Science.gov

Sample records for potential market size

  1. Determination of the potential market size and opportunities for biomass to electricity projects in China

    SciTech Connect

    Perlack, R.D.

    1995-08-01

    Efforts are currently underway to assess the market potential and prospects for the US private sector in biomass energy development in Yunnan Province. Among the specific objectives of the study are to: estimate the likely market size and competitiveness of biomass energy, assess the viability of US private sector ventures; assess non-economic factors (e.g., resource, environmental, social, political, institutional) that could affect the viability of biomass energy; and recommend appropriate actions to help stimulate biomass initiatives. Feasibility studies show that biomass projects in Yunnan Province are financially and technically viable. Biomass can be grown and converted to electricity at costs lower than other alternatives. These projects if implemented can ease power shortages and help to sustain the region`s economic growth. The external environmental benefits of integrated biomass projects are also potentially significant. This paper summarizes a two-step screening and rank-ordering process that is being used to identify the best candidate projects for possible US private sector investment. The process uses a set of initial screens to eliminate projects that are not technically feasible to develop. The remaining projects are then rank-ordered using a multicriteria technique.

  2. Cohort Size and the Academic Labor Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stapleton, David C.

    1989-01-01

    Argues that policymakers should be skeptical of forecasts that predict faculty shortages and surpluses according to population trends and analyzes an economic model of the academic labor market. Concludes that forecasts from such models do not support policies designed to offset the impact of cohort size on the academic labor market. (Author/CH)

  3. Earning potential in multilevel marketing enterprises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legara, Erika Fille; Monterola, Christopher; Juanico, Dranreb Earl; Litong-Palima, Marisciel; Saloma, Caesar

    2008-08-01

    Government regulators and other concerned citizens warily view multilevel marketing enterprises (MLM) because of their close operational resemblance to exploitative pyramid schemes. We analyze two types of MLM network architectures - the unilevel and binary, in terms of growth behavior and earning potential among members. We show that network growth decelerates after reaching a size threshold, contrary to claims of unrestricted growth by MLM recruiters. We have also found that the earning potential in binary MLM’s obey the Pareto “80-20” rule, implying an earning opportunity that is strongly biased against the most recent members. On the other hand, unilevel MLM’s do not exhibit the Pareto earning distribution and earning potential is independent of member position in the network. Our analytical results agree well with field data taken from real-world MLM’s in the Philippines. Our analysis is generally valid and can be applied to other MLM architectures.

  4. Market Size and TV News Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Raymond L.

    1989-01-01

    Compares the news values of small and major market television stations. Finds that major market stations place more emphasis on fires, crime, and accident, but also emphasize local government and politics. (MM)

  5. 7 CFR 170.6 - How are potential market participants identified for the USDA Farmers Market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS MARKETING PRACTICES UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA...? Potential market participants are recruited by AMS market management through local farm organizations in...

  6. 7 CFR 170.6 - How are potential market participants identified for the USDA Farmers Market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS MARKETING PRACTICES UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA...? Potential market participants are recruited by AMS market management through local farm organizations in...

  7. 7 CFR 170.6 - How are potential market participants identified for the USDA Farmers Market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS MARKETING PRACTICES UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA...? Potential market participants are recruited by AMS market management through local farm organizations in...

  8. 7 CFR 170.6 - How are potential market participants identified for the USDA Farmers Market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS MARKETING PRACTICES UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA...? Potential market participants are recruited by AMS market management through local farm organizations in...

  9. 7 CFR 170.6 - How are potential market participants identified for the USDA Farmers Market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS MARKETING PRACTICES UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA...? Potential market participants are recruited by AMS market management through local farm organizations in...

  10. Marketing potential of advanced breeding clones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The accumulation of reducing sugars during cold storage of potato tubers is a serious and costly problem for producers and processors. The degree to which cultivars accumulate reducing sugars during storage determines their processing and market potential. Cultivars or advanced breeding lines with...

  11. MARKETING POTENTIAL OF ADVANCED BREEDING CLONES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The accumulation of reducing sugars during cold storage of potato tubers is a serious and costly problem for producers and processors. The degree to which cultivars accumulate reducing sugars during storage determines their processing and market potential. Cultivars or advanced breeding lines with...

  12. Marketing Potential of Advanced Breeding Clones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The accumulation of reducing sugars during cold storage of potato tubers is a serious and costly problem for producers and processors. The degree to which cultivars accumulate reducing sugars during storage determines their processing and market potential. Cultivars or advanced breeding lines with...

  13. Distribution of asset price movement and market potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong Han; Marmi, Stefano

    2015-07-01

    In this article we discuss the distribution of asset price movements by introducing a market potential function. From the principle of free energy minimization we analyze two different kinds of market potentials. We obtain a U-shaped potential when market reversion (i.e. contrarian investors) is dominant. On the other hand, if there are more trend followers, flat and logarithmic potentials appear. By using the cyclically adjusted price-to-earning ratio, which is a common valuation tool, we empirically investigate the market data. By studying long term data we observe the historical change of the market potential of the US stock market. Recent US data show that the market potential looks more like a trend-following potential. Next, we compare the market potentials for 12 different countries. Though some countries have similar market potentials, there are specific examples like Japan which exhibits a very flat potential.

  14. Potential markets for advanced satellite communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamson, Steven; Roberts, David; Schubert, Leroy; Smith, Brian; Sogegian, Robert; Walters, Daniel

    1993-09-01

    This report identifies trends in the volume and type of traffic offered to the U.S. domestic communications infrastructure and extrapolates these trends through the year 2011. To describe how telecommunications service providers are adapting to the identified trends, this report assesses the status, plans, and capacity of the domestic communications infrastructure. Cable, satellite, and radio components of the infrastructure are examined separately. The report also assesses the following major applications making use of the infrastructure: (1) Broadband services, including Broadband Integrated Services Digital Network (BISDN), Switched Multimegabit Data Service (SMDS), and frame relay; (2) mobile services, including voice, location, and paging; (3) Very Small Aperture Terminals (VSAT), including mesh VSAT; and (4) Direct Broadcast Satellite (DBS) for audio and video. The report associates satellite implementation of specific applications with market segments appropriate to their features and capabilities. The volume and dollar value of these market segments are estimated. For the satellite applications able to address the needs of significant market segments, the report also examines the potential of each satellite-based application to capture business from alternative technologies.

  15. Potential markets for advanced satellite communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamson, Steven; Roberts, David; Schubert, Leroy; Smith, Brian; Sogegian, Robert; Walters, Daniel

    1993-01-01

    This report identifies trends in the volume and type of traffic offered to the U.S. domestic communications infrastructure and extrapolates these trends through the year 2011. To describe how telecommunications service providers are adapting to the identified trends, this report assesses the status, plans, and capacity of the domestic communications infrastructure. Cable, satellite, and radio components of the infrastructure are examined separately. The report also assesses the following major applications making use of the infrastructure: (1) Broadband services, including Broadband Integrated Services Digital Network (BISDN), Switched Multimegabit Data Service (SMDS), and frame relay; (2) mobile services, including voice, location, and paging; (3) Very Small Aperture Terminals (VSAT), including mesh VSAT; and (4) Direct Broadcast Satellite (DBS) for audio and video. The report associates satellite implementation of specific applications with market segments appropriate to their features and capabilities. The volume and dollar value of these market segments are estimated. For the satellite applications able to address the needs of significant market segments, the report also examines the potential of each satellite-based application to capture business from alternative technologies.

  16. Impact of population size on market demand under a market economy.

    PubMed

    Li, Y

    1996-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of the relationship between population size and market demand in China. It is argued that a smaller elasticity of a product is related to a greater impact of the size of population on the consumption of such a product. Greater elasticity reduces the impact of population. The impact of population is also mediated by average salary and salary structure. Salary structure affects prices, and prices affect supply and demand, which affect consumption. In a market-oriented economic system, the impact of population size on market demand affects supply and demand and prices. Current market demand reflects the effect of supply and demand in previous periods. Current population size will affect future market demand through prices and supply elasticity. Population changes are slow, and consumption changes are slow. The slowness of the process of change means there is time to adjust production and distribution in order to achieve stability in market supply. Control of price increases and inflation will promote economic growth, social stability, and improvement in China's socialist market economic system. It is argued that the supply of bicycles is elastic. Despite increased investment, labor, and fixed assets, profits will not grow. However the entertainment industry, as well as education, public welfare, urban utilities, noncommercialized housing, and telephones are less elastic. A large consumer population and a smaller supply elasticity result in high costs of installation, which are made higher by the state monopoly. It is argued that in China it is necessary to regulate certain necessities with less market elasticity in order to be consistent with optimum allocation of resources. PMID:12291968

  17. Cogeneration development and market potential in China

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, F.; Levine, M.D.; Naeb, J.; Xin, D.

    1996-05-01

    China`s energy production is largely dependent on coal. China currently ranks third in global CO{sub 2} emissions, and rapid economic expansion is expected to raise emission levels even further in the coming decades. Cogeneration provides a cost-effective way of both utilizing limited energy resources and minimizing the environmental impacts from use of fossil fuels. However, in the last 10 years state investments for cogeneration projects in China have dropped by a factor of 4. This has prompted this study. Along with this in-depth analysis of China`s cogeneration policies and investment allocation is the speculation that advanced US technology and capital can assist in the continued growth of the cogeneration industry. This study provides the most current information available on cogeneration development and market potential in China.

  18. Coal bed methane global market potential

    SciTech Connect

    Drazga, B.

    2007-01-16

    Worldwide increases in energy prices, as well as the increased potential for project financing derived from emissions credits, have renewed focus on coal bed methane (CBM) and coal mine methane (CMM) projects in coal-producing countries around the world. Globally, CBM utilization projects (in the operational, development, or planning stages) capture and utilize methane from gassy underground coal mines in at least 13 countries. The total methane emission reductions that could be achieved by these projects are approximately 135 billion cubic feet per year (equal to 14.8 million tons of carbon equivalent per year). This global activity level reflects a growing awareness of the technological practicality and the economic attractiveness of coal mine methane recovery and use. This report outlines the potential of the global CBM market. Contents: An overview of CBM; Challenges and issues; Technologies to generate power from CAM; Global CBM/CMM utilization; Country highlights; Ranking of countries with the largest CMM development potential (Australia, Canada, China, Germany, Mexico, Poland, Russia, Ukraine, United Kingdom, USA, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, France, India, Japan, Kazakhstan, South Africa); Planning CBM/CMM projects; Pre-feasibility and feasibility studies; Demonstration projects; Development plan and application process; Equity and debt; Carbon financing; Government sponsors; Private sponsors; Project risk reduction support; Examples of integrated project financing; Glossary.

  19. Assessing the Market Potential for New Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voorhees, Richard A.

    1987-01-01

    A case study of Arapahoe Community College's marketing research approach to program planning illustrates a range of techniques for heightening alertness to new markets, exploring rising opportunities, and sometimes, quantifying the attractiveness of alternatives. (Author/MSE)

  20. Competitive helping increases with the size of biological markets and invades defection.

    PubMed

    Barclay, Pat

    2011-07-21

    Cooperation between unrelated individuals remains a puzzle in evolutionary biology. Recent work indicates that partner choice can select for high levels of helping. More generally, helping can be seen as but one strategy used to compete for partners within a broader biological market, yet giving within such markets has received little mathematical investigation. In the present model, individuals help others to attract attention from them and thus receive a larger share of any help actively or passively provided by those others. The evolutionarily stable level of helping increases with the size of the biological market and the degree of partner choice. Furthermore, if individuals passively produce some no-cost help to partners, competitive helping can then invade populations of non-helpers because helpers directly benefit from increasing their access to potential partners. This framework of competitive helping demonstrates how high helping can be achieved and why different populations may differ in helping levels. PMID:21550351

  1. An analysis of the market potential of water hyacinth-based systems for municipal wastewater treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, A. C.; Gorman, H. J.; Hillman, M.; Lawhon, W. T.; Maase, D. L.; Mcclure, T. A.

    1976-01-01

    The potential U.S. market for tertiary municipal wastewater treatment facilities which make use of water hyacinths was investigated. A baseline design was developed which approximates the "typical" or "average" situation under which hyacinth-based systems can be used. The total market size for tertiary treatment was then estimated for those geographical regions in which hyacinths appear to be applicable. Market penetration of the baseline hyacinth system when competing with conventional chemical and physical processing systems was approximated, based primarily on cost differences. A limited analysis was made of the sensitivity of market penetration to individual changes in these assumptions.

  2. Framework for State-Level Renewable Energy Market Potential Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Kreycik, C.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Doris, E.

    2010-01-01

    State-level policymakers are relying on estimates of the market potential for renewable energy resources as they set goals and develop policies to accelerate the development of these resources. Therefore, accuracy of such estimates should be understood and possibly improved to appropriately support these decisions. This document provides a framework and next steps for state officials who require estimates of renewable energy market potential. The report gives insight into how to conduct a market potential study, including what supporting data are needed and what types of assumptions need to be made. The report distinguishes between goal-oriented studies and other types of studies, and explains the benefits of each.

  3. Individual insurance: health insurers try to tap potential market growth.

    PubMed

    November, Elizabeth A; Cohen, Genna R; Ginsburg, Paul B; Quinn, Brian C

    2009-11-01

    Individual insurance is the only source of health coverage for people without access to employer-sponsored insurance or public insurance. Individual insurance traditionally has been sought by older, sicker individuals who perceive the need for insurance more than younger, healthier people. The attraction of a sicker population to the individual market creates adverse selection, leading insurers to employ medical underwriting--which most states allow--to either avoid those with the greatest health needs or set premiums more reflective of their expected medical use. Recently, however, several factors have prompted insurers to recognize the growth potential of the individual market: a declining proportion of people with employer-sponsored insurance, a sizeable population of younger, healthier people forgoing insurance, and the likelihood that many people receiving subsidies to buy insurance under proposed health insurance reforms would buy individual coverage. Insurers are pursuing several strategies to expand their presence in the individual insurance market, including entering less-regulated markets, developing lower-cost, less-comprehensive products targeting younger, healthy consumers, and attracting consumers through the Internet and other new distribution channels, according to a new study by the Center for Studying Health System Change (HSC). Insurers' strategies in the individual insurance market are unlikely to meet the needs of less-than-healthy people seeking affordable, comprehensive coverage. Congressional health reform proposals, which envision a larger role for the individual market under a sharply different regulatory framework, would likely supersede insurers' current individual market strategies. PMID:19899193

  4. Potential markets for a satellite-based mobile communications system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jamieson, W. M.; Peet, C. S.; Bengston, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    The objective of the study was to define the market needs for improved land mobile communications systems. Within the context of this objective, the following goals were set: (1) characterize the present mobile communications industry; (2) determine the market for an improved system for mobile communications; and (3) define the system requirements as seen from the potential customer's viewpoint. The scope of the study was defined by the following parameters: (1) markets were confined to U.S. and Canada; (2) range of operation generally exceeded 20 miles, but this was not restrictive; (3) the classes of potential users considered included all private sector users, and non-military public sector users; (4) the time span examined was 1975 to 1985; and (5) highly localized users were generally excluded - e.g., taxicabs, and local paging.

  5. Building-Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV): Analysis and US market potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frantzis, Lisa; Friedman, David; Hill, Sarah; Teagan, Peter; Strong, Steven; Strong, Marilyn

    1995-02-01

    Arthur D. Little, Inc., in conjunction with Solar Design Associates, conducted a study for the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Building Technologies (OBT) to determine the market potential for grid-connected, building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV). This study defines BIPV as two types of applications: (1) where the PV modules are an integral part of the building, often serving as the exterior weathering skin; and (2) the PV modules are mounted on the existing building exterior. Both of these systems are fully integrated with the energy usage of the building and have potential for significant market penetration in the US. Off-grid building applications also offer a near-term market for BIPV, but are not included in the scope of this study.

