Science.gov

Sample records for potential helminth infections

  1. Important helminth infections in Southeast Asia diversity, potential for control and prospects for elimination.

    PubMed

    Utzinger, Jürg; Bergquist, Robert; Olveda, Remigio; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2010-01-01

    Besides the 'big three'-HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis-there are a host of diseases that, by comparison, are truly neglected. These so-called neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), many of which caused by helminths, are intimately linked with poverty and are rampant where housing is poor; access to clean water and adequate sanitation is lacking; hygiene and nutrition is substandard and populations are marginalized and vulnerable. More than a billion people are affected by NTDs, mainly in remote rural and deprived urban settings of the developing world. An overview of papers published in two special thematic volumes of the Advances in Parasitology is provided here under the umbrella of current status of research and control of important helminth infections. A total of 25 comprehensive reviews are presented, which summarise the latest available data pertaining to the diagnosis, epidemiology, pathogenesis, prevention, treatment, control and eventual elimination of NTDs in Southeast Asia and neighbourhood countries. The focus of the first volume provides the current regional status of schistosomiasis, lymphatic filariasis, food-borne trematodiases, echinococcosis and cysticercosis/taeniasis, less common parasitic diseases that can cause epidemic outbreaks and helminth infections affecting the central nervous system. The second volume deals with the tools and strategies for control, including diagnostics, drugs, vaccines and cutting-edge basic research (e.g. the '-omics' sciences). Moreover, cross-cutting themes such as multiparasitism, social sciences, capacity strengthening, geospatial health technologies, health metrics and modelling the potential impact of climate change on helminthic diseases are discussed. Hopefully, these two volumes will become useful for researchers and, most importantly, disease control managers for integrated and sustainable control, rigorous monitoring and eventual elimination of NTDs in Southeast Asia and elsewhere. PMID:20624526

  2. Vaccination against helminth parasite infections.

    PubMed

    Hewitson, James P; Maizels, Rick M

    2014-04-01

    Helminth parasites infect over one fourth of the human population and are highly prevalent in livestock worldwide. In model systems, parasites are strongly immunomodulatory, but the immune system can be driven to expel them by prior vaccination. However, no vaccines are currently available for human use. Recent advances in vaccination with recombinant helminth antigens have been successful against cestode infections of livestock and new vaccines are being tested against nematode parasites of animals. Numerous vaccine antigens are being defined for a wide range of helminth parasite species, but greater understanding is needed to define the mechanisms of vaccine-induced immunity, to lay a rational platform for new vaccines and their optimal design. With human trials underway for hookworm and schistosomiasis vaccines, a greater integration between veterinary and human studies will highlight the common molecular and mechanistic pathways, and accelerate progress towards reducing the global health burden of helminth infection. PMID:24606541

  3. [Parasitic infections in pregnancy and congenital parasitoses. II. Helminth infections].

    PubMed

    Bialek, R; Knobloch, J

    1999-01-01

    The main sequela of helminthic infections is anemia, causing increased perinatal mortality and morbidity worldwide. During pregnancy symptomatic treatment is usually sufficient to control the disease. The specific and very effective treatment with albendazole, mebendazole, ivermectin and praziquantel has embryo-, fetotoxic, mutagenic and teratogenic potential. Therefore, it should be delayed until after delivery. In some cases immediate specific therapy might be mandatory. Congenital helminthic infection in humans is a rarely described event. PMID:10448707

  4. Chronic helminth infections induce immunomodulation: consequences and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    van Riet, Elly; Hartgers, Franca C; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Worldwide, more than a billion people are infected with helminths. These worm infections generally do not lead to mortality, however, they are chronic in nature and can lead to considerable morbidity. Immunologically these infections are interesting; chronic helminth infections are characterized by skewing towards a T helper 2 type response as well as regulatory responses. The regulatory network is associated with chronic helminth infections and is thought to prevent strong immune responses against parasitic worms, allowing their long-term survival and restricting pathology. This regulatory network is thought to also temper responses to non-helminth antigens, like allergens or self-antigens, possibly leading to lower prevalence of allergies and autoimmune diseases in subjects that are chronically infected with helminths. This raises the interesting idea that helminths may bear molecules that have potential therapeutic action against allergies and possibly other inflammatory diseases. However, on the other side of the coin, this would predict that helminth infected subjects might not respond strongly to third party antigens like vaccines. This is an important issue, since most vaccines that are being developed against diseases such as HIV, tuberculosis or malaria will be introduced in areas where helminth infections are highly prevalent. Moreover, these vaccines are proving difficult to develop and are often weak, thus any confounder that would affect their efficacy needs to be taken into consideration. Helminth derived molecules have been identified that induce T helper 2 and regulatory responses via modulation of dendritic cells and some appear to do so via Toll like receptor (TLR) signaling. New insights into these pathways could be useful to antagonize suppression and hence boost vaccine efficacy or to optimize suppression induced by helminth derived molecules and control inflammatory diseases. PMID:17544832

  5. Protective Immune Mechanisms in Helminth Infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Important insights have been gained in our understanding of how immune responses mediate resistance to helminths and control associated pathological responses. Although similar cells and cytokines are evoked in response to infection by helminths as diverse as nematodes and schistosomes, the componen...

  6. Protective immune mechanisms in helminth infection

    PubMed Central

    Anthony, Robert M.; Rutitzky, Laura I.; Urban, Joseph F.; Stadecker, Miguel J.; Gause, William C.

    2008-01-01

    Important insights have recently been gained in our understanding of how host immune responses mediate resistance to parasitic helminths and control associated pathological responses. Although similar cells and cytokines are evoked in response to infection by helminths as diverse as nematodes and schistosomes, the components of the response that mediate protection are dependent on the particular parasite. In this Review, we examine recent findings regarding the mechanisms of protection in helminth infections that have been elucidated in murine models and discuss the implications of these findings in terms of future therapies. PMID:18007680

  7. Mucocutaneous manifestations of helminth infections: Nematodes.

    PubMed

    Lupi, Omar; Downing, Christopher; Lee, Michael; Pino, Livia; Bravo, Francisco; Giglio, Patricia; Sethi, Aisha; Klaus, Sidney; Sangueza, Omar P; Fuller, Claire; Mendoza, Natalia; Ladizinski, Barry; Woc-Colburn, Laila; Tyring, Stephen K

    2015-12-01

    In the 21st century, despite increased globalization through international travel for business, medical volunteerism, pleasure, and immigration/refugees into the United States, there is little published in the dermatology literature regarding the cutaneous manifestations of helminth infections. Approximately 17% of travelers seek medical care because of cutaneous disorders, many related to infectious etiologies. This review will focus on the cutaneous manifestations of helminth infections and is divided into 2 parts: part I focuses on nematode infections, and part II focuses on trematode and cestode infections. This review highlights the clinical manifestations, transmission, diagnosis, and treatment of helminth infections. Nematodes are roundworms that cause diseases with cutaneous manifestations, such as cutaneous larval migrans, onchocerciasis, filariasis, gnathostomiasis, loiasis, dracunculiasis, strongyloidiasis, ascariasis, streptocerciasis, dirofilariasis, and trichinosis. Tremadotes, also known as flukes, cause schistosomiasis, paragonimiasis, and fascioliasis. Cestodes (tapeworms) are flat, hermaphroditic parasites that cause diseases such as sparganosis, cysticercosis, and echinococcus. PMID:26568337

  8. Can Helminth Infection Reverse Microbial Dysbiosis?

    PubMed

    Loke, P'ng; Lim, Yvonne A L

    2015-11-01

    There is growing interest in treating inflammatory conditions with helminth infection. Recently, Loukas and colleagues have reported promising results from using experimental hookworm infection to reduce gluten sensitivity in celiac disease patients. Analysis of microbiota samples from the trial is contributing to our understanding of the complexity underlying helminth–microbiota–host relationships. PMID:26604162

  9. Acquired immune heterogeneity and its sources in human helminth infection

    PubMed Central

    BOURKE, C. D.; MAIZELS, R. M.; MUTAPI, F.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Similarities in the immunobiology of different parasitic worm infections indicate that co-evolution of humans and helminths has shaped a common anti-helminth immune response. However, recent in vitro and immuno-epidemiological studies highlight fundamental differences and plasticity within host-helminth interactions. The ‘trade-off’ between immunity and immunopathology inherent in host immune responses occurs on a background of genetic polymorphism, variable exposure patterns and infection history. For the parasite, variation in life-cycle and antigen expression can influence the effector responses directed against them. This is particularly apparent when comparing gastrointestinal and tissue-dwelling helminths. Furthermore, insights into the impact of anti-helminthic treatment and co-infection on acquired immunity suggest that immune heterogeneity arises not from hosts and parasites in isolation, but also from the environment in which immune responses develop. Large-scale differences observed in the epidemiology of human helminthiases are a product of complex host-parasite-environment interactions which, given potential for exposure to parasite antigens in utero, can arise even before a parasite interacts with its human host. This review summarizes key differences identified in human acquired immune responses to nematode and trematode infections of public health importance and explores the factors contributing to these variations. PMID:20946693

  10. Helminth Infection and Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Zaccone, Paola; Hall, Samuel W.

    2012-01-01

    The increasing incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) and autoimmune diseases in industrialized countries cannot be exclusively explained by genetic factors. Human epidemiological studies and animal experimental data provide accumulating evidence for the role of environmental factors, such as infections, in the regulation of allergy and autoimmune diseases. The hygiene hypothesis has formally provided a rationale for these observations, suggesting that our co-evolution with pathogens has contributed to the shaping of the present-day human immune system. Therefore, improved sanitation, together with infection control, has removed immunoregulatory mechanisms on which our immune system may depend. Helminths are multicellular organisms that have developed a wide range of strategies to manipulate the host immune system to survive and complete their reproductive cycles successfully. Immunity to helminths involves profound changes in both the innate and adaptive immune compartments, which can have a protective effect in inflammation and autoimmunity. Recently, helminth-derived antigens and molecules have been tested in vitro and in vivo to explore possible applications in the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, including T1D. This exciting approach presents numerous challenges that will need to be addressed before it can reach safe clinical application. This review outlines basic insight into the ability of helminths to modulate the onset and progression of T1D, and frames some of the challenges that helminth-derived therapies may face in the context of clinical translation. PMID:23804266

  11. Effect of helminth-induced immunity on infections with microbial pathogens

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Helminth infections are ubiquitous worldwide and can trigger potent immune responses that differ from and potentially antagonize host protective responses to microbial pathogens. In this Review we focus on the three main killers in infectious disease—AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria—and critically assesses whether helminths adversely influence host control of these diseases. We also discuss emerging concepts for how M2 macrophages and helminth-modulated dendritic cells can potentially influence the protective immune response to concurrent infections. Finally, we present evidence advocating for more efforts to determine how and to what extent helminths interfere with the successful control of specific concurrent coinfections. PMID:24145791

  12. Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... faeces, which contaminate the soil in areas where sanitation is poor. Approximately 2 billion people are infected ... worms health education to prevent re-infection improved sanitation to reduce soil contamination with infective eggs. Safe ...

  13. Treatment of helminth co-infection in HIV-1 infected individuals in resource-limited settings

    PubMed Central

    Walson, Judd L; John-Stewart, Grace

    2012-01-01

    Background The HIV-1 pandemic has disproportionately affected individuals in resource-constrained settings. These areas often also have high prevalence of other infectious diseases, such as helminth infections. It is important to determine if helminth infection affects the progression of HIV-1 in these co-infected individuals. There are biologically plausible reasons for possible effects of helminth infection in HIV-1 infected individuals and findings from some observational studies suggest that helminth infection may adversely affect HIV-1 progression. We sought to evaluate the available evidence from published and unpublished studies to determine if treatment of helminth infection in HIV-1 co-infected individuals impacts HIV-1 progression. Objectives Our objective was to determine if treating helminth infection in individuals with HIV-1 can reduce the progression of HIV-1 as determined by changes in CD4 count, viral load, or clinical disease progression (including mortality). Search strategy We searched online for published and unpublished studies in The Cochrane Library (Issue 3, 2006), MEDLINE (November 2006), EMBASE (November 2006), CENTRAL (July 2006), AIDSEARCH (August 2006). We also searched databases listing conference abstracts, scanned reference lists of articles, and contacted authors of included studies. Selection criteria We searched for randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials that compared HIV-1 progression as measured by changes in CD4 count, viral load, or clinical disease progression in HIV-1 infected individuals receiving anti-helminth therapy. Observational studies with relevant data were also included. Data collection and analysis Data regarding changes in CD4 count, HIV-1 RNA levels, clinical staging and/or mortality after treatment of helminth co-infection were extracted from the reports of the studies. Main results Of 6,384 abstracts identified, 15 met criteria for potential inclusion, of which five were eligible for inclusion. In

  14. Helminth-Tuberculosis Co-infection: An Immunologic Perspective.

    PubMed

    Babu, Subash; Nutman, Thomas B

    2016-09-01

    Over 2 billion people worldwide are infected with helminths (worms). Similarly, infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) occurs in over a third of the world's population, often with a great degree of geographical overlap with helminth infection. Interestingly, the responses induced by the extracellular helminths and those induced by the intracellular Mtb are often mutually antagonistic and, as a consequence, can result in impaired (or cross-regulated) host responses to either of the infecting pathogens. In this review, we outline the nature of the immune responses induced by infections with helminths and tuberculosis (TB) and then provide data from both experimental models and human studies that illustrate how the immune response engendered by helminth parasites modulates Mtb-specific responses in helminth-TB coinfection. PMID:27501916

  15. Metabolic Enzymes of Helminth Parasites: Potential as Drug Targets.

    PubMed

    Timson, David J

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic pathways that extract energy from carbon compounds are essential for an organism's survival. Therefore, inhibition of enzymes in these pathways represents a potential therapeutic strategy to combat parasitic infections. However, the high degree of similarity between host and parasite enzymes makes this strategy potentially difficult. Nevertheless, several existing drugs to treat infections by parasitic helminths (worms) target metabolic enzymes. These include the trivalent antimonials that target phosphofructokinase and Clorsulon that targets phosphoglycerate mutase and phosphoglycerate kinase. Glycolytic enzymes from a variety of helminths have been characterised biochemically, and some inhibitors identified. To date none of these inhibitors have been developed into therapies. Many of these enzymes are externalised from the parasite and so are also of interest in the development of potential vaccines. Less work has been done on tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes and oxidative phosphorylation complexes. Again, while some inhibitors have been identified none have been developed into drug-like molecules. Barriers to the development of novel drugs targeting metabolic enzymes include the lack of experimentally determined structures of helminth enzymes, lack of direct proof that the enzymes are vital in the parasites and lack of cell culture systems for many helminth species. Nevertheless, the success of Clorsulon (which discriminates between highly similar host and parasite enzymes) should inspire us to consider making serious efforts to discover novel anthelminthics, which target metabolic enzymes. PMID:26983888

  16. Helminth infection, fecundity, and age of first pregnancy in women.

    PubMed

    Blackwell, Aaron D; Tamayo, Marilyne A; Beheim, Bret; Trumble, Benjamin C; Stieglitz, Jonathan; Hooper, Paul L; Martin, Melanie; Kaplan, Hillard; Gurven, Michael

    2015-11-20

    Infection with intestinal helminths results in immunological changes that influence co-infections, and might influence fecundity by inducing immunological states affecting conception and pregnancy. We investigated associations between intestinal helminths and fertility in women, using 9 years of longitudinal data from 986 Bolivian forager-horticulturalists, experiencing natural fertility and 70% helminth prevalence. We found that different species of helminth are associated with contrasting effects on fecundity. Infection with roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides) is associated with earlier first births and shortened interbirth intervals, whereas infection with hookworm is associated with delayed first pregnancy and extended interbirth intervals. Thus, helminths may have important effects on human fertility that reflect physiological and immunological consequences of infection. PMID:26586763

  17. Prevalence and Predictors of Intestinal Helminth Infections Among Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1–Infected Adults in an Urban African Setting

    PubMed Central

    Modjarrad, Kayvon; Zulu, Isaac; Redden, David T.; Njobvu, Lungowe; Freedman, David O.; Vermund, Sten H.

    2009-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa is disproportionately burdened by intestinal helminth and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection. Recent evidence suggests detrimental immunologic effects from concomitant infection with the two pathogens. Few studies, however, have assessed the prevalence of and predictors for intestinal helminth infection among HIV-1–infected adults in urban African settings where HIV infection rates are highest. We collected and analyzed sociodemographic and parasitologic data from 297 HIV-1–infected adults (mean age = 31.1 years, 69% female) living in Lusaka, Zambia to assess the prevalence and associated predictors of helminth infection. We found at least one type of intestinal helminth in 24.9% of HIV-infected adults. Thirty-nine (52.7%) were infected with Ascaris lumbricoides, and 29 (39.2%) were infected with hookworm. More than 80% were light-intensity infections. A recent visit to a rural area, food shortage, and prior history of helminth infection were significant predictors of current helminth status. The high helminth prevalence and potential for adverse interactions between helminths and HIV suggests that helminth diagnosis and treatment should be part of routine HIV care. PMID:16222025

  18. Epidemiological and clinical correlates of malaria-helminth co-infections in southern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In many areas of the world, including Ethiopia, malaria and helminths are co-endemic, therefore, co-infections are common. However, little is known how concurrent infections affect the epidemiology and/or pathogenesis of each other. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess the effects of intestinal helminth infections on the epidemiology and clinical patterns of malaria in southern Ethiopia where both infections are prevalent. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2006 at Wondo Genet Health Center and Bussa Clinic, southern Ethiopia. Consecutive blood film positive malaria patients (N=230) and malaria negative asymptomatic individuals (N=233) were recruited. Malaria parasite detection and quantification was diagnosed using Giemsa-stained thick and thin blood films, respectively. Helminths were detected using direct microscopy and formol-ether concentration techniques. Coarse quantification of helminths ova was made using Kato Katz method. Results The over all magnitude of intestinal parasitic infection was high irrespective of malaria infection (67% among malaria positive patients versus 53.1% among malaria non-infected asymptomatic individuals). Trichuris trichiura infection was associated with increased malaria prevalence while increased worm burden of helminths as expressed by egg intensity was associated with increased malaria parasitaemia which could be a potential factor for development of severe malarial infection with the course of the disease. Majority (77%) of the subjects had multiple helminths infection. T. trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, Schistosoma mansoni, and hookworm infestation accounted for 64.5, 57.7 %, 28.4%, and 12.2% of the infections, respectively. Conclusions Populations in malaria-endemic areas of southern Ethiopia are multi-parasitized with up to four helminths. Mass deworming may be a simple practical approach in endemic areas in reducing the risk of severe malarial attack particularly for those at high risk

  19. Role of Leukotrienes on Protozoan and Helminth Infections

    PubMed Central

    Rogerio, Alexandre P.; Anibal, Fernanda F.

    2012-01-01

    Leukotrienes (LTs), formed by the 5-lipoxygenase-(5-LO-) catalyzed oxidation of arachidonic acid, are lipid mediators that have potent proinflammatory activities. Pharmacologic or genetic inhibition of 5-LO biosynthesis in animals is associated with increased mortality and impaired clearance of bacteria, fungi, and parasites. LTs play a role in the control of helminth and protozoan infections by modulating the immune system and/or through direct cytotoxicity to parasites; however, LTs may also be associated with pathogenesis, such as in cerebral malaria and schistosomal granuloma. Interestingly, some proteins from the saliva of insect vectors that transmit protozoans and secreted protein from helminth could bind LTs and may consequently modulate the course of infection or pathogenesis. In addition, the decreased production of LTs in immunocompromised individuals might modulate the pathophysiology of helminth and protozoan infections. Herein, in this paper, we showed the immunomodulatory and pathogenic roles of LTs during the helminth and protozoan infections. PMID:22577251

  20. Prevention of Soil-transmitted Helminth Infection

    PubMed Central

    Mascarini-Serra, Luciene

    2011-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) form one of the most important groups of infectious agents and are the cause of serious global health problems. The most important STHs are roundworms (Ascaris lumbricoides), whipworms (Trichuris trichiura) and hookworms (Necator americanus or Ancylostoma duodenale); on a global level, more than a billion people have been infected by at least one species of this group of pathogens. This review explores the general concepts of transmission dynamics and the environment and intensity of infection and morbidity of STHs. The global strategy for the control of soil-transmitted helminthiasis is based on (i) regular anthelminthic treatment, (ii) health education, (iii) sanitation and personal hygiene and (iv) other means of prevention with vaccines and remote sensoring. The reasons for the development of a control strategy based on population intervention rather than on individual treatment are discussed, as well as the costs of the prevention of STHs, although these cannot always be calculated because interventions in health education are difficult to measure. An efficient sanitation infrastructure can reduce the morbidity of STHs and eliminates the underlying cause of most poverty-related diseases and thus supports the economic development of a country. PMID:21731306

  1. Deworming helminth co-infected individuals for delaying HIV disease progression

    PubMed Central

    Walson, Judd L; Herrin, Bradley R; John-Stewart, Grace

    2009-01-01

    Background The HIV-1 pandemic has disproportionately affected individuals in resource-constrained settings where other infectious diseases, such as helminth infections, also are highly prevalent. There are biologically plausible reasons for possible effects of helminth infection in HIV-1-infected individuals, and findings from multiple studies suggest that helminth infection may adversely affect HIV-1 progression. Since initial publication of this review (Walson 2007), additional data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) has become available. We sought to evaluate all currently available evidence to determine if treatment of helminth infection in HIV-1 co-infected individuals impacts HIV-1 progression. Objectives To determine if treating helminth infection in individuals with HIV-1 can reduce the progression of HIV-1 as determined by changes in CD4 count, viral load, or clinical disease progression. Search strategy In this 2008 update, we searched online for published and unpublished studies in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, and AIDSEARCH. We also searched databases listing conference abstracts, scanned reference lists of articles, and contacted authors of included studies. Selection criteria We searched for RCTs and quasi-RCTs that compared HIV-1 progression as measured by changes in CD4 count, viral load, or clinical disease progression in HIV-1 infected individuals receiving anti-helminthic therapy. Data collection and analysis Data regarding changes in CD4 count, HIV-1 RNA levels, and/or clinical staging after treatment of helminth co-infection were extracted from identified studies. Main results Of 7,019 abstracts identified (6,384 from original searches plus 635 from updated searches), 17 abstracts were identified as meeting criteria for potential inclusion (15 from previous review plus an additional two RCTs). After restricting inclusion to RCTs, a total of three studies were eligible for inclusion in this updated review. All three

  2. Prevalence and Correlates of Helminth Co-infection in Kenyan HIV-1 Infected Adults

    PubMed Central

    Walson, Judd L.; Stewart, Barclay T.; Sangaré, Laura; Mbogo, Loice W.; Otieno, Phelgona A.; Piper, Benjamin K. S.; Richardson, Barbra A.; John-Stewart, Grace

    2010-01-01

    Background Deworming HIV-1 infected individuals may delay HIV-1 disease progression. It is important to determine the prevalence and correlates of HIV-1/helminth co-infection in helminth-endemic areas. Methods HIV-1 infected individuals (CD4>250 cells/ul) were screened for helminth infection at ten sites in Kenya. Prevalence and correlates of helminth infection were determined. A subset of individuals with soil-transmitted helminth infection was re-evaluated 12 weeks following albendazole therapy. Results Of 1,541 HIV-1 seropositive individuals screened, 298 (19.3%) had detectable helminth infections. Among individuals with helminth infection, hookworm species were the most prevalent (56.3%), followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (17.1%), Trichuris trichiura (8.7%), Schistosoma mansoni (7.1%), and Stongyloides stercoralis (1.3%). Infection with multiple species occurred in 9.4% of infections. After CD4 count was controlled for, rural residence (RR 1.40, 95% CI: 1.08–1.81), having no education (RR 1.57, 95% CI: 1.07–2.30), and higher CD4 count (RR 1.36, 95% CI: 1.07–1.73) remained independently associated with risk of helminth infection. Twelve weeks following treatment with albendazole, 32% of helminth-infected individuals had detectable helminths on examination. Residence, education, and CD4 count were not associated with persistent helminth infection. Conclusions Among HIV-1 seropositive adults with CD4 counts above 250 cells/mm3 in Kenya, traditional risk factors for helminth infection, including rural residence and lack of education, were associated with co-infection, while lower CD4 counts were not. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00130910 PMID:20361031

  3. Zoonotic helminth infections with particular emphasis on fasciolosis and other trematodiases

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Mark W.; Dalton, John P.

    2009-01-01

    Zoonotic infections are among the most common on earth and are responsible for >60 per cent of all human infectious diseases. Some of the most important and well-known human zoonoses are caused by worm or helminth parasites, including species of nematodes (trichinellosis), cestodes (cysticercosis, echinococcosis) and trematodes (schistosomiasis). However, along with social, epidemiological and environmental changes, together with improvements in our ability to diagnose helminth infections, several neglected parasite species are now fast-becoming recognized as important zoonotic diseases of humans, e.g. anasakiasis, several fish-borne trematodiasis and fasciolosis. In the present review, we discuss the current disease status of these primary helminth zoonotic infections with particular emphasis on their diagnosis and control. Advances in molecular biology, proteomics and the release of helminth genome-sequencing project data are revolutionizing parasitology research. The use of these powerful experimental approaches, and their potential benefits to helminth biology are also discussed in relation to the future control of helminth infections of animals and humans. PMID:19687044

  4. Got worms? Perinatal exposure to helminths prevents persistent immune sensitization and cognitive dysfunction induced by early-life infection.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Lauren L; McKenney, Erin A; Holzknecht, Zoie E; Belliveau, Christine; Rawls, John F; Poulton, Susan; Parker, William; Bilbo, Staci D

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases has risen dramatically in post-industrial societies. "Biome depletion" - loss of commensal microbial and multicellular organisms such as helminths (intestinal worms) that profoundly modulate the immune system - may contribute to these increases. Hyperimmune-associated disorders also affect the brain, especially neurodevelopment, and increasing evidence links early-life infection to cognitive and neurodevelopmental disorders. We have demonstrated previously that rats infected with bacteria as newborns display life-long vulnerabilities to cognitive dysfunction, a vulnerability that is specifically linked to long-term hypersensitivity of microglial cell function, the resident immune cells of the brain. Here, we demonstrate that helminth colonization of pregnant dams attenuated the exaggerated brain cytokine response of their offspring to bacterial infection, and that combined with post-weaning colonization of offspring with helminths (consistent with their mothers treatment) completely prevented enduring microglial sensitization and cognitive dysfunction in adulthood. Importantly, helminths had no overt impact on adaptive immune cell subsets, whereas exaggerated innate inflammatory responses in splenic macrophages were prevented. Finally, helminths altered the effect of neonatal infection on the gut microbiome; neonatal infection with Escherichia coli caused a shift from genera within the Actinobacteria and Tenericutes phyla to genera in the Bacteroidetes phylum in rats not colonized with helminths, but helminths attenuated this effect. In sum, these data point toward an inter-relatedness of various components of the biome, and suggest potential mechanisms by which this helminth might exert therapeutic benefits in the treatment of neuroinflammatory and cognitive disorders. PMID:26162711

  5. Infection levels of intestinal helminths in two commensal rodent species from rural households in Yucatan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Panti-May, J A; Hernández-Betancourt, S F; Rodríguez-Vivas, R I; Robles, M R

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to calculate the prevalence and intensity of intestinal helminths in the house mouse (Mus musculus) and the black rat (Rattus rattus) trapped in rural households of Yucatan, Mexico. Sampling was conducted during the rainy season from October to December 2011 and the dry season from January to March 2012. A total of 154 M. musculus and 46 R. rattus were examined, with 84.2% of M. musculus being infected with helminths compared with a significantly lower prevalence of 52.2% in R. rattus (P< 0.01). Adult M. musculus were more likely to be infected with helminths (89%) than subadults (63%) (P< 0.01). Four helminth species were identified: Taenia taeniaeformis larvae, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Syphacia muris and Trichuris muris. Nippostrongylus brasiliensis was present more frequently in M. musculus than in R. rattus (P< 0.01) and in adult mice compared to subadults (P< 0.01). Trichuris muris was present only in adult mice. This is the first report of N. brasiliensis, S. muris and T. muris in Yucatan, Mexico, as well as the first to report the presence of N. brasiliensis in M. musculus from Mexico. The helminth fauna of commensal rodents present in households appears to constitute a low potential health risk to local inhabitants; however, it would be advisable to conduct further studies to better understand the public health risk posed by these rodent intestinal helminths. PMID:24000977

  6. Alternatively activated macrophages in helminth infections

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Helminthic parasites can trigger highly polarized immune responses typically associated with increased numbers of CD4+ Th2 cells, eosinophils, mast cells, and basophils. These cell populations are thought to coordinate an effective response ultimately leading to parasite expulsion, but they also pl...

  7. High Prevalence of Covert Infection With Gastrointestinal Helminths in Cats.

    PubMed

    Little, Susan; Adolph, Chris; Downie, Kathryn; Snider, Tim; Reichard, Mason

    2015-01-01

    Fecal flotation is routinely used to identify feline helminth infections in clinical practice, but it is known to have limitations of sensitivity, particularly for cestodes. To determine the prevalence of helminths in a contemporary population of cats and evaluate the ability of fecal flotation to detect these infections, helminths were recovered from intestinal tracts removed from 116 adult cats humanely euthanized by an animal control shelter in northeastern Oklahoma. Results were compared to those of fecal flotation performed using both passive and centrifugal techniques. Helminths were identified in 78/116 (67.2%) cats, including Toxocara cati (48/116; 41.4%), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (8/116; 6.9%), Dipylidium caninum (40/116; 34.5%), and Taenia taeniaeformis (30/116; 25.9%). Cats with T. cati were significantly more likely to harbor T. taeniaeformis (P = .001) than cats without ascarids. Centrifugal fecal flotation with sugar solution identified 37/48 (77.1%) T. cati infections, 8/30 (26.7%) T. taeniaeformis infections, and no D. caninum infections. Proglottids were detected on external examination in 19.0% (12/63) of cats with cestodes. Cestodes were present in over half of the cats examined in this study, but the majority of these infections were not evident by the detection of external proglottids or recovery of characteristic stages on fecal flotation. PMID:26535453

  8. Geostatistical modelling of soil-transmitted helminth infection in Cambodia: do socioeconomic factors improve predictions?

    PubMed

    Karagiannis-Voules, Dimitrios-Alexios; Odermatt, Peter; Biedermann, Patricia; Khieu, Virak; Schär, Fabian; Muth, Sinuon; Utzinger, Jürg; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2015-01-01

    aggregated large-scale analysis due to their large between- and within-village heterogeneity. Specific information of both the infection risk and potential predictors might be needed to obtain any existing association. The presented soil-transmitted helminth infection risk estimates for Cambodia can be used for guiding and evaluating control and elimination efforts. PMID:25205492

  9. Helminth Infection Promotes Colonization Resistance via Type 2 Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Ramanan, Deepshika; Bowcutt, Rowann; Lee, Soo Ching; Tang, Mei San; Kurtz, Zachary D.; Ding, Yi; Honda, Kenya; Gause, William C.; Blaser, Martin J.; Bonneau, Richard A.; Lim, Yvonne AL; Loke, P’ng; Cadwell, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Increasing incidence of inflammatory bowel diseases such as Crohn’s disease (CD) in developed nations is associated with changes to the environment, such as decreased prevalence of helminth colonization and alterations to the gut microbiota. We find that helminth infection protects mice deficient in the CD susceptibility gene Nod2 from intestinal abnormalities by inhibiting colonization with an inflammatory Bacteroides species. Colonization resistance to Bacteroides was dependent on type-2 immunity, which promoted the establishment of a protective microbiota enriched in Clostridiales. Additionally, we show that individuals from helminth-endemic regions harbor a similar protective microbiota, and that deworming treatment reduced Clostridiales and increased Bacteroidales. These results support a model of the hygiene hypothesis whereby certain individuals are genetically susceptible to the consequences of a changing microbial environment. PMID:27080105

  10. Helminth infection promotes colonization resistance via type 2 immunity.

    PubMed

    Ramanan, Deepshika; Bowcutt, Rowann; Lee, Soo Ching; Tang, Mei San; Kurtz, Zachary D; Ding, Yi; Honda, Kenya; Gause, William C; Blaser, Martin J; Bonneau, Richard A; Lim, Yvonne A L; Loke, P'ng; Cadwell, Ken

    2016-04-29

    Increasing incidence of inflammatory bowel diseases, such as Crohn's disease, in developed nations is associated with changes to the microbial environment, such as decreased prevalence of helminth colonization and alterations to the gut microbiota. We find that helminth infection protects mice deficient in the Crohn's disease susceptibility gene Nod2 from intestinal abnormalities by inhibiting colonization by an inflammatory Bacteroides species. Resistance to Bacteroides colonization was dependent on type 2 immunity, which promoted the establishment of a protective microbiota enriched in Clostridiales. Additionally, we show that individuals from helminth-endemic regions harbor a similar protective microbiota and that deworming treatment reduced levels of Clostridiales and increased Bacteroidales. These results support a model of the hygiene hypothesis in which certain individuals are genetically susceptible to the consequences of a changing microbial environment. PMID:27080105

  11. Mucocutaneous manifestations of helminth infections: Trematodes and cestodes.

    PubMed

    Lupi, Omar; Downing, Christopher; Lee, Michael; Bravo, Francisco; Giglio, Patricia; Woc-Colburn, Laila; Tyring, Stephen K

    2015-12-01

    In the 21st century, despite increased international travel for vacation, work, and medical missions and immigration into the United States, there is little published in the dermatology literature regarding the cutaneous manifestations of helminth infections. It has been estimated that 20% to 70% of international travelers suffer from some travel-related health problem. Approximately 17% of travelers seek medical care because of cutaneous disorders, many related to infectious etiologies. This review will focus on cutaneous diseases caused by helminth infections. Part I of the review focused on nematode infections; part II will focus on trematode and cestode infections. Nematodes are roundworms that cause diseases with cutaneous manifestations, such as cutaneous larval migrans, onchocerciasis, filariasis, gnathostomiasis, loiasis, dracunculiasis, strongyloidiasis, ascariasis, streptocerciasis, dirofilariasis, and trichinosis. Tremadotes, also known as flukes, cause schistosomiasis, paragonimiasis, and fascioliasis. Cestodes (tapeworms) are flat, hermaphroditic parasites that cause diseases such as sparganosis, cysticercosis, and echinococcus. PMID:26568338

  12. Treatment of Helminth Co-Infection in Individuals with HIV-1: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Walson, Judd L.; John-Stewart, Grace

    2007-01-01

    Background and Objectives The HIV-1 pandemic has disproportionately affected individuals in resource-constrained settings. It is important to determine if other prevalent infections affect the progression of HIV-1 in co-infected individuals in these settings. Some observational studies suggest that helminth infection may adversely affect HIV-1 progression. We sought to evaluate existing evidence on whether treatment of helminth infection impacts HIV-1 progression. Review Methods This review was conducted using the HIV/AIDS Cochrane Review Group (CRG) search strategy and guidelines. Published and unpublished studies were obtained from The Cochrane Library (Issue 3, 2006), MEDLINE (November 2006), EMBASE (November 2006), CENTRAL (July 2006), and AIDSEARCH (August 2006). Databases listing conference abstracts and scanned reference lists were searched, and authors of included studies were contacted. Data regarding changes in CD4 count, HIV-1 RNA levels, clinical staging and/or mortality were extracted and compared between helminth-treated and helminth-untreated or helminth-uninfected individuals. Results Of 6,384 abstracts identified, 15 met criteria for potential inclusion, of which 5 were eligible for inclusion. In the single randomized controlled trial (RCT) identified, HIV-1 and schistosomiasis co-infected individuals receiving treatment for schistosomiasis had a significantly lower change in plasma HIV-1 RNA over three months (−0.001 log10 copies/mL) compared to those receiving no treatment (+0.21 log10 copies/mL), (p = 0.03). Four observational studies met inclusion criteria, and all of these suggested a possible beneficial effect of helminth eradication on plasma HIV-1 RNA levels when compared to plasma HIV-1 RNA changes prior to helminth treatment or to helminth-uninfected or persistently helminth-infected individuals. The follow-up duration in these studies ranged from three to six months. The reported magnitude of effect on HIV-1 RNA was variable

  13. Nematode infections: soil-transmitted helminths and trichinella.

    PubMed

    Knopp, Stefanie; Steinmann, Peter; Keiser, Jennifer; Utzinger, Jürg

    2012-06-01

    Infection with soil-transmitted helminths occurs via ingestion of nematode eggs with contaminated food and water, via hands, or inhalation of dust, or by penetration of larvae through the skin. Trichinella infections are caused by the ingestion of larvae contained in undercooked meat. In highly endemic areas, preventive chemotherapy (ie, regular administration of anthelmintic drugs to at-risk populations) is the key strategy against soil-transmitted helminthiasis. Integrated control approaches, including improved hygiene, sanitation, and water, are required for lasting effects. Because of growing tourism, travel, and migration, clinicians and specialized travel clinics must remain aware of the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of soil-transmitted helminth and Trichinella infections. PMID:22632643

  14. Gastrointestinal helminths of wild hogs and their potential livestock and public health significance in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Okoro, C K; Wilson, B S; Lorenzo-Morales, J; Robinson, R D

    2016-03-01

    An investigation into the potential for transmission of gastrointestinal helminths from wild hogs to livestock and humans was prompted by concerns of recreational wild-hog hunting in the Caribbean region and the recent practice, by livestock farmers in Jamaica, of co-rearing wild and domesticated swine. Thirty-one wild hogs from the Hellshire Hills, a dry limestone forest in southern Jamaica, were necropsied during the period June 2004 to August 2006. Thirteen of the captured animals were male and 18 female. Four species of adult helminths were recovered from the gastrointestinal tracts of the wild hogs: Hyostrongylus rubidus (77%), Globocephalus urosubulatus (48%), Oesophagostomum dentatum (42%) and Macroacanthorhynchus hirudinaceus (77%). Two (6.2%), ten (32.2%) and 18 (58.0%) hogs harboured one, two and three species of helminths, respectively. Mean infection intensities varied from 8.1 for M. hirudinaceus, to 115.5 for O. dentatum. There was no association between any of the recovered helminths and sex of the host; however, a multivariate analysis indicated a positive association between the prevalence of G. urosubulatus and host age (odds ratio (OR) = 6.517). Domesticated hogs co-reared with wild hogs are potentially at risk of infection with all four helminths, while wild-hog hunters and pig farmers may be exposed to M. hirudinaceus. PMID:26821705

  15. Human Helminth Co-Infection: Analysis of Spatial Patterns and Risk Factors in a Brazilian Community

    PubMed Central

    Pullan, Rachel L.; Bethony, Jeffrey M.; Geiger, Stefan M.; Cundill, Bonnie; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Quinnell, Rupert J.; Brooker, Simon

    2008-01-01

    Background Individuals living in areas endemic for helminths are commonly infected with multiple species. Despite increasing emphasis given to the potential health impacts of polyparasitism, few studies have investigated the relative importance of household and environmental factors on the risk of helminth co-infection. Here, we present an investigation of exposure-related risk factors as sources of heterogeneity in the distribution of co-infection with Necator americanus and Schistosoma mansoni in a region of southeastern Brazil. Methodology Cross-sectional parasitological and socio-economic data from a community-based household survey were combined with remotely sensed environmental data using a geographical information system. Geo-statistical methods were used to explore patterns of mono- and co-infection with N. americanus and S. mansoni in the region. Bayesian hierarchical models were then developed to identify risk factors for mono- and co-infection in relation to community-based survey data to assess their roles in explaining observed heterogeneity in mono and co-infection with these two helminth species. Principal Findings The majority of individuals had N. americanus (71.1%) and/or S. mansoni (50.3%) infection; 41.0% of individuals were co-infected with both helminths. Prevalence of co-infection with these two species varied substantially across the study area, and there was strong evidence of household clustering. Hierarchical multinomial models demonstrated that relative socio-economic status, household crowding, living in the eastern watershed and high Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) were significantly associated with N. americanus and S. mansoni co-infection. These risk factors could, however, only account for an estimated 32% of variability between households. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that variability in risk of N. americanus and S. mansoni co-infection between households cannot be entirely explained by exposure-related risk

  16. Intestinal helminth infections amongst HIV-infected adults in Mthatha General Hospital, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Yogeswaran, Parimalaranie; Wright, Graham

    2015-01-01

    Background In South Africa, studies on the prevalence of intestinal helminth co-infection amongst HIV-infected patients as well as possible interactions between these two infections are limited. Aim To investigate the prevalence of intestinal helminth infestation amongst adults living with HIV or AIDS at Mthatha General Hospital. Setting Study participants were recruited at the outpatient department of Mthatha General Hospital, Mthatha, South Africa. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted between October and December 2013 amongst consecutive consenting HIV-positive adult patients. Socio-demographic and clinical information were obtained using data collection forms and structured interviews. Stool samples were collected to investigate the presence of helminths whilst blood samples were obtained for the measurement of CD4+ T-cell count and viral load. Results Data were obtained on 231 participants, with a mean age of 34.9 years, a mean CD4 count of 348 cells/µL and a mean viral load of 4.8 log10 copies/mL. Intestinal helminth prevalence was 24.7%, with Ascaris Lumbricoides (42.1%) the most prevalent identified species. Statistically significant association was found between CD4 count of less than 200 cells/µL and helminth infection (p = 0.05). No statistically significant association was found between intestinal helminth infection and the mean CD4 count (p = 0.79) or the mean viral load (p = 0.98). Conclusion A high prevalence of intestinal helminth infections was observed amongst the study population. Therefore, screening and treatment of helminths should be considered as part of the management of HIV and AIDS in primary health care. PMID:26842519

  17. Albendazole treatment of HIV-1 and helminth co-infection: A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Walson, Judd L.; Otieno, Phelgona A.; Mbuchi, Margaret; Richardson, Barbra A.; Lohman-Payne, Barbara; Macharia, Steve Wanyee; Overbaugh, Julie; Berkley, James; Sanders, Eduard J.; Chung, Michael; John-Stewart, Grace C.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Several co-infections have been shown to impact the progression of HIV-1 infection. We sought to determine if treatment of helminth co-infection in HIV-1 infected adults impacted markers of HIV-1 disease progression. DESIGN To date there have been no randomized trials to examine the effects of soil-transmitted helminth eradication on markers of HIV-1 progression. METHODS A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of albendazole (400mg daily for three days) in antiretroviral-naïve HIV-1 infected adults (CD4 >200 cells/mm3) with soil-transmitted helminth infection was conducted at ten sites in Kenya (Clinical Trials.gov NCT00130910). CD4 and plasma HIV-1 RNA levels at 12 weeks following randomization were compared in the trial arms using linear regression, adjusting for baseline values. RESULTS Of 1,551 HIV-1 infected individuals screened for helminth-infection, 299 were helminth-infected. 234 adults were enrolled and underwent randomization and 208 individuals were included in intent-to-treat analyses. Mean CD4 count was 557 cells/mm3 and mean plasma viral load was 4.75 log10 copies/mL at enrolment. Albendazole therapy resulted in significantly higher CD4 counts among individuals with Ascaris lumbricoides infection after 12 weeks of follow up (+109 cells/mm3; 95% CI +38.9 to +179.0, p=0.003) and a trend for 0.54 log10 lower HIV-1 RNA levels (p=0.09). These effects were not seen with treatment of other species of soil-transmitted helminths. CONCLUSIONS Treatment of A. lumbricoides with albendazole in HIV-1 co-infected adults resulted in significantly increased CD4 counts during 3-month follow-up. Given the high prevalence of A. lumbricoides infection worldwide, deworming may be an important potential strategy to delay HIV-1 progression. PMID:18670219

  18. Comprehensive Transcriptome Meta-analysis to Characterize Host Immune Responses in Helminth Infections

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Guangyan; Stevenson, Mary M.; Geary, Timothy G.; Xia, Jianguo

    2016-01-01

    Helminth infections affect more than a third of the world’s population. Despite very broad phylogenetic differences among helminth parasite species, a systemic Th2 host immune response is typically associated with long-term helminth infections, also known as the “helminth effect”. Many investigations have been carried out to study host gene expression profiles during helminth infections. The objective of this study is to determine if there is a common transcriptomic signature characteristic of the helminth effect across multiple helminth species and tissue types. To this end, we performed a comprehensive meta-analysis of publicly available gene expression datasets. After data processing and adjusting for study-specific effects, we identified ~700 differentially expressed genes that are changed consistently during helminth infections. Functional enrichment analyses indicate that upregulated genes are predominantly involved in various immune functions, including immunomodulation, immune signaling, inflammation, pathogen recognition and antigen presentation. Down-regulated genes are mainly involved in metabolic process, with only a few of them are involved in immune regulation. This common immune gene signature confirms previous observations and indicates that the helminth effect is robust across different parasite species as well as host tissue types. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first comprehensive meta-analysis of host transcriptome profiles during helminth infections. PMID:27058578

  19. Helminths and malaria co-infections are associated with elevated serum IgE

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Both helminth and malaria infections result in a highly polarized immune response characterized by IgE production. This study aimed to investigate the total serum IgE profile in vivo as a measure of Th2 immune response in malaria patients with and without helminth co-infection. Methods A cross sectional observational study composed of microscopically confirmed malaria positive (N = 197) and malaria negative (N = 216) apparently healthy controls with and without helminth infection was conducted at Wondo Genet Health Center, Southern Ethiopia. A pre-designed structured format was utilized to collect socio-demographic and clinical data of the subjects. Detection and quantification of helminths, malaria parasites and determination of serum IgE levels were carried out following standard procedures. Results Irrespective of helminth infection, individuals infected by malaria showed significantly high levels of serum IgE compared with malaria free apparently healthy controls (with and without helminth infections). Moreover, malaria patients co-infected with intestinal helminths showed high level of serum IgE compared with those malaria patients without intestinal helminths (2198 IU/ml versus 1668 IU/ml). A strong statistically significant association was observed between malaria parasite density and elevated serum IgE levels (2047 IU/ml versus 1778 IU/ml; P = 0.001) with high and low parasitaemia (parasite density >50,000 parasite/μl of blood), respectively. Likewise, helminth egg loads were significantly associated with elevated serum IgE levels (P = 0.003). Conclusions The elevated serum IgE response in malaria patients irrespective of helminth infection and its correlation with malaria parasite density and helminth egg intensity support that malaria infection is also a strong driver of IgE production as compared to helminths. PMID:24886689

  20. Other helminthic infections: Ascariasis, Dracontiasis, Lagochilascariasis, Micronemiasis.

    PubMed

    Tanowitz, Herbert B; Machado, Fabiana S

    2013-01-01

    There are a number of nematode infections that rarely involve the central nervous system. Ascaris lumbricoides and the pig nematode A. suum have been associated with encephalitis. Adult Dracunculus medinensis may invade the spinal cord resulting in epidural abscess and paralysis. Lagochiloascaris spp. are free-living nematodes reported mainly in Brazil. Lagochiloascaris minor infection may cause diseases of the head and neck and the central nervous system. Halicephalobus (Micronema) parasitizes horses and may also involve the human central nervous system. PMID:23829917

  1. Tuberculin Skin-Test Reactions Are Unaffected by the Severity of Hyperendemic Intestinal Helminth Infections and Co-Infections

    PubMed Central

    Zevallos, Karine; Vergara, Katherine C.; Vergara, Antonio; Vidal, Carlos; Garcia, Hector H.; Evans, Carlton A.

