1742. van Ruijven, B., Hari, L., van Vuuren, D. P. and de Vries, B. (2008). "The potential role of hydrogen in India and Western Europe." Energy Policy 36(5): 1649-1665. van Ruijven, B., van Vuuren, D. P. and de Vries, B. (2007). "The potential role of hydrogen in energy systems with and without climate policy." International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 32(12): 1655-1672. van Vuuren, D. P. (2007). Energy systems and climate policy. Dept. of Science, Technology and Society, Faculty of Science. Utrecht, Utrecht University: 326.

van Ruijven, B. J.; Lamarque, J. F.; van Vuuren, D. P.; Kram, T.; Eerens, H.

2009-04-01

256

Evaluation of Global Onshore Wind Energy Potential and Generation Costs  

SciTech Connect

In this study, we develop an updated global estimate of onshore wind energy potential using reanalysis wind speed data, along with updated wind turbine technology performance and cost assumptions as well as explicit consideration of transmission distance in the calculation of transmission costs. We find that wind has the potential to supply a significant portion of world energy needs, although this potential varies substantially by region as well as with assumptions such as on what types of land can be used to site wind farms. Total global wind potential under central assumptions is estimated to be approximately 89 petawatt hours per year at less than 9 cents/kWh with substantial regional variations. One limitation of global wind analyses is that the resolution of current global wind speed reanalysis data can result in an underestimate of high wind areas. A sensitivity analysis of eight key parameters is presented. Wind potential is sensitive to a number of input parameters, particularly those related to land suitability and turbine density as well as cost and financing assumptions which have important policy implications. Transmission cost has a relatively small impact on total wind costs, changing the potential at a given cost by 20-30%. As a result of sensitivities studied here we suggest that further research intended to inform wind supply curve development focus not purely on physical science, such as better resolved wind maps, but also on these less well-defined factors, such as land-suitability, that will also have an impact on the long-term role of wind power.

Zhou, Yuyu; Luckow, Patrick; Smith, Steven J.; Clarke, Leon E.

2012-06-20

257

CO dimer: new potential energy surface and rovibrational calculations.  

PubMed

The spectrum of CO dimer was investigated by solving the rovibrational Schrödinger equation on a new potential energy surface constructed from coupled-cluster ab initio points. The Schrödinger equation was solved with a Lanczos algorithm. Several 4D (rigid monomer) global ab initio potential energy surfaces (PESs) were made using a previously reported interpolating moving least-squares (IMLS) fitting procedure specialized to describe the interaction of two linear fragments. The potential has two nonpolar minima giving rise to a complicated set of energy level stacks, which are very sensitive to the shapes and relative depths of the two wells. Although the CO dimer has defied previous attempts at an accurate purely ab initio description our best surface yields results in good agreement with experiment. Root-mean-square (rms) fitting errors of less than 0.1 cm(-1) were obtained for each of the fits using 2226 ab initio data at different levels. This allowed direct assessment of the quality of various levels of ab initio theory for prediction of spectra. Our tests indicate that standard CCSD(T) is slow to converge the interaction energy even when sextuple zeta bases as large as ACV6Z are used. The explicitly correlated CCSD(T)-F12b method was found to recover significantly more correlation energy (from singles and doubles) at the CBS limit. Correlation of the core-electrons was found to be important for this system. The best PES was obtained by extrapolation of calculations at the CCSD(T)(AE)-F12b/CVnZ-F12 (n = 3,4) levels. The calculated energy levels were compared to 105 J ? 10 levels from experiment. The rms error for 68 levels with J ? 6 is only 0.29 cm(-1). The calculated energy levels were assigned stack labels using several tools. New stacks were found. One of them, stack y1, has an energy lower than many previously known stacks and may be observable. PMID:23738948

Dawes, Richard; Wang, Xiao-Gang; Carrington, Tucker

2013-08-15

258

On the potential energy landscape of supercooled liquids and glasses.  

PubMed

The activation-relaxation technique (ART), a saddle-point search method, is applied to determine the potential energy landscape around supercooled and glassy configurations of a three-dimensional binary Lennard-Jones system. We show a strong relation between the distribution of activation energies around a given glassy configuration and its history, in particular, the cooling rate used to produce the glass and whether or not the glass was plastically deformed prior to sampling. We also compare the thermally activated transitions found by ART around a supercooled configuration with the succession of transitions undergone by the same supercooled liquid during a time trajectory simulated by molecular dynamics. We find that ART is biased towards more heterogeneous transitions with higher activation energies and more broken bonds than the MD simulation. PMID:21947901

Rodney, D; Schrøder, T

2011-09-01

259

Market potential for optical fiber sensors in the energy sector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For a long time electric power was taken as a natural unlimited resource. With globalisation the demand for energy has risen. This has brought rising prices for fossil fuels, as well as a diversification of power generation. Besides conventional fossil, nuclear plants are coming up again. Renewable energy sources are gaining importance resulting in recent boom of wind energy plants. In the past reliability and availability and an extremely long lifetime were of paramount importance. Today this has been added by cost, due to the global competition and the high fuel costs. New designs of power components have increased efficiency using lesser material. Higher efficiency causes inevitably higher stress on the materials, of which the machines are built. As a reduction of lifetime is not acceptable and maintenance costs are expected to be at a minimum, condition monitoring systems are going to being used now. This offers potentials for fibre optic sensor application.

Bosselmann, T.

2007-07-01

260

Data Network Equipment Energy Use and Savings Potential in Buildings  

SciTech Connect

Network connectivity has become nearly ubiquitous, and the energy use of the equipment required for this connectivity is growing. Network equipment consists of devices that primarily switch and route Internet Protocol (IP) packets from a source to a destination, and this category specifically excludes edge devices like PCs, servers and other sources and sinks of IP traffic. This paper presents the results of a study of network equipment energy use and includes case studies of networks in a campus, a medium commercial building, and a typical home. The total energy use of network equipment is the product of the stock of equipment in use, the power of each device, and their usage patterns. This information was gathered from market research reports, broadband market penetration studies, field metering, and interviews with network administrators and service providers. We estimate that network equipment in the USA used 18 TWh, or about 1percent of building electricity, in 2008 and that consumption is expected to grow at roughly 6percent per year to 23 TWh in 2012; world usage in 2008 was 51 TWh. This study shows that office building network switches and residential equipment are the two largest categories of energy use consuming 40percent and 30percent of the total respectively. We estimate potential energy savings for different scenarios using forecasts of equipment stock and energy use, and savings estimates range from 20percent to 50percent based on full market penetration of efficient technologies.

Lanzisera, Steven; Nordman, Bruce; Brown, Richard E.

2010-06-09

261

Spectroscopic constants and potential energy curves of yttrium carbide (YC)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential energy curves of the low-lying electronic states of yttrium carbide (YC) and its cation are calculated at the complete active space self-consistent field and the multireference single and double excitation configuration interaction (MRSDCI) levels of theory. Fifteen low-lying electronic states of YC with different spin and spatial symmetries were identified. The X?-4 state prevails as the ground state of YC, and a low-lying excited A?4 state is found to be 1661cm-1 higher at the MRSDCI level. The computations of the authors support the assignment of the observed spectra to a B?4(? =7/2)?A?4(?=5/2) transition with a reinterpretation that the A?4 state is appreciably populated under the experimental conditions as it is less than 2000cm-1 of the X?-4 ground state, and the previously suggested ?4 ground state is reassigned to the first low-lying excited state of YC. The potential energy curves of YC + confirm a previous prediction by Seivers et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 105, 6322 (1996)] that the ground state of YC+ is formed through a second pathway at higher energies. The calculated ionization energy of YC is 6.00eV, while the adiabatic electron affinity is 0.95eV at the MRSDCI level. The computed ionization energy of YC and dissociation energy of YC+ confirm the revised experimental estimates provided by Seivers et al. although direct experimental measurements yielded results with greater errors due to uncertainty in collisional cross sections for YC+ formation.

Suo, Bingbing; Balasubramanian, Krishnan

2007-06-01

262

Onshore wind energy potential over Iberia: present and future projections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Onshore grid-connected wind power generation has been explored for more than three decades in the Iberian Peninsula. Further, increasing attention has been devoted to renewable energy sources in a climate change context. While advantages of wind energy are widely recognized, its distribution is not spatially homogeneous and not uniform throughout the year. Hence, understanding these spatial-temporal distributions is critical in power system planning. The present study aims at assessing the potential power output estimated from 10 m wind components simulated by a regional climate model (CCLM), driven by ERA40 reanalysis. Datasets are available on a grid with a high spatial resolution (approximately 20 km) and over a 40-yr period (1961-2000). Furthermore, several target sites, located in areas with high installed wind generation capacity, are selected for local-to-regional scale assessments. The results show that potential wind power is higher over northern Iberia, mostly in Cantabria and Galicia, while Andalucía and Cataluña record the lowest values. With respect to the intra-annual variability, summer is by far the season with the lowest potential energy outputs. Furthermore, the inter-annual variability reveals an overall downward long-term trend over the 40-yr period, particularly in the winter time series. A CCLM transient experiment, forced by the SRES A1B emission scenario, is also discussed for a future period (2041-2070), after a model validation/calibration process (bias corrections). Significant changes in the wind power potential are projected for the future throughout Iberia, but their magnitude largely depends on the locations. This work was partially supported by FEDER (Fundo Europeu de Desenvolvimento Regional) funds through the COMPETE (Programa Operacional Factores de Competitividade) and by national funds through FCT (Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, Portugal) under project STORMEx FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER- 019524 (PTDC/AAC-CLI/121339/2010).

Rochinha, Carlos A.; Santos, João A.; Liberato, Margarida L. R.; Pinto, Joaquim G.

2014-05-01

263

Assessment of Tidal Stream Energy Potential for the United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tidal streams are high velocity sea currents created by periodic horizontal movement of the tides, often magnified by local topographical features such as headlands, inlets to inland lagoons, and straits. Tidal stream energy extraction is derived from the kinetic energy of the moving flow; analogous to the way a wind turbine operates in air, and as such differs from tidal barrages, which relies on providing a head of water for energy extraction. With the constantly increasing effort in promoting alternative energy, tidal streams have become promising energy sources due to their continuous, predictable and concentrated characteristics. However, the present lack of a full spatial-temporal assessment of tidal currents for the U.S. coastline down to the scale of individual devices is a barrier to the comprehensive development of tidal current energy technology. A methodology for creating a national database of tidal stream energy potential, as well as a GIS tool usable by industry in order to accelerate the market for tidal energy conversion technology has been developed. The tidal flows are simulated using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS). The model is calibrated and validated using observations and tidal predictions. The calibration includes adjustments to model parameters such as bottom friction coefficient, changed land/water masks, or increased grid resolutions. A systematic validation process has been developed after defining various parameters to quantify the validation results. In order to determine the total tidal stream power resource, a common method frequently proposed is to estimate it as a fraction of the total kinetic energy flux passing through a vertical section; however, this now has been shown to generally underestimate the total available resource. The total tidal energy flux includes not just the kinetic energy but also the energy flux due to the work done by the pressure force associated with the tidal motion on the water column as well, which is frequently an order of magnitude larger. The numerical model provides the time series on a sufficiently high enough spatial resolution to utilize both the currents and mean water level (MWL) to compute the total energy flux entering estuary. The time variation of the available power for a few different estuaries will be evaluated and compared to estimates based on constant flow properties.

Haas, K. A.; Defne, Z.; Jiang, L.; Fritz, H. M.

2010-12-01

264

Gravitational Anomaly and Transport  

E-print Network

Quantum anomalies give rise to new transport phenomena. In particular a magnetic field can induce an anomalous current via the chiral magnetic effect and a vortex in the relativistic fluid can also induce a current via the chiral vortical effect. The related transport coefficients can be calculated via Kubo formulas. We evaluate the Kubo formula for the anomalous vortical conductivity at weak coupling and show that it receives contributions proportional to the gravitational anomaly coefficient. The gravitational anomaly gives rise to an anomalous vortical effect even for an uncharged fluid.

Landsteiner, Karl; Pena-Benitez, Francisco

2011-01-01

265

Gravitational Anomaly and Transport  

E-print Network

Quantum anomalies give rise to new transport phenomena. In particular a magnetic field can induce an anomalous current via the chiral magnetic effect and a vortex in the relativistic fluid can also induce a current via the chiral vortical effect. The related transport coefficients can be calculated via Kubo formulas. We evaluate the Kubo formula for the anomalous vortical conductivity at weak coupling and show that it receives contributions proportional to the gravitational anomaly coefficient. The gravitational anomaly gives rise to an anomalous vortical effect even for an uncharged fluid.

Karl Landsteiner; Eugenio Megias; Francisco Pena-Benitez

2011-07-06

266

IRETHERM: Magnetotelluric studies of Irish radiothermal granites and their geothermal energy potential  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The IRETHERM project seeks to develop a strategic understanding of Ireland's deep geothermal energy potential through integrated modeling of new and existing geophysical and geological data. One aspect of IRETHERM's research focuses on Ireland's radiothermal granites, where increased concentrations of radioelements provide elevated heat-production (HP), heat-flow (HF) and subsurface temperatures. An understanding of the contribution of granites to the thermal field of Ireland is of key importance in assessing the geothermal energy potential of this low-enthalpy setting. This study focuses on the Leinster granite, the Galway granite and the buried Kentstown granite. Shallow (<250 m) boreholes were drilled into the exposed Caledonian Leinster and Galway granites as part of an early 1980's EU-funded geothermal project. These studies yielded HP = 2-3 ?Wm-3 and HF = 80 mWm-2 at the Sally Gap borehole in the Northern Units of the Leinster granite. In the Galway granite batholith, the Costelloe-Murvey granite returned HP = 7 ?Wm-3 and HF = 77 mWm-2, measured at the Ros a Mhil borehole. The lower heat-flow encountered at the Ros a Mhil borehole suggests that the associated high heat production does not extend to great depth. The buried Kentstown granite has associated with it a significant negative Bouguer anomaly and was intersected by two mineral exploration boreholes at depths of 660 m and 485 m. Heat production has been measured at 2.4 ?Wm-3 in core samples taken from the weathered top 30m of the granite. The core of this study consists of an ambitious program of magnetotelluric (MT) and audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) data acquisition across the three granite bodies, extending over three fieldwork seasons. MT and AMT data were collected at 59 locations along two profiles over the Leinster granite. Preliminary results show that the northern units of the Leinster granite extend to depths of 2-5 km. Over the Galway granite, MT and AMT data have been collected at a total of 29 sites, with a further 46 sites to be collected in August 2013 (of these 75 sites, 33 will consist of AMT-only data acquisition, with both MT and AMT recorded at the remaining 42). Preliminary results derived from the 29 sites recorded in 2012 show a deep resistor extending to depths of 15-20 km beneath the central block of the batholith, with the resistive body extending to depths of 3.5-7.0 km west of the Shannawona fault. MT and AMT data acquired along a profile at 22 locations over the Kentstown granite suggests that the top of this buried granite is at a depth of 380m beneath the center of the gravity anomaly. The MT and AMT data will be integrated with gravity data and seismic refraction data (in the case of the Leinster granite) to identify deeply penetrating faults, which may provide pathways for hydrothermal fluids, and to produce a robust estimation of the volumetric extent of the granites. Geochemical data will also be incorporated to ultimately constrain the local and regional thermal contribution and geothermal energy potential of the granites.

Farrell, T. F.; Jones, A. G.; Muller, M. R.; Feely, M.

2013-12-01

267

Potential environmental effects of energy conservation measures in northwest industries  

SciTech Connect

The Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) has identified 101 plants in the Pacific Northwest that account for 80% of the region's industrial electricity consumption. These plants offer a precise target for a conservation program. PNL determined that most of these 101 plants were represented by 11 major industries. We then reviewed 36 major conservation technologies used in these 11 industrial settings to determine their potential environmental impacts. Energy efficiency technologies designed for industrial use may result in direct or indirect environmental impacts. Effects may result from the production of the conservation measure technology, changes in the working environment due to different energy and material requirements, or changes to waste streams. Industry type, work-place conditions, worker training, and environmental conditions inside and outside the plant are all key variables that may affect environmental outcomes. To address these issues this report has three objectives: Describe potential conservation measures that Bonneville may employ in industrial programs and discuss potential primary impacts. Characterize industrial systems and processes where the measure may be employed and describe general environmental issues associated with each industry type. Review environmental permitting, licensing, and other regulatory actions required for industries and summarize the type of information available from these sources for further analysis.

Baechler, M C; Gygi, K F; Hendrickson, P L

1992-01-01

268

Potential impacts of nanotechnology on energy transmission applications and needs.  

SciTech Connect

The application of nanotechnologies to energy transmission has the potential to significantly impact both the deployed transmission technologies and the need for additional development. This could be a factor in assessing environmental impacts of right-of-way (ROW) development and use. For example, some nanotechnology applications may produce materials (e.g., cables) that are much stronger per unit volume than existing materials, enabling reduced footprints for construction and maintenance of electricity transmission lines. Other applications, such as more efficient lighting, lighter-weight materials for vehicle construction, and smaller batteries having greater storage capacities may reduce the need for long-distance transport of energy, and possibly reduce the need for extensive future ROW development and many attendant environmental impacts. This report introduces the field of nanotechnology, describes some of the ways in which processes and products developed with or incorporating nanomaterials differ from traditional processes and products, and identifies some examples of how nanotechnology may be used to reduce potential ROW impacts. Potential environmental, safety, and health impacts are also discussed.

Elcock, D.; Environmental Science Division

2007-11-30

269

Theoretical studies of potential energy surfaces and computational methods  

SciTech Connect

This project involves the development, implementation, and application of theoretical methods for the calculation and characterization of potential energy surfaces involving molecular species that occur in hydrocarbon combustion. These potential energy surfaces require an accurate and balanced treatment of reactants, intermediates, and products. This difficult challenge is met with general multiconfiguration self-consistent-field (MCSCF) and multireference single- and double-excitation configuration interaction (MRSDCI) methods. In contrast to the more common single-reference electronic structure methods, this approach is capable of describing accurately molecular systems that are highly distorted away from their equilibrium geometries, including reactant, fragment, and transition-state geometries, and of describing regions of the potential surface that are associated with electronic wave functions of widely varying nature. The MCSCF reference wave functions are designed to be sufficiently flexible to describe qualitatively the changes in the electronic structure over the broad range of geometries of interest. The necessary mixing of ionic, covalent, and Rydberg contributions, along with the appropriate treatment of the different electron-spin components (e.g. closed shell, high-spin open-shell, low-spin open shell, radical, diradical, etc.) of the wave functions, are treated correctly at this level. Further treatment of electron correlation effects is included using large scale multireference CI wave functions, particularly including the single and double excitations relative to the MCSCF reference space. This leads to the most flexible and accurate large-scale MRSDCI wave functions that have been used to date in global PES studies.

Shepard, R. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)

1993-12-01

270

Axial anomaly of QED in a strong magnetic field and noncommutative anomaly  

SciTech Connect

The Adler-Bell-Jackiw (ABJ) anomaly of a 3+1 dimensional QED is calculated in the presence of a strong magnetic field. It is shown that in the regime with the lowest Landau level (LLL) dominance a dimensional reduction from D=4 to D=2 dimensions occurs in the longitudinal sector of the low energy effective field theory. In the chiral limit, the resulting anomaly is therefore comparable with the axial anomaly of a two-dimensional massless Schwinger model. It is further shown that the U{sub A}(1) anomaly of QED in a strong magnetic field is closely related to the nonplanar axial anomaly of a conventional noncommutative U(1) gauge theory.

Sadooghi, N. [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics (IPM), School of Physics, P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jafari Salim, A. [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2006-10-15

271

Gravitational potential energy of the earth - A spherical harmonic approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A spherical harmonic equation for the gravitational potential energy of the earth is derived for an arbitrary density distribution by conceptually bringing in mass-elements from infinity and building up the earth shell upon spherical shell. The zeroth degree term in the spherical harmonic expansion agrees with the usual expression for the energy of a radial density distribution. The second degree terms give a maximum nonhydrostatic energy in the crust and mantle of -2.77 x 10 to the 29th ergs, an order of magnitude below McKenzie's (1966) estimate. McKenzie's result stems from mathematical error. Our figure is almost identical with Kaula's (1963) estimate of the minimum shear strain energy in the mantle, a not unexpected result on the basis of the virial theorem. If the earth is assumed to be a homogeneous viscous oblate spheroid relaxing to an equilibrium shape, then a lower limit to the mantle viscosity of 1.3 x 10 to the 20th P is found by assuming that the total geothermal flux is due to viscous dissipation of energy. This number is almost six orders of magnitude below MacDonald's (1966) estimate of the viscosity and removes his objection to convection. If the nonequilibrium figure is dynamically maintained by the earth acting as a heat engine at 1% efficiency, then the viscosity is 10 to the 22nd P, a number preferred by Cathles (1975) and Peltier and Andrew (1976) as the viscosity of the mantle.

