Potential pollution prevention and waste minimization for Department of Energy operations
Griffin, J.; Ischay, C.; Kennicott, M.; Pemberton, S.; Tull, D.
1995-10-01
With the tightening of budgets and limited resources, it is important to ensure operations are carried out in a cost-effective and productive manner. Implementing an effective Pollution Prevention strategy can help to reduce the costs of waste management and prevent harmful releases to the environment. This document provides an estimate of the Department of Energy`s waste reduction potential from the implementation of Pollution Prevention opportunities. A team of Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention professionals was formed to collect the data and make the estimates. The report includes a list of specific reduction opportunities for various waste generating operations and waste types. A generic set of recommendations to achieve these reduction opportunities is also provided as well as a general discussion of the approach and assumptions made for each waste generating operation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eshaghi, Mehdi; Zarei, Moslem; Riazi, Nematollah; Kiasatpour, Ahmad
2015-11-01
In this work we introduce a new plateau-like inflationary model including a quadratic scalar potential coupled non-minimally to gravity. This potential has a dominant constant energy density at early times which can realize successful inflation. It also includes an infinitesimal non-zero term V0 responsible for explaining dark energy which causing the universe to expand accelerating at the late time. We show that this model predicts small tensor-to-scalar ratio of the order of r≈ 0.01 which is fully consistent with Planck constraints. Using the lower and upper bounds on reheating temperature, we provide additional constraints on the non-minimal coupling parameter ξ of the model. We also study the preheating stage predicted by this kind of potentials using numerical calculations.
Dill, K.A.; Phillips, A.T.; Rosen, J.B.
1997-12-01
Proteins require specific three-dimensional conformations to function properly. These {open_quotes}native{close_quotes} conformations result primarily from intramolecular interactions between the atoms in the macromolecule, and also intermolecular interactions between the macromolecule and the surrounding solvent. Although the folding process can be quite complex, the instructions guiding this process are specified by the one-dimensional primary sequence of the protein or nucleic acid: external factors, such as helper (chaperone) proteins, present at the time of folding have no effect on the final state of the protein. Many denatured proteins spontaneously refold into functional conformations once denaturing conditions are removed. Indeed, the existence of a unique native conformation, in which residues distant in sequence but close in proximity exhibit a densely packed hydrophobic core, suggests that this three-dimensional structure is largely encoded within the sequential arrangement of these specific amino acids. In any case, the native structure is often the conformation at the global minimum energy. In addition to the unique native (minimum energy) structure, other less stable structures exist as well, each with a corresponding potential energy. These structures, in conjunction with the native structure, make up an energy landscape that can be used to characterize various aspects of the protein structure. 22 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.
Minimization of a free-energy-like potential for non-equilibrium flow systems at steady state
Niven, Robert K.
2010-01-01
This study examines a new formulation of non-equilibrium thermodynamics, which gives a conditional derivation of the ‘maximum entropy production’ (MEP) principle for flow and/or chemical reaction systems at steady state. The analysis uses a dimensionless potential function ϕst for non-equilibrium systems, analogous to the free energy concept of equilibrium thermodynamics. Spontaneous reductions in ϕst arise from increases in the ‘flux entropy’ of the system—a measure of the variability of the fluxes—or in the local entropy production; conditionally, depending on the behaviour of the flux entropy, the formulation reduces to the MEP principle. The inferred steady state is also shown to exhibit high variability in its instantaneous fluxes and rates, consistent with the observed behaviour of turbulent fluid flow, heat convection and biological systems; one consequence is the coexistence of energy producers and consumers in ecological systems. The different paths for attaining steady state are also classified. PMID:20368250
Simulating granular materials by energy minimization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krijgsman, D.; Luding, S.
2016-03-01
Discrete element methods are extremely helpful in understanding the complex behaviors of granular media, as they give valuable insight into all internal variables of the system. In this paper, a novel discrete element method for performing simulations of granular media is presented, based on the minimization of the potential energy in the system. Contrary to most discrete element methods (i.e., soft-particle method, event-driven method, and non-smooth contact dynamics), the system does not evolve by (approximately) integrating Newtons equations of motion in time, but rather by searching for mechanical equilibrium solutions for the positions of all particles in the system, which is mathematically equivalent to locally minimizing the potential energy. The new method allows for the rapid creation of jammed initial conditions (to be used for further studies) and for the simulation of quasi-static deformation problems. The major advantage of the new method is that it allows for truly static deformations. The system does not evolve with time, but rather with the externally applied strain or load, so that there is no kinetic energy in the system, in contrast to other quasi-static methods. The performance of the algorithm for both types of applications of the method is tested. Therefore we look at the required number of iterations, for the system to converge to a stable solution. For each single iteration, the required computational effort scales linearly with the number of particles. During the process of creating initial conditions, the required number of iterations for two-dimensional systems scales with the square root of the number of particles in the system. The required number of iterations increases for systems closer to the jamming packing fraction. For a quasi-static pure shear deformation simulation, the results of the new method are validated by regular soft-particle dynamics simulations. The energy minimization algorithm is able to capture the evolution of the
Non-minimal quintessence with nearly flat potential
Sen, Anjan A.; Gupta, Gaveshna; Das, Sudipta E-mail: gaveshna.gupta@gmail.com
2009-09-01
We consider Brans-Dicke type nonminimally coupled scalar field as a candidate for dark energy. In the conformally transformed Einstein's frame, our model is a coupled quintessence model. In such models, we consider potentials for the scalar field which satisfy the slow-roll conditions: [(1/V)(dV/dφ)]{sup 2} << 1 and (1/V)(d{sup 2}V/dφ{sup 2}) << 1. For such potentials, we show that the equation of state for the scalar field can be described by a universal behaviour, provided the scalar field rolls only in the flat part of the potentials where the slow-roll conditions are satisfied. Our work generalizes the previous work by Scherrer and Sen [7] for minimally coupled scalar field case. We have also studied the observational constraints on the model parameters considering the Supernova and BAO observational data.
Holographic dark energy from minimal supergravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Landim, Ricardo C. G.
2016-02-01
We embed models of holographic dark energy (HDE) coupled to dark matter (DM) in minimal supergravity plus matter, with one chiral superfield. We analyze two cases. The first one has the Hubble radius as the infrared (IR) cutoff and the interaction between the two fluids is proportional to the energy density of the DE. The second case has the future event horizon as IR cutoff while the interaction is proportional to the energy density of both components of the dark sector.
Free energies for singleton minimal states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Golden, J. M.
2016-06-01
It is assumed that any free energy function exhibits strict periodic behavior for histories that have been periodic for all past times. This is not the case for the work function, which, however, has the usual defining properties of a free energy. Forms given in fairly recent years for the minimum and related free energies of linear materials with memory have this property. Materials for which the minimal states are all singletons are those for which at least some of the singularities of the Fourier transform of the relaxation function are not isolated. For such materials, the maximum free energy is the work function, and free energies intermediate between the minimum free energy and the work function should be given by a linear relation involving these two quantities. All such functionals, except the minimum free energy, therefore do not have strict periodic behavior for periodic histories, which contradicts our assumption. A way out of the difficulty is explored which involves approximating the relaxation function by a form for which the minimal states are no longer singletons. A representation can then be given of an arbitrary free energy as a linear combination of the minimum, maximum and intermediate free energies derived in earlier work. This representation obeys our periodicity assumption. Numerical data are presented, supporting the consistency of this approach.
Energy minimization for self-organized structure formation and actuation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kofod, Guggi; Wirges, Werner; Paajanen, Mika; Bauer, Siegfried
2007-02-01
An approach for creating complex structures with embedded actuation in planar manufacturing steps is presented. Self-organization and energy minimization are central to this approach, illustrated with a model based on minimization of the hyperelastic free energy strain function of a stretched elastomer and the bending elastic energy of a plastic frame. A tulip-shaped gripper structure illustrates the technological potential of the approach. Advantages are simplicity of manufacture, complexity of final structures, and the ease with which any electroactive material can be exploited as means of actuation.
Minimal energy damping in an axisymmetric flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sachs, Alexander
2008-05-01
The method of Lagrange's undetermined multipliers is used to find the velocity field which minimizes the energy damping for a viscous incompressible fluid described by the Navier- Stoke equation. The vorticity of this velocity field obeys a Helmholtz equation with an undetermined parameter. This Helmholtz equation is used to determine the axisymmetric velocity field in a cylinder. This velocity field is slightly different from the Poiseuille velocity field. The rate of energy damping per unit energy is calculated as a function of the parameter. It is a minimum when the parameter is equal to the root of a Bessel function.
Nonlinear transient analysis via energy minimization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kamat, M. P.; Knight, N. F., Jr.
1978-01-01
The formulation basis for nonlinear transient analysis of finite element models of structures using energy minimization is provided. Geometric and material nonlinearities are included. The development is restricted to simple one and two dimensional finite elements which are regarded as being the basic elements for modeling full aircraft-like structures under crash conditions. The results indicate the effectiveness of the technique as a viable tool for this purpose.
Convex Lower Bounds for Free Energy Minimization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moussa, Jonathan
We construct lower bounds on free energy with convex relaxations from the nonlinear minimization over probabilities to linear programs over expectation values. Finite-temperature expectation values are further resolved into distributions over energy. A superset of valid expectation values is delineated by an incomplete set of linear constraints. Free energy bounds can be improved systematically by adding constraints, which also increases their computational cost. We compute several free energy bounds of increasing accuracy for the triangular-lattice Ising model to assess the utility of this method. This work was supported by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program at Sandia National Laboratories. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Viridi, Sparisoma; Khotimah, Siti Nurul; Widayani, Novitrian
2015-09-01
The granular materials phenomenon known as Brazil-nut effect is discussed in this work, where its grain configurations are constructed artificially as time-independent using 2-d disks. Single intruder with 2.6 cm diameter is introduced to granular bed consisted of 1.3 cm diameter disks. Each created configuration is designed similar to observed one in experiments and simulations. Potential energy and number of contact points between grains are observed between initial and final configurations. Contactopy parameter change is also discussed. As comparison results from real experiment and simulation are also presented.
Efficient Energy Minimization for Enforcing Label Statistics.
Lim, Yongsub; Jung, Kyomin; Kohli, Pushmeet
2014-09-01
Energy minimization algorithms, such as graph cuts, enable the computation of the MAP solution under certain probabilistic models such as Markov random fields. However, for many computer vision problems, the MAP solution under the model is not the ground truth solution. In many problem scenarios, the system has access to certain statistics of the ground truth. For instance, in image segmentation, the area and boundary length of the object may be known. In these cases, we want to estimate the most probable solution that is consistent with such statistics, i.e., satisfies certain equality or inequality constraints. The above constrained energy minimization problem is NP-hard in general, and is usually solved using Linear Programming formulations, which relax the integrality constraints. This paper proposes a novel method that directly finds the discrete approximate solution of such problems by maximizing the corresponding Lagrangian dual. This method can be applied to any constrained energy minimization problem whose unconstrained version is polynomial time solvable, and can handle multiple, equality or inequality, and linear or non-linear constraints. One important advantage of our method is the ability to handle second order constraints with both-side inequalities with a weak restriction, not trivial in the relaxation based methods, and show that the restriction does not affect the accuracy in our cases.We demonstrate the efficacy of our method on the foreground/background image segmentation problem, and show that it produces impressive segmentation results with less error, and runs more than 20 times faster than the state-of-the-art LP relaxation based approaches. PMID:26352240
Minimizing Reheat Energy Use in Laboratories
Frenze, David; Mathew, Paul; Morehead, Michael; Sartor, Dale; Starr Jr., William
2005-11-29
HVAC systems that are designed without properly accounting for equipment load variation across laboratory spaces in a facility can significantly increase simultaneous heating and cooling, particularly for systems that use zone reheat for temperature control. This best practice guide describes the problem of simultaneous heating and cooling resulting from load variations, and presents several technological and design process strategies to minimize it. This guide is one in a series created by the Laboratories for the 21st century ('Labs21') program, a joint program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy. Geared towards architects, engineers, and facilities managers, these guides provide information about technologies and practices to use in designing, constructing, and operating safe, sustainable, high-performance laboratories.
Wormholes minimally violating the null energy condition
Bouhmadi-López, Mariam; Lobo, Francisco S N; Martín-Moruno, Prado E-mail: fslobo@fc.ul.pt
2014-11-01
We consider novel wormhole solutions supported by a matter content that minimally violates the null energy condition. More specifically, we consider an equation of state in which the sum of the energy density and radial pressure is proportional to a constant with a value smaller than that of the inverse area characterising the system, i.e., the area of the wormhole mouth. This approach is motivated by a recently proposed cosmological event, denoted {sup t}he little sibling of the big rip{sup ,} where the Hubble rate and the scale factor blow up but the cosmic derivative of the Hubble rate does not [1]. By using the cut-and-paste approach, we match interior spherically symmetric wormhole solutions to an exterior Schwarzschild geometry, and analyse the stability of the thin-shell to linearized spherically symmetric perturbations around static solutions, by choosing suitable properties for the exotic material residing on the junction interface radius. Furthermore, we also consider an inhomogeneous generalization of the equation of state considered above and analyse the respective stability regions. In particular, we obtain a specific wormhole solution with an asymptotic behaviour corresponding to a global monopole.
FPGA design for constrained energy minimization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Jianwei; Chang, Chein-I.; Cao, Mang
2004-02-01
The Constrained Energy Minimization (CEM) has been widely used for hyperspectral detection and classification. The feasibility of implementing the CEM as a real-time processing algorithm in systolic arrays has been also demonstrated. The main challenge of realizing the CEM in hardware architecture in the computation of the inverse of the data correlation matrix performed in the CEM, which requires a complete set of data samples. In order to cope with this problem, the data correlation matrix must be calculated in a causal manner which only needs data samples up to the sample at the time it is processed. This paper presents a Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) design of such a causal CEM. The main feature of the proposed FPGA design is to use the Coordinate Rotation DIgital Computer (CORDIC) algorithm that can convert a Givens rotation of a vector to a set of shift-add operations. As a result, the CORDIC algorithm can be easily implemented in hardware architecture, therefore in FPGA. Since the computation of the inverse of the data correlction involves a series of Givens rotations, the utility of the CORDIC algorithm allows the causal CEM to perform real-time processing in FPGA. In this paper, an FPGA implementation of the causal CEM will be studied and its detailed architecture will be also described.
Minimizing the mass of a potential railgun power supply
Johnson, D.E.; Noel, A.P.; Clements, W.D. )
1991-01-01
This paper reports on the design of a pulsed power supply to deliver 5 MJ at 1 MA at 1 shot per second to a railgun. The supply stores energy at low current in the primary of the hydrogen-cooled transformer. A switch opens the primary circuit to transfer energy to the secondary, stepping the current up to 1 MA. The authors are studying the relationship between the transformer and switch to determine how the total power supply mass can be minimized. Vacuum interrupters and gate-turn-off thyristors are used in the switch. Switch mass dominates the system, accounting for 85% of the total mass. The switch must absorb the uncoupled energy of the transformer. Low transformer coupling requires large capacitors. Even with high coupling, capacitors account for 75 to 85% of the switch mass. If transformer coupling increases, the uncoupled energy decreases, resulting in low capacitor mass.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rydzewski, J.; Jakubowski, R.; Nowak, W.
2015-11-01
This work examines the impact of energy over-minimization on an ensemble of biological molecules subjected to the potential energy minimization procedure in vacuum. In the studied structures, long potential energy minimization stage leads to an increase of the main- and side-chain entropies in proteins. We show that such over-minimization may diverge the protein structures from the near-native attraction basin which possesses a minimum of free energy. We propose a measure based on the Pareto front of total entropy for quality assessment of minimized protein conformation. This measure may help in selection of adequate number of energy minimization steps in protein modelling and, thus, in preservation of the near-native protein conformation.
Department of Energy's waste minimization program
Not Available
1991-09-01
Waste minimization, as mandated by the Congress, requires, the elimination or reduction of the generation of waste as its source, that is, before it can become waste. This audit was made to determine the adequacy of DOE's efforts to minimize the generation of waste. The audit emphasized radioactive and other hazardous waste generation at DOE's nuclear weapons production plants and design laboratories. We included waste minimization activities and actions that can be taken now, in contrast to the long-range weapons complex modernization effort. We reviewed waste minimization activities within the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM), the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Defense Programs (DP), the Hazardous Waste Remedial Action Program Office, and the Waste Minimization Management Group (WMMG) in the Albuquerque Field Office. Waste minimization programs were examined in detail at the three largest nuclear weapons production facilities -- the Rocky Flats plant, which manufactures plutonium parts; the Y-12 facility, which produces uranium components; and the Savannah River site, which manufactures and loads tritium -- and two of DOE's weapons design laboratories, Los Alamos and Sandia.
Minimal self-models and the free energy principle
Limanowski, Jakub; Blankenburg, Felix
2013-01-01
The term “minimal phenomenal selfhood” (MPS) describes the basic, pre-reflective experience of being a self (Blanke and Metzinger, 2009). Theoretical accounts of the minimal self have long recognized the importance and the ambivalence of the body as both part of the physical world, and the enabling condition for being in this world (Gallagher, 2005a; Grafton, 2009). A recent account of MPS (Metzinger, 2004a) centers on the consideration that minimal selfhood emerges as the result of basic self-modeling mechanisms, thereby being founded on pre-reflective bodily processes. The free energy principle (FEP; Friston, 2010) is a novel unified theory of cortical function built upon the imperative that self-organizing systems entail hierarchical generative models of the causes of their sensory input, which are optimized by minimizing free energy as an approximation of the log-likelihood of the model. The implementation of the FEP via predictive coding mechanisms and in particular the active inference principle emphasizes the role of embodiment for predictive self-modeling, which has been appreciated in recent publications. In this review, we provide an overview of these conceptions and illustrate thereby the potential power of the FEP in explaining the mechanisms underlying minimal selfhood and its key constituents, multisensory integration, interoception, agency, perspective, and the experience of mineness. We conclude that the conceptualization of MPS can be well mapped onto a hierarchical generative model furnished by the FEP and may constitute the basis for higher-level, cognitive forms of self-referral, as well as the understanding of other minds. PMID:24062658
Remarks on the interquark potential in the presence of a minimal length
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaete, Patricio
2013-11-01
We calculate the lowest-order corrections to the static potential for both Yang-Mills theory and gluodynamics in curved space-time, in the presence of a quantum gravity induced minimal length. Our analysis is carried out within stationary perturbation theory. As a consequence, the potential energy is the sum of a Yukawa-like potential and a linear potential for gluodynamics in curved space-time, leading to the confinement of static charges. Interestingly, we find that the coefficient of the linear term (‘string tension’) is ultraviolet finite. We highlight the role played by the new quantum of length in our analysis.
Does osteoderm growth follow energy minimization principles?
Sensale, Sebastián; Jones, Washington; Blanco, R Ernesto
2014-08-01
Although the growth and development of tissues and organs of extinct species cannot be directly observed, their fossils can record and preserve evidence of these mechanisms. It is generally accepted that bone architecture is the result of genetically based biomechanical constraints, but what about osteoderms? In this article, the influence of physical constraints on cranial osteoderms growth is assessed. Comparisons among lepidosaurs, synapsids, and archosaurs are performed; according to these analyses, lepidosaur osteoderms growth is predicted to be less energy demanding than that of synapsids and archosaurs. Obtained results also show that, from an energetic viewpoint, ankylosaurid osteoderms growth resembles more that of mammals than the one of reptilians, adding evidence to debate whether dinosaurs were hot or cold blooded. PMID:24634089
Regularity of Local Minimizers of the Interaction Energy Via Obstacle Problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carrillo, J. A.; Delgadino, M. G.; Mellet, A.
2016-05-01
The repulsion strength at the origin for repulsive/attractive potentials determines the regularity of local minimizers of the interaction energy. In this paper, we show that if this repulsion is like Newtonian or more singular than Newtonian (but still locally integrable), then the local minimizers must be locally bounded densities (and even continuous for more singular than Newtonian repulsion). We prove this (and some other regularity results) by first showing that the potential function associated to a local minimizer solves an obstacle problem and then by using classical regularity results for such problems.
Energy minimization on manifolds for docking flexible molecules
Mirzaei, Hanieh; Zarbafian, Shahrooz; Villar, Elizabeth; Mottarella, Scott; Beglov, Dmitri; Vajda, Sandor; Paschalidis, Ioannis Ch.; Vakili, Pirooz; Kozakov, Dima
2015-01-01
In this paper we extend a recently introduced rigid body minimization algorithm, defined on manifolds, to the problem of minimizing the energy of interacting flexible molecules. The goal is to integrate moving the ligand in six dimensional rotational/translational space with internal rotations around rotatable bonds within the two molecules. We show that adding rotational degrees of freedom to the rigid moves of the ligand results in an overall optimization search space that is a manifold to which our manifold optimization approach can be extended. The effectiveness of the method is shown for three different docking problems of increasing complexity. First we minimize the energy of fragment-size ligands with a single rotatable bond as part of a protein mapping method developed for the identification of binding hot spots. Second, we consider energy minimization for docking a flexible ligand to a rigid protein receptor, an approach frequently used in existing methods. In the third problem we account for flexibility in both the ligand and the receptor. Results show that minimization using the manifold optimization algorithm is substantially more efficient than minimization using a traditional all-atom optimization algorithm while producing solutions of comparable quality. In addition to the specific problems considered, the method is general enough to be used in a large class of applications such as docking multidomain proteins with flexible hinges. The code is available under open source license (at http://cluspro.bu.edu/Code/Code_Rigtree.tar), and with minimal effort can be incorporated into any molecular modeling package. PMID:26478722
Energy-minimizing choices of muscles and patterns of movement.
Alexander, R M
2000-01-01
Prilutsky (1999, target paper) reports that Crowninshield and Brand's (1981) criterion, minimization of the sum of the cubes of muscle stresses, works well as a predictor of the division of labor between muscles, for various tasks. However, no direct benefit from minimizing this particular sum is apparent, and it seems likely that it is merely a correlate of the criterion that actually drives muscle choice. In many tasks, there would be a clear, direct benefit from minimizing metabolic energy costs, as Prilutsky (1999) points out. Alexander (1997a, 1997b) and Minetti and Alexander (1997) have shown how the metabolic energy costs of muscle contraction can be estimated, and used to predict optimum muscle properties or optimal patterns of movement. This article explores the feasibility of using the same approach to predict optimum division of labor between one- and two-joint muscles. PMID:10675808
AMG by element agglomeration and constrained energy minimization interpolation
Kolev, T V; Vassilevski, P S
2006-02-17
This paper studies AMG (algebraic multigrid) methods that utilize energy minimization construction of the interpolation matrices locally, in the setting of element agglomeration AMG. The coarsening in element agglomeration AMG is done by agglomerating fine-grid elements, with coarse element matrices defined by a local Galerkin procedure applied to the matrix assembled from the individual fine-grid element matrices. This local Galerkin procedure involves only the coarse basis restricted to the agglomerated element. To construct the coarse basis, one exploits previously proposed constraint energy minimization procedures now applied to the local matrix. The constraints are that a given set of vectors should be interpolated exactly, not only globally, but also locally on every agglomerated element. The paper provides algorithmic details, as well as a convergence result based on a ''local-to-global'' energy bound of the resulting multiple-vector fitting AMG interpolation mappings. A particular implementation of the method is illustrated with a set of numerical experiments.
Potential waste minimization of trichloroethylene and perchloroethylene via aerobic biodegradation.
Wang, Jian; Cutright, Teresa J
2005-01-01
Trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE) are two of the most frequently detected chlorinated organics found in groundwater. Biodegradation with a new aerobic consortium was used to ascertain the viability of bioremediation for waste minimization applications. After 1 week of treatment, the degradation rate constants, k, were between 0.004 and 0.012 d(-1) for initial concentrations of 54-664 microM TCE. When PCE was used as the sole contaminant, the k values were approximately 0.01 d(-1) regardless of the initial concentration. The addition of 0.2 microM toluene or phenol as an inducer dramatically increased TCE degradation. For instance, at 200 microM TCE the k value when toluene was added (0.03 d(-1)) was 2.2 times higher than without inducers (0.009 d(-1)). The addition of 0.2 microM phenol increased the rate constant by 58%. However, PCE degradation rates were not changed significantly. PMID:15991724
Active minimization of energy density in three-dimensional enclosures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sommerfeldt, Scott D.
1996-01-01
The objective of this study was to further investigate and develop a novel approach for actively controlling the sound field in enclosures that is based on the acoustic energy density. Typically the acoustic field in an enclosure has been controlled by minimizing the sum of the squared pressures from several microphones distributed throughout the enclosure. The approach investigated in this study involved minimizing the acoustic energy density at the sensor locations, rather than the squared pressure. Research previous to this study in a simple one-dimensional enclosure showed that improved global attenuation of the acoustic field is often obtained by minimizing the energy density, rather than the pressure. The current study built on the previous research by extending the method of controlling the acoustic energy density to three-dimensional enclosures. The study was intended to help establish if improved control can still be expected in a more general enclosure. The study was designed to be both analytical/numerical and experimental in nature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scurlock, Bobby
This dissertation estimates the ability of CMS to discover mSUGRA model of Supersymmetry in the single muon plus jets with missing transverse energy topology for 10 fb-1 of collected data using the inclusive-muon and di-muon High Level Trigger paths. A single low mass benchmark point ( m0 = 60 GeV/c2, m1/2 = 250 GeV/c2, A0 = 0, mu > 0, and tan(beta) = 10) is used to optimize the selection criteria and to study systematic uncertainties related to detector effects. Five sigma reach contours, including expected systematic uncertainties, are presented for 10, 30, and 60 fb-1.
Strain energy minimization in SSC (Superconducting Super Collider) magnet winding
Cook, J.M.
1990-09-24
Differential geometry provides a natural family of coordinate systems, the Frenet frame, in which to specify the geometric properties of magnet winding. By a modification of the Euler-Bernoulli thin rod model, the strain energy is defined with respect to this frame. Then it is minimized by a direct method from the calculus of variations. The mathematics, its implementation in a computer program, and some analysis of an SSC dipole by the program will be described. 16 refs.
Minimizing sludge handling and energy requirements for AWT
Turnipseed, G.B.; Rivinus, R.P.; Brown, J.
1980-02-01
Upgrading of local stream use classification has required Cobb County, Georgia, which includes much of northwestern metropolitan Atlanta, to provide nitrification, phosphorus removal, and effluent filtration at the new 30-ML/d Noonday Creek Water Pollution Control Plant. The design study at the Noonday Plant is described, and means by which energy requirements are being minimized are discussed. Use of anaerobically produced methane will be maximized to enable the plant to be self-sufficient during electric utility peak demand periods.
Vanishing Higgs potential in minimal dark matter models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamada, Yuta; Kawana, Kiyoharu
2015-12-01
We consider the Standard Model with a new particle which is charged under SU (2)L with the hypercharge being zero. Such a particle is known as one of the dark matter (DM) candidates. We examine the realization of the multiple point criticality principle (MPP) in this class of models. Namely, we investigate whether the one-loop effective Higgs potential Veff (ϕ) and its derivative dVeff (ϕ) / dϕ can become simultaneously zero at around the string/Planck scale, based on the one/two-loop renormalization group equations. As a result, we find that only the SU (2)L triplet extensions can realize the MPP. More concretely, in the case of the triplet Majorana fermion, the MPP is realized at the scale ϕ = O (1016 GeV) if the top mass Mt is around 172 GeV. On the other hand, for the real triplet scalar, the MPP can be satisfied for 1016 GeV ≲ ϕ ≲1017 GeV and 172 GeV ≳Mt ≳ 171 GeV, depending on the coupling between the Higgs and DM.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ouyang, Runhai; Xie, Yu; Jiang, De-En
2015-09-01
Neural network potentials trained by first-principles density functional theory total energies were applied to search for global minima of gold nanoclusters within the basin-hopping method. Using Au58 as an example, we found a new putative global minimum which has a core-shell structure of Au10@Au48 and C4 symmetry. This new structure of Au58 is 0.24 eV per formula more stable than the best previous model that has C1 symmetry. This work demonstrates that neural network potentials combined with the basin-hopping method could be very useful in global minimization for medium-sized metal clusters which might be computationally prohibitive for first principles density functional theory.Neural network potentials trained by first-principles density functional theory total energies were applied to search for global minima of gold nanoclusters within the basin-hopping method. Using Au58 as an example, we found a new putative global minimum which has a core-shell structure of Au10@Au48 and C4 symmetry. This new structure of Au58 is 0.24 eV per formula more stable than the best previous model that has C1 symmetry. This work demonstrates that neural network potentials combined with the basin-hopping method could be very useful in global minimization for medium-sized metal clusters which might be computationally prohibitive for first principles density functional theory. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr03903g
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reddy, D. R. K.; Raju, P.; Sobhanbabu, K.