  6. Assessment of the Geothermal Potential Within the BPA Marketing Area.

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, John W.; Allen, Eliot D.

    1980-07-01

    The potential of geothermal energy is estimated that can be used for direct heat applications and electrical power generation within the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) marketing area. The BPA marketing area includes three principal states of Oregon, Washington, and Idaho and portions of California, Montana, Wyoming, Nevada, and Utah bordering on these three states. This area covers approximately 384,000 square miles and has an estimated population of 6,760,000. The total electrical geothermal potential within this marketing area is 4077 MW/sub e/ from hydrothermal resources and 16,000 MW/sub e/ from igneous systems, whereas the total thermal (wellhead) potential is 16.15 x 10/sup 15/ Btu/y. Approximately 200 geothermal resource sites were initially identified within the BPA marketing area. This number was then reduced to about 100 sites thought to be the most promising for development by the year 2000. These 100 sites, due to load area overlap, were grouped into 53 composite sites; 21-3/4 within BPA preference customer areas and 31-1/4 within nonpreference customer areas. The geothermal resource potential was then estimated for high-temperature (> 302/sup 0/F = 150/sup 0/C), intermediate-temperature (194 to 302/sup 0/F = 90 to 150/sup 0/C), and low-temperature (< 194/sup 0/F = 90/sup 0/C) resources.

  7. Size does matter: An assessment of reproductive potential in seahorses.

    PubMed

    Faleiro, Filipa; Almeida, Armando J; Ré, Pedro; Narciso, Luís

    2016-07-01

    In most animals, the mother plays the key role in reproduction, but male pregnancy in seahorses raises the question of whether the female still is the only determinant of offspring size or if she shares some responsibility with the male. This study evaluates the effects of both male and female size on the reproductive output of the long-snouted seahorse, Hippocampus guttulatus. Results demonstrated that, with regard to reproductive potential, the bigger the better. Seahorses preferred similar-sized or larger mates. Larger females produced bigger eggs with larger yolk reserves. Larger males had larger brood pouches, but did not produced larger broods. Male size was negatively correlated with embryo density and positively correlated with juvenile size. Both parents proved to play a decisive role in the reproductive output of this species. Newborn juveniles from the same parents were 15% bigger and 30% heavier when incubated in smaller and lower-density broods. This trade-off between the number and size of embryos inside the brood pouch clearly indicates a limited carrying capacity of the male, and demonstrates that the size of newborn seahorses can be, in part, paternally determined. PMID:27062576

  8. Market potential for solar heating and cooling in buildings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The use of solar heating and cooling for buildings as a method of conserving fossil fuels is discussed. The residential and commercial end use consumption of energy is tabulated. A survey to project the energy requirements for home and industry heating and cooling is developed. The survey indicates that there is a market potential for solar heating and cooling of buildings. A prediction of three to five billion dollars per year as the potential for solar heating and cooling is made.

  9. Geothermal hydrothermal direct heat use: US market size and market penetration estimates

    SciTech Connect

    El Sawy, A.H.; Entingh, D.J.

    1980-09-01

    This study estimates the future regional and national market penetration path of hydrothermal geothermal direct heat applications in the United States. A Technology Substitution Model (MARPEN) is developed and used to estimate the energy market shares captured by low-temperature (50 to 150/sup 0/C) hydrothermal geothermal energy systems over the period 1985 to 2020. The sensitivity of hydrothermal direct heat market shares to various government hydrothermal commercialization policies is examined. Several substantive recommendations to help accelerate commercialization of geothermal direct heat utilization in the United States are indicated and possible additional analyses are discussed.

  10. Combined Heat and Power Market Potential for Opportunity Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, David; Lemar, Paul

    2015-12-01

    This report estimates the potential for opportunity fuel combined heat and power (CHP) applications in the United States, and provides estimates for the technical and economic market potential compared to those included in an earlier report. An opportunity fuel is any type of fuel that is not widely used when compared to traditional fossil fuels. Opportunity fuels primarily consist of biomass fuels, industrial waste products and fossil fuel derivatives. These fuels have the potential to be an economically viable source of power generation in various CHP applications.

  11. Class Size and Sorting in Market Equilibrium: Theory and Evidence. NBER Working Paper No. 13303

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urquiola, Miguel; Verhoogen, Eric

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines how schools choose class size and how households sort in response to those choices. Focusing on the highly liberalized Chilean education market, we develop a model in which schools are heterogeneous in an underlying productivity parameter, class size is a component of school quality, households are heterogeneous in income and…

  12. Hofmeister effects: interplay of hydration, nonelectrostatic potentials, and ion size.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Drew F; Boström, Mathias; Lo Nostro, Pierandrea; Ninham, Barry W

    2011-07-21

    The classical Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory of colloids, and corresponding theories of electrolytes, are unable to explain ion specific forces between colloidal particles quantitatively. The same is true generally, for surfactant aggregates, lipids, proteins, for zeta and membrane potentials and in adsorption phenomena. Even with fitting parameters the theory is not predictive. The classical theories of interactions begin with continuum solvent electrostatic (double layer) forces. Extensions to include surface hydration are taken care of with concepts like inner and outer Helmholtz planes, and "dressed" ion sizes. The opposing quantum mechanical attractive forces (variously termed van der Waals, Hamaker, Lifshitz, dispersion, nonelectrostatic forces) are treated separately from electrostatic forces. The ansatz that separates electrostatic and quantum forces can be shown to be thermodynamically inconsistent. Hofmeister or specific ion effects usually show up above ≈10(-2) molar salt. Parameters to accommodate these in terms of hydration and ion size had to be invoked, specific to each case. Ionic dispersion forces, between ions and solvent, for ion-ion and ion-surface interactions are not explicit in classical theories that use "effective" potentials. It can be shown that the missing ionic quantum fluctuation forces have a large role to play in specific ion effects, and in hydration. In a consistent predictive theory they have to be included at the same level as the nonlinear electrostatic forces that form the skeletal framework of standard theory. This poses a challenge. The challenges go further than academic theory and have implications for the interpretation and meaning of concepts like pH, buffers and membrane potentials, and for their experimental interpretation. In this article we overview recent quantitative developments in our evolving understanding of the theoretical origins of specific ion, or Hofmeister effects. These are demonstrated

  13. The Population Size of the Lesser Bandicoot (Bandicota bengalensis) in Three Markets in Penang, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Khairuddin, Nurul Liyana; Raghazli, Razlina; Sah, Shahrul Anuar Mohd; Shafie, Nur Juliani; Azman, Nur Munira

    2011-01-01

    A study of the population size of Bandicota bengalensis rats in three markets in Penang was conducted from April 2004 through May 2005. Taman Tun Sardon Market (TTS), Batu Lanchang Market (BTLG) and Bayan Lepas Market (BYNLP) were surveyed. Six sampling sessions were conducted in each market for four consecutive nights per session. The total captures of B. bengalensis in TTS, BTLG and BYNLP were 92%, 73% and 89% respectively. The total population of B. bengalensis in TTS was estimated as 265.4 (with a 95% confidence interval of 180.9–424.2). The total population at BTLG was estimated as 69.9 (with a 95% confidence interval of 35.5–148.9). At BYNLP, the total population was estimated as 134.7 (with a 95% confidence interval of 77.8–278.4). In general, adult male rats were captured most frequently at each site (55.19%), followed by adult females (31.69%), juvenile males (9.84%) and juvenile females (3.27%). The results showed that the number of rats captured at each site differed significantly according to sex ratio and maturity (χ2 = 121.45, df = 3, p<0.01). Our results suggest that the population sizes found by the study may not represent the actual population size in each market owing to the low numbers of rats recaptured. This finding might have resulted from the variety of foods available in the markets. PMID:24575219

  14. A Dynamic Competition Simulation for Worldwide Big-size TV Market Using Lotka-Volterra Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wu-Tung Terry; Li, Yiming; Hung, Chih-Young

    2009-08-01

    Technological innovation is characterized by the substitution of new technologies for full-fledged ones in the development of new products, processes and techniques. Global TV market is seeing a price down-spiral for FPD(Flat Panel Display)-TVs, replacement of CRT by LCD, and consumer's defection to larger screen. The LCD-TV market started in Japan from 2003 and took off globally from 2005. LCD panel production is moving toward larger sizes. In the 35″-39″ size market, the price/performance ratio of LCD-TV is better than that of PDP. The purpose of this paper is to estimate the demand function of worldwide big-size (35″-39″) TVs including LCD and PDP with an explicit consideration of market competition. The demand function was estimated using Lotka-Volterra model, a famous competitive diffusion model. The results exhibit a kind of predator-prey relationship, in which the PDP market was hunted by LCD product. In addition, the coefficients of difference equations of Lotka-Volterra model in this analysis are also used to forecast the future market of the big-size LCD and PDP.

  15. Transferring diffractive optics from research to commercial applications: Part II - size estimations for selected markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunner, Robert

    2014-04-01

    In a series of two contributions, decisive business-related aspects of the current process status to transfer research results on diffractive optical elements (DOEs) into commercial solutions are discussed. In part I, the focus was on the patent landscape. Here, in part II, market estimations concerning DOEs for selected applications are presented, comprising classical spectroscopic gratings, security features on banknotes, DOEs for high-end applications, e.g., for the semiconductor manufacturing market and diffractive intra-ocular lenses. The derived market sizes are referred to the optical elements, itself, rather than to the enabled instruments. The estimated market volumes are mainly addressed to scientifically and technologically oriented optical engineers to serve as a rough classification of the commercial dimensions of DOEs in the different market segments and do not claim to be exhaustive.

  16. Survey of food safety practices on small to medium-sized farms and in farmers markets.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Judy A; Gaskin, Julia W; Harrison, Mark A; Cannon, Jennifer L; Boyer, Renee R; Zehnder, Geoffrey W

    2013-11-01

    As produce consumption has increased, so have foodborne disease outbreaks associated with fresh produce. Little research has addressed food safety practices used on small to medium-sized farms selling locally or in farmers markets. This study evaluated current food safety practices used by farmers on small to medium-sized farms and managers of farmers markets in Georgia, Virginia, and South Carolina based on responses to surveys. Surveys were developed, pretested, and revised before implementation with target audiences and were implemented via mail and the Web to maximize participation, with reminders sent to nonrespondents. Data were collected from 226 farmers and 45 market managers. Frequencies and percentages were calculated for all response variables. Responses from farmers indicated that more than 56% of them use manures. Of those who use manures, 34% use raw or mixtures of raw and composted manure, and over 26% wait fewer than 90 days between application of raw manure and harvest. Over 27% use water sources that have not been tested for safety for irrigation, and 16% use such water sources for washing produce. Over 43% do not sanitize surfaces that touch produce at the farm. Only 33% of farmers always clean transport containers between uses. Responses from market managers indicated that over 42% have no food safety standards in place for the market. Only 2 to 11% ask farmers specific questions about conditions on the farm that could affect product safety. Less than 25% of managers sanitize market surfaces. Only 11% always clean market containers between uses. Over 75% of markets offer no sanitation training to workers or vendors. While farmers and market managers are using many good practices, the results indicate that some practices being used may put consumers at risk of foodborne illness. Consequently, there is a need for training for both farmers and market managers. PMID:24215708

  17. Stabilization of electron beam spot size by self bias potential

    SciTech Connect

    Kwan, T.J.T.; Moir, D.C.; Snell, C.M.; Kang, M.

    1998-12-31

    In high resolution flash x-ray imaging technology the electric field developed between the electron beam and the converter target is large enough to draw ions from the target surface. The ions provide fractional neutralization and cause the electron beam to focus radially inward, and the focal point subsequently moves upstream due to the expansion of the ion column. A self-bias target concept is proposed and verified via computer simulation that the electron charge deposited on the target can generate an electric potential, which can effectively limit the ion motion and thereby stabilize the growth of the spot size. A target chamber using the self bias target concept was designed and tested in the Integrated Test Stand (ITS). The authors have obtained good agreement between computer simulation and experiment.

  18. Probiotics--the friendly bacteria with market potential in global market.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shoaib Haroon; Ansari, Fasihuddin Ahmed

    2007-01-01

    With the growing interest in self-care and integrative medicine coupled with our health-embracing increasing population, recognition of the link between diet and health has never been stronger. As a result, the market for functional foods, or foods that promote health beyond providing basic nutrition, is flourishing. Within the functional foods movement is the small but rapidly expanding arena of probiotics - live microbial food supplements that beneficially affect an individual by improving intestinal microbial balance. The consumers' overwhelming interest in and demand for functional foods, including probiotics, make it imperative that health professionals stay abreast of the latest research findings and available products. The global market for functional foods in the coming years is predicted to grow rapidly. Although Japan currently accounts for about one-half of this market, the fastest rate of growth is expected to be in the United States. Probiotic products represent a strong growth area within the functional foods group and intense research efforts are under way to develop dairy products into which probiotic organisms such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species are incorporated. Such probiotic foods may modulate gut microbial composition, thereby leading to improved gut health, for example, through improved tolerance to lactose in lactose-intolerant individuals or improved resistance to pathogenic bacteria. The fast-growing probiotics market holds a wealth of opportunities, especially for those companies that understand and cater for the final consumer. This monograph provides a summary of research on the health benefits of probiotics and offers information regarding the global market potential of probiotics. PMID:17337434

  19. [Sample size calculation in clinical post-marketing evaluation of traditional Chinese medicine].

    PubMed

    Fu, Yingkun; Xie, Yanming

    2011-10-01

    In recent years, as the Chinese government and people pay more attention on the post-marketing research of Chinese Medicine, part of traditional Chinese medicine breed has or is about to begin after the listing of post-marketing evaluation study. In the post-marketing evaluation design, sample size calculation plays a decisive role. It not only ensures the accuracy and reliability of post-marketing evaluation. but also assures that the intended trials will have a desired power for correctly detecting a clinically meaningful difference of different medicine under study if such a difference truly exists. Up to now, there is no systemic method of sample size calculation in view of the traditional Chinese medicine. In this paper, according to the basic method of sample size calculation and the characteristic of the traditional Chinese medicine clinical evaluation, the sample size calculation methods of the Chinese medicine efficacy and safety are discussed respectively. We hope the paper would be beneficial to medical researchers, and pharmaceutical scientists who are engaged in the areas of Chinese medicine research. PMID:22292397

  20. The maximum potential market for dengue drugs V 1.0.

    PubMed

    Dow, Geoffrey; Mora, Eric

    2012-11-01

    Drugs offer a complementary approach to vaccines for preventing the progression of symptoms and onset of the severe manifestations of dengue. Despite the rapid maturation of the research and development infrastructure for dengue drugs and the increasing frequency of dengue inhibitors reported in the scientific literature, the potential size of the market for dengue drugs has not been articulated. In the present work, extrapolating from publicly available information, we explored the economic burden attributable to dengue, the impact of dengue vaccines on clinical case loads, a possible alternative to tiered pricing for products for neglected diseases, and defined the maximum potential market for a dengue drug. Our projections suggest that in 2006, the annual global burden of dengue was US $1.7billion. Our proposed alternative to existing tiered pricing structures is that during a temporary period of market exclusivity, individual countries would pay 50% of the per-case equivalent of economic costs saved through the use of a dengue drug. This would yield prices per case of US $13-$239 depending on drug effectiveness and cost of medical and indirect costs and lost productivity in different countries. Assuming that such a pricing scheme was embraced, the maximum potential market for a dengue drug or drugs that on average reduced 40% of economic costs might be as high as US $338million annually. Our simulations suggest that dengue vaccines will begin to reduce the clinical case load of dengue in 2022, but that the number of cases will not decrease below 2006 levels and the proportion vaccinated will remain well below that required for the onset of herd immunity during the period of market exclusivity after the licensure of the first wave of dengue drugs. PMID:22982015

  1. Lightweight materials in the light-duty passenger vehicle market: Their market penetration potential and impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Stodolsky, F. |; Vyas, A.; Cuenca, R.