Rubincam, D. P.

1979-01-01

272

Intermolecular potential energy surface and thermophysical properties of ethylene oxide.  

PubMed

A six-dimensional potential energy hypersurface (PES) for two interacting rigid ethylene oxide (C2H4O) molecules was determined from high-level quantum-chemical ab initio calculations. The counterpoise-corrected supermolecular approach at the MP2 and CCSD(T) levels of theory was utilized to determine interaction energies for 10178 configurations of two molecules. An analytical site-site potential function with 19 sites per ethylene oxide molecule was fitted to the interaction energies and fine tuned to agree with data for the second acoustic virial coefficient from accurate speed of sound measurements. The PES was validated by computing the second virial coefficient, shear viscosity, and thermal conductivity. The values of these properties are substantiated by the best experimental data as they tend to fall within the uncertainty intervals and also obey the experimental temperature functions, except for viscosity, where experimental data are insufficient. Due to the lack of reliable data, especially for the transport properties, our calculated values are currently the most accurate estimates for these properties of ethylene oxide. PMID:25362314

Crusius, Johann-Philipp; Hellmann, Robert; Hassel, Egon; Bich, Eckard

2014-10-28

273

Microscopic positive-energy potential based on Gogny interaction  

E-print Network

We present nucleon elastic scattering calculation based on Green's function formalism in the Random-Phase Approximation. For the first time, the Gogny effective interaction is used consistently throughout the whole calculation to account for the complex, non-local and energy-dependent optical potential. Effects of intermediate single-particle resonances are included and found to play a crucial role in the account for measured reaction cross section. Double counting of the particle-hole second-order contribution is carefully addressed. The resulting integro-differential Schr\\"odinger equation for the scattering process is solved without localization procedures. The method is applied to neutron and proton elastic scattering from $^{40}$Ca. A successful account for differential and integral cross sections, including analyzing powers, is obtained for incident energies up to 30 MeV. Discrepancies at higher energies are related to much too high volume integral of the real potential for large partial waves. Moreover, this works opens the way for future effective interactions suitable simultaneously for both nuclear structure and reaction.

G. Blanchon; M. Dupuis; H. F. Arellano; N. Vinh Mau

2014-10-28

274

Microscopic positive-energy potential based on the Gogny interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a nucleon elastic scattering calculation based on Green's function formalism in the random-phase approximation. For the first time, the finite-range Gogny effective interaction is used consistently throughout the whole calculation to account for the complex, nonlocal, and energy-dependent optical potential. Effects of intermediate single-particle resonances are included and found to play a crucial role in the account for measured reaction cross sections. Double counting of the particle-hole second-order contribution is carefully addressed. The resulting integro-differential Schrödinger equation for the scattering process is solved without localization procedures. The method is applied to neutron and proton elastic scattering from 40Ca. A successful account for differential and integral cross sections, including analyzing powers, is obtained for incident energies up to 30 MeV. Discrepancies at higher energies are related to a much-too-high volume integral of the real potential for large partial waves. This work opens the way to simultaneously assess effective interactions suitable for both nuclear structure and reactions.

Blanchon, G.; Dupuis, M.; Arellano, H. F.; Vinh Mau, N.

2015-01-01

275

Potential for energy conservation in the cement industry  

SciTech Connect

This report assesses the potential for energy conservation in the cement industry. Energy consumption per ton of cement decreased 20% between 1972 and 1982. During this same period, the cement industry became heavily dependent on coal and coke as its primary fuel source. Although the energy consumed per ton of cement has declined markedly in the past ten years, the industry still uses more than three and a half times the fuel that is theoretically required to produce a ton of clinker. Improving kiln thermal efficiency offers the greatest opportunity for saving fuel. Improving the efficiency of finish grinding offers the greatest potential for reducing electricity use. Technologies are currently available to the cement industry to reduce its average fuel consumption per ton by product by as much as 40% and its electricity consumption per ton by about 10%. The major impediment to adopting these technologies is the cement industry's lack of capital as a result of low or no profits in recent years.

Garrett-Price, B.A.

1985-02-01

276

Intermolecular potential energy surface and thermophysical properties of ethylene oxide  

SciTech Connect

A six-dimensional potential energy hypersurface (PES) for two interacting rigid ethylene oxide (C{sub 2}H{sub 4}O) molecules was determined from high-level quantum-chemical ab initio calculations. The counterpoise-corrected supermolecular approach at the MP2 and CCSD(T) levels of theory was utilized to determine interaction energies for 10178 configurations of two molecules. An analytical site-site potential function with 19 sites per ethylene oxide molecule was fitted to the interaction energies and fine tuned to agree with data for the second acoustic virial coefficient from accurate speed of sound measurements. The PES was validated by computing the second virial coefficient, shear viscosity, and thermal conductivity. The values of these properties are substantiated by the best experimental data as they tend to fall within the uncertainty intervals and also obey the experimental temperature functions, except for viscosity, where experimental data are insufficient. Due to the lack of reliable data, especially for the transport properties, our calculated values are currently the most accurate estimates for these properties of ethylene oxide.

Crusius, Johann-Philipp, E-mail: johann-philipp.crusius@uni-rostock.de; Hassel, Egon [Lehrstuhl für Technische Thermodynamik, Universität Rostock, 18059 Rostock (Germany); Hellmann, Robert; Bich, Eckard [Institut für Chemie, Universität Rostock, 18059 Rostock (Germany)

2014-10-28

277

Intermolecular potential energy surface and thermophysical properties of ethylene oxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A six-dimensional potential energy hypersurface (PES) for two interacting rigid ethylene oxide (C2H4O) molecules was determined from high-level quantum-chemical ab initio calculations. The counterpoise-corrected supermolecular approach at the MP2 and CCSD(T) levels of theory was utilized to determine interaction energies for 10178 configurations of two molecules. An analytical site-site potential function with 19 sites per ethylene oxide molecule was fitted to the interaction energies and fine tuned to agree with data for the second acoustic virial coefficient from accurate speed of sound measurements. The PES was validated by computing the second virial coefficient, shear viscosity, and thermal conductivity. The values of these properties are substantiated by the best experimental data as they tend to fall within the uncertainty intervals and also obey the experimental temperature functions, except for viscosity, where experimental data are insufficient. Due to the lack of reliable data, especially for the transport properties, our calculated values are currently the most accurate estimates for these properties of ethylene oxide.

Crusius, Johann-Philipp; Hellmann, Robert; Hassel, Egon; Bich, Eckard

2014-10-01

278

Tunnel catch from potential wells and energy detection  

E-print Network

We consider the one-dimensional Schr\\"{o}dinger operator in the semiclassical regime assuming that its double-well potential is the sum of a finite "physically given" well and a square shape probing well whose width or depth can be varied (tuned). We study the dynamics of initial state localized in the physical well. It is shown that if the probing well is not too close to the physical one and if its parameters are specially tuned, then the {\\it tunnel catch effect} appears, i.e. the initial state starts tunneling oscillations between the physical and probing wells. The asymptotic formula for the probability of finding the state in the probing well is obtained. We show that the observation of the tunnel catch effect can be used to determine the energy level of the initial state, and we obtain the corresponding asymptotic formula for the initial state energy. We also calculate the leading term of the tunneling splitting of energy levels in this double well potential.

M. V. Karasev; E. V. Vybornyi

2014-11-17

279

Assessment of market potential of compressed air energy storage systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report describes an assessment of potential roles that EPRI might take to facilitate the commercial acceptance of compressed air energy storage (CAES) systems. The assessment is based on (1) detailed analyses of the market potential of utility storage technologies, (2) interviews with representatives of key participants in the CAES market, and (3) a decision analysis synthesizing much of the information about market and technology status. The results indicate a large potential market for CAES systems if the overall business environment for utilities improves. In addition, it appears that EPRI can have a valuable incremental impact in ensuring that utilities realize the potential of CAES by (1) continuing an aggressive information dissemination and technology transfer program, (2) working to ensure the success of the first United States CAES installation at Soyland Power Cooperative, (3) developing planning methods to allow utilities to evaluate CAES and other storage options more effectively and more realistically, and (4) supporting R and D to resolve residual uncertainties in first-generation CAES cost and performance characteristics. Previously announced in STAR as N83-25121

Boyd, D. W.; Buckley, O. E.; Clark, C. E., Jr.

1983-12-01

280

Coronary Artery Anomalies  

MedlinePLUS

... terms: CAA, anomalous coronary artery (ACA), sudden cardiac arrest, sudden cardiac death A coronary artery anomaly (CAA) ... exercise Sudden cardiac death (also called sudden cardiac arrest) is the most dangerous symptom of a CAA. ...

281

Potential energy surfaces and reaction dynamics of polyatomic molecules  

SciTech Connect

A simple empirical valence bond (EVB) model approach is suggested for constructing global potential energy surfaces for reactions of polyatomic molecular systems. This approach produces smooth and continuous potential surfaces which can be directly utilized in a dynamical study. Two types of reactions are of special interest, the unimolecular dissociation and the unimolecular isomerization. For the first type, the molecular dissociation dynamics of formaldehyde on the ground electronic surface is investigated through classical trajectory calculations on EVB surfaces. The product state distributions and vector correlations obtained from this study suggest very similar behaviors seen in the experiments. The intramolecular hydrogen atom transfer in the formic acid dimer is an example of the isomerization reaction. High level ab initio quantum chemistry calculations are performed to obtain optimized equilibrium and transition state dimer geometries and also the harmonic frequencies.

Chang, Yan-Tyng.

1991-11-01

282

Assessing geothermal energy potential in upstate New York. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The potential of geothermal energy for future electric power generation in New York State is evaluated using estimates of temperatures of geothermal reservoir rocks. Bottom hole temperatures from over 2000 oil and gas wells in the region were integrated into subsurface maps of the temperatures for specific geothermal reservoirs. The Theresa/Potsdam formation provides the best potential for extraction of high volumes of geothermal fluids. The evaluation of the Theresa/Potsdam geothermal reservoir in upstate New York suggests that an area 30 miles east of Elmira, New York has the highest temperatures in the reservoir rock. The Theresa/Potsdam reservoir rock should have temperatures about 136 {degrees}C and may have as much as 450 feet of porosity in excess of 8%. Estimates of the volumes of geothermal fluids that can be extracted are provided and environmental considerations for production from a geothermal well is discussed.

Hodge, D.S. [SUNY, Buffalo, NY (United States)

1996-08-01

283

Global Expression for Representing Diatomic Potential-Energy Curves  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A three-parameter expression that gives an accurate fit to diatomic potential curves over the entire range of separation for charge transfers between 0 and 1. It is based on a generalization of the universal binding-energy relation of Smith et al. (1989) with a modification that describes the crossover from a partially ionic state to the neutral state at large separations. The expression is tested by comparison with first-principles calculations of the potential curves ranging from covalently bonded to ionically bonded. The expression is also used to calculate spectroscopic constants form a curve fit to the first-principles curves. A comparison is made with experimental values of the spectroscopic constants.

Ferrante, John; Schlosser, Herbert; Smith, John R.

1991-01-01

284

Congenital vascular anomalies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Congenital vascular anomalies are rare. The cardiovascular specialist should nevertheless be aware of the more common types\\u000a of vascular anomalies and understand the implications for patient treatment and the likelihood of associated morbidity. The\\u000a presentation of congenital arteriovenous malformations can range from asymptomatic or cosmetic lesions, to those causing ischemia,\\u000a ulceration, hemorrhage, or high-output congestive heart failure. Treatment of

Edwin C. Gravereaux; Louis L. Nguyen; Leslie D. Cunningham

2004-01-01

285

The Pioneer Anomaly  

E-print Network

Analysis of the radio-metric data from Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecrafts has indicated the presence of an unmodeled acceleration starting at 20 AU, which has become known as the Pioneer anomaly. The nature of this acceleration is uncertain. In this paper we give a description of the effect and review some relevant mechanisms proposed to explain the observed anomaly. We also discuss on some future projects to investigate this phenomenon.

de Diego, Jose A

2008-01-01

286

The Pioneer Anomaly  

E-print Network

Analysis of the radio-metric data from Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecrafts has indicated the presence of an unmodeled acceleration starting at 20 AU, which has become known as the Pioneer anomaly. The nature of this acceleration is uncertain. In this paper we give a description of the effect and review some relevant mechanisms proposed to explain the observed anomaly. We also discuss on some future projects to investigate this phenomenon.

Jose A. de Diego; Dario Nunez

2008-07-07

287

Energy aspects and potential energy savings of the new DASI process for milk sterilization  

SciTech Connect

An experimental study was conducted to determine the difference in total processing energy required by the DASI ultra-high temperature (UHT) system and a conventional high temperature short time (HTST) fluid milk system. Data available in the literature were used to develop an energy use profile for the current US fluid milk system from processor to consumer. The energy data measured and the profile developed were used to estimate the potential energy savings resulting from the introduction of sterile milk in the US fluid milk market. Savings of energy resulting from the introduction of sterile milk were estimated to be 12 million barrels of oil annually.

Frey, B.C. (Univ. of Maryland, College Park); Stewart, L.E.; Chandarana, D.; Wolfson, R.P.

1981-01-01

288

Nuclear binding energy and symmetry energy of nuclear matter with modern nucleon-nucleon potentials  

SciTech Connect

Research Highlights: > The nuclear matter is studied within the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock (BHF) approach employing the most recent accurate nucleon-nucleon potentials. > The results come out by approximating the single particle self-consistent potential with a parabolic form. > We discuss the current status of the Coester line, i.e., density and energy of the various saturation points being strongly linearly correlated. > The nuclear symmetry energy is calculated as the difference between the binding energy of pure neutron matter and that of symmetric nuclear matter. - Abstract: The binding energy of nuclear matter at zero temperature in the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approximation with modern nucleon-nucleon potentials is studied. Both the standard and continuous choices of single particle energies are used. These modern nucleon-nucleon potentials fit the deuteron properties and are phase shifts equivalent. Comparison with other calculations is made. In addition we present results for the symmetry energy obtained with different potentials, which is of great importance in astrophysical calculation.

Hassaneen, Kh.S.A., E-mail: khs_94@yahoo.com [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Sohag University, Sohag (Egypt); Abo-Elsebaa, H.M.; Sultan, E.A. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Sohag University, Sohag (Egypt); Mansour, H.M.M. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt)

2011-03-15

289

Rotational Energy Transfer of N2 Gas Determined Using a New Ab Initio Potential Energy Surface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rotational energy transfer between two N2 molecules is a fundamental process of some importance. Exchange is expected to play a role, but its importance is somewhat uncertain. Rotational energy transfer cross sections of N2 also have applications in many other fields including modeling of aerodynamic flows, laser operations, and linewidth analysis in nonintrusive laser diagnostics. A number of N2-N2 rigid rotor potential energy surface (PES) has been reported in the literature.

Huo, Winifred M.; Stallcop, James R.; Partridge, Harry; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

1997-01-01

290

Tsunami earthquake generation by the release of gravitational potential energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquakes that generate large tsunamis share a number of unusual features. They commonly have long source-time functions, involve large displacements, of 10 m or more, of the prisms of poorly consolidated sediment that form the accretionary wedge, and have many aftershocks with normal faulting mechanisms on the landward side of the trench. These features are not easily understood if the only source of the energy involved is the stored elastic strain. The observations, especially those from the Tohoku, Japan, 2011 earthquake, instead suggest that the observed behaviour results from the release of gravitational potential energy, as well as elastic strain. A simple model of this process can account for these and other observations.

McKenzie, Dan; Jackson, James

2012-09-01

291

Collision matrix elements near a pseudocrossing of potential energy curves.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The cross sections of certain inelastic atomic collision processes can be determined from the matrix elements of the collision operator, d/dR, where R is the separation of the colliding atoms. At one extreme, the matrix element may pass through zero near a pseudocrossing of potential energy curves, while at the other extreme, it may pass through a maximum. The resulting cross sections are entirely different in magnitude and in energy dependence. An attempt is made to predict the qualitative behavior of the collision matrix elements with variations in R from an analysis of the Born-Oppenheimer adiabatic Hamiltonian. The modifications caused by a second pseudocrossing with a third adiabatic state are studied.

Oppenheimer, M.

1972-01-01

292

Complex potential and bottomonium suppression at LHC energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied the thermal suppression of the bottomonium states in relativistic heavy-ion collision at LHC energies as function of centrality, rapidity, transverse momentum. First, we address the effects of the nonperturbative confining force and the momentum anisotropy together on heavy quark potential at finite temperature, which are resolved by correcting both the perturbative and nonperturbative terms of the potential at T = 0 in a weakly-anisotropic medium, not its perturbative term alone as usually done in the literature. Second, we model the expansion of medium by the Bjorken hydrodynamics in the presence of both shear and bulk viscosity, followed by an additional pre-equilibrium anisotropic evolution. Finally, we couple them together to quantify the yields of bottomonium production in nucleus-nucleus collisions at LHC energies and found a better agreement with the CMS data. Our estimate of the inclusive ?(1S) production indirectly constrains both the uncertainties in isotropization time and the shear-to-entropy density ratio and favors the values as 0.3 fm/c and 0.3 (perturbative result), respectively.

Kakade, Uttam; Patra, Binoy Krishna; Thakur, Lata

2015-03-01

293

An Ab Initio Based Potential Energy Surface for Water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report a new determination of the water potential energy surface. A high quality ab initio potential energy surface (PES) and dipole moment function of water have been computed. This PES is empirically adjusted to improve the agreement between the computed line positions and those from the HITRAN 92 data base. The adjustment is small, nonetheless including an estimate of core (oxygen 1s) electron correlation greatly improves the agreement with experiment. Of the 27,245 assigned transitions in the HITRAN 92 data base for H2(O-16), the overall root mean square (rms) deviation between the computed and observed line positions is 0.125/cm. However the deviations do not correspond to a normal distribution: 69% of the lines have errors less than 0.05/cm. Overall, the agreement between the line intensities computed in the present work and those contained in the data base is quite good, however there are a significant number of line strengths which differ greatly.

Partridge, Harry; Schwenke, David W.; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

1996-01-01

294

Steam systems in industry: Energy use and energy efficiency improvement potentials  

SciTech Connect

Steam systems are a part of almost every major industrial process today. Thirty-seven percent of the fossil fuel burned in US industry is burned to produce steam. In this paper we will establish baseline energy consumption for steam systems. Based on a detailed analysis of boiler energy use we estimate current energy use in boilers in U.S. industry at 6.1 Quads (6.4 EJ), emitting almost 66 MtC in CO{sub 2} emissions. We will discuss fuels used and boiler size distribution. We also describe potential savings measures, and estimate the economic energy savings potential in U.S. industry (i.e. having payback period of 3 years or less). We estimate the nationwide economic potential, based on the evaluation of 16 individual measures in steam generation and distribution. The analysis excludes the efficient use of steam and increased heat recovery. Based on the analysis we estimate the economic potential at 18-20% of total boiler energy use, resulting in energy savings approximately 1120-1190 TBtu ( 1180-1260 PJ). This results in a reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions equivalent to 12-13 MtC.

Einstein, Dan; Worrell, Ernst; Khrushch, Marta

2001-07-22

295

Potential contribution of wind energy to climate change mitigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is still possible to limit greenhouse gas emissions to avoid the 2 °C warming threshold for dangerous climate change. Here we explore the potential role of expanded wind energy deployment in climate change mitigation efforts. At present, most turbines are located in extra-tropical Asia, Europe and North America, where climate projections indicate continuity of the abundant wind resource during this century. Scenarios from international agencies indicate that this virtually carbon-free source could supply 10-31% of electricity worldwide by 2050 (refs , ). Using these projections within Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) climate forcing scenarios, we show that dependent on the precise RCP followed, pursuing a moderate wind energy deployment plan by 2050 delays crossing the 2 °C warming threshold by 1-6 years. Using more aggressive wind turbine deployment strategies delays 2 °C warming by 3-10 years, or in the case of RCP4.5 avoids passing this threshold altogether. To maximize these climate benefits, deployment of non-fossil electricity generation must be coupled with reduced energy use.