    2010-01-01

    The tuberculin skin test (TST) quantifies cell-mediated immunity to tuberculosis antigens. Helminths suppress cell-mediated immunity, so we studied the effect of helminth infection and deworming on the TST in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in an indigenous Amazon community (N = 195). Stool microscopy diagnosed helminths in 98% and co-infection with multiple species in 24% of study subjects. The TST was positive (≥ 10 mm) for 49%, and responses increased with age (P < 0.001), Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG) vaccination (P = 0.01), and tuberculosis contact (P = 0.05). TST results had no association with helminth-egg concentrations, species, or co-infections (all P > 0.1). One month after deworming with albendazole (three daily 400-mg doses), helminths were reduced, but 63% remained infected with helminths. Albendazole did not cause a change in TST size (P = 0.8) or positivity (P = 0.9) relative to placebo. Thus, TST reactions were unaffected by albendazole therapy that partially cured intestinal helminth infections, and TST interpretation was unaffected by high-burden helminth infections and co-infection with multiple helminth species. PMID:20682875

  2. Lessons from helminth infections: ES-62 highlights new interventional approaches in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Pineda, M A; Al-Riyami, L; Harnett, W; Harnett, M M

    2014-07-01

    Parasitic worms are able to survive in their mammalian host for many years due to their ability to manipulate the immune response by secreting immunomodulatory products. It is increasingly clear that, reflecting the anti-inflammatory actions of such worm-derived immunomodulators, there is an inverse correlation between helminth infection and autoimmune diseases in the developing world. As the decrease in helminth infections due to increased sanitation has correlated with an alarming increase in prevalence of such disorders in industrialized countries, this 'hygiene hypothesis' has led to the proposal that worms and their secreted products offer a novel platform for the development of safe and effective strategies for the treatment of autoimmune disorders. In this study we review the anti-inflammatory effects of one such immunomodulator, ES-62 on innate and adaptive immune responses and the mechanisms it exploits to afford protection in the murine collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). As its core mechanism involves targeting of interleukin (IL)-17 responses, which despite being pathogenic in RA are important for combating infection, we discuss how its selective targeting of IL-17 production by T helper type 17 (Th17) and γδ T cells, while leaving that of CD49b(+) natural killer (NK and NK T) cells intact, reflects the ability of helminths to modulate the immune system without immunocompromising the host. Exploiting helminth immunomodulatory mechanisms therefore offers the potential for safer therapies than current biologicals, such as 'IL-17 blockers', that are not able to discriminate sources of IL-17 and hence present adverse effects that limit their therapeutic potential. PMID:24666108

  3. Lessons from helminth infections: ES-62 highlights new interventional approaches in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Pineda, M A; Al-Riyami, L; Harnett, W; Harnett, M M

    2014-01-01

    Parasitic worms are able to survive in their mammalian host for many years due to their ability to manipulate the immune response by secreting immunomodulatory products. It is increasingly clear that, reflecting the anti-inflammatory actions of such worm-derived immunomodulators, there is an inverse correlation between helminth infection and autoimmune diseases in the developing world. As the decrease in helminth infections due to increased sanitation has correlated with an alarming increase in prevalence of such disorders in industrialized countries, this ‘hygiene hypothesis’ has led to the proposal that worms and their secreted products offer a novel platform for the development of safe and effective strategies for the treatment of autoimmune disorders. In this study we review the anti-inflammatory effects of one such immunomodulator, ES-62 on innate and adaptive immune responses and the mechanisms it exploits to afford protection in the murine collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). As its core mechanism involves targeting of interleukin (IL)-17 responses, which despite being pathogenic in RA are important for combating infection, we discuss how its selective targeting of IL-17 production by T helper type 17 (Th17) and γδ T cells, while leaving that of CD49b+ natural killer (NK and NK T) cells intact, reflects the ability of helminths to modulate the immune system without immunocompromising the host. Exploiting helminth immunomodulatory mechanisms therefore offers the potential for safer therapies than current biologicals, such as ‘IL-17 blockers’, that are not able to discriminate sources of IL-17 and hence present adverse effects that limit their therapeutic potential. PMID:24666108

  4. Helminth infection alters IgE responses to allergens structurally related to parasite proteins

    PubMed Central

    Santiago, Helton da Costa; Ribeiro-Gomes, Flávia L.; Bennuru, Sasisekhar; Nutman, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    Immunological cross-reactivity between environmental allergens and helminth proteins has been demonstrated, though the clinically-related implications of this cross-reactivity have not been addressed. To investigate the impact of molecular similarity among allergens and cross-reactive homologous helminth proteins in IgE-based serologic assessment of allergic disorders in helminth-infected population, we performed Immunocap™ tests in filarial-infected and non-infected individuals for IgE measurements to allergen extracts that contained proteins with high levels of homology with helminth proteins and IgE against representative recombinant allergens with and without helminth homologues were performed. The impact of helminth infection on the levels and function of the IgE to these specific homologous and non-homologous allergens was corroborated in an animal model. We found that having a tissue-invasive filarial infection increased the serological prevalence of Immunocap™ identified IgE directed against house dust mite and cockroach, but not against timothy grass, the latter with few allergens with homologues in helminth infection. IgE ELISA confirmed that filaria-infected individuals had higher IgE prevalences to those recombinant allergens that had homologues in helminths. Mice infected with helminth Heligmosomoides polygyrus displayed increased levels of IgE and positive skin tests to allergens with homologues in the parasite. These results show that cross-reactivity among allergens and helminth proteins can have practical implications altering serologic approaches to allergen testing and brings a new perspective to the Hygiene Hypothesis. PMID:25404363

  5. Update on prevention and treatment of intestinal helminth infections.

    PubMed

    Blair, Paul; Diemert, David

    2015-03-01

    Intestinal helminth infections are some of world's most common tropical diseases and cause significant impairments in pediatric growth and cognitive impairment as well as maternal health, particularly in areas lacking adequate access to safe water or sanitation. Routine mass drug administration (MDA) of anthelminthic medications to children living in endemic areas and interventions to improve water hygiene and sanitation form the basis of current control efforts. We review recent evidence on the effectiveness of these approaches and outline the limitations of MDA, including poor cure rates against hookworm and Trichuris trichiura, rapid post-MDA reinfection, and inadequate coverage of at-risk populations. Ultimately, alternative tools and strategies, including new drugs, drug combinations, and vaccines, will be needed to control or ultimately eliminate these infections. PMID:25821189

  6. Helminth infection alters IgE responses to allergens structurally related to parasite proteins.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Helton da Costa; Ribeiro-Gomes, Flávia L; Bennuru, Sasisekhar; Nutman, Thomas B

    2015-01-01

    Immunological cross-reactivity between environmental allergens and helminth proteins has been demonstrated, although the clinically related implications of this cross-reactivity have not been addressed. To investigate the impact of molecular similarity among allergens and cross-reactive homologous helminth proteins in IgE-based serologic assessment of allergic disorders in a helminth-infected population, we performed ImmunoCAP tests in filarial-infected and noninfected individuals for IgE measurements to allergen extracts that contained proteins with high levels of homology with helminth proteins as well as IgE against representative recombinant allergens with and without helminth homologs. The impact of helminth infection on the levels and function of the IgE to these specific homologous and nonhomologous allergens was corroborated in an animal model. We found that having a tissue-invasive filarial infection increased the serological prevalence of ImmunoCAP-identified IgE directed against house dust mite and cockroach, but not against timothy grass, the latter with few allergens with homologs in helminth infection. IgE ELISA confirmed that filaria-infected individuals had higher IgE prevalences to those recombinant allergens that had homologs in helminths. Mice infected with the helminth Heligmosomoides polygyrus displayed increased levels of IgE and positive skin tests to allergens with homologs in the parasite. These results show that cross-reactivity among allergens and helminth proteins can have practical implications, altering serologic approaches to allergen testing and bringing a new perspective to the "hygiene hypothesis." PMID:25404363

  7. Repurposing drugs for the treatment and control of helminth infections

    PubMed Central

    Panic, Gordana; Duthaler, Urs; Speich, Benjamin; Keiser, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Helminth infections are responsible for a considerable public health burden, yet the current drug armamentarium is small. Given the high cost of drug discovery and development, the high failure rates and the long duration to develop novel treatments, drug repurposing circumvents these obstacles by finding new uses for compounds other than those they were initially intended to treat. In the present review, we summarize in vivo and clinical trial findings testing clinical candidates and marketed drugs against schistosomes, food-borne trematodes, soil-transmitted helminths, Strongyloides stercoralis, the major human filariases lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis, taeniasis, neurocysticercosis and echinococcosis. While expanding the applications of broad-spectrum or veterinary anthelmintics continues to fuel alternative treatment options, antimalarials, antibiotics, antiprotozoals and anticancer agents appear to be producing fruitful results as well. The trematodes and nematodes continue to be most investigated, while cestodal drug discovery will need to be accelerated. The most clinically advanced drug candidates include the artemisinins and mefloquine against schistosomiasis, tribendimidine against liver flukes, oxantel pamoate against trichuriasis, and doxycycline against filariasis. Preclinical studies indicate a handful of promising future candidates, and are beginning to elucidate the broad-spectrum activity of some currently used anthelmintics. Challenges and opportunities are further discussed. PMID:25516827

  8. The effect of helminth infection on the microbial composition and structure of the caprine abomasal microbiome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Haemonchus contortus is arguably the most important helminth parasite for small ruminants. Here we characterized the impact of helminth infection on the caprine abomasal microbiome. Fourteen parasite naive goats were exposed to 5,000 H. contortus L3 larvae for 50 days. Six age-matched goats served a...

  9. Influence of nutrition on infection and re-infection with soil-transmitted helminths: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The relationship between nutrition and soil-transmitted helminthiasis is complex and warrants further investigation. We conducted a systematic review examining the influence of nutrition on infection and re-infection with soil-transmitted helminths (i.e. Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, Trichuris trichiura and Strongyloides stercoralis) in humans. Emphasis was placed on the use of nutritional supplementation, alongside anthelminthic treatment, to prevent re-infection with soil-transmitted helminths. Methods We searched eight electronic databases from inception to 31 July 2013, with no restriction of language or type of publication. For studies that met our inclusion criteria, we extracted information on the soil-transmitted helminth species, nutritional supplementation and anthelminthic treatment. Outcomes were presented in forest plots and a summary of findings (SoF) table. An evidence profile (EP) was generated by rating the evidence quality of the identified studies according to the GRADE system. Results Fifteen studies met our inclusion criteria; eight randomised controlled trials and seven prospective cohort studies. Data on A. lumbricoides were available from all studies, whereas seven and six studies additionally contained data on T. trichiura and hookworm, respectively. None of the studies contained data on S. stercoralis. Positive effects of nutritional supplementation or the host’s natural nutritional status on (re-)infection with soil-transmitted helminths were reported in 14 studies, while negative effects were documented in six studies. In terms of quality, a high, low and very low quality rating was assigned to the evidence from four, six and five studies, respectively. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the current evidence-base is weak, precluding guidelines on nutrition management as a potential supplementary tool to preventive chemotherapy targeting soil-transmitted helminthiasis. Moreover, several epidemiological, immunological and

  10. Epidemiological Study of the Association Between Malaria and Helminth Infections in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Efunshile, Akinwale Michael; Olawale, Temitope; Stensvold, Christen Rune; Kurtzhals, Jørgen A. L.; König, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between intestinal helminth infection and susceptibility to malaria remains unclear. We studied the relationship between these infections. Seven schools in Ilero, Nigeria referred all pupils with febrile illness to our study center for free malaria treatment during a 3-month study period. At the end, all pupils submitted a stool sample for microscopic investigation for helminth eggs. We used an unmatched case-control design to calculate the odds ratios for helminth infection in children with at least one attack of malaria (cases) and children with no malaria episodes during the study (controls). We recorded 115 malaria cases in 82 of 354 (23.2%), 16 of 736 (2.2%), and 17 of 348 (4.7%) children ages ≤ 5, 6–10, and 11–15 years old, respectively (P = 0.001). Helminth infection rate in cases was 21 of 115 (18.3%) compared with 456 of 1,327 (34.4%) in controls. Weighted odds ratio stratified by age group for helminth infection in cases versus controls was 0.50 (95% confidence interval = 0.2–0.84, P < 0.01). Ascaris and hookworm were the most common helminths detected, with prevalence rates of 14 (12.2%) and 6 (5.2%) among cases compared with 333 (25.1%) and 132 (10.0%) in controls, respectively (P = 0.001). The negative association between helminth infection and malaria may be of importance in the design of deworming programs. PMID:25624401

  11. Elimination of helminth infection restores HIV-1C vaccine specific T cell responses independent of helminth-induced IL-10

    PubMed Central

    Da’dara, Akram A.; Harn, Donald A.

    2009-01-01

    HIV-1 prevalence is highest in developing countries; similarly helminth parasites are often highly endemic in these same areas. Helminths are strong immune modulators, and negatively impact the ability of the infected hosts to mount protective vaccine specific T cell immune responses for HIV-1 and other pathogens. Indeed, previously we found that Schistosoma mansoni infected mice had significantly impaired HIV-1C vaccine specific T cell responses. Anthelminthics are available and inexpensive; therefore, in this study, we evaluated whether elimination of schistosome infection prior to vaccination with an HIV-1C DNA vaccine would increase recipients vaccine specific responses. As expected, splenocytes from S. mansoni infected mice produced significantly elevated amounts of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10, and significantly lower amounts of interferon (IFN)-γ than splenocytes from naïve mice. Following elimination of parasites by praziquantel (PZQ) treatment, splenomegaly was significantly reduced, though splenocytes produced similar or higher levels of IL-10 than splenocytes from infected mice. However, we found that PZQ treatment significantly increased levels of IFN-γ in response to Concanavalin A or SEA compared to splenocytes from untreated mice. Importantly, PZQ treatment resulted in complete restoration of HIV-1C vaccine specific T cell responses at 8 weeks post PZQ treatment. Restoration of HIV-1C vaccine specific T cell responses following elimination of helminth infection was time dependent, but surprisingly independent of the levels of IL-4 and IL-10 induced by parasite antigens. Our study shows that elimination of worms offers an affordable and a simple means to restore immune responsiveness to T cell based vaccines for HIV-1 and other infectious diseases in helminth endemic settings. PMID:19941988

  12. Helminth Infections of Stray Dogs from Garmsar, Semnan Province, Central Iran

    PubMed Central

    Eslami, A; Ranjbar-Bahadori, Sh; Meshgi, B; Dehghan, M; Bokaie, S

    2010-01-01

    Background The aim was to study the gastro-intestinal helminths of stray dogs of Garmsar, Semnan Province, Central Iran, and its impacts on human health and animal production. Methods During 2006, the alimentary tracts of 50 stray dogs at necropsy, selected from villages around Garmsar, were removed, and examined for helminth infections. Subsequently helminths were collected from the contents of each part and scraped sample of small intestines of washed materials in a 100-mesh sieve. To identify the species of helminths, the nematodes were cleared in lactophenol and cestodes were stained using carmine acid. Results Mixed infection was the rule and 40 dogs (80%) harbored more than one species of helminth. Taenia hydatigena was the most prevalent species (80%) followed by Echinococcus granulosus (64%), Toxocara canis (22%), Mesocestoides lineatus (12%), Taenia multiceps (10%) and Dipylidium caninum (4%). The mean intensity of worm infection was low (1–3) except for that of E. granulosus (645). No significant difference was noticed between sex, age and most helminth infections except for that of sex and T. hydatigena (P=0.001) as well as age and T. canis (P=0.001). Conclusion Although human infection with T. hydatigena is unlikely, but other helminths reported in this study are of zoonotic importance, and may pose a threat to community health, and reduce the productions of ruminants harboring taeniid metacestodes. PMID:22347264

  13. Interventions to improve water, sanitation, and hygiene for preventing soil-transmitted helminth infection

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Matthew C; Strunz, Eric; Utzinger, Jürg; Addiss, David G

    2016-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To assess the effectiveness of water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions to prevent soil-transmitted helminth infection. PMID:27346984

  14. Helminth parasite proteomics: from experimental models to human infections

    PubMed Central

    MUTAPI, FRANCISCA

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Schistosomiasis is a major human helminth infection endemic in developing countries. Urogenital schistosomiasis, caused by S. haematobium, is the most prevalent human schistosome disease in sub-Saharan Africa. Currently control of schistosome infection is by treatment of infected people with the anthelmintic drug praziquantel, but there are calls for continued efforts to develop a vaccine against the parasites. In order for successful vaccine development, it is necessary to understand the biology and molecular characteristics of the parasite. Ultimately, there is need to understand the nature and dynamics of the relationship between the parasite and the natural host. Thus, my studies have focused on molecular characterization of different parasite stages and integrating this information with quantitative approaches to investigate the nature and development of protective immunity against schistosomes in humans. Proteomics has proved a powerful tool in these studies allowing the proteins expressed by the parasite to be characterized at a molecular and immunological level. In this review, the application of proteomic approaches to understanding the human-schistosome relationship as well as testing specific hypotheses on the nature and development of schistosome-specific immune responses is discussed. The contribution of these approaches to informing schistosome vaccine development is highlighted. PMID:22455721

  15. Low risk for helminth infection in wastewater-fed rice cultivation in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Trang, Do Thuy; van der Hoek, Wim; Cam, Phung Dac; Vinh, Khuong Thanh; Hoa, Nguyen Van; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2006-09-01

    This study was done to assess the risk of helminth infection in association with wastewater-fed rice cultivation in an agricultural setting of Nam Dinh city, Vietnam. In a cross sectional survey data were collected for 202 households in a commune where wastewater was used for irrigation and for 201 households in a commune that used river water. Parasitological examination was conducted on single stool samples obtained from 1,088 individuals aged -15 years from the households. The irrigation water used in both communes was enumerated for helminth eggs and thermotolerant coliforms. The prevalence of infection with Ascaris spp., Trichuris spp., and hookworm was 42.2%, 19.9% and 10.5% respectively, with an overall prevalence of infection with any helminth of 53.4%. Surprisingly, the prevalence of infection with Ascaris and Trichuris was lower among people exposed to wastewater (containing 40-200 helminth eggs/l and 10(4) thermotolerant coliforms/100 ml) compared to people exposed to river water that contained lower worm egg and bacterial numbers. Poor sanitation and hygiene practices and not using protective measures were important independent risk factors for helminth infection. For hookworm infection, no significant difference was observed between the wastewater exposed and unexposed groups. Children living in the wastewater use area had a significantly better nutritional status than those in the area using river water. This suggests a generally higher welfare level of the wastewater use area. In conclusion, this study showed no evidence that rice cultivation with wastewater poses a risk for helminth infection. More detailed studies are needed on the reduction of fecal indicators and helminth eggs in peri-urban wastewater-irrigated rice culture systems and on the relative importance of wastewater irrigation compared to other risk factors for human helminth infection such as poor sanitation and poverty. PMID:17036840

  16. The Effect of Maternal Helminth Infection on Maternal and Neonatal Immune Function and Immunity to Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Gebreegziabiher, Dawit; Desta, Kassu; Desalegn, Girmay; Howe, Rawleigh; Abebe, Markos

    2014-01-01

    Background M. tuberculosis and helminth infection each affects one third of the world population. Helminth infections down regulate cell mediated immune responses and this may contribute to lower efficacy of BCG vaccination and higher prevalence of tuberculosis. Objective To determine the effect of maternal helminth infection on maternal and neonatal immune function and immunity to TB. Methods In this cross sectional study, eighty five pregnant women were screened for parasitic and latent TB infections using Kato-Katz and QFT-GIT tests, respectively. IFN-γ and IL-4 ELISpot on Cord blood Mononuclear Cells, and total IgE and TB specific IgG ELISA on cord blood plasma was performed to investigate the possible effect of maternal helminth and/or latent TB co-infection on maternal and neonatal immune function and immunity to TB. Result The prevalence of helminth infections in pregnant women was 27% (n = 23), with Schistosoma mansoni the most common helminth species observed (20% of women were infected). Among the total of 85 study participants 25.8% were QFT-GIT positive and 17% had an indeterminate result. The mean total IgE value of cord blood was significantly higher in helminth positive than negative women (0.76 vs 0.47, p = 0.042). Cross placental transfer of TB specific IgG was significantly higher in helminth positive (21.9±7.9) than negative (12.3±5.1), p = 0.002) Latent TB Infection positive participants. The IFN-γ response of CBMCs to ESAT-6/CFP-10 cocktail (50 vs 116, p = 0.018) and PPD (58 vs 123, p = 0.02) was significantly lower in helminth positive than negative participants. There was no significant difference in IL-4 response of CBMCs between helminth negative and positive participants. Conclusions Maternal helminth infection had a significant association with the IFN-γ response of CBMCs, total IgE and cross placental transfer of TB specific IgG. Therefore, further studies should be conducted to determine the effect of these

  17. Impact of Helminth Infection on the Clinical and Microbiological Presentation of Chagas Diseases in Chronically Infected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Salvador, Fernando; Sulleiro, Elena; Sánchez-Montalvá, Adrián; Martínez-Gallo, Mónica; Carrillo, Eugenia; Molina, Israel

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Helminth infections are highly prevalent in tropical and subtropical countries, coexisting in Chagas disease endemic areas. Helminth infections in humans may modulate the host immune system, changing the Th1/Th2 polarization. This immunological disturbance could modify the immune response to other infections. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between clinical, microbiological and epidemiological characteristics of Chagas disease patients, with the presence of helminth infection. Methods A prospective observational study was conducted at Vall d’Hebron University Hospital (Barcelona, Spain). Inclusion criteria were: age over 18 years, diagnosis of Chagas disease, and not having received specific treatment for Chagas disease previously to the inclusion. The study protocol included Chagas disease assessment (cardiac and digestive evaluation, detection of T. cruzi DNA measured by PCR in peripheral blood), and helminth infection diagnosis (detection of IgG anti-Strongyloides stercoralis by ELISA, microscopic examination of stool samples from three different days, and specific faecal culture for S. stercoralis larvae). Results Overall, 65 patients were included, median age was 38 years, 75.4% were women and most of them came from Bolivia. Cardiac and digestive involvement was present in 18.5% and 27.7% of patients respectively. T. cruzi PCR was positive in 28 (43.1%) patients. Helminth infection was diagnosed in 12 (18.5%) patients. No differences were observed in clinical and epidemiological characteristics between patients with and without helminth infection. Nevertheless, the proportion of patients with positive T. cruzi PCR was higher among patients with helminth infection compared with patients without helminth infection (75% vs 35.8%, p = 0.021). Conclusions We observed a high prevalence of S. stercoralis infection among chronic Chagas disease patients attended in our tropical medicine unit. Strongyloidiasis was associated

  18. Intestinal helminthic infections among elementary students of Babile town, eastern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Tefera, Ephrem; Mohammed, Jemal; Mitiku, Habtamu

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Intestinal helminthic infections are important public health problems in developing countries. In Ethiopia, intestinal parasitic infections are highly prevalent because of low living standards and poor environmental sanitation. There are several areas in Ethiopia from which epidemiological information is lacking including Babile town. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal helminthic infection among students of Babile town. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted from May 14 to June 08, 2012. Stool samples collected from 644 students were examined by the McMaster method. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Univariate analysis was carried out using the Chi-square test to check for presence or absence of association between exposure and the presence of infection and odds ratios with 95% CI were computed to measure the strength of association. Logistic regression was used to calculate predictors of helminthic infection. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results The prevalence of intestinal helminths was 13.8%, of which three students were infected with soil transmitted helminths with a prevalence rate of 0.47%. The prevalence of Hymenolepis nana, Enterobius vermicularis, hookworm, and Trichiura trichiura infections were 13, 0.6, 0.3, and 0.2% respectively. Intestinal helminthic infection was significantly associated with grade and sex of the school children. Conclusion The prevalence of intestinal helminths was low. Health information dissemination is recommended. Since infection by Hymenolepis nana is a long term health problem in the area, provision of regular treatment by anthelminthic drug of choice for hymenolepiasis is also recommended PMID:26090008

  19. Metagenomic sequences of host associated gut microbiome in response to helminth infections.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Helminth infection in pigs serves as an excellent model for the study of the interaction between human malnutrition and parasitic infection and could have important implications in human health. We had observed that pigs infected with Trichuris suis for 21 days showed significant changes in the prox...

  20. Progress in research, control and elimination of helminth infections in Asia.

    PubMed

    Utzinger, Jürg; Brattig, Norbert W; Leonardo, Lydia; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Bergquist, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Global health has substantially improved over the past 20 years. In low- and middle-income countries, in particular, great strives have been made in the control of communicable diseases, including helminth infections. Nevertheless, the most marginalised communities still suffer from infectious diseases that are intimately connected with poverty and lack of access to essential commodities and services, such as clean water, improved sanitation and sufficient food. A two-pronged approach is thus necessary: (i) intensifying control in remaining high-endemicity areas and pockets of high transmission; and (ii) moving from morbidity control to interruption of disease transmission in low-endemicity areas with the goal of local elimination. The latter will require new tools and strategies, going hand-in-hand with strong partnerships and new strategic alliances. In this special issue of Acta Tropica, 35 articles are featured that, together, provide an up-to-date overview of the latest progress made in research, control and elimination of helminth infections in East and Southeast Asia. The first 12 articles expound tools and approaches for improved detection, surveillance and monitoring of helminth infections. Control and elimination approaches for the most important helminth infections are revisited in the next 20 articles. The three remaining articles are cross-cutting pieces examining the interface of agriculture, environment and helminth infections and providing a rationale for integrated, multi-sectorial control approaches that are necessary for sustaining helminthiasis control and progressively moving towards elimination. An interesting aspect revealed through an in-depth analysis of the provenance of the 35 contributions is that the People's Republic of China emerges as a key player in global health, which is documented through its prominent role in research and control of helminth infection and networking throughout Asia. Policy implications are discussed and will

  1. Impact of Helminth Infections and Nutritional Constraints on the Small Intestine Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Cattadori, Isabella M.; Albert, Istvan; Eilertson, Kirsten E.; Kapur, Vivek; Pathak, Ashutosh; Mitchell, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Helminth infections and nutrition can independently alter the composition and abundance of the gastrointestinal microbiota, however, their combined effect is poorly understood. Here, we used the T. retortaeformis-rabbit system to examine how the helminth infection and host restriction from coprophagy/ready-to-absorb nutrients affected the duodenal microbiota, and how these changes related to the acquired immune response at the site of infection. A factorial experiment was performed where the bacterial community, its functionality and the immune response were examined in four treatments (Infect, Infect+Collar, Control+Collar and Control). Helminths reduced the diversity and abundance of the microbiota while the combination of parasites and coprophagic restriction led to a more diversified and abundant microbiota than infected cases, without significantly affecting the intensity of infection. Animals restricted from coprophagy and free from parasites exhibited the richest and most abundant bacterial community. By forcing the individuals to absorb nutrients from less digested food, the coprophagic restriction appears to have facilitated the diversity and proliferation of bacteria in the duodenum. Changes in the microbiota were more clearly associated with changes in the immune response for the infected than the nutrient restricted animals. The functional and metabolic characteristics of the duodenal microbiota were not significantly different between treatments. Overall, infection and diet affect the gut microbiota but their interactions and outcome can be complex. These findings can have important implications for the development of control measures to helminth infections where poor nutrition/malnutrition can also be a concern. PMID:27438701

  2. Efficacy of integrated school based de-worming and prompt malaria treatment on helminths -Plasmodium falciparum co-infections: A 33 months follow up study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    follow up survey to 10.7%, slightly more than the baseline level (10.3%) while other co-infection combinations remained significantly low. The overall prevalence of heavy S. haematobium, S. mansoni and hookworms infection intensities were significantly reduced from: 17.9-22.4% to 2.6-5.1%, 1.6-3.3% to 0.0% and 0.0-0.7% to 0.0% respectively. Conclusion Biannual Integrated school based antihelminthic and sustained prompt malaria treatment has a potential to reduce the burden of helminths-plasmodium co-infections in primary school children. In areas of stable malaria transmission, active case finding is recommended to track and treat asymptomatic malaria cases as these may sustain transmission in the community. PMID:21696629

  3. Soil-transmitted helminth infection and urbanization in 880 primary school children in Nicaragua, 2005.

    PubMed

    Rosewell, Alexander; Robleto, Guillermo; Rodríguez, Guillermo; Barragne-Bigot, Philippe; Amador, Juan José; Aldighieri, Sylvain

    2010-07-01

    The prevalence of soil-transmitted helminthiasis is close to half the population in Central America, with the marginalized peri-urban poor disproportionately affected. Previous single province helminth surveys conducted in Nicaragua have shown Ascaris lumbricoides to be the predominant species. In 2005, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 880 children in 10 Nicaraguan primary schools located in four provinces. We aimed to establish the prevalence and intensity of soil-transmitted helminth infections and to investigate the factors associated with helminthiasis. Almost half (46%) of the children were infected with soil-transmitted helminths. Tichuris trichiura was the most common infective species (34.7%). The prevalence and intensity of helminthiasis was heterogeneous in the provinces, with children educated in peri-urban schools most affected. Healthy policies are required that favour the peri-urban poor who have inadequate and declining access to water and sanitation. PMID:20555043

  4. Poultry litter as a source of gastrointestinal helminth infections.

    PubMed

    Maurer, V; Amsler, Z; Perler, E; Heckendorn, F

    2009-05-12

    The aim of this study carried out in 6 commercial layer houses was to examine the effect of litter management on water content, helminth egg count and litter infectiousness with the intestinal nematodes Ascaridia galli, Heterakis gallinarum, and Capillaria spp. Three types of litter management were established in each layer house in parallel: in compartment A, litter was left undisturbed, in compartment B, wet litter was replaced and in compartment C, new litter material was added weekly. Dry matter (DM) contents of the litter and parasitological parameters (helminth egg concentration in litter samples, faecal egg counts (FECs) in the permanent layer flocks, helminth prevalence and burdens in two series of tracer animals) were determined every 4 weeks during the first 32 weeks of one laying period. DM contents of the litter varied in a broad range (48-95%); 8 weeks after onset of the study, there were significant differences between sites (P<0.001) but not between management regimes. A. galli/H. gallinarum eggs were isolated from 91% of the litter samples, whereas eggs of Capillaria spp. were only extracted from 13% of the samples. Egg concentrations in litter remained at a similar level during the observation period. Neither management regime reduced helminth egg concentrations in the litter compared to the unmanaged regime. Laying hens started excreting helminth eggs 8 weeks after introduction to the layer house. In treatment C (litter added) FECs were lower than in the unmanaged treatment A in weeks 8 (P<0.0001), 20, and 28 (both P<0.1). There was no correlation between the concentration of helminth eggs in the litter and the FECs of the layer flocks. The prevalence of A. galli in tracer animals was lower (<10%) than the prevalences of H. gallinarum (68-80%) and Capillaria spp. (30-58%). Prevalences and H. gallinarum burdens did not differ significantly between management regimes. Although high helminth egg concentrations were found in litter, the prevalence and

  5. TLRs, Treg, and B Cells, an Interplay of Regulation during Helminth Infection

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig-Portugall, Isis; Layland, Laura E.

    2011-01-01

    Commonly described as masters of regulation parasitic helminth infections provide a fascinating insight into the complexity of our immune system. As with many other pathogens helminths have developed complex evasion strategies and the immune response of the host has to find a balance between eliciting severe damage to eliminate the parasite or limiting damage and thereby accepting the infection. Nevertheless, one should not forget that these infections still pose a serious public health problem and can elicit severe disfigurement or death in the individual. An interesting spin-off of helminth manipulation on host responses is the apparent prevention of autoimmune diseases or allergy although the actual mechanisms remain unclear. It is well known that Toll-like-receptors (TLR) and non-TLR PRRs play a critical role in initiating innate immune responses which in turn create appropriate adaptive immune reactions. Helminths comprise of a multitude of (glyco)-proteins and (glyco)-lipids and some have been shown to trigger TLR, or alter TLR-mediated responses. Such reactions of course alter adaptive immunity as well. This review will address the consequences of TLR-triggering by helminth antigens and the downstream effect on B cell and regulatory T cell (Treg) actions. PMID:22566894

  6. Global numbers of infection and disease burden of soil transmitted helminth infections in 2010

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Quantifying the burden of parasitic diseases in relation to other diseases and injuries requires reliable estimates of prevalence for each disease and an analytic framework within which to estimate attributable morbidity and mortality. Here we use data included in the Global Atlas of Helminth Infection to derive new global estimates of numbers infected with intestinal nematodes (soil-transmitted helminths, STH: Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and the hookworms) and use disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) to estimate disease burden. Methods Prevalence data for 6,091 locations in 118 countries were sourced and used to estimate age-stratified mean prevalence for sub-national administrative units via a combination of model-based geostatistics (for sub-Saharan Africa) and empirical approaches (for all other regions). Geographical variation in infection prevalence within these units was approximated using modelled logit-normal distributions, and numbers of individuals with infection intensities above given thresholds estimated for each species using negative binomial distributions and age-specific worm/egg burden thresholds. Finally, age-stratified prevalence estimates for each level of infection intensity were incorporated into the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 analytic framework to estimate the global burden of morbidity and mortality associated with each STH infection. Results Globally, an estimated 438.9 million people (95% Credible Interval (CI), 406.3 - 480.2 million) were infected with hookworm in 2010, 819.0 million (95% CI, 771.7 – 891.6 million) with A. lumbricoides and 464.6 million (95% CI, 429.6 – 508.0 million) with T. trichiura. Of the 4.98 million years lived with disability (YLDs) attributable to STH, 65% were attributable to hookworm, 22% to A. lumbricoides and the remaining 13% to T. trichiura. The vast majority of STH infections (67%) and YLDs (68%) occurred in Asia. When considering YLDs relative to total populations

  7. Impact of Anti-Retroviral Treatment and Cotrimoxazole Prophylaxis on Helminth Infections in HIV-Infected Patients in Lambaréné, Gabon

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Saskia; Hermans, Sabine; Knap, Martijn; Moekotte, Alma; Rossatanga, Elie G.; Adegnika, Akim A.; Bélard, Sabine; Hänscheid, Thomas; Grobusch, Martin P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Foci of the HIV epidemic and helminthic infections largely overlap geographically. Treatment options for helminth infections are limited, and there is a paucity of drug-development research in this area. Limited evidence suggests that antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces prevalence of helminth infections in HIV-infected individuals. We investigated whether ART exposure and cotrimoxazole preventive therapy (CTX-P) is associated with a reduced prevalence of helminth infections. Methodology and Principal Findings This cross-sectional study was conducted at a primary HIV-clinic in Lambaréné, Gabon. HIV-infected adults who were ART-naïve or exposed to ART for at least 3 months submitted one blood sample and stool and urine samples on 3 consecutive days. Outcome was helminth infection with intestinal helminths, Schistosoma haematobium, Loa loa or Mansonella perstans. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess associations between ART or CTX-P and helminth infection. In total, 408 patients were enrolled. Helminth infection was common (77/252 [30.5%]). Filarial infections were most prevalent (55/310 [17.7%]), followed by infection with intestinal helminths (35/296 [11.8%]) and S. haematobium (19/323 [5.9%]). Patients on CTX-P had a reduced risk of Loa loa microfilaremia (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 0.47, 95% CI 0.23-0.97, P = 0.04), also in the subgroup of patients on ART (aOR 0.36, 95% CI 0.13-0.96, P = 0.04). There was no effect of ART exposure on helminth infection prevalence. Conclusions/Significance CTX-P use was associated with a decreased risk of Loa loa infection, suggesting an anthelminthic effect of antifolate drugs. No relation between ART use and helminth infections was established. PMID:25993501

  8. Helminth co-infection in Helicobacter pylori infected INS-GAS mice attenuates gastric premalignant lesions of epithelial dysplasia and glandular atrophy and preserves colonization resistance of the stomach to lower bowel microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Whary, Mark T.; Muthupalani, Sureshkumar; Ge, Zhongming; Feng, Yan; Lofgren, Jennifer; Shi, Hai Ning; Taylor, Nancy S.; Correa, Pelayo; Versalovic, James; Wang, Timothy C.; Fox, James G.

    2014-01-01

    Higher prevalence of helminth infections in H. pylori infected children was suggested to potentially lower the life-time risk for gastric adenocarcinoma. In rodent models, helminth co-infection does not reduce Helicobacter-induced inflammation but delays progression of pre-malignant gastric lesions. Because gastric cancer in INS-GAS mice is promoted by intestinal microflora, the impact of Heligmosomoides polygyrus co-infection on H. pylori-associated gastric lesions and microflora were evaluated. Male INS-GAS mice co-infected with H. pylori and H. polygyrus for 5 months were assessed for gastrointestinal lesions, inflammation-related mRNA expression, FoxP3+ cells, epithelial proliferation, and gastric colonization with H. pylori and Altered Schaedler Flora. Despite similar gastric inflammation and high levels of proinflammatory mRNA, helminth co-infection increased FoxP3+ cells in the corpus and reduced H. pylori-associated gastric atrophy (p<0.04), dysplasia (p<0.02) and prevented H. pylori-induced changes in the gastric flora (p<0.05). This is the first evidence of helminth infection reducing H. pylori-induced gastric lesions while inhibiting changes in gastric flora, consistent with prior observations that gastric colonization with enteric microbiota accelerated gastric lesions in INS-GAS mice. Identifying how helminths reduce gastric premalignant lesions and impact bacterial colonization of the H. pylori infected stomach could lead to new treatment strategies to inhibit progression from chronic gastritis to cancer in humans. PMID:24513446

  9. Parasite Proximity Drives the Expansion of Regulatory T Cells in Peyer's Patches following Intestinal Helminth Infection

    PubMed Central

    Mosconi, Ilaria; Dubey, Lalit Kumar; Volpe, Beatrice; Esser-von Bieren, Julia; Zaiss, Mario M.; Lebon, Luc; Massacand, Joanna C.