    1995-06-01

    This paper summarizes the results of a lightweight materials study. Various lightweight materials are examined and the most cost effective are selected for further analysis. Aluminum and high-performance polymer matrix composites (PMCS) are found to have the highest potential for reducing the weight of automobiles and passenger-oriented light trucks. Weight reduction potential for aluminum and carbon fiber-based PMCs are computed based on a set of component-specific replacement criteria (such as stiffness and strength), and the consequent incremental cost scenarios are developed. The authors assume that a materials R and D program successfully reduces the cost of manufacturing aluminum and carbon fiber PMC-intensive vehicles. A vehicle choice model is used to project market shares for the lightweight vehicles. A vehicle survival and age-related usage model is employed to compute energy consumption over time for the vehicle stock. After a review of projected costs, the following two sets of vehicles are characterized to compete with the conventional materials vehicles: (1) aluminum vehicles with limited replacement providing 19% weight reduction (AIV-Mid), and (2) aluminum vehicles with the maximum replacement providing 31% weight reduction (AIV-Max). Assuming mass-market introduction in 2005, the authors project a national petroleum energy savings of 3% for AIV-Mid and 5% for AIV-Max in 2030.

  2. Models for the size distribution of businesses in a price driven market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Hulst, R.; Rodgers, G. J.

    2001-06-01

    A microscopic model of aggregation and fragmentation is introduced to investigate the size distribution of businesses. In the model, businesses are constrained to comply with the market price, as expected by the customers, while customers can only buy at the prices offered by the businesses. We show numerically and analytically that the size distribution scales like a power-law. A mean-field version of our model is also introduced and we determine for which value of the parameters the mean-field model agrees with the microscopic model. We discuss to what extent our simple model and its results compare with empirical data on company sizes in the US and debt sizes in Japan. Finally, possible extensions of the mean-field model are discussed, to cope with other empirical data.

  3. Describing current and potential markets for alternative-fuel vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-26

    Motor vehicles are a major source of greenhouse gases, and the rising numbers of motor vehicles and miles driven could lead to more harmful emissions that may ultimately affect the world`s climate. One approach to curtailing such emissions is to use, instead of gasoline, alternative fuels: LPG, compressed natural gas, or alcohol fuels. In addition to the greenhouse gases, pollutants can be harmful to human health: ozone, CO. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 authorized EPA to set National Ambient Air Quality Standards to control this. The Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT) was the first new law to emphasize strengthened energy security and decreased reliance on foreign oil since the oil shortages of the 1970`s. EPACT emphasized increasing the number of alternative-fuel vehicles (AFV`s) by mandating their incremental increase of use by Federal, state, and alternative fuel provider fleets over the new few years. Its goals are far from being met; alternative fuels` share remains trivial, about 0.3%, despite gains. This report describes current and potential markets for AFV`s; it begins by assessing the total vehicle stock, and then it focuses on current use of AFV`s in alternative fuel provider fleets and the potential for use of AFV`s in US households.

  4. The market potential for SMES in electric utility applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) is an emerging technology with features that are potentially attractive in electric utility applications. This study evaluates the potential for SMES technology in the generation, transmission, distribution, and use of electric energy; the time frame of the assessment is through the year 2030. Comparisons are made with other technology options, including both commercially available and advanced systems such as various peaking generation technologies, transmission stability improvement technologies, and power quality enhancement devices. The methodology used for this study focused on the needs of the market place, the capabilities of S and the characteristics of the competing technologies. There is widespread interest within utilities for the development of SMES technology, but there is no general consensus regarding the most attractive size. Considerable uncertainty exists regarding the eventual costs and benefits of commercial SMES systems, but general trends have been developed based on current industry knowledge. Results of this analysis indicate that as storage capacity increases, cost increases at a rate faster than benefits. Transmission system applications requiring dynamic storage appear to have the most attractive economics. Customer service applications may be economic in the near term, but improved ride-through capability of end-use equipment may limit the size of this market over time. Other applications requiring greater storage capacity appear to be only marginally economic at best.

  5. Size and Usage Patterns of Private TB Drug Markets in the High Burden Countries

    PubMed Central

    Wells, William A.; Ge, Colin Fan; Patel, Nitin; Oh, Teresa; Gardiner, Elizabeth; Kimerling, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) control is considered primarily a public health concern, and private sector TB treatment has attracted less attention. Thus, the size and characteristics of private sector TB drug sales remain largely unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings We used IMS Health data to analyze private TB drug consumption in 10 high burden countries (HBCs), after first mapping how well IMS data coverage overlapped with private markets. We defined private markets as any channels not used or influenced by national TB programs. Private markets in four countries – Pakistan, the Philippines, Indonesia and India – had the largest relative sales volumes; annually, they sold enough first line TB drugs to provide 65–117% of the respective countries' estimated annual incident cases with a standard 6–8 month regimen. First line drug volumes in five countries were predominantly fixed dose combinations (FDCs), but predominantly loose drugs in the other five. Across 10 countries, these drugs were available in 37 (loose drug) plus 74 (FDCs) distinct strengths. There were 54 distinct, significant first line manufacturers (range 2–11 per country), and most companies sold TB drugs in only a single study country. FDC markets were, however, more concentrated, with 4 companies capturing 69% of FDC volume across the ten countries. Among second line drugs, fluoroquinolones were widely available, with significant volumes used for TB in India, Pakistan and Indonesia. However, certain WHO-recommended drugs were not available and in general there were insufficient drug volumes to cover the majority of the expected burden of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB). Conclusions/Significance Private TB drug markets in several HBCs are substantial, stable, and complicated. This calls for appropriate policy and market responses, including expansion of Public-Private Mix (PPM) programs, greater reach, flexibility and appeal of public programs, regulatory and quality enforcement, and

  6. Geography of Existing and Potential Alternative Fuel Markets in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.; Hettinger, D.

    2014-11-01

    When deploying alternative fuels, it is paramount to match the right fuel with the right location, in accordance with local market conditions. We used six market indicators to evaluate the existing and potential regional market health for each of the five most commonly deployed alternative fuels: electricity (used by plug-in electric vehicles), biodiesel (blends of B20 and higher), E85 ethanol, compressed natural gas (CNG), and propane. Each market indicator was mapped, combined, and evaluated by industry experts. This process revealed the weight the market indicators should be given, with the proximity of fueling stations being the most important indicator, followed by alternative fuel vehicle density, gasoline prices, state incentives, nearby resources, and finally, environmental benefit. Though markets vary among states, no state received 'weak' potential for all five fuels, indicating that all states have an opportunity to use at least one alternative fuel. California, Illinois, Indiana, Pennsylvania, and Washington appear to have the best potential markets for alternative fuels in general, with each sporting strong markets for four of the fuels. Wyoming showed the least potential, with weak markets for all alternative fuels except for CNG, for which it has a patchy market. Of all the fuels, CNG is promising in the greatest number of states--largely because freight traffic provides potential demand for many far-reaching corridor markets and because the sources of CNG are so widespread geographically.

  7. Retrofit photovoltaic systems for intermediate sized applications-A design and market study

    SciTech Connect

    Noel, G.T.; Hagely, J.R.

    1982-09-01

    An assessment of the technical and economic feasibility of retrofitting a significant portion of the existing intermediate sector building/application inventory with photovoltaic systems is presented. The assessment includes the development of detailed engineering and architectural designs as well as cost estimates for 12 representative installations. Promising applications include retail stores, warehouses, office buildings, religious buildings, shopping centers, education buildings, hospitals, and industrial sites. A market study indicates that there is a national inventory of 1.5 to 2.0 million feasible intermediate sector applications, with the majority being in the 20 to 400 kW size range. The present cost of the major systems components and the cost of necessary building modifications are the primary current barriers to the realization of a large retrofit photovoltaic system market. The development of standardized modular system designs and installation techniques are feasible ways to minimize costs.

  8. Historical Research and Medium-Sized Public Libraries: The Potential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piehl, Charles K.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the special collections and archival materials often found in medium-sized public libraries which should be fully used by historical researchers. It is suggested that public libraries need to advertise their collections which are of historical interest and to be more aware of the needs of the historical researcher. (Author/JL)

  9. Potential Impacts of Reductions in Refinery Activity on Northeast Petroleum Product Markets

    EIA Publications

    2012-01-01

    Potential Impacts of Reductions in Refinery Activity on Northeast Petroleum Product Markets is an update to a previous Energy Information Administration (EIA) report, Reductions in Northeast Refining Activity: Potential Implications for Petroleum Product Markets, released in December 2011. This update analyzes possible market responses and impacts in the event Sunoco's Philadelphia refinery closes this summer, in addition to the recently idled refineries on the East Coast and in the U.S. Virgin Islands.

  10. Wind farm production cost: Optimum turbine size and farm capacity in the actual market

    SciTech Connect

    Laali, A.R.; Meyer, J.L.; Bellot, C.; Louche, A.

    1996-12-31

    Several studies are undertaken in R&D Division of EDF in collaboration with ERASME association in order to have a good knowledge of the wind energy production costs. These studies are performed in the framework of a wind energy monitoring project and concern the influence of a few parameters like wind farm capacity, turbine size and wind speed on production costs, through an analysis of the actual market trend. Some 50 manufacturers and 140 different kind of wind turbines are considered for this study. The minimum production cost is situated at 800/900 kW wind turbine rated power. This point will probably move to more important powers in the future. This study is valid only for average conditions and some special parameters like particular climate conditions or lack of infrastructure for a special site the could modify the results shown on the curves. The variety of wind turbines (rated power as a function of rotor diameter, height and specific rated power) in the actual market is analyzed. A brief analysis of the market trend is also performed. 7 refs., 7 figs.

  11. One Size Fits All? Slow Cortical Potentials Neurofeedback: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Kerstin; Wyckoff, Sarah N.; Strehl, Ute

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The intent of this manuscript was to review all published studies on slow cortical potentials (SCP) neurofeedback for the treatment of ADHD, with emphasis on neurophysiological rationale, study design, protocol, outcomes, and limitations. Method: For review, PubMed, MEDLINE, ERIC, and Google Scholar searches identified six studies and…

  12. Potential niche markets for biodiesel and their effects on agriculture

    SciTech Connect

    Raneses, A.R.; Glaser, L.K.; Price, J.M.

    1996-12-31

    This analysis estimates possible biodiesel demand in three niche markets the biodiesel industry has identified as likely candidates for commercialization: federal fleets, mining, and marine/estuary areas. If a 20-percent biodiesel blend becomes a competitive alternative fuel in the coming years, these markets could demand as much as 379 million liters (100 million gallons) of biodiesel. The Food and Agricultural Policy Simulator, an econometric model of U.S. agriculture, was used to estimate the impacts of 76, 193, and 379 million liters (20, 50, and 100 million gallons) of soybean-oil-based biodiesel production on the agricultural sector. The results indicate the effect of increased soybean oil demand on the soybean complex (beans, oil, and meal) and U.S. farm income would be small, but livestock producers and consumers could benefit from low meat prices.

  13. Patient education: a potential marketing tool for the private physician.

    PubMed

    Van Doren, D C; Blank, K M

    1992-03-01

    To keep pace with increasing competition, the private physician is encouraged to consider a patient education program as a marketing tool. Meeting the educational needs of patients is presented as an opportunity to create a trusting environment in the practice, enhance the doctor-patient relationship, and increase the active role of the patient in the health care process. A management model is proposed for successfully planning, organizing, staffing, leading, and controlling the patient education program. PMID:10145615

  14. Financial market images: A practical approach owing to the secret quantum potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahmasebi, F.; Meskinimood, S.; Namaki, A.; Vasheghani Farahani, S.; Jalalzadeh, S.; Jafari, G. R.

    2015-02-01

    We unveil secrets of the financial markets that prove very effective on shaping their future. The question to be answered is why instant high amplitude variations of price returns are never experienced. We deduce that the key to shedding light on this issue is the quantum potential whose existence is due to the entanglement between a price and its prior-day price. Implementing the quantum potential would enable us to sketch a robust pattern for the price return fluctuations of a financial market. As such, we model real markets by the Bohmian quantum approach bearing a quantum potential that guides the price return fluctuations. Strictly speaking, we show that this quantum potential confines the price returns of real markets in a scale-invariant manner, which proves to be different for emerging and efficient markets. By modelling the oil and gold markets we see that a 20 day time scale is enough to exhibit the class difference of the scaling behaviour. The appearance of this characteristic time scale lies in the fact that oil and gold markets are influenced by short- and long-term programs. This statement is supported by the fact that short-term programs are due to the market supply and demand, while long-term programs are due to political and natural factors. In short times the potential is very efficiently controlling the market showing a big margin against a white noise, while in the long run the potential is not as efficient as before tending to look more like a white noise. This is due to the widening of the boundaries disabling the quantum potential efficiency on controlling the market, and hence justifying the model.

  15. Assessment of potential future hydrogen markets in the U.S.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kashani, A. K.

    1980-01-01

    Potential future hydrogen markets in the United States are assessed. Future hydrogen markets for various use sectors are projected, the probable range of hydrogen production costs from various alternatives is estimated, stimuli and barriers to the development of hydrogen markets are discussed, an overview of the status of technologies for the production and utilization of hydrogen is presented, and, finally, societal aspects of hydrogen production and utilization are discussed.

  16. Evidence of market-driven size-selective fishing and the mediating effects of biological and institutional factors

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Sheila M. W.; Wentz, Allison; Aburto-Oropeza, Octavio; Maxey, Martin; Nagavarapu, Sriniketh; Leslie, Heather M.

    2014-01-01

    Market demand is often ignored or assumed to lead uniformly to the decline of resources. Yet little is known about how market demand influences natural resources in particular contexts, or the mediating effects of biological or institutional factors. Here, we investigate this problem by examining the Pacific red snapper (Lutjanus peru) fishery around La Paz, Mexico, where medium or “plate-sized” fish are sold to restaurants at a premium price. If higher demand for plate-sized fish increases the relative abundance of the smallest (recruit size class) and largest (most fecund) fish, this may be a market mechanism to increase stocks and fishermen’s revenues. We tested this hypothesis by estimating the effect of prices on the distribution of catch across size classes using daily records of prices and catch. We linked predictions from this economic choice model to a staged-based model of the fishery to estimate the effects on the stock and revenues from harvest. We found that the supply of plate-sized fish increased by 6%, while the supply of large fish decreased by 4% as a result of a 13% price premium for plate-sized fish. This market-driven size selection increased revenues (14%) but decreased total fish biomass (−3%). However, when market-driven size selection was combined with limited institutional constraints, both fish biomass (28%) and fishermen’s revenue (22%) increased. These results show that the direction and magnitude of the effects of market demand on biological populations and human behavior can depend on both biological attributes and institutional constraints. Fisheries management may capitalize on these conditional effects by implementing size-based regulations when economic and institutional incentives will enhance compliance, as in the case we describe here, or by creating compliance enhancing conditions for existing regulations. PMID:23865225

  17. CANDLES AND INCENSE AS POTENTIAL SOURCES OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTION: MARKET ANALYSIS AND LITERATURE SEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes available information on candles and incense as potential sources of indoor air pollution. It covers market information and a review of the scientific literature. The market information collected focuses on production and sales data, typical uses in the U.S....

  18. Technology transfer potential of an automated water monitoring system. [market research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jamieson, W. M.; Hillman, M. E. D.; Eischen, M. A.; Stilwell, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    The nature and characteristics of the potential economic need (markets) for a highly integrated water quality monitoring system were investigated. The technological, institutional and marketing factors that would influence the transfer and adoption of an automated system were studied for application to public and private water supply, public and private wastewater treatment and environmental monitoring of rivers and lakes.