2016-04-01
Five dimensional spherically symmetric space-time filled with two minimally interacting fields; matter and holographic dark energy components is investigated in a scalar tensor theory of gravitation proposed by Brans and Dicke (Phys. Rev. 124:925, 1961). To obtain a determinate solution of the highly non-linear field equations we have used (i) a relation between metric potentials and (ii) an equation of state which represents disordered radiation in five dimensional universe. The solution obtained represents a minimally interacting and radiating holographic dark energy model in five dimensional universe. Some physical and Kinematical properties of the model are, also, studied.
Energy minimization mechanisms of semi-coherent interfaces
Shao, Shuai; Wang, J.; Misra, Amit
2014-07-14
In this article, we discussed energy minimization mechanisms of semi-coherent interfaces based on atomistic simulations and dislocation theory. For example, of (111) interfaces between two face centered cubic (FCC) crystals, interface comprises of two stable structures (normal FCC stacking structure and intrinsic stacking fault structure), misfit dislocations, and misfit dislocation intersections or nodes (corresponding to the high energy stacking fault (HESF) structure). According to atomistic simulations of four interfaces, we found that (1) greater spacing between misfit dislocations and/or larger slopes of generalized stacking fault energy at the stable interface structures leads to a narrower dislocation core and a higher state of coherency in the stable interfaces; (2) the HESF region is relaxed by the relative rotation and dilation/compression of the two crystals at the node. The crystal rotation is responsible for the spiral feature at the vicinity of a node and the dilation/compression is responsible for the creation of the free volume at a node; (3) the spiral feature is gradually frail and the free volume decreases with decreasing misfit dislocation spacing, which corresponds to an increase in lattice mismatch and/or a decrease in lattice rotation. Finally, the analysis method and energy minimization mechanisms explored in FCC (111) semi-coherent interfaces are also applicable for other semi-coherent interfaces.
Energy minimization in medical image analysis: Methodologies and applications.
Zhao, Feng; Xie, Xianghua
2016-02-01
Energy minimization is of particular interest in medical image analysis. In the past two decades, a variety of optimization schemes have been developed. In this paper, we present a comprehensive survey of the state-of-the-art optimization approaches. These algorithms are mainly classified into two categories: continuous method and discrete method. The former includes Newton-Raphson method, gradient descent method, conjugate gradient method, proximal gradient method, coordinate descent method, and genetic algorithm-based method, while the latter covers graph cuts method, belief propagation method, tree-reweighted message passing method, linear programming method, maximum margin learning method, simulated annealing method, and iterated conditional modes method. We also discuss the minimal surface method, primal-dual method, and the multi-objective optimization method. In addition, we review several comparative studies that evaluate the performance of different minimization techniques in terms of accuracy, efficiency, or complexity. These optimization techniques are widely used in many medical applications, for example, image segmentation, registration, reconstruction, motion tracking, and compressed sensing. We thus give an overview on those applications as well. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26186171
QoS-constrained Energy Minimization in Multiuser Multicarrier Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bai, Qing; Ivrlač, Michel T.; Nossek, Josef A.
In this paper the QoS-constrained resource allocation problem in multicarrier systems is considered. Within the established cross-layer framework, parameters for subchannel assignment, adaptive modulation and coding, and ARQ/HARQ protocols are jointly optimized. Instead of the conventional transmit power minimization, the total energy consumption for the successful transmissions of all information bits is set as the optimization goal. The nonconvex primal problem is solved by using Lagrange dual decomposition and the ellipsoid method. Numerical results indicate that the recovered primal solution is well acceptable in performance, and efficient in terms of computational effort.
Alaska's renewable energy potential.
Not Available
2009-02-01
This paper delivers a brief survey of renewable energy technologies applicable to Alaska's climate, latitude, geography, and geology. We first identify Alaska's natural renewable energy resources and which renewable energy technologies would be most productive. e survey the current state of renewable energy technologies and research efforts within the U.S. and, where appropriate, internationally. We also present information on the current state of Alaska's renewable energy assets, incentives, and commercial enterprises. Finally, we escribe places where research efforts at Sandia National Laboratories could assist the state of Alaska with its renewable energy technology investment efforts.
Inference with minimal Gibbs free energy in information field theory
Ensslin, Torsten A.; Weig, Cornelius
2010-11-15
Non-linear and non-Gaussian signal inference problems are difficult to tackle. Renormalization techniques permit us to construct good estimators for the posterior signal mean within information field theory (IFT), but the approximations and assumptions made are not very obvious. Here we introduce the simple concept of minimal Gibbs free energy to IFT, and show that previous renormalization results emerge naturally. They can be understood as being the Gaussian approximation to the full posterior probability, which has maximal cross information with it. We derive optimized estimators for three applications, to illustrate the usage of the framework: (i) reconstruction of a log-normal signal from Poissonian data with background counts and point spread function, as it is needed for gamma ray astronomy and for cosmography using photometric galaxy redshifts, (ii) inference of a Gaussian signal with unknown spectrum, and (iii) inference of a Poissonian log-normal signal with unknown spectrum, the combination of (i) and (ii). Finally we explain how Gaussian knowledge states constructed by the minimal Gibbs free energy principle at different temperatures can be combined into a more accurate surrogate of the non-Gaussian posterior.
Inference with minimal Gibbs free energy in information field theory.
Ensslin, Torsten A; Weig, Cornelius
2010-11-01
Non-linear and non-gaussian signal inference problems are difficult to tackle. Renormalization techniques permit us to construct good estimators for the posterior signal mean within information field theory (IFT), but the approximations and assumptions made are not very obvious. Here we introduce the simple concept of minimal Gibbs free energy to IFT, and show that previous renormalization results emerge naturally. They can be understood as being the gaussian approximation to the full posterior probability, which has maximal cross information with it. We derive optimized estimators for three applications, to illustrate the usage of the framework: (i) reconstruction of a log-normal signal from poissonian data with background counts and point spread function, as it is needed for gamma ray astronomy and for cosmography using photometric galaxy redshifts, (ii) inference of a gaussian signal with unknown spectrum, and (iii) inference of a poissonian log-normal signal with unknown spectrum, the combination of (i) and (ii). Finally we explain how gaussian knowledge states constructed by the minimal Gibbs free energy principle at different temperatures can be combined into a more accurate surrogate of the non-gaussian posterior. PMID:21230442
Xu, Peng; Gordon, Mark S.
2013-11-21
The charge transfer (CT) interaction, the most time-consuming term in the general effective fragment potential method, is made much more computationally efficient. This is accomplished by the projection of the quasiatomic minimal-basis-set orbitals (QUAMBOs) as the atomic basis onto the self-consistent field virtual molecular orbital (MO) space to select a subspace of the full virtual space called the valence virtual space. The diagonalization of the Fock matrix in terms of QUAMBOs recovers the canonical occupied orbitals and, more importantly, gives rise to the valence virtual orbitals (VVOs). The CT energies obtained using VVOs are generally as accurate as those obtained with the full virtual space canonical MOs because the QUAMBOs span the valence part of the virtual space, which can generally be regarded as “chemically important.” The number of QUAMBOs is the same as the number of minimal-basis MOs of a molecule. Therefore, the number of VVOs is significantly smaller than the number of canonical virtual MOs, especially for large atomic basis sets. This leads to a dramatic decrease in the computational cost.
Free-energy minimization and the dark-room problem.
Friston, Karl; Thornton, Christopher; Clark, Andy
2012-01-01
Recent years have seen the emergence of an important new fundamental theory of brain function. This theory brings information-theoretic, Bayesian, neuroscientific, and machine learning approaches into a single framework whose overarching principle is the minimization of surprise (or, equivalently, the maximization of expectation). The most comprehensive such treatment is the "free-energy minimization" formulation due to Karl Friston (see e.g., Friston and Stephan, 2007; Friston, 2010a,b - see also Fiorillo, 2010; Thornton, 2010). A recurrent puzzle raised by critics of these models is that biological systems do not seem to avoid surprises. We do not simply seek a dark, unchanging chamber, and stay there. This is the "Dark-Room Problem." Here, we describe the problem and further unpack the issues to which it speaks. Using the same format as the prolog of Eddington's Space, Time, and Gravitation (Eddington, 1920) we present our discussion as a conversation between: an information theorist (Thornton), a physicist (Friston), and a philosopher (Clark). PMID:22586414
GOLD/SILVER HEAP LEACHING AND MANAGEMENT PRACTICES THAT MINIMIZE THE POTENTIAL FOR CYANIDE RELEASES
The report presents a description of the magnitude and distribution of gold/silver heap leaching, the design and operation of leaching facilities, the potential for environmental impact, and management practices that may be used to minimize potential environmental releases. Curre...
Minimization of the vibration energy of thin-plate structure
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Inoue, Katsumi; Townsend, Dennis P.; Coy, John J.
1992-01-01
An optimization method is proposed to reduce the vibration of thin plate structures. The method is based on a finite element shell analysis, a modal analysis, and a structural optimization method. In the finite element analysis, a triangular shell element with 18 dof is used. In the optimization, the overall vibration energy of the structure is adopted as the objective function, and it is minimized at the given exciting frequency by varying the thickness of the elements. The technique of modal analysis is used to derive the sensitivity of the vibration energy with respect to the design variables. The sensitivity is represented by the sensitivities of both eigenvalues and eigenvectors. The optimum value is computed by the gradient projection method and a unidimensional search procedure under the constraint condition of constant weight. A computer code, based on the proposed method, is developed and is applied to design problems using a beam and a plate as test cases. It is confirmed that the vibration energy is reduced at the given exciting frequency. For the beam excited by a frequency slightly less than the fundamental natural frequency, the optimized shape is close to the beam of uniform strength.
Nonconvex energy minimization and dislocation structures in ductile single crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ortiz, M.; Repetto, E. a.
1999-02-01
Plastically deformed crystals are often observed to develop intricate dislocation patterns such as the labyrinth, mosaic, fence and carpet structures. In this paper, such dislocation structures are given an energetic interpretation with the aid of direct methods of the calculus of variations. We formulate the theory in terms of deformation fields and regard the dislocations as manifestations of the incompatibility of the plastic deformation gradient field. Within this framework, we show that the incremental displacements of inelastic solids follow as minimizers of a suitably defined pseudoelastic energy function. In crystals exhibiting latent hardening, the energy function is nonconvex and has wells corresponding to single-slip deformations. This favors microstructures consisting locally of single slip. Deformation microstructures constructed in accordance with this prescription are shown to be in correspondence with several commonly observed dislocation structures. Finally, we show that a characteristic length scale can be built into the theory by taking into account the self energy of the dislocations. The extended theory leads to scaling laws which appear to be in good qualitative and quantitative agreement with observation.
Molecular Dynamics and Energy Minimization Based on Embedded Atom Method
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
1995-03-01
This program performs atomic scale computer simulations of the structure and dynamics of metallic system using energetices based on the Embedded Atom Method. The program performs two types of calculations. First, it performs local energy minimization of all atomic positions to determine ground state and saddle point energies and structures. Second, it performs molecular dynamics simulations to determine thermodynamics or miscroscopic dynamics of the system. In both cases, various constraints can be applied to themore » system. The volume of the system can be varied automatically to achieve any desired external pressure. The temperature in molecular dynamics simulations can be controlled by a variety of methods. Further, the temperature control can be applied either to the entire system or just a subset of the atoms that would act as a thermal source/sink. The motion of one or more of the atoms can be constrained to either simulate the effects of bulk boundary conditions or to facilitate the determination of saddle point configurations. The simulations are performed with periodic boundary conditions.« less
Granda, L.N.
2011-04-01
We study a scalar field with non-minimal kinetic coupling to itself and to the curvature. The slow rolling conditions allowing an inflationary background have been found. The quadratic and Higgs type potentials have been considered, and the corresponding values for the scalar fields at the end of inflation allows to recover the connection with particle physics.
Free-Energy Minimization and the Dark-Room Problem
Friston, Karl; Thornton, Christopher; Clark, Andy
2012-01-01
Recent years have seen the emergence of an important new fundamental theory of brain function. This theory brings information-theoretic, Bayesian, neuroscientific, and machine learning approaches into a single framework whose overarching principle is the minimization of surprise (or, equivalently, the maximization of expectation). The most comprehensive such treatment is the “free-energy minimization” formulation due to Karl Friston (see e.g., Friston and Stephan, 2007; Friston, 2010a,b – see also Fiorillo, 2010; Thornton, 2010). A recurrent puzzle raised by critics of these models is that biological systems do not seem to avoid surprises. We do not simply seek a dark, unchanging chamber, and stay there. This is the “Dark-Room Problem.” Here, we describe the problem and further unpack the issues to which it speaks. Using the same format as the prolog of Eddington’s Space, Time, and Gravitation (Eddington, 1920) we present our discussion as a conversation between: an information theorist (Thornton), a physicist (Friston), and a philosopher (Clark). PMID:22586414
Minimizing the water and air impacts of unconventional energy extraction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jackson, R. B.
2014-12-01
Unconventional energy generates income and, done well, can reduce air pollution compared to other fossil fuels and even water use compared to fossil fuels and nuclear energy. Alternatively, it could slow the adoption of renewables and, done poorly, release toxic chemicals into water and air. Based on research to date, some primary threats to water resources come from surface spills, wastewater disposal, and drinking-water contamination through poor well integrity. For air resources, an increase in volatile organic compounds and air toxics locally is a potential health threat, but the switch from coal to natural gas for electricity generation will reduce sulfur, nitrogen, mercury, and particulate pollution regionally. Critical needs for future research include data for 1) estimated ultimate recovery (EUR) of unconventional hydrocarbons; 2) the potential for further reductions of water requirements and chemical toxicity; 3) whether unconventional resource development alters the frequency of well-integrity failures; 4) potential contamination of surface and ground waters from drilling and spills; and 5) the consequences of greenhouse gases and air pollution on ecosystems and human health.
Zhang, Jun; Gu, Zhenghui; Yu, Zhu Liang; Li, Yuanqing
2015-03-01
Low energy consumption is crucial for body area networks (BANs). In BAN-enabled ECG monitoring, the continuous monitoring entails the need of the sensor nodes to transmit a huge data to the sink node, which leads to excessive energy consumption. To reduce airtime over energy-hungry wireless links, this paper presents an energy-efficient compressed sensing (CS)-based approach for on-node ECG compression. At first, an algorithm called minimal mutual coherence pursuit is proposed to construct sparse binary measurement matrices, which can be used to encode the ECG signals with superior performance and extremely low complexity. Second, in order to minimize the data rate required for faithful reconstruction, a weighted ℓ1 minimization model is derived by exploring the multisource prior knowledge in wavelet domain. Experimental results on MIT-BIH arrhythmia database reveals that the proposed approach can obtain higher compression ratio than the state-of-the-art CS-based methods. Together with its low encoding complexity, our approach can achieve significant energy saving in both encoding process and wireless transmission. PMID:25751844
Noise Suppression for Dual-Energy CT Through Entropy Minimization.
Petrongolo, Michael; Zhu, Lei
2015-11-01
In dual energy CT (DECT), noise amplification during signal decomposition significantly limits the utility of basis material images. Since clinically relevant objects typically contain a limited number of different materials, we propose an Image-domain Decomposition method through Entropy Minimization (IDEM) for noise suppression in DECT. Pixels of decomposed images are first linearly transformed into 2D clusters of data points, which are highly asymmetric due to strong signal correlation. An optimal axis is identified in the 2D space via numerical search such that the projection of data clusters onto the axis has minimum entropy. Noise suppression is performed on each image pixel by estimating the center-of-mass value of each data cluster along the direction perpendicular to the projection axis. The IDEM method is distinct from other noise suppression techniques in that it does not suppress pixel noise by reducing spatial variation between neighboring pixels. As supported by studies on Catphan©600 and anthropomorphic head phantoms, this feature endows our algorithm with a unique capability of reducing noise standard deviation on DECT decomposed images by approximately one order of magnitude while preserving spatial resolution and image noise power spectra (NPS). Compared with a filtering method and recently developed iterative method at the same level of noise suppression, the IDEM algorithm obtains high-resolution images with less artifacts. It also maintains accuracy of electron density measurements with less than 2% bias error. The IDEM method effectively suppresses noise of DECT for quantitative use, with appealing features on preservation of image spatial resolution and NPS. PMID:25955585
Energy minimization strategies and renewable energy utilization for desalination: a review.
Subramani, Arun; Badruzzaman, Mohammad; Oppenheimer, Joan; Jacangelo, Joseph G
2011-02-01
Energy is a significant cost in the economics of desalinating waters, but water scarcity is driving the rapid expansion in global installed capacity of desalination facilities. Conventional fossil fuels have been utilized as their main energy source, but recent concerns over greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have promoted global development and implementation of energy minimization strategies and cleaner energy supplies. In this paper, a comprehensive review of energy minimization strategies for membrane-based desalination processes and utilization of lower GHG emission renewable energy resources is presented. The review covers the utilization of energy efficient design, high efficiency pumping, energy recovery devices, advanced membrane materials (nanocomposite, nanotube, and biomimetic), innovative technologies (forward osmosis, ion concentration polarization, and capacitive deionization), and renewable energy resources (solar, wind, and geothermal). Utilization of energy efficient design combined with high efficiency pumping and energy recovery devices have proven effective in full-scale applications. Integration of advanced membrane materials and innovative technologies for desalination show promise but lack long-term operational data. Implementation of renewable energy resources depends upon geography-specific abundance, a feasible means of handling renewable energy power intermittency, and solving technological and economic scale-up and permitting issues. PMID:21262520
Renewable energy potential in Colombia
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Correa Guzman, Jose Luis
2008-12-01
Renewable energy flows are very large in comparison with humankind's use of energy. In principle, all our energy needs, both now and into the future, can be met by energy from renewable sources. After many years trying to develop the alternative energy potential of Colombia, a major effort is principally being made since 2000 to explore and assess the renewable resources of the entire country. Until 2000, the availability of conventional energy sources in Colombia prevented renewable energy exploration from reaching a higher level. However, the extreme energy crisis of 1992 - 1993 alerted the authorities and the community to the necessity for exploring alternative energy sources. This energy study is a general approach to the current and future renewable energy scenario of Colombia. It was prepared in response to the increased interest around the world and in particular in Colombia to develop its non-fossil energy prospective. It, therefore, represents a working document giving an initial impression of the possible scale of the main renewables sources as a response to the concern about energy security and fossil fuel dependence problems. The assumptions made and calculations reported may therefore be subject to revision as more information becomes available. The aim of this dissertation is not only to improve the public understanding and discussion of renewable energy matters in Colombia but also to stimulate the development and application of renewable energy, wherever they have prospects of economic viability and environmental acceptability. To achieve such goal this paper reviews several renewable technologies, their availability, contribution and feasibility in Colombia.
Periodic discrete energy for long-range potentials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hardin, D. P.; Saff, E. B.; Simanek, B.
2014-12-01
We consider periodic energy problems in Euclidean space with a special emphasis on long-range potentials that cannot be defined through the usual infinite sum. One of our main results builds on more recent developments of Ewald summation to define the periodic energy corresponding to a large class of long-range potentials. Two particularly interesting examples are the logarithmic potential and the Riesz potential when the Riesz parameter is smaller than the dimension of the space. For these examples, we use analytic continuation methods to provide concise formulas for the periodic kernel in terms of the Epstein Hurwitz Zeta function. We apply our energy definition to deduce several properties of the minimal energy including the asymptotic order of growth and the distribution of points in energy minimizing configurations as the number of points becomes large. We conclude with some detailed calculations in the case of one dimension, which shows the utility of this approach.
Smart HVAC control in IoT: energy consumption minimization with user comfort constraints.
Serra, Jordi; Pubill, David; Antonopoulos, Angelos; Verikoukis, Christos
2014-01-01
Smart grid is one of the main applications of the Internet of Things (IoT) paradigm. Within this context, this paper addresses the efficient energy consumption management of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in smart grids with variable energy price. To that end, first, we propose an energy scheduling method that minimizes the energy consumption cost for a particular time interval, taking into account the energy price and a set of comfort constraints, that is, a range of temperatures according to user's preferences for a given room. Then, we propose an energy scheduler where the user may select to relax the temperature constraints to save more energy. Moreover, thanks to the IoT paradigm, the user may interact remotely with the HVAC control system. In particular, the user may decide remotely the temperature of comfort, while the temperature and energy consumption information is sent through Internet and displayed at the end user's device. The proposed algorithms have been implemented in a real testbed, highlighting the potential gains that can be achieved in terms of both energy and cost. PMID:25054163
Smart HVAC Control in IoT: Energy Consumption Minimization with User Comfort Constraints
Verikoukis, Christos
2014-01-01
Smart grid is one of the main applications of the Internet of Things (IoT) paradigm. Within this context, this paper addresses the efficient energy consumption management of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in smart grids with variable energy price. To that end, first, we propose an energy scheduling method that minimizes the energy consumption cost for a particular time interval, taking into account the energy price and a set of comfort constraints, that is, a range of temperatures according to user's preferences for a given room. Then, we propose an energy scheduler where the user may select to relax the temperature constraints to save more energy. Moreover, thanks to the IoT paradigm, the user may interact remotely with the HVAC control system. In particular, the user may decide remotely the temperature of comfort, while the temperature and energy consumption information is sent through Internet and displayed at the end user's device. The proposed algorithms have been implemented in a real testbed, highlighting the potential gains that can be achieved in terms of both energy and cost. PMID:25054163
Three form potential in (special) minimal supergravity superspace and supermembrane supercurrent
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bandos, Igor A.; Meliveo, Carlos
2012-02-01
This contribution begins the study of the complete superfield Lagrangian description of the interacting system of D = 4 Script N = 1 supergravity (SUGRA) and supermembrane. Firstly, we review a 'three form supergravity' by Ovrut and Waldram, which we prefer to call 'special minimal supergravity'. This off-shell formulation of simple SUGRA is appropriate for our purposes as the supermembrane action contains the so-called Wess-Zumino term given by the integral over a three form potential in superspace, C3. We describe this formulation in the frame of Wess-Zumino superfield approach, showing how the basic variations of minimal SUGRA are restricted by the conditions of the existence of a three-form potential C3 in its superspace. In this language the effect of dynamical generation of cosmological constant, known to be characteristic for this formulation of SUGRA, appears in its superfield form, first described by Ogievetsky and Sokatchev in their formulation of SUGRA as a theory of axial vector superfield. Secondly, we vary the supermembrane action with respect to the special minimal SUGRA superfields (basic variations) and obtain the supercurrent superfields as well as the supergravity superfield equations with the supermembrane contributions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grippo, M.; Walston, L.; LaGory, K.; Hayse, J.; Von Lonkhuyzen, R.; Vinikour, W.
2011-12-01
The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and the Department of Energy are currently developing criteria for avoiding utility-scale solar energy development on certain BLM-administered lands in the arid southwest. One central criterion is avoiding and minimizing impacts to streams, a goal which can be difficult because intermittent and ephemeral streams and washes often cover much of the developable landscape. Here we discuss the potential impacts of solar energy development on ephemeral and intermittent streams and the consequences for their ecological structure and function. The primary impacts could result from the direct loss of stream habitat within the construction footprint and from a reduction in the quality and quantity of stream habitat resulting from construction activities, increased water withdrawal, and alteration in drainage patterns. Such changes could affect both terrestrial and aquatic biota including the large number of protected and special status species that depend on seasonally available aquatic habitat. Several case studies are discussed in which solar energy development was rejected in a specific region based on the potential for ecological impacts to intermittent and ephemeral streams. From the case studies we conclude that although the ecological functions and values of larger intermittent and ephemeral streams is clear, the ecology of smaller washes are less understood, and consequently developing scientifically defensible avoidance criteria and mitigation plans is challenging. Although general avoidance criteria can be developed, ultimately site specific data may be required, as well as guidance from researchers and management agencies on acceptable impact levels, particularly to small ephemeral washes. Ultimately, an understanding of the basic ecology of intermittent and ephemeral streams and how they are integrated into the larger desert ecosystem is needed to minimize the ecological impacts from utility-scale solar energy developments.
Surles, M. C.; Richardson, J. S.; Richardson, D. C.; Brooks, F. P.
1994-01-01
We describe a new paradigm for modeling proteins in interactive computer graphics systems--continual maintenance of a physically valid representation, combined with direct user control and visualization. This is achieved by a fast algorithm for energy minimization, capable of real-time performance on all atoms of a small protein, plus graphically specified user tugs. The modeling system, called Sculpt, rigidly constrains bond lengths, bond angles, and planar groups (similar to existing interactive modeling programs), while it applies elastic restraints to minimize the potential energy due to torsions, hydrogen bonds, and van der Waals and electrostatic interactions (similar to existing batch minimization programs), and user-specified springs. The graphical interface can show bad and/or favorable contacts, and individual energy terms can be turned on or off to determine their effects and interactions. Sculpt finds a local minimum of the total energy that satisfies all the constraints using an augmented Lagrange-multiplier method; calculation time increases only linearly with the number of atoms because the matrix of constraint gradients is sparse and banded. On a 100-MHz MIPS R4000 processor (Silicon Graphics Indigo), Sculpt achieves 11 updates per second on a 20-residue fragment and 2 updates per second on an 80-residue protein, using all atoms except non-H-bonding hydrogens, and without electrostatic interactions. Applications of Sculpt are described: to reverse the direction of bundle packing in a designed 4-helix bundle protein, to fold up a 2-stranded beta-ribbon into an approximate beta-barrel, and to design the sequence and conformation of a 30-residue peptide that mimics one partner of a protein subunit interaction. Computer models that are both interactive and physically realistic (within the limitations of a given force field) have 2 significant advantages: (1) they make feasible the modeling of very large changes (such as needed for de novo design), and
California Industrial Energy Efficiency Potential
Coito, Fred; Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn; Masanet, Eric; RafaelFriedmann; Rufo, Mike
2005-06-01
This paper presents an overview of the modeling approach andhighlights key findings of a California industrial energy efficiencypotential study. In addition to providing estimates of technical andeconomic potential, the study examines achievable program potential undervarious program-funding scenarios. The focus is on electricity andnatural gas savings for manufacturing in the service territories ofCalifornia's investor-owned utilities (IOUs). The assessment is conductedby industry type and by end use. Both crosscutting technologies andindustry-specific process measures are examined. Measure penetration intothe marketplace is modeled as a function of customer awareness, measurecost effectiveness, and perceived market barriers. Data for the studycomes from a variety of sources, including: utility billing records, theEnergy Information Association (EIA) Manufacturing Energy ConsumptionSurvey (MECS), state-sponsored avoided cost studies, energy efficiencyprogram filings, and technology savings and cost data developed throughLawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The study identifies 1,706GWh and 47 Mth (million therms) per year of achievable potential over thenext twelve years under recent levels of program expenditures, accountingfor 5.2 percent of industrial electricity consumption and 1.3 percent ofindustrial natural gas consumption. These estimates grow to 2,748 GWh and192 Mth per year if all cost-effective and achievable opportunities arepursued. Key industrial electricity end uses, in terms of energy savingspotential, include compressed air and pumping systems that combine toaccount for about half of the total achievable potential estimates. Fornatural gas, savings are concentrated in the boiler and process heatingend uses, accounting for over 99 percent to total achievablepotential.
Cosmological dynamics with non-minimally coupled scalar field and a constant potential function
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hrycyna, Orest; Szydłowski, Marek
2015-11-01
Dynamical systems methods are used to investigate global behaviour of the spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmological model in gravitational theory with a non-minimally coupled scalar field and a constant potential function. We show that the system can be reduced to an autonomous three-dimensional dynamical system and additionally is equipped with an invariant manifold corresponding to an accelerated expansion of the universe. Using this invariant manifold we find an exact solution of the reduced dynamics. We investigate all solutions for all admissible initial conditions using theory of dynamical systems to obtain a classification of all evolutional paths. The right-hand sides of the dynamical system depend crucially on the value of the non-minimal coupling constant therefore we study bifurcation values of this parameter under which the structure of the phase space changes qualitatively. We found a special bifurcation value of the non-minimal coupling constant which is distinguished by dynamics of the model and may suggest some additional symmetry in matter sector of the theory.
de Carvalho, Alberito Rodrigo; Andrade, Alexandro; Peyré-Tartaruga, Leonardo Alexandre
2015-01-01
One goal of the locomotion is to move the body in the space at the most economical way possible. However, little is known about the mechanical and energetic aspects of locomotion that are affected by low back pain. And in case of occurring some damage, little is known about how the mechanical and energetic characteristics of the locomotion are manifested in functional activities, especially with respect to the energy-minimizer mechanisms during locomotion. This study aimed: a) to describe the main energy-minimizer mechanisms of locomotion; b) to check if there are signs of damage on the mechanical and energetic characteristics of the locomotion due to chronic low back pain (CLBP) which may endanger the energy-minimizer mechanisms. This study is characterized as a narrative literature review. The main theory that explains the minimization of energy expenditure during the locomotion is the inverted pendulum mechanism, by which the energy-minimizer mechanism converts kinetic energy into potential energy of the center of mass and vice-versa during the step. This mechanism is strongly influenced by spatio-temporal gait (locomotion) parameters such as step length and preferred walking speed, which, in turn, may be severely altered in patients with chronic low back pain. However, much remains to be understood about the effects of chronic low back pain on the individual's ability to practice an economic locomotion, because functional impairment may compromise the mechanical and energetic characteristics of this type of gait, making it more costly. Thus, there are indications that such changes may compromise the functional energy-minimizer mechanisms. PMID:25440708
The potential of renewable energy
Not Available
1990-03-01
On June 27 and 28, 1989, the US Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratories were convened to discuss plans for the development of a National Energy Strategy (NES) and, in particular, the analytic needs in support of NES that could be addressed by the laboratories. As a result of that meeting, interlaboratory teams were formed to produce analytic white papers on key topics, and a lead laboratory was designated for each core laboratory team. The broad-ranging renewables assignment is summarized by the following issue statement from the Office of Policy, Planning and Analysis: to what extent can renewable energy technologies contribute to diversifying sources of energy supply What are the major barriers to greater renewable energy use and what is the potential timing of widespread commercialization for various categories of applications This report presents the results of the intensive activity initiated by the June 1989 meeting to produce a white paper on renewable energy. Scores of scientists, analysts, and engineers in the five core laboratories gave generously of their time over the past eight months to produce this document. Their generous, constructive efforts are hereby gratefully acknowledged. 126 refs., 44 figs., 32 tabs.