    2015-01-01

    Helminth infections are typically chronic in nature; however, the exact molecular mechanisms by which these parasites promote or thwart host immunity remain unclear. Worm expulsion requires the differentiation of CD4+ T cells into Th2 cells, while regulatory T cells (Tregs) act to dampen the extent of the Th2 response. Priming of T cells requires drainage or capture of antigens within lymphoid tissues, and in the case of intestinal helminths, such sites include the mucosa-associated Peyer's patches (PPs) and the draining mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN). To gain insight into when and where the activation of the adaptive T cell response takes place following intestinal helminth infection, we analyzed Th2 and Treg responses in the PPs and MLN following infection with the murine intestinal helminth Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri. Protective Th2 responses were observed to be largely restricted to the MLN, while a greater expansion of Tregs occurred within the PPs. Interestingly, those PPs that formed a contact with the parasite showed the greatest degree of Treg expansion and no evidence of type 2 cytokine production, indicating that the parasite may secrete products that act in a local manner to selectively promote Treg expansion. This view was supported by the finding that H. polygyrus bakeri larvae could promote Treg proliferation in vitro. Taken together, these data indicate that different degrees of Treg expansion and type 2 cytokine production occur within the PPs and MLN following infection with the intestinal helminth H. polygyrus bakeri and indicate that these organs exhibit differential responses following infection with intestinal helminths. PMID:26150538

  10. Helminth infections predispose mice to pneumococcal pneumonia but not to other pneumonic pathogens.

    PubMed

    Apiwattanakul, Nopporn; Thomas, Paul G; Kuhn, Raymond E; Herbert, De'Broski R; McCullers, Jonathan A

    2014-10-01

    Pneumonia is the leading killer of children worldwide. Here, we report that helminth-infected mice develop fatal pneumonia when challenged with Streptococcus pneumoniae. Mice were chronically infected with either the flatworm Taenia crassiceps or the roundworm Heligmosomoides polygyrus. Upon challenge with a pneumonic type 3 strain of S. pneumoniae (A66.1), the worm-infected mice developed pneumonia at a rate and to a degree higher than age-matched control mice as measured by bioluminescent imaging and lung titers. This predisposition to pneumonia appears to be specific to S. pneumoniae, as worm-infected mice did not show evidence of increased morbidity when challenged with a lethal dose of influenza virus or sublethal doses of Staphylococcus aureus or Listeria monocytogenes. The defect was also present when worm-infected mice were challenged with a type 2 sepsis-causing strain (D39); an increased rate of pneumonia, decreased survival, and increased lung and blood titers were found. Pneumococcal colonization and immunity against acute otitis media were unaffected. Anti-helminthic treatment in the H. polygyrus model reversed this susceptibility. We conclude that helminth coinfection predisposes mice to fatal pneumococcal pneumonia by promoting increased outgrowth of bacteria in the lungs and blood. These data have broad implications for the prevention and treatment for pneumonia in the developing world, where helminth infections are endemic and pneumococcal pneumonia is common. PMID:24952091

  11. IL-4/IL-13 independent goblet cell hyperplasia in experimental helminth infections

    PubMed Central

    Marillier, Reece G; Michels, Chesney; Smith, Elizabeth M; Fick, Lizette CE; Leeto, Mosiuoa; Dewals, Benjamin; Horsnell, William GC; Brombacher, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Background Intestinal mucus production by hyperplasic goblet cells is a striking pathological feature of many parasitic helminth infections and is related to intestinal protection and worm expulsion. Induction of goblet cell hyperplasia is associated with TH2 immune responses, which in helminth infections are controlled primarily by IL-13, and also IL-4. In the study presented here we examine the goblet cell hyperplasic response to three experimental parasitic helminth infections; namely Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Syphacia obvelata and Schistosoma mansoni. Results As expected N. brasiliensis infection induced a strong goblet cell hyperplasia dependent on IL-4/IL-13/IL-4Rα expression. In contrast, and despite previously published transiently elevated IL-4/IL-13 levels, S. obvelata infections did not increase goblet cell hyperplasia in the colon. Furthermore, induction of goblet cell hyperplasia in response to S. mansoni eggs traversing the intestine was equivalent between BALB/c, IL-4/IL-13-/- and IL-4Rα-/- mice. Conclusion Together these data demonstrate that intestinal goblet cell hyperplasia can be independent of TH2 immune responses associated with parasitic helminth infections. PMID:18373844

  12. Parasitic helminth infections and the control of human allergic and autoimmune disorders.

    PubMed

    Maizels, R M

    2016-06-01

    The profile of global health today presents a striking reciprocal distribution between parasitic diseases in many of the world's lower-income countries, and ever-increasing levels of inflammatory disorders such as allergy, autoimmunity and inflammatory bowel diseases in the more affluent societies. Attention is particularly focused on helminth worm parasites, which are associated with protection from allergy and inflammation in both epidemiologic and laboratory settings. One mechanistic explanation of this is that helminths drive the regulatory arm of the immune system, abrogating the ability of the host to expel the parasites, while also dampening reactivity to many bystander specificities. Interest has therefore heightened into whether helminth parasites, or their products, hold therapeutic potential for immunologic disorders of the developed world. In this narrative review, progress across a range of trials is discussed, together with prospects for isolating individual molecular mediators from helminths that may offer defined new therapies for inflammatory conditions. PMID:27172808

  13. Cross-sectional survey on helminth infections of chickens in the Samsun region, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kurt, M; Acici, M

    2008-06-01

    A cross-sectional survey was performed to determine the prevalence and intensity of helminth infections in 185 chickens from nine districts in the Samsun region, northern Turkey between July 1999 and June 2000. In total, 88% of 83 scavenging chickens and 4% of 52 layers from laying batteries were infected, but none of the 50 broilers harboured helminths in the alimentary tract or trachea. The difference in prevalence was statistically significant among broilers, layers from laying batteries and scavenging chickens. A total of 16 different species were detected. The helminth species found were: Davainea proglottina (23%), Raillietina echinobothrida (13%), Raillietina cesticillus (12%), Hymenolepis carioca (10%), Raillietina tetragona (6%), Choanotaenia. infundibulum (2%), Amoebotaenia cuneata (2%), Echinoparyhium recurvatum (1%), Echinostoma revolutum (1%), Heterakis gallinarum (29%), Ascaridia galli (16%), Capillaria caudinflata (12%), Capillaria retusa (6%), Capillaria bursata (4%), Capillaria annulata (1%) and Syngamus trachea (2%). PMID:18605376

  14. HELMINTH INFECTIONS IN NORTHERN BOBWHITES (COLINUS VIRGINIANUS) FROM A LEGACY LANDSCAPE IN TEXAS, USA.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Andrew C; Fedynich, Alan M

    2016-07-01

    The Northern Bobwhite ( Colinus virginianus ) has declined across its range. The primary cause of this decline is thought to be habitat loss and fragmentation. However, there is speculation that factors such as parasites may play a role. South Texas recently was designated a Legacy Landscape of National Significance for Northern Bobwhite Conservation and is a region with some of the highest bobwhite densities in the US. Limited studies on bobwhite parasites have been conducted in this crucial landscape. We documented helminth parasites infecting bobwhites in South Texas, identified those that are known to be pathogenic to quail, documented pathologic responses to infection, and evaluated infections related to host intrinsic and extrinsic factors. We examined 209 bobwhites and found nine species of helminths including two known to cause tissue damage in bobwhites: Tetrameres pattersoni and Oxyspirura petrowi. The cecal nematode Aulonocephalus pennula was numerically dominant and had the greatest prevalence, intensity, and abundance. Prevalence and abundance of A. pennula were significantly greater in adult than juvenile bobwhites, whereas host sex was not an important factor. Prevalence of A. pennula was significantly greater during the 2012-13 hunting season than the 2013-14 season. The abundance of A. pennula also was significantly greater in bobwhites with greater mass within each age cohort. This research provides insight regarding the factors that influence helminth infections in bobwhites from South Texas and highlights the importance of broad-scale surveys when assessing helminth infections across large regions. PMID:27195684

  15. Age and sex graded helminth infections in a Nigerian village.

    PubMed

    Arinola, O; Fawole, O

    1995-02-01

    Prevalence of helminth parasites was carried out in both male and female villagers graded into three age groups (5-14 years, 15-25 years, 26-55 years). Children between 5 and 14 years of age had the highest prevalence of Ascaris, Schistosoma haematobium and Trichuris while the villagers between 26-55 years of age had lowest prevalence of these parasites. However, hookworms were highly common among the villagers aged between 26 and 55 years and least common among the school children aged between 5 and 14 years. Female children between the ages of 5 and 14 years and males of the same age group were highly infested with Ascaris and Trichuris. This finding in a Nigerian village suggested that helminth infestation is age and sex dependent which is therefore a factor of the frequency in host-parasite contact determined by mode of life of the parasites and the hosts. PMID:7796748

  16. Neither Primary nor Memory Immunity to Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection Is Compromised in Mice with Chronic Enteric Helminth Infection

    PubMed Central

    Rafi, Wasiulla; Bhatt, Kamlesh; Gause, William C.

    2015-01-01

    Previously we had reported that Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, a helminth with a lung migratory phase, affected host resistance against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection through the induction of alternatively activated (M2) macrophages. Several helminth species do not have an obligatory lung migratory phase but establish chronic infections in the host that include potent immune downregulatory effects, in part mediated through induction of a FoxP3+ T regulatory cell (Treg) response. Treg cells exhibit duality in their functions in host defense against M. tuberculosis infection since their depletion leads to enhanced priming of T cells in the lymph nodes and attendant improved control of M. tuberculosis infection, while their presence in the lung granuloma protects against excessive inflammation. Heligmosomoides polygyrus is a strictly murine enteric nematode that induces a strong FoxP3 Treg response in the host. Therefore, in this study we investigated whether host immunity to M. tuberculosis infection would be modulated in mice with chronic H. polygyrus infection. We report that neither primary nor memory immunity conferred by Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccination was affected in mice with chronic enteric helminth infection, despite a systemic increase in FoxP3+ T regulatory cells. The findings indicate that anti-M. tuberculosis immunity is not similarly affected by all helminth species and highlight the need to consider this inequality in human coinfection studies. PMID:25605766

  17. Levels of infection of intestinal helminth species in the golden jackal Canis aureus from Serbia.

    PubMed

    Ćirović, D; Pavlović, I; Penezić, A; Kulišić, Z; Selaković, S

    2015-01-01

    During the past decade, golden jackal populations have substantially increased, yet little is known of their potential for transmitting parasites within animal and human hosts. In the present study, between 2005 and 2010, 447 jackals from six localities in Serbia were examined for intestinal parasites. Two species of trematodes (Alaria alata, Pseudamphistomum truncatum), three nematodes (Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum, Gongylonema sp.), and seven cestodes (Taenia pisiformis, Taenia hydatigena, Multiceps multiceps, Multiceps serialis, Mesocestoides lineatus, Mesocestoides litteratus, Dipylidium caninum) were identified. Pseudamphistomum truncatum and M. serialis species were recorded for the first time. The overall prevalence of parasitic infection was 10.3%. No significant differences were found in the prevalence of infection between males and females (P>0.817), between localities (P>0.502), or with regard to annual cycles (P>0.502). In the infected jackal population, 65% harboured multiple infections and one individual was a host to five different types of parasite species, the highest number of parasites we recorded in a single host. These findings indicate that although the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths in the jackal population in Serbia is significantly lower than expected from earlier studies, further monitoring is required given the jackal's rapid population increase. PMID:23941681

  18. Exploring the host transcriptome for mechanisms underlying protective immunity and resistance to helminth infection in ruminants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Helminth infections in ruminants are a major impediment to the profitable production of meat and dairy products, especially for small farmers. Gastrointestinal parasitism is not just a disease that negatively impacts productivity, including reduced weight gain and milk yield, but is also a leading ...

  19. Emerging infectious diseases with cutaneous manifestations: Fungal, helminthic, protozoan and ectoparasitic infections.

    PubMed

    Kollipara, Ramya; Peranteau, Andrew J; Nawas, Zeena Y; Tong, Yun; Woc-Colburn, Laila; Yan, Albert C; Lupi, Omar; Tyring, Stephen K

    2016-07-01

    Given increased international travel, immigration, changing climate conditions, and the increased incidence of iatrogenic immunosuppression, fungal, protozoan, helminthic, and ectoparasitic infections that were once uncommon are being seeing more frequently in the Western hemisphere. However, the diagnosis and management of these infections is fraught with a lack of consistency because there is a dearth of dermatology literature on the cutaneous manifestations of these infections. In addition, delays in the diagnosis and treatment of these diseases can lead to significant patient morbidity and mortality. We review the epidemiology, cutaneous manifestations, diagnostic modalities, and treatment options for emerging fungal, protozoan, helminthic, and ectoparasitic infections. It should be noted, however, that throughout this review we cite statistics documenting their increased incidence to back-up these infections as emerging, and although some of the diagnoses are clinical, others rely on newer laboratory tests, and the possibility exists that the increased incidence could be caused by better detection methods. PMID:27317513

  20. Helminth Infection Increases the Probability of Indeterminate QuantiFERON Gold in Tube Results in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Gebreegziabiher, Dawit; Desta, Kassu; Howe, Rawleigh; Abebe, Markos

    2014-01-01

    Background. Approximately one-third of the world population is infected with M. tuberculosis and helminths (Kariminia et al. (2009), Walson et al. (2010)). Pregnancy and Helminth infection are known to suppress the TH1 response (Kariminia et al. (2009), Elias et al. (2006)) on which the QuantiFERON Gold in Tube (QFT-GIT) assay, that measures the released IFN-γ upon in vitro stimulation with mycobacterial antigens, relies on (Thomas et al. (2010)). Objective. To determine whether QFT-GIT indeterminate result is significantly associated with helminth infection or not. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, eighty-five pregnant mothers were screened for parasitic and LTBI using Kato-Katz and QFT-GIT test-respectively, Result. The prevalence of helminth infection in pregnant mothers was 23 (27%) of this 17 (20%) was due to Schistosoma mansoni. Among the total of 85 study participants 26.8% were QFT-GIT positive and 14 (17%) had indeterminate results. Three samples (21.4%) were randomly selected from the indeterminate QFT-GIT results and retested to check the reproducibility of the assay and remained indeterminate. QFT-GIT indeterminate result showed significant association with helminth infection. Conclusion. Helminth infections were significantly associated with indeterminate QFT-GIT results in pregnant mothers. Therefore further study is important to evaluate the possible effect of helminth infection by excluding the effect of pregnancy, as pregnancy also downregulates cellular immunity. PMID:24701572

  1. Coincident Helminth Infection Modulates Systemic Inflammation and Immune Activation in Active Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    George, Parakkal Jovvian; Kumar, Nathella Pavan; Sridhar, Rathinam; Hanna, Luke E.; Nair, Dina; Banurekha, Vaithilingam V.; Nutman, Thomas B.; Babu, Subash

    2014-01-01

    Background Helminth infections are known to modulate innate and adaptive immune responses in active and latent tuberculosis (TB). However, the role of helminth infections in modulating responses associated with inflammation and immune activation (reflecting disease activity and/or severity) in TB is not known. Methodology We measured markers of inflammation and immune activation in active pulmonary TB individuals (ATB) with co-incidental Strongyloides stercoralis (Ss) infection. These included systemic levels of acute phase proteins, matrix metalloproteinases and their endogenous inhibitors and immune activation markers. As a control, we measured the systemic levels of the same molecules in TB-uninfected individuals (NTB) with or without Ss infection. Principal Findings Our data confirm that ATB is associated with elevated levels of the various measured molecules when compared to those seen in NTB. Our data also reveal that co-incident Ss infection in ATB individuals is associated with significantly decreased circulating levels of acute phase proteins, matrix metalloproteinases, tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases as well as the systemic immune activation markers, sCD14 and sCD163. These changes are specific to ATB since they are absent in NTB individuals with Ss infection. Conclusions Our data therefore reveal a profound effect of Ss infection on the markers associated with TB disease activity and severity and indicate that co-incidental helminth infections might dampen the severity of TB disease. PMID:25375117

  2. Helminth infections and risk factor analysis among residents in Eryuan county, Yunnan province, China.

    PubMed

    Steinmann, Peter; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Li, Yuan-Lin; Li, Hong-Jun; Chen, Shao-Rong; Yang, Zhong; Fan, Weng; Jia, Tie-Wu; Li, Lan-Hua; Vounatsou, Penelope; Utzinger, Jürg

    2007-10-01

    Whilst infections with soil-transmitted helminths are common across China, the public-health significance of Schistosoma japonicum and food-borne helminths is more focalized. Only few studies have investigated the local epidemiology of helminth infections in rural China, including risk factor analysis. We collected stool and blood samples from 3220 individuals, aged 5-88 years, from 35 randomly selected villages in Eryuan county, Yunnan province, China. Stool samples were subjected to the Kato-Katz technique and examined for helminth eggs. Blood samples were tested for Trichinella spp., S. japonicum and cysticerci-specific antibodies. Data on individual and family-level risk factors were collected using questionnaires. The prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides, Taenia spp., Trichuris trichiura and hookworms was 15.4%, 3.5%, 1.7% and 0.3%, respectively. The seroprevalence of Trichinella spp. was 58.8% and that of cysticercosis 18.5%. The egg positivity rate of S. japonicum in the 13 known endemic villages was 2.7%, and the corresponding seroprevalence was 49.5%. We observed a strong spatial heterogeneity in the families' economic status. S. japonicum infections were more prevalent among the Han than Bai nationality (odds ratio (OR)=3.77, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.97-7.23) and tobacco growers (OR=3.66, 95% CI=1.77-7.60) and was only found at elevations below 2150 m above sea level. A. lumbricoides and Taenia spp. infections were more prevalent at altitudes above 2150 m when compared to lower settings (OR=1.51, 95% CI=1.24-1.84 and OR=5.32, 95% CI=3.42-8.28, respectively). The opposite was found for T. trichiura (OR=0.31, 95% CI=0.14-0.70). Our findings can guide the design and spatial targeting of control interventions against helminth infections in Eryuan county. PMID:17719553

  3. Pharmaceutical control of endoparasitic helminth infections in sheep.

    PubMed

    Sargison, Neil D

    2011-03-01

    Sheep are hosts to numerous genera and species of helminth parasites, which are an important cause of production-limiting diseases. Their proper treatment and control requires knowledge of the epidemiology of these parasites in the region where the farm is located, including knowledge of the important species and their pathogenic effects, the role of immunity and resilience of the sheep, survival of L(3) on pasture under different conditions, and farm management practices. Use of anthelmintics must be combined with this knowledge to reduce risk of development of anthelmintic resistance, particularly with the control of gastrointestinal nematode parasites. PMID:21215898

  4. Distribution and Risk Factors for Plasmodium and Helminth Co-infections: A Cross-Sectional Survey among Children in Bagamoyo District, Coastal Region of Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Salim, Nahya; Knopp, Stefanie; Lweno, Omar; Abdul, Ummi; Mohamed, Ali; Schindler, Tobias; Rothen, Julian; Masimba, John; Kwaba, Denis; Mohammed, Alisa S.; Althaus, Fabrice; Abdulla, Salim; Tanner, Marcel; Daubenberger, Claudia; Genton, Blaise

    2015-01-01

    Background Plasmodium and soil transmitted helminth infections (STH) are a major public health problem, particularly among children. There are conflicting findings on potential association between these two parasites. This study investigated the Plasmodium and helminth co-infections among children aged 2 months to 9 years living in Bagamoyo district, coastal region of Tanzania. Methods A community-based cross-sectional survey was conducted among 1033 children. Stool, urine and blood samples were examined using a broad set of quality controlled diagnostic methods for common STH (Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, Strongyloides stercoralis, Enterobius vermicularis, Trichuris trichura), schistosoma species and Wuchereria bancrofti. Blood slides and malaria rapid diagnostic tests (mRDTs) were utilized for Plasmodium diagnosis. Results Out of 992 children analyzed, the prevalence of Plasmodium infection was 13% (130/992), helminth 28.5% (283/992); 5% (50/992) had co-infection with Plasmodium and helminth. The prevalence rate of Plasmodium, specific STH and co-infections increased significantly with age (p < 0.001), with older children mostly affected except for S. stercoralis monoinfection and co-infections. Spatial variations of co-infection prevalence were observed between and within villages. There was a trend for STH infections to be associated with Plasmodium infection [OR adjusted for age group 1.4, 95% CI (1.0–2.1)], which was more marked for S. stercoralis (OR = 2.2, 95% CI (1.1–4.3). Age and not schooling were risk factors for Plasmodium and STH co-infection. Conclusion The findings suggest that STH and Plasmodium infections tend to occur in the same children, with increasing prevalence of co-infection with age. This calls for an integrated approach such as using mass chemotherapy with dual effect (e.g., ivermectin) coupled with improved housing, sanitation and hygiene for the control of both parasitic infections. PMID:25837022

  5. Modelling the geographical distribution of soil-transmitted helminth infections in Bolivia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence of infection with the three common soil-transmitted helminths (i.e. Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworm) in Bolivia is among the highest in Latin America. However, the spatial distribution and burden of soil-transmitted helminthiasis are poorly documented. Methods We analysed historical survey data using Bayesian geostatistical models to identify determinants of the distribution of soil-transmitted helminth infections, predict the geographical distribution of infection risk, and assess treatment needs and costs in the frame of preventive chemotherapy. Rigorous geostatistical variable selection identified the most important predictors of A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura, and hookworm transmission. Results Results show that precipitation during the wettest quarter above 400 mm favours the distribution of A. lumbricoides. Altitude has a negative effect on T. trichiura. Hookworm is sensitive to temperature during the coldest month. We estimate that 38.0%, 19.3%, and 11.4% of the Bolivian population is infected with A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura, and hookworm, respectively. Assuming independence of the three infections, 48.4% of the population is infected with any soil-transmitted helminth. Empirical-based estimates, according to treatment recommendations by the World Health Organization, suggest a total of 2.9 million annualised treatments for the control of soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Bolivia. Conclusions We provide estimates of soil-transmitted helminth infections in Bolivia based on high-resolution spatial prediction and an innovative variable selection approach. However, the scarcity of the data suggests that a national survey is required for more accurate mapping that will govern spatial targeting of soil-transmitted helminthiasis control. PMID:23705798

  6. Macrophage-derived human resistin is induced in multiple helminth infections and promotes inflammatory monocytes and increased parasite burden.

    PubMed

    Jang, Jessica C; Chen, Gang; Wang, Spencer H; Barnes, Mark A; Chung, Josiah I; Camberis, Mali; Le Gros, Graham; Cooper, Philip J; Steel, Cathy; Nutman, Thomas B; Lazar, Mitchell A; Nair, Meera G

    2015-01-01

    Parasitic helminth infections can be associated with lifelong morbidity such as immune-mediated organ failure. A better understanding of the host immune response to helminths could provide new avenues to promote parasite clearance and/or alleviate infection-associated morbidity. Murine resistin-like molecules (RELM) exhibit pleiotropic functions following helminth infection including modulating the host immune response; however, the relevance of human RELM proteins in helminth infection is unknown. To examine the function of human resistin (hResistin), we utilized transgenic mice expressing the human resistin gene (hRetnTg+). Following infection with the helminth Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (Nb), hResistin expression was significantly upregulated in infected tissue. Compared to control hRetnTg- mice, hRetnTg+ mice suffered from exacerbated Nb-induced inflammation characterized by weight loss and increased infiltration of inflammatory monocytes in the lung, along with elevated Nb egg burdens and delayed parasite expulsion. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling of the infected tissue revealed that hResistin promoted expression of proinflammatory cytokines and genes downstream of toll-like receptor signaling. Moreover, hResistin preferentially bound lung monocytes, and exogenous treatment of mice with recombinant hResistin promoted monocyte recruitment and proinflammatory cytokine expression. In human studies, increased serum resistin was associated with higher parasite load in individuals infected with soil-transmitted helminths or filarial nematode Wuchereria bancrofti, and was positively correlated with proinflammatory cytokines. Together, these studies identify human resistin as a detrimental factor induced by multiple helminth infections, where it promotes proinflammatory cytokines and impedes parasite clearance. Targeting the resistin/proinflammatory cytokine immune axis may provide new diagnostic or treatment strategies for helminth infection and associated

  7. Macrophage-Derived Human Resistin Is Induced in Multiple Helminth Infections and Promotes Inflammatory Monocytes and Increased Parasite Burden

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Jessica C.; Chen, Gang; Wang, Spencer H.; Barnes, Mark A.; Chung, Josiah I.; Camberis, Mali; Le Gros, Graham; Cooper, Philip J.; Steel, Cathy; Nutman, Thomas B.; Lazar, Mitchell A.; Nair, Meera G.

    2015-01-01

    Parasitic helminth infections can be associated with lifelong morbidity such as immune-mediated organ failure. A better understanding of the host immune response to helminths could provide new avenues to promote parasite clearance and/or alleviate infection-associated morbidity. Murine resistin-like molecules (RELM) exhibit pleiotropic functions following helminth infection including modulating the host immune response; however, the relevance of human RELM proteins in helminth infection is unknown. To examine the function of human resistin (hResistin), we utilized transgenic mice expressing the human resistin gene (hRetnTg+). Following infection with the helminth Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (Nb), hResistin expression was significantly upregulated in infected tissue. Compared to control hRetnTg− mice, hRetnTg+ mice suffered from exacerbated Nb-induced inflammation characterized by weight loss and increased infiltration of inflammatory monocytes in the lung, along with elevated Nb egg burdens and delayed parasite expulsion. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling of the infected tissue revealed that hResistin promoted expression of proinflammatory cytokines and genes downstream of toll-like receptor signaling. Moreover, hResistin preferentially bound lung monocytes, and exogenous treatment of mice with recombinant hResistin promoted monocyte recruitment and proinflammatory cytokine expression. In human studies, increased serum resistin was associated with higher parasite load in individuals infected with soil-transmitted helminths or filarial nematode Wuchereria bancrofti, and was positively correlated with proinflammatory cytokines. Together, these studies identify human resistin as a detrimental factor induced by multiple helminth infections, where it promotes proinflammatory cytokines and impedes parasite clearance. Targeting the resistin/proinflammatory cytokine immune axis may provide new diagnostic or treatment strategies for helminth infection and associated

  8. Prevalence and magnitude of helminth infections in organic laying hens (Gallus gallus domesticus) across Europe.

    PubMed

    Thapa, Sundar; Hinrichsen, Lena K; Brenninkmeyer, Christine; Gunnarsson, Stefan; Heerkens, Jasper L T; Verwer, Cynthia; Niebuhr, Knut; Willett, Alice; Grilli, Guido; Thamsborg, Stig M; Sørensen, Jan T; Mejer, Helena

    2015-11-30

    Helminths are associated with health- and welfare problems in organic laying hens. The present observational cross-sectional study therefore aimed to estimate the prevalence and worm burdens of intestinal helminths in organic flocks of laying hens in 8 European countries, and to identify management factors that might be associated with helminth infections, with emphasis on Ascaridia galli. Data on flock-level management factors (e.g. nutritional factors, litter quality, housing system, opening- and closing hours of popholes, pasture rotation and provision of occupational materials) were collected during a farm visit when the hens were on average 62 weeks old. Worm counts were performed for 892 hens from 55 flocks and the number of ascarid (presumably primarily A. galli) eggs per g faeces (EPG) for 881 hens from 54 flocks. The association between parasitological parameters (prevalence, worm burden and EPG) and the management factors were analysed by multivariate models. Results showed that A. galli was highly prevalent across Europe with an overall mean prevalence of 69.5% and mean worm burden of 10 worms per hen. The overall mean prevalence and worm burden for Heterakis spp. were 29.0% and 16 worms per hen, respectively, with a large variation between countries. On average, the hens excreted 576 ascarid EPG. The mean prevalence of Raillietina spp. was 13.6%. A positive correlation was found between mean A. galli worm burden and ascarid EPG. Of the analysed management factors, only pasture access time had a significant negative association with A. galli worm burden which was in contrast to the general belief that outdoor access may increase the risk of helminth infections in production animals. In conclusion, the complexity of on-farm transmission dynamics is thus a challenge when evaluating the relative importance of management factors in relation to helminth infections. PMID:26518645

  9. Helminthic Infection and Nutritional Studies among Orang Asli Children in Sekolah Kebangsaan Pos Legap, Perak.

    PubMed

    Wong, Weng Kin; Foo, Phiaw Chong; Roze, Mohamad Noor Mohamad; Pim, Chau Dam; Subramaniam, Puvaneswari; Lim, Boon Huat

    2016-01-01

    Background. Orang Asli (aborigine) children are susceptible to soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections due to their lifestyle and substandard sanitation system. Objectives. This study aimed to examine the helminthic and nutritional status of Orang Asli school children in Sekolah Kebangsaan Pos Legap, a remote primary school at Kuala Kangsar District in the state of Perak, Malaysia. In addition, the sensitivities of four STH stool examination techniques were also compared. Methods. Demography and anthropometry data were collected by one-to-one interview session. Collected stools were examined with four microscopy techniques, namely, direct wet mount, formalin ether concentration (FEC), Kato-Katz (KK), and Parasep™. Results. Anthropometry analysis showed that 78% (26/33) of children in SK Pos Legap were malnourished and 33% (11/33) of them were stunted. Stool examinations revealed almost all children (97%) were infected by either one of the three commonest STHs. FEC was the most sensitive method in detection of the three helminth species. Conclusion. This study revealed that STH infections and nutritional status still remain a health concern among the Orang Asli children. These communal problems could be effectively controlled by regular monitoring of STH infection loads, administration of effective antihelminthic drug regimen, and also implementation of effective school nutritional programs. PMID:27366156

  10. Helminthic Infection and Nutritional Studies among Orang Asli Children in Sekolah Kebangsaan Pos Legap, Perak

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Weng Kin; Foo, Phiaw Chong; Roze, Mohamad Noor Mohamad; Pim, Chau Dam; Subramaniam, Puvaneswari; Lim, Boon Huat

    2016-01-01

    Background. Orang Asli (aborigine) children are susceptible to soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections due to their lifestyle and substandard sanitation system. Objectives. This study aimed to examine the helminthic and nutritional status of Orang Asli school children in Sekolah Kebangsaan Pos Legap, a remote primary school at Kuala Kangsar District in the state of Perak, Malaysia. In addition, the sensitivities of four STH stool examination techniques were also compared. Methods. Demography and anthropometry data were collected by one-to-one interview session. Collected stools were examined with four microscopy techniques, namely, direct wet mount, formalin ether concentration (FEC), Kato-Katz (KK), and Parasep™. Results. Anthropometry analysis showed that 78% (26/33) of children in SK Pos Legap were malnourished and 33% (11/33) of them were stunted. Stool examinations revealed almost all children (97%) were infected by either one of the three commonest STHs. FEC was the most sensitive method in detection of the three helminth species. Conclusion. This study revealed that STH infections and nutritional status still remain a health concern among the Orang Asli children. These communal problems could be effectively controlled by regular monitoring of STH infection loads, administration of effective antihelminthic drug regimen, and also implementation of effective school nutritional programs. PMID:27366156

  11. Gastrointestinal helminths in indigenous and exotic chickens in Vietnam: association of the intensity of infection with the Major Histocompatibility Complex.

    PubMed

    Schou, T W; Permin, A; Juul-Madsen, H R; Sørensen, P; Labouriau, R; Nguyên, T L H; Fink, M; Pham, S L

    2007-04-01

    This study compared the prevalence and intensity of infections of helminths in 2 chicken breeds in Vietnam, the indigenous Ri and the exotic Luong Phuong. Also, possible correlations with the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) were tested. The most prevalent helminths were Ascaridia galli, Heterakis beramporia, Tetrameres mothedai, Capillaria obsignata, Raillietina echinobothrida and Raillietina tetragona. Differences in prevalence and intensity of infection were found between the 2 breeds. Comparing the 2 groups of adult birds, Ri chickens were observed to have higher prevalence and infection intensities of several species of helminths, as well as a higher mean number of helminth species. In contrast, A. galli and C. obsignata were shown to be more prevalent in Luong Phuong chickens. Furthermore, an age-dependent difference was indicated in the group of Ri chickens in which the prevalence and the intensity of infection was higher for the adult than the young chickens for most helminths. The most notable exception was the significantly lower prevalence and intensities of A. galli in the group of adult chickens. In contrast, the prevalence and intensity were very similar in both age groups of Luong Phuong chickens. Using a genetic marker located in the MHC, a statistically significant correlation between several MHC haplotypes and the infection intensity of different helminth species was inferred. This is the first report of an association of MHC haplotype with the intensity of parasite infections in chickens. PMID:17166322

  12. The effect of helminth infection on the microbial composition and structure of the caprine abomasal microbiome.

    PubMed

    Li, Robert W; Li, Weizhong; Sun, Jiajie; Yu, Peng; Baldwin, Ransom L; Urban, Joseph F

    2016-01-01

    Haemonchus contortus is arguably the most injurious helminth parasite for small ruminants. We characterized the impact of H. contortus infection on the caprine abomasal microbiome. Fourteen parasite naive goats were inoculated with 5,000 H. contortus infective larvae and followed for 50 days. Six age-matched naïve goats served as uninfected controls. Reduced bodyweight gain and a significant increase in the abosamal pH was observed in infected goats compared to uninfected controls. Infection also increased the bacterial load while reducing the abundance of the Archaea in the abomasum but did not appear to affect microbial diversity. Nevertheless, the infection altered the abundance of approximately 19% of the 432 species-level operational taxonomic units (OTU) detected per sample. A total of 30 taxa displayed a significantly different abundance between control and infected goats. Furthermore, the infection resulted in a distinct difference in the microbiome structure. As many as 8 KEGG pathways were predicted to be significantly affected by infection. In addition, H. contortus-induced changes in butyrate producing bacteria could regulate mucosal inflammation and tissue repair. Our results provided insight into physiological consequences of helminth infection in small ruminants and could facilitate the development of novel control strategies to improve animal and human health. PMID:26853110

  13. The effect of helminth infection on the microbial composition and structure of the caprine abomasal microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Li, Robert W.; Li, Weizhong; Sun, Jiajie; Yu, Peng; Baldwin, Ransom L.; Urban, Joseph F.

    2016-01-01

    Haemonchus contortus is arguably the most injurious helminth parasite for small ruminants. We characterized the impact of H. contortus infection on the caprine abomasal microbiome. Fourteen parasite naive goats were inoculated with 5,000 H. contortus infective larvae and followed for 50 days. Six age-matched naïve goats served as uninfected controls. Reduced bodyweight gain and a significant increase in the abosamal pH was observed in infected goats compared to uninfected controls. Infection also increased the bacterial load while reducing the abundance of the Archaea in the abomasum but did not appear to affect microbial diversity. Nevertheless, the infection altered the abundance of approximately 19% of the 432 species-level operational taxonomic units (OTU) detected per sample. A total of 30 taxa displayed a significantly different abundance between control and infected goats. Furthermore, the infection resulted in a distinct difference in the microbiome structure. As many as 8 KEGG pathways were predicted to be significantly affected by infection. In addition, H. contortus-induced changes in butyrate producing bacteria could regulate mucosal inflammation and tissue repair. Our results provided insight into physiological consequences of helminth infection in small ruminants and could facilitate the development of novel control strategies to improve animal and human health. PMID:26853110

  14. Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cell Proportions Are Diminished in Young Helminth Infected Children and Restored by Curative Anti-helminthic Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Nausch, Norman; Appleby, Laura J.; Sparks, Alexandra M.; Midzi, Nicholas; Mduluza, Takafira; Mutapi, Francisca

    2015-01-01

    Background Group 2 Innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are innate cells that produce the TH2 cytokines IL-5 and IL-13. The importance of these cells has recently been demonstrated in experimental models of parasitic diseases but there is a paucity of data on ILC2s in the context of human parasitic infections and in particular of the blood dwelling parasite Schistosoma haematobium. Methodology/Principal Findings In this case-control study human peripheral blood ILC2s were analysed in relation to infection with the helminth parasite Schistosoma haematobium. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 36 S. haematobium infected and 36 age and sex matched uninfected children were analysed for frequencies of ILC2s identified as Lin-CD45+CD127+CD294+CD161+. ILC2s were significantly lower particularly in infected children aged 6–9 years compared to healthy participants. Curative anti-helminthic treatment resulted in an increase in levels of the activating factor TSLP and restoration of ILC2 levels. Conclusion This study demonstrates that ILC2s are diminished in young helminth infected children and restored by removal of the parasites by treatment, indicating a previously undescribed association between a human parasitic infection and ILC2s and suggesting a role of ILC2s before the establishment of protective acquired immunity in human schistosomiasis. PMID:25799270

  15. The effects of local medicinal knowledge and hygiene on helminth infections in an Amazonian society.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Susan; Chuquimia-Choque, Maria E; Huanca, Tomás; McDade, Thomas W; Leonard, William R; Reyes-García, Victoria

    2011-03-01

    Social science has long recognized the importance of understanding how interactions between culture and behavior shape disease patterns, especially in resource-poor areas where individuals draw on multiple medical treatments to maintain health. While global health programs aimed at controlling high infection rates of soil-transmitted helminthes among indigenous groups often acknowledge the value of local culture, little research has been able to examine this value. This study investigates the association between parental ethnomedical knowledge, parental biomedical knowledge, and household sanitation behavior and childhood soil-transmitted helminth infections among a group of foragers-farmers in the Bolivian Amazon (Tsimane'). During 2007, a parasitological survey was completed for 329 children (≤ 16 years of age) from 109 households in combination with a comprehensive survey of both of the child's parents to assess biomedical and ethnomedical knowledge and household sanitary environment. Soil-transmitted helminthes were found to be common with 67% of sample positive for hookworm species. Indices that capture a household's relative state of risky and preventive hygienic behavior were significantly associated with risk of hookworm infection. Mother's but not father's ethnomedical knowledge was also negatively associated with a child's probability of being positive for hookworm infection. The effect was stronger for young children and boys. Like many rural populations, Tsimane' actively draw upon multiple medical systems to respond to health challenges. Integration into markets and national societies is likely to affect local medical systems by increasing the use of biomedicine as formal education prioritizes biomedical over ethnomedical systems. This study underscores the value of considering both ethnomedical knowledge systems and household hygiene in public health campaigns to treat and control soil-transmitted helminths. There is no question that providing

  16. Quantitative evaluation of a handheld light microscope for field diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminth infection.

    PubMed

    Bogoch, Isaac I; Andrews, Jason R; Speich, Benjamin; Ame, Shaali M; Ali, Said M; Stothard, J Russell; Utzinger, Jürg; Keiser, Jennifer

    2014-12-01

    We evaluated the Newton Nm1, a commercially available handheld light microscope and compared it with conventional light microscopy for the diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminth infections. A total of 91 Kato-Katz thick smears were examined by experienced microscopists and helminth eggs were counted and expressed as eggs per gram of stool (EPG). Mean egg counts were significantly higher with the conventional light microscope (5,190 EPG versus 2,386 EPG for Ascaris lumbricoides; 826 versus 456 for Trichuris trichiura; both P < 0.05). Using regression coefficients and accounting for intensity of infection, we found that the agreement between the two devices was excellent for both species (κ = 0.90, 95% confidence interval = 0.82-0.99 for A. lumbricoides and κ = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.91-1.00 for T. trichiura). The Newton Nm1 microscope may be a useful tool for the detection and quantification of soil-transmitted helminth infection in clinical, epidemiologic, and public health settings. PMID:25246697

  17. [Helminth infections in wild boars in enclosures in southern Germany: species spectrum and infection frequency].

    PubMed

    Barutzki, D; Schoierer, R; Gothe, R

    1990-10-01

    To determine the helminth fauna of wild boars, stomachs and intestines of 124, lungs of 62, and livers of 39 animals from 5 enclosures in Southern Germany were examined. The evaluation of the species composition revealed at least 13 species: Metastrongylus apri, M. salmi, M. pudendotectus, Physocephalus sexalatus, Hyostrongylus rubidus, Globocephalus longemucronatus, Ascaris suum, Trichuris suis, Oesophagostomum dentatum, O. quadrispinulatum, Fasciola hepatica, C. tenuicollis and Capillaria. The most frequently isolated species was M. salmi with 91.9%, followed by G. longemucronatus with 91.1%, M. apri with 88.7%, M. pudendotectus with 87.1%, P. sexalatus with 51.6%, O. dentatum with 46%, T. suis with 30.6%, H. rubidus with 14.5%, A. suum with 12.1% and O. quadrispinulatum with 8.1%. Differences in the prevalence of infection, determined for animals up to 1 year old, 1-2 year-old and adults, were minimal for Metastrongylus spp. and G. longemucronatus. P. sexalatus, T. suis and A. suum, however, occurred more often in 1 year old, whereas H. rubidus, O. dentatum and O. quadrispinulatum were isolated more often from adults. A correlation of the infection rate with the sex of the animals was not found. PMID:2264058

  18. IL-10- and TGFβ-mediated Th9 Responses in a Human Helminth Infection

    PubMed Central

    Anuradha, Rajamanickam; Munisankar, Saravanan; Bhootra, Yukthi; Jagannathan, Jeeva; Dolla, Chandrakumar; Kumaran, Paul; Nutman, Thomas B.; Babu, Subash

    2016-01-01

    Background Th9 cells are a subset of CD4+ T cells that express the protoypical cytokine, IL-9. Th9 cells are known to effect protective immunity in animal models of intestinal helminth infections. However, the role of Th9 cells in human intestinal helminth infections has never been examined. Methodology To examine the role of Th9 cells in Strongyloidis stercoralis (Ss), a common intestinal helminth infection, we compared the frequency of Th9 expressing IL-9 either singly (mono-functional) or co-expressing IL-4 or IL-10 (dual-functional) in Ss-infected individuals (INF) to frequencies in uninfected (UN) individuals. Principal Findings INF individuals exhibited a significant increase in the spontaneously expressed and/or antigen specific frequencies of both mono- and dual-functional Th9 cells as well as Th2 cells expressing IL-9 compared to UN. The differences in Th9 induction between INF and UN individuals was predominantly antigen-specific as the differences were no longer seen following control antigen or mitogen stimulation. In addition, the increased frequency of Th9 cells in response to parasite antigens was dependent on IL-10 and TGFx since neutralization of either of these cytokines resulted in diminished Th9 frequencies. Finally, following successful treatment of Ss infection, the frequencies of antigen-specific Th9 cells diminished in INF individuals, suggesting a role for the Th9 response in active Ss infection. Moreover, IL-9 levels in whole blood culture supernatants following Ss antigen stimulation were higher in INF compared to UN individuals. Conclusion Thus, Ss infection is characterized by an IL-10- and TGFβ dependent expansion of Th9 cells, an expansion found to reversible by anti-helmintic treatment. PMID:26730582

  19. Helminth products as a potential therapeutic strategy for inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Soares, Maria Fernanda de Macedo; Araújo, Claudia A

    2008-06-01

    Helminths secrete several molecules that can modulate the immune responses, favoring their evasion and perpetuate their survival in the host. These molecules interfere with antigen presentation, cell proliferation and activation, antibody production, cause cell death, and stimulate regulatory responses. Here, we focus on some helminth products and address their immunomodulatory effects in the host immune system and, also, we describe some anti-inflammatory properties of an Ascaris suum-derived immunomodulatory molecule, named PAS-1. This protein is a 200-kDa molecule isolated by affinity chromatography using MAIP-1 (monoclonal antibody which recognizes PAS-1), coupled to Sepharose 4B. It suppresses the inflammatory responses in murine models of delayed-type hypersensitivity, lung allergic inflammation and LPS-induced inflammation into air pouches. PAS-1 also stimulates the secretion of regulatory cytokines such as IL-10 and TGF-beta and primes IFN-gamma-secreting CD8+ and IL-10/ TGF-beta-secreting CD4+CD25+ cell clones that avoid the lung inflammation. Thus, this protein is a potent immunomodulatory component that may be used for therapeutic interventions in inflammatory diseases. PMID:18691141

  20. Interactions between multiple helminths and the gut microbiota in wild rodents.

    PubMed

    Kreisinger, Jakub; Bastien, Géraldine; Hauffe, Heidi C; Marchesi, Julian; Perkins, Sarah E

    2015-08-19

    The gut microbiota is vital to host health and, as such, it is important to elucidate the mechanisms altering its composition and diversity. Intestinal helminths are host immunomodulators and have evolved both temporally and spatially in close association with the gut microbiota, resulting in potential mechanistic interplay. Host-helminth and host-microbiota interactions are comparatively well-examined, unlike microbiota-helminth relationships, which typically focus on experimental infection with a single helminth species in laboratory animals. Here, in addition to a review of the literature on helminth-microbiota interactions, we examined empirically the association between microbiota diversity and composition and natural infection of multiple helminth species in wild mice (Apodemus flavicollis), using 16S rRNA gene catalogues (metataxonomics). In general, helminth presence is linked with high microbiota diversity, which may confer health benefits to the host. Within our wild rodent system variation in the composition and abundance of gut microbial taxa associated with helminths was specific to each helminth species and occurred both up- and downstream of a given helminth's niche (gut position). The most pronounced helminth-microbiota association was between the presence of tapeworms in the small intestine and increased S24-7 (Bacteroidetes) family in the stomach. Helminths clearly have the potential to alter gut homeostasis. Free-living rodents with a diverse helminth community offer a useful model system that enables both correlative (this study) and manipulative inference to elucidate helminth-microbiota interactions. PMID:26150661

  1. Counter-regulatory anti-parasite cytokine responses during concurrent Plasmodium yoelii and intestinal helminth infections in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Malaria and helminth infections are two of the most prevalent parasitic diseases in tropical areas. While concomitant infection is common, mechanisms contributing to altered disease outcomes during co-infection remain poorly defined. We have previously reported exacerbation of normally non-lethal ...

  2. The epidemiology of soil-transmitted helminth and protozoan infections in south-west Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Mbuh, J V; Ntonifor, N H; Ojong, J

    2012-03-01

    A cross-sectional study of the prevalence, intensity and effects of soil-transmitted helminth and protozoan infections was undertaken among patients at the Buea Hospital Annex located in Buea sub-division of Cameroon. Stool samples from 356 subjects (174 males and 182 females) were collected and processed using standard concentration methods. Our results showed that 31.0% of subjects were infected with intestinal helminths and the prevalence was higher in females (32.4%) than in males (30.5%). A significantly higher prevalence was observed in rural (47.2%) than in urban areas (21.0%); significance < 0.1%. Prevalence was highest among those aged between 6 and 12 years (41.4%). The total prevalence of intestinal helminth infections were 19.3% for Ascaris lumbricoides, 14.0% for hookworm and 11.8% for Trichuris trichiura. The intensity of infection was unevenly distributed, with very heavy loads concentrated in a few individuals. Data also showed that 28.1% (100/356) of the subjects were infected with protozoans. Females showed a higher prevalence (28.6%; 52/182) than males (20.7%; 36/174). Also, there was a significantly higher prevalence in rural (34.0%; 49/144) than urban areas (18.4%; 39/212); significance < 0.1%. The age group 6-12 years again had a higher prevalence (37.1%; 26/70). The total prevalence of intestinal protozoans was: Entamoeba histolytica (24.4%), Entamoeba coli (11.2%) and Giardia lamblia (0.6%). These relatively heavy prevalences in patients may be reduced by appropriate medication and maintaining strict personal hygiene. Health education, clean water supply, good sewage management and a congenial environment will all help to minimize infection. PMID:21281528

  3. Modulation of specific biochemical blood parameters by helminth infection in laboratory Beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Szweda, M; Szarek, J; Babińska, I; Sokół, R; Raś-Noryńska, M; Kołodziejska-Sawerska, A; Mecik-Kronenberg, T

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the independent effect of helminths infection on biochemical blood parameters in Beagles intended for laboratory use which may contribute to a change of experimental results. As a result of research, the authors confirmed the negative effect of helminth invasion on the metabolism of the liver and kidney in laboratory dogs. Stool samples from thirty Beagle puppies were examined for parasites before the puppies were moved to the animal facility, and all were dewormed with Vetminth paste on the day they were moved. Stool examination was performed three more times and animals were given Drontal Plus flavor (Bayer) and Baycox 5% (Bayer). A fourth parasitological examination revealed no intestinal parasites in the feces. Three blood biochemical tests were performed. Experimental results clearly indicate the significant impact of intestinal parasites in dogs used in experiments. PMID:22844719

  4. Conceptual framework for analysing farm-specific economic effects of helminth infections in ruminants and control strategies.