  19. Potential of the Social Media as Instruments of Higher Education Marketing: A Segmentation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constantinides, Efthymios; Zinck Stagno, Marc C.

    2011-01-01

    The importance of social media as platforms of social interaction, communication and marketing is growing. Increasing numbers of businesses in various industries have already integrated or plan to integrate social media applications into their marketing programs. Higher education institutions show increased interest in the potential of social…

  20. Impact of Balancing Area Size, Obligation Sharing, and Energy Markets on Mitigating Ramping Requirements in Systems with Wind Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, B.; Milligan, M.

    2008-01-01

    Balancing area reserve sharing holds the promise of significantly reducing wind integration costs. In a companion paper we examine wind integration costs as a function of balancing area size to determine if the larger system size helps mitigate wind integration cost increases. In this paper we turn to an examination of the NYISO sub-hourly energy market to understand how it incentivizes generators to respond to ramping signals without having to explicitly pay for the service. Because markets appear to have the ability of bringing out supply response in sub-hourly energy markets, and because existing thermal resources appear to have significant untapped ramping capability, we believe that a combination of fast energy markets and combined balancing area operations can increase the grid's ability to absorb higher wind penetrations without experiencing significant operational problems or costs.

  1. Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Explores the role of marketing in the modern firm and the key tasks of marketing management. Defines the term "marketing" and discusses it as an economic concept. Discusses three key marketing principals. (RKM)

  2. Reductions in Northeast Refining Activity: Potential Implications for Petroleum Product Markets

    EIA Publications

    2011-01-01

    This report is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) initial effort to provide information and analysis on the potential impacts on petroleum product markets from reductions in Northeast petroleum refining activity.

  3. Ciguatoxic Potential of Brown-Marbled Grouper in Relation to Fish Size and Geographical Origin.

    PubMed

    Chan, Thomas Y K

    2015-11-01

    To determine the ciguatoxic potential of brown-marbled grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) in relation to fish size and geographical origin, this review systematically analyzed: 1) reports of large ciguatera outbreaks and outbreaks with description of the fish size; 2) Pacific ciguatoxin (P-CTX) profiles and levels and mouse bioassay results in fish samples from ciguatera incidents; 3) P-CTX profiles and levels and risk of toxicity in relation to fish size and origin; 4) regulatory measures restricting fish trade and fish size preference of the consumers. P-CTX levels in flesh and size dependency of toxicity indicate that the risk of ciguatera after eating E. fuscoguttatus varies with its geographical origin. For a large-sized grouper, it is necessary to establish legal size limits and control measures to protect public health and prevent overfishing. More risk assessment studies are required for E. fuscoguttatus to determine the size threshold above which the risk of ciguatera significantly increases. PMID:26324735

  4. Medium-size power generation market now focus of Rolls-Royce

    SciTech Connect

    Mullins, P.

    1996-12-01

    John Rose, Rolls-Royce chief executive, explained that the focus in power generation would now be upon small- and medium-sized power applications up to 150MW using its ranges of aeroderivative gas turbines, small steam turbines and diesel engines. The company already has an established position in this area and expects to become more competitive as aeroderivative gas turbines like the marine WR21 and industrial Trent reach the market. A measure of Rolls-Royce`s broad capability in medium power generation can be seen in the company`s decision to build its own cogen power station to provide heat and power to its major aerospace manufacturing facilities at Derby in the U.K. Work has already started on preparing land adjoining the site and the 60 MW power station is scheduled to go on line in January 1998. The US$60 million project is being carried out by Derby Cogeneration, a joint venture between Rolls-Royce Power Ventures and National Power Cogen, a subsidiary of the U.K.`s largest electrical power generator. 5 figs.

  5. Influence of fasting on muscle composition and antioxidant defenses of market-size Sparus macrocephalus *

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-dong; Wu, Tian-xing; Cai, Li-sheng; Zhu, Yong-fei

    2007-01-01

    The study was conducted to investigate fasting effects on flesh composition and antioxidant defenses of market-size Sparus macrocephalus. Two hundred fish (main initial weight 580 g) were divided into two groups (control and fasted) and reared in 6 cages. After two weeks of adaptation, group I fasted for 28 d; group II was fed normally as a control. In 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 d, 6 fish per group were sampled for proximate flesh composition, liver antioxidant enzyme activities and malondialdehyde flesh content analyses. In fasted fish, the reduction of lipid content in muscle occurred after day 3, and, compared to controls, the content of protein decreased from day 14, the activities of liver antioxidative enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) increased from day 3, and flesh malondialdehyde levels increased from day 21. Flesh fat reduction shows that fasting may be used as a technique to reduce flesh lipid content in Sparus macrocephalus. However, considering flesh protein loss and the subsequent oxidative stress, the fasting technique should be used with precautions. PMID:18257126

  6. Effects of no feeding, maintenance feeding, and refeeding on production and processing characteristics of market-size hybrid catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A pond study was initiated to evaluate effects of no feeding, maintenance feeding, and refeeding on production and processing characteristics of market-size hybrid catfish (female Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus × male Blue Catfish I. furcatus). Fish with an average weight of 644 g were stocked ...

  7. Personnel Characteristics, Job Satisfaction, and Organizational Styles of Television Program Directors Over Market Ranks and Station Sizes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish, Marjorie; Adams, R. C.

    A study compared the organizational styles of television station program directors (PDs) against indicators of market and department size, personnel stability, job satisfaction, and productivity. Researchers used the four types of management styles used by Likert: exploitative authoritarian, benevolent authoritarian, consultative, and…

  8. Stocking density effects on production characteristics and body composition of market size cobia, Rachycentron canadum, reared in recirculating aquaculture systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Production density in excess of a critical threshold can result in a negative relationship between stocking density and fish production. This study was conducted to evaluate production characteristics of juvenile cobia Rachycentron canadum, reared to market size in production-scale recirculating aq...

  9. Production characteristics of Florida pompano reared to market size at two different densities in low salinity recirculating aquaculture systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Florida pompano Trachinotus carolinus, a high-value carangid, is widely recognized as an excellent candidate for commercial mariculture. While results of a recent study indicated that pompano can be successfully reared to market size in small scale recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) at low...

  10. Evaluation of a low-head recirculating aquaculture system used for rearing Florida pompano to market size

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A low-head recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) was evaluated for the production Florida pompano Trachinotus carolinus from juvenile to market size. The RAS consisted of three dual-drain, 3-m diameter culture tanks of 7.8 m3 volume each, two 0.7-m3 moving bed bioreactors filled 67% with K1 kaldnes...

  11. Examination of Potential Benefits of an Energy Imbalance Market in the Western Interconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Milligan, M.; Clark, K.; King, J.; Kirby, B.; Guo, T.; Liu, G.

    2013-03-01

    In the Western Interconnection, there is significant interest in improving approaches to wide-area coordinated operations of the bulk electric power system, in part because of the increasing penetration of variable generation. One proposed solution is an energy imbalance market. This study focused on that approach alone, with the goal of identifying the potential benefits of an energy imbalance market in the year 2020.

  12. Market potential for optical fiber sensors in the energy sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosselmann, T.

    2007-07-01

    For a long time electric power was taken as a natural unlimited resource. With globalisation the demand for energy has risen. This has brought rising prices for fossil fuels, as well as a diversification of power generation. Besides conventional fossil, nuclear plants are coming up again. Renewable energy sources are gaining importance resulting in recent boom of wind energy plants. In the past reliability and availability and an extremely long lifetime were of paramount importance. Today this has been added by cost, due to the global competition and the high fuel costs. New designs of power components have increased efficiency using lesser material. Higher efficiency causes inevitably higher stress on the materials, of which the machines are built. As a reduction of lifetime is not acceptable and maintenance costs are expected to be at a minimum, condition monitoring systems are going to being used now. This offers potentials for fibre optic sensor application.

  13. Prediction markets and their potential role in biomedical research--a review.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Thomas; Almenberg, Johan

    2010-01-01

    Predictions markets are marketplaces for trading contracts with payoffs that depend on the outcome of future events. Popular examples are markets on the outcome of presidential elections, where contracts pay $1 if a specific candidate wins the election and $0 if someone else wins. Contract prices on prediction markets can be interpreted as forecasts regarding the outcome of future events. Further attractive properties include the potential to aggregate private information, to generate and disseminate a consensus among the market participants, and to offer incentives for the acquisition of information. It has been argued that these properties might be valuable in the context of scientific research. In this review, we give an overview of key properties of prediction markets and discuss potential benefits for science. To illustrate these benefits for biomedical research, we discuss an example application in the context of decision making in research on the genetics of diseases. Moreover, some potential practical problems of prediction market application in science are discussed, and solutions are outlined. PMID:20837097

  14. Size, Book-to-Market Ratio and Relativity of Accounting Information Value: Empirical Research on the Chinese Listed Company

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jing; Cheng, Siwei; Xu, Bin

    Recently there are many literatures studying the effect of factors such as size or book-market ratio on fluctuation of accounting earnings, stock price or earnings respectively, but so far their affection on accounting information value relativity has been scarcely addressed. This paper presents the detail analyses of their effect of the two factors to the relativity of accounting information value respectively by taking Shanghai and Shenzhen stock markets as sample. And the analyses supports the following two hypotheses, (1) The relativity of accounting information value of big size corporation is more than that of small size corporation. (2) The relativity of accounting information value of low B/M ratio corporation is more than that of low B/M ratio corporation.

  15. Imported Asian swamp eels (Synbranchidae: Monopterus) in North American live food markets: Potential vectors of non-native parasites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nico, Leo G.; Sharp, Paul; Collins, Timothy M.

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1990s, possibly earlier, large numbers of Asian swamp eels (Synbranchidae: Monopterus spp.), some wild-caught, have been imported live from various countries in Asia and sold in ethnic food markets in cities throughout the USA and parts of Canada. Such markets are the likely introduction pathway of some, perhaps most, of the five known wild populations of Asian swamp eels present in the continental United States. This paper presents results of a pilot study intended to gather baseline data on the occurrence and abundance of internal macroparasites infecting swamp eels imported from Asia to North American retail food markets. These data are important in assessing the potential role that imported swamp eels may play as possible vectors of non-native parasites. Examination of the gastrointestinal tracts and associated tissues of 19 adult-sized swamp eels—identified as M. albus "Clade C"—imported from Vietnam and present in a U.S. retail food market revealed that 18 (95%) contained macroparasites. The 394 individual parasites recovered included a mix of nematodes, acanthocephalans, cestodes, digeneans, and pentastomes. The findings raise concern because of the likelihood that some parasites infecting market swamp eels imported from Asia are themselves Asian taxa, some possibly new to North America. The ecological risk is exacerbated because swamp eels sold in food markets are occasionally retained live by customers and a few reportedly released into the wild. For comparative purposes, M. albus "Clade C" swamp eels from a non-native population in Florida (USA) were also examined and most (84%) were found to be infected with internal macroparasites. The current level of analysis does not allow us to confirm whether these are non-native parasites.

  16. Size and ζ-Potential Measurement of Silica Nanoparticles in Serum Using Tunable Resistive Pulse Sensing.

    PubMed

    Sikora, Aneta; Shard, Alexander G; Minelli, Caterina

    2016-03-01

    The contact of nanoparticles with biological fluids such as serum results in rapid adsorption of proteins at the nanoparticle surface in a layer known as the "protein corona". Protein coatings modify and control the behavior of the nanoparticles potentially altering the aggregation state and cellular response, which may influence their fate and hazard to human health. Cells are likely to interact with the protein interface rather than with bare surface; therefore it is important to study the protein layer and develop appropriate measurement tools. In this study we investigate how adsorbed proteins from serum affect the size and the surface charge of plain and aminated silica nanoparticles. Particle size and size distributions in buffer and serum-based biological media were studied using tunable resistive pulse sensing (TRPS), as well as differential centrifugal sedimentation (DCS) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Average and single particle ζ-potentials (related to surface charge) were also measured by electrophoretic light scattering (ELS) and TRPS, respectively. Size measurements showed an increase in size of the nanoparticles upon acquisition of a protein layer, thus allowing an estimation of its thickness. DLS proved incapable of providing an accurate measurement of the nanoparticles' size in serum due to the presence of agglomerates. The ability of TRPS to measure sample agglomeration was investigated by comparison with the high resolution technique of DCS. Particle-by-particle ζ-potential measurements by TRPS were consistent with those performed with ELS and allowed a description of the ζ-potential distribution within the samples. PMID:26869024

  17. Density-functional errors in ionization potential with increasing system size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittleton, Sarah R.; Sosa Vazquez, Xochitl A.; Isborn, Christine M.; Johnson, Erin R.

    2015-05-01

    This work investigates the effects of molecular size on the accuracy of density-functional ionization potentials for a set of 28 hydrocarbons, including series of alkanes, alkenes, and oligoacenes. As the system size increases, delocalization error introduces a systematic underestimation of the ionization potential, which is rationalized by considering the fractional-charge behavior of the electronic energies. The computation of the ionization potential with many density-functional approximations is not size-extensive due to excessive delocalization of the incipient positive charge. While inclusion of exact exchange reduces the observed errors, system-specific tuning of long-range corrected functionals does not generally improve accuracy. These results emphasize that good performance of a functional for small molecules is not necessarily transferable to larger systems.

  18. Density-functional errors in ionization potential with increasing system size

    SciTech Connect

    Whittleton, Sarah R.; Sosa Vazquez, Xochitl A.; Isborn, Christine M.; Johnson, Erin R.

    2015-05-14

    This work investigates the effects of molecular size on the accuracy of density-functional ionization potentials for a set of 28 hydrocarbons, including series of alkanes, alkenes, and oligoacenes. As the system size increases, delocalization error introduces a systematic underestimation of the ionization potential, which is rationalized by considering the fractional-charge behavior of the electronic energies. The computation of the ionization potential with many density-functional approximations is not size-extensive due to excessive delocalization of the incipient positive charge. While inclusion of exact exchange reduces the observed errors, system-specific tuning of long-range corrected functionals does not generally improve accuracy. These results emphasize that good performance of a functional for small molecules is not necessarily transferable to larger systems.

  19. Building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV): Analysis and US market potential. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Frantzis, L.; Friedman, D.; Hill, S.; Teagan, P.; Strong, S.; Strong, M.

    1995-02-01

    Arthur D. Little, Inc., in conjunction with Solar Design Associates, conducted a study for the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Building Technologies (OBT) to determine the market potential for grid-connected, building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV). This study defines BIPV as two types of applications: (1) where the PV modules are an integral part of the building, often serving as the exterior weathering skin; and (2) the PV modules are mounted on the existing building exterior. Both of these systems are fully integrated with the energy usage of the building and have potential for significant market penetration in the US. Off-grid building applications also offer a near-term market for BIPV, but are not included in the scope of this study.

  20. Size dependence of vacancy migration energy in ionic nano particles: A potential energy landscape perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niiyama, Tomoaki; Okushima, Teruaki; Ikeda, Kensuke S.; Shimizu, Yasushi

    2016-06-01

    Size dependence of vacancy migration energy in ionic nano particles is investigated by analysis of potential energy surfaces in potassium chloride clusters. Numerical methods are used to find almost all local minima and transition states for vacancy migration in clusters of different sizes, and reveal characteristic features of energy surface structure. It is shown that migration energy is significantly lower near a cluster surface than near a cluster core, and the mean first-passage time for migration of a vacancy decreases with cluster size. These results are consistent with observations of high diffusion rates in small clusters.

  1. Business structure, ethnic shifts in labor markets, and violence: the link between company size, local labor markets, and non-Latino homicide.