Discretized energy minimization in a wave guide with point sources
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Propst, G.
1994-01-01
An anti-noise problem on a finite time interval is solved by minimization of a quadratic functional on the Hilbert space of square integrable controls. To this end, the one-dimensional wave equation with point sources and pointwise reflecting boundary conditions is decomposed into a system for the two propagating components of waves. Wellposedness of this system is proved for a class of data that includes piecewise linear initial conditions and piecewise constant forcing functions. It is shown that for such data the optimal piecewise constant control is the solution of a sparse linear system. Methods for its computational treatment are presented as well as examples of their applicability. The convergence of discrete approximations to the general optimization problem is demonstrated by finite element methods.
Guided energy-minimizing model for segmentation of vector fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Binias, Bartosz
2016-06-01
Active contours or snakes, are a group of image segmentation methods based on the idea of energy-minimizng curves. In this paper classical snake model with added Balloon Force is modified, granting it the capability of performing object segmentation task on data with unlimited number of channels. Thanks to introduction of novel component, named the Guiding Energy, into the classical active contour energy functional, the method is now capable of focusing on the objects which posses a specified features provided to the model.
Shapes of minimal-energy DNA ropes condensed in confinement
Šiber, Antonio
2016-01-01
Shapes of a single, long DNA molecule condensed in a confinement of a virus capsid are described as conformations optimizing a model free energy functional accounting for the interplay between the bending energy of the DNA and the surface energy of the DNA bundled in a “rope”. The rope is formed by bundled DNA brought together by (self-)attractive interactions. The conformations predicted by the model depend on the shape of the confinement, the total amount of the packed DNA but also on the relative contributions of the bending and surface energies. Some of the conformations found were not predicted previously, but many previously proposed DNA conformations, some of which are seemingly contradictory, were found as the solutions of the model. The results show that there are many possible packing conformations of the DNA and that the one which realizes in a particular virus depends on the capsid geometry and the nature of condensing agents. PMID:27364168
Shapes of minimal-energy DNA ropes condensed in confinement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Šiber, Antonio
2016-07-01
Shapes of a single, long DNA molecule condensed in a confinement of a virus capsid are described as conformations optimizing a model free energy functional accounting for the interplay between the bending energy of the DNA and the surface energy of the DNA bundled in a “rope”. The rope is formed by bundled DNA brought together by (self-)attractive interactions. The conformations predicted by the model depend on the shape of the confinement, the total amount of the packed DNA but also on the relative contributions of the bending and surface energies. Some of the conformations found were not predicted previously, but many previously proposed DNA conformations, some of which are seemingly contradictory, were found as the solutions of the model. The results show that there are many possible packing conformations of the DNA and that the one which realizes in a particular virus depends on the capsid geometry and the nature of condensing agents.
Beam-energy-spread minimization using cell-timing optimization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rose, C. R.; Ekdahl, C.; Schulze, M.
2012-04-01
Beam energy spread, and related beam motion, increase the difficulty in tuning for multipulse radiographic experiments at the dual-axis radiographic hydrodynamic test facility’s axis-II linear induction accelerator (LIA). In this article, we describe an optimization method to reduce the energy spread by adjusting the timing of the cell voltages (both unloaded and loaded), either advancing or retarding, such that the injector voltage and summed cell voltages in the LIA result in a flatter energy profile. We developed a nonlinear optimization routine which accepts as inputs the 74 cell-voltage, injector voltage, and beam current waveforms. It optimizes cell timing per user-selected groups of cells and outputs timing adjustments, one for each of the selected groups. To verify the theory, we acquired and present data for both unloaded and loaded cell-timing optimizations. For the unloaded cells, the preoptimization baseline energy spread was reduced by 34% and 31% for two shots as compared to baseline. For the loaded-cell case, the measured energy spread was reduced by 49% compared to baseline.
The Role of Geothermal Energy in Minimizing Global Environmental Problems
Traeger, Richard K.
1989-03-21
In the 1970's, the nation's attention was focused on Energy. This focus shifted to the Economy in the 80's with the concerns about the federal deficit. Emphasis has now moved to the Environment for the 1990's with the other two ''E's'' remaining as lingering concerns. Obviously geothermal resources have positive impacts on the three E's since they provide energy with limited environmental impact. However, they all are aware of the environmental concerns and must address them for the industry. Two current global environmental concerns discussed in this paper are the ''greenhouse effect'' and acid rain. Both of these areas have been emphasized by President Bush, and legislation is pending in both state and federal legislatures to address these problems. They need to understand the impact of geothermal energy production in these areas, and from a DOE viewpoint, identify R and D that is critical to meeting existing and pending regulations and laws.
Optimizing rice yields while minimizing yield-scaled global warming potential.
Pittelkow, Cameron M; Adviento-Borbe, Maria A; van Kessel, Chris; Hill, James E; Linquist, Bruce A
2014-05-01
To meet growing global food demand with limited land and reduced environmental impact, agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are increasingly evaluated with respect to crop productivity, i.e., on a yield-scaled as opposed to area basis. Here, we compiled available field data on CH4 and N2 O emissions from rice production systems to test the hypothesis that in response to fertilizer nitrogen (N) addition, yield-scaled global warming potential (GWP) will be minimized at N rates that maximize yields. Within each study, yield N surplus was calculated to estimate deficit or excess N application rates with respect to the optimal N rate (defined as the N rate at which maximum yield was achieved). Relationships between yield N surplus and GHG emissions were assessed using linear and nonlinear mixed-effects models. Results indicate that yields increased in response to increasing N surplus when moving from deficit to optimal N rates. At N rates contributing to a yield N surplus, N2 O and yield-scaled N2 O emissions increased exponentially. In contrast, CH4 emissions were not impacted by N inputs. Accordingly, yield-scaled CH4 emissions decreased with N addition. Overall, yield-scaled GWP was minimized at optimal N rates, decreasing by 21% compared to treatments without N addition. These results are unique compared to aerobic cropping systems in which N2 O emissions are the primary contributor to GWP, meaning yield-scaled GWP may not necessarily decrease for aerobic crops when yields are optimized by N fertilizer addition. Balancing gains in agricultural productivity with climate change concerns, this work supports the concept that high rice yields can be achieved with minimal yield-scaled GWP through optimal N application rates. Moreover, additional improvements in N use efficiency may further reduce yield-scaled GWP, thereby strengthening the economic and environmental sustainability of rice systems. PMID:24115565
The tumorigenic potential of pluripotent stem cells: What can we do to minimize it?
Peterson, Suzanne E; Garitaonandia, Ibon; Loring, Jeanne F
2016-07-01
Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have the potential to fundamentally change the way that we go about treating and understanding human disease. Despite this extraordinary potential, these cells also have an innate capability to form tumors in immunocompromised individuals when they are introduced in their pluripotent state. Although current therapeutic strategies involve transplantation of only differentiated hPSC derivatives, there is still a concern that transplanted cell populations could contain a small percentage of cells that are not fully differentiated. In addition, these cells have been frequently reported to acquire genetic alterations that, in some cases, are associated with certain types of human cancers. Here, we try to separate the panic from reality and rationally evaluate the true tumorigenic potential of these cells. We also discuss a recent study examining the effect of culture conditions on the genetic integrity of hPSCs. Finally, we present a set of sensible guidelines for minimizing the tumorigenic potential of hPSC-derived cells. © 2016 The Authors. Inside the Cell published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27417126
Hydrogel-forming microneedle arrays: Potential for use in minimally-invasive lithium monitoring.
Eltayib, Eyman; Brady, Aaron J; Caffarel-Salvador, Ester; Gonzalez-Vazquez, Patricia; Zaid Alkilani, Ahlam; McCarthy, Helen O; McElnay, James C; Donnelly, Ryan F
2016-05-01
We describe, for the first time, hydrogel-forming microneedle (s) (MN) arrays for minimally-invasive extraction and quantification of lithium in vitro and in vivo. MN arrays, prepared from aqueous blends of hydrolysed poly(methyl-vinylether-co-maleic anhydride) and crosslinked by poly(ethyleneglycol), imbibed interstitial fluid (ISF) upon skin insertion. Such MN were always removed intact. In vitro, mean detected lithium concentrations showed no significant difference following 30min MN application to excised neonatal porcine skin for lithium citrate concentrations of 0.9 and 2mmol/l. However, after 1h application, the mean lithium concentrations extracted were significantly different, being appropriately concentration-dependent. In vivo, rats were orally dosed with lithium citrate equivalent to 15mg/kg and 30mg/kg lithium carbonate, respectively. MN arrays were applied 1h after dosing and removed 1h later. The two groups, having received different doses, showed no significant difference between lithium concentrations in serum or MN. However, the higher dosed rats demonstrated a lithium concentration extracted from MN arrays equivalent to a mean increase of 22.5% compared to rats which received the lower dose. Hydrogel-forming MN clearly have potential as a minimally-invasive tool for lithium monitoring in outpatient settings. We will now focus on correlation between serum and MN lithium concentrations. PMID:26969262
Simonin, Kevin A; Burns, Emily; Choat, Brendan; Barbour, Margaret M; Dawson, Todd E; Franks, Peter J
2015-03-01
Leaf hydraulic conductance (k leaf) is a central element in the regulation of leaf water balance but the properties of k leaf remain uncertain. Here, the evidence for the following two models for k leaf in well-hydrated plants is evaluated: (i) k leaf is constant or (ii) k leaf increases as transpiration rate (E) increases. The difference between stem and leaf water potential (ΔΨstem-leaf), stomatal conductance (g s), k leaf, and E over a diurnal cycle for three angiosperm and gymnosperm tree species growing in a common garden, and for Helianthus annuus plants grown under sub-ambient, ambient, and elevated atmospheric CO₂ concentration were evaluated. Results show that for well-watered plants k leaf is positively dependent on E. Here, this property is termed the dynamic conductance, k leaf(E), which incorporates the inherent k leaf at zero E, which is distinguished as the static conductance, k leaf(0). Growth under different CO₂ concentrations maintained the same relationship between k leaf and E, resulting in similar k leaf(0), while operating along different regions of the curve owing to the influence of CO₂ on g s. The positive relationship between k leaf and E minimized variation in ΔΨstem-leaf. This enables leaves to minimize variation in Ψleaf and maximize g s and CO₂ assimilation rate over the diurnal course of evaporative demand. PMID:25547915
Simonin, Kevin A.; Burns, Emily; Choat, Brendan; Barbour, Margaret M.; Dawson, Todd E.; Franks, Peter J.
2015-01-01
Leaf hydraulic conductance (k leaf) is a central element in the regulation of leaf water balance but the properties of k leaf remain uncertain. Here, the evidence for the following two models for k leaf in well-hydrated plants is evaluated: (i) k leaf is constant or (ii) k leaf increases as transpiration rate (E) increases. The difference between stem and leaf water potential (ΔΨstem–leaf), stomatal conductance (g s), k leaf, and E over a diurnal cycle for three angiosperm and gymnosperm tree species growing in a common garden, and for Helianthus annuus plants grown under sub-ambient, ambient, and elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration were evaluated. Results show that for well-watered plants k leaf is positively dependent on E. Here, this property is termed the dynamic conductance, k leaf(E), which incorporates the inherent k leaf at zero E, which is distinguished as the static conductance, k leaf(0). Growth under different CO2 concentrations maintained the same relationship between k leaf and E, resulting in similar k leaf(0), while operating along different regions of the curve owing to the influence of CO2 on g s. The positive relationship between k leaf and E minimized variation in ΔΨstem–leaf. This enables leaves to minimize variation in Ψleaf and maximize g s and CO2 assimilation rate over the diurnal course of evaporative demand. PMID:25547915
The role of geothermal energy in minimizing global environmental problems
Traeger, R.K.
1989-01-01
Two current global environmental concerns discussed in this paper are the ''greenhouse effect'' and acid rain. Both of these areas have been emphasized by President Bush, and legislation is pending in both state and federal legislatures to address these problems. We need to understand the impact of geothermal energy production in these areas and, from a DOE viewpoint, identify R and D that is critical to meeting existing and pending regulations and laws. 8 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.
du Moulin, G
1989-01-01
The development of pneumonia in seriously ill patients remains an important concern of intensive care medicine. The design of the intensive care unit will have a direct effect upon the potential for infection. Persons involved in this design should consider engineering and architectural elements that will ultimately contribute to lower rates of infection. These include components to regulate the atmosphere, such as ventilation systems and temperature and humidity controls. Sources of contaminated water and the amplification mechanisms need to be addressed and minimized in the final designs. Architectural elements such as treatment space and lighting encourage optimal patient management and workable staffing patterns. Personnel who treat seriously ill patients should be part of the planning and design process in the construction and renovation of intensive care facilities. PMID:2495954
Mass minimization of a discrete regenerative fuel cell (RFC) system for on-board energy storage
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Xiaojin; Xiao, Yu; Shao, Zhigang; Yi, Baolian
RFC combined with solar photovoltaic (PV) array is the advanced technologic solution for on-board energy storage, e.g. land, sky, stratosphere and aerospace applications, due to its potential of achieving high specific energy. This paper focuses on mass modeling and calculation for a RFC system consisting of discrete electrochemical cell stacks (fuel cell and electrolyzer), together with fuel storage, a PV array, and a radiator. A nonlinear constrained optimization procedure is used to minimize the entire system mass, as well as to study the effect of operating conditions (e.g. current densities of fuel cell and electrolyzer) on the system mass. According to the state-of-the-art specific power of both electrochemical stacks, an energy storage system has been designed for the conditions of stratosphere applications and a rated power output of 12 kW. The calculation results show that the optimization of the current density of both stacks is of importance in designing the light weight on-board energy system.
Minimization of the energy costs for operating magnetic tunnel junctions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Farhat, Ilyas A. H.; Gale, E.; Isakovic, A. F.
2015-03-01
Increasing prospects of utilizing the STT-MRAM calls for the re-assessment of the overall energy (power) cost of operating magnetic tunnel junctions and related elements. This motivates our design, nanofabrication and characterization of simple tri-layer magnetic tunnel junctions which show measurable decrease in the operating energy cost. The MTJs we report about rely on nanoengineering interfaces between the insulating and magnetic layers in such a way that the area of the hysteresis loops can be controlled in one or both magnetic layers. Our TMR coefficient ranges from 45% to 130%, depending on the MTJ layer materials, and can be anticipated to be further increased. We also report the study of the TMR dependence on the RA product, as an important interface parameter. Lastly, we present an analysis of MTJ parameters affected by our approach and a perspective on further improvements, focusing on the device design parameters relevant for the integration of this type of MTJs. This work is supported by the SRC-ATIC Grant 2012-VJ-2335. A part of this work is being performed at Cornell University CNF, a member of NNIN. We thank CNF staff for the support.
Schmidt, Martin U; Dinnebier, Robert E; Kalkhof, Holger
2007-08-23
Diaryl azo pigments play an important role as yellow pigments for printing inks, with an annual pigment production of more than 50,000 t. The crystal structures of Pigment Yellow 12 (PY12), Pigment Yellow 13 (PY13), Pigment Yellow 14 (PY14), and Pigment Yellow 83 (PY83) were determined from X-ray powder data using lattice energy minimizations and subsequent Rietveld refinements. Details of the lattice energy minimization procedure and of the development of a torsion potential for the biphenyl fragment are given. The Rietveld refinements were carried out using rigid bodies, or constraints. It was also possible to refine all atomic positions individually without any constraint or restraint, even for PY12 having 44 independent non-hydrogen atoms per asymmetric unit. For PY14 (23 independent non-hydrogen atoms), additionally all atomic isotropic temperature factors could be refined individually. PY12 crystallized in a herringbone arrangement with twisted biaryl fragments. PY13 and PY14 formed a layer structure of planar molecules. PY83 showed a herringbone structure with planar molecules. According to quantum mechanical calculations, the twisting of the biaryl fragment results in a lower color strength of the pigments, whereas changes in the substitution pattern have almost no influence on the color strength of a single molecule. Hence, the experimentally observed lower color strength of PY12 in comparison with that of PY13 and PY83 can be explained as a pure packing effect. Further lattice energy calculations explained that the four investigated pigments crystallize in three different structures because these structures are the energetically most favorable ones for each compound. For example, for PY13, PY14, or PY83, a PY12-analogous crystal structure would lead to considerably poorer lattice energies and lower densities. In contrast, lattice energy calculations revealed that PY12 could adopt a PY13-type structure with only slightly poorer energy. This structure was
Schmidt,M.; Dinnebier, R.; Kalkhof, H.
2007-01-01
Diaryl azo pigments play an important role as yellow pigments for printing inks, with an annual pigment production of more than 50,000 t. The crystal structures of Pigment Yellow 12 (PY12), Pigment Yellow 13 (PY13), Pigment Yellow 14 (PY14), and Pigment Yellow 83 (PY83) were determined from X-ray powder data using lattice energy minimizations and subsequent Rietveld refinements. Details of the lattice energy minimization procedure and of the development of a torsion potential for the biphenyl fragment are given. The Rietveld refinements were carried out using rigid bodies, or constraints. It was also possible to refine all atomic positions individually without any constraint or restraint, even for PY12 having 44 independent non-hydrogen atoms per asymmetric unit. For PY14 (23 independent non-hydrogen atoms), additionally all atomic isotropic temperature factors could be refined individually. PY12 crystallized in a herringbone arrangement with twisted biaryl fragments. PY13 and PY14 formed a layer structure of planar molecules. PY83 showed a herringbone structure with planar molecules. According to quantum mechanical calculations, the twisting of the biaryl fragment results in a lower color strength of the pigments, whereas changes in the substitution pattern have almost no influence on the color strength of a single molecule. Hence, the experimentally observed lower color strength of PY12 in comparison with that of PY13 and PY83 can be explained as a pure packing effect. Further lattice energy calculations explained that the four investigated pigments crystallize in three different structures because these structures are the energetically most favorable ones for each compound. For example, for PY13, PY14, or PY83, a PY12-analogous crystal structure would lead to considerably poorer lattice energies and lower densities. In contrast, lattice energy calculations revealed that PY12 could adopt a PY13-type structure with only slightly poorer energy. This structure was
Stabilized quasi-Newton optimization of noisy potential energy surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schaefer, Bastian; Ghasemi, S. Alireza; Roy, Shantanu; Goedecker, Stefan; Goedecker Group Team
Optimizations of atomic positions belong to the most frequently performed tasks in electronic structure calculations. Many simulations like global minimum searches or the identification of chemical reaction pathways can require the computation of hundreds or thousands of minimizations or saddle points. To automatize these tasks, optimization algorithms must not only be efficient but also very reliable. Unfortunately, computational noise in forces and energies is inherent to electronic structure codes. This computational noise poses a severe problem to the stability of efficient optimization methods like the limited-memory Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno algorithm. In this talk a recently published technique that allows to obtain significant curvature information of noisy potential energy surfaces is presented. This technique was used to construct both, a stabilized quasi-Newton minimization method and a stabilized quasi-Newton saddle finding approach. With the help of benchmarks both the minimizer and the saddle finding approach were demonstrated to be superior to comparable existing methods.
Pixel level image fusion for medical imaging: an energy minimizing approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miles, Brandon; Law, Max W. K.; Ben-Ayed, Ismail; Garvin, Greg; Fenster, Aaron; Li, Shuo
2012-03-01
In an attempt to improve the visualisation techniques for diagnosis and treatment of musculoskeletal injuries, we present a novel image fusion method for a pixel-wise fusion of CT and MR images. We focus on the spine and it's related diseases including osteophyte growth, degenerate disc disease and spinal stenosis. This will have benefit to the 50-75% of people who suffer from back pain, which is the reason for 1.8% of all hospital stays in the United States.1 Pre-registered CT and MR image pairs were used. Rigid registration was performed based on soft tissue correspondence. A pixel-wise image fusion algorithm has been designed to combine CT and MR images into a single image. This is accomplished by minimizing an energy functional using a Graph Cut approach. The functional is formulated to balance the similarity between the resultant image and the CT image as well as between the resultant image and the MR image. Furthermore the variational smoothness of the resultant image is considered in the energy functional (to enforce natural transitions between pixels). The results have been validated based on the amount of significant detail preserved in the final fused image. Based on bone cortex and disc / spinal cord areas, 95% of the relevant MR detail and 85% of the relevant CT detail was preserved. This work has the potential to aid in patient diagnosis, surgery planning and execution along with post operative follow up.
Geothermal Energy: Tapping the Potential
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Johnson, Bill
2008-01-01
Ground source geothermal energy enables one to tap into the earth's stored renewable energy for heating and cooling facilities. Proper application of ground-source geothermal technology can have a dramatic impact on the efficiency and financial performance of building energy utilization (30%+). At the same time, using this alternative energy…
Minimally nonlocal nucleon-nucleon potentials with chiral two-pion exchange including Δ resonances
Piarulli, M.; Girlanda, L.; Schiavilla, R.; Pérez, R. Navarro; Amaro, J. E.; Arriola, E. Ruiz
2015-02-26
In this study, we construct a coordinate-space chiral potential, including Δ-isobar intermediate states in its two-pion-exchange component up to order Q3 (Q denotes generically the low momentum scale). The contact interactions entering at next-to-leading and next-to-next-to-next-to-leading orders (Q2 and Q4, respectively) are rearranged by Fierz transformations to yield terms at most quadratic in the relative momentum operator of the two nucleons. The low-energy constant multiplying these contact interactions are fitted to the 2013 Granada database, consisting of 2309 pp and 2982 np data (including, respectively, 148 and 218 normalizations) in the laboratory-energy range 0–300 MeV. For the total 5291 $pp$more » and $np$ data in this range, we obtain a Χ2 /datum of roughly 1.3 for a set of three models characterized by long- and short-range cutoffs, RL and RS respectively, ranging from (RL,RS)=(1.2,0.8) fm down to (0.8,0.6) fm. The long-range (short-range) cutoff regularizes the one- and two-pion exchange (contact) part of the potential.« less
Potential energy of a dinuclear system
Adamyan, G.G.; Antonenko, N.V.; Jolos, R.V.; Ivanova, S.P.; Mel`nikova, O.I.
1994-11-01
An effective method for calculating the potential energy of a dinuclear system is proposed. Analytic expressions for calculating the nuclear part of the nucleus-nucleus potential in the double-folding form are obtained. A relationship between this potential and the proximity potential is found. Effects of deformation and mutual orientation of nuclei on the interaction potential are studied. It follows from a comparison of calculated potential energies with nuclear binding energies that excited states of some nuclei can be treated as dinuclear or trinuclear systems. 27 refs., 7 figs.
Potential of renewable and alternative energy sources
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Konovalov, V.; Pogharnitskaya, O.; Rostovshchikova, A.; Matveenko, I.
2015-11-01
The article deals with application potential of clean alternative renewable energy sources. By means of system analysis the forecast for consumption of electrical energy in Tomsk Oblast as well as main energy sources of existing energy system have been studied up to 2018. Engineering potential of renewable and alternative energy sources is evaluated. Besides, ranking in the order of their efficiency descending is performed. It is concluded that Tomsk Oblast has high potential of alternative and renewable energy sources, among which the most promising development perspective is implementation of gasification stations to save fuel consumed by diesel power stations as well as building wind-power plants.
Teardrop shapes minimize bending energy of fusion pores connecting planar bilayers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ryham, Rolf J.; Ward, Mark A.; Cohen, Fredric S.
2013-12-01
A numerical gradient flow procedure was devised to characterize minimal energy shapes of fusion pores connecting two parallel planar bilayer membranes. Pore energy, composed of splay, tilt, and stretching, was obtained by modeling each bilayer as two monolayers and treating each monolayer of a bilayer membrane as a freely deformable surface described with a mean lipid orientation field. Voids between the two monolayers were prevented by a steric penalty formulation. Pore shapes were assumed to possess both axial and reflectional symmetry. For fixed pore radius and bilayer separation, the gradient flow procedure was applied to initially toroidal pore shapes. Using initially elliptical pore shapes yielded the same final shape. The resulting minimal pore shapes and energies were analyzed as a function of pore dimension and lipid composition. Previous studies either assumed or confined pore shapes, thereby tacitly supplying an unspecified amount of energy to maintain shape. The shapes derived in the present study were outputs of calculations and an externally provided energy was not supplied. Our procedure therefore yielded energy minima significantly lower than those reported in prior studies. The membrane of minimal energy pores bowed outward near the pore lumen, yielding a pore length that exceeded the distance between the two fusing membranes.
Teardrop Shapes Minimize Bending Energy of Fusion Pores Connecting Planar Bilayers
Ryham, Rolf J.; Ward, Mark A.; Cohen, Fredric S.
2015-01-01
A numerical gradient flow procedure was devised to characterize minimal energy shapes of fusion pores connecting two parallel planar bilayer membranes. Pore energy, composed of splay, tilt, and stretching, was obtained by modeling each bilayer as two monolayers and treating each monolayer of a bilayer membrane as a freely deformable surface described with a mean lipid orientation field. Voids between the two monolayers were prevented by a steric penalty formulation. Pore shapes were assumed to possess both axial and reflectional symmetry. For fixed pore radius and bilayer separation, the gradient flow procedure was applied to initially toroidal pore shapes. Using initially elliptical pore shapes yielded the same final shape. The resulting minimal pore shapes and energies were analyzed as a function of pore dimension and lipid composition. Previous studies either assumed or confined pore shapes, thereby tacitly supplying an unspecified amount of energy to maintain shape. The shapes derived in the present study were outputs of calculations and an externally provided energy was not supplied. Our procedure therefore yielded energy minima significantly lower than those reported in prior studies. The membrane of minimal energy pores bowed outward near the pore lumen, yielding a pore length that exceeded the distance between the two fusing membranes. PMID:24483480
Minimizing the Free Energy: A Computer Method for Teaching Chemical Equilibrium Concepts.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Heald, Emerson F.
1978-01-01
Presents a computer method for teaching chemical equilibrium concepts using material balance conditions and the minimization of the free energy. Method for the calculation of chemical equilibrium, the computer program used to solve equilibrium problems and applications of the method are also included. (HM)
Exam Question Exchange: Potential Energy Surfaces.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Alexander, John J., Ed.
1988-01-01
Presents three examination questions, graded in difficulty, that explore the topic of potential energy surfaces using a diagrammatic approach. Provides and discusses acceptable solutions including diagrams. (CW)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raza, Nauman; Sial, Sultan; Siddiqi, Shahid S.
2009-04-01
The Sobolev gradient technique has been discussed previously in this journal as an efficient method for finding energy minima of certain Ginzburg-Landau type functionals [S. Sial, J. Neuberger, T. Lookman, A. Saxena, Energy minimization using Sobolev gradients: application to phase separation and ordering, J. Comput. Phys. 189 (2003) 88-97]. In this article a Sobolev gradient method for the related time evolution is discussed.
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Production of herbaceous perennial bioenergy crops in the north central region of the USA is being targeted primarily at marginal lands to avoid conflicts between food and fuel. A fundamental challenge for biofeedstock development is to evaluate and minimize the potential of such crops to escape cul...
NRMRL-STD-0014 Pennington*, D.W., and Bare*, J.C. Comparison of Chemical Screening and Ranking Approaches: The Waste Minimization Prioritization Tool versus Toxic Equivalency Potentials. Risk Analysis (Anderson, E.L. (Ed.), Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers) 21 (5):897-912 (2001)...
Communication: Fitting potential energy surfaces with fundamental invariant neural network.