Barthelmie, R. J.; Pryor, S. C.

2014-08-01

296

Potential of renewable energy sources and its applications in Yakushima Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was carried out to see if the potential of renewable energy sources other than hy droelectric power, such as wind, photovoltaic, solar thermal, biomass and waste energy sources, can meet the current energy consumption in Yakushima. The current electricity consumption can be covered by wind and photovoltaic energy sources. The total potential of wind and photovoltaic energy sources

Yoshimitsu Uemura; Takami Kai; Rintarou Natori; Takeshige Takahashi; Yasuo Hatate; Masahiro Yoshida

2004-01-01

297

Exploration of the ranges of the global potential of biomass for energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores the range of future world potential of biomass for energy. The focus has been put on the factors that influence the potential biomass availability for energy purposes rather than give exact numbers. Six biomass resource categories for energy are identified: energy crops on surplus cropland, energy crops on degraded land, agricultural residues, forest residues, animal manure and

Monique Hoogwijk; Richard van den Broek; Göran Berndes; Dolf Gielen; Wim Turkenburg

2003-01-01

298

Potential of Using Poultry Litter as a Feedstock for Energy Production Rangika Perera, Graduate Research Assistant  

E-print Network

Potential of Using Poultry Litter as a Feedstock for Energy Production Rangika Perera, Graduate .......................................................................................................................................................................... 3 2. Potential of Poultry Litter for Energy Generation ......................................................................................................................................................... 5 4. Current Markets and Demand for Poultry Litter

299

Continental and oceanic magnetic anomalies: Enhancement through GRM  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In contrast to the POGO and MAGSAT satellites, the Geopotential Research Mission (GRM) satellite system will orbit at a minimum elevation to provide significantly better resolved lithospheric magnetic anomalies for more detailed and improved geologic analysis. In addition, GRM will measure corresponding gravity anomalies to enhance our understanding of the gravity field for vast regions of the Earth which are largely inaccessible to more conventional surface mapping. Crustal studies will greatly benefit from the dual data sets as modeling has shown that lithospheric sources of long-wavelength magnetic anomalies frequently involve density variations which may produce detectable gravity anomalies at satellite elevations. Furthermore, GRM will provide an important replication of lithospheric magnetic anomalies as an aid to identifying and extracting these anomalies from satellite magnetic measurements. The potential benefits to the study of the origin and characterization of the continents and oceans, that may result from the increased GRM resolution are examined.

Vonfrese, R. R. B.; Hinze, W. J.

1985-01-01

300

French Brittany macroalgae screening: composition and methane potential for potential alternative sources of energy and products.  

PubMed

Macroalgae are biomass resources that represent a valuable feedstock to be used entirely for human consumption or for food additives after some extractions (mainly colloids) and/or for energy production. In order to better develop the algal sector, it is important to determine the capacity of macroalgae to produce these added-values molecules for food and/or for energy industries on the basis of their biochemical characteristics. In this study, ten macroalgae obtained from French Brittany coasts (France) were selected. The global biochemical composition (proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, fibers), the presence and characteristics of added-values molecules (alginates, polyphenols) and the biochemical methane potential of these algae were determined. Regarding its biochemical composition, Palmaria palmata is interesting for food (rich in nutrients) and for anaerobic digestion (0.279 LCH4/gVS). Saccharina latissima could be used for alginate extraction (242 g/kgTS, ratio between mannuronic and guluronic acid M/G=1.4) and Sargassum muticum for polyphenol extraction (19.8 g/kgTS). PMID:23896436

Jard, G; Marfaing, H; Carrère, H; Delgenes, J P; Steyer, J P; Dumas, C

2013-09-01

301

Osmosis, colligative properties, entropy, free energy and the chemical potential  

E-print Network

A diffusive model of osmosis is presented that explains currently available experimental data. It makes predictions that distinguish it from the traditional convective flow model of osmosis, some of which have already been confirmed experimentally and others have yet to be tested. It also provides a simple kinetic explanation of Raoult's law and the colligative properties of dilute aqueous solutions. The diffusive model explains that when a water molecule jumps from low to high osmolarity at equilibrium, the free energy change is zero because the work done pressurizing the water molecule is balanced by the entropy of mixing. It also explains that equal chemical potentials are required for particle exchange equilibrium in analogy with the familiar requirement of equal temperatures at thermal equilibrium.

Peter Hugo Nelson

2014-09-13

302

Potential alternative energy technologies on the Outer Continental Shelf.  

SciTech Connect

This technical memorandum (TM) describes the technology requirements for three alternative energy technologies for which pilot and/or commercial projects on the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) are likely to be proposed within the next five to seven years. For each of the alternative technologies--wind, wave, and ocean current--the TM first presents an overview. After each technology-specific overview, it describes the technology requirements for four development phases: site monitoring and testing, construction, operation, and decommissioning. For each phase, the report covers the following topics (where data are available): facility description, electricity generated, ocean area (surface and bottom) occupied, resource requirements, emissions and noise sources, hazardous materials stored or used, transportation requirements, and accident potential. Where appropriate, the TM distinguishes between pilot-scale (or demonstration-scale) facilities and commercial-scale facilities.

Elcock, D.; Environmental Assessment

2007-04-20

303

Relation between quark-antiquark potential and quark-antiquark free energy in hadronic matter  

E-print Network

We study the relation between the quark-antiquark potential and the quark-antiquark free energy in hadronic matter. While a temperature is over the critical temperature, the potential of a heavy quark and a heavy antiquark almost equals the free energy, otherwise the quark-antiquark potential is substantially larger than the quark-antiquark free energy. While a temperature is below the critical temperature, the quark-antiquark free energy can be taken as the quark-antiquark potential.

Zhen-Yu Shen; Xiao-Ming Xu

2014-06-19

304

Histopathology of vascular anomalies.  

PubMed

Vascular anomalies may be appropriately classified into two broad categories, vascular tumors and vascular malformations, which are distinguished by the presence of cellular proliferation in contrast to aberrations in morphogenesis, respectively. This system of classification is based upon histological features that may in large part be differentiating, but nevertheless, may show morphological overlap. Advances in immunophenotyping allow for more precise diagnoses as well as further delineation of cell origins. In the discussion, we present the clinical, histological, and, when applicable, the immunophenotypic presentation of vascular anomalies commonly seen in infancy and early childhood. PMID:23188681

Aboutalebi, Amir; Jessup, Chad J; North, Paula E; Mihm, Martin C

2012-12-01

305

First-principles computational studies of the torsional potential energy surface of the sec-butyl  

E-print Network

to investigate the torsional potential energy surface (PES) of the sec- butyl radical. All the wave function words: sec-butyl, torsional potential energy surface, density functional theory, wave function theoryFirst-principles computational studies of the torsional potential energy surface of the sec

Wang, Yan Alexander

306

Potential of utilization of geothermal energy in Arizona  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arizona is one of the fastest growing states in the United States. It is in the midst of the movement of the population of the United States from its cold regions to the warm Southwest. Being a hot, arid region, its electrical demand is nearly 50% higher in the peak hot summer months than that of the other 7 months. The major uncertainty of utilizing geothermal energy in Arizona is that very little exploration and development have occurred to date. The potential for utilizing geothermal energy in Arizona is good based on the fat thatthere are over 3000 thermal wells in Arizona out of a total of about 30,000 shallow irrigation wells that were examined. There is much young volcanic rock in Arizona. The combination of data from thermal wells, young volcanic rock, water geochemistry and other geological tools, indicate that there is a large geothermal resource throughout the southern half of the state. It is suggested that most of this resource is in the range of 500 to 1500 C, limiting its uses to direct heat utilization rather than for electric power generation.

White, D. H.; Goldstone, L. A.

1982-08-01

307

Potential for supplying solar thermal energy to industrial unit operations  

SciTech Connect

Previous studies have identified major industries deemed most appropriate for the near-term adoption of solar thermal technology to provide process heat; these studies have been based on surveys that followed standard industrial classifications. This paper presents an alternate, perhaps simpler analysis of this potential, considered in terms of the end-use of energy delivered to industrial unit operations. For example, materials, such as animal feed, can be air dried at much lower temperatures than are currently used. This situation is likely to continue while economic supplies of natural gas are readily available. However, restriction of these supplies could lead to the use of low-temperature processes, which are more easily integrated with solar thermal technology. The adoption of solar technology is also favored by other changes, such as the relative rates of increase of the costs of electricity and natural gas, and by energy conservation measures. Thus, the use of low-pressure steam to provide process heat could be replaced economically with high-temperature hot water systems, which are more compatible with solar technology. On the other hand, for certain operations such as high-temperature catalytic and distillation processes employed in petroleum refining, there is no ready alternative to presently employed fluid fuels.

May, E.K.

1980-04-01

308

Wind and Solar Energy Potential Assessment for Development of Renewables Energies Applications in Bucaramanga, Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently, the trend of micro-grids and small-scale renewable generation systems implementation in urban environments requires to have historical and detailed information about the energy potential resource in site. In Colombia, this information is limited and do not favor the design of these applications; for this reason, must be made detailed studies of the energy potential in their cities. In this paper is presented the wind and solar energy resource assessment for the city of Bucaramanga, based on the monitoring on four strategic points during the years 2010, 2011 and 2012. According to the analysis, is evidenced a significant solar resource throughout the year ascending on average to 1 734 kWh/m2, equivalent to 4.8 kWh/m2/day. Also, from a wind statistical study based on the Weibull probability distribution and Wind Power Density (WPD) was established the wind potential as Class 1 according to the scale of the Department of Energy of the United States (DOE), since the average speed is near 1.4 m/s. Due this, it is technically unfeasible the using of micro-turbines in the city, even so their potential for natural ventilation of building was analyzed. Finally, is presented a methodology to analyze solar harvesting by sectors in the city, according to the solar motion and shadowing caused by existing structures.

Ordóñez, G.; Osma, G.; Vergara, P.; Rey, J.

2014-06-01

309

Modeling And Detecting Anomalies In Scada Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The detection of attacks and intrusions based on anomalies is hampered by the limits of specificity underlying the detection techniques. However, in the case of many critical infrastructure systems, domain-specific knowledge and models can impose constraints that potentially reduce error rates. At the same time, attackers can use their knowledge of system behavior to mask their manipulations, causing adverse effects to observed only after a significant period of time. This paper describes elementary statistical techniques that can be applied to detect anomalies in critical infrastructure networks. A SCADA system employed in liquefied natural gas (LNG) production is used as a case study.

Svendsen, Nils; Wolthusen, Stephen

310

Supersymmetric axial anomalies and the Wess-Zumino action  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We derive, by an algebraic method, a manifestly supersymmetric extension of Bardeen's minimal form of axial anomalies, which obeys the Wess-Zumino consistency condition. The left-right symmetric form of the anomalies is also obtained by a reduction procedure. We construct the supersymmetric Wess-Zumino effective action and study its low-energy features.

Harada, K.; Shizuya, K.

1988-04-01

311

Marine renewable energy: potential benefits to biodiversity? An urgent call for research  

E-print Network

Marine renewable energy: potential benefits to biodiversity? An urgent call for research Richard 1 Centre for Ecology and Conservation and Peninsula Research Institute for Marine Renewable Energy driver. In response, many governments have initiated programmes of energy production from renewable

Exeter, University of

312

Antler anomalies in tule elk  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Antler anomalies were evident in tule elk (Cervus elaphus nannodes) within 1 yr of reintroduction to Point Reyes, California (USA). These anomalies are consistent with previously described mineral deficiency-induced anomalies in cervids. The elk were judged deficient in copper. Low levels of copper in soils and vegetation at the release site, exacerbated by possible protein deficiency due to poor range conditions, are postulated as likely causes of the antler anomalies.

Gogan, Peter J.P.; Jessup, David A.; Barrett, Reginald H.

1988-01-01

313

Global Climate Highlights and Anomalies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NOAA's Global Climate Highlights and Anomalies page offers weekly summaries of global climate highlights and anomalies (warm, cold, wet, dry). Areas experiencing climate anomalies are color-marked on a global map, followed by written summaries of each region's climate conditions. All weeks are posted for the year 2000 (to present), and a link points users to the complete 1999 archive.

314

Computed Potential Energy Surfaces and Minimum Energy Pathways for Chemical Reactions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computed potential energy surfaces are often required for computation of such parameters as rate constants as a function of temperature, product branching ratios, and other detailed properties. For some dynamics methods, global potential energy surfaces are required. In this case, it is necessary to obtain the energy at a complete sampling of all the possible arrangements of the nuclei, which are energetically accessible, and then a fitting function must be obtained to interpolate between the computed points. In other cases, characterization of the stationary points and the reaction pathway connecting them is sufficient. These properties may be readily obtained using analytical derivative methods. We have found that computation of the stationary points/reaction pathways using CASSCF/derivative methods, followed by use of the internally contracted CI method to obtain accurate energetics, gives usefull results for a number of chemically important systems. The talk will focus on a number of applications including global potential energy surfaces, H + O2, H + N2, O(3p) + H2, and reaction pathways for complex reactions, including reactions leading to NO and soot formation in hydrocarbon combustion.

Walch, Stephen P.; Langhoff, S. R. (Technical Monitor)

1994-01-01

315

(Molecular understanding of mutagenicity using potential energy methods)  

SciTech Connect

The objective of our work has been, for many year, to elucidate on a molecular level at atomic resolution the structures of DNAs modified by highly mutagenic polycyclic aromatic amines and hydrocarbons, and their less mutagenic chemically related analogs and unmodified DNAs, as controls. The ultimate purpose of this undertaking is to obtain an understanding of the relationship DNA structures and mutagenicity. Our methods for elucidating structures are computational, but we keep in close contact with experimental developments, and have, very recently, been able to incorporate the first experimental information from NMR studies by other workers in our calculations. The specific computational methods we employ are minimized potential energy calculations using the torsion angle space program DUPLEX, developed and written by Dr. Brain Hingerty to yield static views. Molecular dynamics simulations of the important static structures with full solvation and salt are carried out with the program AMBER; this yields mobile views in a milieu that best mimics the natural environment of the cell. In addition, we have been developing new strategies for searching conformation space and building DNA duplexes from favored subunit structures. 30 refs., 12 figs.

Broyde, S.

1990-01-01

316

Molecular understanding of mutagenicity using potential energy methods  

SciTech Connect

Our objective, has been to elucidate on a molecular level, at atomic resolution, the structures of DNAs modified by 2-aminofluorene and its N-acetyl derivative, 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF). The underlying hypothesis is that DNA replicates with reduced fidelity when its normal right-handed B-structure is altered, and one result is a higher mutation rate. This change in structure may occur normally at a low incidence, for example by the formation of hairpin loops in appropriate sequences, but it may be enhanced greatly after covalent modification by a mutagenic substance. We use computational methods and have been able to incorporate the first data from NMR studies in our calculations. Computational approaches are important because x-ray and spectroscopic studies have not succeeded in producing atomic resolution views of mutagen and carcinogen-oligonucleotide adducts. The specific methods that we employ are minimized potential energy calculations using the torsion angle space molecular mechanics program DUPLEX to yield static views. Molecular dynamics simulations, with full solvent and salt, of the important static structures are carried out with the program AMBER; this yields mobile views in a medium that mimics the natural aqueous environment of the cell as well as can be done with current available computing resources.

Broyde, S.; Shapiro, R.

1992-07-01

317

Potential of utilization of geothermal energy in Arizona. Executive summary  

SciTech Connect

Arizona is one of the fastest growing states in the United States. It is in the midst of the movement of the population of the United States from its cold regions to the warm Southwest. Being a hot, arid region, its electrical demand is nearly 50% higher in the peak hot summer months than that of the other seven months. The major uncertainty of utilizing geothermal energy in Arizona is that very little exploration and development have occurred to date. The potential is good, based on (a) the fact that there are over 3000 thermal wells in Arizona out of a total of about 30,000 shallow (less than 1000 ft) irrigation wells. In addition, there is much young volcanic rock in the State of Arizona. The combination of data from thermal wells, young volcanic rock, water geochemistry and other geological tools, indicate that there is a large geothermal resource throughout the southern half of the state. It is believed that most of this resource is in the range of 50/sup 0/C (122/sup 0/F) to 150/sup 0/C (302/sup 0/F), limiting its uses to direct heat utilization rather than for electric power generation.

White, D.H.; Goldstone, L.A.

1982-08-01

318

Reliable prediction of micro-anomalies from macro-observables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A stochastic multi-scale based approach is presented in this work to detect signatures of micro-anomalies from macrolevel response variables. By micro-anomalies, we primarily refer to micro-cracks of size 10-100 ?m (depending on the material), while macro-level response variables imply, e.g., strains, strain energy density of macro-level structures (typical size often varying in the order of 10-100 m). The micro-anomalies referred above are not discernible to the naked eyes. Nevertheless, they can cause catastrophic failures of structural systems due to fatigue cyclic loading that results in initiation of fatigue cracks. Analysis of such precursory state of internal damage evolution, before amacro-crack visibly appears (say, size of a few cms), is beyond the scope of the conventional crack propagation analysis, e.g., classical fracture mechanics. The present work addresses this issue in a certain sense by incorporating the effects of micro-cracks into the macro-scale constitutive material properties (e.g., constitutive elasticity tensors) within a probabilistic formalism based on random matrix theory, maximum entropy principle, and principles of minimum complementary energy and minimum potential energy. Distinct differences are observed in the macro-level response characteristics depending on the presence or absence of micro-cracks. This particular feature can now be used to reliably detect micro-cracks from experimental measurements of macro-observables. The present work, therefore, further proposes an efficient and robust optimization scheme: (1) to identify locations of micro-cracks in macroscopic structural systems, say, in an aircraft wing which is of the size of 10- 100 m, and (2) to determine the weakened (due to the presence of micro-cracks) macroscopic material properties which will be useful in predicting the remaining useful life of structural systems. The proposed optimization scheme achieves better convergence rate and accuracy by exploiting positive-definite structure of the macroscopic constitutive matrices.

Das, Sonjoy; Chakravarty, Sourish

2014-03-01

319

On the potential energy in an electrostatically bound two-body system  

E-print Network

The potential energy problem in an electrostatically bound two-body system is studied in the framework of a recently proposed impact model of the electrostatic force and in analogy to the potential energy in a gravitationally bound system. The physical processes are described that result in the variation of the potential energy as a function of the distance between the charged bodies. The energy is extracted from distributions of hypothetical interaction entities modified by the charged bodies.

K. Wilhelm; B. N. Dwivedi

2014-08-30

320

New Type of Anomaly in Turbulence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The turbulent energy flux through scales, ? ¯, remains constant and nonvanishing in the limit of zero viscosity, which results in the fundamental anomaly of time irreversibility. It was considered straightforward to deduce from this the Lagrangian velocity anomaly, ?du2/dt?=-4? ¯ at t =0, where u ? is the velocity difference of a pair of particles, initially separated by a fixed distance. Here we demonstrate that this assumed first taking the limit t?0 and then ??0, while a zero-friction anomaly requires taking viscosity to zero first. We find that the limits t?0 and ??0 do not commute if particles deplete (accumulate) in shocks backward (forward) in time on the viscous time scale. We compute analytically the resultant Lagrangian anomaly for one-dimensional Burgers turbulence and find it completely altered: ?du2/dt? has different values forward and backward in time. For incompressible flows, on the other hand, we show that the limits commute and the Lagrangian anomaly is still induced by the flux law, apparently due to a homogeneous distribution of fluid particles at all times.

Frishman, Anna; Falkovich, Gregory

2014-07-01

321

New type of anomaly in turbulence.  

PubMed

The turbulent energy flux through scales, ??, remains constant and nonvanishing in the limit of zero viscosity, which results in the fundamental anomaly of time irreversibility. It was considered straightforward to deduce from this the Lagrangian velocity anomaly, ?du(2)/dt?=-4?? at t=0, where u[over ?] is the velocity difference of a pair of particles, initially separated by a fixed distance. Here we demonstrate that this assumed first taking the limit t?0 and then ??0, while a zero-friction anomaly requires taking viscosity to zero first. We find that the limits t?0 and ??0 do not commute if particles deplete (accumulate) in shocks backward (forward) in time on the viscous time scale. We compute analytically the resultant Lagrangian anomaly for one-dimensional Burgers turbulence and find it completely altered: ?du(2)/dt? has different values forward and backward in time. For incompressible flows, on the other hand, we show that the limits commute and the Lagrangian anomaly is still induced by the flux law, apparently due to a homogeneous distribution of fluid particles at all times. PMID:25062187

Frishman, Anna; Falkovich, Gregory

2014-07-11

322

Transportation Energy Futures Series: Potential for Energy Efficiency Improvement Beyond the Light-Duty-Vehicle Sector  

SciTech Connect

Considerable research has focused on energy efficiency and fuel substitution options for light-duty vehicles, while much less attention has been given to medium- and heavy-duty trucks, buses, aircraft, marine vessels, trains, pipeline, and off-road equipment. This report brings together the salient findings from an extensive review of literature on future energy efficiency options for these non-light-duty modes. Projected activity increases to 2050 are combined with forecasts of overall fuel efficiency improvement potential to estimate the future total petroleum and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions relative to current levels. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

Vyas, A. D.; Patel, D. M.; Bertram, K. M.