    PubMed

    Barranco, Raymond E; Shihadeh, Edward S

    2015-01-01

    Combining several schools of thought, including the civic engagement thesis, we extend current research by linking three things at the county level; firm size, the ethnic composition of labor markets, and violent crime. Our results suggest that larger businesses (based on the average number of persons employed) are more likely to have an external orientation and long recruitment reach, and this is linked to ethnic shifts in labor markets toward Latino workers. Such shifts are in turn associated with high rates of homicide among non-Latinos. Through indirect effects modeling, we find that increases in Black homicide are linked to rises in concentrated poverty, while increases in White homicide are linked to changes in unemployment. We discuss the implications of our findings. PMID:25432610

  2. An Analysis of the Market Potential for Distance Learning Opportunities in Transportation Professional Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durkop, Brooke R.; Jasek, Debbie; Kuhn, Beverly T.

    The feasibility and sustainability of a distance learning program at the Texas Transportation Institute, which is part of the Texas A&M University system, was investigated. A literature review and online survey of current transportation professionals were conducted to examine the market potential for a distance learning program and to identify…

  3. Shared Solar. Current Landscape, Market Potential, and the Impact of Federal Securities Regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, David; Brockway, Anna M.; Ulrich, Elaine; Margolis, Robert

    2015-04-01

    This report provides a high-level overview of the current U.S. shared solar landscape and the impact that a given shared solar program’s structure has on requiring federal securities oversight, as well as an estimate of market potential for U.S. shared solar deployment.

  4. Shared Solar. Current Landscape, Market Potential, and the Impact of Federal Securities Regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, David; Brockway, Anna M.; Ulrich, Elaine; Margolis, Robert

    2015-04-07

    This report provides a high-level overview of the current U.S. shared solar landscape, the impact that a given shared solar program’s structure has on requiring federal securities oversight, as well as an estimate of market potential for U.S. shared solar deployment.

  5. POTENTIAL ABATEMENT PRODUCTION AND MARKETING OF BYPRODUCT SULFURIC ACID IN THE U.S

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation of the market potential for sulfur and sulfuric acid byproducts of combustion in power plant boilers. (Air quality regulations require control of SOx emissions from power plant boilers. Recovery of sulfur in useful form would avoid waste ...

  6. Assessment of the production and marketing potential for fruits and vegetables in the South. Bulletin No. 269

    SciTech Connect

    Vitelli, V.A.; Bateman, L.; Free, W.J.

    1982-02-01

    The South continues to be an important supply area for commercial vegetable production - 27% of all vegetables for the fresh market were produced in the South in 1977. Although market power has been concentrated in terms of production and marketing, there is renewed interest in locally grown produce, especially for small producers who are located near population centers. Although a large variety of fruits and vegetables were found to offer potential for expansion through direct marketing, the crops with the greatest potential for local farmers' markets are those most preferred in that area. Fruit and vegetables produced for the regional and national markets need a longer shelf life than those produced for direct markets. In general, opportunities for expansion through either regional or national markets are high. Opportunities for expanding the amount of vegetables produced for the processing market were rated low. Only cucumbers and Irish potatoes had good potential. Although evaluations of the potential for expanding production of fruit and vegetable crops for marketing through six alternative types of markets are subjective, they provide an indication of future growth for these marketing options. (ERB)

  7. The arithmetic problem size effect in children: an event-related potential study

    PubMed Central

    Van Beek, Leen; Ghesquièr, Pol; De Smedt, Bert; Lagae, Lieven

    2014-01-01

    This study used for the first time event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine the well-known arithmetic problem size effect in children. The electrophysiological correlates of this problem size effect have been well documented in adults, but such information in children is lacking. In the present study, 22 typically developing 12-year-olds were asked to solve single-digit addition problems of small (sum ≤ 10) and large problem size (sum > 10) and to speak the solution into a voice key while ERPs were recorded. Children displayed similar early and late components compared to previous adult studies on the problem size effect. There was no effect of problem size on the early components P1, N1, and P2. The peak amplitude of the N2 component showed more negative potentials on left and right anterior electrodes for large additions compared to small additions, which might reflect differences in attentional and working memory resources between large and small problems. The mean amplitude of the late positivity component which follows the N2, was significantly larger for large than for small additions at right parieto-occipital electrodes, in line with previous adult data. The ERPs of the problem size effect during arithmetic might be a useful neural marker for future studies on fact retrieval impairments in children with mathematical difficulties. PMID:25309405

  8. Power market analysis and potential revenues of new transmission lines in a deregulated environment.

    SciTech Connect

    Koritarov, V. S.; Veselka, T. D.; Trouille, B.

    2002-05-15

    This paper describes an approach that was developed to analyze the market potential for power transactions via proposed transmission lines among the electric power utilities of Macedonia, Bulgaria, and Albania. The approach uses an integrated modeling framework consisting of several computer models that estimate the financial and economic benefits of constructing new transmission lines. The integrated model simulates open power markets under several scenarios that include cases with and without the proposed interconnections. The approach estimates power transactions among the three Balkan utility systems and the benefits of coordinated or joint system operations, including short-term power sales agreements.

  9. Stationary market applications potential of solid oxide and solid polymer fuel cell systems

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, J.N.; Fletcher, W.H.

    1996-12-31

    The UK DTI`s Advanced Fuel Cells Programme currently focuses on two main fuel cell technologies, namely the solid oxide and solid polymer systems (SOFC and SPFC), respectively. The provision of accurate and timely market data is regarded as an important part of the overall programme objectives, such as to assist both Government and industry in their appraisals of the technologies. The present study was therefore commissioned against this background, with a complementary study addressing transportation and mobile applications. The results reported herein relate to the stationary market applications potential of both SOFC and SPFC systems.

  10. Geothermal direct heat use: Market potential/penetration analysis for Federal Region 9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, W. (Editor); Tang, K. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    A preliminary study was made of the potential for geothermal direct heat use in Arizona, California, Hawaii, and Nevada (Federal Region 9). An analysis was made of each state to: (1) define the resource, based on the latest available data; (2) assess the potential market growth for geothermal energy; and (3) estimate the market penetration, projected to 2020. Findings of the study include the following: (1) Potentially economical hydrothermal resources exist in all four states of the Region: however, the resource data base is largely incomplete, particularly for low to moderate temperature resources. (2) In terms of beneficial heat, the total hydrothermal resource identified so far for the four states is on the order of 43 Quads, including an estimated 34 Quads of high temperature resources which are suitable for direct as well as electrical applications. (3) In California, Hawaii, and Nevada, the industrial market sector has somewhat greater potential for penetration than the residential/commercial sector. In Arizona, however, the situation is reversed, due to the collocation of two major metropolitan areas (Phoenix and Tucson) with potential geothermal resources.

  11. Pompano reared to market size in RAS: Low salinity culture successful

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Florida pompano, Trachinotus carolinus, are found in coastal waters of the Atlantic Ocean from Massachusetts, USA, to Brazil and throughout the Gulf of Mexico. Due to pompano’s superior market value, interest in its culture developed in the US during the 1960s and 1970s. Research conducted during ...

  12. Tests of scaling and universality of the distributions of trade size and share volume: evidence from three distinct markets.

    PubMed

    Plerou, Vasiliki; Stanley, H Eugene

    2007-10-01

    Empirical evidence for scale-invariant distributions in financial data has attracted the research interest of physicists. While the power-law tails of the distribution of stock returns P{R>x} approximately x;{-zeta_{R}} are becoming increasingly well documented, less understood are the statistics of other closely related microstructural variables such as q_{i} , the number of shares exchanged in trade i (termed the trade size) and Q_{Deltat}(t)= summation operator_{i=1};{N}q_{i} , the total number of shares exchanged as a result of the N=N_{Deltat} trades occurring in a time interval Deltat (termed share volume). We analyze the statistical properties of trade size q identical withq_{i} and share volume Q identical withQ_{Deltat}(t) by analyzing trade-by-trade data from three large databases representing three distinct markets: (i) 1000 major U.S. stocks for the 2-y period 1994-1995, (ii) 85 major U.K. stocks for the 2-y period 2001-2002, and (iii) 13 major Paris Bourse stocks for the 4.5-y period 1994-1999. We find that, for all three markets analyzed, the cumulative distribution of trade size displays a power-law tail P(q>x) approximately x;{-zeta_{q}} with exponent zeta_{q}<2 within the Lévy stable domain. Our analysis of the exponent estimates of zeta_{q} suggests that the exponent value is universal in the following respects: (a) zeta_{q} is consistent across stocks within each of the three markets analyzed, and also across different markets, and (b) zeta_{q} does not display any systematic dependence on market capitalization or industry sector. We next analyze the distributions of share volume Q_{Deltat} over fixed time intervals and find that for all three markets P{Q>x} approximately x;{-zeta_{Q}} with exponent zeta_{Q}<2 within the Lévy stable domain. To test the validity for Deltat=1day of the power-law distributions found from tick-by-tick data, we analyze a fourth large database containing daily U.S. data, and confirm a value for the exponent zeta

  13. Tests of scaling and universality of the distributions of trade size and share volume: Evidence from three distinct markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plerou, Vasiliki; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2007-10-01

    Empirical evidence for scale-invariant distributions in financial data has attracted the research interest of physicists. While the power-law tails of the distribution of stock returns P{R>x}˜x-ζR are becoming increasingly well documented, less understood are the statistics of other closely related microstructural variables such as qi , the number of shares exchanged in trade i (termed the trade size) and QΔt(t)=∑i=1Nqi , the total number of shares exchanged as a result of the N=NΔt trades occurring in a time interval Δt (termed share volume). We analyze the statistical properties of trade size q≡qi and share volume Q≡QΔt(t) by analyzing trade-by-trade data from three large databases representing three distinct markets: (i) 1000 major U.S. stocks for the 2-y period 1994-1995, (ii) 85 major U.K. stocks for the 2-y period 2001-2002, and (iii) 13 major Paris Bourse stocks for the 4.5-y period 1994-1999. We find that, for all three markets analyzed, the cumulative distribution of trade size displays a power-law tail P(q>x)˜x-ζq with exponent ζq<2 within the Lévy stable domain. Our analysis of the exponent estimates of ζq suggests that the exponent value is universal in the following respects: (a) ζq is consistent across stocks within each of the three markets analyzed, and also across different markets, and (b) ζq does not display any systematic dependence on market capitalization or industry sector. We next analyze the distributions of share volume QΔt over fixed time intervals and find that for all three markets P{Q>x}˜x-ζQ with exponent ζQ<2 within the Lévy stable domain. To test the validity for Δt=1day of the power-law distributions found from tick-by-tick data, we analyze a fourth large database containing daily U.S. data, and confirm a value for the exponent ζQ within the Lévy stable domain.

  14. Advanced Sensors and Controls for Building Applications: Market Assessment and Potential R&D Pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Brambley, Michael R.; Haves, Philip; McDonald, Sean C.; Torcellini, Paul; Hansen, David G.; Holmberg, David; Roth, Kurt

    2005-04-13

    Significant energy savings can be achieved in commercial building operation, along with increased comfort and control for occupants, through the implementation of advanced technologies. This document provides a market assessment of existing building sensors and controls and presents a range of technology pathways (R&D options) for pursuing advanced sensors and building control strategies. This paper is actually a synthesis of five other white papers: the first describes the market assessment including estimates of market potential and energy savings for sensors and control strategies currently on the market as well as a discussion of market barriers to these technologies. The other four cover technology pathways: (1) current applications and strategies for new applications, (2) sensors and controls, (3) networking, security, and protocols and standards, and (4) automated diagnostics, performance monitoring, commissioning, optimal control and tools. Each technology pathway chapter gives an overview of the technology or application. This is followed by a discussion of needs and the current status of the technology. Finally, a series of research topics is proposed.

  15. Size-dependent error of the density functional theory ionization potential in vacuum and solution

    SciTech Connect

    Sosa Vazquez, Xochitl A.; Isborn, Christine M.

    2015-12-28

    Density functional theory is often the method of choice for modeling the energetics of large molecules and including explicit solvation effects. It is preferable to use a method that treats systems of different sizes and with different amounts of explicit solvent on equal footing. However, recent work suggests that approximate density functional theory has a size-dependent error in the computation of the ionization potential. We here investigate the lack of size-intensivity of the ionization potential computed with approximate density functionals in vacuum and solution. We show that local and semi-local approximations to exchange do not yield a constant ionization potential for an increasing number of identical isolated molecules in vacuum. Instead, as the number of molecules increases, the total energy required to ionize the system decreases. Rather surprisingly, we find that this is still the case in solution, whether using a polarizable continuum model or with explicit solvent that breaks the degeneracy of each solute, and we find that explicit solvent in the calculation can exacerbate the size-dependent delocalization error. We demonstrate that increasing the amount of exact exchange changes the character of the polarization of the solvent molecules; for small amounts of exact exchange the solvent molecules contribute a fraction of their electron density to the ionized electron, but for larger amounts of exact exchange they properly polarize in response to the cationic solute. In vacuum and explicit solvent, the ionization potential can be made size-intensive by optimally tuning a long-range corrected hybrid functional.

  16. Size-dependent error of the density functional theory ionization potential in vacuum and solution

    SciTech Connect

    Sosa Vazquez, Xochitl A.; Isborn, Christine M.

    2015-12-22

    Density functional theory is often the method of choice for modeling the energetics of large molecules and including explicit solvation effects. It is preferable to use a method that treats systems of different sizes and with different amounts of explicit solvent on equal footing. However, recent work suggests that approximate density functional theory has a size-dependent error in the computation of the ionization potential. We here investigate the lack of size-intensivity of the ionization potential computed with approximate density functionals in vacuum and solution. We show that local and semi-local approximations to exchange do not yield a constant ionization potential for an increasing number of identical isolated molecules in vacuum. Instead, as the number of molecules increases, the total energy required to ionize the system decreases. Rather surprisingly, we find that this is still the case in solution, whether using a polarizable continuum model or with explicit solvent that breaks the degeneracy of each solute, and we find that explicit solvent in the calculation can exacerbate the size-dependent delocalization error. We demonstrate that increasing the amount of exact exchange changes the character of the polarization of the solvent molecules; for small amounts of exact exchange the solvent molecules contribute a fraction of their electron density to the ionized electron, but for larger amounts of exact exchange they properly polarize in response to the cationic solute. As a result, in vacuum and explicit solvent, the ionization potential can be made size-intensive by optimally tuning a long-range corrected hybrid functional.

  17. QTL mapping in multiple populations and development stages reveals dynamic quantitative trait loci for fruit size in cucumbers of different market classes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit size is an important quality trait in cucumber of different market classes. The genetic and molecular basis of fruit size variations in cucumber is not well understood. In this study, we conducted QTL mapping of fruit size in cucumber using three mapping populations developed from cross betwee...

  18. Inferring Gravitational Potentials from Mass Densities in Cluster-sized Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Christopher J.; Stark, Alejo; Gifford, Daniel; Kern, Nicholas

    2016-05-01

    We use N-body simulations to quantify how the escape velocity in cluster-sized halos maps to the gravitational potential in a ΛCDM universe. Using spherical density-potential pairs and the Poisson equation, we find that the matter density inferred gravitational potential profile predicts the escape velocity profile to within a few percent accuracy for group and cluster-sized halos (10{}13\\lt {M}200\\lt {10}15 M {}ȯ , with respect to the critical density). The accuracy holds from just outside the core to beyond the virial radius. We show the importance of explicitly incorporating a cosmological constant when inferring the potential from the Poisson equation. We consider three density models and find that the Einasto and Gamma profiles provide a better joint estimate of the density and potential profiles than the Navarro, Frenk, and White profile, which fails to accurately represent the escape velocity. For individual halos, the 1σ scatter between the measured escape velocity and the density-inferred potential profile is small (<5%). Finally, while the sub-halos show 15% biases in their representation of the particle velocity dispersion profile, the sub-halo escape velocity profile matches the dark matter escape velocity profile to high accuracy with no evidence of velocity bias outside 0.4r 200.