Shao, Kejie; Chen, Jun; Zhao, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Dong H
2016-08-21
A more flexible neural network (NN) method using the fundamental invariants (FIs) as the input vector is proposed in the construction of potential energy surfaces for molecular systems involving identical atoms. Mathematically, FIs finitely generate the permutation invariant polynomial (PIP) ring. In combination with NN, fundamental invariant neural network (FI-NN) can approximate any function to arbitrary accuracy. Because FI-NN minimizes the size of input permutation invariant polynomials, it can efficiently reduce the evaluation time of potential energy, in particular for polyatomic systems. In this work, we provide the FIs for all possible molecular systems up to five atoms. Potential energy surfaces for OH3 and CH4 were constructed with FI-NN, with the accuracy confirmed by full-dimensional quantum dynamic scattering and bound state calculations. PMID:27544080
Minimal cooling speed for glass transition in a simple solvable energy landscape model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Toledo-Marín, J. Quetzalcóatl; Castillo, Isaac Pérez; Naumis, Gerardo G.
2016-06-01
The minimal cooling speed required to form a glass is obtained for a simple solvable energy landscape model. The model, made from a two-level system modified to include the topology of the energy landscape, is able to capture either a glass transition or a crystallization depending on the cooling rate. In this setup, the minimal cooling speed to achieve glass formation is then found to be related with the crystallization relaxation time, energy barrier and with the thermal history. In particular, we obtain that the thermal history encodes small fluctuations around the equilibrium population which are exponentially amplified near the glass transition, which mathematically corresponds to the boundary layer of the master equation. The change in the glass transition temperature is also found as a function of the cooling rate. Finally, to verify our analytical results, a kinetic Monte Carlo simulation was implemented.
Van Pelt, R. S.; Amidon, M. B.; Reboul, S. H.
2002-02-25
Environmental restoration activities at the Department of Energy Savannah River Site (SRS) utilize innovative site characterization approaches and technologies that minimize waste generation. Characterization is typically conducted in phases, first by collecting large quantities of inexpensive data, followed by targeted minimally invasive drilling to collect depth-discrete soil/groundwater data, and concluded with the installation of permanent multi-level groundwater monitoring wells. Waste-reducing characterization methods utilize non-traditional drilling practices (sonic drilling), minimally intrusive (geoprobe, cone penetrometer) and non-intrusive (3-D seismic, ground penetration radar, aerial monitoring) investigative tools. Various types of sensor probes (moisture sensors, gamma spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, laser induced and X-ray fluorescence) and hydrophobic membranes (FLUTe) are used in conjunction with depth-discrete sampling techniques to obtain high-resolution 3-D plume profiles. Groundwater monitoring (short/long-term) approaches utilize multi-level sampling technologies (Strata-Sampler, Cone-Sipper, Solinst Waterloo, Westbay) and low-cost diffusion samplers for seepline/surface water sampling. Upon collection of soil and groundwater data, information is portrayed in a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) format for interpretation and planning purposes. At the SRS, the use of non-traditional drilling methods and minimally/non intrusive investigation approaches along with in-situ sampling methods has minimized waste generation and improved the effectiveness and efficiency of characterization activities.
Determining the electron energy distribution near the plasma potential in the earth's ionosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sharp, W. E.; Hays, P. B.; Cutler, J. R.; Dobbs, M. E.
1981-01-01
A determination of the plasma potential using an electrostatic analyzer is described in which the potential difference between the instrument slit system and surrounding plasma is minimized. Data obtained from rocket-borne instrumentation demonstrate the viability of this technique for electron fluxes between thermal energies (about 0.5 V) and suprathermal energies (many volts).
The Use of Trust Regions in Kohn-Sham Total EnergyMinimization
Yang, Chao; Meza, Juan C.; Wang, Lin-wang
2006-05-30
The Self Consistent Field (SCF) iteration, widely used forcomputing the ground state energy and the corresponding single particlewave functions associated with a many-electronatomistic system, is viewedin this paper as an optimization procedure that minimizes the Kohn-Shamtotal energy indirectly by minimizing a sequence of quadratic surrogatefunctions. We point out the similarity and difference between the totalenergy and the surrogate, and show how the SCF iteration can fail whenthe minimizer of the surrogate produces an increase in the KS totalenergy. A trust region technique is introduced as a way to restrict theupdate of the wave functions within a small neighborhood of anapproximate solution at which the gradient of the total energy agreeswith that of the surrogate. The use of trust region in SCF is not new.However, it has been observed that directly applying a trust region basedSCF(TRSCF) to the Kohn-Sham total energy often leads to slowconvergence.We propose to use TRSCF within a direct constrainedminimization(DCM) algorithm we developed in \\cite dcm. The keyingredients of theDCM algorithm involve projecting the total energyfunction into a sequence of subspaces of small dimensions and seeking theminimizerof the total energy function within each subspace. Theminimizer of a subspace energy function, which is computed by TRSCF, notonly provides a search direction along which the KS total energy functiondecreases but also gives an optimal "step-length" that yields asufficient decrease in total energy. A numerical example is provided todemonstrate that the combination of TRSCF and DCM is more efficient thanSCF.
Energy potential of modern landfills
Bogner, J.E.
1990-01-01
Methane produced by refuse decomposition in a sanitary landfill can be recovered for commercial use. Landfill methane is currently under-utilized, with commercial recovery at only a small percentage of US landfills. New federal regulations mandating control of landfill gas migration and atmospheric emissions are providing impetus to methane recovery schemes as a means of recovering costs for increased environmental control. The benefits of landfill methane recovery include utilization of an inexpensive renewable energy resource, removal of explosive gas mixtures from the subsurface, and mitigation of observed historic increases in atmospheric methane. Increased commercial interest in landfill methane recovery is dependent on the final form of Clean Air Act amendments pertaining to gaseous emissions from landfills; market shifts in natural gas prices; financial incentives for development of renewable energy resources; and support for applied research and development to develop techniques for increased control of the gas generation process in situ. This paper will discuss the controls on methane generation in landfills. In addition, it will address how landfill regulations affect landfill design and site management practices which, in turn, influence decomposition rates. Finally, future trends in landfilling, and their relationship to gas production, will be examined. 19 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.
Geothermal Energy Potential in Western United States
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pryde, Philip R.
1977-01-01
Reviews types of geothermal energy sources in the western states, including hot brine systems and dry steam systems. Conversion to electrical energy is a major potential use of geothermal energy, although it creates environmental disruptions such as noise, corrosion, and scaling of equipment. (AV)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Y.; Zhang, C.; Fraser, C. S.
2014-08-01
This paper presents an automated approach to the extraction of building footprints from airborne LiDAR data based on energy minimization. Automated 3D building reconstruction in complex urban scenes has been a long-standing challenge in photogrammetry and computer vision. Building footprints constitute a fundamental component of a 3D building model and they are useful for a variety of applications. Airborne LiDAR provides large-scale elevation representation of urban scene and as such is an important data source for object reconstruction in spatial information systems. However, LiDAR points on building edges often exhibit a jagged pattern, partially due to either occlusion from neighbouring objects, such as overhanging trees, or to the nature of the data itself, including unavoidable noise and irregular point distributions. The explicit 3D reconstruction may thus result in irregular or incomplete building polygons. In the presented work, a vertex-driven Douglas-Peucker method is developed to generate polygonal hypotheses from points forming initial building outlines. The energy function is adopted to examine and evaluate each hypothesis and the optimal polygon is determined through energy minimization. The energy minimization also plays a key role in bridging gaps, where the building outlines are ambiguous due to insufficient LiDAR points. In formulating the energy function, hard constraints such as parallelism and perpendicularity of building edges are imposed, and local and global adjustments are applied. The developed approach has been extensively tested and evaluated on datasets with varying point cloud density over different terrain types. Results are presented and analysed. The successful reconstruction of building footprints, of varying structural complexity, along with a quantitative assessment employing accurate reference data, demonstrate the practical potential of the proposed approach.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sochi, Taha
2016-09-01
Several deterministic and stochastic multi-variable global optimization algorithms (Conjugate Gradient, Nelder-Mead, Quasi-Newton and global) are investigated in conjunction with energy minimization principle to resolve the pressure and volumetric flow rate fields in single ducts and networks of interconnected ducts. The algorithms are tested with seven types of fluid: Newtonian, power law, Bingham, Herschel-Bulkley, Ellis, Ree-Eyring and Casson. The results obtained from all those algorithms for all these types of fluid agree very well with the analytically derived solutions as obtained from the traditional methods which are based on the conservation principles and fluid constitutive relations. The results confirm and generalize the findings of our previous investigations that the energy minimization principle is at the heart of the flow dynamics systems. The investigation also enriches the methods of computational fluid dynamics for solving the flow fields in tubes and networks for various types of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids.
Energy Minimization of Molecular Features Observed on the (110) Face of Lysozyme Crystals
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Perozzo, Mary A.; Konnert, John H.; Li, Huayu; Nadarajah, Arunan; Pusey, Marc
1999-01-01
Molecular dynamics and energy minimization have been carried out using the program XPLOR to check the plausibility of a model lysozyme crystal surface. The molecular features of the (110) face of lysozyme were observed using atomic force microscopy (AFM). A model of the crystal surface was constructed using the PDB file 193L, and was used to simulate an AFM image. Molecule translations, van der Waals radii, and assumed AFM tip shape were adjusted to maximize the correlation coefficient between the experimental and simulated images. The highest degree of 0 correlation (0.92) was obtained with the molecules displaced over 6 A from their positions within the bulk of the crystal. The quality of this starting model, the extent of energy minimization, and the correlation coefficient between the final model and the experimental data will be discussed.
Isometric immersions, energy minimization and self-similar buckling in non-Euclidean elastic sheets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gemmer, John; Sharon, Eran; Shearman, Toby; Venkataramani, Shankar C.
2016-04-01
The edges of torn plastic sheets and growing leaves often display hierarchical buckling patterns. We show that this complex morphology i) emerges even in zero strain configurations, and ii) is driven by a competition between the two principal curvatures, rather than between bending and stretching. We identify the key role of branch point (or “monkey saddle”) singularities in generating complex wrinkling patterns in isometric immersions, and show how they arise naturally from minimizing the elastic energy.
Green Energy in New Construction: Maximize Energy Savings and Minimize Cost
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ventresca, Joseph
2010-01-01
People often use the term "green energy" to refer to alternative energy technologies. But green energy doesn't guarantee maximum energy savings at a minimum cost--a common misconception. For school business officials, green energy means getting the lowest energy bills for the lowest construction cost, which translates into maximizing green energy…
Rigorous treatment of electrostatics for spatially varying dielectrics based on energy minimization
Obolensky, O. I.; Doerr, T. P.; Ray, R.; Yu, Yi-Kuo
2009-01-01
An energy minimization formulation of electrostatics that allows computation of the electrostatic energy and forces to any desired accuracy in a system with arbitrary dielectric properties is presented. An integral equation for the scalar charge density is derived from an energy functional of the polarization vector field. This energy functional represents the true energy of the system even in nonequilibrium states. Arbitrary accuracy is achieved by solving the integral equation for the charge density via a series expansion in terms of the equation’s kernel, which depends only on the geometry of the dielectrics. The streamlined formalism operates with volume charge distributions only, not resorting to introducing surface charges by hand. Therefore, it can be applied to any spatial variation of the dielectric susceptibility, which is of particular importance in applications to biomolecular systems. The simplicity of application of the formalism to real problems is shown with analytical and numerical examples. PMID:19518256
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leal, Allan M. M.; Kulik, Dmitrii A.; Kosakowski, Georg
2016-02-01
We present a numerical method for multiphase chemical equilibrium calculations based on a Gibbs energy minimization approach. The method can accurately and efficiently determine the stable phase assemblage at equilibrium independently of the type of phases and species that constitute the chemical system. We have successfully applied our chemical equilibrium algorithm in reactive transport simulations to demonstrate its effective use in computationally intensive applications. We used FEniCS to solve the governing partial differential equations of mass transport in porous media using finite element methods in unstructured meshes. Our equilibrium calculations were benchmarked with GEMS3K, the numerical kernel of the geochemical package GEMS. This allowed us to compare our results with a well-established Gibbs energy minimization algorithm, as well as their performance on every mesh node, at every time step of the transport simulation. The benchmark shows that our novel chemical equilibrium algorithm is accurate, robust, and efficient for reactive transport applications, and it is an improvement over the Gibbs energy minimization algorithm used in GEMS3K. The proposed chemical equilibrium method has been implemented in Reaktoro, a unified framework for modeling chemically reactive systems, which is now used as an alternative numerical kernel of GEMS.
Wave Energy Potential in the Latvian EEZ
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beriņš, J.; Beriņš, J.; Kalnačs, J.; Kalnačs, A.
2016-06-01
The present article deals with one of the alternative forms of energy - sea wave energy potential in the Latvian Exclusice Economic Zone (EEZ). Results have been achieved using a new method - VEVPP. Calculations have been performed using the data on wave parameters over the past five years (2010-2014). We have also considered wave energy potential in the Gulf of Riga. The conclusions have been drawn on the recommended methodology for the sea wave potential and power calculations for wave-power plant pre-design stage.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wai, C. M.; Hutchinson, S. G.
1989-01-01
Discusses the calculation of free energy in reactions between silicon dioxide and carbon. Describes several computer programs for calculating the free energy minimization and their uses in chemistry classrooms. Lists 16 references. (YP)
Minimizers of the Landau-de Gennes Energy Around a Spherical Colloid Particle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alama, Stan; Bronsard, Lia; Lamy, Xavier
2016-05-01
We consider energy minimizing configurations of a nematic liquid crystal around a spherical colloid particle, in the context of the Landau-de Gennes model. The nematic is assumed to occupy the exterior of a ball B r0, and satisfy homeotropic weak anchoring at the surface of the colloid and approach a uniform uniaxial state as {|x|to∞} . We study the minimizers in two different limiting regimes: for balls which are small {r_0≪ L^{1/2}} compared to the characteristic length scale {L^{1/2}} , and for large balls, {r_0≫ L^{1/2}} . The relationship between the radius and the anchoring strength W is also relevant. For small balls we obtain a limiting quadrupolar configuration, with a "Saturn ring" defect for relatively strong anchoring, corresponding to an exchange of eigenvalues of the Q-tensor. In the limit of very large balls we obtain an axisymmetric minimizer of the Oseen-Frank energy, and a dipole configuration with exactly one point defect is obtained.
Power allocation strategies to minimize energy consumption in wireless body area networks.
Kailas, Aravind
2011-01-01
The wide scale deployment of wireless body area networks (WBANs) hinges on designing energy efficient communication protocols to support the reliable communication as well as to prolong the network lifetime. Cooperative communications, a relatively new idea in wireless communications, offers the benefits of multi-antenna systems, thereby improving the link reliability and boosting energy efficiency. In this short paper, the advantages of resorting to cooperative communications for WBANs in terms of minimized energy consumption are investigated. Adopting an energy model that encompasses energy consumptions in the transmitter and receiver circuits, and transmitting energy per bit, it is seen that cooperative transmission can improve energy efficiency of the wireless network. In particular, the problem of optimal power allocation is studied with the constraint of targeted outage probability. Two strategies of power allocation are considered: power allocation with and without posture state information. Using analysis and simulation-based results, two key points are demonstrated: (i) allocating power to the on-body sensors making use of the posture information can reduce the total energy consumption of the WBAN; and (ii) when the channel condition is good, it is better to recruit less relays for cooperation to enhance energy efficiency. PMID:22254777
Finding reaction paths using the potential energy as reaction coordinate.
Aguilar-Mogas, Antoni; Giménez, Xavier; Bofill, Josep Maria
2008-03-14
The intrinsic reaction coordinate curve (IRC), normally proposed as a representation of a reaction path, is parametrized as a function of the potential energy rather than the arc-length. This change in the parametrization of the curve implies that the values of the energy of the potential energy surface points, where the IRC curve is located, play the role of reaction coordinate. We use Caratheodory's relation to derive in a rigorous manner the proposed parametrization of the IRC path. Since this Caratheodory's relation is the basis of the theory of calculus of variations, then this fact permits to reformulate the IRC model from this mathematical theory. In this mathematical theory, the character of the variational solution (either maximum or minimum) is given through the Weierstrass E-function. As proposed by Crehuet and Bofill [J. Chem. Phys. 122, 234105 (2005)], we use the minimization of the Weierstrass E-function, as a function of the potential energy, to locate an IRC path between two minima from an arbitrary curve on the potential energy surface, and then join these two minima. We also prove, from the analysis of the Weierstrass E-function, the mathematical bases for the algorithms proposed to locate the IRC path. The proposed algorithm is applied to a set of examples. Finally, the algorithm is used to locate a discontinuous, or broken, IRC path, namely, when the path connects two first order saddle points through a valley-ridged inflection point. PMID:18345872
Finding reaction paths using the potential energy as reaction coordinate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aguilar-Mogas, Antoni; Giménez, Xavier; Bofill, Josep Maria
2008-03-01
The intrinsic reaction coordinate curve (IRC), normally proposed as a representation of a reaction path, is parametrized as a function of the potential energy rather than the arc-length. This change in the parametrization of the curve implies that the values of the energy of the potential energy surface points, where the IRC curve is located, play the role of reaction coordinate. We use Carathéodory's relation to derive in a rigorous manner the proposed parametrization of the IRC path. Since this Carathéodory's relation is the basis of the theory of calculus of variations, then this fact permits to reformulate the IRC model from this mathematical theory. In this mathematical theory, the character of the variational solution (either maximum or minimum) is given through the Weierstrass E-function. As proposed by Crehuet and Bofill [J. Chem. Phys. 122, 234105 (2005)], we use the minimization of the Weierstrass E-function, as a function of the potential energy, to locate an IRC path between two minima from an arbitrary curve on the potential energy surface, and then join these two minima. We also prove, from the analysis of the Weierstrass E-function, the mathematical bases for the algorithms proposed to locate the IRC path. The proposed algorithm is applied to a set of examples. Finally, the algorithm is used to locate a discontinuous, or broken, IRC path, namely, when the path connects two first order saddle points through a valley-ridged inflection point.
Theoretical studies of potential energy surfaces
Harding, L.B.
1995-07-01
MRCI (configuration interaction) calculations were used to examine possible pathways for the O{sub 2} + CCH reaction. The H{sub 2} + CN potential surface was examined. An initial survey was made of the HCl + CN potential energy surface at a low level of theory.
Potential of energy production from conserved forages
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Forages have a potential role in meeting the demand for energy. Perennial forages are attractive for various reasons. One, both the monetary and energy cost of planting is spread over many years. Two, we already have the equipment for harvesting, storing and transporting this source of biomass. Thre...
Wind energy in China: Estimating the potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuan, Jiahai
2016-07-01
Persistent and significant curtailment has cast concern over the prospects of wind power in China. A comprehensive assessment of the production of energy from wind has identified grid-integrated wind generation potential at 11.9–14% of China's projected energy demand by 2030.
Dibrov, Alexander; Myal, Yvonne; Leygue, Etienne
2009-12-01
The prediction of protein-protein interactions based on independently obtained structural information for each interacting partner remains an important challenge in computational chemistry. Procedures where hypothetical interaction models (or decoys) are generated, then ranked using a biochemically relevant scoring function have been garnering interest as an avenue for addressing such challenges. The program PatchDock has been shown to produce reasonable decoys for modeling the association between pig alpha-amylase and the VH-domains of camelide antibody raised against it. We designed a biochemically relevant method by which PatchDock decoys could be ranked in order to separate near-native structures from false positives. Several thousand steps of energy minimization were used to simulate induced fit within the otherwise rigid decoys and to rank them. We applied a partial free energy function to rank each of the binding modes, improving discrimination between near-native structures and false positives. Sorting decoys according to strain energy increased the proportion of near-native decoys near the bottom of the ranked list. Additionally, we propose a novel method which utilizes regression analysis for the selection of minimization convergence criteria and provides approximation of the partial free energy function as the number of algorithmic steps approaches infinity. PMID:19774465
Economic Energy Savings Potential in Federal Buildings
Brown, Daryl R.; Dirks, James A.; Hunt, Diane M.
2000-09-04
The primary objective of this study was to estimate the current life-cycle cost-effective (i.e., economic) energy savings potential in Federal buildings and the corresponding capital investment required to achieve these savings, with Federal financing. Estimates were developed for major categories of energy efficiency measures such as building envelope, heating system, cooling system, and lighting. The analysis was based on conditions (building stock and characteristics, retrofit technologies, interest rates, energy prices, etc.) existing in the late 1990s. The potential impact of changes to any of these factors in the future was not considered.
Eipeldauer, Mary D
2009-01-01
This document is intended to provide an overview of the workshop entitled 'The Coming Nuclear Renaissance for the Next Generation Safeguards Experts-Maximizing Benefits While Minimizing Proliferation Risks', conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in partnership with the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) and the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). This document presents workshop objectives; lists the numerous participant universities and individuals, the nuclear nonproliferation lecture topics covered, and the facilities tours taken as part of the workshop; and discusses the university partnership sessions and proposed areas for collaboration between the universities and ORNL for 2009. Appendix A contains the agenda for the workshop; Appendix B lists the workshop attendees and presenters with contact information; Appendix C contains graphics of the evaluation form results and survey areas; and Appendix D summarizes the responses to the workshop evaluation form. The workshop was an opportunity for ORNL, Y-12, and SRNL staff with more than 30 years combined experience in nuclear nonproliferation to provide a comprehensive overview of their expertise for the university professors and their students. The overall goal of the workshop was to emphasize nonproliferation aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle and to identify specific areas where the universities and experts from operations and national laboratories could collaborate.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Angelopoulos, Michael; Redman, David; Pollard, Wayne H.; Haltigin, Timothy W.; Dietrich, Peter
2014-11-01
Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is the leading geophysical candidate technology for future lunar missions aimed at mapping shallow stratigraphy (<5 m). The instrument's exploration depth and resolution capabilities in lunar materials, as well as its small size and lightweight components, make it a very attractive option from both a scientific and engineering perspective. However, the interaction between a GPR signal and the rover body is poorly understood and must be investigated prior to a space mission. In doing so, engineering and survey design strategies should be developed to enhance GPR performance in the context of the scientific question being asked. This paper explores the effects of a rover (simulated with a vertical metal plate) on GPR results for a range of heights above the surface and antenna configurations at two sites: (i) a standard GPR testing site with targets of known position, size, and material properties, and; (ii) a frozen lake for surface reflectivity experiments. Our results demonstrate that the GPR antenna configuration is a key variable dictating instrument design, with the XX polarization considered optimal for minimizing data artifact generation. These findings could thus be used to help guide design requirements for an eventual flight instrument.
Minimization of energy input to fluids for rock-fracturing experiments
Doiphode, P.; Chaturvedi, S.
2001-06-01
Rock fracturing using electrically produced shocks in water is emerging as an environment-friendly substitute for fracturing by explosives. This involves producing underwater pressure waves or shocks of the desired intensity in a water-filled cavity drilled in the rock. We have numerically studied different options in an attempt to minimize the electrical energy consumption in this process, given a desired final pressure in the cavity. The first option is to follow different thermodynamic paths, e.g., isentropic and single shock, from the initial to the final pressure of water. It is found that isentropic compression allows a reduction of 2{endash}3 times in energy input as compared to compression by a single shock. The second option is to replace water by other fluids. It has been found that the use of aqueous solutions at high electrolyte concentrations can reduce the energy consumption by over 30%. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.
Ten scenarios from early radiation to late time acceleration with a minimally coupled dark energy
Fay, Stéphane
2013-09-01
We consider General Relativity with matter, radiation and a minimally coupled dark energy defined by an equation of state w. Using dynamical system method, we find the equilibrium points of such a theory assuming an expanding Universe and a positive dark energy density. Two of these points correspond to classical radiation and matter dominated epochs for the Universe. For the other points, dark energy mimics matter, radiation or accelerates Universe expansion. We then look for possible sequences of epochs describing a Universe starting with some radiation dominated epoch(s) (mimicked or not by dark energy), then matter dominated epoch(s) (mimicked or not by dark energy) and ending with an accelerated expansion. We find ten sequences able to follow this Universe history without singular behaviour of w at some saddle points. Most of them are new in dark energy literature. To get more than these ten sequences, w has to be singular at some specific saddle equilibrium points. This is an unusual mathematical property of the equation of state in dark energy literature, whose physical consequences tend to be discarded by observations. This thus distinguishes the ten above sequences from an infinity of ways to describe Universe expansion.
Iterative local-global energy minimization for automatic extraction of objects of interest.
Hua, Gang; Liu, Zicheng; Zhang, Zhengyou; Wu, Ying
2006-10-01
We propose a novel global-local variational energy to automatically extract objects of interest from images. Previous formulations only incorporate local region potentials, which are sensitive to incorrectly classified pixels during iteration. We introduce a global likelihood potential to achieve better estimation of the foreground and background models and, thus, better extraction results. Extensive experiments demonstrate its efficacy. PMID:16986550
Fujisawa, Jun-Ichi; Osawa, Ayumi; Hanaya, Minoru
2016-08-10
Photoinduced carrier injection from dyes to inorganic semiconductors is a crucial process in various dye-sensitized solar energy conversions such as photovoltaics and photocatalysis. It has been reported that an energy offset larger than 0.2-0.3 eV (threshold value) is required for efficient electron injection from excited dyes to metal-oxide semiconductors such as titanium dioxide (TiO2). Because the energy offset directly causes loss in the potential of injected electrons, it is a crucial issue to minimize the energy offset for efficient solar energy conversions. However, a fundamental understanding of the energy offset, especially the threshold value, has not been obtained yet. In this paper, we report the origin of the threshold value of the energy offset, solving the long-standing questions of why such a large energy offset is necessary for the electron injection and which factors govern the threshold value, and suggest a strategy to minimize the threshold value. The threshold value is determined by the sum of two reorganization energies in one-electron reduction of semiconductors and typically-used donor-acceptor (D-A) dyes. In fact, the estimated values (0.21-0.31 eV) for several D-A dyes are in good agreement with the threshold value, supporting our conclusion. In addition, our results reveal that the threshold value is possible to be reduced by enlarging the π-conjugated system of the acceptor moiety in dyes and enhancing its structural rigidity. Furthermore, we extend the analysis to hole injection from excited dyes to semiconductors. In this case, the threshold value is given by the sum of two reorganization energies in one-electron oxidation of semiconductors and D-A dyes. PMID:27452717
An asymmetric dimer in a periodic potential: a minimal model for friction of graphene flakes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hens, Remco; Fasolino, Annalisa
2016-07-01
We discuss the friction and motion of a model of a dimer with asymmetric interactions with a substrate potential. Starting from the consideration that a rigid dimer with spacing equal to half of the period of the potential has exactly zero static friction like the infinite incommensurate Frenkel Kontorova model, we show how stick-slip behaviour and friction arise as a function of asymmetry. We argue that this model can yield a simple yet insightful description of the frictional behaviour of graphene flakes on graphite and of superlubricity. The results can also be of interest for diatomic molecules on surfaces. Supplementary material in the form of three mp4 files available from the Journal web page at http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epjb/e2016-70273-5
del Vecchio, Jorge Javier; Ghioldi, Mauricio; Raimondi, Nicolás; De Elias, Manuel
2016-01-01
Fracture dislocations involving the Lisfranc joint are rare; they represent only 0.2% of all the fractures. There is no consensus about the surgical management of these lesions in the medical literature. However, both anatomical reduction and tarsometatarsal stabilization are essential for a good outcome. In this clinical study, five consecutive patients with a diagnosis of Lisfranc low-energy lesion were treated with a novel surgical technique characterized by minimal osteosynthesis performed through a minimally invasive approach. According to the radiological criteria established, the joint reduction was anatomical in four patients, almost anatomical in one patient (#4), and nonanatomical in none of the patients. At the final follow-up, the AOFAS score for the midfoot was 96 points (range, 95–100). The mean score according to the VAS (Visual Analog Scale) at the end of the follow-up period was 1.4 points over 10 (range, 0–3). The surgical technique described in this clinical study is characterized by the use of implants with the utilization of a novel approach to reduce joint and soft tissue damage. We performed a closed reduction and minimally invasive stabilization with a bridge plate and a screw after achieving a closed anatomical reduction. PMID:27340569
Reduced impact logging minimally alters tropical rainforest carbon and energy exchange
Miller, Scott D.; Goulden, Michael L.; Hutyra, Lucy R.; Keller, Michael; Saleska, Scott R.; Wofsy, Steven C.; Figueira, Adelaine Michela Silva; da Rocha, Humberto R.; de Camargo, Plinio B.