    PubMed

    van der Voort, Mariska; Charlier, Johannes; Lauwers, Ludwig; Vercruysse, Jozef; Van Huylenbroeck, Guido; Van Meensel, Jef

    2013-05-01

    Helminth infections are considered to be an important constraint on livestock productivity worldwide. The economic impact of these infections or their control strategies has traditionally been assessed by their effect on animal performance indicators or traditional economic calculation methods (e.g. budgeting and cost-benefit analysis). Because the impact of helminth infections has become more subtle and is farm-specific, one needs more refined economic evaluations of actions meant to increase or maintain the health of livestock on individual farms. This paper proposes an interdisciplinary framework that combines the developments in the veterinary control of helminth infections with economic performance measurements to identify farm-specific and profitable anthelmintic management decisions. Our framework positions individual farms' performance against performance benchmarks and is based on the farms' efficiency in transforming input(s) into output(s). We show how this positioning makes it possible to establish a linkage between input and output transformation, helminth infection levels and effects of control strategies. Furthermore, the framework allows for the identification of improvement paths that are not necessarily related to the helminth infection, but which may lead to other management improvements. We discuss the epidemiological information required and which complementary methods (e.g. efficiency analysis and budgeting techniques) can be used to make the framework operational. PMID:23219140

  5. The distribution of intestinal helminth infections in a rural village in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Anderson, T J; Zizza, C A; Leche, G M; Scott, M E; Solomons, N W

    1993-01-01

    Fecal egg count scores were used to investigate the distribution and abundance of intestinal helminths in the population of a rural village. Prevalences of the major helminths were 41% with Ascaris lumbricoides, 60% with Trichuris trichiura and 50% with Necator americanus. All three parasites showed a highly aggregated distribution among hosts. Age/prevalence and age/intensity profiles were typical for both A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura with the highest worm burdens in the 5-10 year old children. For hookworm both prevalence and intensity curves were convex in shape with maximum infection levels in the 30-40 year old age class. Infected females had higher burdens of T. trichiura than infected males in all age classes of the population; there were no other effects of host gender. Analysis of associations between parasites within hosts revealed strong correlations between A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura. Individuals with heavy infections of A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura showed highly significant aggregation within households. Associations between a variety of household features and heavy infections with A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura are described. PMID:8246757

  6. Prevalence and predictors associated with intestinal infections by protozoa and helminths in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Casavechia, Maria Teresinha Gomes; Lonardoni, Maria Valdrinez Campana; Venazzi, Eneide Aparecida Sabaini; Campanerut-Sá, Paula Aline Zanetti; da Costa Benalia, Hugo Rafael; Mattiello, Matheus Felipe; Menechini, Pedro Victor Lazaretti; Dos Santos, Carlos Aparecido; Teixeira, Jorge Juarez Vieira

    2016-06-01

    Approximately 2 billion people are infected with soil-transmitted helminths worldwide, mainly in tropical and subtropical areas. This research aimed to investigate the prevalence and predictors associated with parasitic infections in primary health care. A cross-sectional study was performed with a large random sample to identify the prevalence and predictors associated with parasitic infections in primary health care in Marialva, southern Brazil, from April 2011 to September 2013. Stool samples from 775 individuals were analyzed for the presence of protozoan cysts, helminth eggs, and larvae. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 13.94 %, and the prevalence of protozoa and helminths was 15.1 and 2.9 %, respectively. The predictor variables that were associated with intestinal parasites were male gender odds ratio (OR) 1.60, 95 % confidence interval (CI 1.10-2.40) and the absence of a kitchen garden (OR 2.28, 95 % CI, 1.08-4.85). Positive associations were found between Giardia duodenalis and individuals aged ≤18 with high risk (OR 19.0, 95 % CI 2.16-167.52), between Endolimax nana and the absence of a kitchen garden (p < 0.01), and between Trichuris trichiura and the presence of a kitchen garden (p = 0.014). Polyparasitism was present in 27.27 % of infected individuals. Our findings confirmed a relatively low prevalence in primary care, compared to international standards, despite the rare publications in the area. As variables, male gender and the absence of a kitchen garden stood out as important predictors. It is highly relevant that the health conditions of the population comply with consistent standards. PMID:26987643

  7. Genetic resistance to natural helminth infections in two chicken layer lines.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Falko; Daş, Gürbüz; Preisinger, Rudolf; Schmutz, Matthias; König, Sven; Gauly, Matthias

    2011-03-10

    Groups of Lohmann Brown (LB) and Lohmann Selected Leghorn (LSL) hens were reared under helminth-free conditions and kept afterwards together in a free range system. Mortality rate, body weight development, laying performance and faecal egg counts (FEC) were recorded during a 12 month laying period. At the end of the laying period, 246 LSL and 197 LB hens were necropsied and worms counted following the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (W.A.A.V.P.) guidelines. In addition adult Heterakis gallinarum and Ascaridia galli were sexed and measured for length. Significant (P<0.01) differences were observed in mortality rates between LSL and LB animals (12.9 vs. 5.7%). LSL hens showed significantly (P<0.05) higher FEC when compared with LB hens at almost all dates of monitoring. Almost all animals became infected with at least one helminth species. The most prevalent species were H. gallinarum, Capillaria spp. and A. galli. LB hens showed a significantly (P<0.05) higher average number of adult H. gallinarum, Capillaria spp. and tapeworms when compared with LSL animals. However, number of adult A. galli was in tendency lower in these animals. In total, LB had a significantly (P<0.05) higher worm burden than LSL (192.3 vs. 94.3). The estimated heritabilities for total worm burden were 0.23 (SE±0.12) in LSL and 0.75 (SE±0.21) in LB, respectively. The number of all different helminth species were positively correlated. The sex ratio of H. gallinarum and A. galli and the average worm lengths were not significantly (P>0.05) different between the genotypes. There was no significant phenotypic correlation between body weight and worm burden in LSL, whereas it was the case in LB (r=0.17, P<0.05). Based on the estimated heritabilities it is possible to select for helminth resistance in both genotypes. PMID:21185121

  8. Extraintestinal Helminth Infection Reduces the Development of Colitis-Associated Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    León-Cabrera, Sonia; Callejas, Blanca E.; Ledesma-Soto, Yadira; Coronel, Jossimar; Pérez-Plasencia, Carlos; Gutiérrez-Cirlos, Emma B.; Ávila-Moreno, Federico; Rodríguez-Sosa, Miriam; Hernández-Pando, Rogelio; Marquina-Castillo, Brenda; Chirino, Yolanda I.; Terrazas, Luis I.

    2014-01-01

    Colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC) is one of the most common cancers and is closely related to chronic or deregulated inflammation. Helminthic infections can modulate inflammatory responses in some diseases, but their immunomodulatory role during cancer development remains completely unknown. We have analyzed the role of Taenia crassiceps-induced anti-inflammatory response in determining the outcome of CAC. We show that extraintestinal T. crassiceps infection in CAC mice inhibited colonic inflammatory responses and tumor formation and prevented goblet cell loss. There was also increased expression of IL-4 and alternatively activated macrophages markers in colonic tissue and negative immunomodulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. In addition, T. crassiceps infection prevented the upregulation of β-catenin and CXCR2 expression observed in the CAC mice, which are both markers associated with CAC-tumorigenesis, and reduced the numbers of circulating and colonic CD11b+Ly6ChiCCR2+ monocytes. Thus, immunomodulatory activities induced by helminth infections may have a role in the progression of CAC. PMID:25210492

  9. Impact of Helminth Infection during Pregnancy on Cognitive and Motor Functions of One-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Mireku, Michael O.; Boivin, Michael J.; Davidson, Leslie L.; Ouédraogo, Smaïla; Koura, Ghislain K.; Alao, Maroufou J.; Massougbodji, Achille; Cot, Michel; Bodeau-Livinec, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the effect of helminth infection during pregnancy on the cognitive and motor functions of one-year-old children. Methods Six hundred and thirty five singletons born to pregnant women enrolled before 29 weeks of gestation in a trial comparing two intermittent preventive treatments for malaria were assessed for cognitive and motor functions using the Mullen Scales of Early Learning, in the TOVI study, at twelve months of age in the district of Allada in Benin. Stool samples of pregnant women were collected at recruitment, second antenatal care (ANC) visit (at least one month after recruitment) and just before delivery, and were tested for helminths using the Kato-Katz technique. All pregnant women were administered a total of 600 mg of mebendazole (100 mg two times daily for 3 days) to be taken after the first ANC visit. The intake was not directly observed. Results Prevalence of helminth infection was 11.5%, 7.5% and 3.0% at first ANC visit, second ANC visit and at delivery, respectively. Children of mothers who were infected with hookworms at the first ANC visit had 4.9 (95% CI: 1.3–8.6) lower mean gross motor scores compared to those whose mothers were not infected with hookworms at the first ANC visit, in the adjusted model. Helminth infection at least once during pregnancy was associated with infant cognitive and gross motor functions after adjusting for maternal education, gravidity, child sex, family possessions, and quality of the home stimulation. Conclusion Helminth infection during pregnancy is associated with poor cognitive and gross motor outcomes in infants. Measures to prevent helminth infection during pregnancy should be reinforced. PMID:25756357

  10. Global epidemiology, ecology and control of soil-transmitted helminth infections

    PubMed Central

    Brooker, Simon; Clements, Archie CA; Bundy, Don AP

    2007-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are among the most prevalent of chronic human infections worldwide. Based on the demonstrable impact on child development, there is a global commitment to finance and implement control strategies with a focus on school-based chemotherapy programmes. The major obstacle to the implementation of cost-effective control is the lack of accurate descriptions of the geographical distribution of infection. In recent years considerable progress has been made in the use of geographical information systems (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) to better understand helminth ecology and epidemiology, and to develop low cost ways to identify target populations for treatment. This chapter explores how this information has been used practically to guide large-scale control programmes. The use of satellite-derived environmental data has yielded new insights into the ecology of infection at a geographical scale that has proven impossible to address using more traditional approaches, and has in turn allowed spatial distributions of infection prevalence to be predicted robustly by statistical approaches. GIS/RS have increasingly been used in the context of large-scale helminth control programmes, including not only STH infections but also those focusing on schistosomiasis, filariasis and onchocerciasis. The experience indicates that GIS/RS provides a cost-effective approach to designing and monitoring programs at realistic scale. Importantly, the use of this approach has begun to transition from being a specialist approach of international vertical programs to become a routine tool in developing public sector control programs. GIS/RS is used here to describe the global distribution of STH infections and to estimate the number of infections in school age children in sub-Saharan Africa (89.9 million) and the annual cost of providing a single anthelmintic treatment using a school-based approach (US$5.0-7.6 million). These are the first estimates at a

  11. IFNγ and IL-12 Restrict Th2 Responses during Helminth/Plasmodium Co-Infection and Promote IFNγ from Th2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Coomes, Stephanie M.; Pelly, Victoria S.; Kannan, Yashaswini; Okoye, Isobel S.; Czieso, Stephanie; Entwistle, Lewis J.; Perez-Lloret, Jimena; Nikolov, Nikolay; Potocnik, Alexandre J.; Biró, Judit; Langhorne, Jean; Wilson, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    Parasitic helminths establish chronic infections in mammalian hosts. Helminth/Plasmodium co-infections occur frequently in endemic areas. However, it is unclear whether Plasmodium infections compromise anti-helminth immunity, contributing to the chronicity of infection. Immunity to Plasmodium or helminths requires divergent CD4+ T cell-driven responses, dominated by IFNγ or IL-4, respectively. Recent literature has indicated that Th cells, including Th2 cells, have phenotypic plasticity with the ability to produce non-lineage associated cytokines. Whether such plasticity occurs during co-infection is unclear. In this study, we observed reduced anti-helminth Th2 cell responses and compromised anti-helminth immunity during Heligmosomoides polygyrus and Plasmodium chabaudi co-infection. Using newly established triple cytokine reporter mice (Il4gfpIfngyfpIl17aFP635), we demonstrated that Il4gfp+ Th2 cells purified from in vitro cultures or isolated ex vivo from helminth-infected mice up-regulated IFNγ following adoptive transfer into Rag1–/– mice infected with P. chabaudi. Functionally, Th2 cells that up-regulated IFNγ were transcriptionally re-wired and protected recipient mice from high parasitemia. Mechanistically, TCR stimulation and responsiveness to IL-12 and IFNγ, but not type I IFN, was required for optimal IFNγ production by Th2 cells. Finally, blockade of IL-12 and IFNγ during co-infection partially preserved anti-helminth Th2 responses. In summary, this study demonstrates that Th2 cells retain substantial plasticity with the ability to produce IFNγ during Plasmodium infection. Consequently, co-infection with Plasmodium spp. may contribute to the chronicity of helminth infection by reducing anti-helminth Th2 cells and converting them into IFNγ-secreting cells. PMID:26147567

  12. Reprint of 'Association of helminth infections and food consumption in common eiders Somateria mollissima in Iceland'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skirnisson, Karl

    2016-07-01

    Common eider Somateria mollissima L. 1758, subsp. borealis, is widely distributed along the coasts of Iceland. In this study association of parasite infections and food composition was studied among 40 females and 38 males (66 adults, 12 subadults), shot under license on four occasions within the same year (February; before egg-laying in May; after the breeding period in late June; and in November) in Skerjafjörður, SW Iceland. Parasitological examinations revealed 31 helminth species (11 digeneans, ten cestodes, seven nematodes, and three acanthocephalans). Distinct digenean species parasitized the gallbladder, kidney and bursa of Fabricius, whereas other helminths parasitized the gastrointestinal tract. Thirty-six invertebrate prey species were identified as food; waste and bread fed by humans, were also consumed by some birds. Amidostomum acutum was the only parasite found with a direct life cycle, whereas other species were food transmitted and ingested with different invertebrate prey. Opposite to females male birds rarely utilized periwinkles and gammarids as a food source. As a result, Microphallus and Microsomacanthus infection intensities were low except in February, when subadult males were responsible for an infection peak. Females caring for young increased their consumption of periwinkles close to the littoral zone in June; during pre-breeding, females also increased their gammarid intake. As a consequence, Microphallus and Microsomacanthus infection intensities temporarily peaked. Increased food intake (including Mytilus edulis) of females before the egg-laying period resulted in twofold higher Gymnophallus bursicola infection intensity than observed for males. Profilicollis botulus infection reflected seasonal changes in decapod consumption in both genders. Different life history strategies of males and females, especially before and during the breeding season and caring of young, and during molting in distinct feeding areas in summer, promote

  13. Association of helminth infections and food consumption in common eiders Somateria mollissima in Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skirnisson, Karl

    2015-10-01

    Common eider Somateria mollissima L. 1758, subsp. borealis, is widely distributed along the coasts of Iceland. In this study association of parasite infections and food composition was studied among 40 females and 38 males (66 adults, 12 subadults), shot under license on four occasions within the same year (February; before egg-laying in May; after the breeding period in late June; and in November) in Skerjafjörður, SW Iceland. Parasitological examinations revealed 31 helminth species (11 digeneans, ten cestodes, seven nematodes, and three acanthocephalans). Distinct digenean species parasitized the gallbladder, kidney and bursa of Fabricius, whereas other helminths parasitized the gastrointestinal tract. Thirty-six invertebrate prey species were identified as food; waste and bread fed by humans, were also consumed by some birds. Amidostomum acutum was the only parasite found with a direct life cycle, whereas other species were food transmitted and ingested with different invertebrate prey. Opposite to females male birds rarely utilized periwinkles and gammarids as a food source. As a result, Microphallus and Microsomacanthus infection intensities were low except in February, when subadult males were responsible for an infection peak. Females caring for young increased their consumption of periwinkles close to the littoral zone in June; during pre-breeding, females also increased their gammarid intake. As a consequence, Microphallus and Microsomacanthus infection intensities temporarily peaked. Increased food intake (including Mytilus edulis) of females before the egg-laying period resulted in twofold higher Gymnophallus bursicola infection intensity than observed for males. Profilicollis botulus infection reflected seasonal changes in decapod consumption in both genders. Different life history strategies of males and females, especially before and during the breeding season and caring of young, and during molting in distinct feeding areas in summer, promote

  14. Estimating the number of helminthic infections in the Republic of Cameroon from data on infection prevalence in schoolchildren.

    PubMed Central

    Brooker, S.; Donnelly, C. A.; Guyatt, H. L.

    2000-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of infection with helminths is markedly dependent on age, yet estimates of the total number of infections are typically based on data only from school-aged children. Such estimates, although useful for advocacy, provide inadequate information for planning control programmes and for quantifying the burden of disease. Using readily available data on the prevalence of infection in schoolchildren, the relation between the prevalence of infection in school-aged children and prevalence in the wider community can be adequately described using species-specific models. This paper explores the reliability of this approach to predict the prevalence infection in the community and provides a model for estimating the total number of people infected in the Republic of Cameroon. METHODS: Using data on the prevalence of helminthic infection in school-aged children in Cameroon, the prevalence of infection in pre-school children and adults was estimated from species-specific linear and logistic regression models developed previously. The model predictions were then used to estimate the number of people infected in each district in each age group in Cameroon. RESULTS: For Cameroon, if only the prevalence of infection in schoolchildren is used, the number of people infected with each helminthic species will be overestimated by up to 32% when compared with the estimates provided by the species-specific models. The calculation of confidence intervals supports the statistical reliability of the model since a narrow range of parameter estimates is evident. Furthermore, this work suggests that estimation of national prevalence of infection and the number infected will be enhanced if data are stratified by age; this model represents a useful planning tool for obtaining more accurate estimates. Estimates based on data aggregated from three geographical levels (district, regional, and national) show that summarizing prevalence data at the national level will result

  15. Prevalence and Pattern of Soil-Transmitted Helminthic Infection among Primary School Children in a Rural Community in Imo State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Odinaka, Kelechi Kenneth; Nwolisa, Emeka Charles; Mbanefo, Francis; Iheakaram, Alfreda Chinekwu; Okolo, Seline

    2015-01-01

    Background. Soil-transmitted helminthic infection is a common public health challenge of primary school children in resource challenged and developing countries. Our aim was to determine the prevalence and pattern of soil-transmitted helminthic infection among primary school children in a rural community in Imo State, Nigeria. Method. The study involved a cross-sectional survey of 284 primary school children in a rural community. Results. The overall prevalence of soil-transmitted helminthic infection (STHI) was 30.3%. Of all STHIs, hookworm was the commonest geohelminth observed, 81 (94.2%). The prevalence of soil-transmitted helminthic infection was more in males, 58 (38.4%), than in females, 28 (21.1%). This difference was statistically significant (P = 0.001). Conclusion. The high prevalence rate of soil-transmitted helminthic infection amongst the study population is worrisome. There is need for organized and routine deworming among school children in the community. PMID:26435717

  16. The Impact of Asymptomatic Helminth Co-Infection in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Tuberculosis in North-West Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Abate, Ebba; Belayneh, Meseret; Gelaw, Aschalew; Idh, Jonna; Getachew, Assefa; Alemu, Shitaye; Diro, Ermias; Fikre, Nigussu; Britton, Sven; Elias, Daniel; Aseffa, Abraham; Stendahl, Olle; Schön, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Background Areas endemic of helminth infection, tuberculosis (TB) and HIV are to a large extent overlapping. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of asymptomatic helminth infection on the immunological response among TB patients with and without HIV, their house hold contacts and community controls. Methodology Consecutive smear positive TB patients (n = 112), their household contacts (n = 71) and community controls (n = 112) were recruited in Gondar town, Ethiopia. Stool microscopy, HIV serology, serum IgE level, eosinophil and CD4 counts were performed and tuberculosis patients were followed up for 3 months after initiation of anti-TB treatment. Results Helminth co-infection rate was 29% in TB patients and 21% in both community control and household contacts (p = 0.3) where Ascaris lumbricoides was the most prevalent parasite. In TB patients the seroprevalence of HIV was 47% (53/112). Eosinophilia and elevated IgE level were significantly associated with asymptomatic helminth infection. During TB treatment, the worm infection rate of HIV+/TB patients declined from 31% (10/32) at week 0 to 9% (3/32) at week 2 of TB treatment, whereas HIV−/TB patients showed no change from baseline to week 2, 29% (13/45) vs. 22.2% (10/45). This trend was stable at week 8 and 12 as well. Conclusion One third of smear positive TB patients were infected with helminths. Eosinophilia and elevated IgE level correlated with asymptomatic worm infection, indicating an effect on host immunity. The rate of worm infection declined during TB treatment in HIV+/TB co-infected patients whereas no decline was seen in HIV−/TB group. PMID:22952620

  17. Infections with cardiopulmonary and intestinal helminths and sarcoptic mange in red foxes from two different localities in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad N S; Halasa, Tariq; Kapel, Christian M O

    2014-03-01

    Monitoring parasitic infections in the red fox is essential for obtaining baseline knowledge on the spread of diseases of veterinary and medical importance. In this study, screening for cardiopulmonary and intestinal helminths and sarcoptic mange (Sarcoptes scabiei) was done on 118 foxes originating from two distinct localities in Denmark, (Copenhagen) greater area and southern Jutland. Fifteen parasite species were recorded in 116 foxes (98.3%), nine parasitic species are of zoonotic potential. Parasite diversity was greater in foxes of Copenhagen in terms of overall parasite species richness and species richness of all helminth groups individually: trematodes; cestodes; and nematodes. Six parasite species were recovered from foxes of Copenhagen, but not from foxes of Southern Jutland: Echinochasmus perfoliatus; Echinostoma sp.; Pseudamphistomum truncatum; Dipylidium caninum; Angiostrongylus vasorum; and Sarcoptes scabiei, but Toxascaris leonina was only recorded in foxes of southern Jutland. A high prevalence and abundance of A. vasorum in foxes of Copenhagen was observed. The prevalence of four nematode species; Eucoleus (Capillaria) aerophilus, Uncinaria stenocephala, Toxocara canis, and Crenosoma vulpis, in foxes of both localities were comparable and ranging from 22.9% to 89%. The prevalence of Mesocestoides sp. was significantly higher in foxes of Copenhagen. Taenia spp. were detected using morphological and molecular analysis, which revealed the dominance of T. polyacantha in foxes of both localities. Infections with sarcoptic mange were evident only among foxes of Copenhagen (44.9%), which significantly affected the average weight of the infected animals. Further remarks on the zoonotic and veterinary implications of the parasites recovered are given. PMID:24570055

  18. Alternative prey use affects helminth parasite infections in grey wolves.

    PubMed

    Friesen, Olwyn C; Roth, James D

    2016-09-01

    Predators affect prey populations not only through direct predation, but also by acting as definitive hosts for their parasites and completing parasite life cycles. Understanding the affects of parasitism on prey population dynamics requires knowing how their predators' parasite community is affected by diet and prey availability. Ungulates, such as moose (Alces americanus) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), are often important prey for wolves (Canis lupus), but wolves also consume a variety of alternative prey, including beaver (Castor canadensis) and snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus). The use of alternative prey, which may host different or fewer parasites than ungulates, could potentially reduce overall abundance of ungulate parasites within the ecosystem, benefiting both wolves and ungulate hosts. We examined parasites in wolf carcasses from eastern Manitoba and estimated wolf diet using stable isotope analysis. Taeniidae cestodes were present in most wolves (75%), reflecting a diet primarily comprised of ungulates, but nematodes were unexpectedly rare. Cestode abundance was negatively related to the wolf's δ(13) C value, indicating diet affects parasite abundance. Wolves that consumed a higher proportion of beaver and caribou (Rangifer tarandus), estimated using Bayesian mixing models, had lower cestode abundance, suggesting the use of these alternative prey can reduce parasite loads. Long-term consumption of beavers may lower the abundance of adult parasites in wolves, eventually lowering parasite density in the region and ultimately benefiting ungulates that serve as intermediate hosts. Thus, alternative prey can affect both predator-prey and host-parasite interactions and potentially affect food web dynamics. PMID:27155132

  19. Human infections and co-infections with helminths in a rural population in Guichi, Anhui Province, China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yi; Li, Rui; Ward, Michael P; Chen, Yue; Lynn, Henry; Wang, Decheng; Chen, Gengxin; He, Zonggui; Sun, Liqian; Xiong, Chenglong; Zhang, Zhijie; Jiang, Qingwu

    2015-01-01

    Helminth infections are believed to be common in tropical and subtropical countries. A cross-sectional study was carried out in two villages located in Guichi District in Anhui Province, the People's Republic of China, where multiparasitism was investigated using parasitological tests. The data collected were fitted to Bayesian multi-level models to profile risk factors for helminth infections. The prevalence of Schistosoma (S.) japonicum, Ascaris (A.) lumbricoides and Trichuris (T.) trichiura were 0.43% (range: 0-0.87% at the village level), 2.28% (range: 1.69-2.88%), and 0.21% (range: 0-0.42%), respectively. No hookworm infection was found. With regard to multiparasitism, only a 33-year-old female was found to be co-infected with S. japonicum and A. lumbricoides. Multiparasitism was unexpectedly rare in the study area, which contrasts with results from other studies carried out elsewhere in the country. The long-term usage of albendazole for individuals serologically positive for schistosomiasis may be the main reason, but this needs to be confirmed by future studies. PMID:26618320

  20. Water, Sanitation, Hygiene, and Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infection: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Strunz, Eric C.; Addiss, David G.; Stocks, Meredith E.; Ogden, Stephanie; Utzinger, Jürg; Freeman, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Preventive chemotherapy represents a powerful but short-term control strategy for soil-transmitted helminthiasis. Since humans are often re-infected rapidly, long-term solutions require improvements in water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH). The purpose of this study was to quantitatively summarize the relationship between WASH access or practices and soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection. Methods and Findings We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the associations of improved WASH on infection with STH (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, hookworm [Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus], and Strongyloides stercoralis). PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and LILACS were searched from inception to October 28, 2013 with no language restrictions. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they provided an estimate for the effect of WASH access or practices on STH infection. We assessed the quality of published studies with the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. A total of 94 studies met our eligibility criteria; five were randomized controlled trials, whilst most others were cross-sectional studies. We used random-effects meta-analyses and analyzed only adjusted estimates to help account for heterogeneity and potential confounding respectively. Use of treated water was associated with lower odds of STH infection (odds ratio [OR] 0.46, 95% CI 0.36–0.60). Piped water access was associated with lower odds of A. lumbricoides (OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.39–0.41) and T. trichiura infection (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.45–0.72), but not any STH infection (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.28–3.11). Access to sanitation was associated with decreased likelihood of infection with any STH (OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.57–0.76), T. trichiura (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.50–0.74), and A. lumbricoides (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.44–0.88), but not with hookworm infection (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.61–1.06). Wearing shoes was associated with reduced

  1. Cutting Edge: the BTLA-HVEM regulatory pathway interferes with protective immunity to intestinal Helminth infection.

    PubMed

    Breloer, Minka; Hartmann, Wiebke; Blankenhaus, Birte; Eschbach, Marie-Luise; Pfeffer, Klaus; Jacobs, Thomas

    2015-02-15

    Helminths exploit intrinsic regulatory pathways of the mammalian immune system to dampen the immune response directed against them. In this article, we show that infection with the parasitic nematode Strongyloides ratti induced upregulation of the coinhibitory receptor B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) predominantly on CD4(+) T cells but also on a small fraction of innate leukocytes. Deficiency of either BTLA or its ligand herpes virus entry mediator (HVEM) resulted in reduced numbers of parasitic adults in the small intestine and reduced larval output throughout infection. Reduced parasite burden in BTLA- and HVEM-deficient mice was accompanied by accelerated degranulation of mucosal mast cells and increased Ag-specific production of the mast cell-activating cytokine IL-9. Our combined results support a model whereby BTLA on CD4(+) T cells and additional innate leukocytes is triggered by HVEM and delivers negative signals into BTLA(+) cells, thereby interfering with the protective immune response to this intestinal parasite. PMID:25595777

  2. The impact of natural helminth infections and supplementary protein on growth performance of free-range chickens on smallholder farms in El Sauce, Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Skallerup, Per; Luna, Luz A; Johansen, Maria V; Kyvsgaard, Niels C

    2005-07-12

    Three on-farm studies were conducted in Nicaragua during three consecutive years (1999-2001) to assess the impact of natural helminth infections on growth performance of free-range chickens aged 3-4 months. On all participating farms, half of the chickens were treated regularly with anthelmintics (Trifen avicola - a combined formulation of piperazine, phenothiazine and dichlorophen - or albendazole) to express the growth potential of non-infected birds, whereas the other half served as non-treated controls. In 1999, treated chickens had a 39% higher weight gain compared to the control group 6 weeks after the first treatment on 15 farms. In 2000 and 2001, treated chickens had similar weight gain as the control group 10 weeks after the first treatment on 7 farms and 12 farms, respectively. The main reason for the very-different weight gain figures seems to be the weather conditions. In 1999, the study site experienced a rainy season with precipitation far above average, whereas in 2000 and 2001 the rainy seasons had precipitations far below average. Based on these findings, routine use of anthelmintics in the study area would only be recommended in wet years when production losses due to helminth infections seem to be pronounced. In 2001, the study set-up included an assessment of the effect of protein supplementation (soybean) on growth on six farms. Supplemented chickens (treated and non-treated with anthelmintics) had 17% higher weight gain than non-supplemented. Protein supplementation affected neither worm burdens nor faecal egg counts for any of the studied helminths. The post-mortem examinations showed that Trifen reduced burdens of Ascaridia galli, Heterakis gallinarum, and cestodes (efficacies of 100, 100 and 67%, respectively). Albendazole reduced burdens of H. gallinarum (efficacy of 100%). Efficacies against other helminths were difficult to assess due to low worm burdens. Chickens treated with albendazole had lower Ascaridia and Heterakis faecal egg

  3. Parasite community interactions: Trypanosoma cruzi and intestinal helminths infecting wild golden lion tamarins Leontopithecus rosalia and golden-headed lion tamarins L. chrysomelas (Callitrichidae, L., 1766).

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Rafael V; Dietz, James M; Raboy, Becky; Beck, Benjamin; De Vleeschouwer, Kristel; Vleeschouwer, Kristel D; Baker, Andrew; Martins, Andréia; Jansen, Ana Maria

    2007-11-01

    The parasite prevalence and infection intensity in primate wild populations can be affected by many variables linked to host and/or parasite ecology or either to interparasite competition/mutualism. In this study, we tested how host sex, age, and place of origin, as well parasitic concomitant infections affect the structure of golden lion and golden-headed lion tamarins parasite community, considering Trypanosoma cruzi and intestinal helminths infection in these primates. A total of 206 tamarins from two Atlantic Coastal rain forest areas in Brazil were tested during 4 years for prevalence of T. cruzi infection and helminth prevalence. Three intestinal helminth groups showed high prevalences in both tamarin species: Prosthenorchis sp., Spiruridae, and Trichostrongylidae. An association between presence of T. cruzi infection and higher intestinal helminth prevalence was found in both tamarin species. Two explanations for this association seem to be plausible: (1) lower helminth-linked mortality rates in T. cruzi-infected tamarins and (2) lower elimination rates of helminths in such tamarins. A higher frequency of T. cruzi-positive blood cultures was significantly correlated to female tamarins and to the presence of Trichostrongylidae infection. The possibility of an increase in the transmissibility of T. cruzi and the three analyzed helminths in lion tamarins with concomitant infections is discussed. PMID:17676342

  4. microRNAs of parasitic helminths – Identification, characterization and potential as drug targets

    PubMed Central

    Britton, Collette; Winter, Alan D.; Gillan, Victoria; Devaney, Eileen

    2014-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs involved in post-transcriptional gene regulation. They were first identified in the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, where the miRNAs lin-4 and let-7 were shown to be essential for regulating correct developmental progression. The sequence of let-7 was subsequently found to be conserved in higher organisms and changes in expression of let-7, as well as other miRNAs, are associated with certain cancers, indicating important regulatory roles. Some miRNAs have been shown to have essential functions, but the roles of many are currently unknown. With the increasing availability of genome sequence data, miRNAs have now been identified from a number of parasitic helminths, by deep sequencing of small RNA libraries and bioinformatic approaches. While some miRNAs are widely conserved in a range of organisms, others are helminth-specific and many are novel to each species. Here we review the potential roles of miRNAs in regulating helminth development, in interacting with the host environment and in development of drug resistance. Use of fluorescently-labeled small RNAs demonstrates uptake by parasites, at least in vitro. Therefore delivery of miRNA inhibitors or mimics has potential to alter miRNA activity, providing a useful tool for probing the roles of miRNAs and suggesting novel routes to therapeutics for parasite control. PMID:25057458

  5. microRNAs of parasitic helminths - Identification, characterization and potential as drug targets.

    PubMed

    Britton, Collette; Winter, Alan D; Gillan, Victoria; Devaney, Eileen

    2014-08-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs involved in post-transcriptional gene regulation. They were first identified in the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, where the miRNAs lin-4 and let-7 were shown to be essential for regulating correct developmental progression. The sequence of let-7 was subsequently found to be conserved in higher organisms and changes in expression of let-7, as well as other miRNAs, are associated with certain cancers, indicating important regulatory roles. Some miRNAs have been shown to have essential functions, but the roles of many are currently unknown. With the increasing availability of genome sequence data, miRNAs have now been identified from a number of parasitic helminths, by deep sequencing of small RNA libraries and bioinformatic approaches. While some miRNAs are widely conserved in a range of organisms, others are helminth-specific and many are novel to each species. Here we review the potential roles of miRNAs in regulating helminth development, in interacting with the host environment and in development of drug resistance. Use of fluorescently-labeled small RNAs demonstrates uptake by parasites, at least in vitro. Therefore delivery of miRNA inhibitors or mimics has potential to alter miRNA activity, providing a useful tool for probing the roles of miRNAs and suggesting novel routes to therapeutics for parasite control. PMID:25057458

  6. Helminth infection impairs the immunogenicity of a Plasmodium falciparum DNA vaccine, but not irradiated sporozoites, in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of an effective vaccine against malaria remains a priority. However, a significant number of individuals living in tropical areas are also likely to be co-infected with helminths, which are known to adversely affect immune responses to a number of different existing vaccines. Here we com...

  7. Mapping the Risk of Soil-Transmitted Helminthic Infections in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Leonardo, Lydia; Gray, Darren J.; Carabin, Hélène; Halton, Kate; McManus, Donald P.; Williams, Gail M.; Rivera, Pilarita; Saniel, Ofelia; Hernandez, Leda; Yakob, Laith; McGarvey, Stephen T.; Clements, Archie C. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background In order to increase the efficient allocation of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) disease control resources in the Philippines, we aimed to describe for the first time the spatial variation in the prevalence of A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura and hookworm across the country, quantify the association between the physical environment and spatial variation of STH infection and develop predictive risk maps for each infection. Methodology/Principal Findings Data on STH infection from 35,573 individuals across the country were geolocated at the barangay level and included in the analysis. The analysis was stratified geographically in two major regions: 1) Luzon and the Visayas and 2) Mindanao. Bayesian geostatistical models of STH prevalence were developed, including age and sex of individuals and environmental variables (rainfall, land surface temperature and distance to inland water bodies) as predictors, and diagnostic uncertainty was incorporated. The role of environmental variables was different between regions of the Philippines. This analysis revealed that while A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura infections were widespread and highly endemic, hookworm infections were more circumscribed to smaller foci in the Visayas and Mindanao. Conclusions/Significance This analysis revealed significant spatial variation in STH infection prevalence within provinces of the Philippines. This suggests that a spatially targeted approach to STH interventions, including mass drug administration, is warranted. When financially possible, additional STH surveys should be prioritized to high-risk areas identified by our study in Luzon. PMID:26368819

  8. Surfactant Protein-D Is Essential for Immunity to Helminth Infection.

    PubMed

    Thawer, Sumaiyya; Auret, Jennifer; Schnoeller, Corinna; Chetty, Alisha; Smith, Katherine; Darby, Matthew; Roberts, Luke; Mackay, Rosie-Marie; Whitwell, Harry J; Timms, John F; Madsen, Jens; Selkirk, Murray E; Brombacher, Frank; Clark, Howard William; Horsnell, William G C

    2016-02-01

    Pulmonary epithelial cell responses can enhance type 2 immunity and contribute to control of nematode infections. An important epithelial product is the collectin Surfactant Protein D (SP-D). We found that SP-D concentrations increased in the lung following Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infection; this increase was dependent on key components of the type 2 immune response. We carried out loss and gain of function studies of SP-D to establish if SP-D was required for optimal immunity to the parasite. N. brasiliensis infection of SP-D-/- mice resulted in profound impairment of host innate immunity and ability to resolve infection. Raising pulmonary SP-D levels prior to infection enhanced parasite expulsion and type 2 immune responses, including increased numbers of IL-13 producing type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2), elevated expression of markers of alternative activation by alveolar macrophages (alvM) and increased production of the type 2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13. Adoptive transfer of alvM from SP-D-treated parasite infected mice into naïve recipients enhanced immunity to N. brasiliensis. Protection was associated with selective binding by the SP-D carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) to L4 parasites to enhance their killing by alvM. These findings are the first demonstration that the collectin SP-D is an essential component of host innate immunity to helminths. PMID:26900854

  9. Height, Zinc and Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections in Schoolchildren: A Study in Cuba and Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    de Gier, Brechje; Mpabanzi, Liliane; Vereecken, Kim; van der Werff, Suzanne D.; D’Haese, Patrick C.; Fiorentino, Marion; Khov, Kuong; Perignon, Marlene; Chamnan, Chhoun; Berger, Jacques; Parker, Megan E.; Junco Díaz, Raquel; Angel Núñez, Fidel; Rojas Rivero, Lázara; Bonet Gorbea, Mariano; Doak, Colleen M.; Campos Ponce, Maiza; Wieringa, Frank T.; Polman, Katja

    2015-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections and zinc deficiency are often found in low- and middle-income countries and are both known to affect child growth. However, studies combining data on zinc and STH are lacking. In two studies in schoolchildren in Cuba and Cambodia, we collected data on height, STH infection and zinc concentration in either plasma (Cambodia) or hair (Cuba). We analyzed whether STH and/or zinc were associated with height for age z-scores and whether STH and zinc were associated. In Cuba, STH prevalence was 8.4%; these were mainly Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections. In Cambodia, STH prevalence was 16.8%, mostly caused by hookworm. In Cuban children, STH infection had a strong association with height for age (aB-0.438, p = 0.001), while hair zinc was significantly associated with height for age only in STH uninfected children. In Cambodian children, plasma zinc was associated with height for age (aB-0.033, p = 0.029), but STH infection was not. Only in Cambodia, STH infection showed an association with zinc concentration (aB-0.233, p = 0.051). Factors influencing child growth differ between populations and may depend on prevalences of STH species and zinc deficiency. Further research is needed to elucidate these relationships and their underlying mechanisms. PMID:25903454

  10. Height, zinc and soil-transmitted helminth infections in schoolchildren: a study in Cuba and Cambodia.

    PubMed

    de Gier, Brechje; Mpabanzi, Liliane; Vereecken, Kim; van der Werff, Suzanne D; D'Haese, Patrick C; Fiorentino, Marion; Khov, Kuong; Perignon, Marlene; Chamnan, Chhoun; Berger, Jacques; Parker, Megan E; Díaz, Raquel Junco; Núñez, Fidel Angel; Rivero, Lázara Rojas; Gorbea, Mariano Bonet; Doak, Colleen M; Ponce, Maiza Campos; Wieringa, Frank T; Polman, Katja

    2015-04-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections and zinc deficiency are often found in low- and middle-income countries and are both known to affect child growth. However, studies combining data on zinc and STH are lacking. In two studies in schoolchildren in Cuba and Cambodia, we collected data on height, STH infection and zinc concentration in either plasma (Cambodia) or hair (Cuba). We analyzed whether STH and/or zinc were associated with height for age z-scores and whether STH and zinc were associated. In Cuba, STH prevalence was 8.4%; these were mainly Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections. In Cambodia, STH prevalence was 16.8%, mostly caused by hookworm. In Cuban children, STH infection had a strong association with height for age (aB-0.438, p = 0.001), while hair zinc was significantly associated with height for age only in STH uninfected children. In Cambodian children, plasma zinc was associated with height for age (aB-0.033, p = 0.029), but STH infection was not. Only in Cambodia, STH infection showed an association with zinc concentration (aB-0.233, p = 0.051). Factors influencing child growth differ between populations and may depend on prevalences of STH species and zinc deficiency. Further research is needed to elucidate these relationships and their underlying mechanisms. PMID:25903454

  11. Surfactant Protein-D Is Essential for Immunity to Helminth Infection

    PubMed Central

    Schnoeller, Corinna; Chetty, Alisha; Smith, Katherine; Darby, Matthew; Roberts, Luke; Mackay, Rosie-Marie; Whitwell, Harry J.; Timms, John F.; Madsen, Jens; Selkirk, Murray E.; Brombacher, Frank; Clark, Howard William; Horsnell, William G. C.

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary epithelial cell responses can enhance type 2 immunity and contribute to control of nematode infections. An important epithelial product is the collectin Surfactant Protein D (SP-D). We found that SP-D concentrations increased in the lung following Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infection; this increase was dependent on key components of the type 2 immune response. We carried out loss and gain of function studies of SP-D to establish if SP-D was required for optimal immunity to the parasite. N. brasiliensis infection of SP-D-/- mice resulted in profound impairment of host innate immunity and ability to resolve infection. Raising pulmonary SP-D levels prior to infection enhanced parasite expulsion and type 2 immune responses, including increased numbers of IL-13 producing type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2), elevated expression of markers of alternative activation by alveolar macrophages (alvM) and increased production of the type 2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13. Adoptive transfer of alvM from SP-D-treated parasite infected mice into naïve recipients enhanced immunity to N. brasiliensis. Protection was associated with selective binding by the SP-D carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) to L4 parasites to enhance their killing by alvM. These findings are the first demonstration that the collectin SP-D is an essential component of host innate immunity to helminths. PMID:26900854

  12. Associations Between Helminth Infections, Plasmodium falciparum Parasite Carriage and Antibody Responses to Sexual and Asexual Stage Malarial Antigens.

    PubMed

    Ateba-Ngoa, Ulysse; Jones, Sophie; Zinsou, Jeannot Fréjus; Honkpehedji, Josiane; Adegnika, Ayola Akim; Agobe, Jean-Claude Dejon; Massinga-Loembe, Marguerite; Mordmüller, Benjamin; Bousema, Teun; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria

    2016-08-01

    Infections with helminths and Plasmodium spp. overlap in their geographical distribution. It has been postulated that helminth infections may influence malarial transmission by altering Plasmodium falciparum gametocytogenesis. This cross-sectional study assessed the effect of helminth infections on P. falciparum gametocyte carriage and on humoral immune responses to sexual stage antigens in Gabon. Schistosoma haematobium and filarial infections as well as P. falciparum asexual forms and gametocyte carriage were determined. The antibody responses measured were to sexual (Pfs230, Pfs48/45) and asexual P. falciparum antigens (AMA1, MSP1, and GLURP). A total of 287 subjects were included. The prevalence of microscopically detectable P. falciparum asexual parasites was higher in S. haematobium-infected subjects in comparison to their uninfected counterparts (47% versus 26%, P = 0.003), but this was not different when filarial infections were considered. Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte carriage was similar between Schistosoma- or filaria-infected and uninfected subjects. We observed a significant decrease of Pfs48/45 immunoglobulin G titer in S. haematobium-infected subjects (P = 0.037), whereas no difference was seen for Pfs230 antibody titer, nor for antibodies to AMA1, MSP1, or GLURP. Our findings suggest an effect of S. haematobium on antibody responses to some P. falciparum gametocyte antigens that may have consequences for transmission-blocking immunity. PMID:27273645

  13. Risk of soil-transmitted helminth infections on agritourism farms in central and eastern Poland.

    PubMed

    Gawor, Jakub; Borecka, Anna

    2015-12-01

    Agritourism provides ecological tourist services for urban dwellers in rural areas. Agritourism farms offer space and attractive scenery for people seeking to rest in quiet place and wanting healthy, outdoor recreational activities. The high epidemiological standard of agritourism farms is beneficial for the health of the farm owners and the guests. Upgraded level of the farm sanitation, also from parasitological point of view is of great importance, especially that among agritourism farms guests predominate families with small children. A field survey was carried out in 57 farms in central-eastern Poland to evaluate the environmental risk factors for geohelminth infections on agritourism farms offering tourist services for urban dwellers. Samples of soil were collected from 76 sites, i.e. yards surrounding houses, vegetable, fruit and flower gardens, playgrounds and sandpits. In addition, samples were taken from 27 public places of recreation (playgrounds at forest clearing) visited by agritourism farm guests. During visits the farms were inspected and the owners were questioned about their awareness of the threat of parasitic infections. Soil contamination with geohelminth eggs was found in 4 examined farms (7.0%), in one locality on each farm. The eggs of Toxocara spp. and Ascaris spp. were detected in single samples from 3 backyards (6.4%) and one sandpit (10.0%). In the soil samples from places of recreation outside the farms eggs of human or animal helminths were not identified. The results of this study showed that the risk of helminth infections on agritourism farms is low, since geohelminth eggs (1-3 per sample) were detected only in four samples (0.5%) among 760 collected from farms households. The farm owners must be aware of the importance of preventive measures to eliminate the environmental contamination with eggs of zoonotic soiltransmitted helminths. Special attention should be paid to the risk of intestinal parasites of cats of semi domestic

  14. Polyparasite Helminth Infections and Their Association to Anaemia and Undernutrition in Northern Rwanda

    PubMed Central

    Mupfasoni, Denise; Karibushi, Blaise; Koukounari, Artemis; Ruberanziza, Eugene; Kaberuka, Teddy; Kramer, Michael H.; Mukabayire, Odette; Kabera, Michee; Nizeyimana, Vianney; Deville, Marie-Alice; Ruxin, Josh; Webster, Joanne P.; Fenwick, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Background Intestinal schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections constitute major public health problems in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa. In this study we examined the functional significance of such polyparasite infections in anemia and undernutrition in Rwandan individuals. Methods Three polyparasite infection profiles were defined, in addition to a reference profile that consisted of either no infections or low-intensity infection with only one of the focal parasite species. Logistic regression models were applied to data of 1,605 individuals from 6 schools in 2 districts of the Northern Province before chemotherapeutic treatment in order to correctly identify individuals who were at higher odds of being anaemic and/or undernourished. Findings Stunted relative to nonstunted, and males compared to females, were found to be at higher odds of being anaemic independently of polyparasite infection profile. The odds of being wasted were 2-fold greater for children with concurrent infection of at least 2 parasites at M+ intensity compared to those children with the reference profile. Males compared to females and anaemic compared to nonanaemic children were significantly more likely to be stunted. None of the three polyparasite infection profiles were found to have significant effects on stunting. Conclusion The present data suggest that the levels of polyparasitism, and infection intensities in the Rwandan individuals examined here may be lower as compared to other recent similar epidemiological studies in different regions across sub-Saharan Africa. Neither the odds of anaemia nor the odds of stunting were found to be significantly different in the three-polyparasite infection profiles. However, the odds of wasting were higher in those children with at least two parasites at M+ intensity compared to those children with the reference profile. Nevertheless, despite the low morbidity levels indicated in the population under study here, we

  15. Helminth communities in murid rodents from southern and northern localities in Lao PDR: the role of habitat and season.