  19. Final Report Phase I Study to Characterize the Market Potential for Non-Motorized Travel

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Ho-Ling; Reuscher, Tim; Wilson, Daniel W; Schmoyer, Richard L

    2012-06-01

    The idea of livable communities suggests that people should have the option to utilize non-motorized travel (NMT), specifically walking and bicycling, to conduct their daily tasks. Forecasting personal travel by walk and bike is necessary as part of regional transportation planning, and requires fine detail not only about individual travel, but also on transportation and neighborhood infrastructure. In an attempt to characterize the 'market' potential for NMT, the Office of Planning, Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) funded the Center for Transportation Analysis (CTA) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to conduct a study. The objectives of this effort were to identify factors that influence communities to walk and bike and to examine why, or why not, travelers walk and bike in their communities. This study relied on information collected under the 2009 National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) as the major source of data, and was supplemented with data from the American Community Survey (ACS), educational survey, health, employment, and others. Initial statistical screening methods were applied to sort through over 400 potential predictor variables, and examined with various measures (e.g., walk trip per person, walk mileage per person, bike trip per person, bike mileage per person) as the dependent variables. The best geographic level of detail used in the modeling for this study was determined to be the Census block group level for walking and Census tract level for biking. The need for additional supplemental private data (i.e., Walk Scores and Nielsen employment data), and geospatial information that reflects land use and physical environments, became evident after an examination of findings from the initial screening models. To be feasible, in terms of costs and time, the geographic scale of the study region was scaled down to nine selected NHTS add-on regions. These regions were chosen based on various criteria including transit availability

  20. Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appel, David L.

    This booklet suggests ways in which institutions--Catholic schools in particular--can move beyond public relations and advertising to engage in the broader arena of marketing with its focus on consumer satisfaction. The first of the book's three chapters reviews the concept of marketing, providing definitions of key terms, clarification of…

  1. Market size and sales pattern of tuberculosis drugs in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    van Weezenbeek, C.; Vianzon, R.; Garfin, A. M. C. G.; Hiatt, T.; Lew, W. J.; Tisocki, K.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To identify the availability, types and quantity of anti-tuberculosis drugs in the public and private sectors from 2007 to 2011 in the Philippines. Methods: Analysis of the procurement of and sales data on anti-tuberculosis drugs from both the public and private sectors from 2007 to 2011. Results: Publicly procured anti-tuberculosis drugs were sufficient to treat all reported new tuberculosis (TB) cases from 2007 to 2011 in the Philippines. Nevertheless, the volume of anti-tuberculosis drugs in the private sector would have sufficed for the intensive phase of treatment for an additional 250 000 TB patients annually, assuming compliance with national treatment guidelines. Fixed-dose combination drugs comprised the main bulk (81%) of private market sales, while sales of loose drugs decreased over the years. Combining public and private sales in 2011, 484 725 new TB patients, i.e., 2.4 times the number of notified cases, could have been placed on treatment and treated for at least the intensive phase. Key second-line drugs are not available in the private market, making it impossible to design an adequate treatment regimen for multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) in the private sector. Conclusion: An enormous quantity of anti-tuberculosis drugs was channelled through the private market outside the purview of the Philippine National Tuberculosis Control Program, suggesting significant out-of-pocket expenditure, severe underreporting of TB cases and/or misuse of drugs due to overdiagnosis and overtreatment. PMID:26393058

  2. Projected Impact of Federal Policies on U.S. Wind Market Potential: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Short, W.; Blair, N.; Heimiller, D.

    2004-03-01

    This report discusses the potential for solar-powered agricultural irrigation pumps in the San Joaquin Valley and how these applications could improve the region's air This paper presents results from the Wind Deployment Systems Model (WinDS) for several potential energy policy cases. WinDS is a multiregional, multitime-period, Geographic Information System (GIS), and linear programming model of capacity expansion in the electric sector of the United States. WinDS is designed to address the principal market issues related to the penetration of wind energy technologies into the electric sector. These principal market issues include access to and cost of transmission, and the intermittency of wind power. WinDS has been used to model the impact of various policy initiatives, including a wind production tax credit (PTC) and a renewable portfolio standard (RPS).

  3. Potential of size reduction of flat-plate solar collectors when applying MWCNT nanofluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faizal, M.; Saidur, R.; Mekhilef, S.

    2013-06-01

    Flat-plate solar collector is the most popular type of collector for hot water system to replace gas or electric heater. Solar thermal energy source is clean and infinite to replace fossil fuel source that is declining and harmful to the environment. However, current solar technology is still expensive, low in efficiency and takes up a lot of space. One effective way to increase the efficiency is by applying high conductivity fluid as nanofluid. This paper analyzes the potential of size reduction of solar collector when MWCNT nanofluid is used as absorbing medium. The analysis is based on different mass flow rate, nanoparticles mass fraction, and presence of surfactant in the fluid. For the same output temperature, it can be observed that the collector's size can be reduced up to 37% of its original size when applying MWCNT nanofluid as the working fluid and thus can reduce the overall cost of the system.

  4. Size-dependent error of the density functional theory ionization potential in vacuum and solution

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sosa Vazquez, Xochitl A.; Isborn, Christine M.

    2015-12-22

    Density functional theory is often the method of choice for modeling the energetics of large molecules and including explicit solvation effects. It is preferable to use a method that treats systems of different sizes and with different amounts of explicit solvent on equal footing. However, recent work suggests that approximate density functional theory has a size-dependent error in the computation of the ionization potential. We here investigate the lack of size-intensivity of the ionization potential computed with approximate density functionals in vacuum and solution. We show that local and semi-local approximations to exchange do not yield a constant ionization potentialmore » for an increasing number of identical isolated molecules in vacuum. Instead, as the number of molecules increases, the total energy required to ionize the system decreases. Rather surprisingly, we find that this is still the case in solution, whether using a polarizable continuum model or with explicit solvent that breaks the degeneracy of each solute, and we find that explicit solvent in the calculation can exacerbate the size-dependent delocalization error. We demonstrate that increasing the amount of exact exchange changes the character of the polarization of the solvent molecules; for small amounts of exact exchange the solvent molecules contribute a fraction of their electron density to the ionized electron, but for larger amounts of exact exchange they properly polarize in response to the cationic solute. As a result, in vacuum and explicit solvent, the ionization potential can be made size-intensive by optimally tuning a long-range corrected hybrid functional.« less

  5. Estimating the transmission potential of supercritical processes based on the final size distribution of minor outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Nishiura, Hiroshi; Yan, Ping; Sleeman, Candace K.; Mode, Charles J.

    2011-01-01

    Use of the final size distribution of minor outbreaks for the estimation of the reproduction numbers of supercritical epidemic processes has yet to be considered. We used a branching process model to derive the final size distribution of minor outbreaks, assuming a reproduction number above unity, and applying the method to final size data for pneumonic plague. Pneumonic plague is a rare disease with only one documented major epidemic in a spatially limited setting. Because the final size distribution of a minor outbreak needs to be normalized by the probability of extinction, we assume that the dispersion parameter (k) of the negative-binomial offspring distribution is known, and examine the sensitivity of the reproduction number to variation in dispersion. Assuming a geometric offspring distribution with k = 1, the reproduction number was estimated at 1.16 (95% confidence interval: 0.97–1.38). When less dispersed with k = 2, the maximum likelihood estimate of the reproduction number was 1.14. These estimates agreed with those published from transmission network analysis, indicating that the human-to-human transmission potential of the pneumonic plague is not very high. Given only minor outbreaks, transmission potential is not sufficiently assessed by directly counting the number of offspring. Since the absence of a major epidemic does not guarantee a subcritical process, the proposed method allows us to conservatively regard epidemic data from minor outbreaks as supercritical, and yield estimates of threshold values above unity. PMID:22079419

  6. Fine Adjustment of Interfacial Potential between pH-Responsive Hydrogels and Cell-Sized Particles.

    PubMed

    Monzel, Cornelia; Veschgini, Mariam; Madsen, Jeppe; Lewis, Andrew L; Armes, Steven P; Tanaka, Motomu

    2015-08-11

    We quantitatively determined interfacial potentials between cell-sized particles and stimulus-responsive hydrogels using a microinterferometer. The hydrogel is based on physically interconnected ABA triblock copolymer micelles comprising an inner biocompatible PMPC block and two outer pH-responsive PDPA blocks. The out-of-plane temporal fluctuation in the position of the cell-sized particles was calculated from changes in the interference pattern measured by Reflection Interference Contrast Microscopy (RICM), thus yielding the particle-substrate interaction potential V (Δh). Measurements in pH buffers ranging from 7.0 to 7.8 resulted in a systematic reduction in height of the potential minima ⟨Δh⟩ and a concomitant increase in the potential curvature V″ (Δh). The experimental data were analyzed by applying the modified Ross and Pincus model for polyelectrolytes, while accounting for gravitation, lubrication and van der Waals interactions. Elastic moduli calculated from V″ (Δh) were in good agreement with those measured by Atomic Force Microscopy. The ability to fine-tune both the gel elasticity and the interfacial potential at around physiological pH makes such triblock copolymer hydrogels a promising biocompatible substrate for dynamic switching of cell-material interactions. PMID:26190346

  7. Influence of electrode site and size on variability of magnetic evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Dunnewold, R J; van der Kamp, W; van den Brink, A M; Stijl, M; van Dijk, J G

    1998-12-01

    Successive magnetic evoked potentials (MEPs) concern varying motor neurons. We investigated whether this MEP-specific source of variability depends on electrode site and size. Amplitude variability (standard deviation) was largest over the center of the hypothenar muscles. Latencies were longer at distal and proximal sites than at the center site. Large electrodes (10 cm2) did not decrease this source of amplitude variability compared with EEG electrodes, in contrast to other sources of variability. PMID:9843083

  8. Production of market-size North American strain Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in a land-based recirculation aquaculture system using freshwater

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is interest in culturing Atlantic salmon Salmo salar to market-size in land-based, closed containment systems that use recirculation aquaculture systems (RAS), as this technology often enables facilities to locate near major markets, obtain permits, exclude obligate pathogens, and/or reduce en...

  9. Effect of experimental scotoma size and shape on the binocular and monocular pattern visual evoked potential.

    PubMed

    Geer, I; Spafford, M M

    1994-01-01

    A small experimental, central scotoma significantly attenuates the human pattern visual evoked potential. The steady-state pattern visual evoked potential was recorded from seven visually normal adults who viewed a reversing checkerboard with 24' checks and a central scotoma that varied in size and shape. We found that square scotomas had to be at least 3 x 3 degrees to significantly (p < 0.05) attenuate the pattern visual evoked potential. Receptor density has been shown to be greater along the horizontal meridian than the vertical meridian. We hypothesized that this results in greater cortical representation of the horizontal meridian than the vertical meridian and, therefore, the pattern visual evoked potential might be significantly attenuated by a smaller rectangular scotoma oriented along the horizontal meridian than along the vertical meridian. One dimension of the rectangular scotoma was fixed at either 1 degree or 3 degrees, while the other dimension was varied from 1 degree to 8 degrees. The threshold scotoma size that significantly (p < 0.05) attenuated the pattern visual evoked potential was a horizontal scotoma subtending 1 x 4 degrees and a vertical scotoma subtending 5 x 1 degree (vertical x horizontal). Meridional differences in cortical representation were not apparent to the larger scotoma series in which the fixed dimension subtended 3 degrees (3 x 2 degrees and 2 x 3 degrees). Further analysis of the data revealed that the apparent meridional difference for the 1 degree scotoma series was a function of data variability. The determinant of the PVEP amplitude was scotoma area, not orientation. Monocular and binocular threshold scotoma sizes were the same, which could be due to the level of binocular summation demonstrated by our subjects. PMID:7813381

  10. Understanding Market Size and Reporting Gaps for Paediatric TB in Indonesia, Nigeria and Pakistan: Supporting Improved Treatment of Childhood TB in the Advent of New Medicines

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objective of the Study We sought to understand gaps in reporting childhood TB cases among public and private sector health facilities (dubbed “non-NTP” facilities) outside the network of national TB control programmes, and the resulting impact of under-reporting on estimates of paediatric disease burden and market demand for new medicines. Methodology Exploratory assessments were carried out in Indonesia, Nigeria and Pakistan, reaching a range of facility types in two selected areas of each country. Record reviews and interviews of healthcare providers were carried out to assess numbers of unreported paediatric TB cases, diagnostic pathways followed and treatment regimens prescribed. Main Findings A total of 985 unreported diagnosed paediatric TB cases were identified over a three month period in 2013 in Indonesia from 64 facilities, 463 in Pakistan from 35 facilities and 24 in Nigeria from 20 facilities. These represent an absolute additional annualised yield to 2013 notifications reported to WHO of 15% for Indonesia, 2% for Nigeria and 7% for Pakistan. Only 12% of all facilities provided age and sex-disaggregated data. Findings highlight the challenges of confirming childhood TB. Diagnosis patterns in Nigeria highlight a very low suspicion for childhood TB. Providers note the need for paediatric medicines aligned to WHO recommendations. Conclusion: How Market Data Can Support Better Public Health Interventions This study emphasises the impact of incomplete reporting on the estimation of disease burden and potential market size of paediatric TB medicines. Further studies on “hubs” (facilities treating large numbers of childhood TB cases) will improve our understanding of the epidemic, support introduction efforts for new treatments and better measure markets for new paediatric medicines. PMID:26460607

  11. Tests of Specialty Breeding Lines I: Size Profiles From Washington Suggest Several Marketing Options

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yield trials of recently selected specialty clones were conducted in 2006 at the Paterson, WA field site. Two trials were conducted, each consisting of 3 replications of 10-hill plots. In recent years our industry partners have expressed an intense interest in the tuber size profiles. We, therefo...

  12. U.S. Energy Service Company Industry: Market Size and Project Performance from 1990-2008

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, Peter; Goldman, Charles; Satchwell, Andrew

    2012-08-21

    The U.S. energy service company (ESCO) industry is an example of a private sector business model where energy savings are delivered to customers primarily through the use of performance-based contracts. This study was conceived as a snapshot of the ESCO industry prior to the economic slowdown and the introduction of federal stimulus funding mandated by enactment of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA). This study utilizes two parallel analytic approaches to characterize ESCO industry and market trends in the U.S.: (1) a ?top-down? approach involving a survey of individual ESCOs to estimate aggregate industry activity and (2) a ?bottom-up? analysis of a database of ~;;3,250 projects (representing over $8B in project investment) that reports market trends including installed EE retrofit strategies, project installation costs and savings, project payback times, and benefit-cost ratios over time. Despite the onset of a severe economic recession, the U.S. ESCO industry managed to grow at about 7percent per year between 2006 and 2008. ESCO industry revenues were about $4.1 billion in 2008 and ESCOs anticipate accelerated growth through 2011 (25percent per year). We found that 2,484 ESCO projects in our database generated ~;;$4.0 billion ($2009) in net, direct economic benefits to their customers. We estimate that the ESCO project database includes about 20percent of all U.S. ESCO market activity from 1990-2008. Assuming the net benefits per project are comparable for ESCO projects that are not included in the LBNL database, this would suggest that the ESCO industry has generated ~;;$23 billion in net direct economic benefits for customers at projects installed between 1990 and 2008. There is empirical evidence confirming that the industry is evolving by installing more comprehensive and complex measures?including onsite generation and measures to address deferred maintenance?but this evolution has significant implications for customer project

  13. Universal expression for blocking cone size based on the ZBL potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutana, A.; Bolotin, I. L.; Rabalais, J. W.