2011-01-01
We used eddy covariance and ecological measurements to investigate the effects of reduced impact logging (RIL) on an old-growth Amazonian forest. Logging caused small decreases in gross primary production, leaf production, and latent heat flux, which were roughly proportional to canopy loss, and increases in heterotrophic respiration, tree mortality, and wood production. The net effect of RIL was transient, and treatment effects were barely discernable after only 1 y. RIL appears to provide a strategy for managing tropical forest that minimizes the potential risks to climate associated with large changes in carbon and water exchange. PMID:22087005
Lee, H-G; Choi, M-K; Lee, S-C
2015-02-01
We segment an image of a porous structure by successively identifying individual grains, using a process that requires no manual initialization. Adaptive thresholding is used to extract an incomplete edge map from the image. Then, seed points are created on a rectangular grid. Rays are cast from each point to identify the local grain. The grain with the best shape is selected by energy minimization, and the grain is used to update the edge map. This is repeated until all the grains have been recognized. Tests on scanning electron microscope images of titanium oxide and aluminium oxide show that their process achieves better results than five other contour detection techniques. PMID:25430498
New insights gained on mechanisms of low-energy proton-induced SEUs by minimizing energy straggle
Dodds, Nathaniel Anson; Dodd, Paul E.; Shaneyfelt, Marty R.; Sexton, Frederick W.; Martinez, Marino J.; Black, Jeffrey D.; Marshall, P. W.; Reed, R. A.; McCurdy, M. W.; Weller, R. A.; et al
2015-12-01
In this study, we present low-energy proton single-event upset (SEU) data on a 65 nm SOI SRAM whose substrate has been completely removed. Since the protons only had to penetrate a very thin buried oxide layer, these measurements were affected by far less energy loss, energy straggle, flux attrition, and angular scattering than previous datasets. The minimization of these common sources of experimental interference allows more direct interpretation of the data and deeper insight into SEU mechanisms. The results show a strong angular dependence, demonstrate that energy straggle, flux attrition, and angular scattering affect the measured SEU cross sections, andmore » prove that proton direct ionization is the dominant mechanism for low-energy proton-induced SEUs in these circuits.« less
New insights gained on mechanisms of low-energy proton-induced SEUs by minimizing energy straggle
Dodds, Nathaniel Anson; Dodd, Paul E.; Shaneyfelt, Marty R.; Sexton, Frederick W.; Martinez, Marino J.; Black, Jeffrey D.; Marshall, P. W.; Reed, R. A.; McCurdy, M. W.; Weller, R. A.; Pellish, J. A.; Rodbell, K. P.; Gordon, M. S.
2015-12-01
In this study, we present low-energy proton single-event upset (SEU) data on a 65 nm SOI SRAM whose substrate has been completely removed. Since the protons only had to penetrate a very thin buried oxide layer, these measurements were affected by far less energy loss, energy straggle, flux attrition, and angular scattering than previous datasets. The minimization of these common sources of experimental interference allows more direct interpretation of the data and deeper insight into SEU mechanisms. The results show a strong angular dependence, demonstrate that energy straggle, flux attrition, and angular scattering affect the measured SEU cross sections, and prove that proton direct ionization is the dominant mechanism for low-energy proton-induced SEUs in these circuits.
MO-A-BRD-02: Noise Suppression for Dual-Energy CT Through Entropy Minimization
Petrongolo, M; Niu, T; Zhu, L
2014-06-15
Purpose: In dual energy CT (DECT), noise amplification during signal decomposition significantly limits the utility of basis material images. Since clinically relevant objects contain a limited number of materials, we propose to suppress noise in decomposed images through entropy minimization within a 2D transformation space. Distinct from other noise suppression techniques, the entropy minimization method does not estimate and suppress noise based on spatial variations of signals and thus maximally preserves image spatial resolution. Methods: From decomposed images, we first generate a 2D plot of scattered data points, using basis material densities as coordinates. Data points representing the same material generate a cluster with a highly asymmetric shape. We orient an axis by minimizing the entropy in a 1D histogram of these points projected onto the axis. To suppress noise, we replace the pixel values of decomposed images with center-of-mass values in the direction perpendicular to the optimized axis. The proposed method's performance is assessed using a Catphan 600 phantom and an anthropomorphic head phantom. Electron density calculations are used to quantify its accuracy. Our results are compared to those without noise suppression, with a filtering method, and with a recently developed iterative method. Results: On both phantoms, the proposed method reduces noise standard deviations of the decomposed images by at least on order of magnitude. In the Catphan study, this method retains the spatial resolution of the CT images and increases the accuracy of electron density calculations. In the head phantom study, the proposed method outperforms the others in retaining fine, intricate structures. Conclusion: This work shows that the proposed method of noise suppression through entropy minimization for DECT suppresses noise without loss of spatial resolution while increasing electron density calculation accuracy. Future investigations will analyze possible bias and
Control of flow around a circular cylinder for minimizing energy dissipation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Naito, Hiroshi; Fukagata, Koji
2014-11-01
Control of flow around a circular cylinder is studied numerically aiming at minimization of the energy dissipation. First, we derive a mathematical relationship (i.e., identity) between the energy dissipation in an infinitely large volume and the surface quantities, so that the cost function can be expressed by the surface quantities only. Subsequently a control law to minimize the energy dissipation is derived by using the suboptimal control procedure [J. Fluid Mech. 401, 123 (1999), 10.1017/S002211209900659X]. The performance of the present suboptimal control law is evaluated by a parametric study by varying the value of the arbitrary parameter contained. Two Reynolds numbers, Re =100 and 1000, are investigated by two-dimensional simulations. Although no improvement is obtained at Re =100 , the present suboptimal control shows better results at Re =1000 than the suboptimal controls previously proposed. With the present suboptimal control, the dissipation and the drag are reduced by 58% and 44% as compared to the uncontrolled case, respectively. The suction around the front stagnation point and the blowing in the rear half are found to be weakened as compared to those in the previous suboptimal control targeting at pressure drag reduction. A predetermined control based on the control input profile obtained by the suboptimal control is also performed. The energy dissipation and the drag are found to be reduced as much as those in the present suboptimal control. It is also found that the present suboptimal and predetermined controls have better energy efficiencies than the suboptimal control previously proposed. Investigation at different control amplitudes reveals an advantage of the present control at higher amplitude. Toward its practical implementation, a localized version of the predetermined control is also examined, and it is found to work as effectively as the continuous case. Finally, the present predetermined control is confirmed to work well in a three
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neff, Patrizio; Lankeit, Johannes; Ghiba, Ionel-Dumitrel; Martin, Robert; Steigmann, David
2015-08-01
We consider a family of isotropic volumetric-isochoric decoupled strain energies based on the Hencky-logarithmic (true, natural) strain tensor log U, where μ > 0 is the infinitesimal shear modulus, is the infinitesimal bulk modulus with the first Lamé constant, are dimensionless parameters, is the gradient of deformation, is the right stretch tensor and is the deviatoric part (the projection onto the traceless tensors) of the strain tensor log U. For small elastic strains, the energies reduce to first order to the classical quadratic Hencky energy which is known to be not rank-one convex. The main result in this paper is that in plane elastostatics the energies of the family are polyconvex for , extending a previous finding on its rank-one convexity. Our method uses a judicious application of Steigmann's polyconvexity criteria based on the representation of the energy in terms of the principal invariants of the stretch tensor U. These energies also satisfy suitable growth and coercivity conditions. We formulate the equilibrium equations, and we prove the existence of minimizers by the direct methods of the calculus of variations.
Potential energy function for the hydroperoxyl radical
Lemon, W.J.; Hase, W.L.
1987-03-12
A switching function formalism is used to derive an analytic potential energy surface for the O + OH in equilibrium HO/sub 2/ in equilibrium H + O/sub 2/ reactive system. Both experimental and ab initio data are used to derive parameters for the potential energy surface. Trajectory calculations for highly excited HO/sub 2/ are performed on this surface. From these trajectories quasi-periodic eigentrajectories are found for vibrational levels near the HO/sub 2/ dissociation threshold with small amounts of quanta in the OH stretch mode and large amounts of quanta in the OO stretch mode.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zuschlag, Michael
2005-01-01
This document enumerates interventions to reduce the frequency of restricted airspace violations, particularly those associated with temporary flight restrictions (TFRs) and air defense identification zones (ADIZs), by more effectively providing pilots with the information necessary to avoid such violations. Interventions are divided into both near term and far term groupings. Short term interventions, some variants of which are already in progress focus on improving the form and content of the textual Notices to Airmen (NOTAMs) as well as the graphical depiction of TFRs. A long-term technical intervention is proposed which would provide pilots the following functionality: ground and airborne presentation of information on any restricted airspace, including display on an electronic moving map, fully mechanized execution from the cockpit of the procedures required for entry into restricted airspaces that allow for entry, and alerting of the potential for TFR violations both during flight planning and while the aircraft is moving.
Geothermal energy and its potential. [Utah
Berge, C.W.
1980-06-01
A brief review of geothermal energy and its potential as a future energy source is presented. The type of geothermal systems and their geologic occurrence is discussed, and the Phillips Petroleum Company's exploration and drilling programs in the Roosevelt Hot Springs area in parts of Iron, Beaver, and Millard Counties, Utah are detailed. A section on the rock behavior and mechanical properties of rocks in the Roosevelt Hot Springs area is included. (JMT)
2015-01-01
Complex RNA structures are constructed from helical segments connected by flexible loops that move spontaneously and in response to binding of small molecule ligands and proteins. Understanding the conformational variability of RNA requires the characterization of the coupled time evolution of interconnected flexible domains. To elucidate the collective molecular motions and explore the conformational landscape of the HIV-1 TAR RNA, we describe a new methodology that utilizes energy-minimized structures generated by the program “Fragment Assembly of RNA with Full-Atom Refinement (FARFAR)”. We apply structural filters in the form of experimental residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) to select a subset of discrete energy-minimized conformers and carry out principal component analyses (PCA) to corroborate the choice of the filtered subset. We use this subset of structures to calculate solution T1 and T1ρ relaxation times for 13C spins in multiple residues in different domains of the molecule using two simulation protocols that we previously published. We match the experimental T1 times to within 2% and the T1ρ times to within less than 10% for helical residues. These results introduce a protocol to construct viable dynamic trajectories for RNA molecules that accord well with experimental NMR data and support the notion that the motions of the helical portions of this small RNA can be described by a relatively small number of discrete conformations exchanging over time scales longer than 1 μs. PMID:24479561
Improved bounds on the energy-minimizing strains in martensitic polycrystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peigney, Michaël
2016-07-01
This paper is concerned with the theoretical prediction of the energy-minimizing (or recoverable) strains in martensitic polycrystals, considering a nonlinear elasticity model of phase transformation at finite strains. The main results are some rigorous upper bounds on the set of energy-minimizing strains. Those bounds depend on the polycrystalline texture through the volume fractions of the different orientations. The simplest form of the bounds presented is obtained by combining recent results for single crystals with a homogenization approach proposed previously for martensitic polycrystals. However, the polycrystalline bound delivered by that procedure may fail to recover the monocrystalline bound in the homogeneous limit, as is demonstrated in this paper by considering an example related to tetragonal martensite. This motivates the development of a more detailed analysis, leading to improved polycrystalline bounds that are notably consistent with results for single crystals in the homogeneous limit. A two-orientation polycrystal of tetragonal martensite is studied as an illustration. In that case, analytical expressions of the upper bounds are derived and the results are compared with lower bounds obtained by considering laminate textures.
A non-gradient-based energy minimization approach to the image denoising problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lukić, Tibor; Žunić, Joviša
2014-09-01
A common approach to denoising images is to minimize an energy function combining a quadratic data fidelity term with a total variation-based regularization. The total variation, comprising the gradient magnitude function, originally comes from mathematical analysis and is defined on a continuous domain only. When working in a discrete domain (e.g. when dealing with digital images), the accuracy in the gradient computation is limited by the applied image resolution. In this paper we propose a new approach, where the gradient magnitude function is replaced with an operator with similar properties (i.e. it also expresses the intensity variation in a neighborhood of the considered point), but is concurrently applicable in both continuous and discrete space. This operator is the shape elongation measure, one of the shape descriptors intensively used in shape-based image processing and computer vision tasks. The experiments provided in this paper confirm the capability of the proposed approach for providing high-quality reconstructions. Based on the performance comparison of a number of test images, we can say that the new method outperforms the energy minimization-based denoising methods often used in the literature for method comparison.
Biomass resource potential using energy crops
Wright, L.L.; Cushman, J.H.; Martin, S.A.
1993-09-01
Biomass energy crops can provide a significant and environmentally beneficial source of renewable energy feedstocks for the future. They can revitalize the agricultural sector of the US economy by providing profitable uses for marginal cropland. Energy crops include fast-growing trees, perennial grasses, and annual grasses, all capable of collecting solar energy and storing it as cellulosic compounds for several months to several years. Once solar energy is thus captured, it can be converted by means of currently available technologies to a wide variety of energy products such as electricity, heat, liquid transportation fuels, and gases. Experimental results from field trials have generated optimism that selected and improved energy crops, established on cropland with moderate limitations for crop production, have the potential for producing high yields. Both trees and grasses, under very good growing conditions, have produced average annual yields of 20 to 40 dry Mg ha{sup {minus}1} year{sup {minus}1}. Sorghum has shown especially high yields in the Midwest. Hybrids between sugar cane and its wild relatives, called energy cane, have yielded as much as 50 dry Mg ha{sup {minus}1} year{sup {minus}1} in Florida. These experimental results demonstrate that some species have the genetic potential for very rapid growth rates. New wood energy crop systems developed by the Department of Energy`s Biofuels Feedstock Development Program offer, at a minimum, a 100% increase in biomass production rates over the 2 to 4 Mg ha{sup {minus}1} year{sup {minus}1} of dry leafless woody biomass produced by most natural forest systems. Experimental data indicate that short rotation wood crops established on cropland with moderate limitations are capable of producing biomass yields of 8--20 dry Mg ha{sup {minus}1} year{sup {minus}1} with a present average about 11 dry Mg ha{sup {minus}1} year{sup {minus}1} on typical cropland sites.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ijjasz-Vasquez, Ede J.; Bras, Rafael L.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio
1993-08-01
As pointed by Hack (1957), river basins tend to become longer and narrower as their size increases. This work shows that this property may be partially regarded as the consequence of competition and minimization of energy expenditure in river basins.
Bogani, Giorgio; Ditto, Antonino; Martinelli, Fabio; Signorelli, Mauro; Chiappa, Valentina; Lorusso, Domenica; Sabatucci, Ilaria; Carcangiu, Maria L; Fiore, Marco; Gronchi, Alessandro; Raspagliesi, Francesco
2016-01-01
Since the safety warning from the US Food and Drug Administration on the use of power morcellators, minimally invasive procedures involving the removal of uterine myomas and large uteri are under scrutiny. Growing evidence suggests that morcellation of undiagnosed uterine malignancies is associated with worse survival outcomes of patients affected by uterine sarcoma. However, to date, only limited data regarding morcellation of low-grade uterine neoplasms are available. In the present article, we reported a case of a (morcellator) port-site implantation of a smooth muscle tumor that occurred 6 years after laparoscopic morcellation of a uterine smooth muscle tumor of uncertain potential. This case highlights the effects of intra-abdominal morcellation, even in low-grade uterine neoplasms. Caution should be used when determining techniques for tissue extraction; the potential adverse consequences of morcellation should be more fully explored. PMID:26851127
Potential reduction of DSN uplink energy cost
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dolinsky, S.; Degroot, N. F.
1982-01-01
DSN Earth stations typically transmit more power than that required to meet minimum specifications for uplink performance. Energy and cost savings that could result from matching the uplink power to the amount required for specified performance are studied. The Galileo mission was selected as a case study. Although substantial reduction in transmitted energy is possible, potential savings in source energy (oil or electricity) savings are much less. This is because of the rising inefficiency in power conversion and radio frequency power generation that accompanies reduced power output.
Scott, Ricardo S; Bustillo, Diego; Olivos-Oré, Luis Alcides; Cuchillo-Ibañez, Inmaculada; Barahona, Maria Victoria; Carbone, Emilio; Artalejo, Antonio R
2011-10-01
BK channels modulate cell firing in excitable cells in a voltage-dependent manner regulated by fluctuations in free cytosolic Ca(2+) during action potentials. Indeed, Ca(2+)-independent BK channel activity has ordinarily been considered not relevant for the physiological behaviour of excitable cells. We employed the patch-clamp technique and selective BK channel blockers to record K(+) currents from bovine chromaffin cells at minimal intracellular (about 10 nM) and extracellular (free Ca(2+)) Ca(2+) concentrations. Despite their low open probability under these conditions (V(50) of +146.8 mV), BK channels were responsible for more than 25% of the total K(+) efflux during the first millisecond of a step depolarisation to +20 mV. Moreover, BK channels activated about 30% faster (τ = 0.55 ms) than the rest of available K(+) channels. The other main source of fast voltage-dependent K(+) efflux at such a low Ca(2+) was a transient K(+) (I(A)-type) current activating with V (50) = -14.2 mV. We also studied the activation of BK currents in response to action potential waveforms and their contribution to shaping action potentials both in the presence and the absence of extracellular Ca(2+). Our results show that BK channels activate during action potentials and accelerate cell repolarisation even at minimal Ca(2+) concentration, and suggest that they could do so also in the presence of extracellular Ca(2+), before Ca(2+) entering the cell facilitates their activity. PMID:21755285
Minimizing noise in fiberglass aquaculture tanks: Noise reduction potential of various retrofits
Davidson, J.; Frankel, A.S.; Ellison, W.T.; Summerfelt, S.; Popper, A.N.; Mazik, P.; Bebak, J.
2007-01-01
Equipment used in intensive aquaculture systems, such as pumps and blowers can produce underwater sound levels and frequencies within the range of fish hearing. The impacts of underwater noise on fish are not well known, but limited research suggests that subjecting fish to noise could result in impairment of the auditory system, reduced growth rates, and increased stress. Consequently, reducing sound in fish tanks could result in advantages for cultured species and increased productivity for the aquaculture industry. The objective of this study was to evaluate the noise reduction potential of various retrofits to fiberglass fish culture tanks. The following structural changes were applied to tanks to reduce underwater noise: (1) inlet piping was suspended to avoid contact with the tank, (2) effluent piping was disconnected from a common drain line, (3) effluent piping was insulated beneath tanks, and (4) tanks were elevated on cement blocks and seated on insulated padding. Four combinations of the aforementioned structural changes were evaluated in duplicate and two tanks were left unchanged as controls. Control tanks had sound levels of 120.6 dB re 1 ??Pa. Each retrofit contributed to a reduction of underwater sound. As structural changes were combined, a cumulative reduction in sound level was observed. Tanks designed with a combination of retrofits had sound levels of 108.6 dB re 1 ??Pa, a four-fold reduction in sound pressure level. Sound frequency spectra indicated that the greatest sound reductions occurred between 2 and 100 Hz and demonstrated that nearby pumps and blowers created tonal frequencies that were transmitted into the tanks. The tank modifications used during this study were simple and inexpensive and could be applied to existing systems or considered when designing aquaculture facilities. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Potential energy studies on silane dimers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mahlanen, Riina; Pakkanen, Tapani A.
2011-04-01
Intermolecular interactions and parameters for use in MD studies of large molecule systems have earlier been determined for hydrocarbons, carbon tetrahalides and sulfur. The paper reports a model representing nonbonding interactions between silane molecules, which were examined in the same way as hydrocarbons in an earlier (neopentane, isopropane, propane, and ethane) study. Intermolecular potentials were determined for 11 combinations of silane compound pairs (silane SiH 4, disilane Si 2H 6, trisilane Si 3H 8, isotetrasilane Si 4H 10 and neopentasilane Si 5H 12) with MP2/aug(df)-6-311G ∗ab initio calculations. The most stable dimer configurations were identified. With use of the modified Morse potential model to represent the interactions, 276 new potential energy surfaces were generated for silane dimers. Separate and generic pair potentials were calculated for the silanes. The pair potentials can be used in MD studies of silanes.
Energy barriers, entropy barriers, and non-Arrhenius behavior in a minimal glassy model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Du, Xin; Weeks, Eric R.
2016-06-01
We study glassy dynamics using a simulation of three soft Brownian particles confined to a two-dimensional circular region. If the circular region is large, the disks freely rearrange, but rearrangements are rarer for smaller system sizes. We directly measure a one-dimensional free-energy landscape characterizing the dynamics. This landscape has two local minima corresponding to the two distinct disk configurations, separated by a free-energy barrier that governs the rearrangement rate. We study several different interaction potentials and demonstrate that the free-energy barrier is composed of a potential-energy barrier and an entropic barrier. The heights of both of these barriers depend on temperature and system size, demonstrating how non-Arrhenius behavior can arise close to the glass transition.
Constraints on B and Higgs physics in minimal low energy supersymmetric models
Carena, Marcela; Menon, A.; Noriega-Papaqui, R.; Szynkman, A.; Wagner, C.E.M.; /Argonne /Chicago U., EFI
2006-03-01
We study the implications of minimal flavor violating low energy supersymmetry scenarios for the search of new physics in the B and Higgs sectors at the Tevatron collider and the LHC. We show that the already stringent Tevatron bound on the decay rate B{sub s} {yields} {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} sets strong constraints on the possibility of generating large corrections to the mass difference {Delta} M{sub s} of the B{sub s} eigenstates. We also show that the B{sub s} {yields} {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} bound together with the constraint on the branching ratio of the rare decay b {yields} s{gamma} has strong implications for the search of light, non-standard Higgs bosons at hadron colliders. In doing this, we demonstrate that the former expressions derived for the analysis of the double penguin contributions in the Kaon sector need to be corrected by additional terms for a realistic analysis of these effects. We also study a specific non-minimal flavor violating scenario, where there are flavor changing gluino-squark-quark interactions, governed by the CKM matrix elements, and show that the B and Higgs physics constraints are similar to the ones in the minimal flavor violating case. Finally we show that, in scenarios like electroweak baryogenesis which have light stops and charginos, there may be enhanced effects on the B and K mixing parameters, without any significant effect on the rate of B{sub s} {yields} {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}.
Energy spread minimization in a cascaded laser wakefield accelerator via velocity bunching
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Zhijun; Li, Wentao; Liu, Jiansheng; Wang, Wentao; Yu, Changhai; Tian, Ye; Nakajima, Kazuhisa; Deng, Aihua; Qi, Rong; Wang, Cheng; Qin, Zhiyong; Fang, Ming; Liu, Jiaqi; Xia, Changquan; Li, Ruxin; Xu, Zhizhan
2016-05-01
We propose a scheme to minimize the energy spread of an electron beam (e-beam) in a cascaded laser wakefield accelerator to the one-thousandth-level by inserting a stage to compress its longitudinal spatial distribution. In this scheme, three-segment plasma stages are designed for electron injection, e-beam length compression, and e-beam acceleration, respectively. The trapped e-beam in the injection stage is transferred to the zero-phase region at the center of one wakefield period in the compression stage where the length of the e-beam can be greatly shortened owing to the velocity bunching. After being seeded into the third stage for acceleration, the e-beam can be accelerated to a much higher energy before its energy chirp is compensated owing to the shortened e-beam length. A one-dimensional theory and two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations have demonstrated this scheme and an e-beam with 0.2% rms energy spread and low transverse emittance could be generated without loss of charge.
Dark energy, non-minimal couplings and the origin of cosmic magnetic fields
Jiménez, Jose Beltrán; Maroto, Antonio L. E-mail: maroto@fis.ucm.es
2010-12-01
In this work we consider the most general electromagnetic theory in curved space-time leading to linear second order differential equations, including non-minimal couplings to the space-time curvature. We assume the presence of a temporal electromagnetic background whose energy density plays the role of dark energy, as has been recently suggested. Imposing the consistency of the theory in the weak-field limit, we show that it reduces to standard electromagnetism in the presence of an effective electromagnetic current which is generated by the momentum density of the matter/energy distribution, even for neutral sources. This implies that in the presence of dark energy, the motion of large-scale structures generates magnetic fields. Estimates of the present amplitude of the generated seed fields for typical spiral galaxies could reach 10{sup −9} G without any amplification. In the case of compact rotating objects, the theory predicts their magnetic moments to be related to their angular momenta in the way suggested by the so called Schuster-Blackett conjecture.
Potential energy savings from aquifer thermal energy storage
Anderson, M.R.; Weijo, R.O.
1988-07-01
Pacific Northwest Laboratory researchers developed an aggregate-level model to estimate the short- and long-term potential energy savings from using aquifer thermal storage (ATES) in the United States. The objectives of this effort were to (1) develop a basis from which to recommend whether heat or chill ATES should receive future research focus and (2) determine which market sector (residential, commercial, or industrial) offers the largest potential energy savings from ATES. Information was collected on the proportion of US land area suitable for ATES applications. The economic feasibility of ATES applications was then evaluated. The potential energy savings from ATES applications was calculated. Characteristic energy use in the residential, commercial, and industrial sectors was examined, as was the relationship between waste heat production and consumption by industrial end-users. These analyses provided the basis for two main conclusions: heat ATES applications offer higher potential for energy savings than do chill ATES applications; and the industrial sector can achieve the highest potential energy savings for the large consumption markets. Based on these findings, it is recommended that future ATES research and development efforts be directed toward heat ATES applications in the industrial sector. 11 refs., 6 figs., 9 tabs.
Ben Sasson, Moshe; Adin, Avner
2010-07-01
High-energy demand presents a major obstacle in the application of advanced water-purification systems. In this work, energy minimization and fouling mitigation by iron-based electroflocculation in dead-end microfiltration were investigated. Highly pure water contaminated with Silica-CMP (chemical mechanical polishing) particles were pretreated by electroflocculation at short operation times and a constant electrical current intensity of 0.4 A, followed by different slow-mixing times and filtration without any sedimentation step. By using a new method for filtration-energy appraisal, we found that an over 90% reduction in filtration energy could be achieved. The improvement was observed at all pH values examined (pH 6-8); pH values below 7 were problematic because the permeate turned yellow as a result of residual iron. The appearance of residual iron was explained by the dependence of Fe(2+) to Fe(3+) reaction rates on pH. Scanning electron micrographs of the fouled membrane surface showed the important role played by the sweep-coagulation mechanism in mitigating fouling. When internal fouling was the dominant mechanism, the amorphous iron-hydroxide solids formed a layer that filtered out the primary particles, protecting the membrane pores from plugging. Iron-hydroxide particles also reduced the hydraulic resistance of the cake when the external fouling mechanism dominated. Significant energy reduction was observed, even without the slow-mixing step, as a result of the local flocculation conditions near the membrane surface. Additional energy savings were obtained due to the significantly higher initial-flux restoration rates (>90%) resulting from electroflocculation pretreatment. PMID:20570312
SU-E-T-498: Energy Minimization and Dose-Volume Inverse Optimization in Prostate Cancer
Mihaylov, I; Moros, E
2014-06-01
Purpose: To compare dose-volume (DVH) and energy minimization-based (EM) optimization for prostate cancer cases. Methods: A dozen of prostate plans were retrospectively studied. For each case two IMRT plans were generated, one with DVH and the other with EM objective cost function. Those different objective functions were used only for the organs at risk (OARs), while target objectives were achieved through DVH cost functions. The plans used the same beam angles, maximum number of segments per plan, minimum segment area and MUs per segment. Both plans were normalized such that 95% of the PTV was covered by the same prescription dose. After prescription was achieved, doses to the OARs were iteratively lowered until the standard deviation of the dose across the PTV was ~3.5%. Plan quality was evaluated by several dose indices (DIs). A DI represents the dose delivered to certain volume of a structure. Tallied DIs were for rectum and bladder 10%, 40%, 60% volumes, and 1% volumes of the femoral heads as surrogate for maximum doses. Statistical significance in the differences among DIs was quantified with two-tailed paired t-tests. Results: On average EM plans performed better than DVH plans. Statistically significant dose reduction in rectum DI10, DI40, and DI60, were 2.6%, 25.7%, and 35.9%, respectively. For bladder DI10, DI40, and DI60 the differences were 1.1%, 20.8%, and 29.7%. Left and right femoral head DI1s were better by 33.8% and 27.8% in EM plans. The quoted dose reduction is with respect to EM absolute doses for the DIs. Conclusion: The performance of EM optimization with respect to DVH optimization is patient and DI dependent. While in some cases specific DIs were better with DVH optimization, on average the energy minimization allows better (ranging from 1% to ~40%) OAR sparing than DVH optimization. NIH-NCI.
Potential energy surface of triplet N2O2.
Varga, Zoltan; Meana-Pañeda, Rubén; Song, Guoliang; Paukku, Yuliya; Truhlar, Donald G
2016-01-14
We present a global ground-state triplet potential energy surface for the N2O2 system that is suitable for treating high-energy vibrational-rotational energy transfer and collision-induced dissociation. The surface is based on multi-state complete-active-space second-order perturbation theory/minimally augmented correlation-consistent polarized valence triple-zeta electronic structure calculations plus dynamically scaled external correlation. In the multireference calculations, the active space has 14 electrons in 12 orbitals. The calculations cover nine arrangements corresponding to dissociative diatom-diatom collisions of N2, O2, and nitric oxide (NO), the interaction of a triatomic molecule (N2O and NO2) with the fourth atom, and the interaction of a diatomic molecule with a single atom (i.e., the triatomic subsystems). The global ground-state potential energy surface was obtained by fitting the many-body interaction to 54 889 electronic structure data points with a fitting function that is a permutationally invariant polynomial in terms of bond-order functions of the six interatomic distances. PMID:26772574
Potential energy surface of triplet N2O2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Varga, Zoltan; Meana-Pañeda, Rubén; Song, Guoliang; Paukku, Yuliya; Truhlar, Donald G.