2013-03-01

323

Extraction of nucleus-nucleus potential and energy dissipation from dynamical mean-field theory  

SciTech Connect

Nucleus-nucleus interaction potentials in heavy-ion fusion reactions are extracted from the microscopic time-dependent Hartree-Fock theory. When the center-of-mass energy is much higher than the Coulomb barrier energy, extracted potentials identify with the frozen density approximation. As the center-of-mass energy decreases to the Coulomb barrier energy, potentials become energy dependent. This dependence indicates dynamical reorganization of internal degrees of freedom and leads to a reduction of the ''apparent'' barrier. Including this effect leads to the Coulomb barrier energy very close to experimental one. Aspects of one-body energy dissipation extracted from the mean-field theory are discussed.

Washiyama, Kouhei; Lacroix, Denis [GANIL, BP55027, 14076 Caen (France)

2009-03-04

324

Relationship of the Williams-Poulios and Manning-Rosen Potential Energy Models for Diatomic Molecules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By employing the dissociation energy and the equilibrium bond length for a diatomic molecule as explicit parameters, we generate an improved form of the Williams-Poulios potential energy model. It is found that the negative Williams-Poulios potential model is equivalent to the Manning-Rosen potential model for diatomic molecules. We observe that the Manning-Rosen potential is superior to the Morse potential in reproducing the interaction potential energy curves for the {{a}3 ?u+} state of the 6Li2 molecule and the {{X}1 sum+} state of the SiF+ molecule.

Jia, Chun-Sheng; Liang, Guang-Chuan; Peng, Xiao-Long; Tang, Hong-Ming; Zhang, Lie-Hui

2014-06-01

325

Biomass and biogas energy in Thailand: Potential, opportunity and barriers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomass has been traditional energy source in rural Thailand for decades. Country modernization, instead of reducing the biomass energy consumption, has continuously increased its utilization for both households and production of modern energy. While the GDP\\/capita was triple during 1980–1996, the biomass energy consumption increased by 68%, and expected to be higher as signaled by the increasing number of new

S. Prasertsan; B. Sajjakulnukit

2006-01-01

326

Potential Ambient Energy-Harvesting Sources and Techniques  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ambient energy harvesting is also known as energy scavenging or power harvesting, and it is the process where energy is obtained from the environment. A variety of techniques are available for energy scavenging, including solar and wind powers, ocean waves, piezoelectricity, thermoelectricity, and physical motions. For example, some systems…

Yildiz, Faruk

2009-01-01

327

Land Transport Demand Analysis and Energy Saving Potentials in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transportation is one of the major economic sectors in energy consumption. For Thailand, this sector has been the largest energy consuming sector. It accounted for about 38% of the total energy consumption and about 80% of this sector was used in the road transport in 2004. During 2000 - 2004, the energy consumption in the transport sector in Thailand increased

Jakapong Pongthanaisawan; Chumnong Sorapipatana; Bundit Limmeechokchai

328

Biomass energy potential and future prospect in Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sudan is an agricultural country with fertile land, plenty of water resources, livestock, forestry resources, and agricultural residues. Sudan is an energy importing country and the energy requirements have been supplied through imports that have caused financial problems. Because of the economical problems in Sudan today, the Sudanese energy policy should be concentrated on assurance of energy supply, reliability, domestic

Abdeen M. Omer

2005-01-01

329

Zero-energy states for a class of quasi-exactly solvable rational potentials  

E-print Network

Quasi-exactly solvable rational potentials with known zero-energy solutions of the Schro\\" odinger equation are constructed by starting from exactly solvable potentials for which the Schr\\" odinger equation admits an so(2,1) potential algebra. For some of them, the zero-energy wave function is shown to be normalizable and to describe a bound state.

B. Bagchi; C. Quesne

1997-03-20

330

Networks of Triboelectric Nanogenerators for Harvesting Water Wave Energy: A Potential Approach toward Blue Energy.  

PubMed

With 70% of the earth's surface covered with water, wave energy is abundant and has the potential to be one of the most environmentally benign forms of electric energy. However, owing to lack of effective technology, water wave energy harvesting is almost unexplored as an energy source. Here, we report a network design made of triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) for large-scale harvesting of kinetic water energy. Relying on surface charging effect between the conventional polymers and very thin layer of metal as electrodes for each TENG, the TENG networks (TENG-NW) that naturally float on the water surface convert the slow, random, and high-force oscillatory wave energy into electricity. On the basis of the measured output of a single TENG, the TENG-NW is expected to give an average power output of 1.15 MW from 1 km(2) surface area. Given the compelling features, such as being lightweight, extremely cost-effective, environmentally friendly, easily implemented, and capable of floating on the water surface, the TENG-NW renders an innovative and effective approach toward large-scale blue energy harvesting from the ocean. PMID:25719956

Chen, Jun; Yang, Jin; Li, Zhaoling; Fan, Xing; Zi, Yunlong; Jing, Qingshen; Guo, Hengyu; Wen, Zhen; Pradel, Ken C; Niu, Simiao; Wang, Zhong Lin

2015-03-24

331

Yearly Arctic Temperature Anomaly  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation shows the yearly temperature anomaly over the Arctic region from 1981-82 through 2002-03. Years run from August 1 through July 31. Blue hues indicate cooling regions; red hues depict warming. Light regions indicate less change while darker regions indicate more. The temperature scale used ranges from -7.0 to +7.0 degrees Celsius in increments of .25 degrees. (See color bar below)

Cindy Starr

2003-10-23

332

The Energy Saving Potential of Membrane-Based Enthalpy Recovery in Vav Systems for Commercial  

E-print Network

LBNL-6032E The Energy Saving Potential of Membrane-Based Enthalpy Recovery in Vav Systems. Simulation was used in a parametric study to investigate the energy saving potential of the enthalpy recovery system. The case without energy recovery and air side economizer was used as a baseline. Two comparison

333

Cluster and reentrant anomalies of nearly Gaussian core particles  

E-print Network

We study through integral equation theory and numerical simulations the structure and dynamics of fluids composed of ultrasoft, nearly Gaussian particles. Namely, we explore the fluid phase diagram of a model in which particles interact via the generalized exponential potential u(r)=\\epsilon exp[-(r/\\sigma)^n], with a softness exponent n slightly larger than 2. In addition to the well-known anomaly associated to reentrant melting, the structure and dynamics of the fluid display two additional anomalies, which are visible in the isothermal variation of the structure factor and diffusivity. These features are correlated to the appearance of dimers in the fluid phase and to the subsequent modification of the cluster structure upon compression. We corroborate these results through an analysis of the local minima of the potential energy surface, in which clusters appear as much tighter conglomerates of particles. We find that reentrant melting and clustering coexist for softness exponents ranging from 2^+ up to values relevant for the description of amphiphilic dendrimers, i.e., n=3.

Daniele Coslovich; Atsushi Ikeda

2013-03-13

334

Maternal water consumption during pregnancy and congenital cardiac anomalies  

SciTech Connect

This case-control study, conducted in a California county that had a local incident of water contamination in 1981, investigated the relation between a mother's reported consumption of tap water during pregnancy and congenital cardiac anomalies in their offspring born during 1981-1983. Data were obtained from telephone interviews with 145 mothers of children born with a severe cardiac anomaly and 176 mothers of children born without such an anomaly. A positive association between a mother's consumption of home tap water during the first trimester of pregnancy and cardiac anomalies in her infant was unrelated to the incident of water contamination, the mother's race, or her educational level. A negative relation was found between a mother's use of bottled water and cardiac anomalies among the infants. These findings corresponded primarily to births in 1981. These data could not fully distinguish between a potential causal agent in the water and differential reporting of exposure by study subjects.

Shaw, G.M.; Swan, S.H.; Harris, J.A.; Malcoe, L.H. (California Birth Defects Monitoring Program, Emeryville (USA))

1990-05-01

335

A potential enstrophy and energy conserving scheme for the shallow water equations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To improve the simulation of nonlinear aspects of the flow over steep topography, a potential enstrophy and energy conserving scheme for the shallow water equations is derived. It is pointed out that a family of schemes can conserve total energy for general flow and potential enstrophy for flow with no mass flux divergence. The newly derived scheme is a unique member of this family, that conserves both potential enstrophy and energy for general flow. Comparison by means of numerical experiment with a scheme that conserves (potential) enstrophy for purely horizontal nondivergent flow demonstrated the considerable superiority of the newly derived potential enstrophy and energy conserving scheme, not only in suppressing a spurious energy cascade but also in determining the overall flow regime. The potential enstrophy and energy conserving scheme for a spherical grid is also presented.

Arakawa, A.; Lamb, V. R.

1981-01-01

336

Potential and use of renewable energy sources in Croatia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current share of renewable energy sources in electricity production in Croatia is very high, around 50%. Nevertheless it is expected that the share of renewables will have to rise and efficient strategies must be examined and adopted. The Croatian government has recognised the important role renewable energy sources could play in Croatian energy and electricity supply. The most important

Maja Boži?evi? Vrhov?ak; Željko Tomši?; Nenad Debrecin

2006-01-01

337

Current situation, trends and potential of renewable energy in Flanders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current European Union (EU) energy policy seeks to reach a balance between sustainable development, competitiveness and secure supply. In this sense, the EU energy policy sets the target of a 13% share of renewable energy sources (RESs) for Belgium. Several instruments have been implemented to reach this target. The objective of this study is analyzing those instruments and its

A. Tolón-Becerra; X. B. Lastra-Bravo; T. Steenberghen; B. Debecker

2011-01-01

338

Estimation of CO2 Mitigation Potential through Renewable Energy Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy is vital input for economy and social development in every society. Presently, the global primary energy demands are met largely from oil, natural gas, coal, nuclear and hydroelectric energy among which coal is dominant thermal power stations add to environmental degradation problems through gaseous emissions, particulate matter, fly ash, bottom ash, which are very harmful to human life. The

Mohibullah; Imdadullah; I. Ashraf

2006-01-01

339

Wind energy potential mapping in Karnataka, India, using GIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing negative effects of fossil fuel combustion on the environment in addition to limited stock have forced many countries to explore and change to environmentally friendly alternatives that are renewable to sustain the increasing energy demand. Changing to renewable sources and implementation of effective conservation measures would ensure sustainability. Currently, wind energy is one of the fastest developing renewable energy

T. V. Ramachandra; B. V. Shruthi

2005-01-01

340

Energy requirements and CO2 mitigation potential of PV systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we investigate the energy requirements of PV modules and systems and calculate the Energy Pay-Back Time for two major PV applications. Based on a review of past energy analysis studies we explain the main sources of differences and establish a \\

E. A. Alsema

1998-01-01

341

Solar energy potential atlas for planning energy system off-grid electrification in the Republic of Djibouti  

E-print Network

1 Solar energy potential atlas for planning energy system off-grid electrification in the Republic solar resource can therefore be an interesting mean to produce energy where it is consumed. The aimWh/m². Furthermore, the solar radiation reaching Djibouti corresponded to 20 000 times the total yearly energy

Boyer, Edmond

342

Energy-dependent optical model potentials for ? and deuteron with 12C  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy-dependent phenomenological optical model potentials based on a single-folding model approach for the ?-12C and deuteron-12C systems were obtained for incident energies between 10 and 100 MeV/nucleon. The Lane-consistent Bruyères Jeukenne-Lejeune-Mahaux model nucleon-nucleus potentials were used in these calculations. With only three free parameters, these potentials account satisfactorily for both angular distributions of elastic scattering cross sections and total reaction cross sections of both projectile-target systems within the energy range studied. Comparisons were made between the present potentials and other systematic phenomenological potentials.

Pang, D. Y.; Ye, Y. L.; Xu, F. R.

2012-09-01

343

Potential of energy farming in the southeastern California desert  

SciTech Connect

The California Energy Commission is currently analyzing the use of energy farms to provide future sources of energy for California. Energy farms can be defined as growing plants and converting them to various forms of energy. The use of marginal desert lands in southeastern California for the siting of energy farms using acacia, Eucalyptus, euphorbia, quayule, jojoba, mesquite, or tamarisk is considered. Two hypothetical scenarios using either rainfall, or rainfall and groundwater as water sources were described to determine the maximum amount of energy produced from estimated amounts of suitable land in this area. Considering both scenarios, the maximum range of energy produced is .03 to 0.4 Quads. It is recommended that (1) genetic research be continued to increase biomass yields of these and other candidate plants grown in the desert; and (2) small test plots be established at varying desert locations to collect yield growth, and survival data. Once this information is known, the identification of the best plant(s) to use for energy farming in the California desert area will be known, as well as the cost and quantity of energy produced.

Lew, V.

1980-04-01

344

Global energy scenarios and the potential role of fusion energy in the 21st century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global energy usage is increasing at about 2% p.a. The expansion is related to population growth and to demand for economic growth and higher standards of living, despite some economies in energy use per unit GNP. A severalfold increase in global electricity demand by the middle of the 21st century seems inevitable, with the largest increment from large-population developing countries such as China and India. Currently, most electricity is provided by carbon-based fossil fuels, by hydroelectricity and by nuclear fission. Fusion, with its potential to provide electricity from large central power stations could help meet a significant part of this expanding demand. It will have to be broadly competitive with established generating methods. Current advances in fusion research indicate good prospects for technical demonstration of fusion electricity generation. Research and development of materials for fusion energy is needed now not only for demonstration plant, but also to enhance the estimates of the competitivity of fusion and to maximise its economic and environmental potential.

Pease, R. S.

1992-09-01

345

Stress tensors from trace anomalies in conformal field theories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using trace anomalies, we determine the vacuum stress tensors of arbitrary even-dimensional conformal field theories in Weyl flat backgrounds. We demonstrate a simple relation between the Casimir energy on R×Sd-1 and the type A anomaly coefficient. This relation generalizes earlier results in two and four dimensions. These field-theory results for the Casimir energy are shown to be consistent with holographic predictions in two, four, and six dimensions.

Herzog, Christopher P.; Huang, Kuo-Wei

2013-04-01

346

Physicochemical isotope anomalies  

SciTech Connect

Isotopic composition of refractory elements can be modified, by physical processes such as distillation and sputtering, in unexpected patterns. Distillation enriches the heavy isotopes in the residue and the light isotopes in the vapor. However, current models appear to be inadequate to describe the detailed mass dependence, in particular for large fractionations. Coarse- and fine-grained inclusions from the Allende meteorite exhibit correlated isotope effects in Mg both as mass-dependent fractionation and residual anomalies. This isotope pattern can be duplicated by high temperature distillation in the laboratory. A ubiquitous property of meteoritic inclusions for Mg as well as for most of the other elements, where measurements exist, is mass-dependent fractionation. In contrast, terrestrial materials such as microtektites, tektite buttons as well as lunar orange and green glass spheres have normal Mg isotopic composition. A subset of interplanetary dust particles labelled as chondritic aggregates exhibit excesses in {sup 26}Mg and deuterium anomalies. Sputtering is expected to be a dominant mechanism in the destruction of grains within interstellar dust clouds. An active proto-sun as well as the present solar-wind and solar-flare flux are of sufficient intensity to sputter significant amounts of material. Laboratory experiments in Mg show widespread isotope effects including residual {sup 26}Mg excesses and mass dependent fractionation. It is possible that the {sup 26}Mg excesses in interplanetary dust is related to sputtering by energetic solar-wind particles. The implication if the laboratory distillation and sputtering effects are discussed and contrasted with the anomalies in meteoritic inclusions the other extraterrestrial materials the authors have access to.

Esat, T.M. (Australian National Univ., Canberra)

1988-06-01

347

Z2 anomaly and boundaries of topological insulators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the edge and surface theories of topological insulators from the perspective of anomalies and identify a Z2 anomaly associated with charge conservation. The anomaly is manifested through a two-point correlation function involving creation and annihilation operators on two decoupled boundaries. Although charge conservation on each boundary requires this quantity to vanish, we find that it diverges. A corollary result is that under an insertion of a flux quantum, the ground state evolves to an exactly orthogonal state independent of the rate at which the flux is inserted. The anomaly persists in the presence of disorder and imposes sharp restrictions on possible low-energy theories. Being formulated in a many-body, field-theoretical language, the anomaly allows one to test the robustness of topological insulators to interactions in a concise way.

Ringel, Zohar; Stern, Ady

2013-09-01

348

Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (Energy-SMARRT): Surface/Near Surface Indication - Characterization of Surface Anomalies from Magnetic Particle and Liquid Penetrant Indications  

SciTech Connect

The systematic study and characterization of surface indications has never been conducted. Producers and users of castings do not have any data on which they can reliably communicate the nature of these indications or their effect on the performance of parts. Clearly, the ultimate intent of any work in this area is to eliminate indications that do in fact degrade properties. However, it may be impractical physically and/or financially to eliminate all surface imperfections. This project focused on the ones that actually degrade properties. The initial work was to identify those that degrade properties. Accurate numerical simulations of casting service performance allow designers to use the geometric flexibility of castings and the superior properties of steel to produce lighter weight and more energy efficient components for transportation systems (cars and trucks), construction, and mining. Accurate simulations increase the net melting energy efficiency by improving casting yield and reducing rework and scrap. Conservatively assuming a 10% improvement in yield, approximately 1.33 x 1012 BTU/year can be saved with this technology. In addition, CO2 emissions will be reduced by approximately 117,050 tons per year.

Griffin, John [university of Alabama - Birmingham] [university of Alabama - Birmingham

2014-02-20

349

Computed Potential Energy Surfaces and Minimum Energy Pathway for Chemical Reactions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computed potential energy surfaces are often required for computation of such observables as rate constants as a function of temperature, product branching ratios, and other detailed properties. We have found that computation of the stationary points/reaction pathways using CASSCF/derivative methods, followed by use of the internally contracted CI method with the Dunning correlation consistent basis sets to obtain accurate energetics, gives useful results for a number of chemically important systems. Applications to complex reactions leading to NO and soot formation in hydrocarbon combustion are discussed.

Walch, Stephen P.; Langhoff, S. R. (Technical Monitor)

1994-01-01

350

Cosmology with dark energy decaying through its chemical-potential contribution  

E-print Network

The consideration of dark energy's quanta, required also by thermodynamics, introduces its chemical potential into the cosmological equations. Isolating its main contribution, we obtain solutions with dark energy decaying to matter or radiation. When dominant, their energy densities tend asymptotically to a constant ratio, explaining today's dark energy-dark matter coincidence, and in agreement with supernova redshift data.

J. Besprosvany

2007-12-29

351

Texas State Building Energy Code: Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Commercial Lighting Requirements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The State Energy Conservation Office of Texas has asked the U.S. Department of Energy to analyze the potential energy effect and cost-effectiveness of the lighting requirements in the 2003 IECC as they consider adoption of this energy code. The new provisions of interest in the lighting section of IECC 2003 include new lighting power densities (LPD) and requirements for automatic

Eric E. Richman; David B. Belzer; David W. Winiarski

2005-01-01

352

Renewable Energy in India: Status and future Potential  

E-print Network

Side Management (Solar Water Heater, Passive Solar) #12;Renewables in Power Power generation 6500 PJ Thermal Solar Photovoltaic Tidal Wave Ocean Thermal #12;Power Generation Options Power Generation Heating #12;Renewable Energy Options Renewable Energy Solar Wind Biomass GeothermalSmall Hydro Solar

Banerjee, Rangan

353

The XXXXY Chromosome Anomaly  

PubMed Central

The majority of abnormal sex chromosome complexes in the male have been considered to be variants of Klinefelter's syndrome but an exception should probably be made in the case of the XXXXY individual who has distinctive phenotypic features. Clinical, radiological and cytological data on three new cases of XXXXY syndrome are presented and 30 cases from the literature are reviewed. In many cases the published clinical and radiological data were supplemented and re-evaluated. Mental retardation, usually severe, was present in all cases. Typical facies was observed in many; clinodactyly of the fifth finger was seen in nearly all. Radiological examination revealed abnormalities in the elbows and wrists in all the 19 personally evaluated cases, and other skeletal anomalies were very frequent. Cryptorchism is very common and absence of Leydig's cells may differentiate the XXXXY chromosome anomaly from polysomic variants of Klinefelter's syndrome. The relationship of this syndrome to Klinefelter's syndrome and to Down's syndrome is discussed. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15 PMID:4222822

Zaleski, Witold A.; Houston, C. Stuart; Pozsonyi, J.; Ying, K. L.