    2001-12-01

    Calculations of blocking cone sizes for the "blocking geometry" of the scattering and recoiling imaging spectrometry (SARIS) technique have been performed. By fitting calculated points in the space of the parameters of the interacting atomic species, a universal formula for calculating the blocking cone size for arbitrary energies and interacting species has been derived. This provides a "blocking cross-section" and an estimate of the total scattering cross-section of the process under consideration. The results obtained from the formula are compared with experimental SARIS blocking cone data for He + and Ne + scattering from a Pt(1 1 1) surface in the energy range 3-20 keV. The blocking cones in this low-energy range are appreciably asymmetric with respect to the interatomic axis. At small interatomic distances and low-projectile energies, the difference in angular size of the upper and lower halves of the blocking cone can be as large as 15%. The results of scattering and recoiling imaging code simulations and molecular dynamics blocking cone trajectory simulations using the Ziegler-Biersack-Littmark potential are in good agreement with experimental blocking cone sizes. Comparison is also made to the results of other formulas for the critical blocking angle found in the literature.

  14. Event-related potentials during word mapping to object shape predict toddlers' vocabulary size

    PubMed Central

    Borgström, Kristina; Torkildsen, Janne von Koss; Lindgren, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    What role does attention to different object properties play in early vocabulary development? This longitudinal study using event-related potentials in combination with behavioral measures investigated 20- and 24-month-olds' (n = 38; n = 34; overlapping n = 24) ability to use object shape and object part information in word-object mapping. The N400 component was used to measure semantic priming by images containing shape or detail information. At 20 months, the N400 to words primed by object shape varied in topography and amplitude depending on vocabulary size, and these differences predicted productive vocabulary size at 24 months. At 24 months, when most of the children had vocabularies of several hundred words, the relation between vocabulary size and the N400 effect in a shape context was weaker. Detached object parts did not function as word primes regardless of age or vocabulary size, although the part-objects were identified behaviorally. The behavioral measure, however, also showed relatively poor recognition of the part-objects compared to the shape-objects. These three findings provide new support for the link between shape recognition and early vocabulary development. PMID:25762957

  15. Lime and limestone market for sulfur removal: potential for 1992. Illinois mineral notes

    SciTech Connect

    Bhagwat, S.B.

    1985-01-01

    In the United States, the market for lime and limestone declined in the 1970s and early 1980s; however, following the passage of clean air regulations, a small niche in the market developed when lime and limestone became important components of processes used to reduce the sulfur dioxide emissions that result from burning coal. No demand for lime and limestone for sulfur removal existed in 1974, and tremendous growth was predicted. However, by 1983 sales of lime and limestone only achieved 8% of the predicted potential. The demand did not reach the projected level partly because of the availability of low-sulfur fuels, the differences in industrial growth rates from state to state, the flexibility in implementation of the Clean Air Act, and the demographics of the country.

  16. Solar photo-catalytic hydrogen: systems considerations, economics, and potential markets. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, R V; Witwer, J G

    1981-05-01

    A three part analysis was done consisting of (1) an examination of the physical principles of solar photocatalytic energy conversion and the status of research in this area, (2) an economic analysis of the potential costs of producing hydrogen from such a system, and (3) an analysis of the markets for hydrogen and the possible penetration of these markets by solar photocatalytic hydrogen. The cost range of flat plate thermal collectors, heliostats, and a photovoltaic system are compared. The cost range of flat plate thermal collectors was used to represent the cost of photocatalytic systems. On the basis of the photovoltaics cost outlook, it is found that photocatalytic systems would not cost less than $180 to $330 per m/sup 2/ range. On the basis of the heliostat cost outlook, a cost lower than $180 to $330 per m could be projected only for very large production volumes and very large installations. (LEW)

  17. Potential market size and impact of hepatitis C treatment in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Woode, M E; Abu-Zaineh, M; Perriëns, J; Renaud, F; Wiktor, S; Moatti, J-P

    2016-07-01

    The introduction of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) has made hepatitis C infection curable in the vast majority of cases and the elimination of the infection possible. Although initially too costly for large-scale use, recent reductions in DAA prices in some low- and middle-income countries (LaMICs) has improved the prospect of many people having access to these drugs/medications in the future. This article assesses the pricing and financing conditions under which the uptake of DAAs can increase to the point where the elimination of the disease in LaMICs is feasible. A Markov simulation model is used to study the dynamics of the infection with the introduction of treatment over a 10-year period. The impact on HCV-related mortality and HCV incidence is assessed under different financing scenarios assuming that the cost of the drugs is completely paid for out-of-pocket or reduced through either subsidy or drug price decreases. It is also assessed under different diagnostic and service delivery capacity scenarios separately for low-income (LIC), lower-middle-income (LMIC) and upper-middle-income countries (UMIC). Monte Carlo simulations are used for sensitivity analyses. At a price of US$ 1680 per 12-week treatment duration (based on negotiated Egyptian prices for an all oral two-DAA regimen), most of the people infected in LICs and LMICs would have limited access to treatment without subsidy or significant drug price decreases. However, people in UMICs would be able to access it even in the absence of a subsidy. For HCV treatment to have a significant impact on mortality and incidence, a significant scaling-up of diagnostic and service delivery capacity for HCV infection is needed. PMID:26924428

  18. Three Essays on the Economics of Education: Class-Size Reduction, Teacher Labor Markets, and Teacher Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dieterle, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Prior research has established the potential for achievement gains from attending smaller classes. However, large statewide class-size reduction (CSR) policies have not been found to consistently realize such gains. A leading explanation for the disappointing performance of CSR policies is that schools are forced to hire additional teachers of…

  19. Surfactants, not size or zeta-potential influence blood-brain barrier passage of polymeric nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Nadine; Henrich-Noack, Petra; Kockentiedt, Sarah; Hintz, Werner; Tomas, Jürgen; Sabel, Bernhard A

    2014-05-01

    Nanoparticles (NP) can deliver drugs across the blood-brain barrier (BBB), but little is known which of the factors surfactant, size and zeta-potential are essential for allowing BBB passage. To this end we designed purpose-built fluorescent polybutylcyanoacrylate (PBCA) NP and imaged the NP's passage over the blood-retina barrier - which is a model of the BBB - in live animals. Rats received intravenous injections of fluorescent PBCA-NP fabricated by mini-emulsion polymerisation to obtain various NP's compositions that varied in surfactants (non-ionic, anionic, cationic), size (67-464nm) and zeta-potential. Real-time imaging of retinal blood vessels and retinal tissue was carried out with in vivo confocal neuroimaging (ICON) before, during and after NP's injection. Successful BBB passage with subsequent cellular labelling was achieved if NP were fabricated with non-ionic surfactants or cationic stabilizers but not when anionic compounds were added. NP's size and charge had no influence on BBB passage and cell labelling. This transport was not caused by an unspecific opening of the BBB because control experiments with injections of unlabelled NP and fluorescent dye (to test a "door-opener" effect) did not lead to parenchymal labelling. Thus, neither NP's size nor chemo-electric charge, but particle surface is the key factor determining BBB passage. This result has important implications for NP engineering in medicine: depending on the surfactant, NP can serve one of two opposite functions: while non-ionic tensides enhance brain up-take, addition of anionic tensides prevents it. NP can now be designed to specifically enhance drug delivery to the brain or, alternatively, to prevent brain penetration so to reduce unwanted psychoactive effects of drugs or prevent environmental nanoparticles from entering tissue of the central nervous system. PMID:24607790

  20. Zeta-potential and particle size studies of silver sulphide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Vikash; Tarachand, Ganesan, V.; Okram, Gunadhor S.

    2016-05-01

    Silver sulfide (Ag2S) nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared successfully for the first time using diethylene glycol (DEG) as a surfactant. X-ray diffraction (XRD) data revealed single phase nature of the compound and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) confirmed its nominal composition. Their sizes were 43 nm from XRD, 50 nm from atomic force microscopy (AFM) and 19 nm & 213 nm from dynamic light scattering (DLS); their differences have been discussed. Autotitration study of zeta potential of these NPs in deionized water by DLS at different pH values confirmed an isoelectric point at pH = 5.14 and their very unstable nature in deionized water.

  1. Physical properties of macromolecule-metal oxide nanoparticle complexes: Magnetophoretic mobility, sizes, and interparticle potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mefford, Olin Thompson, IV

    Magnetic nanoparticles coated with polymers hold great promise as materials for applications in biotechnology. In this body of work, magnetic fluids for the treatment of retinal detachment are examined closely in three regimes; motion of ferrofluid droplets in aqueous media, size analysis of the polymer-iron oxide nanoparticles, and calculation of interparticle potentials as a means for predicting fluid stability. The macromolecular ferrofluids investigated herein are comprised of magnetite nanoparticles coated with tricarboxylate-functional polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) oligomers. The nanoparticles were formed by reacting stoichiometric concentrations of iron chloride salts with base. After the magnetite particles were prepared, the functional PDMS oligomers were adsorbed onto the nanoparticle surfaces. The motion of ferrofluid droplets in aqueous media was studied using both theoretical modeling and experimental verification. Droplets (˜1-2 mm in diameter) of ferrofluid were moved through a viscous aqueous medium by an external magnet of measured field and field gradient. Theoretical calculations were made to approximate the forces on the droplet. Using the force calculations, the times required for the droplet to travel across particular distances were estimated. These estimated times were within close approximation of experimental values. Characterization of the sizes of the nanoparticles was particularly important, since the size of the magnetite core affects the magnetic properties of the system, as well as the long-term stability of the nanoparticles against flocculation. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to measure the sizes and size distributions of the magnetite cores. Image analyses were conducted on the TEM micrographs to measure the sizes of approximately 6000 particles per sample. Distributions of the diameters of the magnetite cores were determined from this data. A method for calculating the total particle size, including the magnetite

  2. Market potential for biomass co-fire in the four corners region

    SciTech Connect

    Whittier, J.; Haase, S.; Lynch, D.L.

    1996-12-31

    Fire suppression and heavy logging have caused major ecological changes in the pine forests of the San Juan-Rio Grande National Forest. A demonstration and administrative study sale was offered to determine the potential for ecosystem restoration in the forest. The conditions of the sale required the removal of trees from designated units that are typically classified as either Products Other than Logs (POL) or non-merchantable timber in addition to sawtimber. There are approximately 3.7 GW (net) of coal-fired power production capacity within 100 miles of the SJNF. Co-firing of biofuels with fossil fuels has significant potential for utility-scale power production. However, the economics and technical feasibility of co-firing are site-specific, depending on issues such as the availability of biomass, plant layout, existing combustion system technology, and the current cost of coal. The results of the feasibility analysis suggest limited market potential for forestry residues in area power plants. High biomass costs, despite USFS subsidies, coupled with low coal costs and coal supplier issues hinder the prospects for biomass co-fire opportunities. environmental considerations associated with reduced emissions (SO{sub x}, NO{sub x}, CO{sub 2}) are not major issues because of low sulfur coal that is widely available and limited markets for NO{sub x} and CO{sub 2} reductions.

  3. Evaluating the acute effects of oral, non-combustible potential reduced exposure products marketed to smokers

    PubMed Central

    Cobb, CO; Weaver, MF; Eissenberg, T

    2011-01-01

    Background Non-combustible potential reduced exposure products (PREPs; eg, Star Scientific’s Ariva; a variety of other smokeless tobacco products) are marketed to reduce the harm associated with smoking. This marketing occurs despite an absence of objective data concerning the toxicant exposure and effects of these PREPs. Methods used to examine combustible PREPs were adapted to assess the acute effects of non-combustible PREPs for smokers. Methods 28 overnight abstinent cigarette smokers (17 men, 14 non-white) each completed seven, Latin-squared ordered, approximately 2.5 h laboratory sessions that differed by product administered: Ariva, Marlboro Snus (Philip Morris, USA), Camel Snus (RJ Reynolds, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USA), Commit nicotine lozenge (GlaxoSmithKline; 2 mg), own brand cigarettes, Quest cigarettes (Vector Tobacco; delivers very low levels of nicotine) and sham smoking (ie, puffing on an unlit cigarette). In each session, the product was administered twice (separated by 60 min), and plasma nicotine levels, expired air CO and subjective effects were assessed regularly. Results Non-combustible products delivered less nicotine than own brand cigarettes, did not expose smokers to CO and failed to suppress tobacco abstinence symptoms as effectively as combustible products. Conclusions While decreased toxicant exposure is a potential indicator of harm reduction potential, a failure to suppress abstinence symptoms suggests that currently marketed non-combustible PREPs may not be a viable harm reduction strategy for US smokers. This study demonstrates how clinical laboratory methods can be used to evaluate the short-term effects of non-combustible PREPs for smokers. PMID:19346218

  4. THE CO2 ABATEMENT POTENTIAL OF CALIFORNIA'S MID-SIZED COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS

    SciTech Connect

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Cardoso, Goncalo; Lipman, Tim; Megel, Olivier; Ganguly, Srirupa; Siddiqui, Afzal; Lai, Judy

    2009-12-31

    The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) is working with the California Energy Commission (CEC) todetermine the potential role of commercial sector distributed generation (DG) with combined heat and power (CHP) capability deployment in greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) reductions. CHP applications at large industrial sites are well known, and a large share of their potential has already been harvested. In contrast, relatively little attention has been paid to the potential of medium-sized commercial buildings, i.e. ones with peak electric loads ranging from 100 kW to 5 MW. We examine how this sector might implement DG with CHP in cost minimizing microgrids that are able to adopt and operate various energy technologies, such as solar photovoltaics (PV), on-site thermal generation, heat exchangers, solar thermal collectors, absorption chillers, and storage systems. We apply a mixed-integer linear program (MILP) that minimizes a site?s annual energy costs as its objective. Using 138 representative mid-sized commercial sites in California (CA), existing tariffs of three major electricity distribution ultilities, and performance data of available technology in 2020, we find the GHG reduction potential for this CA commercial sector segment, which represents about 35percent of total statewide commercial sector sales. Under the assumptions made, in a reference case, this segment is estimated to be capable of economically installing 1.4 GW of CHP, 35percent of the California Air Resources Board (CARB) statewide 4 GW goal for total incremental CHP deployment by 2020. However, because CARB?s assumed utilization is far higher than is found by the MILP, the adopted CHP only contributes 19percent of the CO2 target. Several sensitivity runs were completed. One applies a simple feed-in tariff similar to net metering, and another includes a generous self-generation incentive program (SGIP) subsidy for fuel cells. The feed-in tariff proves ineffective at

  5. Three near term commercial markets in space and their potential role in space exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavert, Raymond B.

    2001-02-01

    Independent market studies related to Low Earth Orbit (LEO) commercialization have identified three near term markets that have return-on-investment potential. These markets are: (1) Entertainment (2) Education (3) Advertising/sponsorship. Commercial activity is presently underway focusing on these areas. A private company is working with the Russians on a commercial module attached to the ISS that will involve entertainment and probably the other two activities as well. A separate corporation has been established to commercialize the Russian Mir Space Station with entertainment and promotional advertising as important revenue sources. A new startup company has signed an agreement with NASA for commercial media activity on the International Space Station (ISS). Profit making education programs are being developed by a private firm to allow students to play the role of an astronaut and work closely with space scientists and astronauts. It is expected that the success of these efforts on the ISS program will extend to exploration missions beyond LEO. The objective of this paper is to extrapolate some of the LEO commercialization experiences to see what might be expected in space exploration missions to Mars, the Moon and beyond. .