2016-01-01
We present a global ground-state triplet potential energy surface for the N2O2 system that is suitable for treating high-energy vibrational-rotational energy transfer and collision-induced dissociation. The surface is based on multi-state complete-active-space second-order perturbation theory/minimally augmented correlation-consistent polarized valence triple-zeta electronic structure calculations plus dynamically scaled external correlation. In the multireference calculations, the active space has 14 electrons in 12 orbitals. The calculations cover nine arrangements corresponding to dissociative diatom-diatom collisions of N2, O2, and nitric oxide (NO), the interaction of a triatomic molecule (N2O and NO2) with the fourth atom, and the interaction of a diatomic molecule with a single atom (i.e., the triatomic subsystems). The global ground-state potential energy surface was obtained by fitting the many-body interaction to 54 889 electronic structure data points with a fitting function that is a permutationally invariant polynomial in terms of bond-order functions of the six interatomic distances.
Potential energy hypersurface and molecular flexibility
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koča, Jaroslav
1993-02-01
The molecular flexibility phenomenon is discussed from the conformational potential energy(hyper) surface (PES) point of view. Flexibility is considered as a product of three terms: thermodynamic, kinetic and geometrical. Several expressions characterizing absolute and relative molecular flexibility are introduced, depending on a subspace studied of the entire conformational space, energy level E of PES as well as absolute temperature. Results obtained by programs DAISY, CICADA and PANIC in conjunction with molecular mechanics program MMX for flexibility analysis of isopentane, 2,2-dimethylpentane and isohexane molecules are introduced.
Computed potential energy surfaces for chemical reactions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walch, Stephen P.
1994-01-01
Quantum mechanical methods have been used to compute potential energy surfaces for chemical reactions. The reactions studied were among those believed to be important to the NASP and HSR programs and included the recombination of two H atoms with several different third bodies; the reactions in the thermal Zeldovich mechanism; the reactions of H atom with O2, N2, and NO; reactions involved in the thermal De-NO(x) process; and the reaction of CH(squared Pi) with N2 (leading to 'prompt NO'). These potential energy surfaces have been used to compute reaction rate constants and rates of unimolecular decomposition. An additional application was the calculation of transport properties of gases using a semiclassical approximation (and in the case of interactions involving hydrogen inclusion of quantum mechanical effects).
Computed potential energy surfaces for chemical reactions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walch, Stephen P.
1990-01-01
The objective was to obtain accurate potential energy surfaces (PES's) for a number of reactions which are important in the H/N/O combustion process. The interest in this is centered around the design of the SCRAM jet engine for the National Aerospace Plane (NASP), which was envisioned as an air-breathing hydrogen-burning vehicle capable of reaching velocities as large as Mach 25. Preliminary studies indicated that the supersonic flow in the combustor region of the scram jet engine required accurate reaction rate data for reactions in the H/N/O system, some of which was not readily available from experiment. The most important class of combustion reactions from the standpoint of the NASP project are radical recombinaton reactions, since these reactions result in most of the heat release in the combustion process. Theoretical characterizations of the potential energy surfaces for these reactions are presented and discussed.
Quantum electrodynamics and the electron self-energy in a deformed space with a minimal length scale
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Silva, Apollo V.; Abreu, E. M. C.; Neves, M. J.
2016-06-01
The main motivation to study models in the presence of a minimal length is to obtain a quantum field theory free of the divergences. In this way, in this paper, we have constructed a new framework for quantum electrodynamics embedded in a minimal length scale background. New operators are introduced and the Green function method was used for the solution of the field equations, i.e. the Maxwell, Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations. We have analyzed specifically the scalar field and its one loop propagator. The mass of the scalar field regularized by the minimal length was obtained. The QED Lagrangian containing a minimal length was also constructed and the divergences were analyzed. The electron and photon propagators, and the electron self-energy at one loop as a function of the minimal length was also obtained.
Potential Energy Curves of Hydrogen Fluoride
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fallon, Robert J.; Vanderslice, Joseph T.; Mason, Edward A.
1960-01-01
Potential energy curves for the X(sup 1)sigma+ and V(sup 1)sigma+ states of HF and DF have been calculated by the Rydberg-Klein-Rees method. The results calculated from the different sets of data for HF and DF are found to be in very good agreement. The theoretical results of Karo are compared to the experimental results obtained here.
Energy Savings Potential of Radiative Cooling Technologies
Fernandez, Nicholas; Wang, Weimin; Alvine, Kyle J.; Katipamula, Srinivas
2015-11-30
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Program (BTP), conducted a study to estimate, through simulation, the potential cooling energy savings that could be achieved through novel approaches to capturing free radiative cooling in buildings, particularly photonic ‘selective emittance’ materials. This report documents the results of that study.
Convective Available Potential Energy of World Ocean
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Su, Z.; Ingersoll, A. P.; Thompson, A. F.
2012-12-01
Here, for the first time, we propose the concept of Ocean Convective Available Potential Energy (OCAPE), which is the maximum kinetic energy (KE) per unit seawater mass achievable by ocean convection. OCAPE occurs through a different mechanism from atmospheric CAPE, and involves the interplay of temperature and salinity on the equation of state of seawater. The thermobaric effect, which arises because the thermal coefficient of expansion increases with depth, is an important ingredient of OCAPE. We develop an accurate algorithm to calculate the OCAPE for a given temperature and salinity profile. We then validate our calculation of OCAPE by comparing it with the conversion of OCAPE to KE in a 2-D numerical model. We propose that OCAPE is an important energy source of ocean deep convection and contributes to deep water formation. OCAPE, like Atmospheric CAPE, can help predict deep convection and may also provide a useful constraint for modelling deep convection in ocean GCMs. We plot the global distribution of OCAPE using data from the World Ocean Atlas 2009 (WOA09) and see many important features. These include large values of OCAPE in the Labrador, Greenland, Weddell and Mediterranean Seas, which are consistent with our present observations and understanding, but also identify some new features like the OCAPE pattern in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC). We propose that the diagnosis of OCAPE can improve our understanding of global patterns of ocean convection and deep water formation as well as ocean stratification, the meridional overturning circulation and mixed layer processes. The background of this work is briefly introduced as below. Open-ocean deep convection can significantly modify water properties both at the ocean surface and throughout the water column (Gordon 1982). Open-ocean convection is also an important mechanism for Ocean Deep Water formation and the transport of heat, freshwater and nutrient (Marshall and Schott 1999). Open
The Wind Energy Potential of Iceland
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nawri, Nikolai; Nína Petersen, Guðrún; Bjornsson, Halldór; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Jónasson, Kristján; Bay Hasager, Charlotte; Clausen, Niels-Erik
2014-05-01
While Iceland has an abundant wind energy resource, its use for electrical power production has so far been limited. Electricity in Iceland is generated primarily from hydro- and geothermal sources, and adding wind energy has so far not been considered practical or even necessary. However, wind energy is becoming a more viable option, as opportunities for new hydro- or geothermal power installations become limited. In order to obtain an estimate of the wind energy potential of Iceland, a wind atlas has been developed as part of the joint Nordic project 'Improved Forecast of Wind, Waves and Icing' (IceWind). Downscaling simulations performed with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model were used to determine the large-scale wind energy potential of Iceland. Local wind speed distributions are represented by Weibull statistics. The shape parameter across Iceland varies between 1.2 and 3.6, with the lowest values indicative of near-exponential distributions at sheltered locations, and the highest values indicative of normal distributions at exposed locations in winter. Compared with summer, average power density in winter is increased throughout Iceland by a factor of 2.0 - 5.5. In any season, there are also considerable spatial differences in average wind power density. Relative to the average value within 10 km of the coast, power density across Iceland varies between 50 - 250%, excluding glaciers, or between 300 - 1500 W m-2 at 50 m above ground level in winter. At intermediate elevations of 500 - 1000 m above mean sea level, power density is independent of the distance to the coast. In addition to seasonal and spatial variability, differences in average wind speed and power density also exist for different wind directions. Along the coast in winter, power density of onshore winds is higher by 100 - 700 W m-2 than that of offshore winds. The regions with the highest average wind speeds are impractical for wind farms, due to the distances from road
Potential energy surfaces of Polonium isotopes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nerlo-Pomorska, B.; Pomorski, K.; Schmitt, C.; Bartel, J.
2015-11-01
The evolution of the potential energy landscape is analysed in detail for ten even-even polonium isotopes in the mass range 188\\lt A\\lt 220 as obtained within the macroscopic-microscopic approach, relying on the Lublin-Strasbourg drop model and the Yukawa-folded single-particle energies for calculating the microscopic shell and pairing corrections. A variant of the modified Funny-Hills nuclear shape parametrization is used to efficiently map possible fission paths. The approach explains the main features of the fragment partition as measured in low-energy fission along the polonium chain. The latter lies in a transitional region of the nuclear chart, and will be essential to consistently understand the evolution of fission properties from neutron-deficient mercury to heavy actinides. The ability of our method to predict fission observables over such an extended region looks promising.
Bonomi, Alberto G; Plasqui, Guy; Goris, Annelies H C; Westerterp, Klass R
2010-09-01
The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of a novel activity monitor designed to be minimally obtrusive in predicting free-living energy expenditure. Subjects were 18 men and 12 women (age: 41 +/- 11 years, BMI: 24.4 +/- 3 kg/m(2)). The habitual physical activity was monitored for 14 days using a DirectLife triaxial accelerometer for movement registration (Tracmor(D)) (Philips New Wellness Solutions, Lifestyle Incubator, the Netherlands). Tracmor(D) output was expressed as activity counts per day (Cnts/d). Simultaneously, total energy expenditure (TEE) was measured in free living conditions using doubly labeled water (DLW). Activity energy expenditure (AEE) and the physical activity level (PAL) were determined from TEE and sleeping metabolic rate (SMR). A multiple-linear regression model predicted 76% of the variance in TEE, using as independent variables SMR (partial-r(2) = 0.55, P < 0.001), and Cnts/d (partial r(2) = 0.21, P < 0.001). The s.e. of TEE estimates was 0.9 MJ/day or 7.4% of the average TEE. A model based on body mass (partial-r(2) = 0.31, P < 0.001) and Cnts/d (partial-r(2) = 0.23, P < 0.001) predicted 54% of the variance in TEE. Cnts/d were significantly and positively associated with AEE (r = 0.54, P < 0.01), PAL (r = 0.68, P < 0.001), and AEE corrected by body mass (r = 0.71, P < 0.001). This study showed that the Tracmor(D) is a highly accurate instrument for predicting free-living energy expenditure. The miniaturized design did not harm the ability of the instrument in measuring physical activity and in determining outcome parameters of physical activity such as TEE, AEE, and PAL. PMID:20186133
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tang, Dunbing; Dai, Min
2015-09-01
The traditional production planning and scheduling problems consider performance indicators like time, cost and quality as optimization objectives in manufacturing processes. However, environmentally-friendly factors like energy consumption of production have not been completely taken into consideration. Against this background, this paper addresses an approach to modify a given schedule generated by a production planning and scheduling system in a job shop floor, where machine tools can work at different cutting speeds. It can adjust the cutting speeds of the operations while keeping the original assignment and processing sequence of operations of each job fixed in order to obtain energy savings. First, the proposed approach, based on a mixed integer programming mathematical model, changes the total idle time of the given schedule to minimize energy consumption in the job shop floor while accepting the optimal solution of the scheduling objective, makespan. Then, a genetic-simulated annealing algorithm is used to explore the optimal solution due to the fact that the problem is strongly NP-hard. Finally, the effectiveness of the approach is performed smalland large-size instances, respectively. The experimental results show that the approach can save 5%-10% of the average energy consumption while accepting the optimal solution of the makespan in small-size instances. In addition, the average maximum energy saving ratio can reach to 13%. And it can save approximately 1%-4% of the average energy consumption and approximately 2.4% of the average maximum energy while accepting the near-optimal solution of the makespan in large-size instances. The proposed research provides an interesting point to explore an energy-aware schedule optimization for a traditional production planning and scheduling problem.
Ragazzoni, Aldo; Pirulli, Cornelia; Veniero, Domenica; Feurra, Matteo; Cincotta, Massimo; Giovannelli, Fabio; Chiaramonti, Roberta; Lino, Mario; Rossi, Simone; Miniussi, Carlo
2013-01-01
Differential diagnoses between vegetative and minimally conscious states (VS and MCS, respectively) are frequently incorrect. Hence, further research is necessary to improve the diagnostic accuracy at the bedside. The main neuropathological feature of VS is the diffuse damage of cortical and subcortical connections. Starting with this premise, we used electroencephalography (EEG) recordings to evaluate the cortical reactivity and effective connectivity during transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in chronic VS or MCS patients. Moreover, the TMS-EEG data were compared with the results from standard somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEPs) and event-related potentials (ERPs). Thirteen patients with chronic consciousness disorders were examined at their bedsides. A group of healthy volunteers served as the control group. The amplitudes (reactivity) and scalp distributions (connectivity) of the cortical potentials evoked by TMS (TEPs) of the primary motor cortex were measured. Short-latency median nerve SEPs and auditory ERPs were also recorded. Reproducible TEPs were present in all control subjects in both the ipsilateral and the contralateral hemispheres relative to the site of the TMS. The amplitudes of the ipsilateral and contralateral TEPs were reduced in four of the five MCS patients, and the TEPs were bilaterally absent in one MCS patient. Among the VS patients, five did not manifest ipsilateral or contralateral TEPs, and three of the patients exhibited only ipsilateral TEPs with reduced amplitudes. The SEPs were altered in five VS and two MCS patients but did not correlate with the clinical diagnosis. The ERPs were impaired in all patients and did not correlate with the clinical diagnosis. These TEP results suggest that cortical reactivity and connectivity are severely impaired in all VS patients, whereas in most MCS patients, the TEPs are preserved but with abnormal features. Therefore, TEPs may add valuable information to the current clinical and
Ragazzoni, Aldo; Pirulli, Cornelia; Veniero, Domenica; Feurra, Matteo; Cincotta, Massimo; Giovannelli, Fabio; Chiaramonti, Roberta; Lino, Mario; Rossi, Simone; Miniussi, Carlo
2013-01-01
Differential diagnoses between vegetative and minimally conscious states (VS and MCS, respectively) are frequently incorrect. Hence, further research is necessary to improve the diagnostic accuracy at the bedside. The main neuropathological feature of VS is the diffuse damage of cortical and subcortical connections. Starting with this premise, we used electroencephalography (EEG) recordings to evaluate the cortical reactivity and effective connectivity during transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in chronic VS or MCS patients. Moreover, the TMS-EEG data were compared with the results from standard somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEPs) and event-related potentials (ERPs). Thirteen patients with chronic consciousness disorders were examined at their bedsides. A group of healthy volunteers served as the control group. The amplitudes (reactivity) and scalp distributions (connectivity) of the cortical potentials evoked by TMS (TEPs) of the primary motor cortex were measured. Short-latency median nerve SEPs and auditory ERPs were also recorded. Reproducible TEPs were present in all control subjects in both the ipsilateral and the contralateral hemispheres relative to the site of the TMS. The amplitudes of the ipsilateral and contralateral TEPs were reduced in four of the five MCS patients, and the TEPs were bilaterally absent in one MCS patient. Among the VS patients, five did not manifest ipsilateral or contralateral TEPs, and three of the patients exhibited only ipsilateral TEPs with reduced amplitudes. The SEPs were altered in five VS and two MCS patients but did not correlate with the clinical diagnosis. The ERPs were impaired in all patients and did not correlate with the clinical diagnosis. These TEP results suggest that cortical reactivity and connectivity are severely impaired in all VS patients, whereas in most MCS patients, the TEPs are preserved but with abnormal features. Therefore, TEPs may add valuable information to the current clinical and
Computed potential energy surfaces for chemical reactions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walch, Stephen P.; Levin, Eugene
1993-01-01
A new global potential energy surface (PES) is being generated for O(P-3) + H2 yields OH + H. This surface is being fit using the rotated Morse oscillator method, which was used to fit the previous POL-CI surface. The new surface is expected to be more accurate and also includes a much more complete sampling of bent geometries. A new study has been undertaken of the reaction N + O2 yields NO + O. The new studies have focused on the region of the surface near a possible minimum corresponding to the peroxy form of NOO. A large portion of the PES for this second reaction has been mapped out. Since state to state cross sections for the reaction are important in the chemistry of high temperature air, these studies will probably be extended to permit generation of a new global potential for reaction.
Theoretical studies of potential energy surfaces.
Harding, L. B.
2006-01-01
The goal of this program is to calculate accurate potential energy surfaces for both reactive and nonreactive systems. To do this the electronic Schroedinger equation must be solved. Our approach starts with multiconfiguration self-consistent field (MCSCF) reference wave functions. These reference wavefunctions are designed to be sufficiently flexible to accurately describe changes in electronic structure over a broad range of geometries. Dynamical electron correlation effects are included via multireference, singles and doubles configuration interaction (MRCI) calculations. With this approach, we are able to provide chemically useful predictions of the energetics for many systems. A second aspect of this program is the development of techniques to fit multi-dimensional potential surfaces to convenient, global, analytic functions that can then be used in dynamics calculations.
The wind energy potential of western Greece
Katsoulis, B.D.; Metaxas, D.A. )
1992-12-01
In this study wind data were used to determine the monthly and annual variations of the wind at 13 meterological stations in western Greece. An analysis of the available wind data for the Ionian Sea islands and the western coasts of Greece is carried out to ascertain its potential for wind energy development. The effect of the limited number of daily observations available on the accuracy of the mean wind speed and annual wind energy estimates is ascertained. The wind speed and direction distributions are represented with Weibull functions. Besides, a mass-consistent numerical mesoscale model was used to give an overview of the wind prospecting and siting problem, and an example of its use for Corfu (Kerkira), an island in the Ionian Sea, is given. The comparison of the accuracy of the stimulation results versus measured wind at an available site is quite encouraging even though it cannot be conclusive since only one station is available.
Theoretical studies of potential energy surfaces
Harding, L.B.
1993-12-01
The goal of this program is to calculate accurate potential energy surfaces (PES) for both reactive and nonreactive systems. To do this the electronic Schrodinger equation must be solved. Our approach to this problem starts with multiconfiguration self-consistent field (MCSCF) reference wavefunctions. These reference wavefunctions are designed to be sufficiently flexible to accurately describe changes in electronic structure over a broad range of geometries. Electron correlation effects are included via multireference, singles and doubles configuration interaction (MRSDCI) calculations. With this approach, the authors are able to provide useful predictions of the energetics for a broad range of systems.
Stable standing waves for a NLS on star graphs as local minimizers of the constrained energy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adami, Riccardo; Cacciapuoti, Claudio; Finco, Domenico; Noja, Diego
2016-05-01
On a star graph made of N ≥ 3 halflines (edges) we consider a Schrödinger equation with a subcritical power-type nonlinearity and an attractive delta interaction located at the vertex. From previous works it is known that there exists a family of standing waves, symmetric with respect to the exchange of edges, that can be parametrized by the mass (or L2-norm) of its elements. Furthermore, if the mass is small enough, then the corresponding symmetric standing wave is a ground state and, consequently, it is orbitally stable. On the other hand, if the mass is above a threshold value, then the system has no ground state. Here we prove that orbital stability holds for every value of the mass, even if the corresponding symmetric standing wave is not a ground state, since it is anyway a local minimizer of the energy among functions with the same mass. The proof is based on a new technique that allows to restrict the analysis to functions made of pieces of soliton, reducing the problem to a finite-dimensional one. In such a way, we do not need to use direct methods of Calculus of Variations, nor linearization procedures.
Assessment of wind energy potential in Poland
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Starosta, Katarzyna; Linkowska, Joanna; Mazur, Andrzej
2014-05-01
The aim of the presentation is to show the suitability of using numerical model wind speed forecasts for the wind power industry applications in Poland. In accordance with the guidelines of the European Union, the consumption of wind energy in Poland is rapidly increasing. According to the report of Energy Regulatory Office from 30 March 2013, the installed capacity of wind power in Poland was 2807MW from 765 wind power stations. Wind energy is strongly dependent on the meteorological conditions. Based on the climatological wind speed data, potential energy zones within the area of Poland have been developed (H. Lorenc). They are the first criterion for assessing the location of the wind farm. However, for exact monitoring of a given wind farm location the prognostic data from numerical model forecasts are necessary. For the practical interpretation and further post-processing, the verification of the model data is very important. Polish Institute Meteorology and Water Management - National Research Institute (IMWM-NRI) runs an operational model COSMO (Consortium for Small-scale Modelling, version 4.8) using two nested domains at horizontal resolutions of 7 km and 2.8 km. The model produces 36 hour and 78 hour forecasts from 00 UTC, for 2.8 km and 7 km domain resolutions respectively. Numerical forecasts were compared with the observation of 60 SYNOP and 3 TEMP stations in Poland, using VERSUS2 (Unified System Verification Survey 2) and R package. For every zone the set of statistical indices (ME, MAE, RMSE) was calculated. Forecast errors for aerological profiles are shown for Polish TEMP stations at Wrocław, Legionowo and Łeba. The current studies are connected with a topic of the COST ES1002 WIRE-Weather Intelligence for Renewable Energies.
Energy potential of sugarcane and sweet sorghum
Elawad, S.H.; Gascho, G.J.; Shih, S.F.
1980-01-01
The potential of sugarcane and sweet sorghum as raw materials for the production of ethanol and petrochemical substitutes is discussed. Both crops belong to the grass family and are classified as C/sub 4/ malateformers which have the highest rate of photosynthesis among terrestrial plants. Large amounts of biomass are required to supply a significant fraction of US energy consumption. Biomass production could be substantially increased by including tops and leaves, adopting narrow row spacing and improving cultural practices. This presents challenges for cultivating, harvesting, and hauling the biomass to processing centers. Large plants and heavy capital investment are essential for energy production. Ethanol and ammonia are the most promising candidates of a biomass program. If sugarcane were to be used for biomass production, breeding programs should be directed for more fermentable sugars and fiber. Energy research on sweet sorghum should be done with syrup varieties. Sweet sorghum needs to be incorporated with other crops because of its short growing season. The disposal of stillage from an extensive ethanol industry may pose environmental problems.
Scherson, Yaniv D; Criddle, Craig S
2014-01-01
Analysis of conventional and novel wastewater treatment configurations reveals large differences in energy consumed or produced and solids generated per cubic meter of domestic wastewater treated. Complete aerobic BOD removal consumes 0.45 kWh and produces 153 g of solids, whereas complete anaerobic treatment produces 0.25 kWh and 80 g of solids. Emerging technologies, that include short-circuit nitrogen removal (SHARON, CANON with Anammox, CANDO) and mainstream anaerobic digestion, can potentially remove both BOD and nitrogen with an energy surplus of 0.17 kWh and production of 95 g of solids. Heat from biogas combustion can completely dry the solids, and these solids can be converted to syngas without imported energy. Syngas combustion can produce ∼ 0.1 kWh with an inorganic residue of just 10 g. If salt is removed, freshwater can be recovered with net production of electrical energy from methane (0.03-0.13 kWh) and syngas (∼ 0.1 kWh) and an inorganic residue of ∼ 0.1-0.3 kg as brine. Current seawater desalination requires 3-4 kWh (thermodynamic limit of 1 kWh) and results in an inorganic residue of ∼ 35 kg as brine. PMID:24963949
Energy Minimization of Discrete Protein Titration State Models Using Graph Theory.
Purvine, Emilie; Monson, Kyle; Jurrus, Elizabeth; Star, Keith; Baker, Nathan A
2016-08-25
There are several applications in computational biophysics that require the optimization of discrete interacting states, for example, amino acid titration states, ligand oxidation states, or discrete rotamer angles. Such optimization can be very time-consuming as it scales exponentially in the number of sites to be optimized. In this paper, we describe a new polynomial time algorithm for optimization of discrete states in macromolecular systems. This algorithm was adapted from image processing and uses techniques from discrete mathematics and graph theory to restate the optimization problem in terms of "maximum flow-minimum cut" graph analysis. The interaction energy graph, a graph in which vertices (amino acids) and edges (interactions) are weighted with their respective energies, is transformed into a flow network in which the value of the minimum cut in the network equals the minimum free energy of the protein and the cut itself encodes the state that achieves the minimum free energy. Because of its deterministic nature and polynomial time performance, this algorithm has the potential to allow for the ionization state of larger proteins to be discovered. PMID:27089174
Induced Seismicity Potential of Energy Technologies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hitzman, Murray
2013-03-01
Earthquakes attributable to human activities-``induced seismic events''-have received heightened public attention in the United States over the past several years. Upon request from the U.S. Congress and the Department of Energy, the National Research Council was asked to assemble a committee of experts to examine the scale, scope, and consequences of seismicity induced during fluid injection and withdrawal associated with geothermal energy development, oil and gas development, and carbon capture and storage (CCS). The committee's report, publicly released in June 2012, indicates that induced seismicity associated with fluid injection or withdrawal is caused in most cases by change in pore fluid pressure and/or change in stress in the subsurface in the presence of faults with specific properties and orientations and a critical state of stress in the rocks. The factor that appears to have the most direct consequence in regard to induced seismicity is the net fluid balance (total balance of fluid introduced into or removed from the subsurface). Energy technology projects that are designed to maintain a balance between the amount of fluid being injected and withdrawn, such as most oil and gas development projects, appear to produce fewer seismic events than projects that do not maintain fluid balance. Major findings from the study include: (1) as presently implemented, the process of hydraulic fracturing for shale gas recovery does not pose a high risk for inducing felt seismic events; (2) injection for disposal of waste water derived from energy technologies does pose some risk for induced seismicity, but very few events have been documented over the past several decades relative to the large number of disposal wells in operation; and (3) CCS, due to the large net volumes of injected fluids suggested for future large-scale carbon storage projects, may have potential for inducing larger seismic events.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hodgson, Lorna; Thompson, Andrew
2012-03-01
This paper presents the results of a non-HMDS (non-silane) adhesion promoter that was used to reduce the zeta potential for very thin (proprietary) polymer on silicon. By reducing the zeta potential, as measured by the minimum sample required to fully coat a wafer, the amount of polymer required to coat silicon substrates was significantly reduced in the manufacture of X-ray windows used for high transmission of low-energy X-rays. Moreover, this approach used aqueous based adhesion promoter described as a cationic surface active agent that has been shown to improve adhesion of photoresists (positive, negative, epoxy [SU8], e-beam and dry film). As well as reducing the amount of polymer required to coat substrates, this aqueous adhesion promoter is nonhazardous, and contains non-volatile solvents.
Certification and the potential energy landscape
Mehta, Dhagash; Hauenstein, Jonathan D.; Wales, David J.
2014-06-14
Typically, there is no guarantee that a numerical approximation obtained using standard nonlinear equation solvers is indeed an actual solution, meaning that it lies in the quadratic convergence basin. Instead, it may lie only in the linear convergence basin, or even in a chaotic region, and hence not converge to the corresponding stationary point when further optimization is attempted. In some cases, these non-solutions could be misleading. Proving that a numerical approximation will quadratically converge to a stationary point is termed certification. In this report, we provide details of how Smale's α-theory can be used to certify numerically obtained stationary points of a potential energy landscape, providing a mathematical proof that the numerical approximation does indeed correspond to an actual stationary point, independent of the precision employed.
Self-organization, free energy minimization, and optimal grip on a field of affordances
Bruineberg, Jelle; Rietveld, Erik
2014-01-01
In this paper, we set out to develop a theoretical and conceptual framework for the new field of Radical Embodied Cognitive Neuroscience. This framework should be able to integrate insights from several relevant disciplines: theory on embodied cognition, ecological psychology, phenomenology, dynamical systems theory, and neurodynamics. We suggest that the main task of Radical Embodied Cognitive Neuroscience is to investigate the phenomenon of skilled intentionality from the perspective of the self-organization of the brain-body-environment system, while doing justice to the phenomenology of skilled action. In previous work, we have characterized skilled intentionality as the organism's tendency toward an optimal grip on multiple relevant affordances simultaneously. Affordances are possibilities for action provided by the environment. In the first part of this paper, we introduce the notion of skilled intentionality and the phenomenon of responsiveness to a field of relevant affordances. Second, we use Friston's work on neurodynamics, but embed a very minimal version of his Free Energy Principle in the ecological niche of the animal. Thus amended, this principle is helpful for understanding the embeddedness of neurodynamics within the dynamics of the system “brain-body-landscape of affordances.” Next, we show how we can use this adjusted principle to understand the neurodynamics of selective openness to the environment: interacting action-readiness patterns at multiple timescales contribute to the organism's selective openness to relevant affordances. In the final part of the paper, we emphasize the important role of metastable dynamics in both the brain and the brain-body-environment system for adequate affordance-responsiveness. We exemplify our integrative approach by presenting research on the impact of Deep Brain Stimulation on affordance responsiveness of OCD patients. PMID:25161615
Energy conserving and potential-enstrophy dissipating schemes for the shallow water equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Arakawa, Akio; Hsu, Yueh-Jiuan G.