1966-01-01

354

Automated anomaly detection processor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Robust exploitation of tracking and surveillance data will provide an early warning and cueing capability for military and civilian Law Enforcement Agency operations. This will improve dynamic tasking of limited resources and hence operational efficiency. The challenge is to rapidly identify threat activity within a huge background of noncombatant traffic. We discuss development of an Automated Anomaly Detection Processor (AADP) that exploits multi-INT, multi-sensor tracking and surveillance data to rapidly identify and characterize events and/or objects of military interest, without requiring operators to specify threat behaviors or templates. The AADP has successfully detected an anomaly in traffic patterns in Los Angeles, analyzed ship track data collected during a Fleet Battle Experiment to detect simulated mine laying behavior amongst maritime noncombatants, and is currently under development for surface vessel tracking within the Coast Guard's Vessel Traffic Service to support port security, ship inspection, and harbor traffic control missions, and to monitor medical surveillance databases for early alert of a bioterrorist attack. The AADP can also be integrated into combat simulations to enhance model fidelity of multi-sensor fusion effects in military operations.

Kraiman, James B.; Arouh, Scott L.; Webb, Michael L.

2002-07-01

355

Einstein, Entropy and Anomalies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper strengthens and defends the pluralistic implications of Einstein's successful, quantitative predictions of Brownian motion for a philosophical dispute about the nature of scientific advance that began between two prominent philosophers of science in the second half of the twentieth century (Thomas Kuhn and Paul Feyerabend). Kuhn promoted a monistic phase-model of scientific advance, according to which a paradigm driven `normal science' gives rise to its own anomalies, which then lead to a crisis and eventually a scientific revolution. Feyerabend stressed the importance of pluralism for scientific progress. He rejected Kuhn's model arguing that it fails to recognize the role that alternative theories can play in identifying exactly which phenomena are anomalous in the first place. On Feyerabend's account, Einstein's predictions allow for a crucial experiment between two incommensurable theories, and are an example of an anomaly that could refute the reigning paradigm only after the development of a competitor. Using Kuhn's specification of a disciplinary matrix to illustrate the incommensurability between the two paradigms, we examine the different research strategies available in this peculiar case. On the basis of our reconstruction, we conclude by rebutting some critics of Feyerabend's argument.

Sirtes, Daniel; Oberheim, Eric

2006-11-01

356

Consequences of Converting Graded to Action Potentials upon Neural Information Coding and Energy Efficiency  

PubMed Central

Information is encoded in neural circuits using both graded and action potentials, converting between them within single neurons and successive processing layers. This conversion is accompanied by information loss and a drop in energy efficiency. We investigate the biophysical causes of this loss of information and efficiency by comparing spiking neuron models, containing stochastic voltage-gated Na+ and K+ channels, with generator potential and graded potential models lacking voltage-gated Na+ channels. We identify three causes of information loss in the generator potential that are the by-product of action potential generation: (1) the voltage-gated Na+ channels necessary for action potential generation increase intrinsic noise and (2) introduce non-linearities, and (3) the finite duration of the action potential creates a ‘footprint’ in the generator potential that obscures incoming signals. These three processes reduce information rates by ?50% in generator potentials, to ?3 times that of spike trains. Both generator potentials and graded potentials consume almost an order of magnitude less energy per second than spike trains. Because of the lower information rates of generator potentials they are substantially less energy efficient than graded potentials. However, both are an order of magnitude more efficient than spike trains due to the higher energy costs and low information content of spikes, emphasizing that there is a two-fold cost of converting analogue to digital; information loss and cost inflation. PMID:24465197

Sengupta, Biswa; Laughlin, Simon Barry; Niven, Jeremy Edward

2014-01-01

357

Airports Offer Unrealized Potential for Alternative Energy Production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scaling up for alternative energy such as solar, wind, and biofuel raises a number of environmental issues, notably changes in land use and adverse effects on wildlife. Airports offer one of the few land uses where reductions in wildlife abundance and habitat quality are necessary and socially acceptable, due to risk of wildlife collisions with aircraft. There are several uncertainties and limitations to establishing alternative energy production at airports, such as ensuring these facilities do not create wildlife attractants or other hazards. However, with careful planning, locating alternative energy projects at airports could help mitigate many of the challenges currently facing policy makers, developers, and conservationists.

Devault, Travis L.; Belant, Jerrold L.; Blackwell, Bradley F.; Martin, James A.; Schmidt, Jason A.; Wes Burger, L.; Patterson, James W.

2012-03-01

358

The economic potential of producing energy from agricultural biomass  

E-print Network

Agricultural biomass is a substitute for fossil fuels, which could provide a sustained energy feedstock and possibly reduce further accumulations of greenhouse gases. However, these feedstocks currently face a market dominated by low cost fossil...

Jerko, Christine

1996-01-01

359

An Integrated Assessment of China’s Wind Energy Potential  

E-print Network

Computable general equilibrium (CGE) models seeking to evaluate the impacts of electricity policy face difficulties incorporating detail on the variable nature of renewable energy resources. To improve the accuracy of ...

Zhang, D.

360

Assessing the potential of renewable energy sources in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

To meet Turkey’s growing energy demand, the installed electric power capacity of 27.8 GW in 2001 has to be doubled by 2010 and increased fourfold by 2020. The difference between Turkey’s total primary energy supply (TPES) of from its own sources and total final consumption (TFC) is projected grow from 1 quad (1.06–2.06) in 1999 to 5.71 quads (2.79–8.5) in

F Evrendilek; C Ertekin

2003-01-01

361

An assessement of global energy resource economic potentials  

E-print Network

materials with specific calorific contents; renewable f lows, where energy may be extracted from continuously producing onshore or offshore surface areas with wind, so- lar irradiation, plant growth, river flows, waves, tides or various forms of heat... variable, however, stems from varying levels of technical difficulty for extracting resources, or alternatively, the productivity of energy producing resources such as plots of land, mines, oil wells, rivers, etc. There- fore, continuous distribution...

Mercure, Jean-Francois; Salas, Pablo

2012-03-20

362

Atomic oxygen in crystalline Kr and Xe. II. Adiabatic potential energy surfaces  

E-print Network

Atomic oxygen in crystalline Kr and Xe. II. Adiabatic potential energy surfaces A. V. Danilychev 8 October 1993; accepted 4 January 1994) The potential energy surfaces of atomic oxygen, O(3P, `D reported long-range mobility of 0 atoms in these solids [A. V Danilychev and V A. Apkarian, J. Chem. Phys

Apkarian, V. Ara

363

Lighting energy savings potential of split-pane electrochromic windows controlled for  

E-print Network

LBNL-6152E Lighting energy savings potential of split- pane electrochromic windows controlled potential of split-pane electrochromic windows controlled for daylighting with visual comfort L was conducted to evaluate lighting energy savings of split-pane electrochromic (EC) windows controlled

364

Interpreting the temperature of water at cold springs and the importance of gravitational potential energy  

E-print Network

the temperature of water at cold springs and the importance of gravitational potential energy, Water Resour. ResInterpreting the temperature of water at cold springs and the importance of gravitational potential energy Michael Manga and James W. Kirchner Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University

Kirchner, James W.

365

A potential energy surface for the ground state of formaldehyde, H2CO(A1)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model potential energy function for the ground state of H2CO has been derived which covers the whole space of the six internal coordinates. This potential reproduces the experimental energy, geometry and quadratic force field of formaldehyde, and dissociates correctly to all possible atom, diatom and triatom fragments. Thus there are good reasons for believing it to be close to

S. Carter; I. M. Mills; J. N. Murrell

1980-01-01

366

van der Waals potentials and crystal energies of ionic compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modification of Mayer's calculation of the constants of the van der Waals potential in ionic compounds is presented. Its applicability is demonstrated with respect to the energetically well defined alkali-metal halides, and an extension to compounds of the rutile structure is discussed.

M. F. C. Ladd

1974-01-01

367

Current Status and Future Potential of Energy Derived from Chinese Agricultural Land: A Review  

PubMed Central

Energy crisis is receiving attention with regard to the global economy and environmental sustainable development. Developing new energy resources to optimize the energy supply structure has become an important measure to prevent energy shortage as well as achieving energy conservation and emission reduction in China. This study proposed the concept of energy agriculture and constructed an energy agricultural technical support system based on the analysis of energy supply and demand and China's foreign dependence on energy resources, combined with the function of agriculture in the energy field. Manufacturing technology equipment and agricultural and forestry energy, including crop or forestry plants and animal feces, were used in the system. The current status and future potential of China's marginal land resources, energy crop germplasm resources, and agricultural and forestry waste energy-oriented resources were analyzed. Developing the function of traditional agriculture in food production may promote China's social, economic, and environmental sustainable development and achieve energy saving and emission reduction.

Mao, Chunlan; Feng, Yongzhong; Zhang, Tong; Xing, Zhenjie; Wang, Yanhong; Zou, Shuzhen; Yin, Dongxue; Han, Xinhui; Ren, Guangxin; Yang, Gaihe

2015-01-01

368

High-energy behavior of the nuclear symmetry potential in asymmetric nuclear matter  

E-print Network

Using the relativistic impulse approximation with empirical NN scattering amplitude and the nuclear scalar and vector densities from the relativistic mean-field theory, we evaluate the Dirac optical potential for neutrons and protons in asymmetric nuclear matter. From the resulting Schr\\"{o}% dinger-equivalent potential, the high energy behavior of the nuclear symmetry potential is studied. We find that the symmetry potential at fixed baryon density is essentially constant once the nucleon kinetic energy is greater than about 500 MeV. Moreover, for such high energy nucleon, the symmetry potential is slightly negative below a baryon density of about $% \\rho =0.22$ fm$^{-3}$ and then increases almost linearly to positive values at high densities. Our results thus provide an important constraint on the energy and density dependence of nuclear symmetry potential in asymmetric nuclear matter.

Lie-Wen Chen; Che Ming Ko; Bao-An Li

2005-12-07

369

A Hierarchical Framework for Classifying and Assessing Internet Traffic Anomalies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present ALARM (HierarchicAL AppRoach for AnoMaly Detection), a hierarchical approach for correlation and prioriti- zation of alerts in distributed networks. The goal is to monitor, classify, correlate and assess a large number of alerts generated at spatially distributed sites on the Internet. The alerts correspond to anomalies and hence potential unknown threats. To facilitate our analysis, we hierarchically decompose

Olivier Contant; Patrick Macnamara; Stephane Lafortune; Demosthenis Teneketzis

370

WKB corrections to the energy splitting in double-well potentials  

E-print Network

By using the WKB quantization we deduce an analytical formula for the energy splitting in a double-well potential which is the usual Landau formula with additional quantum corrections. Then we analyze the accuracy of our formula for the double square well potential and the parabolic double-well potential.

Marko Robnik; Luca Salasnich

1997-10-03

371

System for closure of a physical anomaly  

DOEpatents

Systems for closure of a physical anomaly. Closure is accomplished by a closure body with an exterior surface. The exterior surface contacts the opening of the anomaly and closes the anomaly. The closure body has a primary shape for closing the anomaly and a secondary shape for being positioned in the physical anomaly. The closure body preferably comprises a shape memory polymer.

Bearinger, Jane P; Maitland, Duncan J; Schumann, Daniel L; Wilson, Thomas S

2014-11-11

372

The vibrational energies of ozone up to the dissociation threshold: Dynamics calculations on an accurate potential energy surface  

E-print Network

The vibrational energies of ozone up to the dissociation threshold: Dynamics calculations present an ab initio potential energy surface for the ground electronic state of ozone. It is global, i. All bound states of nonrotating ozone up to more than 99% of the dissociation energy are calculated

Farantos, Stavros C.

373

Energy-efficiency standards for homes have the potential to reduce energy consumption and peak electrical demand.  

E-print Network

The Issue Energy-efficiency standards for homes have the potential to reduce energy consumption of the Energy Efficiency Standards for Residential and Nonresidential Buildings, Title 24. Features and Benefits adverse health effects are not likely to occur. Chronic reference exposure levels are set

374

The Potential for Harvesting Energy from the Movement of Trees  

PubMed Central

Over the last decade, wireless devices have decreased in size and power requirements. These devices generally use batteries as a power source but can employ additional means of power, such as solar, thermal or wind energy. However, sensor networks are often deployed in conditions of minimal lighting and thermal gradient such as densely wooded environments, where even normal wind energy harvesting is limited. In these cases a possible source of energy is from the motion of the trees themselves. We investigated the amount of energy and power available from the motion of a tree in a sheltered position, during Beaufort 4 winds. We measured the work performed by the tree to lift a mass, we measured horizontal acceleration of free movement, and we determined the angular deflection of the movement of the tree trunk, to determine the energy and power available to various types of harvesting devices. We found that the amount of power available from the tree, as demonstrated by lifting a mass, compares favourably with the power required to run a wireless sensor node. PMID:22163695

McGarry, Scott; Knight, Chris

2011-01-01

375

Erosive potential of energy drinks on the dentine surface  

PubMed Central

Background Considering the current high consumption of energy drinks, the aim of the present study is to evaluate the influence of energy drinks in removing the smear layer and exposing dentinal tubules on root surface. Methods Dentine root surfaces were exposed using a diamond bur. Forty movements of scaling were performed in the area prepared in order to create a smear layer. One hundred and thirty specimens were obtained from 35 teeth. Specimens were randomly distributed into 12 groups (n?=?10) and divided into subgroups according to the application: topical (n?=?5) and friction (n?=?5). Twelve energy drinks were evaluated: RedBull™, Burn™, TNT™, Flash Power™, Flying Horse™, Sports Drink™, Ionic™, Hot Power™, Army Power™, Gladiator™ and Bug™. Distilled water was used as a control group. The specimens were analysed by scanning electron microscopy. Results Topical application: a significant influence of energy drinks on smear layer removal was found for FlyingHorse™ and Bug™ when compared with the control group. Friction application: significant smear layer removal was found for Burn™, FlyingHorse™, Gladiator™, SportsDrinks™, when compared with the control group. Comparing the different application forms, a statistically significant difference was found for Army Power™. Conclusion Considering the significant smear layer removal, energy drinks can be an important etiological factor for cervical dentine hypersensitivity. PMID:23422044

2013-01-01

376

Potential impact of contrails on solar energy gain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the effect of contrails on global shortwave radiation and on solar energy gain. The study was done for days with a high contrail persistence and looking at situations where the contrails were obstructing the sun. Measurements of cloudiness using a fish eye camera, diffuse and direct shortwave measurements and measurements of the short circuit current of three different types of photovoltaic (PV) modules were performed at the solar observatory Kanzelhöhe (1540 m a.s.l.) during a period of one year with a time resolution of one minute. Our results show that contrails moving between sun and observer/sensor may reduce the global radiation by up to 72%. A statistic of contrail persistence and influence of contrails on global irradiance and solar energy gain is presented. The losses in solar energy gain that were recorded may even be critical under some circumstances for PV system performance.

Weihs, P.; Rennhofer, M.; Baumgartner, D.; Gadermaier, J.; Wagner, J.; Laube, W.

2014-08-01

377

Potential impact of contrails on solar energy gain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of contrails on global short-wave radiation (sum of direct and downward diffuse solar radiation) and on solar energy gain was investigated. The study was performed during days with high contrail persistence and focused on situations where the contrails were obstructing the sun. Measurements of cloudiness using a fish-eye camera, diffuse and direct short-wave measurements and measurements of the short circuit current of three different types of photovoltaic (PV) modules were performed at the Kanzelhöhe Observatory (1540 m a.s.l.) with a time resolution of 1 min over a period of 1 year. The results show that contrails moving between sun and observer/sensor may reduce the global radiation by up to 72%. An analysis of contrail persistence and the influence of contrails on global irradiance and solar energy gain is presented. The losses in solar energy gain that were recorded may be critical under specific circumstances.

Weihs, P.; Rennhofer, M.; Baumgartner, D. J.; Gadermaier, J.; Wagner, J. E.; Gehring, J. E.; Laube, W.

2015-03-01

378

New potential high energy density compounds: Oxadiaziridine derivatives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The -CN, -N3, -NF2, -NH2, -NHNO2, -NO2, and -ONO2 derivatives of oxadiaziridine were studied using B3LYP/6-311G** level of density functional theory. The gas phase heats of formation of oxadiaziridine derivatives were calculated by isodesmic reaction. All these compounds have high and positive heats of formation due to strain energies of small ring. Detonation properties were calculated via Kamlet-Jacobes equations and specific impulse. The effects of substituent groups on detonation performance were discussed. The impact sensitivity was estimated according to the "available free space per molecule in unit cell" and "energy gaps" methods. The similar conclusions were given by two different methods. The effects of substituents on impact sensitivity were discussed. According to the given estimations of detonation performance and sensitivity, some oxadiaziridine derivatives may be considered promising high energies materials.

Yang, Jing; Chi, Wei-Jie

2014-10-01

379

Generation of available potential energy and the energy cycle during the global weather experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two major themes were pursued during this research period. The first of these involved examining the impacts of satellite-based data and the forecast model used by the Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheres (GLA) on general circulation statistics. For the other major topic, the diabatic heating fields produced by GLA were examined for one month during the FGGE First Special Observing Period. As part of that effort, the three-dimensional distribution of the four component heating fields were studied, namely those due to shortwave radiation, Q sub SW, longwave radiation, Q sub LW, sensible heating, Q sub S, and latent heating, Q sub L. These components were calculated as part of the GLA analysis/forecast system and archived every quarter day; from these archives cross products with temperature were computed to enable the direct calculation of certain terms of the large-scale atmospheric energy cycle, namely those involving the generation of available potential energy (APE). The decision to archive the diabatic heating components separately has enabled researchers to study the role of the various processes that drive the energy cycle of the atmosphere.

Salstein, D. A.; Rosen, R. D.

1986-01-01

380

Development of novel oil washing process using bubble potential energy.  