    PubMed

    Pakdeenarong, N; Siribat, P; Chaisiri, K; Douangboupha, B; Ribas, A; Chaval, Y; Herbreteau, V; Morand, S

    2014-09-01

    The helminth communities of wild murid rodents were investigated in Luang Prabang and Champasak province, Lao PDR. Thirteen species of rodents (404 individuals) were infected by 19 species of parasites (2 trematode, 3 cestode, 14 nematode species). Four of the recorded helminth species (Echinostoma malayanum, Raillietina sp., Hymenolepis diminuta and H. nana) are known to cause potential zoonotic helminthiases of medical importance in the South-East Asian region. Individual helminth infection was significantly higher in the wet season. Habitat significantly influenced individual helminth species richness and individual helminth abudance, with a decrease of individual helminth species richness and individual helminth abundance from forest habitat to agricultural and human settlement habitats. The reduction of helminth diversity and abundance is discussed in relation to the ongoing increase of human influence on habitats in Lao PDR. PMID:23552185

  16. A central role for hepatic conventional dendritic cells in supporting Th2 responses during helminth infection

    PubMed Central

    Lundie, Rachel J; Webb, Lauren M; Marley, Angela K; Phythian-Adams, Alexander T; Cook, Peter C; Jackson-Jones, Lucy H; Brown, Sheila; Maizels, Rick M; Boon, Louis; O'Keeffe, Meredith; MacDonald, Andrew S

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are the key initiators of T-helper (Th) 2 immune responses against the parasitic helminth Schistosoma mansoni. Although the liver is one of the main sites of antigen deposition during infection with this parasite, it is not yet clear how distinct DC subtypes in this tissue respond to S. mansoni antigens in vivo, or how the liver microenvironment might influence DC function during establishment of the Th2 response. In this study, we show that hepatic DC subsets undergo distinct activation processes in vivo following murine infection with S. mansoni. Conventional DCs (cDCs) from schistosome-infected mice upregulated expression of the costimulatory molecule CD40 and were capable of priming naive CD4+ T cells, whereas plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) upregulated expression of MHC class II, CD86 and CD40 but were unable to support the expansion of either naive or effector/memory CD4+ T cells. Importantly, in vivo depletion of pDCs revealed that this subset was dispensable for either maintenance or regulation of the hepatic Th2 effector response during acute S. mansoni infection. Our data provides strong evidence that S. mansoni infection favors the establishment of an immunogenic, rather than tolerogenic, liver microenvironment that conditions cDCs to initiate and maintain Th2 immunity in the context of ongoing antigen exposure. PMID:26657145

  17. Commensal-pathogen interactions in the intestinal tract: lactobacilli promote infection with, and are promoted by, helminth parasites.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Lisa A; Smith, Katherine A; Filbey, Kara J; Harcus, Yvonne; Hewitson, James P; Redpath, Stephen A; Valdez, Yanet; Yebra, María J; Finlay, B Brett; Maizels, Rick M

    2014-07-01

    The intestinal microbiota are pivotal in determining the developmental, metabolic and immunological status of the mammalian host. However, the intestinal tract may also accommodate pathogenic organisms, including helminth parasites which are highly prevalent in most tropical countries. Both microbes and helminths must evade or manipulate the host immune system to reside in the intestinal environment, yet whether they influence each other's persistence in the host remains unknown. We now show that abundance of Lactobacillus bacteria correlates positively with infection with the mouse intestinal nematode parasite, Heligmosomoides polygyrus, as well as with heightened regulatory T cell (Treg) and Th17 responses. Moreover, H. polygyrus raises Lactobacillus species abundance in the duodenum of C57BL/6 mice, which are highly susceptible to H. polygyrus infection, but not in BALB/c mice, which are relatively resistant. Sequencing of samples at the bacterial gyrB locus identified the principal Lactobacillus species as L. taiwanensis, a previously characterized rodent commensal. Experimental administration of L. taiwanensis to BALB/c mice elevates regulatory T cell frequencies and results in greater helminth establishment, demonstrating a causal relationship in which commensal bacteria promote infection with an intestinal parasite and implicating a bacterially-induced expansion of Tregs as a mechanism of greater helminth susceptibility. The discovery of this tripartite interaction between host, bacteria and parasite has important implications for both antibiotic and anthelmintic use in endemic human populations. PMID:25144609

  18. The global limits and population at risk of soil-transmitted helminth infections in 2010

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Understanding the global limits of transmission of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) species is essential for quantifying the population at-risk and the burden of disease. This paper aims to define these limits on the basis of environmental and socioeconomic factors, and additionally seeks to investigate the effects of urbanisation and economic development on STH transmission, and estimate numbers at-risk of infection with Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm in 2010. Methods A total of 4,840 geo-referenced estimates of infection prevalence were abstracted from the Global Atlas of Helminth Infection and related to a range of environmental factors to delineate the biological limits of transmission. The relationship between STH transmission and urbanisation and economic development was investigated using high resolution population surfaces and country-level socioeconomic indicators, respectively. Based on the identified limits, the global population at risk of STH transmission in 2010 was estimated. Results High and low land surface temperature and extremely arid environments were found to limit STH transmission, with differential limits identified for each species. There was evidence that the prevalence of A. lumbricoides and of T. trichiura infection was statistically greater in peri-urban areas compared to urban and rural areas, whilst the prevalence of hookworm was highest in rural areas. At national levels, no clear socioeconomic correlates of transmission were identified, with the exception that little or no infection was observed for countries with a per capita gross domestic product greater than US$ 20,000. Globally in 2010, an estimated 5.3 billion people, including 1.0 billion school-aged children, lived in areas stable for transmission of at least one STH species, with 69% of these individuals living in Asia. A further 143 million (31.1 million school-aged children) lived in areas of unstable transmission for at least one STH

  19. A Scoping Review and Prevalence Analysis of Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections in Honduras

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Ana Lourdes; Gabrie, José Antonio; Rueda, María Mercedes; Mejia, Rosa Elena; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Canales, Maritza

    2014-01-01

    Background Honduras is endemic for soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections, but critical information gaps still remain on the prevalence and intensity of these infections as well as on their spatial distribution at subnational levels. Objectives Firstly, to review the research activity on STH infections in Honduras and secondly, to carry out a national prevalence analysis and map the geographical distribution of these infections in children. Methods A systematic search was conducted of the published and grey literature to identify scientific work on the impact and prevalence of STH infections done between May 1930 and June 30, 2012. International databases and Honduran journals were searched. Grey literature was gleaned from local libraries and key informants. Select studies conducted between 2001 and 2012 were used to produce prevalence maps and to investigate association between STH prevalence and socio-economic and environmental factors. Results Of 257 identified studies, 211 (21.4% peer-reviewed) were retained for analysis and categorized as clinical research (10.9%), treatment efficacy studies (8.1%) or epidemiological studies (81%). Prevalence analysis and geographical mapping included 36 epidemiological studies from Honduras's 18 departments and 23% of its municipalities. Overall STH prevalence was >50% in 40.6% of municipalities. Prevalences above 20% for each trichuriasis, ascariasis, and hookworm infection were found in 68%, 47.8%, and 7.2% of studied municipalities, respectively. Municipalities with lower human development index, less access to of potable water, and with higher annual precipitation showed higher STH prevalences. Conclusions This is the first study to provide a comprehensive historic review of STH research activity and prevalence in Honduras, revealing important knowledge gaps related to infection risk factors, disease burden, and anti-parasitic drug efficacy, among others. Our decade-long prevalence analysis reveals geographical

  20. The nutritional impacts of soil-transmitted helminths infections among Orang Asli schoolchildren in rural Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Soil-transmitted helminths (STH) infections, anaemia and malnutrition are major public health problems in school-age children in developing countries. This study was conducted on 289 Orang Asli (aboriginal) schoolchildren in order to assess the current prevalence and predictors of anaemia and malnutrition, as well as the nutritional impacts of STH infections among these children. Methods A cross-sectional study was combined with a longitudinal follow-up three months after treatment with anthelminthic drugs. Blood samples were collected from the children to measure haemoglobin (Hb) level. Anthropometric and socioeconomic data were also collected and the children were screened for STH. Results The baseline findings revealed that the prevalence of anaemia, significant stunting, underweight and wasting among the children were 41.0%, 28.0%, 29.2% and 12.5%, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of trichuriasis, ascariasis and hookworm infections were 84.6%, 47.6% and 3.9%, respectively. Haemoglobin level was significantly lower among the moderate-to-heavy infected children compared to the negative-to-light infected children. Age <10years and moderate-to-heavy ascariasis were the predictors of anaemia. Stunting was associated with gender, age, moderate-to-heavy ascariasis and trichuriasis. Three months post-treatment assessment showed that the moderate-to-heavy infected children gained significant increment in their mean Hb level compared to the negative-to-light infected children (0.44 g/dL compared to 0.08 g/dL). However, no difference was found in the mean increments in growth indices between the groups. Conclusion STH infections, anaemia and malnutrition are still prevalent and a matter of public health concern in Orang Asli communities in Malaysia. Sustainable deworming programme at school and community levels among these populations will help to improve their health and nutritional status. PMID:22704549

  1. Infection patterns of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) by two helminth species with contrasting life styles.

    PubMed

    Akoll, Peter; Konecny, Robert; Mwanja, Wilson W; Schiemer, Fritz

    2012-04-01

    The larval stages of Bolbophorus sp. (digenean) and Amirthalingamia macracantha (cestode) are frequently reported in Oreochromis niloticus in Uganda. Little, however, is known about their infection patterns. This study examined the influence of habitat type, host size, and sex and weather patterns on the parasite populations in Uganda. A total of 650 fish were collected between January and November 2008 from a reservoir, cages, fishponds and a stream. The prevalence and intensity of A. macracantha and the prevalence of Bolbophorus sp. differed across the water bodies reflecting the effect of habitat characteristics on parasite transmission. Host sex did not significantly influence the infection patterns, although female fish were slightly more parasitized than male and sexually undifferentiated individuals. The fish size was positively correlated with helminth infections demonstrating accumulation and prolonged exposure of larger (older) fish to the parasites. The metacercariae population did not vary significantly across months, while monthly A. macracantha infection fluctuated markedly. With regard to rain seasons, higher prevalence and intensity of A. macracantha were recorded in wet season. For Bolbophorus sp., only the prevalence varied with seasons, with higher prevalence recorded in the dry season than in wet season. Generally, Bolbophorus sp. responded weakly to changes in water body, host sex and size and weather patterns. Rainfall appears to be an essential cue for coracidia hatching. PMID:21972071

  2. Low Efficacy of Single-Dose Albendazole and Mebendazole against Hookworm and Effect on Concomitant Helminth Infection in Lao PDR

    PubMed Central

    Soukhathammavong, Phonepasong Ayé; Sayasone, Somphou; Phongluxa, Khampheng; Xayaseng, Vilavanh; Utzinger, Jürg; Vounatsou, Penelope; Hatz, Christoph; Akkhavong, Kongsap; Keiser, Jennifer; Odermatt, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Background Albendazole and mebendazole are increasingly deployed for preventive chemotherapy targeting soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections. We assessed the efficacy of single oral doses of albendazole (400 mg) and mebendazole (500 mg) for the treatment of hookworm infection in school-aged children in Lao PDR. Since Opisthorchis viverrini is co-endemic in our study setting, the effect of the two drugs could also be determined against this liver fluke. Methodology We conducted a randomized, open-label, two-arm trial. In total, 200 children infected with hookworm (determined by quadruplicate Kato-Katz thick smears derived from two stool samples) were randomly assigned to albendazole (n = 100) and mebendazole (n = 100). Cure rate (CR; percentage of children who became egg-negative after treatment), and egg reduction rate (ERR; reduction in the geometric mean fecal egg count at treatment follow-up compared to baseline) at 21–23 days posttreatment were used as primary outcome measures. Adverse events were monitored 3 hours post treatment. Principal Findings Single-dose albendazole and mebendazole resulted in CRs of 36.0% and 17.6% (odds ratio: 0.4; 95% confidence interval: 0.2–0.8; P = 0.01), and ERRs of 86.7% and 76.3%, respectively. In children co-infected with O. viverrini, albendazole and mebendazole showed low CRs (33.3% and 24.2%, respectively) and moderate ERRs (82.1% and 78.2%, respectively). Conclusions/Significance Both albendazole and mebendazole showed disappointing CRs against hookworm, but albendazole cured infection and reduced intensity of infection with a higher efficacy than mebendazole. Single-dose administrations showed an effect against O. viverrini, and hence it will be interesting to monitor potential ancillary benefits of a preventive chemotherapy strategy that targets STHs in areas where opisthorchiasis is co-endemic. Clinical Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN29126001 PMID:22235353

  3. Infection and Co-infection with Helminths and Plasmodium among School Children in Côte d’Ivoire: Results from a National Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Yapi, Richard B.; Hürlimann, Eveline; Houngbedji, Clarisse A.; Ndri, Prisca B.; Silué, Kigbafori D.; Soro, Gotianwa; Kouamé, Ferdinand N.; Vounatsou, Penelope; Fürst, Thomas; N’Goran, Eliézer K.; Utzinger, Jürg; Raso, Giovanna

    2014-01-01

    Background Helminth infection and malaria remain major causes of ill-health in the tropics and subtropics. There are several shared risk factors (e.g., poverty), and hence, helminth infection and malaria overlap geographically and temporally. However, the extent and consequences of helminth-Plasmodium co-infection at different spatial scales are poorly understood. Methodology This study was conducted in 92 schools across Côte d’Ivoire during the dry season, from November 2011 to February 2012. School children provided blood samples for detection of Plasmodium infection, stool samples for diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) and Schistosoma mansoni infections, and urine samples for appraisal of Schistosoma haematobium infection. A questionnaire was administered to obtain demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral data. Multinomial regression models were utilized to determine risk factors for STH-Plasmodium and Schistosoma-Plasmodium co-infection. Principal Findings Complete parasitological and questionnaire data were available for 5,104 children aged 5-16 years. 26.2% of the children were infected with any helminth species, whilst the prevalence of Plasmodium infection was 63.3%. STH-Plasmodium co-infection was detected in 13.5% and Schistosoma-Plasmodium in 5.6% of the children. Multinomial regression analysis revealed that boys, children aged 10 years and above, and activities involving close contact to water were significantly and positively associated with STH-Plasmodium co-infection. Boys, wells as source of drinking water, and water contact were significantly and positively associated with Schistosoma-Plasmodium co-infection. Access to latrines, deworming, higher socioeconomic status, and living in urban settings were negatively associated with STH-Plasmodium co-infection; whilst use of deworming drugs and access to modern latrines were negatively associated with Schistosoma-Plasmodium co-infection. Conclusions/Significance More than 60% of the

  4. The Role of Helminth Infection and Environment in the Development of Allergy: A Prospective Study of Newly-Arrived Ethiopian Immigrants in Israel

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Miguel; Greenberg, Zalman; Boaz, Mona; Handzel, Zeev T.; Meshesha, Mesfin K.; Bentwich, Zvi

    2016-01-01

    Helminth infection may be protective against allergy and account for the low prevalence of allergy in developing countries. We studied prospectively the prevalence of allergy in Ethiopian immigrants with heavy helminth infection on arrival in Israel, and again after a year of adjustment to an urban industrialized setting, to explore the roles of helminth infection, changed environment and background immunity on the manifestations of allergy. 126 newly arrived Ethiopian immigrants were studied at baseline and 115 after a year of follow up in Israel. Allergic symptoms, Skin prick tests (SPT), Tuberculin (PPD) skin tests, stool and blood samples were obtained for determining parasites, blood IgE and eosinophil levels, respectively. Anti-helminthic therapy was offered to the entire infected individuals, but only 50/108 (46.3%) took the medication. At baseline, there was a significant negative association between helminth infection and allergy, 4/18 (22.2%) of uninfected participants were allergic compared to 7/108 (6.5%) of helminth-infected participants (p = 0.028), as well as between helminth infection and SPT reactivity, 12/18 (66.6%) of uninfected participants compared to 43/108 (39.8%) of helminth-infected participants (p = 0.033). After one year, a significant general increase in allergy and SPT was observed. While only 11/126 (8.7%) were allergic at baseline, 30/115 (26.1%) became allergic at follow-up (p<0.0001), and while 55/126 (43.7%) were SPT+ at baseline, 79/115 (68.7%) became SPT+ at follow-up (p<0.001). A twofold increase in allergen sensitization was also observed after one year in Israel, particularly for dust mites, grasses and olive tree (p<0.001). These results show that: a) Helminth infection is significantly associated with low allergy and low SPT reactivity; b) One year after immigration to Israel, allergy and SPT reactivity increased significantly in all immigrants; c) Higher increases in positive SPT and allergy were observed after a year in

  5. The Role of Helminth Infection and Environment in the Development of Allergy: A Prospective Study of Newly-Arrived Ethiopian Immigrants in Israel.

    PubMed

    Stein, Miguel; Greenberg, Zalman; Boaz, Mona; Handzel, Zeev T; Meshesha, Mesfin K; Bentwich, Zvi

    2016-01-01

    Helminth infection may be protective against allergy and account for the low prevalence of allergy in developing countries. We studied prospectively the prevalence of allergy in Ethiopian immigrants with heavy helminth infection on arrival in Israel, and again after a year of adjustment to an urban industrialized setting, to explore the roles of helminth infection, changed environment and background immunity on the manifestations of allergy. 126 newly arrived Ethiopian immigrants were studied at baseline and 115 after a year of follow up in Israel. Allergic symptoms, Skin prick tests (SPT), Tuberculin (PPD) skin tests, stool and blood samples were obtained for determining parasites, blood IgE and eosinophil levels, respectively. Anti-helminthic therapy was offered to the entire infected individuals, but only 50/108 (46.3%) took the medication. At baseline, there was a significant negative association between helminth infection and allergy, 4/18 (22.2%) of uninfected participants were allergic compared to 7/108 (6.5%) of helminth-infected participants (p = 0.028), as well as between helminth infection and SPT reactivity, 12/18 (66.6%) of uninfected participants compared to 43/108 (39.8%) of helminth-infected participants (p = 0.033). After one year, a significant general increase in allergy and SPT was observed. While only 11/126 (8.7%) were allergic at baseline, 30/115 (26.1%) became allergic at follow-up (p<0.0001), and while 55/126 (43.7%) were SPT+ at baseline, 79/115 (68.7%) became SPT+ at follow-up (p<0.001). A twofold increase in allergen sensitization was also observed after one year in Israel, particularly for dust mites, grasses and olive tree (p<0.001). These results show that: a) Helminth infection is significantly associated with low allergy and low SPT reactivity; b) One year after immigration to Israel, allergy and SPT reactivity increased significantly in all immigrants; c) Higher increases in positive SPT and allergy were observed after a year in

  6. Critical role of fatty acid metabolism in ILC2-mediated barrier protection during malnutrition and helminth infection.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Christoph; Harrison, Oliver J; Schmitt, Vanessa; Pelletier, Martin; Spencer, Sean P; Urban, Joseph F; Ploch, Michelle; Ramalingam, Thirumalai R; Siegel, Richard M; Belkaid, Yasmine

    2016-07-25

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILC) play an important role in many immune processes, including control of infections, inflammation, and tissue repair. To date, little is known about the metabolism of ILC and whether these cells can metabolically adapt in response to environmental signals. Here we show that type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2), important mediators of barrier immunity, predominantly depend on fatty acid (FA) metabolism during helminth infection. Further, in situations where an essential nutrient, such as vitamin A, is limited, ILC2 sustain their function and selectively maintain interleukin 13 (IL-13) production via increased acquisition and utilization of FA. Together, these results reveal that ILC2 preferentially use FAs to maintain their function in the context of helminth infection or malnutrition and propose that enhanced FA usage and FA-dependent IL-13 production by ILC2 could represent a host adaptation to maintain barrier immunity under dietary restriction. PMID:27432938

  7. Interactions between multiple helminths and the gut microbiota in wild rodents

    PubMed Central

    Kreisinger, Jakub; Bastien, Géraldine; Hauffe, Heidi C; Marchesi, Julian; Perkins, Sarah E

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbiota is vital to host health and, as such, it is important to elucidate the mechanisms altering its composition and diversity. Intestinal helminths are host immunomodulators and have evolved both temporally and spatially in close association with the gut microbiota, resulting in potential mechanistic interplay. Host–helminth and host–microbiota interactions are comparatively well-examined, unlike microbiota–helminth relationships, which typically focus on experimental infection with a single helminth species in laboratory animals. Here, in addition to a review of the literature on helminth–microbiota interactions, we examined empirically the association between microbiota diversity and composition and natural infection of multiple helminth species in wild mice (Apodemus flavicollis), using 16S rRNA gene catalogues (metataxonomics). In general, helminth presence is linked with high microbiota diversity, which may confer health benefits to the host. Within our wild rodent system variation in the composition and abundance of gut microbial taxa associated with helminths was specific to each helminth species and occurred both up- and downstream of a given helminth's niche (gut position). The most pronounced helminth–microbiota association was between the presence of tapeworms in the small intestine and increased S24–7 (Bacteroidetes) family in the stomach. Helminths clearly have the potential to alter gut homeostasis. Free-living rodents with a diverse helminth community offer a useful model system that enables both correlative (this study) and manipulative inference to elucidate helminth–microbiota interactions. PMID:26150661

  8. Helminths of the ocelot from southern Texas.

    PubMed

    Pence, Danny B; Tewes, Michael E; Laack, Linda L

    2003-07-01

    In the USA, the ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) is a highly endangered felid found only in a few remaining vestiges of native thornshrub brushland in the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) of extreme southern Texas. From 1987-1998, carcasses of 15 adult ocelots that died of vehicular accidents or natural causes were examined for helminths. All cats had 1-8 (mean = 3) helminth species. All were infected with 1-101 (mean +/- SE = 32 +/- 7) Toxascaris leonina. Other helminths from these ocelots were Alaria marcianae, Brachylaima sp., Mesocestoides lineatus, Taenia rileyi, Oncicola canis, Dirofilaria immitis, Physaloptera rara, Ancylostoma tubaeformae, Cylicospirura chevreuxi, Vogeloides felis, and Metathelazia californica. Additionally, two cats had scarring of the aorta with lesions typical of those caused by Spriocerca lupi, although larval nematodes were not seen. A clinal variation in size of nearly three orders of magnitude was noted in the diplostomatid trematodes in the small intestine of one adult male ocelot. Despite the differences in size, all specimens appeared morphologically identical and were regarded as A. marcianae. Helminth prevalences and abundances, including those of potentially pathogenic species like D. immitis, were low. Although a single heartworm infection may have contributed to the death of one ocelot, helminth infections in general seemed to be of no great consequence to this endangered ocelot population. The helminth fauna of ocelots in the LRGV is reflective of that from wild felids in general; all have been reported previously from the bobcat (Lynx rufus) and mountain lion (Puma concolor) elsewhere in Texas. PMID:14567231

  9. Mast cells recruited to mesenteric lymph nodes during helminth infection remain hypogranular and produce IL-4 and IL-6

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Anne Y.; Dwyer, Dan F.; Jones, Tatiana G.; Bankova, Lora G.; Shen, Shiliang; Katz, Howard R.; Austen, K. Frank; Gurish, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    Mast cells (MC) and basophils (Ba) share expression of the high affinity receptor for IgE (FcεRI) but can be distinguished by their divergent expression of KIT and CD49b. In BALB/c mice, MC lineage cells expressing high levels of FcεRI by flow cytometry were seen only in bone marrow (BM) while those expressing intermediate levels of FcεRI were present in BM and spleen of naïve mice and in mesenteric lymph nodes (mLN) of Trichinella spiralis-infected mice. These FcεRI+KIT+CD49b− cells had a membrane phenotype like intraperitoneal connective tissue-type MC, but were smaller and hypogranular by flow cytometry forward and side scatter profiles, respectively. Consistent with this, they lacked the prominent secretory granules identified by histochemistry and immunodetection for the MC-specific granule proteases that are readily seen in mature jejunal mucosal MC (MMC) that also are induced by the infection and present at the same time. The concentration of these MC lineage cells in mLN determined by flow cytometry was comparable to that of MC progenitors (MCp) measured by limiting dilution and clonal expansion with maturation. We observed upregulation of IL-4 mRNA levels by MCp in mLN and spleens of helminth-infected 4get mice, and demonstrated by intracellular cytokine staining production of IL-4 and IL-6 by the mLN MCp in helminth-infected mice. Furthermore, treatment of helminth-infected mice with anti-FcεRI mAb, a protocol known to deplete Ba, also depleted mLN MCp. Thus, this study identifies a hypogranular subset of MCp recruited to mLN by helminth infection that may be an important unrecognized source of cytokines. PMID:23319739

  10. Effect of Poor Access to Water and Sanitation As Risk Factors for Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infection: Selectiveness by the Infective Route

    PubMed Central

    Echazú, Adriana; Bonanno, Daniela; Juarez, Marisa; Cajal, Silvana P.; Heredia, Viviana; Caropresi, Silvia; Cimino, Ruben O.; Caro, Nicolas; Vargas, Paola A.; Paredes, Gladys; Krolewiecki, Alejandro J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are a public health problem in resource-limited settings worldwide. Chronic STH infection impairs optimum learning and productivity, contributing to the perpetuation of the poverty-disease cycle. Regular massive drug administration (MDA) is the cardinal recommendation for its control; along with water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) interventions. The impact of joint WASH interventions on STH infections has been reported; studies on the independent effect of WASH components are needed to contribute with the improvement of current recommendations for the control of STH. The aim of this study is to assess the association of lacking access to water and sanitation with STH infections, taking into account the differences in route of infection among species and the availability of adequate water and sanitation at home. Methods and Findings Cross-sectional study, conducted in Salta province, Argentina. During a deworming program that enrolled 6957 individuals; 771 were randomly selected for stool/serum sampling for parasitological and serological diagnosis of STH. Bivariate stratified analysis was performed to explore significant correlations between risk factors and STH infections grouped by mechanism of entry as skin-penetrators (hookworms and Strongyloides stercoralis) vs. orally-ingested (Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura). After controlling for potential confounders, unimproved sanitation was significantly associated with increased odds of infection of skin-penetrators (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.9; 95% CI: 2.6–5.9). Unimproved drinking water was significantly associated with increased odds of infection of orally-ingested (aOR = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.3–3.7). Conclusions Lack of safe water and proper sanitation pose a risk of STH infections that is distinct according to the route of entry to the human host used by each of the STH species. Interventions aimed to improve water and sanitation access should

  11. Prevalence and risk factors of intestinal protozoan and helminth infections among pulmonary tuberculosis patients without HIV infection in a rural county in P. R. China.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin-Xu; Chen, Jia-Xu; Wang, Li-Xia; Tian, Li-Guang; Zhang, Yu-Ping; Dong, Shuang-Pin; Hu, Xue-Guang; Liu, Jian; Wang, Feng-Feng; Wang, Yue; Yin, Xiao-Mei; He, Li-Jun; Yan, Qiu-Ye; Zhang, Hong-Wei; Xu, Bian-Li; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2015-09-01

    Although co-infection of tuberculosis (TB) and intestinal parasites, including protozoa and helminths, in humans has been widely studied globally, very little of this phenomenon is known in China. Therefore, a cross-sectional study was conducted in a rural county of China to investigate such co-infections. Patients with pulmonary TB (PTB) undergoing anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis (anti-MTB) treatment were surveyed by questionnaires, and their feces and blood specimens were collected for detection of intestinal protozoa and helminths, routine blood examination and HIV detection. The χ(2) test and multivariate logistic regression model were used to identify risk factors. A total of 369 patients with PTB were included and all of them were HIV negative. Overall, only 7.3% of participants were infected with intestinal protozoa, among which prevalence of Blastocystis hominis, Entamoeba spp. and Trichomonas hominis were 6.0%, 1.1% and 0.3%, respectively; 7.0% were infected with intestinal helminths, among which prevalence of hookworm, Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides and Clonorchis sinensis were 4.3%, 1.9%, 0.5% and 0.3%, respectively; and 0.5% were simultaneously infected with intestinal protozoa and helminths. Among patients with PTB, body mass index (BMI)≤18 (OR=3.30, 95% CI=1.44-7.54) and raised poultry or livestock (e.g., chicken, duck, pig) (OR=3.96, 95% CI=1.32-11.89) were significantly associated with harboring intestinal protozoan infection, while BMI≤18 (OR=3.32, 95% CI=1.39-7.91), anemia (OR=3.40, 95% CI=1.44-8.02) and laboring barefoot in farmlands (OR=4.54, 95% CI=1.88-10.92) were significantly associated with having intestinal helminth infection. Additionally, there was no significant relationship between duration of anti-MTB treatment and infection rates of intestinal parasites including protozoa and helminths. Therefore, preventing malnutrition, avoiding unprotected contact with reservoirs of protozoa, and improving health education for good

  12. Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infection and Nutritional Status Among Urban Slum Children in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Suchdev, Parminder S.; Davis, Stephanie M.; Bartoces, Monina; Ruth, Laird J.; Worrell, Caitlin M.; Kanyi, Henry; Odero, Kennedy; Wiegand, Ryan E.; Njenga, Sammy M.; Montgomery, Joel M.; Fox, LeAnne M.

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the nutritional impact of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of 205 pre-school (PSC) and 487 school-aged children (SAC) randomly selected from the surveillance registry of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention of the Kibera slum in Kenya. Hemoglobin, iron deficiency (ID), vitamin A deficiency (VAD), inflammation, malaria, anthropometry, and STH ova were measured. Poisson regression models evaluated associations between STH and malnutrition outcomes and controlled for confounders. Approximately 40% of PSC and SAC had STH infection, primarily Ascaris and Trichuris; 2.9% of PSC and 1.1% of SAC had high-intensity infection. Malnutrition prevalence among PSC and SAC was anemia (38.3% and 14.0%, respectively), ID (23.0% and 5.0%, respectively), VAD (16.9% and 4.5%, respectively), and stunting (29.7% and 16.9%, respectively). In multivariate analysis, STH in PSC was associated with VAD (prevalence ratio [PR] = 2.2, 95% confidence interval = 1.1–4.6) and ID (PR = 3.3, 95% confidence interval = 1.6–6.6) but not anemia or stunting. No associations were significant in SAC. Integrated deworming and micronutrient supplementation strategies should be evaluated in this population. PMID:24343884

  13. Soil-transmitted helminth infection and nutritional status among urban slum children in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Suchdev, Parminder S; Davis, Stephanie M; Bartoces, Monina; Ruth, Laird J; Worrell, Caitlin M; Kanyi, Henry; Odero, Kennedy; Wiegand, Ryan E; Njenga, Sammy M; Montgomery, Joel M; Fox, LeAnne M

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the nutritional impact of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of 205 pre-school (PSC) and 487 school-aged children (SAC) randomly selected from the surveillance registry of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention of the Kibera slum in Kenya. Hemoglobin, iron deficiency (ID), vitamin A deficiency (VAD), inflammation, malaria, anthropometry, and STH ova were measured. Poisson regression models evaluated associations between STH and malnutrition outcomes and controlled for confounders. Approximately 40% of PSC and SAC had STH infection, primarily Ascaris and Trichuris; 2.9% of PSC and 1.1% of SAC had high-intensity infection. Malnutrition prevalence among PSC and SAC was anemia (38.3% and 14.0%, respectively), ID (23.0% and 5.0%, respectively), VAD (16.9% and 4.5%, respectively), and stunting (29.7% and 16.9%, respectively). In multivariate analysis, STH in PSC was associated with VAD (prevalence ratio [PR] = 2.2, 95% confidence interval = 1.1-4.6) and ID (PR = 3.3, 95% confidence interval = 1.6-6.6) but not anemia or stunting. No associations were significant in SAC. Integrated deworming and micronutrient supplementation strategies should be evaluated in this population. PMID:24343884

  14. A survey of intestinal helminths of well-cared-for dogs in Jamaica, and their potential public health significance.

    PubMed

    Robinson, R D; Thompson, D L; Lindo, J F

    1989-03-01

    This study investigates the level of helminthic infestation in better-cared-for dogs in a middle-class community in suburban Kingston. A canine zoographic study was conducted, and fresh faecal deposits were collected and analysed for helminth life-cycle stages. The survey indicated that 73% (n = 93) of households in the study area owned one dog or more (mean = 1.4). Resident's attitudes towards canine management suggested that the dog population was, in general, restricted to the residential estate, and most owners claimed to have dewormed their dogs at least as young animals. Of 141 faecal specimens, 58% contained eggs or larvae of one or more of eight helminths: Uncinaria stenocephala (26%), Ancylostoma sp. (23%), Trichuris vulpis (9%), Toxocara canis (8%), Spirocerca lupi (6%), Strongyloides sp. (6%), Apophallus sp. (4%) and taeniids (1%). There was a high level of multiple infection in the host animals, with approximately one fifth of the infected samples containing three or more helminth types. Infection intensity was apparently low, but some dogs harboured heavy worm loads. PMID:2723384

  15. The Interaction of Deworming, Improved Sanitation, and Household Flooring with Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infection in Rural Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Benjamin-Chung, Jade; Nazneen, Arifa; Halder, Amal K.; Haque, Rashidul; Siddique, Abdullah; Uddin, Muhammed Salah; Koporc, Kim; Arnold, Benjamin F.; Hubbard, Alan E.; Unicomb, Leanne; Luby, Stephen P.; Addiss, David G.; Colford, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The combination of deworming and improved sanitation or hygiene may result in greater reductions in soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection than any single intervention on its own. We measured STH prevalence in rural Bangladesh and assessed potential interactions among deworming, hygienic latrines, and household finished floors. Methodology We conducted a cross-sectional survey (n = 1,630) in 100 villages in rural Bangladesh to measure three exposures: self-reported deworming consumption in the past 6 months, access to a hygienic latrine, and household flooring material. We collected stool samples from children 1–4 years, 5–12 years, and women 15–49 years. We performed mini-FLOTAC on preserved stool samples to detect Ascaris lumbricoides, Enterobius vermicularis, hookworm, and Trichuris trichiura ova. Approximately one-third (32%) of all individuals and 40% of school-aged children had an STH infection. Less than 2% of the sample had moderate/heavy intensity infections. Deworming was associated with lower Ascaris prevalence (adjusted prevalence ratio (PR) = 0.53; 95% CI 0.40, 0.71), but there was no significant association with hookworm (PR = 0.93, 95% CI 0.60, 1.44) or Trichuris (PR = 0.90, 95% CI 0.74, 1.08). PRs for hygienic latrine access were 0.91 (95% CI 0.67,1.24), 0.73 (95% CI 0.43,1.24), and 1.03 (95% CI 0.84,1.27) for Ascaris, hookworm, and Trichuris, respectively. Finished floors were associated with lower Ascaris prevalence (PR = 0.56, 95% CI 0.32, 0.97) but not associated with hookworm (PR = 0.48 95% CI 0.16,1.45) or Trichuris (PR = 0.98, 95% CI 0.72,1.33). Across helminths and combinations of exposures, adjusted prevalence ratios for joint exposures were consistently more protective than those for individual exposures. Conclusions We found moderate STH prevalence in rural Bangladesh among children and women of childbearing age. This study is one of the first to examine independent and combined associations with deworming, sanitation

  16. Intestinal Helminths Recovered from Humans in Xieng Khouang Province, Lao PDR with a Particular Note on Haplorchis pumilio Infection

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Jong-Yil; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Yong, Tai-Soon; Eom, Keeseon S.; Min, Duk-Young; Insisiengmay, Bounnaloth; Insisiengmay, Sithat; Phommasack, Bounlay; Rim, Han-Jong

    2015-01-01

    A survey of intestinal helminths was undertaken in riparian people in Xieng Khouang Province, Lao PDR. Fecal specimens were collected from 643 people (289 males and 354 females) residing in 4 districts (Nonghet, Kham, Phoukout, and Pek) and were examined by the Kato-Katz technique. The overall helminth egg positive rate was 41.2%, and hookworms revealed the highest prevalence (32.7%) followed by Trichuris trichiura (7.3%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (5.6%). The positive rate for small trematode eggs (STE), which may include Opisthorchis viverrini, heterophyids, and lecithodendriids, was 4.4%. For recovery of adult helminths, 12 STE or nematode/cestode egg-positive people were treated with 40 mg/kg praziquantel and 15 mg/kg pyrantel pamoate, and then purged. Mixed infections with 2 Haplorchis species (H. pumilio and H. taichui), Centrocestus formosanus, Opisthorchis viverrini, a species of cestode (Taenia saginata), and several species of nematodes including hookworms and Enterobius vermicularis were detected. The worm load for trematodes was the highest for H. pumilio with an average of 283.5 specimens per infected person followed by C. formosanus, H. taichui, and O. viverrini. The worm load for nematodes was the highest for hookworms (21.5/infected case) followed by E. vermicularis (3.2/infected case). The results revealed that the surveyed areas of Xieng Khouang Province, Lao PDR are endemic areas of various species of intestinal helminths. The STE found in the surveyed population were verified to be those of heterophyids, particularly H. pumilio. PMID:26323842

  17. Intestinal Helminths Recovered from Humans in Xieng Khouang Province, Lao PDR with a Particular Note on Haplorchis pumilio Infection.

    PubMed

    Chai, Jong-Yil; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Yong, Tai-Soon; Eom, Keeseon S; Min, Duk-Young; Insisiengmay, Bounnaloth; Insisiengmay, Sithat; Phommasack, Bounlay; Rim, Han-Jong

    2015-08-01

    A survey of intestinal helminths was undertaken in riparian people in Xieng Khouang Province, Lao PDR. Fecal specimens were collected from 643 people (289 males and 354 females) residing in 4 districts (Nonghet, Kham, Phoukout, and Pek) and were examined by the Kato-Katz technique. The overall helminth egg positive rate was 41.2%, and hookworms revealed the highest prevalence (32.7%) followed by Trichuris trichiura (7.3%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (5.6%). The positive rate for small trematode eggs (STE), which may include Opisthorchis viverrini, heterophyids, and lecithodendriids, was 4.4%. For recovery of adult helminths, 12 STE or nematode/cestode egg-positive people were treated with 40 mg/kg praziquantel and 15 mg/kg pyrantel pamoate, and then purged. Mixed infections with 2 Haplorchis species (H. pumilio and H. taichui), Centrocestus formosanus, Opisthorchis viverrini, a species of cestode (Taenia saginata), and several species of nematodes including hookworms and Enterobius vermicularis were detected. The worm load for trematodes was the highest for H. pumilio with an average of 283.5 specimens per infected person followed by C. formosanus, H. taichui, and O. viverrini. The worm load for nematodes was the highest for hookworms (21.5/infected case) followed by E. vermicularis (3.2/infected case). The results revealed that the surveyed areas of Xieng Khouang Province, Lao PDR are endemic areas of various species of intestinal helminths. The STE found in the surveyed population were verified to be those of heterophyids, particularly H. pumilio. PMID:26323842

  18. Effect of Schistosomiasis and Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections on Physical Fitness of School Children in Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Ivan; Coulibaly, Jean T.; Fürst, Thomas; Knopp, Stefanie; Hattendorf, Jan; Krauth, Stefanie J.; Stete, Katarina; Righetti, Aurélie A.; Glinz, Dominik; Yao, Adrien K.; Pühse, Uwe; N'Goran, Eliézer K.; Utzinger, Jürg

    2011-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis are important public health problems in sub-Saharan Africa causing malnutrition, anemia, and retardation of physical and cognitive development. However, the effect of these diseases on physical fitness remains to be determined. Methodology We investigated the relationship between schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminthiasis and physical performance of children, controlling for potential confounding of Plasmodium spp. infections and environmental parameters (i.e., ambient air temperature and humidity). A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 156 school children aged 7–15 years from Côte d'Ivoire. Each child had two stool and two urine samples examined for helminth eggs by microscopy. Additionally, children underwent a clinical examination, were tested for Plasmodium spp. infection with a rapid diagnostic test, and performed a maximal multistage 20 m shuttle run test to assess their maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) as a proxy for physical fitness. Principal Findings The prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium, Plasmodium spp., Schistosoma mansoni, hookworm and Ascaris lumbricoides infections was 85.3%, 71.2%, 53.8%, 13.5% and 1.3%, respectively. Children with single, dual, triple, quadruple and quintuple species infections showed VO2 max of 52.7, 53.1, 52.2, 52.6 and 55.6 ml kg−1 min−1, respectively. The VO2 max of children with no parasite infections was 53.5 ml kg−1 min−1. No statistically significant difference was detected between any groups. Multivariable analysis revealed that VO2 max was influenced by sex (reference: female, coef. = 4.02, p<0.001) and age (years, coef. = −1.23, p<0.001), but not by helminth infection and intensity, Plasmodium spp. infection, and environmental parameters. Conclusion/Significance School-aged children in Côte d'Ivoire showed good physical fitness, irrespective of their helminth infection status. Future studies on children's physical fitness

  19. The Differentiation of CD4+ T-Helper Cell Subsets in the Context of Helminth Parasite Infection

    PubMed Central

    Bouchery, Tiffany; Kyle, Ryan; Ronchese, Franca; Le Gros, Graham

    2014-01-01

    Helminths are credited with being the major selective force driving the evolution of the so-called “type 2” immune responses in vertebrate animals, with their size and infection strategies presenting unique challenges to the immune system. Originally, type 2 immune responses were defined by the presence and activities of the CD4+ T-helper 2 subset producing the canonical cytokines IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13. This picture is now being challenged by the discovery of a more complex pattern of CD4+ T-helper cell subsets that appear during infection, including Tregs, Th17, Tfh, and more recently, Th22, Th9, and ThGM. In addition, a clearer view of the mechanisms by which helminths and their products selectively prime the CD4+ T-cell subsets is emerging. In this review, we have focused on recent data concerning the selective priming, differentiation, and functional role of CD4+ T-helper cell subsets in the context of helminth infection. We argue for a re-evaluation of the original Th2 paradigm and discuss how the observed plasticity of the T-helper subsets may enable the parasitized host to achieve an appropriate compromise between elimination, tissue repair, containment, and pathology. PMID:25360134

  20. Soil-transmitted helminth prevalence and infection intensity among geographically and economically distinct Shuar communities in the Ecuadorian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Cepon-Robins, Tara J; Liebert, Melissa A; Gildner, Theresa E; Urlacher, Samuel S; Colehour, Alese M; Snodgrass, J Josh; Madimenos, Felicia C; Sugiyama, Lawrence S

    2014-10-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections can result in a variety of negative health outcomes (e.g., diarrhea, nutritional deficiencies). Market integration (MI; participation in market-based economies) has been suggested to alter levels of STH exposure due to associated changes in diet, sanitation, and behavior, but the effects are complicated and not well understood. Some effects of economic development result in decreased exposure to certain pathogens, and other factors can lead to higher pathogen exposure. With geographic location used as a proxy, the present study investigates the effects of economic development on parasite load among an indigenous population at multiple points along the spectrum of MI. This research has many implications for public health, including an increased understanding of how social and economic changes alter disease risk around the world and how changing parasite load affects other health outcomes (i.e., allergy, autoimmunity). Specifically, this study examines the prevalence of intestinal helminths among the Shuar, an indigenous group in the Morona-Santiago region of Ecuador, from 2 geographically/economically separated areas, with the following objectives: (1) report STH infection prevalence and intensity among Shuar; (2) explore STH infection prevalence and intensity as it relates to age distribution in the Shuar population; (3) compare STH infection patterns in geographically and economically separated Shuar communities at different levels of MI. Kato-Katz thick smears were made from fresh stool samples and examined to determine STH presence/intensity. Results indicate that 65% of the 211 participants were infected with at least 1 STH. Twenty-five percent of the sample had coinfections with at least 2 species of helminth. Infection was more common among juveniles (<15 yr) than adults. Infection prevalence and intensity was highest among more isolated communities with less market access. This study documents preliminary

  1. Ten Weeks of Infection with a Tissue-Invasive Helminth Protects against Local Immune Complex-Mediated Inflammation, but Not Cutaneous Type I Hypersensitivity, in Previously Sensitized Mice.