1990-01-01
To incorporate potential enstrophy dissipation into discrete shallow water equations with no or arbitrarily small energy dissipation, a family of finite-difference schemes have been derived with which potential enstrophy is guaranteed to decrease while energy is conserved (when the mass flux is nondivergent and time is continuous). Among this family of schemes, there is a member that minimizes the spurious impact of infinite potential vorticities associated with infinitesimal fluid depth. The scheme is, therefore, useful for problems in which the free surface may intersect with the lower boundary.
Simulation of deep-bed drying of Virginia peanuts to minimize energy use
Kulasiri, G.D.
1990-01-01
A deep-bed drying model simulating the drying of peanuts in a fixed bed is required for designing energy-efficient and automatically controlled dryers. A deep-red drying model consists of a thin-layer drying model to calculate the moisture release from the material and a set of mass and energy balances. An experimental setup was constructed to determine drying rates of Virginia-type peanuts under 14 different drying air conditions. Selected empirical and semi-theoretical models available for modeling thin-layer drying rates were fitted to the collected data using nonlinear regression techniques. The modified Page's model and the two-term exponential model fitted the data better than other models considered. A deep-bed drying model PEATECH based on four coupled partial differential equations consisting of four variables, air temperature, peanut temperature, air humidity, and peanut moisture content was developed. Validation of the model was accomplished by using the data collected from 36 deep-bed drying experiments conducted using three laboratory dryers during 1987, 1988, and 1989. PEATECH predicted the variables within a peanut bed with an accuracy of less than {plus minus} 6%. The energy saving potential of exhaust-air recirculation was established by conducting simulated experiments using a modified version of PEATECH.
Molecular Multipole Potential Energy Functions for Water.
Tan, Ming-Liang; Tran, Kelly N; Pickard, Frank C; Simmonett, Andrew C; Brooks, Bernard R; Ichiye, Toshiko
2016-03-01
Water is the most common liquid on this planet, with many unique properties that make it essential for life as we know it. These properties must arise from features in the charge distribution of a water molecule, so it is essential to capture these features in potential energy functions for water to reproduce its liquid state properties in computer simulations. Recently, models that utilize a multipole expansion located on a single site in the water molecule, or "molecular multipole models", have been shown to rival and even surpass site models with up to five sites in reproducing both the electrostatic potential around a molecule and a variety of liquid state properties in simulations. However, despite decades of work using multipoles, confusion still remains about how to truncate the multipole expansions efficiently and accurately. This is particularly important when using molecular multipole expansions to describe water molecules in the liquid state, where the short-range interactions must be accurate, because the higher order multipoles of a water molecule are large. Here, truncation schemes designed for a recent efficient algorithm for multipoles in molecular dynamics simulations are assessed for how well they reproduce results for a simple three-site model of water when the multipole moments and Lennard-Jones parameters of that model are used. In addition, the multipole analysis indicates that site models that do not account for out-of-plane electron density overestimate the stability of a non-hydrogen-bonded conformation, leading to serious consequences for the simulated liquid. PMID:26562223
Energy resource potential of natural gas hydrates
Collett, T.S.
2002-01-01
The discovery of large gas hydrate accumulations in terrestrial permafrost regions of the Arctic and beneath the sea along the outer continental margins of the world's oceans has heightened interest in gas hydrates as a possible energy resource. However, significant to potentially insurmountable technical issues must be resolved before gas hydrates can be considered a viable option for affordable supplies of natural gas. The combined information from Arctic gas hydrate studies shows that, in permafrost regions, gas hydrates may exist at subsurface depths ranging from about 130 to 2000 m. The presence of gas hydrates in offshore continental margins has been inferred mainly from anomalous seismic reflectors, known as bottom-simulating reflectors, that have been mapped at depths below the sea floor ranging from about 100 to 1100 m. Current estimates of the amount of gas in the world's marine and permafrost gas hydrate accumulations are in rough accord at about 20,000 trillion m3. Disagreements over fundamental issues such as the volume of gas stored within delineated gas hydrate accumulations and the concentration of gas hydrates within hydrate-bearing strata have demonstrated that we know little about gas hydrates. Recently, however, several countries, including Japan, India, and the United States, have launched ambitious national projects to further examine the resource potential of gas hydrates. These projects may help answer key questions dealing with the properties of gas hydrate reservoirs, the design of production systems, and, most important, the costs and economics of gas hydrate production.
The Wind Energy Potential of Kurdistan, Iran
Arefi, Farzad; Moshtagh, Jamal; Moradi, Mohammad
2014-01-01
In the current work by using statistical methods and available software, the wind energy assessment of prone regions for installation of wind turbines in, Qorveh, has been investigated. Information was obtained from weather stations of Baneh, Bijar, Zarina, Saqez, Sanandaj, Qorveh, and Marivan. The monthly average and maximum of wind speed were investigated between the years 2000–2010 and the related curves were drawn. The Golobad curve (direction and percentage of dominant wind and calm wind as monthly rate) between the years 1997–2000 was analyzed and drawn with plot software. The ten-minute speed (at 10, 30, and 60 m height) and direction (at 37.5 and 10 m height) wind data were collected from weather stations of Iranian new energy organization. The wind speed distribution during one year was evaluated by using Weibull probability density function (two-parametrical), and the Weibull curve histograms were drawn by MATLAB software. According to the average wind speed of stations and technical specifications of the types of turbines, the suitable wind turbine for the station was selected. Finally, the Divandareh and Qorveh sites with favorable potential were considered for installation of wind turbines and construction of wind farms. PMID:27355042
Computed potential energy surfaces for chemical reactions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walch, Stephen P.
1988-01-01
The minimum energy path for the addition of a hydrogen atom to N2 is characterized in CASSCF/CCI calculations using the (4s3p2d1f/3s2p1d) basis set, with additional single point calculations at the stationary points of the potential energy surface using the (5s4p3d2f/4s3p2d) basis set. These calculations represent the most extensive set of ab initio calculations completed to date, yielding a zero point corrected barrier for HN2 dissociation of approx. 8.5 kcal mol/1. The lifetime of the HN2 species is estimated from the calculated geometries and energetics using both conventional Transition State Theory and a method which utilizes an Eckart barrier to compute one dimensional quantum mechanical tunneling effects. It is concluded that the lifetime of the HN2 species is very short, greatly limiting its role in both termolecular recombination reactions and combustion processes.
The Wind Energy Potential of Kurdistan, Iran.
Arefi, Farzad; Moshtagh, Jamal; Moradi, Mohammad
2014-01-01
In the current work by using statistical methods and available software, the wind energy assessment of prone regions for installation of wind turbines in, Qorveh, has been investigated. Information was obtained from weather stations of Baneh, Bijar, Zarina, Saqez, Sanandaj, Qorveh, and Marivan. The monthly average and maximum of wind speed were investigated between the years 2000-2010 and the related curves were drawn. The Golobad curve (direction and percentage of dominant wind and calm wind as monthly rate) between the years 1997-2000 was analyzed and drawn with plot software. The ten-minute speed (at 10, 30, and 60 m height) and direction (at 37.5 and 10 m height) wind data were collected from weather stations of Iranian new energy organization. The wind speed distribution during one year was evaluated by using Weibull probability density function (two-parametrical), and the Weibull curve histograms were drawn by MATLAB software. According to the average wind speed of stations and technical specifications of the types of turbines, the suitable wind turbine for the station was selected. Finally, the Divandareh and Qorveh sites with favorable potential were considered for installation of wind turbines and construction of wind farms. PMID:27355042
Piarulli, M.; Girlanda, L.; Schiavilla, R.; Pérez, R. Navarro; Amaro, J. E.; Arriola, E. Ruiz
2015-02-26
In this study, we construct a coordinate-space chiral potential, including Δ-isobar intermediate states in its two-pion-exchange component up to order Q^{3} (Q denotes generically the low momentum scale). The contact interactions entering at next-to-leading and next-to-next-to-next-to-leading orders (Q^{2} and Q^{4}, respectively) are rearranged by Fierz transformations to yield terms at most quadratic in the relative momentum operator of the two nucleons. The low-energy constant multiplying these contact interactions are fitted to the 2013 Granada database, consisting of 2309 pp and 2982 np data (including, respectively, 148 and 218 normalizations) in the laboratory-energy range 0–300 MeV. For the total 5291 $pp$ and $np$ data in this range, we obtain a Χ^{2} /datum of roughly 1.3 for a set of three models characterized by long- and short-range cutoffs, R_{L} and R_{S} respectively, ranging from (R_{L},R_{S})=(1.2,0.8) fm down to (0.8,0.6) fm. The long-range (short-range) cutoff regularizes the one- and two-pion exchange (contact) part of the potential.
An ab initio method for locating potential energy minima
Bock, Nicolas; Peery, Travis; Venneri, Giulia; Chisolm, Eric; Wallace, Duane; Lizarraga, Raquel; Holmstrom, Erik
2009-01-01
We study the potential energy landscape underlying the motion of monatomic liquids by quenching from random initial configurations (stochastic configurations) to the nearest local minimum of the potential energy. We show that this procedure reveals the underlying potential energy surface directly. This is in contrast to the common technique of quenching from a molecular dynamics trajectory which does not allow a direct view of the underlying potential energy surface, but needs to be corrected for thermodynamic weighting factors.
ASSESSMENT OF ENERGY RECOVERY POTENTIAL OF INDUSTRIAL COMBUSTION EQUIPMENT
An assessment was conducted to evaluate the waste heat content and energy recovery potential of flue gases from 30 industrial combustion devices. Pollution controls on nine of the devices were evaluated to estimate energy requirements and particulate reduction; energy requirement...
Determination of Multidimensional Intermolecular Potential Energy Surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cohen, Ronald Carl
High resolution spectroscopy of the low frequency van der Waals vibrations (also referred to as Vibration -Rotation-Tunneling (VRT) spectroscopy) in weakly bound complexes provides the means to probe intermolecular forces with unprecedented detail and precision. We present an overview of the experimental information on intermolecular forces and intermolecular dynamics which has been obtained by far infrared VRT spectroscopy of 18 complexes. We then turn to a detailed examination of the Ar-H_2O complex, a simple prototype for the study of intermolecular forces. The measurement and analysis of 9 VRT bands is described. These data are first used to obtain a qualitative description of the intermolecular potential energy surface (IPS). A new simple and efficient method for calculating the eigenvalues of the multidimensional intermolecular dynamics on the IPS has been developed. This algorithm (an adaptation of the Collocation Method) was then used in a direct fit to obtain an accurate and detailed description of the intermolecular forces acting within the Ar-H_2O complex.
Transportation Energy Use and Conservation Potential
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hirst, Eric
1973-01-01
Analyzes transportation energy consumption and energy intensiveness for inter-city freight and passenger traffic and urban passenger traffic with the definition of energy intensiveness as Btu per ton-mile or per passenger-mile. Indicates that public education is one of three ways to achieve the goals of energy conservation. (CC)
A fast multigrid algorithm for energy minimization under planar density constraints.
Ron, D.; Safro, I.; Brandt, A.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Weizmann Inst. of Science
2010-09-07
The two-dimensional layout optimization problem reinforced by the efficient space utilization demand has a wide spectrum of practical applications. Formulating the problem as a nonlinear minimization problem under planar equality and/or inequality density constraints, we present a linear time multigrid algorithm for solving a correction to this problem. The method is demonstrated in various graph drawing (visualization) instances.
Neelamraju, Sridhar; Johnston, Roy L; Schön, J Christian
2016-05-10
We present a scheme, called the threshold-minimization method, for globally exploring the energy landscapes of small systems of biomolecular interest where typical exploration moves always require a certain degree of subsequent structural relaxation in order to be efficient, e.g., systems containing small or large circular carbon chains such as cyclic peptides or carbohydrates. We show that using this threshold-minimization method we can not only reproduce the global minimum and relevant local minima but also overcome energetic barriers associated with different types of isomerism for the example of a cyclic peptide, cyclo-(Gly)4. We then apply the new method to the disaccharide α-d-glucopyranose-1-2-β-d-fructofuranose, report energetically preferred configurations and barriers to boat-chair isomerization in the glucopyranosyl ring, and discuss the energy landscape. PMID:27049524
Yu, Xiu-Jun; Zhuang, Jin-Liang; Scherr, Julian; Abu-Husein, Tarek; Terfort, Andreas
2016-07-11
As well-oriented, surface-bound metal-organic frameworks become the centerpiece of many new applications, a profound understanding of their growth mode becomes necessary. This work shows that the currently favored model of surface templating is in fact a special case valid only for systems with a more or less cubic crystal shape, while in less symmetric systems crystal ripening and minimization of surface energies dominate the growth process. PMID:27258394
Potential contribution of the wastewater sector to energy supply.
Heubeck, S; de Vos, R M; Craggs, R
2011-01-01
The biological treatment of wastewater could yield high energy fuels such as methane and alcohols, however most conventional treatment systems do not recover this energy potential. with a simple model of the energy yields of various wastewater treatment technologies it is possible to demonstrate how minor shifts in technology selection can lead the industry from being identified as predominantly energy intensive, to being recognised as a source of energy resources. The future potential energy yield is estimated by applying energy yield factors to alternative use scenarios of the same wastewater loads. The method for identifying the energy potential of wastewater was demonstrated for the New Zealand wastewater sector, but can equally be applied to other countries or regions. The model suggests that by using technologies that maximise the recovery of energy from wastewater, the potential energy yield from this sector would be substantially increased (six fold for New Zealand). PMID:21866779
Molecular understanding of mutagenicity using potential energy methods
Broyde, S.; Shapiro, R.
1992-07-01
Our objective, has been to elucidate on a molecular level, at atomic resolution, the structures of DNAs modified by 2-aminofluorene and its N-acetyl derivative, 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF). The underlying hypothesis is that DNA replicates with reduced fidelity when its normal right-handed B-structure is altered, and one result is a higher mutation rate. This change in structure may occur normally at a low incidence, for example by the formation of hairpin loops in appropriate sequences, but it may be enhanced greatly after covalent modification by a mutagenic substance. We use computational methods and have been able to incorporate the first data from NMR studies in our calculations. Computational approaches are important because x-ray and spectroscopic studies have not succeeded in producing atomic resolution views of mutagen and carcinogen-oligonucleotide adducts. The specific methods that we employ are minimized potential energy calculations using the torsion angle space molecular mechanics program DUPLEX to yield static views. Molecular dynamics simulations, with full solvent and salt, of the important static structures are carried out with the program AMBER; this yields mobile views in a medium that mimics the natural aqueous environment of the cell as well as can be done with current available computing resources.
(Molecular understanding of mutagenicity using potential energy methods)
Broyde, S.
1990-01-01
The objective of our work has been, for many year, to elucidate on a molecular level at atomic resolution the structures of DNAs modified by highly mutagenic polycyclic aromatic amines and hydrocarbons, and their less mutagenic chemically related analogs and unmodified DNAs, as controls. The ultimate purpose of this undertaking is to obtain an understanding of the relationship DNA structures and mutagenicity. Our methods for elucidating structures are computational, but we keep in close contact with experimental developments, and have, very recently, been able to incorporate the first experimental information from NMR studies by other workers in our calculations. The specific computational methods we employ are minimized potential energy calculations using the torsion angle space program DUPLEX, developed and written by Dr. Brain Hingerty to yield static views. Molecular dynamics simulations of the important static structures with full solvation and salt are carried out with the program AMBER; this yields mobile views in a milieu that best mimics the natural environment of the cell. In addition, we have been developing new strategies for searching conformation space and building DNA duplexes from favored subunit structures. 30 refs., 12 figs.
The Potential Energy of an Autoencoder.
Kamyshanska, Hanna; Memisevic, Roland
2015-06-01
Autoencoders are popular feature learning models, that are conceptually simple, easy to train and allow for efficient inference. Recent work has shown how certain autoencoders can be associated with an energy landscape, akin to negative log-probability in a probabilistic model, which measures how well the autoencoder can represent regions in the input space. The energy landscape has been commonly inferred heuristically, by using a training criterion that relates the autoencoder to a probabilistic model such as a Restricted Boltzmann Machine (RBM). In this paper we show how most common autoencoders are naturally associated with an energy function, independent of the training procedure, and that the energy landscape can be inferred analytically by integrating the reconstruction function of the autoencoder. For autoencoders with sigmoid hidden units, the energy function is identical to the free energy of an RBM, which helps shed light onto the relationship between these two types of model. We also show that the autoencoder energy function allows us to explain common regularization procedures, such as contractive training, from the perspective of dynamical systems. As a practical application of the energy function, a generative classifier based on class-specific autoencoders is presented. PMID:26357347
Energy conservation potential of surface modification technologies
Le, H.K.; Horne, D.M.; Silberglitt, R.S.
1985-09-01
This report assesses the energy conservation impact of surface modification technologies on the metalworking industries. The energy conservation impact of surface modification technologies on the metalworking industries is assessed by estimating their friction and wear tribological sinks and the subsequent reduction in these sinks when surface modified tools are used. Ion implantation, coatings, and laser and electron beam surface modifications are considered.
HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS POTENTIAL AT MUON COLLIDERS
PARSA,Z.
2000-04-07
In this paper, high energy physics possibilities and future colliders are discussed. The {mu}{sup +} {mu}{sup {minus}} collider and experiments with high intensity muon beams as the stepping phase towards building Higher Energy Muon Colliders (HEMC) are briefly reviewed and encouraged.
Energy in America: Progress and Potential.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
American Petroleum Inst., Washington, DC.
An overview of America's energy situation is presented with emphasis on recent progress, the risk of depending upon foreign oil, and policy choices. Section one reviews the energy problems of the 1970s, issues of the 1980s, concerns for the future, and choices that if made today could alleviate future problems. Section two examines past problems,…
Stretching the inflaton potential with kinetic energy
Lidsey, James E.
2007-08-15
Inflation near a maximum of the potential is studied when nonlocal derivative operators are included in the inflaton Lagrangian. Such terms can impose additional sources of friction on the field. For an arbitrary spacetime geometry, these effects can be quantified in terms of a local field theory with a potential whose curvature around the turning point is strongly suppressed. This implies that a prolonged phase of slow-roll inflation can be achieved with potentials that are otherwise too steep to drive quasiexponential expansion. We illustrate this mechanism within the context of p-adic string theory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grabovsky, Yury; Kohn, Robert V.
1995-06-01
For modeling coherent phase transformations, and for applications to structural optimization, it is of interest to identify microstructures with minimal energy or maximal stiffness. The existence of a particularly simple microstructure with extremal elastic behavior, in the context of two-phase composites made from isotropic components in two space dimensions, has previously been shown. This "Vigdergauz microstructure" consists of a periodic array of appropriately shaped inclusions. We provide an alternative discussion of this microstructure and its properties. Our treatment includes an explicit formula for the shape of the inclusion, and an analysis of various limits. We also discuss the significance of this microstructure (i) for minimizing the maximum stress in a composite, and (ii) as a large volume fraction analog of Michell trusses in the theory of structural optimization.
Energy functions for rubber from microscopic potentials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johal, A. S.; Dunstan, D. J.
2007-04-01
The finite deformation theory of rubber and related materials is based on energy functions that describe the macroscopic response of these materials under deformation. Energy functions and elastic constants are here derived from a simple microscopic (ball-and-spring) model. Exact uniaxial force-extension relationships are given for Hooke's Law and for the thermodynamic entropy-based microscopic model using the Gaussian and the inverse Langevin statistical approximations. Methods are given for finding the energy functions as expansions of tensor invariants of deformation, with exact solutions for functions that can be expressed as expansions in even powers of the extension. Comparison with experiment shows good agreement with the neo-Hookean energy function and we show how this derives directly from the simple Gaussian statistical model with a small modification.
Thermodynamic free-energy minimization for unsupervised fusion of dual-color infrared breast images
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Szu, Harold; Miao, Lidan; Qi, Hairong
2006-04-01
function [A] may vary from the point tumor to its neighborhood, we could not rely on neighborhood statistics as did in a popular unsupervised independent component analysis (ICA) mathematical statistical method, we instead impose the physics equilibrium condition of the minimum of Helmholtz free-energy, H = E - T °S. In case of the point breast cancer, we can assume the constant ground state energy E ° to be normalized by those benign neighborhood tissue, and then the excited state can be computed by means of Taylor series expansion in terms of the pixel I/O data. We can augment the X-ray mammogram technique with passive IR imaging to reduce the unwanted X-rays during the chemotherapy recovery. When the sequence is animated into a movie, and the recovery dynamics is played backward in time, the movie simulates the cameras' potential for early detection without suffering the PD=0.1 search uncertainty. In summary, we applied two satellite-grade dual-color IR imaging cameras and advanced military (automatic target recognition) ATR spectrum fusion algorithm at the middle wavelength IR (3 - 5μm) and long wavelength IR (8 - 12μm), which are capable to screen malignant tumors proved by the time-reverse fashion of the animated movie experiments. On the contrary, the traditional thermal breast scanning/imaging, known as thermograms over decades, was IR spectrum-blind, and limited to a single night-vision camera and the necessary waiting for the cool down period for taking a second look for change detection suffers too many environmental and personnel variabilities.
Mathur, S.P.
1989-11-01
In 1984 the US Congress enacted the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). One of the goals of this legislation was to focus attention on the need to reduce or eliminate hazardous waste so as to minimize the threat to human health and the environment. Subsequently, in September of 1988, DOE issued a Radioactive Waste Management Policy, DOE Order 5820.2A, and in November a General Environmental Program Order, DOE Order 5400.1. These documents embrace the principles set forth in RCRA, and expand their scope to include radioactive, mixed, and pollutant waste, and all actions for reducing waste from the point of generation through waste treatment, storage, transportation and disposal. This paper will present an overview of the legislation and policies for waste reduction and, in addition, give site responsibilities for implementing waste reduction program activities.
Energy Savings Potential and Research & Development Opportunities for Commercial Refrigeration
none,
2009-09-01
This study documents the energy consumption of commercial refrigeration equipment (CRE) in the U.S. and evaluated the energy savings potential of various technologies and energy efficiency measures that could be applied to such equipment. The study provided an overview of CRE applications, assessed the energy-savings potential of CRE in the U.S., outline key barriers to adoption of energy-savings technologies, and recommended opportunities for advanced energy saving technology research. The study was modeled after an earlier 1996 report by Arthur D. Little, Inc., and updated key information, examined more equipment types, and outlined long-term research and development opportunities.
Potential Energy Sources Pose Mining Problem
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chemical and Engineering News, 1974
1974-01-01
Summarizes the discussions of a Division of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry symposium on solids handling for synthetic fuels production. Included is a description of technical difficulties with the use of coal seams and deposits of oil shale and oil sand as potential sources of fuel. (CC)
Energy savings potential from energy-conserving irrigation systems
Wilfert, G.L.; Patton, W.P.; Harrer, B.J.; Clark, M.A.
1982-11-01
This report systematically compares, within a consistent framework, the technical and economic characteristics of energy-conserving irrigation systems with those of conventional irrigation systems and to determine total energy savings. Levelized annual costs of owning and operating both energy-conserving and conventional irrigation systems have been developed and compared for all 17 states to account for the differences in energy costs and irrigation conditions in each state. Market penetration of energy-conserving systems is assessed for those systems having lower levelized annual costs than conventional systems performing the same function. Annual energy savings were computed by matching the energy savings per system with an assumed maximum market penetration of 100 percent in those markets where the levelized annual costs of energy-conserving systems are lower than the levelized annual costs of conventional systems.
Potential production of energy cane for fuel in the Caribbean
Samuels, G.
1984-12-01
Sugarcane presents a tremendous potential as a renewable energy source for the non-oil producing countries of the Caribbean. The energy cane concept is sugarcane managed for maximum dry matter (total fermentable solids for alcohol fuel and combustible solids for electricity) rather than sucrose. The use of sugarcane as a renewable energy source can provide a solution, either partial or total, to the Caribbean energy problem. Sugar cane production and the use of this crop as a renewable energy source are described.
Dynamics of minimally coupled dark energy in spherical halos of dark matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Novosyadlyj, Bohdan; Tsizh, Maksym; Kulinich, Yurij
2016-03-01
We analyse the evolution of scalar field dark energy in the spherical halos of dark matter at the late stages of formation of gravitationally bound systems in the expanding Universe. The dynamics of quintessential dark energy at the center of dark matter halo strongly depends on the value of effective sound speed c_s (in units of speed of light). If c_s˜ 1 (classical scalar field) then the dark energy in the gravitationally bound systems is only slightly perturbed and its density is practically the same as in cosmological background. The dark energy with small value of sound speed (c_s<0.1), on the contrary, is important dynamical component of halo at all stages of their evolution: linear, non-linear, turnaround, collapse, virialization and later up to current epoch. These properties of dark energy can be used for constraining the value of effective sound speed c_s by comparison the theoretical predictions with observational data related to the large scale gravitationally bound systems.
Biomechanical energy harvesting: generating electricity during walking with minimal user effort.
Donelan, J M; Li, Q; Naing, V; Hoffer, J A; Weber, D J; Kuo, A D
2008-02-01
We have developed a biomechanical energy harvester that generates electricity during human walking with little extra effort. Unlike conventional human-powered generators that use positive muscle work, our technology assists muscles in performing negative work, analogous to regenerative braking in hybrid cars, where energy normally dissipated during braking drives a generator instead. The energy harvester mounts at the knee and selectively engages power generation at the end of the swing phase, thus assisting deceleration of the joint. Test subjects walking with one device on each leg produced an average of 5 watts of electricity, which is about 10 times that of shoe-mounted devices. The cost of harvesting-the additional metabolic power required to produce 1 watt of electricity-is less than one-eighth of that for conventional human power generation. Producing substantial electricity with little extra effort makes this method well-suited for charging powered prosthetic limbs and other portable medical devices. PMID:18258914
Minimizing Wind Power Producer's Balancing Costs Using Electrochemical Energy Storage: Preprint
Miettinen, J.; Tikka, V.; Lassila, J.; Partanen, J.; Hodge, B. M.
2014-08-01
This paper examines how electrochemical energy storage can be used to decrease the balancing costs of a wind power producer in the Nordic market. Because electrochemical energy storage is developing in both technological and financial terms, a sensitivity analysis was carried out for the most important variables in the wind-storage hybrid system. The system was studied from a wind power producer's point of view. The main result is that there are no technical limitations to using storage for reducing the balancing costs. However, in terms of economic feasibility, installing hybrid wind-storage systems such as the one studied in this paper faces challenges in both the short and long terms.
Preliminary evaluation of wind energy potential: Cook Inlet area, Alaska
Hiester, T.R.
1980-06-01
This report summarizes work on a project performed under contract to the Alaska Power Administration (APA). The objective of this research was to make a preliminary assessment of the wind energy potential for interconnection with the Cook Inlet area electric power transmission and distribution systems, to identify the most likely candidate regions (25 to 100 square miles each) for energy potential, and to recommend a monitoring program sufficient to quantify the potential.
Guide to Setting Thermal Comfort Criteria and Minimizing Energy Use in Delivering Thermal Comfort
Regnier, Cindy
2012-08-31
Historically thermal comfort in buildings has been controlled by simple dry bulb temperature settings. As we move into more sophisticated low energy building systems that make use of alternate systems such as natural ventilation, mixed mode system and radiant thermal conditioning strategies, a more complete understanding of human comfort is needed for both design and control. This guide will support building designers, owners, operators and other stakeholders in defining quantifiable thermal comfort parameters?these can be used to support design, energy analysis and the evaluation of the thermal comfort benefits of design strategies. This guide also contains information that building owners and operators will find helpful for understanding the core concepts of thermal comfort. Whether for one building, or for a portfolio of buildings, this guide will also assist owners and designers in how to identify the mechanisms of thermal comfort and space conditioning strategies most important for their building and climate, and provide guidance towards low energy design options and operations that can successfully address thermal comfort. An example of low energy design options for thermal comfort is presented in some detail for cooling, while the fundamentals to follow a similar approach for heating are presented.