PubMed

Oil contaminants attached to soils were separated using the bubble energies from the bursting and coalescence. The separation efficiency increased when the rotary kilns were combined. Wastewater containing separated oil contaminants was treated with the buoyant energy of bubbles and with positively charged bubbles. The water quality of the treated wastewater was good enough for the latter to be used as recycled water for bubble generation. The separation and treatment efficiencies of the novel oil washing process developed in this study was found to be similar to that of the existing oil washing process operated under high-temperature and high-pressure conditions and with dosage of chemicals. PMID:23021936

Kim, Tschung-il; Kim, Yong-ha; Han, Mooyoung

2012-11-01

381

Calibrated energy simulations of potential energy savings in actual retail buildings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Retail stores are commercial buildings with high energy consumption due to their typically large volumes and long hours of operation. This dissertation assesses heating, ventilating and air conditioning saving strategies based on energy simulations with input parameters from actual retail buildings. The dissertation hypothesis is that "Retail store buildings will save a significant amount of energy by (1) modifying ventilation rates, and/or (2) resetting set point temperatures. These strategies have shown to be beneficial in previous studies. As presented in the literature review, potential energy savings ranged from 0.5% to 30% without compromising indoor thermal comfort and indoor air quality. The retail store buildings can be ventilated at rates significantly lower than rates called for in the ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2010 while maintaining acceptable indoor air quality. Therefore, two dissertation objectives are addressed: (1) Investigate opportunities to reduce ventilation rates that do not compromise indoor air quality in retail stores located in Central Pennsylvania, (2) Investigate opportunities to increase (in summer) and decrease (in winter) set point temperatures that do not compromise thermal comfort. This study conducted experimental measurements of ventilation rates required to maintain acceptable air quality and indoor environmental conditions requirements for two retail stores using ASHRAE Standard 62.1_2012. More specifically, among other parameters, occupancy density, indoor and outdoor pollutant concentrations, and indoor temperatures were measured continuously for one week interval. One of these retail stores were tested four times for a yearlong time period. Pollutants monitored were formaldehyde, carbon dioxide, particle size distributions and concentrations, as well as total volatile organic compounds. As a part of the base protocol, the number of occupants in each store was hourly counted during the test, and the results reveal that the occupant densities were approximately 20% to 30% of that called by ASHRAE 62.1. Formaldehyde was the most important contaminant of concern in retail stores investigated. Both stores exceeded the most conservative health guideline for formaldehyde (OEHHA TWA REL = 7.3 ppb). This study found that source removal and reducing the emission rate, as demonstrated in retail stores sampled in this study, is a viable strategy to meet the health guideline. Total volatile compound were present in retail stores at low concentrations well below health guidelines suggested by Molhave (1700microg /m 2) and Bridges (1000 microg /m2). Based on these results and through mass--balance modeling, different ventilation rate reduction scenarios were proposed, and for these scenarios the differences in energy consumption were estimated. Findings of all phases of this desertion have contributed to understanding (a) the trade-off between energy savings and ventilation rates that do not compromise indoor air quality, and (b) the trade-off between energy savings and resets of indoor air temperature that do not compromise thermal comfort. Two models for retail stores were built and calibrated and validated against actual utility bills. Energy simulation results indicated that by lowering the ventilation rates from measured and minimum references would reduce natural gas energy use by estimated values of 6% to 19%. Also, this study found that the electrical cooling energy consumption was not significantly sensitive to different ventilation rates. However, increasing indoor air temperature by 3°C in summer had a significant effect on the energy savings. In winter, both energy savings strategies, ventilation reduction and decrease in set points, had a significant effect on natural gas consumption. Specially, when the indoor air temperature 21°C was decreased to 19.4°C with the same amount of ventilation rate of Molhaves guideline for both cases. Interestingly, the temperature of 23.8°C (75°F), which is the lowest value of ASHRAE 55 thermal comfort for sedentary people (cashiers) and the high

Alhafi, Zuhaira

382

Energy Potential of Biomass from Conservation Grasslands in Minnesota, USA  

PubMed Central

Perennial biomass from grasslands managed for conservation of soil and biodiversity can be harvested for bioenergy. Until now, the quantity and quality of harvestable biomass from conservation grasslands in Minnesota, USA, was not known, and the factors that affect bioenergy potential from these systems have not been identified. We measured biomass yield, theoretical ethanol conversion efficiency, and plant tissue nitrogen (N) as metrics of bioenergy potential from mixed-species conservation grasslands harvested with commercial-scale equipment. With three years of data, we used mixed-effects models to determine factors that influence bioenergy potential. Sixty conservation grassland plots, each about 8 ha in size, were distributed among three locations in Minnesota. Harvest treatments were applied annually in autumn as a completely randomized block design. Biomass yield ranged from 0.5 to 5.7 Mg ha?1. May precipitation increased biomass yield while precipitation in all other growing season months showed no affect. Averaged across all locations and years, theoretical ethanol conversion efficiency was 450 l Mg?1 and the concentration of plant N was 7.1 g kg?1, both similar to dedicated herbaceous bioenergy crops such as switchgrass. Biomass yield did not decline in the second or third year of harvest. Across years, biomass yields fluctuated 23% around the average. Surprisingly, forb cover was a better predictor of biomass yield than warm-season grass with a positive correlation with biomass yield in the south and a negative correlation at other locations. Variation in land ethanol yield was almost exclusively due to variation in biomass yield rather than biomass quality; therefore, efforts to increase biomass yield might be more economical than altering biomass composition when managing conservation grasslands for ethanol production. Our measurements of bioenergy potential, and the factors that control it, can serve as parameters for assessing the economic viability of harvesting conservation grasslands for bioenergy. PMID:23577208

Jungers, Jacob M.; Fargione, Joseph E.; Sheaffer, Craig C.; Wyse, Donald L.; Lehman, Clarence

2013-01-01

383

Genetics of lymphatic anomalies  

PubMed Central

Lymphatic anomalies include a variety of developmental and/or functional defects affecting the lymphatic vessels: sporadic and familial forms of primary lymphedema, secondary lymphedema, chylothorax and chylous ascites, lymphatic malformations, and overgrowth syndromes with a lymphatic component. Germline mutations have been identified in at least 20 genes that encode proteins acting around VEGFR-3 signaling but also downstream of other tyrosine kinase receptors. These mutations exert their effects via the RAS/MAPK and the PI3K/AKT pathways and explain more than a quarter of the incidence of primary lymphedema, mostly of inherited forms. More common forms may also result from multigenic effects or post-zygotic mutations. Most of the corresponding murine knockouts are homozygous lethal, while heterozygotes are healthy, which suggests differences in human and murine physiology and the influence of other factors. PMID:24590274

Brouillard, Pascal; Boon, Laurence; Vikkula, Miikka

2014-01-01

384

Modern test of chiral anomalies  

SciTech Connect

Chiral anomalies are calculated using an effective Lagrangian technique introduced for anomalies by Wess and Zumino and recently reformulated by Witten. Anomalous amplitudes for vector currents decaying into three pseudoscalars are tested by comparison with K/sub l4/ decay and eta ..-->.. ..pi../sup +/..pi../sup -/..gamma... 12 references.

Kramer, G.; Palmer, W.F.; Pinsky, S.S.

1984-01-01

385

Graph anomalies in cyber communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enterprises monitor cyber traffic for viruses, intruders and stolen information. Detection methods look for known signatures of malicious traffic or search for anomalies with respect to a nominal reference model. Traditional anomaly detection focuses on aggregate traffic at central nodes or on user-level monitoring. More recently, however, traffic is being viewed more holistically as a dynamic communication graph. Attention to

Scott A Vander Wiel; Curtis B Storlie; Gary Sandine; Aric A Hagberg; Michael Fisk

2011-01-01

386

Magnetic Anomalies from Satellite Magnetometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proton magnetometer measurements were made from the USSR satellite Cosmos 49 during the period October 24 to November 3, 1964. A selected number of the 18,000 observations were fitted to a special field model; residual anomalies were less than 100 gammas and appear to be consistent with belts of broad anomalies that are known from surface and nearsurface magnetic measurements.

Isidore Zietz; Gordon E. Andreasen; Joseph C. Cain

1970-01-01

387

Explicit energy expansion for general odd degree polynomial potentials  

E-print Network

In this paper we derive an almost explicit analytic formula for asymptotic eigenenergy expansion of arbitrary odd degree polynomial potentials of the form $V(x)=(ix)^{2N+1}+\\beta _{1}x^{2N}+\\beta _{2}x^{2N-1}+\\cdot \\cdot \\cdot \\cdot \\cdot +\\beta _{2N}x$ where $\\beta _{k}^{\\prime }$s are real or complex for $1\\leq k\\leq 2N$. The formula can be used to find semiclassical analytic expressions for eigenenergies up to any order very efficiently. Each term of the expansion is given explicitly as a multinomial of the parameters $\\beta _{1},\\beta _{2}....$ and $\\beta _{2N}$ of the potential. Unlike in the even degree polynomial case, the highest order term in the potential is pure imaginary and hence the system is non-Hermitian. Therefore all the integrations have been carried out along a contour enclosing two complex turning points which lies within a wedge in the complex plane. With the help of some examples we demonstrate the accuracy of the method for both real and complex eigenspectra.

Asiri Nanayakkara; Thilagarajah Mathanaranjan

2014-07-01

388

Potential radiological impact of a conceptual Hanford Nuclear Energy Center  

SciTech Connect

The potential radiological impact of the siting of 20 light-water reactors and associated nuclear fuel cycle facilities on the Hanford reservation was evaluated by calculating the potential radiation doses received by individuals and populations in the vicinity of the reservation. The largest contributor to the potential radiation doses, to both the individual and the 50-mile population, were the effluents from the conceptual 1500 MT/yr fuel reprocessing plant. The effluents from the 20 reactors combined was the second largest contributor. The radiation dose contributions from the 300 MT/yr mixed oxide fuel fabrication plant were insignificant. The highest organ dose from all facilities combined was 24 mrem/yr to the child thyroid; followed by 8 mrem/yr to the adult thyroid. The 50-year collective dose commitment to the population within 50 miles was about 50 man-rem for most organs of reference, while the estimate for bone was 70 man-rem. With the exception of /sup 85/Kr, the release rates of radionuclides were within the EPA guidelines. Removal of about 90% of the 4 x 10/sup 5/ Ci/yr per gigawatt-year of electricity of /sup 85/Kr from the fuel reprocessing plant gaseous effluents would be required for compliance with the EPA guidelines.

Soldat, J. K.

1978-10-01

389

Life-cycle energy savings potential from aluminum-intensive vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The life-cycle energy and fuel-use impacts of US-produced aluminum-intensive passenger cars and passenger trucks are assessed. The energy analysis includes vehicle fuel consumption, material production energy, and recycling energy. A model that stimulates market dynamics was used to project aluminum-intensive vehicle market shares and national energy savings potential for the period between 2005 and 2030. We conclude that there is

F. Stodolsky; A. Vyas; R. Cuenca; L. Gaines

1995-01-01

390

The Potential for Energy Retrofits within the City of Sacramento's Rental Housing Inspection Program  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of an analysis performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the City of Sacramento--under the U.S. Department of Energy’s Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Office of Weatherization and Intergovernmental Projects Technical Assistance Program--to help determine the potential for incorporating energy efficiency standards into the City’s existing Rental Housing Inspection Program as part of Sacramento’s efforts to create a Climate Action Plan.

Iverson, Megan M.; Sande, Susan; Britt, Michelle L.

2011-04-15

391

Simulation-assisted evaluation of potential energy savings: Application to an administrative building in France  

E-print Network

Simulation-assisted evaluation of potential energy savings: Application to an administrative building in France F. Randaxhe1, S. Bertagnolio1, V. Lemort1 1 Thermodynamics Laboratory, University of Liege, Chemins des chevreuils 7, 4000 Liege.... The advantages and drawbacks of the applied methods and tools are also discussed. Keywords: Building energy simulation, potential savings, ECO, audit 1. Introduction While our economy is heavily dependent on energy resources, the building sector is directly...

Randaxhe, F.; Bertagnolio, S.; Lemort, V.

2012-01-01

392

Potential displacement of petroleum imports by solar energy technologies  

SciTech Connect

The United States currently imports close to half of its petroleum requirements. This report delineates the economic, social, and political costs of such a foreign oil dependency. These costs are often intangible, but combined they clearly constitute a greater price for imported petroleum than the strictly economic cost. If we can assume that imported oil imposes significant socioeconomic costs upon the American economy and society, one way to reduce these costs is to develop alternative, domestic energy sources - such as solar energy technologies - which can displace foreign petroleum. The second half of this report estimates that by the year 2000, solar energy technologies can displace 3.6 quads of petroleum. This figure includes solar energy applications in utilities, industrial and agricultural process heat, and transportation. The estimate can be treated as a lower bound; if the United States were to achieve the proposed goal of 20 quads by 2000, the amount of displaced oil probably would be greater. Although all the displaced oil would not be imported, the reduction in imported petroleum would relieve many of the conditions that increase the present cost of foreign oil to the American consumer.

DeLeon, P.; Jackson, B.L.; McNown, R.F.; Mahrenholz, G.J.

1980-05-01

393

The potential of solar energy use in desiccant cooling cycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of heat produced by solar thermal collectors is an interesting option for thermal driven air conditioning processes. A thermal driven cooling technique which fits well to non-tracking solar collectors is the desiccant cooling technique. Recently several projects have been carried out which focus on the connection of desiccant cooling systems with solar thermal energy for regeneration of the

H-M Henning; T Erpenbeck; C Hindenburg; I. S Santamaria

2001-01-01

394

Using the translational potential energy of springs for prosthetic systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A robotic tendon is modeled and the stiffness of the spring is tuned so that the spring power reduces the peak motor power and energy required for ankle gait. When determining stiffness from gait literature, it is usually assumed that one side of the spring is fixed. We assume that the spring is translating to derive a second method to

Jeffrey A. Ward; Thomas G. Sugar; Kevin W. Hollander

2011-01-01

395

Sustainable Development and Energy Geotechnology Potential Roles for Geotechnical Engineering  

SciTech Connect

The world is facing unprecedented challenges related to energy resources, global climate change, material use, and waste generation. Failure to address these challenges will inhibit the growth of the developing world and will negatively impact the standard of living and security of future generations in all nations. The solutions to these challenges will require multidisciplinary research across the social and physical sciences and engineering. Although perhaps not always recognized, geotechnical engineering expertise is critical to the solution of many energy and sustainability-related problems. Hence, geotechnical engineers and academicians have opportunity and responsibility to contribute to the solution of these worldwide problems. Research will need to be extended to non-standard issues such as thermal properties of soils; sediment and rock response to extreme conditions and at very long time scales; coupled hydro-chemo-thermo-bio-mechanical processes; positive feedback systems; the development of discontinuities; biological modification of soil properties; spatial variability; and emergent phenomena. Clearly, the challenges facing geotechnical engineering in the future will require a much broader knowledge base than our traditional educational programs provide. The geotechnical engineering curricula, from undergraduate education through continuing professional education, must address the changing needs of a profession that will increasingly be engaged in alternative/renewable energy production; energy efficiency; sustainable design, enhanced and more efficient use of natural resources, waste management, and underground utilization.

FragaszyProgram Dire, Dr. R. J. [National Science Foundation; Santamarina, Carlos [Georgia Institute of Technology; Espinoza, N. [Georgia Institute of Technology; Jang, J.W. [Georgia Institute of Technology; Jung, J.W. [Georgia Institute of Technology; Tsouris, Costas [ORNL

2011-01-01

396

The Potential of Wind Power and Energy Storage in California  

Microsoft Academic Search

A great deal of new electricity generating capacity will be needed in California over the next few decades. Given California's Renewable Portfolio Standard and greenhouse gas reduction goals, a significant fraction of this capacity is likely to be renewable; and among renewables, wind energy is particularly promising. Other likely types of capacity additions are natural gas and coal. Unlike these

Diana Schwyzer

397

Layered Binary-Dielectrics for Energy Applications: Limitations and Potentials  

SciTech Connect

In this Letter, an attempt is made to illustrate how performance of an electrically insulating material, a dielectric, can be improved by constructing a layered binary-dielectric structure that employs a weak insulator with high dielectric permittivity. It is shown that layered binary-dielectrics could have a signicant impact on energy storage and electrical insulation.

Tuncer, Enis [ORNL

2012-01-01

398

Biomass energy in China and its potential Li Jingjing  

E-print Network

& Mining Unit, East Asia and the Pacific Region, The World Bank #172 Xizhimennei Avenue, 100035, Beijing, P is a significant source of energy in China today, particularly in rural areas. However, most current use. The availability of clean, low-cost fuels for heat and power in rural areas based on modern biomass technologies

399

The Okamoto-Nolen-Schiffer anomaly without ?-? mixing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine the effect of isospin-violating meson-nucleon coupling constants and of ?-? mixing on the binding-energy differences of mirror nuclei in a model that possesses no contribution from p- ? mixing. The 3He? 3H binding-energy difference is computed in a nonrelativistic approach using a realistic wave function. We find the 3He? 3H binding-energy difference very sensitive to the short-distance behavior of the nucleon-nucleon potential. We conclude that for the typically hard Bonn form factors such modles cannot account for the observed binding-energy difference in the three-nucleon system. For the medium-mass region ( A = 15-41) the binding-energy differences of mirror nuclei are computed using a relativistic mean-field approximation to the Walecka model. We obtain large binding-energy differences - of the order of several hundred KeV - arising from the pseudoscalar sector. Two effects are primarily responsible for this new finding: a) the inclusion of isospin breaking in the pion-nucleon coupling constant and b) the in-medium enhancement of the small components of the bound-state wave functions. We look for off-shell ambiguities in these results and find them to be large; while 70-85% of the anomaly can be explained with a pseudoscalar coupling only 30% of it can be accounted for with a pseudovector vertex.

Cardarelli, F.; Piekarewicz, J.

1997-02-01

400

Nesting of thermodynamic, structural, and dynamic anomalies in liquid silicon.  

PubMed

Anomalous behaviour in density, diffusivity, and structural order is investigated for silicon modeled by the Stillinger-Weber potential by performing molecular dynamics simulations. As previously reported in the case of water [J. R. Errington and P. G. Debenedetti, Nature (London) 409, 318 (2001)] and silica [M. S. Shell, P. G. Debenedetti, and A. Z. Panagiotopoulos, Phys. Rev. E 66, 011202 (2002)], a cascading of thermodynamic, dynamic, and structural anomalous regions is also observed in liquid silicon. The region of structural anomaly includes the region of diffusivity anomaly, which in turn encompasses the region of density anomaly (which is unlike water but similar to silica). In the region of structural anomaly, a tight correlation between the translational and tetrahedrality order parameter is found, but the correlation is weaker when a local orientational order parameter (q3) is used as a measure of tetrahedrality. The total excess entropy and the pair correlation entropy are computed across the phase diagram and the correlation between the excess entropy and the regions of anomalies in the phase diagram of liquid silicon is examined. Scaling relations associating the excess entropy with the diffusion coefficient show considerable deviation from the quasi-universal behaviour observed in hard-sphere and Lennard-Jones liquids and some liquid metals. Excess entropy based criteria for diffusivity and structural anomalies fail to capture the observed regions of anomaly. PMID:25273445

Vasisht, Vishwas V; Mathew, John; Sengupta, Shiladitya; Sastry, Srikanth

2014-09-28

401

Nesting of thermodynamic, structural, and dynamic anomalies in liquid silicon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anomalous behaviour in density, diffusivity, and structural order is investigated for silicon modeled by the Stillinger-Weber potential by performing molecular dynamics simulations. As previously reported in the case of water [J. R. Errington and P. G. Debenedetti, Nature (London) 409, 318 (2001)] and silica [M. S. Shell, P. G. Debenedetti, and A. Z. Panagiotopoulos, Phys. Rev. E 66, 011202 (2002)], a cascading of thermodynamic, dynamic, and structural anomalous regions is also observed in liquid silicon. The region of structural anomaly includes the region of diffusivity anomaly, which in turn encompasses the region of density anomaly (which is unlike water but similar to silica). In the region of structural anomaly, a tight correlation between the translational and tetrahedrality order parameter is found, but the correlation is weaker when a local orientational order parameter (q3) is used as a measure of tetrahedrality. The total excess entropy and the pair correlation entropy are computed across the phase diagram and the correlation between the excess entropy and the regions of anomalies in the phase diagram of liquid silicon is examined. Scaling relations associating the excess entropy with the diffusion coefficient show considerable deviation from the quasi-universal behaviour observed in hard-sphere and Lennard-Jones liquids and some liquid metals. Excess entropy based criteria for diffusivity and structural anomalies fail to capture the observed regions of anomaly.

Vasisht, Vishwas V.; Mathew, John; Sengupta, Shiladitya; Sastry, Srikanth

2014-09-01

402

Uncertainties of optical-model parameters for the study of the threshold anomaly  

E-print Network

In the analysis of elastic-scattering experimental data, optical-model parameters (usually, depths of real and imaginary potentials) are fitted and conclusions are drawn analyzing their variations at bombardment energies close to the Coulomb barrier (threshold anomaly). The judgement about the shape of this variation (related to the physical processes producing this anomaly) depends on these fitted values but the robustness of the conclusions strongly depends on the uncertainties with which these parameters are derived. We will show that previous published studies have not used a common criterium for the evaluation of the parameter uncertainties. In this work, a study of these uncertainties is presented, using conventional statistic tools as well as bootstrapping techniques. As case studies, these procedures are applied to re-analyze detailed elastic-scattering data for the $^{12}$C + $^{208}$Pb and the $^6$Li + $^{80}$Se systems.

Abriola, Daniel; Testoni, J; Gollan, F; Martí, G V

2015-01-01

403

Uncertainties of optical-model parameters for the study of the threshold anomaly  

E-print Network

In the analysis of elastic-scattering experimental data, optical-model parameters (usually, depths of real and imaginary potentials) are fitted and conclusions are drawn analyzing their variations at bombardment energies close to the Coulomb barrier (threshold anomaly). The judgement about the shape of this variation (related to the physical processes producing this anomaly) depends on these fitted values but the robustness of the conclusions strongly depends on the uncertainties with which these parameters are derived. We will show that previous published studies have not used a common criterium for the evaluation of the parameter uncertainties. In this work, a study of these uncertainties is presented, using conventional statistic tools as well as bootstrapping techniques. As case studies, these procedures are applied to re-analyze detailed elastic-scattering data for the $^{12}$C + $^{208}$Pb and the $^6$Li + $^{80}$Se systems.