    PubMed

    Evans, Holly; Killoran, Kristin E; Mitre, Blima K; Morris, C Paul; Kim, So-Young; Mitre, Edward

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effect chronic helminth infection has on allergic disease in mice previously sensitized to OVA. Ten weeks of infection with Litomosoides sigmodontis reduced immunological markers of type I hypersensitivity, including OVA-specific IgE, basophil activation, and mast cell degranulation. Despite these reductions, there was no protection against immediate clinical hypersensitivity following intradermal OVA challenge. However, late-phase ear swelling, due to type III hypersensitivity, was significantly reduced in chronically infected animals. Levels of total IgG2a, OVA-specific IgG2a, and OVA-specific IgG1 were reduced in the setting of infection. These reductions were most likely due to increased Ab catabolism as ELISPOT assays demonstrated that infected animals do not have suppressed Ab production. Ear histology 24 h after challenge showed infected animals have reduced cellular infiltration in the ear, with significant decreases in numbers of neutrophils and macrophages. Consistent with this, infected animals had less neutrophil-specific chemokines CXCL-1 and CXCL-2 in the ear following challenge. Additionally, in vitro stimulation with immune complexes resulted in significantly less CXCL-1 and CXCL-2 production by eosinophils from chronically infected mice. Expression of FcγRI was also significantly reduced on eosinophils from infected animals. These data indicate that chronic filarial infection suppresses eosinophilic responses to Ab-mediated activation and has the potential to be used as a therapeutic for pre-existing hypersensitivity diseases. PMID:26324775

  2. Intestinal Epithelial Cell-Intrinsic Deletion of Setd7 Identifies Role for Developmental Pathways in Immunity to Helminth Infection.

    PubMed

    Oudhoff, Menno J; Antignano, Frann; Chenery, Alistair L; Burrows, Kyle; Redpath, Stephen A; Braam, Mitchell J; Perona-Wright, Georgia; Zaph, Colby

    2016-09-01

    The intestine is a common site for a variety of pathogenic infections. Helminth infections continue to be major causes of disease worldwide, and are a significant burden on health care systems. Lysine methyltransferases are part of a family of novel attractive targets for drug discovery. SETD7 is a member of the Suppressor of variegation 3-9-Enhancer of zeste-Trithorax (SET) domain-containing family of lysine methyltransferases, and has been shown to methylate and alter the function of a wide variety of proteins in vitro. A few of these putative methylation targets have been shown to be important in resistance against pathogens. We therefore sought to study the role of SETD7 during parasitic infections. We find that Setd7-/- mice display increased resistance to infection with the helminth Trichuris muris but not Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri. Resistance to T. muris relies on an appropriate type 2 immune response that in turn prompts intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) to alter differentiation and proliferation kinetics. Here we show that SETD7 does not affect immune cell responses during infection. Instead, we found that IEC-specific deletion of Setd7 renders mice resistant to T. muris by controlling IEC turnover, an important aspect of anti-helminth immune responses. We further show that SETD7 controls IEC turnover by modulating developmental signaling pathways such as Hippo/YAP and Wnt/β-Catenin. We show that the Hippo pathway specifically is relevant during T. muris infection as verteporfin (a YAP inhibitor) treated mice became susceptible to T. muris. We conclude that SETD7 plays an important role in IEC biology during infection. PMID:27598373

  3. [Influence of helminthic infections and nutritional status on immune response in Venezuelan children].

    PubMed

    Ortiz, D; Afonso, C; Hagel, I; Rodriguez, O; Ortiz, C; Palenque, M; Lynch, N R

    2000-09-01

    We investigated the influence of nutritional status, as determined from anthropometric measurement, and of helminthic infections on the immune response of children of low socioeconomic status in two rural communities in Venezuela: El Cardón in the state of Nueva Esparta and San Daniel in the state of Miranda. A total of 125 boys and girls between 2 and 15 years old participated in the study. Their socioeconomic stratum was determined by a modified Graffar method. A physical examination was performed, as was also an anthropometric evaluation that took into account three indicators--weight-for-height, weight-for-age, and height-for-age--according to parameters established by the World Health Organization. Other examinations included feces, secretory IgA in saliva, total serum IgE, and anti-Ascaris-specific immunoglobulins. The children in both of the communities were in strata IV and V of the of Graffar scale, with a significantly greater number of stratum V inhabitants in San Daniel (P < 0.001). The results suggest that exposure level and individual susceptibility to the parasites are determining factors in parasitic infection and immune system behavior. The intensity of the parasitic burden plays an important role in stimulating polyclonal IgE, which diminishes the effectiveness of the specific response to those infections. On the other hand, nutritional deficiencies could change the immune mechanisms of the mucous membranes, negatively influence the synthesis of secretory IgA, and stimulate the production of polyclonal IgE. Poor sanitary and socioeconomic conditions promote more exposure to gastrointestinal parasites and a deficient nutritional status, which modulates the immune response and affects serum IgE and secretory IgA production mechanisms. PMID:11036425

  4. Prevalence and risk factors of helminths and intestinal protozoa infections among children from primary schools in western Tajikistan

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Intestinal parasitic infections represent a public health problem in Tajikistan, but epidemiological evidence is scarce. The present study aimed at assessing the extent of helminths and intestinal protozoa infections among children of 10 schools in four districts of Tajikistan, and to make recommendations for control. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out in early 2009. All children attending grades 2 and 3 (age: 7-11 years) from 10 randomly selected schools were invited to provide a stool sample and interviewed about sanitary situation and hygiene behaviour. A questionnaire pertaining to demographic and socioeconomic characteristics was addressed to the heads of households. On the spot, stool samples were subjected to duplicate Kato-Katz thick smear examination for helminth diagnosis. Additionally, 1-2 g of stool was fixed in sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin, transferred to a specialised laboratory in Europe and examined for helminths and intestinal protozoa. The composite results from both methods served as diagnostic 'gold' standard. Results Out of 623 registered children, 602 participated in our survey. The overall prevalence of infection with helminths and pathogenic intestinal protozoa was 32.0% and 47.1%, respectively. There was pronounced spatial heterogeneity. The most common helminth species was Hymenolepis nana (25.8%), whereas the prevalences of Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm and Enterobius vermicularis were below 5%. The prevalence of pathogenic intestinal protozoa, namely Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar was 26.4% and 25.9%, respectively. Almost half of the households draw drinking water from unimproved sources, such as irrigation canals, rivers and unprotected wells. Sanitary facilities were pit latrines, mostly private, and a few shared with neighbours. The use of public tap/standpipe as a source of drinking water emerged as a protective factor for G. intestinalis infection. Protected spring water

  5. Triple NF-kB binding sites and LTR sequence similarities in HIV-1C isolates irrespective of helminth co-infection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Helminth infections as well as structural alternations in the long-terminal repeat (LTR) regions of HIV-1 are known to contribute to elevated HIV RNA level and enhance HIV-1 diseases progression. However, the impact of helminths infections on the occurrences of triple NF-κB and genetic variability in LTR region of HIV-1C isolates is not known. We aimed to examine the presence of genetic variability in the LTR region of HIV-1C isolates during chronic HIV-helminth co-infection. Methods HIV-1C infected Ethiopians with (n = 22) and without (n = 20) helminth infection were included. The LTR region of HIV was amplified and sequenced. Sequences were aligned with reference set from the Los Alamos HIV database. Phylogenetic analysis and frequency of polymorphic changes was performed by the neighbour-joining method using Geneious Basic software. Results All LTR sequences from patients with or without of helminth co-infection clustered with HIV-1 subtype C with two distinct subclusters (C and C’). The enhancer element was found to have three copies of 10-base pair binding sites for NF-κBs which is an evidence for predominance of triple NF-κB sites (94%) in HIV-1C isolates irrespective of helminths co-infection and subclusters. Moreover, irrespective of helminth co-infection and C/C’ subclusters high sequences similarity in LTR was observed. There was no significant difference in plasma HIV RNA level between HIV-1 C and C’ subclusters. Conclusions Despite the small sample size, the predominance of triple NF-κB binding sites and high sequence similarities in LTR region irrespective of helminths infection suggest the natural occurrence of the three NF-κB binding sites in HIV-1C isolates without the influence of secondary infection. Thus, the higher HIV-1C viraemia in helminth co-infected individuals is more likely a result of immune activation rather than LTR sequence variation. Moreover, the lack of significant difference in plasma HIV RNA level

  6. Determining Soil-transmitted Helminth Infection Status and Physical Fitness of School-aged Children

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Peiling; Fürst, Thomas; Müller, Ivan; Kriemler, Susi; Utzinger, Jürg; Steinmann, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are common. Indeed, more than 1 billion people are affected, mainly in the developing world where poverty prevails and hygiene behavior, water supply, and sanitation are often deficient1,2. Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and the two hookworm species, Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus, are the most prevalent STHs3. The estimated global burden due to hookworm disease, ascariasis, and trichuriasis is 22.1, 10.5, and 6.4 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), respectively4. Furthermore, an estimated 30-100 million people are infected with Strongyloides stercoralis, the most neglected STH species of global significance which arguably also causes a considerable public health impact5,6. Multiple-species infections (i.e., different STHs harbored in a single individual) are common, and infections have been linked to lowered productivity and thus economic outlook of developing countries1,3. For the diagnosis of common STHs, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the Kato-Katz technique7,8, which is a relatively straightforward method for determining the prevalence and intensity of such infections. It facilitates the detection of parasite eggs that infected subjects pass in their feces. With regard to the diagnosis of S.stercoralis, there is currently no simple and accurate tool available. The Baermann technique is the most widely employed method for its diagnosis. The principle behind the Baermann technique is that active S.stercoralis larvae migrate out of an illuminated fresh fecal sample as the larvae are phototactic9. It requires less sophisticated laboratory materials and is less time consuming than culture and immunological methods5. Morbidities associated with STH infections range from acute but common symptoms, such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, and pruritus, to chronic symptoms, such as anemia, under- and malnutrition, and cognitive impairment10. Since the symptoms are generally

  7. Distribution of infective gastrointestinal helminth larvae in tropical erect grass under different feeding systems for lambs.

    PubMed

    Tontini, Jalise Fabíola; Poli, Cesar Henrique Espírito Candal; Bremm, Carolina; de Castro, Juliane Machado; Fajardo, Neuza Maria; Sarout, Bruna Nunes Marsiglio; Castilhos, Zélia Maria de Souza

    2015-08-01

    This study examined tropical pasture contamination dynamics under different feeding systems for finishing lambs. The experiment aimed to evaluate the vertical distribution of gastrointestinal helminth infective larvae (L3) in erect grass subjected to grazing and to assess the parasite load and its impact on lamb performance in three production systems. Three treatments based on Aruana grass (Panicum maximum cv. IZ-5) were as follows: T1, grass only; T2, grass with 1.5% of body weight (BW) nutrient concentrate supplementation; and T3, grass with 2.5% BW concentrate supplementation. The randomized block design had three replicates of three treatments, with six lambs per replicate. L3 were recovered from three pasture strata (upper, middle, and bottom), each representing one third of the sward height, and correlated with microclimatic data. Significant differences (P < 0.05) were observed among treatments in the L3 recovery. Despite different grass heights between treatments and microclimates within the sward, the L3 concentration generally did not differ significantly among the three strata within a treatment (P > 0.05). Pasture microclimate did not correlate with larval recovery. At the end of the experiment, the animal fecal egg count was similar among treatments (P > 0.05). The results indicated that different lamb feeding systems in a tropical erect grassland caused differences in grass height but did not affect the distribution of infective larvae among strata. Larvae were found from the base to the top of the grass sward. PMID:26003429

  8. [Helminth infections in wild boars kept in enclosures in southern Germany: severity of infections and fecal intensity].

    PubMed

    Barutzki, D; Schoierer, R; Gothe, R

    1991-12-01

    To determine the intensity of helminth infection and egg output with regard to age and sex of wild boar, stomachs and intestines of 124, lungs of 62, and livers of 39 animals from 5 enclosures in Southern Germany were examined. The evaluation of the intensity of infection showed 579.4 worms per animal for Hyostrongylus rubidus, 510.4 for Globocephalus longemucronatus, 476.9 for Oesophagostomum dentatum, 476.9 for O. quadrispinulatum, 254.2 for Metastrongylus pudendotectus, 176.9 for M. salmi, 140 for Physocephalus sexalatus, 56.9 for M. apri, 45.4 for Trichuris suis, and 3.3 for Ascaris suum. 33.6 liver flukes per infected wild boar were also found. Additionally 2 metacestodes of Taenia hydatigena on the serous liver coat of an adult sow were found. The worm burden with respect to age of the animals showed no or only minimal age related differences, whereas a large number of O. dentatum and O. quadrispinulatum was found in adults compared to younger wild boars. The evaluation of the intensity of infection with regard to sex of the animals showed higher values only for H. rubidus, O. dentatum, O. quadrispinulatum and P. sexalatus in males compared to female wild boars. The egg output intensity in the samples taken from the rectum was in average 3300 EpG for A. suum, 450.4 EpG for Oesophagostomum, 445.9 EpG for Globocephalus, 220 EpG for Trichuris, 207.9 EpG for Metastrongylus, 190.8 EpG for Hyostrongylus and 67 EpG for Capillaris. The egg output with respect to age showed higher values in younger wild boars than in adults. PMID:1796467

  9. Worm-free children: an integrated approach to reduction of soil-transmitted helminth infections in Central Java.

    PubMed

    Park, M J; Laksono, Budi; Clements, Archie; Sadler, Ross; Stewart, Donald

    2016-03-01

    Among children, infections with soil-transmitted helminths (STH) can cause anemia, impaired growth, and absence from school. Sustainable control of STH infection requires that appropriate latrines be integrated with health-promotion education. We report a pilot study of the effects of a combined latrine-education intervention in Central Java, Indonesia. The participants were 99 children (3-13 years old) in two villages (intervention and control) south of Semarang city. Stool samples were collected from the children and were examined for the presence of helminth eggs. After baseline data were collected, latrines were constructed and health education was given in the intervention village. Then, in both villages, all children who had STH infection at baseline were given 400 mg of albendazole. Eight months later, follow-up stool samples were collected and examined. In both villages, 20% of the children had STH infection at baseline. At follow-up, the incidence of STH infection was much lower in the intervention village than in the control village (4.0% vs. 20.4%; p<0.02). The results of this small pilot study give some confidence that a scaled-up study involving many more children and cluster-randomization of the intervention will be feasible and could provide more conclusive evidence of the intervention's effectiveness. PMID:26812851

  10. Helminth Infections Coincident with Active Pulmonary Tuberculosis Inhibit Mono- and Multifunctional CD4+ and CD8+ T Cell Responses in a Process Dependent on IL-10

    PubMed Central

    George, Parakkal Jovvian; Anuradha, Rajamanickam; Kumar, Nathella Pavan; Sridhar, Rathinam; Banurekha, Vaithilingam V.; Nutman, Thomas B.; Babu, Subash

    2014-01-01

    Tissue invasive helminth infections and tuberculosis (TB) are co-endemic in many parts of the world and can trigger immune responses that might antagonize each other. We have previously shown that helminth infections modulate the Th1 and Th17 responses to mycobacterial-antigens in latent TB. To determine whether helminth infections modulate antigen-specific and non-specific immune responses in active pulmonary TB, we examined CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses as well as the systemic (plasma) cytokine levels in individuals with pulmonary TB with or without two distinct helminth infections—Wuchereria bancrofti and Strongyloides stercoralis infection. By analyzing the frequencies of Th1 and Th17 CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and their component subsets (including multifunctional cells), we report a significant diminution in the mycobacterial–specific frequencies of mono- and multi–functional CD4+ Th1 and (to a lesser extent) Th17 cells when concomitant filarial or Strongyloides infection occurs. The impairment in CD4+ and CD8+ T cell cytokine responses was antigen-specific as polyclonal activated T cell frequencies were equivalent irrespective of helminth infection status. This diminution in T cell responses was also reflected in diminished circulating levels of Th1 (IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-2)- and Th17 (IL-17A and IL-17F)-associated cytokines. Finally, we demonstrate that for the filarial co-infections at least, this diminished frequency of multifunctional CD4+ T cell responses was partially dependent on IL-10 as IL-10 blockade significantly increased the frequencies of CD4+ Th1 cells. Thus, co-existent helminth infection is associated with an IL-10 mediated (for filarial infection) profound inhibition of antigen-specific CD4+ T cell responses as well as protective systemic cytokine responses in active pulmonary TB. PMID:25211342

  11. Effects of Hygiene and Defecation Behavior on Helminths and Intestinal Protozoa Infections in Taabo, Côte d’Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Schmidlin, Thomas; Hürlimann, Eveline; Silué, Kigbafori D.; Yapi, Richard B.; Houngbedji, Clarisse; Kouadio, Bernadette A.; Acka-Douabélé, Cinthia A.; Kouassi, Dongo; Ouattara, Mamadou; Zouzou, Fabien; Bonfoh, Bassirou; N’Goran, Eliézer K.; Utzinger, Jürg; Raso, Giovanna

    2013-01-01

    Background More than 1 billion people are currently infected with soil-transmitted helminths and schistosomes. The global strategy to control helminthiases is the regular administration of anthelmintic drugs to at-risk populations. However, rapid re-infection occurs in areas where hygiene, access to clean water, and sanitation are inadequate. Methodology In July 2011, inhabitants from two villages and seven hamlets of the Taabo health demographic surveillance system in south-central Côte d’Ivoire provided stool and urine samples. Kato-Katz and ether-concentration methods were used for the diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni, soil-transmitted helminths (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworm), and intestinal protozoa. Urine samples were subjected to a filtration method for the diagnosis of Schistosoma haematobium. A questionnaire was administered to households to obtain information on knowledge, attitude, practice, and beliefs in relation to hygiene, sanitation, and defecation behavior. Logistic regression models were employed to assess for associations between questionnaire data and parasitic infections. Principal Findings A total of 1,894 participants had complete data records. Parasitological examinations revealed prevalences of hookworm, S. haematobium, T. trichiura, S. mansoni, and A. lumbricoides of 33.5%, 7.0%, 1.6%, 1.3% and 0.8%, respectively. Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar were detected in 15.0% and 14.4% of the participants, respectively. Only one out of five households reported the presence of a latrine, and hence, open defecation was common. Logistic regression analysis revealed that age, sex, socioeconomic status, hygiene, and defecation behavior are determinants for helminths and intestinal protozoa infections. Conclusions/Significance We found that inadequate sanitation and hygiene behavior are associated with soil-transmitted helminths and intestinal protozoa infections in the Taabo area of south-central C

  12. Co-endemicity of Pulmonary Tuberculosis and Intestinal Helminth Infection in the People's Republic of China.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin-Xu; Ren, Zhou-Peng; Wang, Li-Xia; Zhang, Hui; Jiang, Shi-Wen; Chen, Jia-Xu; Wang, Jin-Feng; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2016-03-01

    Both pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and intestinal helminth infection (IHI) affect millions of individuals every year in China. However, the national-scale estimation of prevalence predictors and prevalence maps for these diseases, as well as co-endemic relative risk (RR) maps of both diseases' prevalence are not well developed. There are co-endemic, high prevalence areas of both diseases, whose delimitation is essential for devising effective control strategies. Bayesian geostatistical logistic regression models including socio-economic, climatic, geographical and environmental predictors were fitted separately for active PTB and IHI based on data from the national surveys for PTB and major human parasitic diseases that were completed in 2010 and 2004, respectively. Prevalence maps and co-endemic RR maps were constructed for both diseases by means of Bayesian Kriging model and Bayesian shared component model capable of appraising the fraction of variance of spatial RRs shared by both diseases, and those specific for each one, under an assumption that there are unobserved covariates common to both diseases. Our results indicate that gross domestic product (GDP) per capita had a negative association, while rural regions, the arid and polar zones and elevation had positive association with active PTB prevalence; for the IHI prevalence, GDP per capita and distance to water bodies had a negative association, the equatorial and warm zones and the normalized difference vegetation index had a positive association. Moderate to high prevalence of active PTB and low prevalence of IHI were predicted in western regions, low to moderate prevalence of active PTB and low prevalence of IHI were predicted in north-central regions and the southeast coastal regions, and moderate to high prevalence of active PTB and high prevalence of IHI were predicted in the south-western regions. Thus, co-endemic areas of active PTB and IHI were located in the south-western regions of China, which

  13. Do stocking rate and a simple run management practice influence the infection of laying hens with gastrointestinal helminths?

    PubMed

    Heckendorn, F; Häring, D A; Amsler, Z; Maurer, V

    2009-01-22

    The aim of this experiment conducted at four sites in Switzerland was to investigate the transmission and infectivity of the two main helminth parasite species of poultry (Ascaridia galli and Heterakis gallinarum) in outdoor runs with two different stocking rates. Additionally, the influence of a simple management practice (mowing of run) on helminth transmission was studied. Three run types were created on each site: runs C served as control (stocking rate 10 m(2)/hen, no management), runs B corresponded to runs C but were managed (10 m(2)/hen, management). In runs A stocking rates were doubled compared to control runs (5m(2)/hen, no management). During two subsequent layer flocks, a set of parasitological parameters (faecal egg counts (FECs), prevalence, worm burdens in hens and in tracer animals, helminth eggs in soil) as well as parameters describing the run vegetation were determined. The increased stocking rate (runs A) led to a larger proportion of bare soil and to a reduction of the average vegetation height. In runs with a lower stocking rate (B and C), the proportion of bare soil did not increase during the experimental period. Irrespective of the run type, numbers of helminth eggs in the soil decreased significantly with an increasing distance to the hen houses, while the percentage of ground coverage as well as vegetation height increased. However, across runs the correlation between the percentage of ground cover and the values of eggs per gram soil between runs was very low (r(2)=0.0007, P=0.95) indicating a non-causal relationship. Significant differences in FEC were found in flock 2 (P<0.001): FEC of hens in managed runs B were 24% lower (P<0.05) than those of the control animals. Although not significant, the corresponding prevalence was lower (-9.7%) in hens from managed runs as well. Hens from runs with a high stocking rate (A) had significantly higher FEC than hens from control runs (C). In flock 2 management (n.s.) and higher stocking rates

  14. Diplomatic Assistance: Can Helminth-Modulated Macrophages Act as Treatment for Inflammatory Disease?

    PubMed Central

    Steinfelder, Svenja; O’Regan, Noëlle Louise; Hartmann, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Helminths have evolved numerous pathways to prevent their expulsion or elimination from the host to ensure long-term survival. During infection, they target numerous host cells, including macrophages, to induce an alternatively activated phenotype, which aids elimination of infection, tissue repair, and wound healing. Multiple animal-based studies have demonstrated a significant reduction or complete reversal of disease by helminth infection, treatment with helminth products, or helminth-modulated macrophages in models of allergy, autoimmunity, and sepsis. Experimental studies of macrophage and helminth therapies are being translated into clinical benefits for patients undergoing transplantation and those with multiple sclerosis. Thus, helminths or helminth-modulated macrophages present great possibilities as therapeutic applications for inflammatory diseases in humans. Macrophage-based helminth therapies and the underlying mechanisms of their therapeutic or curative effects represent an under-researched area with the potential to open new avenues of treatment. This review explores the application of helminth-modulated macrophages as a new therapy for inflammatory diseases. PMID:27101372

  15. Asymptomatic Helminth Infection in Active Tuberculosis Is Associated with Increased Regulatory and Th-2 Responses and a Lower Sputum Smear Positivity

    PubMed Central

    Abate, Ebba; Belayneh, Meseret; Idh, Jonna; Diro, Ermias; Elias, Daniel; Britton, Sven; Aseffa, Abraham; Stendahl, Olle; Schön, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background The impact of intestinal helminth infection on the clinical presentation and immune response during active tuberculosis (TB) infection is not well characterized. Our aim was to investigate whether asymptomatic intestinal helminth infection alters the clinical signs and symptoms as well as the cell mediated immune responses in patients with active TB. Methodology Consecutive, newly diagnosed TB patients and healthy community controls (CCs) were recruited in North-west Ethiopia. TB-score, body mass index and stool samples were analyzed. Cells from HIV-negative TB patients (HIV-/TB) and from CCs were analyzed for regulatory T-cells (Tregs) and cytokine responses using flow cytometry and ELISPOT, respectively. Results A significantly higher ratio of helminth co-infection was observed in TB patients without HIV (Helm+/HIV-/TB) compared to HIV negative CCs, (40% (121/306) versus 28% (85/306), p = 0.003). Helm+/HIV-/TB patients showed significantly increased IL-5 secreting cells compared to Helm-/HIV-/TB (37 SFU (IQR:13–103) versus 2 SFU (1–50); p = 0.02, n = 30). Likewise, levels of absolute Tregs (9.4 (3.2–16.7) cells/μl versus 2.4 (1.1–4.0) cells/μl; p = 0.041) and IL-10 secreting cells (65 SFU (7–196) versus 1 SFU (0–31); p = 0.014) were significantly higher in Helm+/HIV-/TB patients compared to Helm-/HIV-/TB patients. In a multivariate analysis, a lower rate of sputum smear positivity for acid fast bacilli, lower body temperature, and eosinophilia were independently associated with helminth infection in TB patients. Conclusions Asymptomatic helminth infection is associated with increased regulatory T-cell and Th2-type responses and a lower rate of sputum smear positivity. Further studies are warranted to investigate the clinical and immunological impact of helminth infection in TB patients. PMID:26248316

  16. Soil-Transmitted Helminths and Schistosoma mansoni Infections in Ethiopian Orthodox Church Students around Lake Tana, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Afework Bitew, Aschalew; Abera, Bayeh; Seyoum, Walle; Endale, Befekadu; Kiber, Tibebu; Goshu, Girma; Admass, Addiss

    2016-01-01

    Background Soil-transmitted helminths (STH) and Schistosoma mansoni infections are the major neglected tropical diseases that result in serious consequences on health, education and nutrition in children in developing countries. The Ethiopian Orthodox church students, who are called Yekolotemari in Amharic, live in areas with poor sanitation and hygiene. Moreover, they are not included in the national STH control programs. Thus, STH and S. mansoni infections prevalence is unknown. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 384 students in June 2014 to determine STH and S. mansoni infections prevalence. Moreover, the knowledge of students about STH and S. mansoni was assessed. Data on knowledge and clinical symptoms were collected using structured questionnaires via face to face interview. Stool specimens were examined by formol-ether concentration method. Results The overall prevalence of intestinal helminths infections was 85.9% (95% confidence interval (CI): 82.1–89%). STHs infections prevalence was 65.6% (95% CI: 60.7–70.2%). The prevalence of hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura were 31.8% (95% CI: 27.3–36.6%), 29.4% (25–31%) and 3.1% (1.8–5.4%), respectively. On the other hand, S. mansoni prevalence was 14.3% (95% CI: 11.1–18.1%). Majority of students infected with S. mansoni had bloody stool with crud odds-ratio of 2.9 (95% CI: 1.5–5.5). Knowledge assessment showed that 50 (13%) and 18 (4.9%) of the respondents knew about transmission of STH and S. mansoni, respectively. Conclusions The prevalence of STH and S. mansoni infections were high thus de-worming program should include the students of Ethiopian Orthodox churches. Furthermore, provision and use of sanitary facilities, health education for students to create awareness of parasitic infections and improved personal hygiene should be in place. PMID:27203749

  17. Asymptomatic Vivax and Falciparum Parasitaemia with Helminth Co-Infection: Major Risk Factors for Anaemia in Early Life

    PubMed Central

    Burdam, Faustina Helena; Hakimi, Mohammad; Thio, Franciscus; Kenangalem, Enny; Indrawanti, Ratni; Noviyanti, Rintis; Trianty, Leily; Marfurt, Jutta; Handayuni, Irene; Soenarto, Yati; Douglas, Nicholas M.; Anstey, Nicholas M.; Price, Ric N.; Poespoprodjo, Jeanne Rini

    2016-01-01

    Background Anaemia in children under five years old is associated with poor health, growth and developmental outcomes. In Papua, Indonesia, where the burden of anaemia in infants is high, we conducted a community survey to assess the association between Plasmodium infection, helminth carriage and the risk of anaemia. Methods A cross sectional household survey was carried out between April and July 2013 in 16 villages in the District of Mimika using a multistage sampling procedure. A total of 629 children aged 1–59 months from 800 households were included in the study. Demographic, symptom and anthropometry data were recorded using a standardized questionnaire. Blood and stool samples were collected for examination. Results Of the 533 children with blood film examination, 8.8% (47) had P. vivax parasitaemia and 3.9% (21) had P. falciparum; the majority of children with malaria were asymptomatic (94.4%, 68/72). Soil transmitted helminth (STH) infection was present in 43% (105/269) of children assessed; those with STH were at significantly greater risk of P. vivax parasitaemia compared to those without STH (OR = 3.7 [95%CI 1.5–9.2], p = 0.004). Anaemia (Hb<10 g/dl) was present in 24.5% (122/497) of children and associated with P. vivax parasitaemia (OR = 2.9 [95%CI, 1.7–4.9], p = 0.001), P. falciparum parasitaemia (OR = 4.3 [95%CI, 2.0–9.4], p<0.001), hookworm carriage (OR = 2.6 [95%CI, 1.2–5.8], p = 0.026), Plasmodium–helminth coinfection (OR 4.0 [95%CI, 1.4–11.3], p = 0.008) and severe stunting (OR = 1.9 ([95%CI, 1.1–3.3], p = 0.012). Conclusions Asymptomatic P. vivax and P. falciparum infections and hookworm all contribute to risk of paediatric anaemia in coendemic areas and should be targeted with prevention and treatment programs. The relationship between helminth infections and the increased risk of P. vivax parasitaemia should be explored prospectively. PMID:27504828

  18. The Increase of Exotic Zoonotic Helminth Infections: The Impact of Urbanization, Climate Change and Globalization.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Catherine A; McManus, Donald P; Jones, Malcolm K; Gray, Darren J; Gobert, Geoffrey N

    2016-01-01

    Zoonotic parasitic diseases are increasingly impacting human populations due to the effects of globalization, urbanization and climate change. Here we review the recent literature on the most important helminth zoonoses, including reports of incidence and prevalence. We discuss those helminth diseases which are increasing in endemic areas and consider their geographical spread into new regions within the framework of globalization, urbanization and climate change to determine the effect these variables are having on disease incidence, transmission and the associated challenges presented for public health initiatives, including control and elimination. PMID:27015952

  19. Associations Between Maternal Helminth and Malaria Infections in Pregnancy and Clinical Malaria in the Offspring: A Birth Cohort in Entebbe, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Ndibazza, Juliet; Webb, Emily L.; Lule, Swaib; Mpairwe, Harriet; Akello, Miriam; Oduru, Gloria; Kizza, Moses; Akurut, Helen; Muhangi, Lawrence; Magnussen, Pascal; Vennervald, Birgitte; Elliott, Alison

    2013-01-01

    Background. Helminth and malaria coinfections are common in the tropics. We investigated the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to these parasites might influence susceptibility to malaria in childhood. Methods. In a birth cohort of 2345 mother–child pairs in Uganda, maternal helminth and malaria infection status was determined during pregnancy, and childhood malaria episodes were recorded from birth to age 5 years. We examined associations between maternal infections and malaria in the offspring. Results. Common maternal infections were hookworm (45%), Mansonella perstans (21%), Schistosoma mansoni (18%), and Plasmodium falciparum (11%). At age 5 years, 69% of the children were still under follow-up. The incidence of malaria was 34 episodes per 100 child-years, and the mean prevalence of asymptomatic malaria at annual visits was 5.4%. Maternal hookworm and M. perstans infections were associated with an increased rate of childhood clinical malaria (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.24, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10–1.41; aHR, 1.20, 95% CI, 1.05–1.38, respectively). S. mansoni infection had no consistent association with childhood malaria. Conclusions. This is the first report of an association between helminth infections in pregnancy and malaria in the offspring and indicates that helminth infections in pregnancy may increase the burden of childhood malaria morbidity. PMID:23904293

  20. Co-endemicity of Plasmodium falciparum and Intestinal Helminths Infection in School Age Children in Rural Communities of Kwara State Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Adedoja, Ayodele; Tijani, Bukola Deborah; Akanbi, Ajibola A.; Ojurongbe, Taiwo A.; Adeyeba, Oluwaseyi A.; Ojurongbe, Olusola

    2015-01-01

    Background Malaria and intestinal helminths co-infection are major public health problems particularly among school age children in Nigeria. However the magnitude and possible interactions of these infections remain poorly understood. This study determined the prevalence, impact and possible interaction of Plasmodium falciparum and intestinal helminths co-infection among school children in rural communities of Kwara State, Nigeria. Methods Blood, urine and stool samples were collected from 1017 primary school pupils of ages 4–15 years. Stool samples were processed using both Kato-Katz and formol-ether concentration techniques and microscopically examined for intestinal helminths infection. Urine samples were analyzed using sedimentation method for Schistosoma haematobium. Plasmodium falciparum was confirmed by microscopy using thick and thin blood films methods and packed cell volume (PCV) was determined using hematocrit reader. Univariate analysis and chi-square statistical tests were used to analyze the data. Results Overall, 61.2% of all school children had at least an infection of either P. falciparum, S. haematobium, or intestinal helminth. S. haematobium accounted for the largest proportion (44.4%) of a single infection followed by P. falciparum (20.6%). The prevalence of malaria and helminth co-infection in the study was 14.4%. Four species of intestinal helminths were recovered from the stool samples and these were hookworm (22.5%), Hymenolepis species (9.8%), Schistosoma mansoni (2.9%) and Enterobius vermicularis (0.6%). The mean densities of P. falciparum in children co-infected with S. haematobium and hookworm were higher compared to those infected with P. falciparum only though not statistically significant (p = 0.062). The age distribution of both S. haematobium (p = 0.049) and hookworm (p = 0.034) infected children were statistically significant with the older age group (10–15 years) recording the highest prevalence of 47.2% and 25% respectively

  1. Intrinsic Factors Influencing the Infection by Helminth Parasites in Horses under an Oceanic Climate Area (NW Spain)

    PubMed Central

    Francisco, I.; Arias, M.; Cortiñas, F. J.; Francisco, R.; Mochales, E.; Dacal, V.; Suárez, J. L.; Uriarte, J.; Morrondo, P.; Sánchez-Andrade, R.; Díez-Baños, P.; Paz-Silva, A.

    2009-01-01

    A coprological survey to determine the influence of some intrinsic factors (breed, age, and sex) on the infection by helminth parasites in equine livestock (n = 418) under an oceanic climate area (NW Spain) was conducted. Faecal samples were individually collected and analyzed by the coprological techniques. The main strongylid genera identified were Trichonema and Cyalocephalus spp (small strongyles) and Strongylus and Triodontophorus (large strongyles). The prevalence of gastrointestinal nematode was 89% (95% CI 86, 92) and 1% cestoda (0, 2). The percentage of horses with strongyloid parasites was 89% (86, 92), 11% (8, 14) for Parascaris, and 3% (1, 5) for Oxyuris. The highest prevalence for ascariosis was observed in the youngest horses (<3 years), for oxyurosis in the >10 years animals, and for strongylosis in the 3–10 years ones. Females were significantly more parasitized than males. A negative correlation between the age and the egg-excretion of ascarids and strongyles was recorded. The autochthonous and the English Pure Blood horses were the most parasitized. We concluded that the infections by helminths, especially the strongyloids, are significantly common in the region, so that greater importance should be given to this situation. PMID:20721327

  2. Intrinsic Factors Influencing the Infection by Helminth Parasites in Horses under an Oceanic Climate Area (NW Spain).

    PubMed

    Francisco, I; Arias, M; Cortiñas, F J; Francisco, R; Mochales, E; Dacal, V; Suárez, J L; Uriarte, J; Morrondo, P; Sánchez-Andrade, R; Díez-Baños, P; Paz-Silva, A

    2009-01-01

    A coprological survey to determine the influence of some intrinsic factors (breed, age, and sex) on the infection by helminth parasites in equine livestock (n = 418) under an oceanic climate area (NW Spain) was conducted. Faecal samples were individually collected and analyzed by the coprological techniques. The main strongylid genera identified were Trichonema and Cyalocephalus spp (small strongyles) and Strongylus and Triodontophorus (large strongyles). The prevalence of gastrointestinal nematode was 89% (95% CI 86, 92) and 1% cestoda (0, 2). The percentage of horses with strongyloid parasites was 89% (86, 92), 11% (8, 14) for Parascaris, and 3% (1, 5) for Oxyuris. The highest prevalence for ascariosis was observed in the youngest horses (<3 years), for oxyurosis in the >10 years animals, and for strongylosis in the 3-10 years ones. Females were significantly more parasitized than males. A negative correlation between the age and the egg-excretion of ascarids and strongyles was recorded. The autochthonous and the English Pure Blood horses were the most parasitized. We concluded that the infections by helminths, especially the strongyloids, are significantly common in the region, so that greater importance should be given to this situation. PMID:20721327

  3. Malaria and Helminth Co-Infections in School and Preschool Children: A Cross-Sectional Study in Magu District, North-Western Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Kinung'hi, Safari M.; Magnussen, Pascal; Kaatano, Godfrey M.; Kishamawe, Coleman; Vennervald, Birgitte J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Malaria, schistosomiasis and soil transmitted helminth infections (STH) are important parasitic infections in Sub-Saharan Africa where a significant proportion of people are exposed to co-infections of more than one parasite. In Tanzania, these infections are a major public health problem particularly in school and pre-school children. The current study investigated malaria and helminth co-infections and anaemia in school and pre-school children in Magu district, Tanzania. Methodology School and pre-school children were enrolled in a cross-sectional study. Stool samples were examined for Schistosoma mansoni and STH infections using Kato Katz technique. Urine samples were examined for Schistosoma haematobium using the urine filtration method. Blood samples were examined for malaria parasites and haemoglobin concentrations using the Giemsa stain and Haemoque methods, respectively. Principal Findings Out of 1,546 children examined, 1,079 (69.8%) were infected with one or more parasites. Malaria-helminth co-infections were observed in 276 children (60% of all children with P. falciparum infection). Malaria parasites were significantly more prevalent in hookworm infected children than in hookworm free children (p = 0.046). However, this association was non-significant on multivariate logistic regression analysis (OR = 1.320, p = 0.064). Malaria parasite density decreased with increasing infection intensity of S. mansoni and with increasing number of co-infecting helminth species. Anaemia prevalence was 34.4% and was significantly associated with malaria infection, S. haematobium infection and with multiple parasite infections. Whereas S. mansoni infection was a significant predictor of malaria parasite density, P. falciparum and S. haematobium infections were significant predictors of anaemia. Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that multiple parasite infections are common in school and pre-school children in Magu district. Concurrent

  4. Mast cells: new therapeutic target in helminth immune modulation.

    PubMed

    Vukman, K V; Lalor, R; Aldridge, A; O'Neill, S M

    2016-01-01

    Helminth infection and their secreted antigens have a protective role in many immune-mediated inflammatory disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. However, studies have focused primarily on identifying immune protective mechanisms of helminth infection and their secreted molecules on dendritic cells and macrophages. Given that mast cells have been shown to be implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of many inflammatory disorders, their role should also be examined and considered as cellular target for helminth-based therapies. As there is a dearth of studies examining the interaction of helminth-derived antigens and mast cells, this review will focus on the role of mast cells during helminth infection and examine our current understanding of the involvement of mast cells in TH 1/TH 17-mediated immune disorders. In this context, potential mechanisms by which helminths could target the TH 1/TH 17 promoting properties of mast cells can be identified to unveil novel therapeutic mast cell driven targets in combating these inflammatory disorders. PMID:26577605

  5. Parasite-Derived MicroRNAs in Host Serum As Novel Biomarkers of Helminth Infection

    PubMed Central

    Hoy, Anna M.; Lundie, Rachel J.; Ivens, Alasdair; Quintana, Juan F.; Nausch, Norman; Forster, Thorsten; Jones, Frances; Kabatereine, Narcis B.; Dunne, David W.; Mutapi, Francisca; MacDonald, Andrew S.; Buck, Amy H.

    2014-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of short non-coding RNA that play important roles in disease processes in animals and are present in a highly stable cell-free form in body fluids. Here, we examine the capacity of host and parasite miRNAs to serve as tissue or serum biomarkers of Schistosoma mansoni infection. Methods/Principal Findings We used Exiqon miRNA microarrays to profile miRNA expression in the livers of mice infected with S. mansoni at 7 weeks post-infection. Thirty-three mouse miRNAs were differentially expressed in infected compared to naïve mice (>2 fold change, p<0.05) including miR-199a-3p, miR-199a-5p, miR-214 and miR-21, which have previously been associated with liver fibrosis in other settings. Five of the mouse miRNAs were also significantly elevated in serum by twelve weeks post-infection. Sequencing of small RNAs from serum confirmed the presence of these miRNAs and further revealed eleven parasite-derived miRNAs that were detectable by eight weeks post infection. Analysis of host and parasite miRNA abundance by qRT-PCR was extended to serum of patients from low and high infection sites in Zimbabwe and Uganda. The host-derived miRNAs failed to distinguish uninfected from infected individuals. However, analysis of three of the parasite-derived miRNAs (miR-277, miR-3479-3p and bantam) could detect infected individuals from low and high infection intensity sites with specificity/sensitivity values of 89%/80% and 80%/90%, respectively. Conclusions This work identifies parasite-derived miRNAs as novel markers of S. mansoni infection in both mice and humans, with the potential to be used with existing techniques to improve S. mansoni diagnosis. In contrast, although host miRNAs are differentially expressed in the liver during infection their abundance levels in serum are variable in human patients and may be useful in cases of extreme pathology but likely hold limited value for detecting prevalence of infection. PMID:24587461

  6. Determinants of helminth infection in a subterranean rodent, the Cape dune mole-rat ( Bathyergus suillus ).

    PubMed

    Lutermann, Heike; Bennett, Nigel C

    2012-06-01

    The helminth fauna of the largest bathyergid, the Cape mole-rat ( Bathyergus suillus ) was studied throughout an entire calendar year. The species richness encountered was low, with only 3 species of nematodes ( Longistriata bathyergi , Mammalakis macrospiculum, and Trichostrongylus sp.) and 2 species of cestodes ( Taenia sp. and Rodentolepis sp.). At less than 10%, the prevalence for all helminths species was similarly low and may be a result of the solitary lifestyle and the subterranean habitat exploited by this rodent. Clear seasonal patterns were apparent for the most common nematode ( L. bathyergi ), and prevalence and abundance were highest among non-pregnant females compared to males and pregnant females. Dispersal patterns associated with the mating system of the host could explain this pattern. In contrast, the prevalence of the most common cestode ( Taenia sp.) was neither determined by season nor host sex, suggesting that foraging habits may constantly expose B. suillus to this parasite. PMID:22263622

  7. Co-Infection With Intestinal Helminths Markedly Reduces Proinflammatory Cytokines And Disease Severity In Natural And Induced High-Pathology Schistosomiasis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infection with the trematode helminth Schistosoma mansoni results in a parasite egg-induced, CD4 T cell-mediated, hepato-intestinal granulomatous and fibrosing inflammation that varies greatly in severity, with a higher frequency of milder forms typical in endemic areas. One possible explanation is...