Gerardo, Michael L; Oatley-Radcliffe, Darren L; Lovitt, Robert W
2014-01-01
The harvesting of the microalgae Scenedesmus species using a 200 L pilot-scale microfiltration system was investigated and critically assessed. The energy requirement was determined and correlated to the different operating parameters, such as transmembrane pressure (ΔP), membrane area, temperature, and initial biomass concentration. A filtration model was developed and showed a strong correlation with experimental data up to 20.0 g of dry cell weight (DCW)/L. The non-optimized filtration system had an energy requirement of 2.23 kWh/m(3) with an associated cost of $0.282/kg of microalgae. The investigation into the influence of the operating parameters and scale-up effects showed that the energy requirement could be substantially reduced to 0.90 kWh/m(3) and $0.058/kg of microalgae harvested. Maintenance costs associated with cleaning were estimated to be 0.23 kWh or $0.029/batch of microalgae processed. Dependent upon the operating conditions, harvesting may represent 6-45% of the energy embedded in the microalgae with a carbon footprint of 0.74-1.67 kg of CO2/kg of microalgae. Microfiltration was demonstrated to be a feasible microalgae harvesting technology allowing for more than 99% volume reduction. The energy requirement and associated carbon footprint of microalgae harvesting reported here do not forfeit the need for an industrial-scale study; however, the information provided presents a more realistic approximation than the literature reported to date. PMID:24341825
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Xiang-Zhong; Chen, Xin; Guo, Xu; Cui, Yu-Shuang; Shen, Qun-Dong; Ge, Hai-Xiong
2014-10-01
Ferroelectric polymers are among the most promising materials for flexible electronic devices. Highly ordered arrays of the defect-modified ferroelectric polymer P(VDF-TrFE-CFE) (poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene-chlorofluoroethylene)) are fabricated by nanoimprint lithography for nonvolatile memory application. The defective CFE units reduce the coercive field to one-fifth of that of the un-modified P(VDF-TrFE), which can help minimize the energy consumption and extend the lifespan of the device. The nanoimprint process leads to preferable orientation of polymer chains and delicately controlled distribution of the defects, and thus a bi-stable polarization that makes the memory nonvolatile, as revealed by the pulsed polarization experiment.Ferroelectric polymers are among the most promising materials for flexible electronic devices. Highly ordered arrays of the defect-modified ferroelectric polymer P(VDF-TrFE-CFE) (poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene-chlorofluoroethylene)) are fabricated by nanoimprint lithography for nonvolatile memory application. The defective CFE units reduce the coercive field to one-fifth of that of the un-modified P(VDF-TrFE), which can help minimize the energy consumption and extend the lifespan of the device. The nanoimprint process leads to preferable orientation of polymer chains and delicately controlled distribution of the defects, and thus a bi-stable polarization that makes the memory nonvolatile, as revealed by the pulsed polarization experiment. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr03866e
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oh, Seungjae; Wang, Semyung; Cho, Sungman
2016-03-01
A suction muffler used in a fluid machine has three functions: noise reduction; minimizing pressure drop and improving energy efficiency using acoustic effects. However, no method of suction muffler design considers all three of these functions concurrently. Therefore, in this study, we attempt to provide an integrated design method of a suction muffler in a fluid machine that considers all three functions. The topology optimization method for acoustic and fluid systems was applied to an integrated design. However, the interaction between fluid and acoustic was not considered. In addition, the acoustic input impedance of a suction muffler was used for a specific acoustical resonance frequency to improve the energy efficiency of a fluid machine. Finally, the sequential optimization method based on physical investigations was proposed to satisfy several design criteria. The proposed method was applied to the suction muffler in refrigerator's compressor.
Turbine under Gulf Stream: Potential energy source
Venezia, W.A.; Holt, J.
1995-09-01
Turbine under the Gulf Stream (TUGS) is a project to design, build, and deploy the prototypes necessary to demonstrate the economic and technical feasibility of generating electric power from the Gulf Stream. The project is based in part on new generator designs and emerging materials technologies. Its successful completion would demonstrate the technology and produce prototype turbines that can be mass produced and sold with service support. Past research and experimentation indicates that energy can be generated from the Gulf Stream. Problems exist such as fluctuations in the current`s axis and inconsistency. Above all, the ocean is a difficult environment in which to work. Therefore, the question is not whether or not a generator can be put in the ocean to generate electricity, but rather can it be done in an economically and environmentally sound way and still be practical?
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Inoue, Katsumi; Krantz, Timothy L.
1995-01-01
While the vibration analysis of gear systems has been developed, a systematic approach to the reduction of gearbox vibration has been lacking. The technique of reducing vibration by shifting natural frequencies is proposed here for gearboxes and other thin-plate structures using the theories of finite elements, modal analysis, and optimization. A triangular shell element with 18 degrees of freedom is developed for structural and dynamic analysis. To optimize, the overall vibration energy is adopted as the objective function to be minimized at the excitation frequency by varying the design variable (element thickness) under the constraint of overall constant weight. Modal analysis is used to determine the sensitivity of the vibration energy as a function of the eigenvalues and eigenvectors. The optimum design is found by the gradient projection method and a unidimensional search procedure. By applying the computer code to design problems for beams and plates, it was verified that the proposed method is effective in reducing vibration energy. The computer code is also applied to redesign the NASA Lewis gear noise rig test gearbox housing. As one example, only the shape of the top plate is varied, and the vibration energy levels of all the surfaces are reduced, yielding an overall reduction of 1/5 compared to the initial design. As a second example, the shapes of the top and two side plates are varied to yield an overall reduction in vibration energy of 1/30.
Wing flapping with minimum energy. [minimize the drag for a bending moment at the wing root
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jones, R. T.
1980-01-01
For slow flapping motions it is found that the minimum energy loss occurs when the vortex wake moves as a rigid surface that rotates about the wing root - a condition analogous to that determined for a slow-turning propeller. The optimum circulation distribution determined by this condition differs from the elliptic distribution, showing a greater concentration of lift toward the tips. It appears that very high propulsive efficiencies are obtained by flapping.
APPARATUS FOR MINIMIZING ENERGY LOSSES FROM MAGNETICALLY CONFINED VOLUMES OF HOT PLASMA
Post, R.F.
1961-10-01
An apparatus is described for controlling electron temperature in plasma confined in a Pyrotron magnetic containment field. Basically the device comprises means for directing low temperature electrons to the plasma in controlled quantities to maintain a predetermined optimum equilibrium electron temperature whereat minimum losses of plasma ions due to ambipolar effects and energy damping of the ions due to dynamical friction with the electrons occur. (AEC)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Piazza, Federico; Schücker, Thomas
2016-04-01
The minimal requirement for cosmography—a non-dynamical description of the universe—is a prescription for calculating null geodesics, and time-like geodesics as a function of their proper time. In this paper, we consider the most general linear connection compatible with homogeneity and isotropy, but not necessarily with a metric. A light-cone structure is assigned by choosing a set of geodesics representing light rays. This defines a "scale factor" and a local notion of distance, as that travelled by light in a given proper time interval. We find that the velocities and relativistic energies of free-falling bodies decrease in time as a consequence of cosmic expansion, but at a rate that can be different than that dictated by the usual metric framework. By extrapolating this behavior to photons' redshift, we find that the latter is in principle independent of the "scale factor". Interestingly, redshift-distance relations and other standard geometric observables are modified in this extended framework, in a way that could be experimentally tested. An extremely tight constraint on the model, however, is represented by the blackbody-ness of the cosmic microwave background. Finally, as a check, we also consider the effects of a non-metric connection in a different set-up, namely, that of a static, spherically symmetric spacetime.
Scattering with absorptive interaction: Energy-dependent potentials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cassing, W.; Stingl, M.; Weiguny, A.
1983-05-01
The energy dependence and analytic structure of the effective interaction for elastic scattering of composite particles are investigated using Feshbach's projection technique. A generalized Levinson theorem is established for complex, nonlocal, and energy-dependent interactions. The analytical results are illustrated by means of Argand diagrams for a solvable model and the effect of energy averaging is discussed. NUCLEAR REACTIONS Scattering theory, S matrix for absorptive, energy-dependent potentials, Levinson theorem.
Regional prediction of long-term landfill gas to energy potential.
Amini, Hamid R; Reinhart, Debra R
2011-01-01
Quantifying landfill gas to energy (LFGTE) potential as a source of renewable energy is difficult due to the challenges involved in modeling landfill gas (LFG) generation. In this paper a methodology is presented to estimate LFGTE potential on a regional scale over a 25-year timeframe with consideration of modeling uncertainties. The methodology was demonstrated for the US state of Florida, as a case study, and showed that Florida could increase the annual LFGTE production by more than threefold by 2035 through installation of LFGTE facilities at all landfills. The estimated electricity production potential from Florida LFG is equivalent to removing some 70 million vehicles from highways or replacing over 800 million barrels of oil consumption during the 2010-2035 timeframe. Diverting food waste could significantly reduce fugitive LFG emissions, while having minimal effect on the LFGTE potential; whereas, achieving high diversion goals through increased recycling will result in reduced uncollected LFG and significant loss of energy production potential which may be offset by energy savings from material recovery and reuse. Estimates showed that the power density for Florida LFGTE production could reach as high as 10 Wm(-2) with optimized landfill operation and energy production practices. The environmental benefits from increased lifetime LFG collection efficiencies magnify the value of LFGTE projects. PMID:21703844
Goodin, J.R.
1984-09-01
This technical report assesses and estimates the potential of selected halophytes as future renewable energy resources, especially by US electric utilities, and familiarizes nonspecialists with research and development problems that must be resolved before these energy sources can become dependable supplies of energy. A literature search related to both indigenous and exotic species of halophytes has been done and appropriate terrestrial species have been selected. Selection criteria include: total biomass potential, genetic constraints, establishment and cultivation requirements, regions of suitability, secondary credits, and a number of other factors. Based on these selection criteria, for the arid western states with high levels of salinity in water and/or soils, there is little potential for energy feedstocks derived from grasses and herbaceous forbs. Likewise, coastal marshes, estuaries, and mangrove swamps, although excellent biomass producers, are too limited by region and have too many ecological and environmental problems for consideration. The deep-rooted, perennial woody shrubs indigenous to many saline regions of the west provide the best potential. The number of species in this group is limited, and Atriplex canescens, Sarcobatus vermiculatus, and Chrysothamnus nauseosus are the three species with the greatest biological potential. These shrubs would receive minimal energy inputs in cultivation, would not compete with agricultural land, and would restore productivity to severely disturbed sites. One might logically expect to achieve biomass feedstock yields of three to five tons/acre/yr on a long-term sustainable basis. The possibility also exists that exotic species might be introduced. 67 references, 1 figure, 5 tables.
Exploring wind energy potential off the California coast
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Qingfang; Doyle, James D.; Haack, Tracy; Dvorak, Michael J.; Archer, Cristina L.; Jacobson, Mark Z.
2008-10-01
Wind energy represents the nearest term cost-effective renewable energy source. While efforts have been made to assess wind energy potential over land around the world, offshore wind energy resources are largely unexplored, in part because these regions have relatively sparse wind observations. In this study, the wind energy potential offshore of the California coast is evaluated using a well-tested high-resolution numerical model dataset. We found that along the coastline, the low-level winds exhibit strong spatial variation and are characterized by alternating windspeed maxima and minima near coastal promontories associated with the interaction between the marine boundary layer and coastal topography. Further analysis highlights the enormous and reliable wind energy development potential in these persistent offshore windspeed maxima.
Minimizing energy utilization for growing strawberries during long-duration space habitation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Massa, Gioia D.; Santini, Judith B.; Mitchell, Cary A.
2010-09-01
Strawberry is a candidate crop for space that is rich in protective antioxidants and could also have psychological benefits as a component of crew diets during long-duration space habitation. Energy for electric lighting is a major input to a controlled-environment crop-production system for space habitation. Day-neutral strawberry cultivars were evaluated at several different photoperiods to determine minimum lighting requirements without limiting yield or negatively impacting fruit quality. The cultivars 'Tribute', 'Seascape', and 'Fern' were grown at 14, 17, or 20 h of light per day, and fruit yield was evaluated over a 31-week production period. This amounted to a difference of 2418 kWh m -2 in energy usage between the longest and shortest photoperiods. All cultivars produced similar total fresh weight of fruit regardless of photoperiod. Volunteer tasters rated organoleptic characteristics including sweetness, tartness, texture, and overall appeal as measures of fruit quality. Generally, organoleptic attributes were not affected by photoperiod, but these attributes were somewhat dependent upon cultivar and harvest time. Cultivars under different photoperiods varied in their production of fruit over time. 'Seascape' was the most consistent producer, typically with the largest, most palatable fruit. 'Seascape' plants subsequently were grown at 10-, 12-, or 14-h photoperiods over a treatment period of 33 weeks. Photoperiod again had no significant effect on total fruit weight, although there were periodic flushes of productivity. Fruit under all photoperiods had acceptable approval ratings. A large-fruited, day-neutral strawberry cultivar such as 'Seascape' remains productive under shortened photoperiods, allowing reductions in energy and crew labor while maintaining flexibility for mixed-cropping scenarios in space.
A biomolecular implementation of logically reversible computation with minimal energy dissipation.
Klein, J P; Leete, T H; Rubin, H
1999-10-01
Energy dissipation associated with logic operations imposes a fundamental physical limit on computation and is generated by the entropic cost of information erasure, which is a consequence of irreversible logic elements. We show how to encode information in DNA and use DNA amplification to implement a logically reversible gate that comprises a complete set of operators capable of universal computation. We also propose a method using this design to connect, or 'wire', these gates together in a biochemical fashion to create a logic network, allowing complex parallel computations to be executed. The architecture of the system permits highly parallel operations and has properties that resemble well known genetic regulatory systems. PMID:10636026
Minimizing the energy spread within a single bunch by shaping its charge distribution
Loew, G.A.; Wang, J.W.
1985-03-01
It has been known for some time that partial compensation of the longitudinal wake field effects can be obtained for any bunch by placing it ahead of the accelerating crest (in space), thereby letting the positive rising sinusoidal field offset the negative beam loading field. The work presented in this paper shows that it is possible to obtain complete compensation, i.e., to reduce the energy spread essentially to zero by properly shaping the longitudinal charge distribution of the bunch and by placing it at the correct position on the wave. 3 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.
Sabine Brueske, Caroline Kramer, Aaron Fisher
2015-06-01
Energy bandwidth studies of U.S. manufacturing sectors can serve as foundational references in framing the range (or bandwidth) of potential energy savings opportunities. This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. chemical manufacturing. The study relies on multiple sources to estimate the energy used in the production of 74 individual chemicals, representing 57% of sector-wide energy consumption. Energy savings opportunities for individual chemicals and for 15 subsectors of chemicals manufacturing are based on technologies currently in use or under development; these potential savings are then extrapolated to estimate sector-wide energy savings opportunity.
Bandwidth Study on Energy Use and Potential Energy Savings Opportunities in U.S. Petroleum Refining
Sabine Brueske, Caroline Kramer, Aaron Fisher
2015-06-01
Energy bandwidth studies of U.S. manufacturing sectors can serve as foundational references in framing the range (or bandwidth) of potential energy savings opportunities. This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. petroleum refining. The study relies on multiple sources to estimate the energy used in nine individual process areas, representing 68% of sector-wide energy consumption. Energy savings opportunities for individual processes are based on technologies currently in use or under development; these potential savings are then extrapolated to estimate sector-wide energy savings opportunity.
Poznanski, Roman R
2004-09-01
Hodgkin and Huxley's ionic theory of the nerve impulse embodies principles, applicable also to the impulses in vertebrate nerve fibers, as demonstrated by Bernhard Frankenhaeuser and Andrew Huxley 40 years ago. Frankenhaeuser and Huxley reformulated the classical Hodgkin-Huxley equations, in terms of electrodiffusion theory, and computed action potentials specifically for saltatory conduction in myelinated axons. In this paper, we obtain analytical solutions to the most difficult nonlinear partial differential equations in classical neurophysiology. We solve analytically the Frankenhaeuser-Huxley equations pertaining to a model of sparsely excitable, nonlinear dendrites with clusters of transiently activating, TTX-sensitive Na(+) channels, discretely distributed as point sources of inward current along a continuous (non-segmented) leaky cable structure. Each cluster or hot-spot, corresponding to a mesoscopic level description of Na(+) ion channels, includes known cumulative inactivation kinetics observed at the microscopic level. In such a third-order system, the 'recovery' variable is an electrogenic sodium-pump imbedded in the passive membrane, and the system is stabilized by the presence of a large leak conductance mediated by a composite number of ligand-gated channels permeable to monovalent cations Na(+) and K(+). In order to reproduce antidromic propagation and attenuation of action potentials, a nonlinear integral equation must be solved (in the presence of suprathreshold input, and a constant-field equation of electrodiffusion at each hot-spot with membrane gates controlling the flow of current). A perturbative expansion of the non-dimensional membrane potential (Phi) is used to obtain time-dependent analytical solutions, involving a voltage-dependent Na(+) activation (micro) and a state-dependent inactivation (eta) gating variables. It is shown that action potentials attenuate in amplitude in accordance with experimental findings, and that the spatial
Energy Consumption and Renewable Energy Development Potential on Indian Lands
2000-01-01
Includes information on the electricity use and needs of Indian households and tribes, the comparative electricity rates that Indian households are paying, and the potential for renewable resources development of Indian lands.
Energy minimization of separation processes using conventional/membrane hybrid systems
Gottschlich, D.E.; Roberts, D.L. )
1990-09-28
The purpose of this study was to identify the general principles governing the choice of hybrid separation systems over straight membrane or straight nonmembrane systems and to do so by examining practical applications (process design and economics). Our focus was to examine the energy consumption characteristics and overall cost factors of the membrane and nonmembrane technologies that cause hybrid systems to be preferred over nonhybrid systems. We evaluated four cases studies, chosen on the basis of likelihood of commercial viability of a hybrid system and magnitude of energy savings: (1) propane/propylene separation; (2) removal of nitrogen from natural gas; (3) concentration of Kraft black liquor; and (4)solvent deasphalting. For propane/propylene splitting, the membrane proved to be superior to distillation in both thermodynamic efficiency and processing cost (PC) when the product was 95% pure propylene. However, to produce higher purity products, the membrane alone could not perform the separation, and a membrane/distillation hybrid was required. In these cases, there is an optimum amount of separation to be accomplished by the membrane (expressed as the fraction of the total availability change of the membrane/distillation hybrid that takes place in the membrane and defined as {phi}{sub m}, the thermodynamic extent of separation). Qualitative and quantitative guidelines are discussed with regard to choosing a hybrid system. 54 refs., 66 figs., 36 tabs.
Assessing the Potential for Renewable Energy on Public Lands
Not Available
2003-02-01
This report represents an initial activity of the Bureau of Land Managements (BLM) proposed National Energy Policy Implementation Plan: identify and evaluate renewable energy resources on federal lands and any limitations on accessing them. Ultimately, BLM will prioritize land-use planning activities to increase industrys development of renewable energy resources. These resources include solar, biomass, geothermal, water, and wind energy. To accomplish this, BLM and the Department of Energys National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) established a partnership to conduct an assessment of renewable energy resources on BLM lands in the western United States. The objective of this collaboration was to identify BLM planning units in the western states with the highest potential for private-sector development of renewable resources. The assessment resulted in the following findings: (1) 63 BLM planning units in nine western states have high potential for one or more renewable energy technologies; and (2) 20 BLM planning units in seven western states have high potential for power production from three or more renewable energy sources. This assessment report provides BLM with information needed to prioritize land-use planning activities on the basis of potential for the development of energy from renewable resources.
A Frontier orbital energy approach to redox potentials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Conradie, Jeanet
2015-09-01
The prediction of the oxidation and reduction potentials of molecules is important in many research areas. A review of relationships obtained between frontier orbital energies (eV), the calculated ionization potentials (IP in eV), or adiabatic electron affinities (EA in eV) with the experimental oxidation and reduction potentials is presented, for selected series of β- diketones, rhodium-β-diketonato complexes, as well as metal-tris-β-diketonato complexes, with the metal Fe or Mn. The good linear relationships obtained for related series of complexes show that the oxidation and reduction potentials of these complexes can be predicted by their DFT-calculated energies.
New approach to calculating the potential energy of colliding nuclei
Kurmanov, R. S.; Kosenko, G. I.
2014-12-15
The differential method proposed by the present authors earlier for the reduction of volume integrals in calculating the potential energy of a compound nucleus is generalized to the case of two interacting nuclei. The Coulomb interaction energy is obtained for the cases of a sharp and a diffuse boundary of nuclei, while the nuclear interaction energy is found only for nuclei with a sharp boundary, the finiteness of the nuclear-force range being taken into account. The present method of calculations permits reducing the time it takes to compute the potential energy at least by two orders of magnitude.
Susan J. Foulk
2012-07-24
Project Objective: The objectives of this study are to develop an accurate and stable on-line sensor system to monitor color and composition on-line in polymer melts, to develop a scheme for using the output to control extruders to eliminate the energy, material and operational costs of off-specification product, and to combine or eliminate some extrusion processes. Background: Polymer extrusion processes are difficult to control because the quality achieved in the final product is complexly affected by the properties of the extruder screw, speed of extrusion, temperature, polymer composition, strength and dispersion properties of additives, and feeder system properties. Extruder systems are engineered to be highly reproducible so that when the correct settings to produce a particular product are found, that product can be reliably produced time after time. However market conditions often require changes in the final product, different products or grades may be processed in the same equipment, and feed materials vary from lot to lot. All of these changes require empirical adjustment of extruder settings to produce a product meeting specifications. Optical sensor systems that can continuously monitor the composition and color of the extruded polymer could detect process upsets, drift, blending oscillations, and changes in dispersion of additives. Development of an effective control algorithm using the output of the monitor would enable rapid corrections for changes in materials and operating conditions, thereby eliminating most of the scrap and recycle of current processing. This information could be used to identify extruder systems issues, diagnose problem sources, and suggest corrective actions in real-time to help keep extruder system settings within the optimum control region. Using these advanced optical sensor systems would give extruder operators real-time feedback from their process. They could reduce the amount of off-spec product produced and
Chantarangkul, Veena; Clerici, Marigrazia; Bressi, Caterina; Tripodi, Armando
2004-02-01
Platelet contamination in stored plasma may affect coagulation assays, including the endogenous thrombin potential (ETP), which has been proposed for the investigation of hyper- and hypo-coagulability. The current recommendation of filtering plasma before freezing cannot be always met. This study provides evidence that filtering frozen plasma after thawing, prior to testing, may help to eliminate the unwanted effect of residual platelets on the ETP. This may have important implications in future studies, as the ETP could be determined with plasma that have been collected without precautions relating to platelet contamination, as is the case for plasmas collected in epidemiological studies. PMID:14717784
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grzybowski, Przemysław R.; Czekaj, Łukasz; Nogala, Mariusz; Ścibior, Adam; Chhajlany, Ravindra W.
2016-06-01
Models of noninteracting fermions coupled to auxiliary classical fields are relevant to the understanding of a wide variety of problems in many-body physics, e.g., the description of manganites, diluted magnetic semiconductors, or strongly interacting electrons on lattices. We present a flat-histogram Monte Carlo algorithm that simulates a statistical ensemble that allows one to directly acquire the partition function at all temperatures for such systems. The defining feature of the algorithm is that it utilizes the complete thermodynamic information from the full energy spectrum of noninteracting fermions available during sampling of the configuration space of the classical fields. We benchmark the method for the classical Ising and Potts models in two dimensions, as well as the Falicov-Kimball model describing itinerant electrons interacting with heavy ions.
Re-examining Potential for Geothermal Energy in United States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Showstack, Randy
New technological initiatives, along with potential policy and economic incentives, could help to bring about a resurgence in geothermal energy development in the United States, said several experts at a 22 May forum in Washington, D.C. The forum was sponsored by the House and Senate Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Caucuses, the Sustainable Energy Coalition, and the Environmental and Energy Study Institute. Among these initiatives is an ambitious program of the U.S. Department of Energy to expand existing geothermal energy fields and potentially create new fields through ``enhanced geothermal systems.'' In addition, a program of the Bush administration encourages geothermal development on some public lands, and current legislation would provide tax credits and other incentives for geothermal development.
Biomass energy: the scale of the potential resource.
Field, Christopher B; Campbell, J Elliott; Lobell, David B
2008-02-01
Increased production of biomass for energy has the potential to offset substantial use of fossil fuels, but it also has the potential to threaten conservation areas, pollute water resources and decrease food security. The net effect of biomass energy agriculture on climate could be either cooling or warming, depending on the crop, the technology for converting biomass into useable energy, and the difference in carbon stocks and reflectance of solar radiation between the biomass crop and the pre-existing vegetation. The area with the greatest potential for yielding biomass energy that reduces net warming and avoids competition with food production is land that was previously used for agriculture or pasture but that has been abandoned and not converted to forest or urban areas. At the global scale, potential above-ground plant growth on these abandoned lands has an energy content representing approximately 5% of world primary energy consumption in 2006. The global potential for biomass energy production is large in absolute terms, but it is not enough to replace more than a few percent of current fossil fuel usage. Increasing biomass energy production beyond this level would probably reduce food security and exacerbate forcing of climate change. PMID:18215439
Ab initio Potential Energy Surface for H-H2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Partridge, Harry; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Stallcop, James R.; Levin, Eugene
1993-01-01
Ab initio calculations employing large basis sets are performed to determine an accurate potential energy surface for H-H2 interactions for a broad range of separation distances. At large distances, the spherically averaged potential determined from the calculated energies agrees well with the corresponding results determined from dispersion coefficients; the van der Waals well depth is predicted to be 75 +/- (mu)E(sub h). Large basis sets have also been applied to reexamine the accuracy of theoretical repulsive potential energy surfaces. Multipolar expansions of the computed H-H2 potential energy surface are reported for four internuclear separation distances (1.2, 1.401, 1.449, and 1.7a(sub 0) of the hydrogen molecule. The differential elastic scattering cross section calculated from the present results is compared with the measurements from a crossed beam experiment.
Lü, Qiang; Xia, Xiao-Yan; Chen, Rong; Miao, Da-Jun; Chen, Sha-Sha; Quan, Li-Jun; Li, Hai-Ou
2012-01-01
Background Protein structure prediction (PSP), which is usually modeled as a computational optimization problem, remains one of the biggest challenges in computational biology. PSP encounters two difficult obstacles: the inaccurate energy function problem and the searching problem. Even if the lowest energy has been luckily found by the searching procedure, the correct protein structures are not guaranteed to obtain. Results A general parallel metaheuristic approach is presented to tackle the above two problems. Multi-energy functions are employed to simultaneously guide the parallel searching threads. Searching trajectories are in fact controlled by the parameters of heuristic algorithms. The parallel approach allows the parameters to be perturbed during the searching threads are running in parallel, while each thread is searching the lowest energy value determined by an individual energy function. By hybridizing the intelligences of parallel ant colonies and Monte Carlo Metropolis search, this paper demonstrates an implementation of our parallel approach for PSP. 16 classical instances were tested to show that the parallel approach is competitive for solving PSP problem. Conclusions This parallel approach combines various sources of both searching intelligences and energy functions, and thus predicts protein conformations with good quality jointly determined by all the parallel searching threads and energy functions. It provides a framework to combine different searching intelligence embedded in heuristic algorithms. It also constructs a container to hybridize different not-so-accurate objective functions which are usually derived from the domain expertise. PMID:23028708
Whitford, Paul C; Noel, Jeffrey K; Gosavi, Shachi; Schug, Alexander; Sanbonmatsu, Kevin Y; Onuchic, José N
2009-05-01
Protein dynamics take place on many time and length scales. Coarse-grained structure-based (Go) models utilize the funneled energy landscape theory of protein folding to provide an understanding of both long time and long length scale dynamics. All-atom empirical forcefields with explicit solvent can elucidate our understanding of short time dynamics with high energetic and structural resolution. Thus, structure-based models with atomic details included can be used to bridge our understanding between these two approaches. We report on the robustness of folding mechanisms in one such all-atom model. Results for the B domain of Protein A, the SH3 domain of C-Src Kinase, and Chymotrypsin Inhibitor 2 are reported. The interplay between side chain packing and backbone folding is explored. We also compare this model to a C(alpha) structure-based model and an all-atom empirical forcefield. Key findings include: (1) backbone collapse is accompanied by partial side chain packing in a cooperative transition and residual side chain packing occurs gradually with decreasing temperature, (2) folding mechanisms are robust to variations of the energetic parameters, (3) protein folding free-energy barriers can be manipulated through parametric modifications, (4) the global folding mechanisms in a C(alpha) model and the all-atom model agree, although differences can be attributed to energetic heterogeneity in the all-atom model, and (5) proline residues have significant effects on folding mechanisms, independent of isomerization effects. Because this structure-based model has atomic resolution, this work lays the foundation for future studies to probe the contributions of specific energetic factors on protein folding and function. PMID:18837035
Tung, Wei-Cheng; Adamowicz, Ludwik
2014-03-28
Very accurate calculations of the ground-state potential energy curve (PEC) of the LiH(+) ion performed with all-electron explicitly correlated Gaussian functions with shifted centers are presented. The variational method is employed. The calculations involve optimization of nonlinear exponential parameters of the Gaussians performed with the aid of the analytical first derivatives of the energy determined with respect to the parameters. The diagonal adiabatic correction is also calculated for each PEC point. The PEC is then used to calculate the vibrational energies of the system. In that calculation, the non-adiabatic effects are accounted for by using an effective vibrational mass obtained by the minimization of the difference between the vibrational energies obtained from the calculations where the Born-Oppenheimer approximation was not assumed and the results of the present calculations. PMID:24697449