Daniel Abriola; A. Arazi; J. Testoni; F. Gollan; G. V. Martí

2015-03-13

404

Correlation of gravity anomalies and geology in the San Antonio region, Texas  

E-print Network

Texas A&M Un. iversity and Dr. . Davis A. I'ahlq?ist of the Department of Geophysics at Texas A&M Univcrsit& wjho, as members of the thesis committee, gave thej. r time and energy in reviewing the thesis. Speci. al thsllks is gives! to Dr. Robert R... section and Bouguer anomaly pro- file across local gravity anomalies in the Llano Uplift 28 3, Geologic section and Bouguer anomaly pro- file across circui ar positive anomaly (anomaly h) in central Kendall County 31 Geologic secti. on and Bouguer...

Gordon, Patrick Thomas

1968-01-01

405

Holographic models and the QCD trace anomaly  

SciTech Connect

Five dimensional dilaton models are considered as possible holographic duals of the pure gauge QCD vacuum. In the framework of these models, the QCD trace anomaly equation is considered. Each quantity appearing in that equation is computed by holographic means. Two exact solutions for different dilaton potentials corresponding to perturbative and non-perturbative {beta}-functions are studied. It is shown that in the perturbative case, where the {beta}-function is the QCD one at leading order, the resulting space is not asymptotically AdS. In the non-perturbative case, the model considered presents confinement of static quarks and leads to a non-vanishing gluon condensate, although it does not correspond to an asymptotically free theory. In both cases analyses based on the trace anomaly and on Wilson loops are carried out.

Jose L. Goity, Roberto C. Trinchero

2012-08-01

406

QCD flux tubes and anomaly inflow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We apply the Callan-Harvey anomaly-inflow mechanism to the study of QCD (chromoelectric) flux tubes, quark (pair) creation, and the chiral magnetic effect, using new variables from the Cho-Faddeev-Niemi decomposition of the gauge potential. A phenomenological description of chromoelectric flux tubes is obtained by studying a gauged Nambu-Jona-Lasinio effective Lagrangian, derived from the original QCD Lagrangian. At the quantum level, quark condensates in the QCD vacuum may form a vortexlike structure in a chromoelectric flux tube. Quark zero modes trapped in the vortex are chiral and lead to a two-dimensional gauge anomaly. To cancel it, an effective Chern-Simons coupling is needed and, hence, a topological charge density term naturally appears.

Xiong, Chi

2013-07-01

407

Vibrational Levels and Resonances on a New Potential Energy Surface for the Ground Electronic State of Ozone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The isotopic ratios for ozone observed in laboratory and atmospheric measurements, known as the ozone isotopic anomaly,[1,2] have been an open question in physical and atmospheric chemistry for the past 30 years. The biggest limitation in achieving agreement between theory and experiment has been the availability of a satisfactory[3-5] ground state potential energy surface (PES). The presence of a spurious reef feature in the asymptotic region of most PESs has been associated with large discrepancies between calculated and observed rates of formation especially at low temperature. We recently proposed a new global potential energy surface for ozone[6,7] possessing 4 features that make it suitable for kinetics and dynamics studies: excellent equilibrium parameters, good agreement with experimental vibrational levels, accurate dissociation energy and a transition region with accurate topography (without the reef artifact). This PES has been used recently to simulate the temperature dependent exchange reaction (16O+16O2) with a quantum statistical model[6,7], and, for the first time, a negative temperature dependence which agrees with experiments was obtained, indicating the good quality of this global surface. A quantum description of the ozone exchange and recombination reaction requires knowledge of the resonances but also the rovibrational levels just below the dissociation. We present results of global 3-well vibrational-state calculations up to the dissociation threshold and (J = 0) resonances up to 1000 wn beyond. The calculations were done using a large DVR basis ( 24 million functions) with a symmetry-adapted Lanczos algorithm as well as MCTDH. Results indicate the presence of localized bound states at energies close to the dissociation threshold beyond which some long-lived resonances follow, contrasted with a few delocalized bound states with density at large values of the stretching coordinates. References: 1- K. Mauersberger et al., Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 50, 1 (2005) 2- R. Schinke et al., Ann. Rev. Phys. Chem. 57, 625 (2006) 3- R. Siebert et al., J. Chem. Phys. 116, 9749 (2002) 4- M. Ayouz and D. Babikov, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 164311 (2013) 5- V.G. Tyuterev et al., J. Chem. Phys. 139, 134307 (2013) 6- R. Dawes et al., J. Chem. Phys. 135, 081102 (2011) 7- R. Dawes et al., J. Chem. Phys. 139, 201103 (2013)

Ndengue, Steve Alexandre; Dawes, Richard; Wang, Xiao-Gang; Carrington, Tucker

2014-06-01

408

Metastable states of ozone calculated on an accurate potential energy surface  

E-print Network

is dominated by the energy transfer ET mecha- nism O O2O3*, 2 O3* MO3 M. 3 Here O3* is a rovibrational of the potential energy surface for ozone along the minimum energy path for dissociation/recombination (O3O2 O

Reid, Scott A.

409

Use of biomass sources for energy in Turkey and a view to biomass potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomass is the major source of energy in rural Turkey. Biomass is used to meet a variety of energy needs, including generating electricity, heating homes, fueling vehicles and providing process heat for industrial facilities. Biomass potential includes wood and animal and plant wastes. Among the biomass energy sources, fuelwood seems to be the most interesting because its share of the

Mustafa Balat

2005-01-01

410

Assessment of the potential of halophytes as energy crops for the electric utility industry. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This technical report assesses and estimates the potential of selected halophytes as future renewable energy resources, especially by US electric utilities, and familiarizes nonspecialists with research and development problems that must be resolved before these energy sources can become dependable supplies of energy. A literature search related to both indigenous and exotic species of halophytes has been done and appropriate

Goodin

1984-01-01

411

Wave energy potential in the Eastern Mediterranean Levantine Basin. An integrated 10-year study  

E-print Network

, that is the energy that can be produced by sea waves. There are some critical advantages in this alternative formData bank Wave energy potential in the Eastern Mediterranean Levantine Basin. An integrated 10-year Article history: Received 30 July 2013 Accepted 25 March 2014 Available online Keywords: Wave energy

Georgiou, Georgios

412

Sources and Sinks of Available Potential Energy in a Moist Atmosphere OLIVIER PAULUIS  

E-print Network

Sources and Sinks of Available Potential Energy in a Moist Atmosphere OLIVIER PAULUIS Courant as the difference between the total static energy of the atmosphere and that of a reference state that minimizes at which APE is generated in the atmosphere allows one to estimate the amount of kinetic energy that can

Pauluis, Olivier M.

413

Solar energy for heat and electricity: the potential for mitigating climate change  

E-print Network

Solar energy for heat and electricity: the potential for mitigating climate change Dr N.J. EkiNs-DaukEs Executive summary Why are we interested in using solar energy? Sunlight provides the energy source. In developing countries, solar technologies are already in use to enhance the standard of living

414

Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy Technologies: Potential Navigational Impacts and Mitigation Measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

On April 15, 2008, the Department of Energy (DOE) issued a Funding Opportunity Announcement for Advanced Water Power Projects which included a Topic Area for Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy Market Acceleration Projects. Within this Topic Area, DOE identified potential navigational impacts of marine and hydrokinetic renewable energy technologies and measures to prevent adverse impacts on navigation as a sub-topic

Cool; M. Richard; Hudon; J. Thomas; David Basco; Neil Rondorf

2009-01-01

415

Geothermal energy: a proven resource with costly potential  

SciTech Connect

The commercial use of geothermal energy to generate electricity has been spreading across the country since the California Geyser site was developed in 1960. Petroleum companies see geothermal power generation as a way to broaden their own base. The binary-cycle technology to use hydrothermal resources will be ready by 1985. Power generation from geothermal heat will be costly even though the resource itself is free and renewable; but the economics will improve as fossil-fuel prices increase. (DCK)

Not Available

1980-08-01

416

Stress Tensors from Trace Anomalies in Conformal Field Theories  

E-print Network

Using trace anomalies, we determine the vacuum stress tensors of arbitrary even dimensional conformal field theories in Weyl flat backgrounds. We demonstrate a simple relation between the Casimir energy on the real line times a sphere and the type A anomaly coefficient. This relation generalizes earlier results in two and four dimensions. These field theory results for the Casimir are shown to be consistent with holographic predictions in two, four, and six dimensions.

Christopher P. Herzog; Kuo-Wei Huang

2013-04-08

417

Effective Potential Energies and Transport Properties for Nitrogen and Oxygen  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of recent theoretical studies for N--N2, O--O2, N2--N2 interactions are applied to the transport properties of nitrogen and oxygen gases. The theoretical results are used to select suitable oxygen interaction energies from previous work for determining the diffusion and viscosity coefficients at high temperatures. A universal formulation is applied to determine the collision integrals for O2--O2 interactions at high temperatures and to calculate certain ratios for determining higher-order collision integrals.

Stallcop, James R.; Partridge, Harry; Levin, Eugene; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

418

Potential Peak Load Reductions From Residential Energy Efficient Upgrades  

E-print Network

ORGANIZATION (FL.H.E.R.O.) Over 400 single and multifamily homes have been constructed in the Gainesville, FL area with technical assistance from FL H.E.R.O. These homes were constructed by over a dozen different builders. In this paper data from 310... 25 to 45 cfm of ventilation air is provided which pressurizes the house in the range of +0.2 to +0.4 pascals. Measured Home Energy Ratings (HERS) and airtightness on these FL. H.E.R.O. homes is presented next in figures 5 through 8...

Meisegeier, D.; Howes, M.; King, D.; Hall, J.

2002-01-01

419

Accurate energy spectrum for double-well potential: periodic basis  

E-print Network

We present a variational study of employing the trigonometric basis functions satisfying periodic boundary condition for the accurate calculation of eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of quartic double-well oscillators. Contrary to usual Dirichlet boundary condition, imposing periodic boundary condition on the basis functions results in the existence of an inflection point with vanishing curvature in the graph of the energy versus the domain of the variable. We show that this boundary condition results in a higher accuracy in comparison to Dirichlet boundary condition. This is due to the fact that the periodic basis functions are not necessarily forced to vanish at the boundaries and can properly fit themselves to the exact solutions.

P. Pedram; M. Mirzaei; S. S. Gousheh

2010-06-03

420

Large Scale Anomalies in the Microwave Background: Causation and Correlation  

E-print Network

Most treatments of large scale anomalies in the microwave sky are a posteriori, with unquantified look-elsewhere effects. We contrast these with physical models of specific inhomogeneities in the early universe which then generate apparent anomalies. Physical models predict correlations between candidate anomalies, as well as the corresponding signals in polarization and large scale structure, reducing the impact of cosmic variance. We compute the apparent spatial curvature associated with large-scale inhomogeneities and show that it is typically small, allowing for a self-consistent analysis. Focussing on a single large plane wave inhomogeneity, we show this can contribute to low-l mode alignment and odd-even asymmetry in the power spectra and the best fit inhomogeneity accounts for a significant part of the claimed odd-even asymmetry. We argue that this approach can be generalized to provide a more quantitative assessment of potential large scale anomalies in the universe.

Grigor Aslanyan; Richard Easther

2014-01-06

421

Anomalies and graded coisotropic branes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compute the anomaly of the axial U(1) current in the A-model on a Calabi-Yau manifold, in the presence of coisotropic branes discovered by Kapustin and Orlov. Our results relate the anomaly-free condition to a recently proposed definition of graded coisotropic branes in Calabi-Yau manifolds. More specifically, we find that a coisotropic brane is anomaly-free if and only if it is gradable. We also comment on a different grading for coisotropic submanifolds introduced recently by Oh.

Li, Yi

2006-03-01

422

Gravitational anomaly and transport phenomena.  

PubMed

Quantum anomalies give rise to new transport phenomena. In particular, a magnetic field can induce an anomalous current via the chiral magnetic effect and a vortex in the relativistic fluid can also induce a current via the chiral vortical effect. The related transport coefficients can be calculated via Kubo formulas. We evaluate the Kubo formula for the anomalous vortical conductivity at weak coupling and show that it receives contributions proportional to the gravitational anomaly coefficient. The gravitational anomaly gives rise to an anomalous vortical effect even for an uncharged fluid. PMID:21797593

Landsteiner, Karl; Megías, Eugenio; Pena-Benitez, Francisco

2011-07-01

423

Electron affinities, gas phase acidities, and potential energy curves: Benzene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The experimental electron affinities of benzene, Ea(Bz), 0.4 to -4.8 eV, are evaluated. Multiple negative ion states are proposed to account for different electron affinities. The semi-empirical procedure known as ?configuration interaction or unrestricted orbitals to relate experimental quantities to self-consistent field values by estimating electron correlation? (CURES-EC) has several advantages: (i) supports multiple Ea(Bz), (ii) supports the Ea(phenyl) and the D(C bond H,Bz), (iii) supports the gas phase acidity of benzene from the latter, (iv) predicts the singlet-triplet split for the phenyl anion of 1.2(2) eV, and (v) predicts the existence of an excited quartet state of the benzene anion with an Ea(Bz), -2.5(2) eV. Nine ionic Morse curves are calculated from CURES-EC properties and experimental data. These are compared with quantum mechanical crossing ?c? potentials obtained using a subroutine in commercial software and ab initio and density functional theory (DFT) procedures. Curves are calculated for the proposed quartet state of the benzene anion.

Jalbout, A. F.; Trzaskowski, B.; Chen, E. C. M.; Chen, E. S.; Adamowicz, Ludwik

424

Potential Applications for Nuclear Energy besides Electricity Generation: AREVA Global Perspective of HTR Potential Market  

SciTech Connect

Energy supply is increasingly showing up as a major issue for electricity supply, transportation, settlement, and process heat industrial supply including hydrogen production. Nuclear power is part of the solution. For electricity supply, as exemplified in Finland and France, the EPR brings an immediate answer; HTR could bring another solution in some specific cases. For other supply, mostly heat, the HTR brings a solution inaccessible to conventional nuclear power plants for very high or even high temperature. As fossil fuels costs increase and efforts to avoid generation of Greenhouse gases are implemented, a market for nuclear generated process heat will develop. Following active developments in the 80's, HTR have been put on the back burner up to 5 years ago. Light water reactors are widely dominating the nuclear production field today. However, interest in the HTR technology was renewed in the past few years. Several commercial projects are actively promoted, most of them aiming at electricity production. ANTARES is today AREVA's response to the cogeneration market. It distinguishes itself from other concepts with its indirect cycle design powering a combined cycle power plant. Several reasons support this design choice, one of the most important of which is the design flexibility to adapt readily to combined heat and power applications. From the start, AREVA made the choice of such flexibility with the belief that the HTR market is not so much in competition with LWR in the sole electricity market but in the specific added value market of cogeneration and process heat. In view of the volatility of the costs of fossil fuels, AREVA's choice brings to the large industrial heat applications the fuel cost predictability of nuclear fuel with the efficiency of a high temperature heat source free of greenhouse gases emissions. The ANTARES module produces 600 MWth which can be split into the required process heat, the remaining power drives an adapted prorated electric plant. Depending on the process heat temperature and power needs, up to 80 % of the nuclear heat is converted into useful power. An important feature of the design is the standardization of the heat source, as independent as possible of the process heat application. This should expedite licensing. The essential conditions for success include: 1. Timely adapted licensing process and regulations, codes and standards for such application and design; 2. An industry oriented R and D program to meet the technological challenges making the best use of the international collaboration. Gen IV could be the vector; 3. Identification of an end user (or a consortium of) willing to fund a FOAK. (authors)

Soutworth, Finis; Gauthier, Jean-Claude; Lecomte, Michel [AREVA, 3315 Old Forest Road, Lynchburg, Virginia, 24506 (United States); Carre, Franck [CEA, Saclay (France)

2007-07-01

425

PUBLISHED VERSION Free Energy Generalization of the Peierls Potential in Iron  

E-print Network

PUBLISHED VERSION Free Energy Generalization of the Peierls Potential in Iron M. R. Gilbert, P in Iron M. R. Gilbert,1 P. Schuck,2 B. Sadigh,3 and J. Marian3,* 1 EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham

426

Effective Potential Energies and Transport Cross Sections for Atom-Molecule Interactions of Nitrogen and Nitrogen  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential energy surfaces for H2-N and N2-N interactions are calculated by accurate ab initio methods and applied to determine transport data. The results confirm that an effective potential energy for accurately determining transport properties can be calculated using a single orientation. A simple method is developed to determine the dispersion coefficients of effective potential energies Effective potential energies required for O2-O collisions are determ=ined. The H2-N, N2-N, O2-H, and O2-O collision integrals are calculated and tabulated for a large range of temperatures. The theoretical values of the N2-N and O2-O diffusion coefficients compare well with measured data available at room temperature.

Stallcop, James R.; Partridge, Harry; Levin, Eugene; Arnold, Jim (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

427

Assessing the Potential for Renewable Energy on National Forest System Lands  

SciTech Connect

This technical report and CD for the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service (USFS), evaluates the potential for renewable energy resource development on National Forest System (NFS) lands. USFS can use the report findings to consider potential for development of solar and wind energy resources on NFS lands, in land management decisions. The Geographical Information System (GIS) based analysis resulted in the following findings: (1) Ninety-nine National Forest Units have high potential for power production from one or more of these solar and wind energy sources; and (2) Twenty National Forest Units in nine states have high potential for power production from two or more of these solar and wind energy sources.

Not Available

2005-01-01

428

Potential of Development and Application of Wave Energy Conversion Technology in the Gulf of Mexico  

E-print Network

This paper focuses on the potential and application of developing wave energy technology in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM). The conditions (weather, wave climate, activity of the oil industry, etc.) in the GOM are assessed and the attributes of wave...

Guiberteau, K. L.; Liu, Y.; Lee, J.; Kozman, T.

2014-01-01

429

Analysis of the Potential Energy Savings for 14 Office Buildings with VAV Systems  

E-print Network

load calculation, simulation of buildings with multiple types of HVAC systems, AHU shutdown simulation, among others. The improved methodology was used to estimate annual potential energy cost savings for 14 office buildings in Austin, TX with either...

Claridge, D. E.; Liu, J.; Baltazar, J. C.

2010-01-01

430

Determining the Intermolecular Potential Energy in a Gas: A Physical Chemistry Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an experiment in which gas viscosity coefficients over a large temperature range are used to determine the parameters of the intermolecular potential energy and other properties such as virial coefficients. (MLH)

Olbregts, J.; Walgraeve, J. P.

1976-01-01

431

Energy spectra and wave function of trigonometric Rosen-Morse potential as an effective quantum chromodynamics potential in D-dimensions  

SciTech Connect

The Energy Spectra and Wave Function of Schrodinger equation in D-Dimensions for trigonometric Rosen-Morse potential were investigated analytically using Nikiforov-Uvarov method. This potential captures the essential traits of the quark-gluon dynamics of Quantum Chromodynamics. The approximate energy spectra are given in the close form and the corresponding approximate wave function for arbitrary l-state (l ? 0) in D-dimensions are formulated in the form of differential polynomials. The wave function of this potential unnormalizable for general case. The wave function of this potential unnormalizable for general case. The existence of extra dimensions (centrifugal factor) and this potential increase the energy spectra of system.

Deta, U. A., E-mail: utamaalan@yahoo.co.id [Theoretical Physics Group, Physics Department of Post Graduate Program, Sebelas Maret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36A, Surakarta 57126, Indonesia and Physics Department, State University of Surabaya, Jl. Ketintang, Surabaya 60231 (Indonesia); Suparmi,; Cari,; Husein, A. S.; Yuliani, H.; Khaled, I. K. A.; Luqman, H.; Supriyanto [Theoretical Physics Group, Physics Department of Post Graduate Program, Sebelas Maret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36A, Surakarta 57126 (Indonesia)

2014-09-30

432

Estimation and Monitoring of Wind/Wave energy potential in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

?he adaptation and use of innovative methodologies for the exploitation of renewable energy marine resources is one of the main issues today for the environmental science community. Within this framework, the exploitation of wind and wave energy potential for coastal and island states seems to be one of the promising solutions and highly interesting from research and technological point of view. In this work, the activities of two projects focusing on the study of wind/wave energy over the area of Eastern Mediterranean Sea are presented. The "Integrated High Resolution System for Monitoring and Quantifying the Wave Energy Potential in the EEZ of Cyprus" (Ewave project) focuses on the estimation, monitoring and forecasting of the wave energy potential over the Levantine Basin with special emphasis to the Exclusive Economical Zone of Cyprus, while the "Development and application of new mathematical and physical models for Monitoring the wind and Sea wave Energy Potential" (MOSEP project) is a platform for developing new mathematical algorithms for the estimation of the wave energy over the Aegean Sea. In both projects, high resolution digital atlases of sea wave/wind climatological characteristics and the distribution of the wind and wave energy potential are developed for the coastal and offshore areas of the East Mediterranean sea . Moreover, new models for the prediction and quantification of wave energy in short and long forecast horizons are proposed. Statistical results concerning the probability density functions of the wind speed, the significant wave height, as well as the energy potential will be presented for selected sea areas in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, while test case studies in certain regions favor to wind/wave renewable energy will be discussed.