  8. Helminth-Induced Interleukin-4 Abrogates Invariant Natural Killer T Cell Activation-Associated Clearance of Bacterial Infection

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Yi-Ju; Fu, Chi-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Helminth infections affect 1 billion people worldwide and render these individuals susceptible to bacterial coinfection through incompletely understood mechanisms. This includes urinary tract coinfection by bacteria and Schistosoma haematobium worms, the etiologic agent of urogenital schistosomiasis. To study the mechanisms of S. haematobium-bacterial urinary tract coinfections, we combined the first tractable model of urogenital schistosomiasis with an established mouse model of bacterial urinary tract infection (UTI). A single bladder exposure to S. haematobium eggs triggers interleukin-4 (IL-4) production and makes BALB/c mice susceptible to bacterial UTI when they are otherwise resistant. Ablation of IL-4 receptor alpha (IL-4Rα) signaling restored the baseline resistance of BALB/c mice to bacterial UTI despite prior exposure to S. haematobium eggs. Interestingly, numbers of NKT cells were decreased in coexposed versus bacterially monoinfected bladders. Given that schistosome-induced, non-natural killer T (NKT) cell leukocyte infiltration may dilute NKT cell numbers in the bladders of coexposed mice without exerting a specific functional effect on these cells, we next examined NKT cell biology on a per-cell basis. Invariant NKT (iNKT) cells from coexposed mice expressed less gamma interferon (IFN-γ) per cell than did those from mice with UTI alone. Moreover, coexposure resulted in lower CD1d expression in bladder antigen-presenting cells (APC) than did bacterial UTI alone in an IL-4Rα-dependent fashion. Finally, coexposed mice were protected from prolonged bacterial infection by administration of α-galactosylceramide, an iNKT cell agonist. Our findings point to a previously unappreciated role for helminth-induced IL-4 in impairment of iNKT cell-mediated clearance of bacterial coexposure. PMID:24643536

  9. Lymphotoxin-Dependent B Cell-FRC Crosstalk Promotes De Novo Follicle Formation and Antibody Production following Intestinal Helminth Infection.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Lalit Kumar; Lebon, Luc; Mosconi, Ilaria; Yang, Chen-Ying; Scandella, Elke; Ludewig, Burkhard; Luther, Sanjiv A; Harris, Nicola L

    2016-05-17

    Secondary lymphoid tissues provide specialized niches for the initiation of adaptive immune responses and undergo a remarkable expansion in response to inflammatory stimuli. Although the formation of B cell follicles was previously thought to be restricted to the postnatal period, we observed that the draining mesenteric lymph nodes (mLN) of helminth-infected mice form an extensive number of new, centrally located, B cell follicles in response to IL-4Rα-dependent inflammation. IL-4Rα signaling promoted LTα1β2 (lymphotoxin) expression by B cells, which then interacted with CCL19 positive stromal cells to promote lymphoid enlargement and the formation of germinal center containing B cell follicles. Importantly, de novo follicle formation functioned to promote both total and parasite-specific antibody production. These data reveal a role for type 2 inflammation in promoting stromal cell remodeling and de novo follicle formation by promoting B cell-stromal cell crosstalk. PMID:27160906

  10. Parasitic infection by larval helminths in Antarctic fishes: pathological changes and impact on the host body condition index.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Mario; Mattiucci, Simonetta; Work, Thierry; Cimmaruta, Roberta; Nardi, Valentina; Cipriani, Paolo; Bellisario, Bruno; Nascetti, Giuseppe

    2013-07-22

    We examined pathological changes and relationship between body condition index (BCI) and parasitic infection in 5 species of fish, including 42 icefish Chionodraco hamatus (Channichtyidae), 2 dragonfish Cygnodraco mawsoni (Bathydraconidae), 30 emerald rock cod Trematomus bernacchii, 46 striped rock cod T. hansoni and 9 dusty rock cod T. newnesi (Nototheniidae) from the Ross Sea, Antarctica. All parasites were identified by a combination of morphology and mtDNA cytochrome-oxidase-2 sequence (mtDNA cox2) analysis, except Contracaecum osculatum s.l., for which only the latter was used. Five larval taxa were associated with pathological changes including 2 sibling species (D and E) of the C. osculatum species complex and 3 cestodes including plerocercoids of a diphyllobothridean, and 2 tetraphyllidean forms including cercoids with monolocular and bilocular bothridia. The most heavily infected hosts were C. hamatus and C. mawsoni, with C. hamatus most often infected by C. osculatum sp. D and sp. E and diphyllobothrideans, while C. mawsoni was most often infected with tetraphyllidean forms. Histologically, all fish showed varying severity of chronic inflammation associated with larval forms of helminths. Diphyllobothrideans and C. osculatum spp. were located in gastric muscularis or liver and were associated with necrosis and mild to marked fibrosis. Moderate multifocal rectal mucosal chronic inflammation was associated with attached tetraphyllidean scolices. C. hamatus showed a strong negative correlation between BCI and parasite burden. PMID:23872857

  11. Parasitic infection by larval helminths in Antarctic fishes: pathological changes and impact on the host body condition index

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Santoro, Mario; Mattiucci, Simonetta; Work, Thierry; Cimmaruta, Roberta; Nardi, Valentina; Cipriani, Paolo; Bellisario, Bruno; Nascetti, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    We examined pathological changes and relationship between body condition index (BCI) and parasitic infection in 5 species of fish, including 42 icefish Chionodraco hamatus (Channichtyidae), 2 dragonfish Cygnodraco mawsoni (Bathydraconidae), 30 emerald rock cod Trematomus bernacchii, 46 striped rock cod T. hansoni and 9 dusty rock cod T. newnesi (Nototheniidae) from the Ross Sea, Antarctica. All parasites were identified by a combination of morphology and mtDNA cytochrome-oxidase-2 sequence (mtDNA cox2) analysis, except Contracaecum osculatum s.l., for which only the latter was used. Five larval taxa were associated with pathological changes including 2 sibling species (D and E) of the C. osculatum species complex and 3 cestodes including plerocercoids of a diphyllobothridean, and 2 tetraphyllidean forms including cercoids with monolocular and bilocular bothridia. The most heavily infected hosts were C. hamatus and C. mawsoni, with C. hamatus most often infected by C. osculatum sp. D and sp. E and diphyllobothrideans, while C. mawsoni was most often infected with tetraphyllidean forms. Histologically, all fish showed varying severity of chronic inflammation associated with larval forms of helminths. Diphyllobothrideans and C. osculatum spp. were located in gastric muscularis or liver and were associated with necrosis and mild to marked fibrosis. Moderate multifocal rectal mucosal chronic inflammation was associated with attached tetraphyllidean scolices. C. hamatus showed a strong negative correlation between BCI and parasite burden.

  12. Helminth parasites of small mammals in Kerman province, southeastern Iran.

    PubMed

    Fasihi Harandi, Majid; Madjdzadeh, Seyed Massoud; Ahmadinejad, Mohammad

    2016-03-01

    Fifty-one specimens of small mammals were collected from different locations of Kerman province, southeastern Iran during 2007 and 2009. They constitute six species of rodents (Meriones persicus, Meriones libycus, Tatera indica, Dryomys nitedula and Mus musculus), one species of Erinaceomorpha (Paraechinus hypomelas) and one species of hare (Lepus europeus). The rate of helminthic infection was 45.1 % among all trapped specimens. In 28 out of 51 hunted specimens no intestinal helminth parasite was found. Of all mammals examined, 15 (29.4 %) had nematodes, 5 (9.8 %) had cestodes, and 3 (5.9 %) were infected with Acanthocephala. Five different species of parasites were isolated: Trichuris muris, Moniliformis moniliformis, Hymenolepis diminuta, Hymenolepis nana, and Mastophorus muris. Results of the present study indicate the potential of small mammals in the transmission of zoonotic helminthic infection. PMID:27065607

  13. A faecal analysis of helminth infections in wild and captive wolves, Canis lupus L., in Poland.

    PubMed

    Szafrańska, E; Wasielewski, O; Bereszyński, A

    2010-12-01

    One hundred and three samples of faeces of reared grey wolves from four locations (Stobnica Park and Zoological Gardens in Bydgoszcz, Wrocław and Cracow) and twenty-six samples of faeces from two free-roaming packs of grey wolf (Canis lupus L.) in Piła (Forest Divisions: Borne Sulinowo, Czarnobór, Jastrowo) and Zielona Góra (Forest Divisions: Torzym, Krosno Odrzańskie) were collected between 2005 and 2007. Helminth eggs were detected in 78.6% of faecal samples of reared grey wolves and in 88.4% of those of free-roaming wolves. The trematode Alaria alata (80.1%) and nematodes Eucoleus aerophilus (23.1%) and Spirocerca lupi (11.5%) were only detected from wild packs of wolves and the nematodes Ancylostoma caninum (35.9%), Trichuris vulpis (15.5%) and Toxocara canis (3.9%) were only detected from reared wolves. Differences were observed in the prevalence and composition of helminth fauna between reared and wild grey wolves and our results are compared with those from studies within Poland and elsewhere in Europe. PMID:20236557

  14. Soil-transmitted helminth infections and associated risk factors in three Orang Asli tribes in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Anuar, Tengku Shahrul; Salleh, Fatmah Md; Moktar, Norhayati

    2014-01-01

    Currently, information on prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections among different tribes of Orang Asli (aboriginal) is scarce in Malaysia. The present study is a cross-sectional study aimed at determining the factors associated with the prevalence of STH infections among the Proto-Malay, Negrito and Senoi tribes. Faecal samples were collected from 500 participants and socioeconomic data was collected via pre-tested questionnaire. All samples were processed using formalin-ether sedimentation and Wheatley's trichrome staining. Trichuris trichiura (57%) was the most common STH seen among the participants, followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (23.8%) and hookworm (7.4%). Trichuriasis and ascariasis showed an age-dependency relationship; significantly higher rates were observed among Senois who aged <15 years. Likewise, Negritos also showed an age-dependency association with ascariasis affecting mainly the under 15 years old individuals. Multivariate logistic regression model indicated the following predictors of trichuriasis among these communities; being aged <15 years, consuming raw vegetables, belonging to a large household members (≥8) and earning low household income (infection; consuming raw vegetables and eating contaminated fresh fruits. PMID:24525479

  15. Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections and Associated Risk Factors in Three Orang Asli Tribes in Peninsular Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Anuar, Tengku Shahrul; Salleh, Fatmah Md; Moktar, Norhayati

    2014-01-01

    Currently, information on prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections among different tribes of Orang Asli (aboriginal) is scarce in Malaysia. The present study is a cross-sectional study aimed at determining the factors associated with the prevalence of STH infections among the Proto-Malay, Negrito and Senoi tribes. Faecal samples were collected from 500 participants and socioeconomic data was collected via pre-tested questionnaire. All samples were processed using formalin-ether sedimentation and Wheatley's trichrome staining. Trichuris trichiura (57%) was the most common STH seen among the participants, followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (23.8%) and hookworm (7.4%). Trichuriasis and ascariasis showed an age-dependency relationship; significantly higher rates were observed among Senois who aged <15 years. Likewise, Negritos also showed an age-dependency association with ascariasis affecting mainly the under 15 years old individuals. Multivariate logistic regression model indicated the following predictors of trichuriasis among these communities; being aged <15 years, consuming raw vegetables, belonging to a large household members (≥8) and earning low household income (infection; consuming raw vegetables and eating contaminated fresh fruits. PMID:24525479

  16. Analysis of Association Between Remotely Sensed (RS) Data and Soil Transmitted Helminthes Infection Using Geographical Information Systems (GIS): Boaco, Nicaragua

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MorenoMadrinan, Max J.; Al-Hamdan, Mohammad Z.; Parajon, David G.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Luvall, Jeffrey; Podest, Erika; Parajon, Laura C.; Martinez, Roberto A.; Estes, Sue

    2011-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminths are intestinal nematodes that can infect all members of a population but specially school-age children living in poverty. Infection can be significantly reversed with anthelmintic drug treatments and sanitation improvement. Implementation of effective public health programs requires reliable and updated information to identify areas at higher risk and to calculate amount of drug required. Geo-referenced in situ prevalence data will be overlaid over an ecological map derived from RS data using ARC Map 9.3 (ESRI). Prevalence data and RS data matching at the same geographical location will be analyzed for correlation and those variables from RS data that better correlate with prevalence will be included in a multivariate regression model. Temperature, vegetation, and distance to bodies of water will be inferred using data from Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Landsat TM and ETM+. Elevation will be estimated with data from The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Prevalence and intensity of infections are determined by parasitological survey (Kato Katz) of children enrolled in rural schools in Boaco, Nicaragua, in the communities of El Roblar, Cumaica Norte, Malacatoya 1, and Malacatoya 2). This study will demonstrate the importance of an integrated GIS/RS approach to define sampling clusters without the need for any ground-based survey. Such information is invaluable to identify areas of high risk and to geographically target control programs that maximize cost-effectiveness and sanitation efforts.

  17. The Intestinal Microbiota Contributes to the Ability of Helminths to Modulate Allergic Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Zaiss, Mario M.; Rapin, Alexis; Lebon, Luc; Dubey, Lalit Kumar; Mosconi, Ilaria; Sarter, Kerstin; Piersigilli, Alessandra; Menin, Laure; Walker, Alan W.; Rougemont, Jacques; Paerewijck, Oonagh; Geldhof, Peter; McCoy, Kathleen D.; Macpherson, Andrew J.; Croese, John; Giacomin, Paul R.; Loukas, Alex; Junt, Tobias; Marsland, Benjamin J.; Harris, Nicola L.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Intestinal helminths are potent regulators of their host’s immune system and can ameliorate inflammatory diseases such as allergic asthma. In the present study we have assessed whether this anti-inflammatory activity was purely intrinsic to helminths, or whether it also involved crosstalk with the local microbiota. We report that chronic infection with the murine helminth Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri (Hpb) altered the intestinal habitat, allowing increased short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production. Transfer of the Hpb-modified microbiota alone was sufficient to mediate protection against allergic asthma. The helminth-induced anti-inflammatory cytokine secretion and regulatory T cell suppressor activity that mediated the protection required the G protein-coupled receptor (GPR)-41. A similar alteration in the metabolic potential of intestinal bacterial communities was observed with diverse parasitic and host species, suggesting that this represents an evolutionary conserved mechanism of host-microbe-helminth interactions. PMID:26522986

  18. The Intestinal Microbiota Contributes to the Ability of Helminths to Modulate Allergic Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Zaiss, Mario M; Rapin, Alexis; Lebon, Luc; Dubey, Lalit Kumar; Mosconi, Ilaria; Sarter, Kerstin; Piersigilli, Alessandra; Menin, Laure; Walker, Alan W; Rougemont, Jacques; Paerewijck, Oonagh; Geldhof, Peter; McCoy, Kathleen D; Macpherson, Andrew J; Croese, John; Giacomin, Paul R; Loukas, Alex; Junt, Tobias; Marsland, Benjamin J; Harris, Nicola L

    2015-11-17

    Intestinal helminths are potent regulators of their host's immune system and can ameliorate inflammatory diseases such as allergic asthma. In the present study we have assessed whether this anti-inflammatory activity was purely intrinsic to helminths, or whether it also involved crosstalk with the local microbiota. We report that chronic infection with the murine helminth Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri (Hpb) altered the intestinal habitat, allowing increased short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production. Transfer of the Hpb-modified microbiota alone was sufficient to mediate protection against allergic asthma. The helminth-induced anti-inflammatory cytokine secretion and regulatory T cell suppressor activity that mediated the protection required the G protein-coupled receptor (GPR)-41. A similar alteration in the metabolic potential of intestinal bacterial communities was observed with diverse parasitic and host species, suggesting that this represents an evolutionary conserved mechanism of host-microbe-helminth interactions. PMID:26522986

  19. Potentially Zoonotic Helminthiases of Murid Rodents from the Indo-Chinese Peninsula: Impact of Habitat and the Risk of Human Infection

    PubMed Central

    Chaisiri, Kittipong; Siribat, Praphaiphat; Ribas, Alexis

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In this study, we report the potential rodent-borne zoonotic helminths in wild-caught murid rodents from four categorized habitats—forest, nonflooded land, irrigated land, and human settlement in seven localities of Thailand, Cambodia, and Lao PDR. Out of 2478 rodent samples, 735 (29.7%) were infected by at least one of the following zoonotic helminth species: Echinostoma malayanum, Echinostoma ilocanum, Plagiorchis muris, Raillietina spp., Hymenolepis diminuta, Hymenolepis nana, Cyclodontostomum purivisi, and Moniliformis moniliformis. Raillietina spp. showed the highest prevalence (13.8%), followed by H. diminuta (8.6%), H. nana (6.7%), and C. purvisi (1.0%). Habitat affected the intensity of helminth infection in murid rodent hosts. Specific habitats favoring each zoonotic helminth species are discussed in relation to the risk of human infection. Season and host maturity influenced intensity of total zoonotic helminths, but there was no influence of host gender. However, in terms of individual helminth species, female rodents were more infected by E. malayanum, E. ilocanum, and C. purvisi than males. Among the rodent species, Rattus tanezumi seems to play the most important role as a reservoir by hosting seven zoonotic heminth species. This rat is ubiquitously found in all types of the habitats, suggesting that it can act as an important bridge species, carrying parasites across different habitats. PMID:25629783

  20. Impact of Long-Term Treatment with Ivermectin on the Prevalence and Intensity of Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections

    PubMed Central

    Moncayo, Ana Lucia; Vaca, Maritza; Amorim, Leila; Rodriguez, Alejandro; Erazo, Silvia; Oviedo, Gisela; Quinzo, Isabel; Padilla, Margarita; Chico, Martha; Lovato, Raquel; Gomez, Eduardo; Barreto, Mauricio L.; Cooper, Philip J.

    2008-01-01

    Background Control of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections relies on the periodic and long-term administration of anthelmintic drugs to high-risk groups, particularly school-age children living in endemic areas. There is limited data on the effectiveness of long-term periodic anthelmintic treatment on the prevalence of STHs, particularly from operational programmes. The current study investigated the impact of 15 to 17 years of treatment with the broad-spectrum anthelmintic ivermectin, used for the control of onchocerciasis, on STH prevalence and intensity in school-age and pre-school children. Methods and Findings A cross-sectional study was conducted in communities that had received annual or twice-annual ivermectin treatments and geographically adjacent communities that had not received treatment in two districts of Esmeraldas Province in Ecuador. Stool samples were collected from school-age children and examined for STH infection using the Kato-Katz and formol-ether concentration methods. Samples were collected also from pre-school children and examined by the formol-ether concentration method. Data on risk factors for STH infection were collected by parental questionnaire. We sampled a total of 3,705 school-age children (6–16 years) from 31 treated and 27 non-treated communities, and 1,701 pre-school children aged 0–5 years from 18 treated and 18 non-treated communities. Among school-age children, ivermectin treatment had significant effects on the prevalence (adjusted OR =  0.06, 95% CI 0.03–0.14) and intensity of Trichuris trichiura infection (adjusted RR = 0.28, 95% CI 0.11–0.70), but appeared to have no impact on Ascaris lumbricoides or hookworm infection. Reduced prevalence and intensities of T. trichiura infection were observed among children not eligible to receive ivermectina, providing some evidence of reduced transmission of T. trichiura infection in communities receiving mass ivermectin treatments. Conclusion Annual and twice

  1. An essential role for TH2-type response in limiting acute tissue damage during experimental helminth infection.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Helminths induce potent Th2-type immune responses that can lead to worm expulsion, but it remains undetermined whether components of this response can enhance the wound healing responses elicited as these large multi-cellular parasites traffic thru vital tissues. We used a model of helminth infecti...

  2. Mobile Phone Microscopy for the Diagnosis of Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections: A Proof-of-Concept Study

    PubMed Central

    Bogoch, Isaac I.; Andrews, Jason R.; Speich, Benjamin; Utzinger, Jürg; Ame, Shaali M.; Ali, Said M.; Keiser, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    We created a mobile phone microscope and assessed its accuracy for the diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminths compared with conventional microscopy. Mobile phone microscopy has a sensitivity of 69.4% for detecting any helminth egg and sensitivities of 81.0%, 54.4%, and 14.3% for the diagnosis of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm respectively. PMID:23478580

  3. Elimination of Iron Deficiency Anemia and Soil Transmitted Helminth Infection: Evidence from a Fifty-four Month Iron-Folic Acid and De-worming Program

    PubMed Central

    Casey, Gerard J.; Montresor, Antonio; Cavalli-Sforza, Luca T.; Thu, Hoang; Phu, Luong B.; Tinh, Ta T.; Tien, Nong T.; Phuc, Tran Q.; Biggs, Beverley-Ann

    2013-01-01

    Background Intermittent iron-folic acid supplementation and regular de-worming are effective initiatives to reduce anemia, iron deficiency, iron deficiency anemia, and soil transmitted helminth infections in women of reproductive age. However, few studies have assessed the long-term effectiveness of population-based interventions delivered in resource-constrained settings. Methodology/Principal Findings The objectives were to evaluate the impact of weekly iron-folic acid supplementation and de-worming on mean hemoglobin and the prevalence of anaemia, iron deficiency, and soil transmitted helminth infection in a rural population of women in northern Vietnam and to identify predictive factors for hematological outcomes. A prospective cohort design was used to evaluate a population-based supplementation and deworming program over 54 months. The 389 participants were enrolled just prior to commencement of the intervention. After 54 months 76% (95% CI [68%, 84%]) were taking the iron-folic acid supplement and 95% (95% CI [93%, 98%]) had taken the most recently distributed deworming treatment. Mean hemoglobin rose from 122 g/L (95% CI [120, 124]) to 131 g/L (95% CI [128, 134]) and anemia prevalence fell from 38% (95% CI [31%, 45%]) to 18% (95% CI [12%, 23%]); however, results differed significantly between ethnic groups. Iron deficiency fell from 23% (95% CI [17%, 29%]) to 8% (95% CI [4%, 12%]), while the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia was reduced to 4% (95% CI [1%, 7%]). The prevalence of hookworm infection was reduced from 76% (95% CI [68%, 83%]) to 11% (95% CI [5%, 18%]). The level of moderate or heavy infestation of any soil-transmitted helminth was reduced to less than 1%. Conclusions/Significance Population-based interventions can efficiently and effectively reduce anemia and practically eliminate iron deficiency anemia and moderate to heavy soil transmitted helminth infections, maintaining them below the level of public health concern. PMID:23593517

  4. Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections and Nutritional Status in School-age Children from Rural Communities in Honduras

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Ana Lourdes; Gabrie, Jose Antonio; Usuanlele, Mary-Theresa; Rueda, Maria Mercedes; Canales, Maritza; Gyorkos, Theresa W.

    2013-01-01

    Background Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are endemic in Honduras and efforts are underway to decrease their transmission. However, current evidence is lacking in regards to their prevalence, intensity and their impact on children's health. Objectives To evaluate the prevalence and intensity of STH infections and their association with nutritional status in a sample of Honduran children. Methodology A cross-sectional study was done among school-age children residing in rural communities in Honduras, in 2011. Demographic data was obtained, hemoglobin and protein concentrations were determined in blood samples and STH infections investigated in single-stool samples by Kato-Katz. Anthropometric measurements were taken to calculate height-for-age (HAZ), BMI-for-age (BAZ) and weight-for-age (WAZ) to determine stunting, thinness and underweight, respectively. Results Among 320 children studied (48% girls, aged 7–14 years, mean 9.76±1.4) an overall STH prevalence of 72.5% was found. Children >10 years of age were generally more infected than 7–10 year-olds (p = 0.015). Prevalence was 30%, 67% and 16% for Ascaris, Trichuris and hookworms, respectively. Moderate-to-heavy infections as well as polyparasitism were common among the infected children (36% and 44%, respectively). Polyparasitism was four times more likely to occur in children attending schools with absent or annual deworming schedules than in pupils attending schools deworming twice a year (p<0.001). Stunting was observed in 5.6% of children and it was associated with increasing age. Also, 2.2% of studied children were thin, 1.3% underweight and 2.2% had anemia. Moderate-to-heavy infections and polyparasitism were significantly associated with decreased values in WAZ and marginally associated with decreased values in HAZ. Conclusions STH infections remain a public health concern in Honduras and despite current efforts were highly prevalent in the studied community. The role of multiparasite

  5. Coprological prevalence and intensity of helminth infection in working horses in Lesotho.

    PubMed

    Upjohn, Melissa M; Shipton, Kate; Lerotholi, Thabo; Attwood, Gillian; Verheyen, Kristien L P

    2010-12-01

    This study aimed to (1) estimate infection prevalence of strongyle, Oxyuris equi and Parascaris equorum species and the intensity of infection with strongyles in working horses in lowland Lesotho and (2) investigate associations between infection and horse age, sex and owner-reported use of anthelmintics. In a cross-sectional survey, fresh faecal samples were obtained from 305 randomly selected horses and worm egg counts performed using a validated field laboratory kit. Details of anthelmintic use were collected using a standardised face-to-face owner questionnaire. Infection prevalence estimates for each species were calculated, as were infection intensity estimates for strongyle species. Logistic regression was used to investigate associations between exposure variables and infection status/intensity. Prevalence of strongyle infection was 88.2%; 11.8% of horses were not infected and infection intensity was low (1-500 eggs per gram (epg)) in 19.7%, medium (501-1,000 epg) in 19.7%) and high (>1,001 epg) in 48.8%. Decreasing strongyle infection intensity was associated with the use of proprietary equine anthelmintic products (OR 0.18, 95%CI 0.11-0.30, p<0.0001). Prevalence of O. equi infection was 6.2%; the odds of infection with this parasite decreased with increasing horse age (OR 0.84, 95%CI 0.72-0.97, p = 0.02). P. equorum infection prevalence was 21.6%; no statistically significant associations with the investigated exposure variables were found. In conclusion, strongyle infection is endemic in working horses in lowland Lesotho, but proprietary equine anthelmintics assist in managing infection. The apparent lack of age-acquired immunity to P. equorum infection may deserve further investigation. Although O. equi infection is less widespread, measures to protect younger animals may be appropriate. PMID:20574819

  6. Malnutrition and soil-transmitted helminthic infection among Orang Asli pre-school children in Gua Musang, Kelantan, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geik, Oui Pek; Sidek, Razalee

    2015-09-01

    Malnutrition and soil-transmitted helminthic (STH) infection is still a major concern among Orang Asli pre-school children in Malaysia. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of malnutrition and STH infection. Besides, this study was also to identify the association between malnutrition and STH. A total of 256 Orang Asli (131 males and 125 females) from Temiar sub-tribes pre-school children aged one to six years from 19 villages in three Orang Asli settlements of Pos Hendrop, Pos Balar and Pos Tohoi located in Gua Musang, Kelantan had participated in this cross-sectional study between September to December 2014. A face-to-face interview was carried out using pre-tested questionnaires on socio-demographic. Children were measured on their body weight and height. The collected stool samples were examined using direct wet smear method for the presence of STH parasite. The results showed the prevalence of underweight and stunting among the children were 45.3% and 76.2% respectively. A total of 161 (62.9%) subjects were positively infected by at least one species of STH. The overall parasite infections were Ascaris lumbricoides (41.0%), Trichuris trichiura (28.5%) and hookworm (2.0%). From the total infected children, 8.6% of them were infected by two species of STH. This research revealed that gender and age group showed statistically significance with stunted with (p=0.003, p=0.049) respectively. Gender and age groups also reported significant association to STH infection among the subjects with (p=0.013, p=0.001) respectively. However, our results indicated that there was no significant association between STH infection with underweight and stunted. Our study reported that the prevalence of malnutrition and STH are still a major concern for the public health and a threat among Orang Asli pre-school children in Kelantan. Immediate action and innovative intervention should be taken by the Government to overcome the problems as these children are the

  7. Bayesian Geostatistical Model-Based Estimates of Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infection in Nigeria, Including Annual Deworming Requirements

    PubMed Central

    Oluwole, Akinola S.; Ekpo, Uwem F.; Karagiannis-Voules, Dimitrios-Alexios; Abe, Eniola M.; Olamiju, Francisca O.; Isiyaku, Sunday; Okoronkwo, Chukwu; Saka, Yisa; Nebe, Obiageli J.; Braide, Eka I.; Mafiana, Chiedu F.; Utzinger, Jürg; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2015-01-01

    Background The acceleration of the control of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections in Nigeria, emphasizing preventive chemotherapy, has become imperative in light of the global fight against neglected tropical diseases. Predictive risk maps are an important tool to guide and support control activities. Methodology STH infection prevalence data were obtained from surveys carried out in 2011 using standard protocols. Data were geo-referenced and collated in a nationwide, geographic information system database. Bayesian geostatistical models with remotely sensed environmental covariates and variable selection procedures were utilized to predict the spatial distribution of STH infections in Nigeria. Principal Findings We found that hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Trichuris trichiura infections are endemic in 482 (86.8%), 305 (55.0%), and 55 (9.9%) locations, respectively. Hookworm and A. lumbricoides infection co-exist in 16 states, while the three species are co-endemic in 12 states. Overall, STHs are endemic in 20 of the 36 states of Nigeria, including the Federal Capital Territory of Abuja. The observed prevalence at endemic locations ranged from 1.7% to 51.7% for hookworm, from 1.6% to 77.8% for A. lumbricoides, and from 1.0% to 25.5% for T. trichiura. Model-based predictions ranged from 0.7% to 51.0% for hookworm, from 0.1% to 82.6% for A. lumbricoides, and from 0.0% to 18.5% for T. trichiura. Our models suggest that day land surface temperature and dense vegetation are important predictors of the spatial distribution of STH infection in Nigeria. In 2011, a total of 5.7 million (13.8%) school-aged children were predicted to be infected with STHs in Nigeria. Mass treatment at the local government area level for annual or bi-annual treatment of the school-aged population in Nigeria in 2011, based on World Health Organization prevalence thresholds, were estimated at 10.2 million tablets. Conclusions/Significance The predictive risk maps and estimated

  8. Proteomic profile of Ortleppascaris sp.: A helminth parasite of Rhinella marina in the Amazonian region

    PubMed Central

    e Silva, Jefferson Pereira; Furtado, Adriano Penha; dos Santos, Jeannie Nascimento

    2014-01-01

    Ortleppascaris sp. is a helminth that, in its larval stage, infects the liver parenchyma of the amphibian Rhinella marina, resulting in severe physiological and pathological changes. This study used a proteomic approach to determine the overall profile of proteins expressed in a somatic extract from the nematodes to investigate the relationship between the parasite and its host. A total of 60 abundant proteins were selected from the two-dimensional electrophoresis, identified by peptide mass fingerprinting, and grouped based on their Gene Ontology by the biological processes in which they are potentially involved. Important helminthic derivatives, such as the immunoreactive As37 antigen, guanylyl cyclases, proteolytic enzymes, and other proteins conserved among different parasites, were identified through homology. This study represents a new approach to helminth-related proteomic studies using an amphibian animal model. Furthermore, this study identified protein markers that are important to the host–parasite relationship and the viability, development, infectivity, and virulence of helminths. PMID:25161903

  9. Association study in naturally infected helminth layers shows evidence for influence of interferon-gamma gene variants on Ascaridia galli worm burden.

    PubMed

    Lühken, Gesine; Gauly, Matthias; Kaufmann, Falko; Erhardt, Georg

    2011-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes for interleukin-4, -13 and interferon-gamma, and 21 additional SNPs which previously had been significantly associated with immune traits in the chicken, were genotyped in white and brown layer hens and analyzed for their association with helminth burden following natural infections. A nucleotide substitution located upstream of the promoter of the interferon-gamma gene was significantly associated with the log transformed number of Ascaridia galli in the brown layer line (genotype CC: 6.4 ± 1.0 worms; genotype CT: 11.7 ± 2.2 worms). Therefore, IFNG seems to be a promising candidate gene for further studies on helminth resistance in the chicken. PMID:21749701

  10. Association study in naturally infected helminth layers shows evidence for influence of interferon-gamma gene variants on Ascaridia galli worm burden

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes for interleukin-4, -13 and interferon-gamma, and 21 additional SNPs which previously had been significantly associated with immune traits in the chicken, were genotyped in white and brown layer hens and analyzed for their association with helminth burden following natural infections. A nucleotide substitution located upstream of the promoter of the interferon-gamma gene was significantly associated with the log transformed number of Ascaridia galli in the brown layer line (genotype CC: 6.4 ± 1.0 worms; genotype CT: 11.7 ± 2.2 worms). Therefore, IFNG seems to be a promising candidate gene for further studies on helminth resistance in the chicken. PMID:21749701

  11. Update on the mapping of prevalence and intensity of infection for soil-transmitted helminth infections in Latin America and the Caribbean: a call for action.

    PubMed

    Saboyá, Martha Idalí; Catalá, Laura; Nicholls, Rubén Santiago; Ault, Steven Kenyon

    2013-01-01

    It is estimated that in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) at least 13.9 million preschool age and 35.4 million school age children are at risk of infections by soil-transmitted helminths (STH): Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworms (Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale). Although infections caused by this group of parasites are associated with chronic deleterious effects on nutrition and growth, iron and vitamin A status and cognitive development in children, few countries in the LAC Region have implemented nationwide surveys on prevalence and intensity of infection. The aim of this study was to identify gaps on the mapping of prevalence and intensity of STH infections based on data published between 2000 and 2010 in LAC, and to call for including mapping as part of action plans against these infections. A total of 335 published data points for STH prevalence were found for 18 countries (11.9% data points for preschool age children, 56.7% for school age children and 31.3% for children from 1 to 14 years of age). We found that 62.7% of data points showed prevalence levels above 20%. Data on the intensity of infection were found for seven countries. The analysis also highlights that there is still an important lack of data on prevalence and intensity of infection to determine the burden of disease based on epidemiological surveys, particularly among preschool age children. This situation is a challenge for LAC given that adequate planning of interventions such as deworming requires information on prevalence to determine the frequency of needed anthelmintic drug administration and to conduct monitoring and evaluation of progress in drug coverage. PMID:24069476

  12. Update on the Mapping of Prevalence and Intensity of Infection for Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections in Latin America and the Caribbean: A Call for Action

    PubMed Central

    Saboyá, Martha Idalí; Catalá, Laura; Nicholls, Rubén Santiago; Ault, Steven Kenyon

    2013-01-01

    It is estimated that in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) at least 13.9 million preschool age and 35.4 million school age children are at risk of infections by soil-transmitted helminths (STH): Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworms (Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale). Although infections caused by this group of parasites are associated with chronic deleterious effects on nutrition and growth, iron and vitamin A status and cognitive development in children, few countries in the LAC Region have implemented nationwide surveys on prevalence and intensity of infection. The aim of this study was to identify gaps on the mapping of prevalence and intensity of STH infections based on data published between 2000 and 2010 in LAC, and to call for including mapping as part of action plans against these infections. A total of 335 published data points for STH prevalence were found for 18 countries (11.9% data points for preschool age children, 56.7% for school age children and 31.3% for children from 1 to 14 years of age). We found that 62.7% of data points showed prevalence levels above 20%. Data on the intensity of infection were found for seven countries. The analysis also highlights that there is still an important lack of data on prevalence and intensity of infection to determine the burden of disease based on epidemiological surveys, particularly among preschool age children. This situation is a challenge for LAC given that adequate planning of interventions such as deworming requires information on prevalence to determine the frequency of needed anthelmintic drug administration and to conduct monitoring and evaluation of progress in drug coverage. PMID:24069476

  13. Helminth infections in animals and man: Population dynamics, host susceptibility and immuno-modeulatory effects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whipworm infections with the two closely related species, Trichuris trichiura and Trichuris suis are common in human and pigs, respectively. The intestinal anatomy and physiology and immune function of the two hosts are similar and we considered pigs a very useful model for human infections. In mo...

  14. Rapid Re-Infection with Soil-Transmitted Helminths after Triple-Dose Albendazole Treatment of School-Aged Children in Yunnan, People's Republic of China

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Peiling; Du, Zun-Wei; Wu, Fang-Wei; Jiang, Jin-Yong; Chen, Ran; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Hattendorf, Jan; Utzinger, Jürg; Steinmann, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Post-treatment soil-transmitted helminth re-infection patterns were studied as part of a randomized controlled trial among school-aged children from an ethnic minority group in Yunnan province, People's Republic of China. Children with a soil-transmitted helminth infection (N = 194) were randomly assigned to triple-dose albendazole or placebo and their infection status monitored over a 6-month period using the Kato-Katz and Baermann techniques. Baseline prevalence of Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, and Strongyloides stercoralis were 94.5%, 93.3%, 61.3%, and 3.1%, respectively, with more than half of the participants harboring triple-species infections. For the intervention group (N = 99), the 1-month post-treatment cure rates were 96.7%, 91.5%, and 19.6% for hookworm, A. lumbricoides, and T. trichiura, respectively. Egg reduction rates were above 88% for all three species. Rapid re-infection with A. lumbricoides was observed: the prevalence 4 and 6 months post-treatment was 75.8% and 83.8%, respectively. Re-infection with hookworm and T. trichiura was considerably slower. PMID:23690551

  15. Immunity-dependent reduction of segmented filamentous bacteria in mice infected with the helminthic parasite Nippostrongylus brasiliensis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Immune modulation by helminth (worm) parasites could protect the host against autoimmune diseases. We report that the parasitic nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis induces changes in the expression of antimicrobial peptides that are associated with marked microbial composition shifts, including re...

  16. Sensitivity of diagnostic tests for human soil-transmitted helminth infections: a meta-analysis in the absence of a true gold standard

    PubMed Central

    Nikolay, Birgit; Brooker, Simon J.; Pullan, Rachel L.

    2014-01-01

    Reliable, sensitive and practical diagnostic tests are an essential tool in disease control programmes for mapping, impact evaluation and surveillance. To provide a robust global assessment of the relative performance of available diagnostic tools for the detection of soil-transmitted helminths, we conducted a meta-analysis comparing the sensitivities and the quantitative performance of the most commonly used copro-microscopic diagnostic methods for soil-transmitted helminths, namely Kato-Katz, direct microscopy, formol-ether concentration, McMaster, FLOTAC and Mini-FLOTAC. In the absence of a perfect reference standard, we employed a Bayesian latent class analysis to estimate the true, unobserved sensitivity of compared diagnostic tests for each of the soil-transmitted helminth species Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and the hookworms. To investigate the influence of varying transmission settings we subsequently stratified the analysis by intensity of infection. Overall, sensitivity estimates varied between the different methods, ranging from 42.8% for direct microscopy to 92.7% for FLOTAC. The widely used double slide Kato-Katz method had a sensitivity of 74–95% for the three soil-transmitted helminth species at high infection intensity, however sensitivity dropped to 53–80% in low intensity settings, being lowest for hookworm and A. lumbricoides. The highest sensitivity, overall and in both intensity groups, was observed for the FLOTAC method, whereas the sensitivity of the Mini-FLOTAC method was comparable with the Kato-Katz method. FLOTAC average egg count estimates were significantly lower compared with Kato-Katz, while the compared McMaster counts varied. In conclusion, we demonstrate that the Kato-Katz and Mini-FLOTAC methods had comparable sensitivities. We further show that test sensitivity of the Kato-Katz method is reduced in low transmission settings. PMID:24992655

  17. Sensitivity of diagnostic tests for human soil-transmitted helminth infections: a meta-analysis in the absence of a true gold standard.

    PubMed

    Nikolay, Birgit; Brooker, Simon J; Pullan, Rachel L

    2014-10-01

    Reliable, sensitive and practical diagnostic tests are an essential tool in disease control programmes for mapping, impact evaluation and surveillance. To provide a robust global assessment of the relative performance of available diagnostic tools for the detection of soil-transmitted helminths, we conducted a meta-analysis comparing the sensitivities and the quantitative performance of the most commonly used copro-microscopic diagnostic methods for soil-transmitted helminths, namely Kato-Katz, direct microscopy, formol-ether concentration, McMaster, FLOTAC and Mini-FLOTAC. In the absence of a perfect reference standard, we employed a Bayesian latent class analysis to estimate the true, unobserved sensitivity of compared diagnostic tests for each of the soil-transmitted helminth species Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and the hookworms. To investigate the influence of varying transmission settings we subsequently stratified the analysis by intensity of infection. Overall, sensitivity estimates varied between the different methods, ranging from 42.8% for direct microscopy to 92.7% for FLOTAC. The widely used double slide Kato-Katz method had a sensitivity of 74-95% for the three soil-transmitted helminth species at high infection intensity, however sensitivity dropped to 53-80% in low intensity settings, being lowest for hookworm and A. lumbricoides. The highest sensitivity, overall and in both intensity groups, was observed for the FLOTAC method, whereas the sensitivity of the Mini-FLOTAC method was comparable with the Kato-Katz method. FLOTAC average egg count estimates were significantly lower compared with Kato-Katz, while the compared McMaster counts varied. In conclusion, we demonstrate that the Kato-Katz and Mini-FLOTAC methods had comparable sensitivities. We further show that test sensitivity of the Kato-Katz method is reduced in low transmission settings. PMID:24992655

  18. Establishment of gastro-intestinal helminth infections in free-range chickens: a longitudinal on farm study.

    PubMed

    Wongrak, Kalyakorn; Daş, Gürbüz; Moors, Eva; Sohnrey, Birgit; Gauly, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to monitor establishment and development of gastro-intestinal helminth infections in chickens over two production years (PY) on a free-range farm in Lower Saxony, Germany. The data were collected between July 2010 and June 2011 (PY1) and July 2011 and January 2013 (PY2), respectively. During PY1, Lohmann Brown classic (LB classic, N = 450) was tested, while in PY2 two different genotypes (230 LB classic, 230 LB plus) were used. The hens were kept in two mobile stalls that were moved to a new position at regular intervals. In both PY1 and PY2, 20 individual faecal samples per stall were randomly collected at monthly intervals in order to calculate the number of internal parasite eggs per gram of faeces (EPG). At the end of the laying periods, approximately 10% (N = 42) or more than 50% (N = 265) of hens were subjected to post-mortem parasitological examinations in PY1 and PY2, respectively. No parasite eggs were found in the faecal samples during PY1, whereas almost all of the hens (97.6%) were infected with Heterakis gallinarum (36 worms/hen) at the end of the period. In PY2, nematode eggs in faeces were found from the third month onwards at a low level, increasing considerably towards the final three months. There was no significant difference between the two genotypes of brown hens neither for EPG (P = 0.456) or for overall prevalence (P = 0.177). Mortality rate ranged from 18.3 to 27.4% but did not differ significantly between genotypes or production years. Average worm burden was 207 worms/hen in PY2. The most prevalent species were H. gallinarum (98.5%) followed by Ascaridia galli (96.2%) and Capillaria spp. (86.1%). Furthermore, three Capillaria species, C. obsignata, C. bursata and C. caudinflata were differentiated. In conclusion chickens kept on free-range farms are exposed to high risks of nematode infections and have high mortality rates with no obvious link to parasite infections. Once the farm environment is contaminated

  19. Impact of Six Rounds of Mass Drug Administration on Brugian Filariasis and Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections in Eastern Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Supali, Taniawati; Djuardi, Yenny; Bradley, Mark; Noordin, Rahmah; Rückert, Paul; Fischer, Peter U.

    2013-01-01

    Background The lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia timori occurs only in eastern Indonesia where it causes high morbidity. The absence of an animal reservoir, the inefficient transmission by Anopheles mosquitoes and the high sensitivity to DEC/albendazole treatment make this species a prime candidate for elimination by mass drug administration (MDA). Methodology/Principal Findings We evaluated the effect of MDA using DEC and albendazole on B. timori and soil transmitted helminths (STH) in a cross-sectional study of a sentinel village on Alor Island annually over a period of 10 years. Pre-MDA the microfilaria (MF) prevalence was 26% and 80% of the residents had filaria-specific IgG4 antibodies. In 2010, 34 months after the 6th round of MDA, MF and antibody rates were only 0.17% and 6.4%, respectively. The MDA campaign had also a beneficial effect on STH. Baseline prevalence rates for Ascaris, hookworm and Trichuris were 34%, 28%, and 11%, respectively; these rates were reduced to 27%, 4%, and 2% one year after the 5th round of MDA. Unfortunately, STH rates rebounded 34 months after cessation of MDA and approached pre-MDA rates. However, the intensity of STH infection in 2009 was still reduced, and no heavy infections were detected. Conclusions/Significance MDA with DEC/albendazole has had a major impact on B. timori MF and IgG4 antibody rates, providing a proof of principle that elimination is feasible. We also documented the value of annual DEC/albendazole as a mass de-worming intervention and the importance of continuing some form of STH control after cessation of MDA for filariasis. PMID:24349595

  20. Induction of Sd(a)-sialomucin and sulfated H-sulfomucin in mouse small intestinal mucosa by infection with parasitic helminth.

    PubMed

    Tsubokawa, Daigo; Ishiwata, Kenji; Goso, Yukinobu; Yokoyama, Takuya; Kanuka, Hirotaka; Ishihara, Kazuhiko; Nakamura, Takeshi; Tsuji, Naotoshi

    2015-06-01

    Mucin is a major component of mucus on gastrointestinal mucosa. Mucin alteration in the host is considered to be the principal event for expulsion of intestinal helminths. However, it is unclear what mucin alterations are induced by various helminth infections. In this study, the alterations of mouse small intestinal mucin after infection with two nematodes, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis and Heligmosomoides polygyrus, which parasitize the jejunal epithelium, and a cestode, Vampirolepis nana, which parasitizes the ileal epithelium, were examined biochemically and histologically using two anti-mucin monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), HCM31 and PGM34, which recognize Sd(a) antigen, NeuAcα2-3(GalNAcβ1-4)Galβ1-4GlcNAcβ-, and sulphated H type 2 antigen, Fucα1-2Galβ1-4GlcNAc(6SO₃H)β-, respectively. The goblet cell mucins that reacted with HCM31 increased conspicuously on the jejunal mucosa concurrently with expulsion of N. brasiliensis. Increased levels of HCM31-reactive mucins were observed in the jejunal mucosa after H. polygyrus infection, despite the ongoing parasitism. Goblet cell mucins that reacted with PGM34 increased on the ileal mucosa during V. nana parasitism. Small intestinal goblet cells reacting with the two mAbs were not observed in non-infected mice, although sialomucins and sulfomucins were abundantly present. Additionally, the number of ileal goblet cells that reacted with the two mAbs was increased at the time of expulsion of heterophyid trematode. These results indicate that the type of specific acidic mucins expressed after infection varies among species of intestinal helminth, and, furthermore, that the relationship with worm expulsion is also different. PMID:25819298

  1. Gender-Associated Differential Expression of Cytokines in Specific Areas of the Brain During Helminth Infection

    PubMed Central

    López-Griego, Lorena; Nava-Castro, Karen Elizabeth; López-Salazar, Valeria; Hernández-Cervantes, Rosalía; Tiempos Guzmán, Nelly; Muñiz-Hernández, Saé; Hernández-Bello, Romel; Besedovsky, Hugo O.; Pavón, Lenin; Becerril Villanueva, Luis Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Intraperitoneal infection with Taenia crassiceps cysticerci in mice alters several behaviors, including sexual, aggressive, and cognitive function. Cytokines and their receptors are produced in the central nervous system (CNS) by specific neural cell lineages under physiological and pathological conditions, regulating such processes as neurotransmission. This study is aimed to determine the expression patterns of cytokines in various areas of the brain in normal and T. crassiceps-infected mice in both genders and correlate them with the pathology of the CNS and parasite counts. IL-4, IFN-γ, and TNF-α levels in the hippocampus and olfactory bulb increased significantly in infected male mice, but IL-6 was downregulated in these regions in female mice. IL-1β expression in the hippocampus was unaffected by infection in either gender. Our novel findings demonstrate a clear gender-associated pattern of cytokine expression in specific areas of the brain in mammals that parasitic infection can alter. Thus, we hypothesize that intraperitoneal infection is sensed by the CNS of the host, wherein cytokines are important messengers in the host–parasite neuroimmunoendocrine network. PMID:25495255

  2. No Paragonimus in high-risk groups in Côte d'Ivoire, but considerable prevalence of helminths and intestinal protozoon infections

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Paragonimiasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by an infection with lung flukes that is transmitted through the consumption of undercooked crabs. The disease is often confused with tuberculosis. Paragonimiasis is thought to be endemic in south-western Côte d'Ivoire. Methods Two cross-sectional surveys were carried out in the first half of 2009 in patients attending two tuberculosis centres of Abidjan. A third cross-sectional survey was conducted in May 2010 in children of two primary schools in Dabou, where crabs are frequently consumed. Patients with chronic cough provided three sputum samples plus one stool sample. Sputum samples were examined for tuberculosis with an auramine staining technique and for Paragonimus eggs using a concentration technique. Stool samples were subjected to the Ritchie technique. Schoolchildren provided a single stool sample, and samples were subjected to the Kato-Katz and an ether-concentration technique. A pre-tested questionnaire was administered to patients and schoolchildren to investigate food consumption habits. Additionally, between June 2009 and August 2010, shellfish were purchased from markets in Abidjan and Dabou and examined for metacercariae. Results No human case of paragonimiasis was diagnosed. However, trematode infections were seen in 32 of the 272 shellfish examined (11.8%). Questionnaire results revealed that crab and pig meat is well cooked before consumption. Among the 278 patients with complete data records, 62 had tuberculosis, with a higher prevalence in males than females (28.8% vs. 13.9%, χ2 = 8.79, p = 0.003). The prevalence of helminths and intestinal protozoa was 4.6% and 16.9%, respectively. In the school survey, among 166 children with complete data records, the prevalence of helminths and intestinal protozoa was 22.3% and 48.8%, respectively. Boys had significantly higher prevalences of helminths and intestinal protozoa than girls. Hookworm was the predominant helminth species and

  3. Impact on prevalence of intestinal helminth infection in school children administered with seven annual rounds of diethyl carbamazine (DEC) with albendazole

    PubMed Central

    Sunish, I. P.; Rajendran, R.; Munirathinam, A.; Kalimuthu, M.; Kumar, V. Ashok; Nagaraj, J.; Tyagi, B. K.

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: One third of the world's population is infected with one or more of the most common soil-transmitted helminths (STH). Albendazole (ALB) is being administered with diethyl carbamazine (DEC) in filariasis endemic areas to eliminate lymphatic filariasis (LF) and helminth infections. In this study, the cumulative impact of seven annual rounds of mass drug administrations (MDA) of DEC and ALB on STH infection in school children in selected villages in southern India was determined. Methods: During 2001-2010, seven MDAs were implemented by the Tamil Nadu State Health Department, India. LF and STH infections were monitored in school children from 18 villages of the two treatment arms (viz, DEC alone and DEC+ALB). Kato-Katz cellophane quantitative thick smear technique was employed to estimate STH infections at three weeks, six months and one year post MDA. Results: Prior to treatment, an overall STH prevalence was 60 per cent. After each MDA, infection markedly reduced at three weeks post-treatment in both the arms. The prevalence increased at six months period, which was maintained up to one year. After seven rounds of MDA, the infection reduced from 60.44 to 12.48 per cent in DEC+ALB arm; while the reduction was negligible in DEC alone arm (58.77 to 52.70%). Interpretation & conclusions: Seven rounds of MDA with DEC+ALB reduced the infection load significantly, and further sustained low level of infection for 10 years. However, complete parasite elimination could not be achieved. To curtail STH infection in the community, MDA should be regularized and environmental sanitation measures need to be improved by effective community-based campaigns. PMID:25963494

  4. Down Regulation of the TCR Complex CD3ζ-Chain on CD3+ T Cells: A Potential Mechanism for Helminth-Mediated Immune Modulation

    PubMed Central

    Appleby, Laura J.; Nausch, Norman; Heard, Francesca; Erskine, Louise; Bourke, Claire D.; Midzi, Nicholas; Mduluza, Takafira; Allen, Judith E.; Mutapi, Francisca

    2015-01-01

    The CD3ζ forms part of the T cell receptor (TCR) where it plays an important role in coupling antigen recognition to several intracellular signal-transduction pathways leading to T cell effector functions. Down regulation of CD3ζ leads to impairment of immune responses including reduced cell proliferation and cytokine production. In experimental models, helminth parasites have been shown to modulate immune responses directed against them and unrelated antigens, so called bystander antigens, but there is a lack of studies validating these observations in humans. This study investigated the relationship between expression levels of the TCR CD3ζ chain with lymphocyte cell proliferation during human infection with the helminth parasite, Schistosoma haematobium, which causes uro-genital schistosomiasis. Using flow cytometry, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from individuals naturally exposed to S. haematobium in rural Zimbabwe were phenotyped, and expression levels of CD3ζ on T cells were related to intensity of infection. In this population, parasite infection intensity was inversely related to CD3ζ expression levels (p < 0.05), consistent with downregulation of CD3ζ expression during helminth infection. Furthermore, PBMC proliferation was positively related to expression levels of CD3ζ (p < 0.05) after allowing for confounding variables (host age, sex, and infection level). CD3ζ expression levels had a differing relationship between immune correlates of susceptibility and immunity, measured by antibody responses, indicating a complex relationship between immune activation status and immunity. The relationships between the CD3ζ chain of the TCR and schistosome infection, PBMC proliferation and schistosome-specific antibody responses have not previously been reported, and these results may indicate a mechanism for the impaired T cell proliferative responses observed during human schistosome infection. PMID:25741337

  5. RNA interference in parasitic helminths: current situation, potential pitfalls and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Geldhof, P; Visser, A; Clark, D; Saunders, G; Britton, C; Gilleard, J; Berriman, M; Knox, D

    2007-05-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) has become an invaluable tool for the functional analysis of genes in a wide variety of organisms including the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Recently, attempts have been made to apply this technology to parasitic helminths of animals and plants with variable success. Gene knockdown has been reported for Schistosoma mansoni by soaking or electroporating different life-stages in dsRNA. Similar approaches have been tested on parasitic nematodes which clearly showed that, under certain conditions, it was possible to interfere with gene expression. However, despite these successes, the current utility of this technology in parasite research is questionable. First, problems have arisen with the specificity of RNAi. Treatment of the parasites with dsRNA resulted, in many cases, in non-specific effects. Second, the current RNAi methods have a limited efficiency and effects are sometimes difficult to reproduce. This was especially the case in strongylid parasites where only a small number of genes were susceptible to RNAi-mediated gene knockdown. The future application of RNAi in parasite functional genomics will greatly depend on how we can overcome these difficulties. Optimization of the dsRNA delivery methods and in vitro culture conditions will be the major challenges. PMID:17201997

  6. RELMs in the Realm of Helminths.

    PubMed

    Horsnell, William G C; Dewals, Benjamin G

    2016-07-01

    Resistin-like molecule (RELM) proteins are essential for immunity to helminths. Recently, Chen and collaborators identified a dominant role for RELMα over RELMβ in host immunity to Nippostrongylus brasiliensis using a double knockout system. The study highlighted how important and yet divergent the contributions of these proteins are in the control of helminth infections. PMID:27129878

  7. Efficacy and Safety of Praziquantel, Tribendimidine and Mebendazole in Patients with Co-infection of Clonorchis sinensis and Other Helminths

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Li-Li; Jiang, Bin; Duan, Ji-Hui; Zhuang, Shi-Feng; Liu, Yong-Chun; Zhu, Shi-Qiao; Zhang, Li-Ping; Zhang, Hao-Bing; Xiao, Shu-Hua; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2014-01-01

    Background Both tribendimidine and mebendazole are broad-spectrum drugs for anti-intestinal nematodes. We aim to assess the efficacy and safety of tribendimidine and mebendazole in patients with co-infection of Clonorchis sinensis and other helminths. Method We performed a randomized open-label trial in Qiyang, People's Republic of China. Eligible participants were randomly assigned to one of four groups: (i) a single dose of 400 mg tribendimidine, (ii) 200 mg tribendimidine twice daily, (iii) 75 mg/kg praziquantel divided in four doses within 2 days, and (iv) a single dose of 400 mg mebendazole. Cure rates and egg reduction rates were assessed, and adverse events were monitored after treatments. Uncured patients accepted the second treatment with the same drugs after the first treatment. Results 156 patients were eligible for the study. Results from the first treatment showed that the cure rates of single-dose tribendimidine and praziquantel against C. sinensis were 50% and 56.8%, respectively; the single-dose tribendimidine achieved the cure rate of 77.8% in the treatment for hookworm, which was significantly higher than that of praziquantel; Low cure rates were obtained in the treatment of single-dose tribendimidine against Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura (28.6% and 23.1%). Results of the second treatment illustrated the cure rates of tribendimidine and praziquantel against C. sinensis were 78.1% and 75%, respectively. Most adverse events were mild and transient. Adverse events caused by tribendimidine were significantly less than praziquantel. Conclusion Single-dose tribendimidine showed similar efficacy against C. sinensis as praziquantel with less adverse events, and achieved significantly higher cure rate in the treatment for hookworm than those of praziquantel and mebendazole. Low cure rates, which were still higher than other drugs, were obtained in the treatment of single-dose tribendimidine against Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris

  8. Co-endemicity of Pulmonary Tuberculosis and Intestinal Helminth Infection in the People’s Republic of China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin-Xu; Ren, Zhou-Peng; Wang, Li-Xia; Zhang, Hui; Jiang, Shi-Wen; Chen, Jia-Xu; Wang, Jin-Feng; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2016-01-01

    Both pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and intestinal helminth infection (IHI) affect millions of individuals every year in China. However, the national-scale estimation of prevalence predictors and prevalence maps for these diseases, as well as co-endemic relative risk (RR) maps of both diseases’ prevalence are not well developed. There are co-endemic, high prevalence areas of both diseases, whose delimitation is essential for devising effective control strategies. Bayesian geostatistical logistic regression models including socio-economic, climatic, geographical and environmental predictors were fitted separately for active PTB and IHI based on data from the national surveys for PTB and major human parasitic diseases that were completed in 2010 and 2004, respectively. Prevalence maps and co-endemic RR maps were constructed for both diseases by means of Bayesian Kriging model and Bayesian shared component model capable of appraising the fraction of variance of spatial RRs shared by both diseases, and those specific for each one, under an assumption that there are unobserved covariates common to both diseases. Our results indicate that gross domestic product (GDP) per capita had a negative association, while rural regions, the arid and polar zones and elevation had positive association with active PTB prevalence; for the IHI prevalence, GDP per capita and distance to water bodies had a negative association, the equatorial and warm zones and the normalized difference vegetation index had a positive association. Moderate to high prevalence of active PTB and low prevalence of IHI were predicted in western regions, low to moderate prevalence of active PTB and low prevalence of IHI were predicted in north-central regions and the southeast coastal regions, and moderate to high prevalence of active PTB and high prevalence of IHI were predicted in the south-western regions. Thus, co-endemic areas of active PTB and IHI were located in the south-western regions of China, which

  9. Anthelmintic utilisation practices and prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth infections in sheep kept in the urban and peri-urban areas of Bishoftu Town.

    PubMed

    Datiko, Jallale; Terefe, Getachew; Bekele, Jemere

    2013-02-01

    Assessment of the anthelmintic (AH) utilisation practices and estimation of the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth infections in sheep were carried out from November 2010 to April 2011 in urban and peri-urban areas of Bishoftu Town, central Ethiopia. A structured questionnaire was employed to assess the AH utilisation practices in sheep of 310 owners/households, while floatation and sedimentation techniques were used to study the prevalence of helminth infections. Faecal examinations revealed that 53.9 % of sheep harboured gastrointestinal helminth infections with a high frequency due to strongyles (77.3 %). The questionnaire survey revealed that sources of AH for sheep were government and private veterinary clinics for 98.5 % of urban and 65.4 % peri-urban respondents. In peri-urban areas, AH were also purchased from open markets and illegal dealers. Albendazole was the most common (75.5 %) drug used in sheep followed by ivermectin (18.7 %) and tetramisole (5.8 %). The criteria for selecting AH were: prescription by veterinarians (51.6 %), efficacy (31.9 %), price (12.3 %) and arbitrary reasons (4.2 %). Treatment frequency was minimal with 51.3, 32.3 and 15.8 % of the owners treating their sheep once, twice and less than once per year, respectively. Treatments mainly depended on manifestations of general (45.8 %) and digestive (23.3 %) symptoms. Irrespective of the body weight of the sheep, albendazole was the only drug reported to be given at half bolus/sheep (14.1 %). Owing to this practice, albendazole faces the risk of reduced efficacy or AH resistance due to its wide spread utilisation, handling by untrained personnel and suspected underdosage, which altogether support the perception of sheep owners on its lower effect on the performance of treated sheep. PMID:23015354

  10. Evidence of Helminth Infection in Guanche Mummies: Integrating Paleoparasitological and Paleogenetic Investigations.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Lauren Hubert; Gijón-Botella, Herminia; Del Carmen Del Arco-Aguilar, María; Martín-Oval, Mercedes; Rodríguez-Maffiotte, Conrado; Del Arco-Aguilar, Mercedes; Araújo, Adauto; Iñiguez, Alena Mayo

    2016-04-01

    The Guanches, ancient inhabitants of the Canary Islands, Spain, practiced mummification of their dead. A paleoparasitological and paleogenetic analysis was conducted on mummified bodies (n = 6) (AD 1200, Cal BP 750) belonging to the Guanche culture from Gran Canaria Island. Coprolite and sediment samples (n = 19) were removed from below the abdominal region or sacral foramina. The samples were rehydrated in 0.5% trisodium phosphate solution for 72 hr at 4 C, and the paleoparasitological investigation was conducted by spontaneous sedimentation method and microscopic examination. The results revealed the presence of well-preserved eggs of Ascaris sp., Trichuris trichiura , Enterobius vermicularis , and hookworms. Ancient DNA was extracted from sediment samples to elucidate the ancestry of the mummies and for molecular detection of Ascaris sp. infection. Results of paleogenetic analysis demonstrated Ascaris sp. infection using 2 molecular targets, cytb and nad1. The mtDNA haplotypes U6b, U6b1, and HV were identified, which confirmed records of Guanche ancestry. The excellent preservation of Guanche mummies facilitated the paleoparasitological and paleogenetic study, the results of which contribute to our knowledge of Guanche culture and their health status. PMID:26641720

  11. Cohabitation in the intestine: interactions between helminth parasites, bacterial microbiota and host immunity

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Lisa A.; Finlay, B. Brett; Maizels, Rick M.

    2015-01-01

    Both intestinal helminth parasites and certain bacterial microbiota species have been credited with strong immunomodulatory effects. Recent studies have reported that the presence of helminth infection alters the composition of the bacterial intestinal microbiota, and conversely that the presence and composition of the bacterial microbiota affects helminth colonisation and persistence within mammalian hosts. This article reviews recent findings on these reciprocal relationships, in both human populations and mouse models at the level of potential mechanistic pathways, and the implications these bear for immunomodulatory effects on allergic and autoimmune disorders. Understanding the multidirectional complex interactions between intestinal microbes, helminth parasites and the host immune system will allow for a more holistic approach when using pro-, pre-, synbiotics, antibiotics and anthelmintics, and when designing treatments for autoimmune and allergic conditions. PMID:26477048

  12. Cohabitation in the Intestine: Interactions among Helminth Parasites, Bacterial Microbiota, and Host Immunity.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Lisa A; Finlay, B Brett; Maizels, Rick M

    2015-11-01

    Both intestinal helminth parasites and certain bacterial microbiota species have been credited with strong immunomodulatory effects. Recent studies reported that the presence of helminth infection alters the composition of the bacterial intestinal microbiota and, conversely, that the presence and composition of the bacterial microbiota affect helminth colonization and persistence within mammalian hosts. This article reviews recent findings on these reciprocal relationships, in both human populations and mouse models, at the level of potential mechanistic pathways and the implications these bear for immunomodulatory effects on allergic and autoimmune disorders. Understanding the multidirectional complex interactions among intestinal microbes, helminth parasites, and the host immune system allows for a more holistic approach when using probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, antibiotics, and anthelmintics, as well as when designing treatments for autoimmune and allergic conditions. PMID:26477048

  13. Chronic Helminth Infection Induces Alternatively Activated Macrophages Expressing High Levels of CCR5 with Low Interleukin-12 Production and Th2-Biasing Ability

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Sosa, Miriam; Satoskar, Abhay R.; Calderón, Rodrigo; Gomez-Garcia, Lorena; Saavedra, Rafael; Bojalil, Rafael; Terrazas, Luis I.

    2002-01-01

    Helminth infections induce Th2-type biased immune responses. Although the mechanisms involved in this phenomenon are not yet clearly defined, antigen-presenting cells (APC) could play an important role in this process. Here, we have used peritoneal macrophages (F4/80+) recruited at different times after challenge with Taenia crassiceps as APC and tested their ability to regulate Th1/Th2 differentiation. Macrophages from acute infections produced high levels of interleukin-12 (IL-12) and nitric oxide (NO), paralleled with low levels of IL-6 and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and with the ability to induce strong antigen-specific CD4+ T-cell proliferation in response to nonrelated antigens. In contrast, macrophages from chronic infections produced higher levels of IL-6 and PGE2 and had suppressed production of IL-12 and NO, associated with a poor ability to induce antigen-specific proliferation in CD4+ T cells. Failure to induce proliferation was not due to a deficient expression of accessory molecules, since major histocompatibility complex class II, CD40, and B7-2 were up-regulated, together with CD23 and CCR5 as infection progressed. These macrophages from chronic infections were able to bias CD4+ T cells to produce IL-4 but not gamma interferon (IFN-γ), contrary to macrophages from acute infections. Blockade of B7-2 and IL-6 and inhibition of PGE2 failed to restore the proliferative response in CD4+ T cells. Furthermore, studies using STAT6−/− mice revealed that STAT6-mediated signaling was essential for the expansion of these alternatively activated macrophages. These data demonstrate that helminth infections can induce different macrophage populations that have Th2-biasing properties. PMID:12065507

  14. The antibacterial activity, antioxidant activity and selectivity index of leaf extracts of thirteen South African tree species used in ethnoveterinary medicine to treat helminth infections

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Diseases caused by bacteria remain a major challenge globally and particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. The plants used in this study have been used in South Africa to treat helminth infections in livestock and humans. In a previous study we found a correlation between antifungal and anthelmintic activity in some cases. In this study we examined other potential uses of these thirteen plant species by determining the antibacterial and antioxidant activity of the leaf acetone extracts. The antibacterial activity was determined by using a serial microdilution method against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis. Bioautography was used to determine the number of antibacterial compounds. The antioxidant activity was determined using the ABTS and DPPH methods. Results Maesa lanceolata and Leucosidea sericea with an MIC of 0.02 mg/ml had excellent antibacterial activity against Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. There was a poor correlation between antioxidant activity and antibacterial activity with R2 = 0.143. This is because antibacterial activity is mainly related to non-polar compounds and antioxidant activity to polar compounds. Maesa lanceolata extracts had a low cytotoxicity with a selectivity index of 5.2, 2.6, 2.6 and 1.3 for P. aeruginosa, E. faecalis, E. coli and S. aureus respectively. Strychnos mitis extracts had a therapeutic index of 1.1 for E. coli. Conclusions This study shows that plant extracts of some species used in ethnoveterinary medicine as anthelmintic may also have excellent antibacterial activity. PMID:24589020

  15. Risk Factors for Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections during the First 3 Years of Life in the Tropics; Findings from a Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Menzies, Stefanie K.; Rodriguez, Alejandro; Chico, Martha; Sandoval, Carlos; Broncano, Nely; Guadalupe, Irene; Cooper, Philip J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Soil-transmitted helminths (STH) infect more than 2 billion humans worldwide, causing significant morbidity in children. There are few data on the epidemiology and risk factors for infection in pre-school children. To investigate risk factors for infection in early childhood, we analysed data prospectively collected in the ECUAVIDA birth cohort in Ecuador. Methods and Findings Children were recruited at birth and followed up to 3 years of age with periodic collection of stool samples that were examined microscopically for STH parasites. Data on social, demographic, and environmental risk factors were collected from the mother at time of enrolment. Associations between exposures and detection of STH infections were analysed by multivariable logistic regression. Data were analysed from 1,697 children for whom a stool sample was obtained at 3 years. 42.3% had at least one STH infection in the first 3 years of life and the most common infections were caused by A. lumbricoides (33.2% of children) and T. trichiura (21.2%). Hookworm infection was detected in 0.9% of children. Risk of STH infection was associated with factors indicative of poverty in our study population such as Afro-Ecuadorian ethnicity and low maternal educational level. Maternal STH infections during pregnancy were strong risk factors for any childhood STH infection, infections with either A. lumbricoides or T. trichiura, and early age of first STH infection. Children of mothers with moderate to high infections intensities with A. lumbricoides were most at risk. Conclusions Our data show high rates of infection with STH parasites during the first 3 years of life in an Ecuadorian birth cohort, an observation that was strongly associated with maternal STH infections during pregnancy. The targeted treatment of women of childbearing age, in particular before pregnancy, with anthelmintic drugs could offer a novel approach to the prevention of STH infections in pre-school children. PMID:24587469

  16. A novel and sensitive method to monitor helminth infections by faecal sampling.

    PubMed

    Eberl, Matthias; al-Sherbiny, Maged; Hagan, Paul; Ljubojevic, Srdjan; Thomas, Alan W; Wilson, R Alan

    2002-08-01

    The Kato-Katz technique is the method routinely used for diagnosing human schistosomiasis mansoni by estimating faecal egg burdens. To improve the sensitivity of faecal diagnosis, we established and validated a novel separation technique based upon the greater density of viable schistosome eggs relative to faecal material. Subsequently, it was used for faecal examination of 27 schistosomiasis patients in El-Sharkia, Egypt, with Kato-Katz smears as criterion standard. Low intensity infections (<100 eggs/g) were only detected by our technique. Moreover, triple Kato-Katz analysis on consecutive samples still missed 7.4% of all human patients, whereas the new method diagnosed 100% of samples correctly on second analysis. We conclude that in endemic areas many patients are being systematically missed by routine diagnosis. Moreover, the sensitivity of our method allows its use in proposed pre-clinical and clinical vaccine trials in non-human primates and humans, where reliable estimates of faecal egg counts are essential. PMID:12088860

  17. Nitric Oxide and Respiratory Helminthic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Muro, Antonio; Pérez-Arellano, José-Luís

    2010-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a very simple molecule that displays very important functions both in helminths (mainly those involved in respiratory pathology) and in mammalian hosts. In this paper we review four issues related to interaction of NO and lung helminthic diseases. Firstly, we evaluated data available on the NO synthesis and release by helminths and their biological role. Next, we summarized the effect of antigens obtained from different phases of the biological cycle on NO production by host mammalian cells (mainly from human sources). Thirdly, we revised the evaluation of NO on the biological activities and/or the viability of respiratory helminths. Lastly, the deleterious consequences of increased production of NO during helminthic human infection are detailed. PMID:20169170

  18. Extraintestinal Helminth Infection Limits Pathology and Proinflammatory Cytokine Expression during DSS-Induced Ulcerative Colitis: A Role for Alternatively Activated Macrophages and Prostaglandins

    PubMed Central

    Ledesma-Soto, Yadira; Callejas, Blanca E.; Terrazas, César A.; Reyes, Jose L.; Espinoza-Jiménez, Arlett; González, Marisol I.; León-Cabrera, Sonia; Morales, Rosario; Olguín, Jonadab E.; Saavedra, Rafael; Oghumu, Steve; Satoskar, Abhay R.; Terrazas, Luis I.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic inflammation of the intestinal mucosa is characteristic of inflammatory bowel diseases such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Helminth parasites have developed immunomodulatory strategies that may impact the outcome of several inflammatory diseases. Therefore, we investigated whether Taenia crassiceps infection is able to decrease the inflammatory effects of dextran sulfate sodium- (DSS-) induced ulcerative colitis in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. Preinfection significantly reduced the manifestations of DSS-induced colitis, as weight loss and shortened colon length, and decreased the disease activity index independently of the genetic background of the mice. Taenia infection decreased systemic levels of proinflammatory cytokines while increasing levels of IL-4 and IL-10, and the inflammatory infiltrate into the colon was also markedly reduced. RT-PCR assays from colon showed that T. crassiceps-infected mice displayed increased expression of Arginase-1 but decreased expression of iNOS compared to DSS-treated uninfected mice. The percentages of T regulatory cells were not increased. The adoptive transfer of alternatively activated macrophages (AAMФs) from infected mice into mice with DSS-induced colitis reduced the severity of colon inflammation. Administration of indomethacin abrogated the anticolitic effect of Taenia. Thus, T. crassiceps infection limits the pathology of ulcerative colitis by suppressing inflammatory responses mechanistically associated with AAMФs and prostaglandins. PMID:26090422

  19. Soil-transmitted helminth infections and physical fitness in school-aged Bulang children in southwest China: results from a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Chronic soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections have been associated with reduced physical fitness, but available evidence is limited. The aim of this cross-sectional survey was to assess the feasibility of measuring children's physical fitness and to relate it to STH infections. Our study was carried out among school-aged children of the Bulang ethnic group in rural southwest People's Republic of China (P.R. China). Standardized, quality-controlled methods were employed to determine STH infections (Kato-Katz technique), haemoglobin levels, anthropometry (body weight and height) and physical fitness (20-m shuttle run test). Results A compliance of 87% suggested good acceptance of the methods used. Among 69 children with complete data records, infection prevalence of Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworm were 81%, 44% and 6%, respectively. The maximum volume of oxygen that can be utilized within 1 min during exhaustive exercise (VO2 max estimate) of T. trichiura-infected children was 1.94 ml kg-1 min-1 lower than that of their non-infected counterparts (P = 0.005). Until exhaustion, T. trichiura-infected children had completed 6.14 20-m laps less (P = 0.004). Additionally, the mean VO2 max estimate of stunted children was lowered by 1.63 ml kg-1 min-1 (P = 0.002) and they completed 5.32 20-m laps less (P = 0.001) compared to children of normal stature. No significant association between stunting and infection with any STH species could be established. Conclusions Implementation of physical fitness tests in rural, resource-constraint settings is feasible. The physical fitness of children who are stunted or infected with STHs, particularly T. trichiura, is significantly impaired. We have launched a larger study and will determine the dynamics of school-aged children's physical fitness over a 7-month period after administration of anthelminthic drugs. PMID:22424138

  20. Improved PCR-Based Detection of Soil Transmitted Helminth Infections Using a Next-Generation Sequencing Approach to Assay Design

    PubMed Central

    Pilotte, Nils; Papaiakovou, Marina; Grant, Jessica R.; Bierwert, Lou Ann; Llewellyn, Stacey; McCarthy, James S.; Williams, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    Background The soil transmitted helminths are a group of parasitic worms responsible for extensive morbidity in many of the world’s most economically depressed locations. With growing emphasis on disease mapping and eradication, the availability of accurate and cost-effective diagnostic measures is of paramount importance to global control and elimination efforts. While real-time PCR-based molecular detection assays have shown great promise, to date, these assays have utilized sub-optimal targets. By performing next-generation sequencing-based repeat analyses, we have identified high copy-number, non-coding DNA sequences from a series of soil transmitted pathogens. We have used these repetitive DNA elements as targets in the development of novel, multi-parallel, PCR-based diagnostic assays. Methodology/Principal Findings Utilizing next-generation sequencing and the Galaxy-based RepeatExplorer web server, we performed repeat DNA analysis on five species of soil transmitted helminths (Necator americanus, Ancylostoma duodenale, Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Strongyloides stercoralis). Employing high copy-number, non-coding repeat DNA sequences as targets, novel real-time PCR assays were designed, and assays were tested against established molecular detection methods. Each assay provided consistent detection of genomic DNA at quantities of 2 fg or less, demonstrated species-specificity, and showed an improved limit of detection over the existing, proven PCR-based assay. Conclusions/Significance The utilization of next-generation sequencing-based repeat DNA analysis methodologies for the identification of molecular diagnostic targets has the ability to improve assay species-specificity and limits of detection. By exploiting such high copy-number repeat sequences, the assays described here will facilitate soil transmitted helminth diagnostic efforts. We recommend similar analyses when designing PCR-based diagnostic tests for the detection of other

  1. Therapeutic Helminth Infection of Macaques with Idiopathic Chronic Diarrhea Alters the Inflammatory Signature and Mucosal Microbiota of the Colon

    PubMed Central

    Broadhurst, Mara Jana; Ardeshir, Amir; Kanwar, Bittoo; Mirpuri, Julie; Gundra, Uma Mahesh; Leung, Jacqueline M.; Wiens, Kirsten E.; Vujkovic-Cvijin, Ivan; Kim, Charlie C.; Yarovinsky, Felix; McCune, Joseph M.; Loke, P'ng

    2012-01-01

    Idiopathic chronic diarrhea (ICD) is a leading cause of morbidity amongst rhesus monkeys kept in captivity. Here, we show that exposure of affected animals to the whipworm Trichuris trichiura led to clinical improvement in fecal consistency, accompanied by weight gain, in four out of the five treated monkeys. By flow cytometry analysis of pinch biopsies collected during colonoscopies before and after treatment, we found an induction of a mucosal TH2 response following helminth treatment that was associated with a decrease in activated CD4+ Ki67+ cells. In parallel, expression profiling with oligonucleotide microarrays and real-time PCR analysis revealed reductions in TH1-type inflammatory gene expression and increased expression of genes associated with IgE signaling, mast cell activation, eosinophil recruitment, alternative activation of macrophages, and worm expulsion. By quantifying bacterial 16S rRNA in pinch biopsies using real-time PCR analysis, we found reduced bacterial attachment to the intestinal mucosa post-treatment. Finally, deep sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA revealed changes to the composition of microbial communities attached to the intestinal mucosa following helminth treatment. Thus, the genus Streptophyta of the phylum Cyanobacteria was vastly increased in abundance in three out of five ICD monkeys relative to healthy controls, but was reduced to control levels post-treatment; by contrast, the phylum Tenericutes was expanded post-treatment. These findings suggest that helminth treatment in primates can ameliorate colitis by restoring mucosal barrier functions and reducing overall bacterial attachment, and also by altering the communities of attached bacteria. These results also define ICD in monkeys as a tractable preclinical model for ulcerative colitis in which these effects can be further investigated. PMID:23166490

  2. Harnessing the Helminth Secretome for Therapeutic Immunomodulators

    PubMed Central

    Anandarajah, Emmanuela M.; Meissner, Kamila A.; Brattig, Norbert; Liebau, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Helminths are the largest and most complex pathogens to invade and live within the human body. Since they are not able to outpace the immune system by rapid antigen variation or faster cell division or retreat into protective niches not accessible to immune effector mechanisms, their long-term survival depends on influencing and regulating the immune responses away from the mode of action most damaging to them. Immunologists have focused on the excretory and secretory products that are released by the helminths, since they can change the host environment by modulating the immune system. Here we give a brief overview of the helminth-associated immune response and the currently available helminth secretome data. We introduce some major secretome-derived immunomodulatory molecules and describe their potential mode of action. Finally, the applicability of helminth-derived therapeutic proteins in the treatment of allergic and autoimmune inflammatory disease is discussed. PMID:25133189

  3. Intimate gut interactions: helminths and the microbiota.

    PubMed

    Harris, Nicola L

    2016-08-01

    Changing exposure to intestinal helminths, or alterations in our intestinal microbiome, have been independently proposed to underlie the increasing incidence of chronic inflammatory diseases including allergy, autoimmunity and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) observed in developed nations. A recent study in Science links these findings by showing that intestinal helminth infection can prevent the outgrowth of a common intestinal bacterium that causes IBD in genetically susceptible mice. PMID:27297236

  4. [Influence of the phase of the number and demographic structure of the water vole population on its infection by helminthes].

    PubMed

    Chechulin, A I; Guliaev, V D; Panov, V V; Krivopalov, A V

    2005-01-01

    In this work we have analyzed results of the long-term investigations of the helminthes distribution in the various demography groups of the water vole population (Arvicola terrestris L.) in North Baraba (Novosibirsk region). The data on the dominant parasites of these rodents: trematodes Notocotylus noyeri (Joyeux, 1922), cestodes Limnolepis transfuga Spassky et Merkuscheva, 1967, nematodes Capillaria wioletti Ruchljadeva, 1950, Longistriata minuta (Dujarden, 1845) and Heligmosomum costellatum (Dujarden, 1845) have shown that the number of parasites in biocenosis are connected with different factors, such as the demographic structure of the host population, the alternation of hosts number and conditions of the environment (dry and damp phases of the climatic cycle). In the dry phase the main parasitize load N. noyeri, L. transfuga and C. wioletti connects with the breeding group; in the damp period - with immature rodents. Independently of the phase climatic cycle and the density of the water vole population the great bulk of nematodes L. minuta and H. costellatum was uncovered of the immature individuals. In any case the number of helminthes changed synchronously with such of the its host. PMID:16316057

  5. Biodiversity and distribution of helminths and protozoa in naturally infected horses from the biosphere reserve La Sierra Madre de Chiapas", México.

    PubMed

    Güiris, A D M; Rojas, H N M; Berovides, A V; Sosa, P J; Pérez, E M E; Cruz, A E; Chávez, H C; Moguel, A J A; Jimenez-Coello, M; Ortega-Pacheco, A

    2010-06-24

    A cross sectional survey was performed to identify gastrointestinal helminths and protozoans in naturally infected horses from the biosphere reserve known as "La Sierra Madre de Chiapas", Mexico (El Triunfo and La Sepultura). During a three-year survey, fecal samples from 90 horses and parasites from 2 necropsied animals were collected. Five families from the Nematoda class: Ascaridae, Kathlanidae, Oxyuridae, Strongylidae and Trichostrongylidae were found, whereas, only one family from the class Cestoda, was observed: Anoplocephalidae. One family from the class Insecta, was observed: Gasterophiilidae. The number of species of parasites ranged from 13 to 18 with an average of 15 per animal. Adult parasites were recovered from the large intestine luminal contents at necropsy. Species recovered included: Strongylus vulgaris, S. equinus, S. edentatus, Oxyuris equi, Parascaris equorum, Coronocyclus coronatum, C. labiatus, C. labratus, Cyathostomum tetracanthum, Cylicocyclus insigne, C. leptostomus, Cylicodontophorus bicoronatus, Cylicostephanus asymetricus, C. bidentatus, C. minutus, C. longibursatus, Petrovinema poculatum, Poteriostomum imparidentatum, Cylicostephanus goldi, Tridentoinfundibulum gobi, Triodontophorus serratus and T. tenuicollis. One species of Diptera were recovered from stomach and identified: Gasterophilus intestinalis. Furthermore, different species of protozoa were recovered from fresh horse-dung and identified in four classes: Sporozoa, Litostomatea, Ciliasida and Suctoria. Nine families: Cryptosporidiidae, Eimeriidae, Balantidiidae, Buetschliidae, Blepharocorythidae, Cycloposthiidae, Spirodiniididae, Ditoxidae, Acinetidae; and 31 ciliates species were recorded: Allantosoma dicorniger, A. intestinalis, Alloiozona trizona, Blepharosphaera intestinalis, Blepharoprosthium pireum, Blepharoconus benbrooki, Bundleia postciliata, Didesmis ovalis, D. quadrata, Sulcoarcus pellucidulus, Blepharocorys angusta, B. cardionucleata, B. curvigula, B. juvata, B

  6. Helminth infracommunity structure of the sympatric garter snakes Thamnophis eques and Thamnophis melanogaster from the Mesa Central of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Ruiz, F Agustin; García-Prieto, Luis; Pérez-Ponce de León, Gerardo

    2002-06-01

    Seventy-two Mexican garter snakes (Thamnophis eques) and 126 black-bellied garter snakes (T. melanogaster) were collected from 4 localities of the Mesa Central of Mexico between July 1996 and February 1998 and examined for helminths. Both species of garter snakes occurred sympatrically in every locality except in Lake Cuitzeo. Both species of snakes shared 9 helminth species, and in general, T. melanogaster hosted a larger number of species than T. eques. In each locality, a different helminth species showed the highest levels of prevalence and abundance (Spiroxys susanae in Ciénaga de Lerma, Telorchis corti in Lago de Pátzcuaro, Proteocephalus variabilis in Lago de Cuitzeo, and Contracaecum sp. in Lago de Chapala). Helminth communities in garter snakes of the Mesa Central are depauperate and dominated by a single parasite species. In those localities where the snakes occurred in sympatry, helminth communities were, in general, more diverse and species-rich in T. melanogaster. Differences in the ecology and physiology of these species of garter snakes may explain this pattern because black-bellied garter snakes (T. melanogaster) are more aquatic than Mexican garter snakes (T. eques) and primarily eat aquatic prey, potentially exposing themselves to a larger number of helminths transmitted by predator-prey infection. The helminth infracommunities of garter snakes in the Mesa Central of Mexico show a strong Nearctic influence because most of the species infecting these hosts have been recorded in other Nearctic colubrid snakes. However, the helminth infracommunities of these garter snakes are less species-rich and less diverse than those in colubrid snakes in more temperate latitudes. The widespread ecological perturbation of sampling sites in the Mesa Central because of human activity, and geographic differences in foraging ecology of the hosts and, thus, exposure to parasites transmitted by intermediate hosts may help to explain these patterns. PMID:12099411

  7. Towards an effective control programme of soil-transmitted helminth infections among Orang Asli in rural Malaysia. Part 1: Prevalence and associated key factors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the continuous efforts to improve the quality of life of Orang Asli (Aborigines) communities, these communities are still plagued with a wide range of health problems including parasitic infections. The first part of this study aimed at determining the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections and identifying their associated factors among rural Orang Asli children. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out among 484 Orang Asli children aged ≤ 15 years (235 females and 249 males) belonging to 215 households from 13 villages in Lipis district, Pahang, Malaysia. Faecal samples were collected and examined by using formalin-ether sedimentation, Kato Katz and Harada Mori techniques. Demographic, socioeconomic, environmental and behavioural information were collected by using a pre-tested questionnaire. Results Overall, 78.1% of the children were found to be infected with one or more STH species. The prevalence of trichuriasis, ascariasis and hookworm infections were 71.7%, 37.4% and 17.6%, respectively. Almost all, three quarters and one fifth of trichuriasis, ascariasis and hookworm infections, respectively, were of moderate-to-heavy intensities. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that age of ≥ 6 years (school-age), using unsafe water supply as a source for drinking water, absence of a toilet in the house, large family size (≥ 7 members), not washing hands before eating, and not washing hands after defecation were the key factors significantly associated with STH among these children. Conclusion This study reveals an alarmingly high prevalence of STH among Orang Asli children and clearly brings out an urgent need to implement school-based de-worming programmes and other control measures like providing a proper sanitation, as well as a treated drinking water supply and proper health education regarding good personal hygiene practices. Such an integrated control program will help significantly in

  8. Glycoconjugates in Host-Helminth Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Prasanphanich, Nina Salinger; Mickum, Megan L.; Heimburg-Molinaro, Jamie; Cummings, Richard D.

    2013-01-01

    Helminths are multicellular parasitic worms that comprise a major class of human pathogens and cause an immense amount of suffering worldwide. Helminths possess an abundance of complex and unique glycoconjugates that interact with both the innate and adaptive arms of immunity in definitive and intermediate hosts. These glycoconjugates represent a major untapped reservoir of immunomodulatory compounds, which have the potential to treat autoimmune and inflammatory disorders, and antigenic glycans, which could be exploited as vaccines and diagnostics. This review will survey current knowledge of the interactions between helminth glycans and host immunity and highlight the gaps in our understanding which are relevant to advancing therapeutics, vaccine development, and diagnostics. PMID:24009607

  9. The impact of two semiannual treatments with albendazole alone on lymphatic filariasis and soil-transmitted helminth infections: a community-based study in the Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Pion, Sébastien D S; Chesnais, Cédric B; Bopda, Jean; Louya, Frédéric; Fischer, Peter U; Majewski, Andrew C; Weil, Gary J; Boussinesq, Michel; Missamou, François

    2015-05-01

    Implementation of mass drug administration (MDA) with ivermectin plus albendazole (ALB) for lymphatic filariasis (LF) has been delayed in central Africa because of the risk of serious adverse events in subjects with high Loa loa microfilaremia. We conducted a community trial to assess the impact of semiannual MDA with ALB (400 mg) alone on LF and soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections in the Republic of Congo. Evaluation at 12 months showed that ALB MDA had not significantly reduced Wuchereria bancrofti antigenemia or microfilaria (mf) rates in the community (from 17.3% to 16.6% and from 5.3% to 4.2%, respectively). However, the geometric mean mf count in mf-positive subjects was reduced from 202.2 to 80.9 mf/mL (60% reduction, P = 0.01). The effect of ALB was impressive in 38 subjects who were mf-positive at baseline and retested at 12 months: 37% had total mf clearance, and individual mf densities were reduced by 73.0%. MDA also dramatically reduced the hookworm infection rate in the community from 6.5% to 0.6% (91% reduction), with less impressive effects on Ascaris and Trichuris. These preliminary results suggest that semiannual community MDA with ALB is a promising strategy for controlling LF and STH in areas with coendemic loiasis. PMID:25758650

  10. The Impact of Two Semiannual Treatments with Albendazole Alone on Lymphatic Filariasis and Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections: A Community-Based Study in the Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Pion, Sébastien D. S.; Chesnais, Cédric B.; Bopda, Jean; Louya, Frédéric; Fischer, Peter U.; Majewski, Andrew C.; Weil, Gary J.; Boussinesq, Michel; Missamou, François

    2015-01-01

    Implementation of mass drug administration (MDA) with ivermectin plus albendazole (ALB) for lymphatic filariasis (LF) has been delayed in central Africa because of the risk of serious adverse events in subjects with high Loa loa microfilaremia. We conducted a community trial to assess the impact of semiannual MDA with ALB (400 mg) alone on LF and soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections in the Republic of Congo. Evaluation at 12 months showed that ALB MDA had not significantly reduced Wuchereria bancrofti antigenemia or microfilaria (mf) rates in the community (from 17.3% to 16.6% and from 5.3% to 4.2%, respectively). However, the geometric mean mf count in mf-positive subjects was reduced from 202.2 to 80.9 mf/mL (60% reduction, P = 0.01). The effect of ALB was impressive in 38 subjects who were mf-positive at baseline and retested at 12 months: 37% had total mf clearance, and individual mf densities were reduced by 73.0%. MDA also dramatically reduced the hookworm infection rate in the community from 6.5% to 0.6% (91% reduction), with less impressive effects on Ascaris and Trichuris. These preliminary results suggest that semiannual community MDA with ALB is a promising strategy for controlling LF and STH in areas with coendemic loiasis. PMID:25758650