Zodiatis, George; Galanis, George; Galanis, George; Emmanouil, George; Emmanouil, George; Hayes, Dan; Nikolaidis, Andreas; Georgiou, Georgios; Kalogeri, Christina; Kallos, George

2013-04-01

433

Greenhouse gas mitigation potential of biomass energy technologies in Vietnam using the long range energy alternative planning system model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation potentials of number of selected Biomass Energy Technologies (BETs) have been assessed in Vietnam. These include Biomass Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (BIGCC) based on wood and bagasse, direct combustion plants based on wood, co-firing power plants and Stirling engine based on wood and cooking stoves. Using the Long-range Energy Alternative Planning (LEAP) model, different scenarios

Amit Kumar; S. C Bhattacharya; H. L Pham

2003-01-01

434

Earth flyby anomalies  

SciTech Connect

In the planet-centric system, a spacecraft should have the same initial and final energies, even though its energy and angular momentum will change in the barycenter of the solar system. However, without explanation, a number of earth flybys have yielded small energy changes.

Nieto, Michael Martin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Anderson, John D [PROPULSION LAB.

2009-01-01

435

Classifying sex biased congenital anomalies  

SciTech Connect

The reasons for sex biases in congenital anomalies that arise before structural or hormonal dimorphisms are established has long been unclear. A review of such disorders shows that patterning and tissue anomalies are female biased, and structural findings are more common in males. This suggests different gender dependent susceptibilities to developmental disturbances, with female vulnerabilities focused on early blastogenesis/determination, while males are more likely to involve later organogenesis/morphogenesis. A dual origin for some anomalies explains paradoxical reductions of sex biases with greater severity (i.e., multiple rather than single malformations), presumably as more severe events increase the involvement of an otherwise minor process with opposite biases to those of the primary mechanism. The cause for these sex differences is unknown, but early dimorphisms, such as differences in growth or presence of H-Y antigen, may be responsible. This model provides a useful rationale for understanding and classifying sex-biased congenital anomalies. 42 refs., 7 tabs.

Lubinsky, M.S. [Medical College of Wisconsin and Children`s Hospital, Milwaukee, WI (United States)] [Medical College of Wisconsin and Children`s Hospital, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

1997-03-31

436

Spacecraft environmental anomalies expert system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An expert system has been developed by The Aerospace Corporation, Space and Environment Technology Center for use in the diagnosis of satellite anomalies caused by the space environment. The expert system is designed to determine the probable cause of an anomaly from the following candidates: surface charging, bulk charging, single-event effects, total radiation dose, and space-plasma effects. Such anomalies depend on the orbit of the satellite, the local plasma and radiation environment (which is highly variable), the satellite-exposure time, and the hardness of the circuits and components in the satellite. The expert system is a rule-based system that uses the Texas Instrument's Personal Consultant Plus expert-system shell. The expert system's knowledgebase includes about 200 rules, as well as a number of databases that contain information on spacecraft and their orbits, previous spacecraft anomalies, and the environment.

Koons, Harry C.; Groney, David J.

1994-02-01

437

Pacific Temperature Anomalies with Graph  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation shows the El Nino-La Nina Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly from January 1997 through July 1999. A graph inset shows the global average sea surface temperature fluctuation during this time period.

Greg Shirah

2003-08-30

438

Assessment of energy saving technologies with potential for applications in US industries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to assess and evaluate information on energy technologies displayed at international trade shows was assessed and evaluated. Technologies that had potential for saving energy in applications in US industries were identified. These technologies are identified and concise summaries on potential energy savings, economics, basic operational considerations, and potential applications are prepared. An objective of this study was to determine whether international trade shows can provide a convenient and useful forum for the identification of energy saving technologies which could have wider applications in US industry. Forty-four technologies were chosen for inclusion which are grouped into the following categories: heat recovery devices, heat exchangers, heat pumps, and various other technologies. Some of the technologies include: a low energy drying system, solid waste in cement manufacturing, boiler fuel optimization system, multifuel boiler plant and coal combustion efficiency improvements.

1982-01-01

439

Low-energy nuclear reactions and the alpha-nucleus optical potential: where do we stand?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent efforts to develop an accurate and reliable ?-nucleus optical potential at low energies are presented. In view of the advent of new data on ? elastic scattering and ? radiative-capture reactions, the global semi-microscopic ?-nucleus potential is revisited and compared with the updated database. Needs for improvements are discussed.

Demetriou, P.; Axiotis, M.

2007-02-01

440

The role of potential in the ghost-condensate dark energy model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the ghost-condensate model of dark energy with a generic potential term. The inclusion of the potential is shown to give greater freedom in realising the phantom regime. The self-consistency of the analysis is demonstrated using WMAP7 + BAO + Hubble data.

Bhattacharya, Gour; Mukherjee, Pradip; Singha Roy, Amit; Saha, Anirban

2015-02-01

441

FREE ENERGY AND SOLUTIONS OF THE VLASOV-POISSON-FOKKER-PLANCK SYSTEM : EXTERNAL POTENTIAL AND CONFINEMENT  

E-print Network

FREE ENERGY AND SOLUTIONS OF THE VLASOV-POISSON-FOKKER-PLANCK SYSTEM : EXTERNAL POTENTIAL 1. Large time behavior in a confining potential 2. Vanishing when there is an external but non-Poisson-Fokker-Planck system is nonlin- ear since E(t, x) depends on f through equation (P). In the following, we shall assume

Dolbeault, Jean

442

Assessment of the global and regional geographical, technical and economic potential of onshore wind energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The regional and global geographical, technical and economic potential of onshore wind energy is assessed using a grid cell approach. For the economic potential, the regional cost–supply curves of wind electricity are presented. The global technical potential of wind electricity is estimated to be 96 PWh year?1: about 6–7 times the present (2001) world electricity consumption at cut-off costs of

Monique Maria Hoogwijk; Bert de Vries; Wim Turkenburg

2004-01-01

443

Contribution of three-body potentials to the binding energy of heavy atoms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The conversion of quantum electrodynamics to a configuration-space Hamiltonian formalism introduces three-electron potentials of relativistic origin. For heavy atoms, it is found that the contribution of these potentials to the inner-shell binding energy is no more than 0.21 eV. This is too small to explain the discrepancy between current theory and experiment. The uniqueness of the potentials obtained in the configuration-space Hamiltonian is also discussed.

Zygelman, B.; Mittleman, M. H.

1986-01-01

444

Triangle Anomalies, Thermodynamics, and Hydrodynamics  

E-print Network

We consider 3+1-dimensional fluids with U(1)^3 anomalies. We use Ward identities to constrain low-momentum Euclidean correlation functions and obtain differential equations that relate two and three-point functions. The solution to those equations yields, among other things, the chiral magnetic conductivity. We then compute zero-frequency functions in hydrodynamics and show that the consistency of the hydrodynamic theory also fixes the anomaly-induced conductivities.

Kristan Jensen

2012-04-11

445

Anomaly detection on cup anemometers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performances of two rotor-damaged commercial anemometers (Vector Instruments A100 LK) were studied. The calibration results (i.e. the transfer function) were very linear, the aerodynamic behavior being more efficient than the one shown by both anemometers equipped with undamaged rotors. No detection of the anomaly (the rotors’ damage) was possible based on the calibration results. However, the Fourier analysis clearly revealed this anomaly.

Vega, Enrique; Pindado, Santiago; Martínez, Alejandro; Meseguer, Encarnación; García, Luis

2014-12-01

446

Hierarchical particle swarm optimizer for minimizing the non-convex potential energy of molecular structure.  

PubMed

The stable conformation of a molecule is greatly important to uncover the secret of its properties and functions. Generally, the conformation of a molecule will be the most stable when it is of the minimum potential energy. Accordingly, the determination of the conformation can be solved in the optimization framework. It is, however, not an easy task to achieve the only conformation with the lowest energy among all the potential ones because of the high complexity of the energy landscape and the exponential computation increasing with molecular size. In this paper, we develop a hierarchical and heterogeneous particle swarm optimizer (HHPSO) to deal with the problem in the minimization of the potential energy. The proposed method is evaluated over a scalable simplified molecular potential energy function with up to 200 degrees of freedom and a realistic energy function of pseudo-ethane molecule. The experimental results are compared with other six PSO variants and four genetic algorithms. The results show HHPSO is significantly better than the compared PSOs with p-value less than 0.01277 over molecular potential energy function. PMID:25459763

Cheung, Ngaam J; Shen, Hong-Bin

2014-11-01

447

Achieving Land, Energy, and Environmental Compatibility: Utility-Scale Solar Energy Potential and Land-Use in California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar energy is an archetype renewable energy technology with great potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions when substituted for carbon-intensive energy. Utility-scale solar energy (USSE; i.e., > 1 MW) necessitates large quantities of space making the efficient use of land for USSE development critical to realizing its full potential. However, studies elucidating the interaction between land-use and utility-scale solar energy (USSE) are limited. In this study, we assessed 1) the theoretical and technical potential of terrestrial-based USSE systems, and 2) land-use and land-cover change impacts from actual USSE installations (> 20 MW; planned, under construction, operating), using California as a case study due to its early adoption of renewable energy systems, unique constraints on land availability, immense energy demand, and vast natural resources. We used topo-climatic (e.g., slope, irradiance), infrastructural (e.g., proximity to transmission lines), and ecological constraints (e.g., threatened and endangered species) to determine highly favorable, favorable, and unfavorable locations for USSE and to assess its technical potential. We found that the theoretical potential of photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) in California is 26,097 and 29,422 kWh/m2/day, respectively. We identified over 150 planned, under construction, and operating USSE installations in California, ranging in size from 20 to 1,000 MW. Currently, 29% are located on shrub- and scrublands, 23% on cultivated crop land, 13% on pasture/hay areas, 11% on grassland/herbaceous and developed open space, and 7% in the built environment. Understanding current land-use decisions of USSE systems and assessing its future potential can be instructive for achieving land, energy, and environmental compatibility, especially for other global regions that share similar resource demands and limitations.

Hoffacker, M. K.; Hernandez, R. R.; Field, C. B.

2013-12-01

448

Flavorful hybrid anomaly-gravity mediation  

SciTech Connect

We consider supersymmetric models where anomaly and gravity mediation give comparable contributions to the soft terms and discuss how this can be realized in a five-dimensional brane world. The gaugino mass pattern of anomaly mediation is preserved in such a hybrid setup. The flavorful gravity-mediated contribution cures the tachyonic slepton problem of anomaly mediation. The supersymmetric flavor puzzle is solved by alignment. We explicitly show how a working flavor-tachyon link can be realized with Abelian flavor symmetries and give the characteristic signatures of the framework, including O(1) slepton mass splittings between different generations and between doublets and singlets. This provides opportunities for same flavor dilepton edge measurements with missing energy at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Rare lepton decay rates could be close to their current experimental limit. Compared to pure gravity mediation, the hybrid model is advantageous because it features a heavy gravitino which can avoid the cosmological gravitino problem of gravity-mediated models combined with leptogenesis.

Gross, Christian; Hiller, Gudrun [Institut fuer Physik, Technische Universitaet Dortmund, D-44221 Dortmund (Germany)

2011-05-01

449

Chiral anomaly and transport in Weyl metals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an overview of our recent work on transport phenomena in Weyl metals, which may be connected to their nontrivial topological properties, particularly to chiral anomaly. We argue that there are two basic phenomena, which are related to chiral anomaly in Weyl metals: anomalous Hall effect (AHE) and chiral magnetic effect (CME). While AHE is in principle present in any ferromagnetic metal, we demonstrate that a magnetic Weyl metal is distinguished from an ordinary ferromagnetic metal by the absence of the extrinsic and the Fermi surface part of the intrinsic contributions to the AHE, as long as the Fermi energy is sufficiently close to the Weyl nodes. The AHE in a Weyl metal is thus shown to be a purely intrinsic, universal property, fully determined by the location of the Weyl nodes in the first Brillouin zone. In other words, a ferromagnetic Weyl metal may be thought of as the only example of a ferromagnetic metal with a purely intrinsic AHE. We further develop a fully microscopic theory of diffusive magnetotransport in Weyl metals. We derive coupled diffusion equations for the total and axial (i.e. node-antisymmetric) charge densities and show that chiral anomaly manifests as a magnetic-field-induced coupling between them. We demonstrate that an experimentally-observable consequence of CME in magnetotransport in Weyl metals is a quadratic negative magnetoresistance, which will dominate all other contributions to magnetoresistance under certain conditions and may be regarded as a smoking-gun transport characteristic, unique to Weyl metals.

Burkov, A. A.

2015-03-01

450

Chiral anomaly and transport in Weyl metals.  

PubMed

We present an overview of our recent work on transport phenomena in Weyl metals, which may be connected to their nontrivial topological properties, particularly to chiral anomaly. We argue that there are two basic phenomena, which are related to chiral anomaly in Weyl metals: anomalous Hall effect (AHE) and chiral magnetic effect (CME). While AHE is in principle present in any ferromagnetic metal, we demonstrate that a magnetic Weyl metal is distinguished from an ordinary ferromagnetic metal by the absence of the extrinsic and the Fermi surface part of the intrinsic contributions to the AHE, as long as the Fermi energy is sufficiently close to the Weyl nodes. The AHE in a Weyl metal is thus shown to be a purely intrinsic, universal property, fully determined by the location of the Weyl nodes in the first Brillouin zone. In other words, a ferromagnetic Weyl metal may be thought of as the only example of a ferromagnetic metal with a purely intrinsic AHE. We further develop a fully microscopic theory of diffusive magnetotransport in Weyl metals. We derive coupled diffusion equations for the total and axial (i.e. node-antisymmetric) charge densities and show that chiral anomaly manifests as a magnetic-field-induced coupling between them. We demonstrate that an experimentally-observable consequence of CME in magnetotransport in Weyl metals is a quadratic negative magnetoresistance, which will dominate all other contributions to magnetoresistance under certain conditions and may be regarded as a smoking-gun transport characteristic, unique to Weyl metals. PMID:25712419

Burkov, A A

2015-03-25

451

Energy conserving and potential-enstrophy dissipating schemes for the shallow water equations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To incorporate potential enstrophy dissipation into discrete shallow water equations with no or arbitrarily small energy dissipation, a family of finite-difference schemes have been derived with which potential enstrophy is guaranteed to decrease while energy is conserved (when the mass flux is nondivergent and time is continuous). Among this family of schemes, there is a member that minimizes the spurious impact of infinite potential vorticities associated with infinitesimal fluid depth. The scheme is, therefore, useful for problems in which the free surface may intersect with the lower boundary.

Arakawa, Akio; Hsu, Yueh-Jiuan G.

1990-01-01

452

Exploration of the land potential for the production of biomass for energy in the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The energy potential for energy crops and biomass residues in the Netherlands is assessed. The analysis explores the possible use of land for biomass production in the future. Various government memorandums and analyses of the expected future land use in various sectors have served as the basis for the assessment of the supply of and the demand for land in

Ineke Steetskamp; Ad van Wijk; Wim Turkenburg

1998-01-01

453

REVIEW OF THE POTENTIAL OF NUCLEAR HYDROGEN FOR ADDRESSING ENERGY SECURITY AND CLIMATE CHANGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear energy has the potential to exert a major positive impact on energy security and climate change by coupling it to the transportation sector, primarily through hydrogen production. In the short term, this coupling will provide carbon-free hydrogen for upgrading increasingly lower quality petroleum resources such as oil sands, offsetting carbon emissions associated with steam methane reforming. In the intermediate

James E. OBrien

2010-01-01

454

A methodology to pre-screen commercial buildings for potential energy savings using limited information  

E-print Network

, the measured energy consumption should approximately match the simulated value for a typical building of the same size with the most efficient HVAC system; otherwise, there may be potential for energy savings. There are four steps in the methodology: 1) testing...

Zhu, Yiwen

2006-04-12

455

Potential Evapotranspiration Estimates by the Approximate Energy Balance Method of Penman  

Microsoft Academic Search

The energy balance approximation of Penman, used to estimate potential evapo- transpiration, was tested for daily estimates on 37 days during 1956 and 1957. Though the Penman estimates were highly correlated with those obtained'from detailed energy balance measurements, the absolute values of the Penman estimates were much too small. In order to obtain suitable daily estimates of evapotranspiration with the

C. B. Tanner; W. L. Pelton

1960-01-01

456

Many-body and model-potential calculations of low-energy photoionization parameters for francium  

E-print Network

Many-body and model-potential calculations of low-energy photoionization parameters for francium A parameter are calculated for the 7s state of francium for photon energies below 10 eV. Two distinct unknown p states in francium. PACS number s : 31.15.Md, 32.80.Fb, 33.60. q I. INTRODUCTION Remarkable

Johnson, Walter R.

457

Completed April 30, 2004. LBNL-54966. The Energy-Savings Potential of Electrochromic Windows  

E-print Network

1 Completed April 30, 2004. LBNL-54966. The Energy-Savings Potential of Electrochromic Windows Road, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA Abstract Switchable electrochromic (EC) windows have been projected of electrochromic windows on US primary energy use in the commercial building sector and also provides a broader

458

Analysis of the Energy Savings Potential in K-5 Schools in Hot and Humid Climates  

E-print Network

This paper presents the analysis of the energy savings potential in K-5 schools in hot and humid climates. For the analysis, an existing K-5 school in Central Texas was selected as a case study school, and the building energy related data...

Im, P.; Haberl, J.

459

POTENTIAL OF TREE SHADE FOR REDUCING RESIDENTIAL ENERGY USE IN CALIFORNIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric utilities in California currently sponsor planting of approximately 75,000 yard trees annually as an energy conservation measure. In this study we evaluated the potential effects of tree shade on residential air conditioning and heating energy use for a range of tree orientations, building insulation levels and climate zones in California using computer simulation. Trees shading a home's west exposure

James R. Simpson; E. Gregory McPherson

460

Premonsoon estimates of convective available potential energy over the oceanic region surrounding the Indian subcontinent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Convective available potential energy (CAPE) and convective inhibition energy (CIN) are important parameters in determining the stability of the atmosphere for moist convection. This paper presents the estimates of CAPE and CIN during the premonsoon season over the oceanic region surrounding the Indian subcontinent. The high-resolution radiosonde data used in this study were collected as a part of the Integrated

Denny P. Alappattu; P. K. Kunhikrishnan

2009-01-01

461

Variation in Nuclear-Matter Binding Energies with Phase-Shift-Equivalent Two-Body Potentials  

Microsoft Academic Search

For any given two-body Hamiltonian, there exists a large class of unitarily equivalent Hamiltonians that lead to the same scattering phase shifts at all energies. The purpose of this paper is to exhibit typical saturation curves for reasonable equivalent potentials. The binding energy per particle changes by several MeV in either direction, and the saturation minimum shifts to higher or

F. Coester; S. Cohen; B. Day; C. M. Vincent

1970-01-01

462

Potential Energy Savings from Optimized Schedule and Economizer Cycles in the Moody Library at UTMB  

E-print Network

by $27,700 for chilled water and $18,800 for steam. The total potential savings is $46,500/yr, which is 24% of the annual building energy cost, or 29% of the chilled water and steam energy costs. Table 5 shows that the economizer cycle can reduce...

Liu, M.; Athar, A.; Reddy, T. A.; Claridge, D. E.; Haberl, J. S.

1993-01-01

463

Conformal Anomaly Actions and Dilaton Interactions  

E-print Network

A number of computational results concerning quantum conformal symmetry is presented. After a review of the connection between conformal symmetry for a Lagrangian field theory in flat space and Weyl symmetry for the same system embedded in a gravitational background, which is discussed in chapter 1, in chapter 2 the 3 energy momentum tensors correlation function is explicit