  6. Size dependent transitions induced by an electron collecting electrode near the plasma potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnat, Edward; Laity, George; Hopkins, Matt; Baalrud, Scott

    2014-10-01

    As the size of a positively biased electrode increases, the nature of the interface formed between the electrode and the host plasma undergoes a transition from an electron-rich structure (electron sheath) to an intermediate structure containing both ion and electron rich regions (double layer) and ultimately forms an electron-depleted structure (ion sheath). In this study, measurements are performed to further test how the key scaling relationship relating the area of the electrode to that of the area of the vessel containing the plasma discharge impacts this transition. This was accomplished using a segmented disk electrode in which individual segments were individually biased to change the effective surface area of the anode. Measurements on bulk plasma parameters such as the collected current density, plasma potential, electron density, electron temperature and optical emission are made as both the size and the bias placed on the electrode are varied. Size dependent transitions in the voltage dependence of the plasma parameters are identified in both argon and helium discharges and are compared to the interface transitions predicted by global current balance. This work was supported by the Office of Fusion Energy Science at the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC04-94SL85000.

  7. LUNAR DUST GRAIN CHARGING BY ELECTRON IMPACT: DEPENDENCE OF THE SURFACE POTENTIAL ON THE GRAIN SIZE

    SciTech Connect

    Nemecek, Z.; Pavlu, J.; Safrankova, J.; Beranek, M.; Richterova, I.; Vaverka, J.; Mann, I.

    2011-09-01

    The secondary electron emission is believed to play an important role for the dust charging at and close to the lunar surface. However, our knowledge of emission properties of the dust results from model calculations and rather rare laboratory investigations. The present paper reports laboratory measurements of the surface potential on Lunar Highlands Type regolith simulants with sizes between 0.3 and 3 {mu}m in an electron beam with energy below 700 eV. This investigation is focused on a low-energy part, i.e., {<=}100 eV. We found that the equilibrium surface potential of this simulant does not depend on the grain size in our ranges of grain dimensions and the beam energies, however, it is a function of the primary electron beam energy. The measurements are confirmed by the results of the simulation model of the secondary emission from the spherical samples. Finally, we compare our results with those obtained in laboratory experiments as well as those inferred from in situ observations.

  8. Zeta potential of clay-size particles in urban rainfall runoff during hydrologic transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jong-Yeop; Sansalone, John J.

    2008-07-01

    SummaryUrban rainfall-runoff transports a wide spectrum of anthropogenic aqueous complexes and particulate matter (PM). Zeta potential (ξ) as an electrostatic parameter provides an index of destabilization for clay-size particles (<2 μm) transported during hydrologic processes including passage of the runoff hydrograph. However, ξ of PM in urban rainfall-runoff has rarely been studied due to the dynamic and complex hydrologic, physical and chemical nature of rainfall-runoff systems. This study examined a series of rainfall-runoff events captured from a paved source area catchment in Baton Rouge, LA to characterize ξ of clay-size particles. The ξ of clay-size particles was also examined as a function of hydrologic transport with coupled water chemistry variables. Study results indicated that ξ varied from approximately -15 to -30 mV across the hydrograph of each event and generally mimicked the runoff intensity during hydrologic transport. Hydrologic transport results indicate while ξ was inversely correlated to the hydrograph flow rate, this inverse correlation was a function of variations in water chemistry parameters (pH and ionic strength); parameters that were driven by hydrologic flow rate. For each event ξ exhibited hysteretic trends as a function of rainfall-runoff ionic strength and pH during the passage of the hydrograph. Results demonstrate that hydrologic transport played an important role driving both water chemistry and ξ trends for clay-size particles; as well as treatment behavior of rainfall-runoff unit operations and processes.

  9. Relationship between latency of brainstem auditory-evoked potentials and head size in dogs.

    PubMed

    Meij, B P; Venker-van Haagen, A J; van den Brom, W E

    1992-12-01

    Cranium and brainstem dimensions were measured in 32 postmortem dog heads. Positive correlations were found between cranium length (CL) and brainstem length (BL) (r = 0.87), between cranium width (CW) and brainstem width (BW) (r = 0.83), and between cranium distance (CD = CL+CW/2) and brainstem distance (BD = BL+BW/2) (r = 0.91). Positive correlation coefficients were also found between CL and CW (r = 0.90), and between BL and BW (r = 0.85). It was concluded that head size accurately reflected brainstem size. A least squares estimation of the brainstem distance (BD) from CL and CW values was BD = 10.9 + 0.16 (CL+CW/2) (BD, CL and CW in mm). Brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs) and cranium dimensions were measured in 43 dogs (86 ears) with different head size, body size, sex and age. Wave form, absolute and interpeak latencies and correlation coefficients, relating latencies to cranium dimensions and body weight, were analysed. CL, CW, and CD were positively correlated with body weight (r = 0.93, 0.70 and 0.93, respectively), and CL, CW, and CD were correlated with age (r = 0.33, 0.52, and 0.40, respectively). BAEPs consisted of five distinct positive peaks (I to V). Secondary positive peaks following peaks I and II were seen in 60% (I') and 90% (II') of the recordings. Late waves were recorded in 90% (VI), 50% (VII), and 25% (VIII) of the recordings. Latencies increased with decreasing stimulus intensity level (from 90 dB to 10 dB hearing level, HL), especially for peaks I, II, V, and the I-V interpeak interval.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1485399

  10. Total radioactive residues and residues of [36Cl]chlorate in market size broilers.

    PubMed

    Smith, David J; Byrd, James A; Anderson, Robin C

    2007-07-11

    The oral administration of chlorate salts reduces the numbers of Gram-negative pathogens in gastrointestinal tracts of live food animals. Although the efficacy of chlorate salts has been demonstrated repeatedly, the technology cannot be introduced into commercial settings without first demonstrating that chlorate residues, and metabolites of chlorate remaining in edible tissues, represent a negligible risk to consumers. Typically, a first step in this risk assessment is to quantify the parent compound and to identify metabolites remaining in edible tissues of animals treated with the experimental compound. The objectives of this study were to determine the pathway(s) of chlorate metabolism in market broilers and to determine the magnitude of chlorate residues remaining in edible tissues. To this end, 12 broilers (6 weeks; 2.70+/-0.34 kg) were randomly assigned to three treatments of 7.4, 15.0, and 22.5 mM sodium [36Cl]chlorate dissolved in drinking water (n=4 broilers per treatment). Exposure to chlorate, dissolved in drinking water, occurred at 0 and 24 h (250 mL per exposure), feed was withdrawn at hour 38, water was removed at hour 48, and birds were slaughtered at hour 54 (16 h after feed removal and 8 h after water removal). The radioactivity was rapidly eliminated in excreta with 69-78% of the total administered radioactivity being excreted by slaughter. Total radioactive residues were proportional to dose in all edible tissues with chloride ion comprising greater than 98.5% of the radioactive residue for the tissue (9.4-97.8 ppm chlorate equivalents). Chlorate residues were typically greatest in the skin (0.33-0.82 ppm), gizzard (0.1-0.137 ppm), and dark muscle (0.05-0.14 ppm). Adipose, liver, and white muscle tissue contained chlorate concentrations from 0.03 to 0.13 ppm. In contrast, chlorate concentrations in excreta eliminated during the 6 h period prior to slaughter ranged from 53 to 71 ppm. Collectively, these data indicate that broilers rapidly

  11. Evolution of earthquake rupture potential along active faults, inferred from seismicity rates and size distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tormann, Thessa; Wiemer, Stefan; Enescu, Bogdan; Woessner, Jochen

    2016-04-01

    One of the major unresolved questions in seismology is the evolution in time and space of the earthquake rupture potential and thus time-dependent hazard along active faults. What happens after a major event: is the potential for further large events reduced as predicted from elastic rebound, or increased as proposed by current-state short-term clustering models? How does the rupture potential distribute in space, i.e. does it reveal imprints of stress transfer? Based on the rich earthquake record from the Pacific Plate along the Japanese coastline we investigate what information on spatial distributions and temporal changes of a normalized rupture potential (NRP) for different magnitudes can be derived from time-varying, local statistical characteristics of well and frequently observed small-to-moderate seismicity. Seismicity records show strong spatio-temporal variability in both activity rates and size distribution. We analyze 18 years of seismicity, including the massive 2011 M9 Tohoku earthquake and its aftermath. We show that the size distribution of earthquakes has significantly changed before (increased fraction of larger magnitudes) and after that mainshock (increased fraction of smaller magnitudes), strongest in areas of highest coseismic slip. Remarkably, a rapid recovery of this effect is observed within only few years. We combine this significant temporal variability in earthquake size distributions with local activity rates and infer the evolution of NRP distributions. We study complex spatial patterns and how they evolve, and more detailed temporal characteristics in a simplified spatial selection, i.e. inside and outside the high slip zone of the M9 earthquake. We resolve an immediate and strong NRP increase for large events prior to the Tohoku event in the subsequent high slip patch and a very rapid decrease inside this high-stress-release area, coupled with a lasting increase of NRP in the immediate surroundings. Even in the center of the Tohoku

  12. Global power marketing: Potential of power industry and cost of power production in India

    SciTech Connect

    Dinker, N.; Rawal, G.J.; Hirani, J.A.; Shukla, J.K.B.

    1996-10-01

    This paper discusses the potential for the power industry in India. It gives statistics of power demand and power production capacity for the last few years and projects the future capacity for power generation. The paper uses Guijarat State as a example and gives economics of the power projects in the state and also some idea of operating cost. The paper presents prevailing rates of tariff for the power from which one can derive economical feasibility of the power projects in India. The Indian government has given more emphasis on attracting private investment for power development and changed its power policy. To attract foreign investments, the Indian power ministry has issued counter guarantees to some independent power projects. The India power industry is thus becoming a potential market for foreign power industries.

  13. A Two-Stage Method to Determine Optimal Product Sampling considering Dynamic Potential Market

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zhineng; Lu, Wei; Han, Bing

    2015-01-01

    This paper develops an optimization model for the diffusion effects of free samples under dynamic changes in potential market based on the characteristics of independent product and presents a two-stage method to figure out the sampling level. The impact analysis of the key factors on the sampling level shows that the increase of the external coefficient or internal coefficient has a negative influence on the sampling level. And the changing rate of the potential market has no significant influence on the sampling level whereas the repeat purchase has a positive one. Using logistic analysis and regression analysis, the global sensitivity analysis gives a whole analysis of the interaction of all parameters, which provides a two-stage method to estimate the impact of the relevant parameters in the case of inaccuracy of the parameters and to be able to construct a 95% confidence interval for the predicted sampling level. Finally, the paper provides the operational steps to improve the accuracy of the parameter estimation and an innovational way to estimate the sampling level. PMID:25821847

  14. Market Potential Study for Standing Cabin Concept for Domestic Low-Cost Commercial Airlines in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romli, Fairuz I.; Dasuki, Norhafizah; Yazdi Harmin, Mohammad

    2016-02-01

    An affordable air transportation has become the operational aim of many airlines these days. This is to cater the growing air travel demands from people of different social and economic status. One of the revolutionary proposals to reduce the operational costs, hence the flight ticket price, is by introducing the so-called standing cabin concept. This concept involves transporting passengers during the entire flight in their standing position with a proper support of a vertical seat. As can be expected with many new inventions, despite its clear advantages, the concept has been met with mixed reactions from the public. This study intends to establish whether the standing cabin concept has a market potential to be implemented for domestic flights in Malaysia. The public perception is determined from collected data through a survey done at two major local low-cost airport terminals. It can be concluded from the results that the concept has a good market potential for application on flights with duration of less than two hours.

  15. Solar thermal technology development: Estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gates, W. R.

    1983-02-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. The fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. STT R&D is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), dependng on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R&D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R&D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest.

  16. Solar thermal technology development: Estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, W. R.

    1983-01-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. The fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. STT R&D is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), dependng on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R&D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R&D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest.

  17. One Size (Never) Fits All: Segment Differences Observed Following a School-Based Alcohol Social Marketing Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietrich, Timo; Rundle-Thiele, Sharyn; Leo, Cheryl; Connor, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Background: According to commercial marketing theory, a market orientation leads to improved performance. Drawing on the social marketing principles of segmentation and audience research, the current study seeks to identify segments to examine responses to a school-based alcohol social marketing program. Methods: A sample of 371 year 10 students…

  18. Can inbound and domestic medical tourism improve your bottom line? Identifying the potential of a U.S. tourism market.

    PubMed

    Fottler, Myron D; Malvey, Donna; Asi, Yara; Kirchner, Sarah; Warren, Natalia A

    2014-01-01

    In large part due to current economic conditions and the political uncertainties of healthcare reform legislation, hospitals need to identify new sources of revenue. Two potentially untapped sources are inbound (international) and domestic (within the United States) medical tourists. This case study uses data from a large, urban healthcare system in the southeastern United States to quantify its potential market opportunities for medical tourism. The data were mined from electronic health records, and descriptive frequency analysis was used to provide a preliminary market assessment. This approach permits healthcare systems to move beyond anecdotal information and assess the relative market potential of their particular geographic area and the diagnostic services they offer for attracting inbound and domestic medical tourists. Implications for healthcare executives and guidance on how they can focus marketing efforts are discussed. PMID:24611426

  19. Potential for using indigenous pigs in subsistence-oriented and market-oriented small-scale farming systems of Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Madzimure, James; Chimonyo, Michael; Zander, Kerstin K; Dzama, Kennedy

    2013-01-01

    Indigenous pigs in South Africa are a source of food and economic autonomy for people in rural small-scale farming systems. The objective of the study was to assess the potential of indigenous pigs for improving communal farmer's livelihoods and to inform policy-makers about the conservation of indigenous pigs. Data were collected from 186 small-scale subsistence-oriented households and 102 small-scale market-oriented households using interviews and direct observations. Ninety-three percent of subsistence-oriented and 82 % of market-oriented households kept indigenous pigs such as Windsnyer, Kolbroek and non-descript crosses with exotic pigs mainly for selling, consumption and investment. Farmers in both production systems named diseases and parasites, followed by feed shortages, inbreeding and abortions as major constraints for pig production. Diseases and parasites were more likely to be a constraint to pig production in subsistence-oriented systems, for households where the head was not staying at home and for older farmers. Market-oriented farmers ranked productive traits such as fast growth rate, good meat quality and decent litter size as most important selection criteria for pig breeding stock, while subsistence-oriented farmers ranked good meat quality first, followed by decent growth rate and by low feed costs. We conclude that there is high potential for using indigenous pigs in subsistence-oriented production systems and for crossbreeding of indigenous pigs with imported breeds in market-oriented systems. PMID:22639035

  20. Fabrication of large size graphene and Ti- MWCNTs/ large size graphene composites: their photocatalytic properties and potential application

    PubMed Central

    Ullah, Kefayat; Oh, Won-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Large size graphene (LSG) and multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on LSG were synthesized on a copper surface via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) at low temperature and normal pressure. The LSG were formed through an easy chemical cyclic reaction in which liquid benzene was heated to a temperature below its boiling point to create benzene vapors as graphene precursor material. The reaction mechanism was observed, and the time-dependent analysis of the reaction revealed that mounds of the carbon nanotubes had grown as a result of the island that was found on the LSG sheet. The implications of the mechanism that we have introduced were investigated by coating a titanium sheet on the MWCNTs/LSG and LSG on the semiconductor electronic device. The photonic response was observed to be markedly high, which can be attributed to the positive synergetic effect between the Ti and LSG sheet of our prepared composites. PMID:26384216

  1. Fabrication of large size graphene and Ti- MWCNTs/ large size graphene composites: their photocatalytic properties and potential application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullah, Kefayat; Oh, Won-Chun

    2015-09-01

    Large size graphene (LSG) and multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on LSG were synthesized on a copper surface via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) at low temperature and normal pressure. The LSG were formed through an easy chemical cyclic reaction in which liquid benzene was heated to a temperature below its boiling point to create benzene vapors as graphene precursor material. The reaction mechanism was observed, and the time-dependent analysis of the reaction revealed that mounds of the carbon nanotubes had grown as a result of the island that was found on the LSG sheet. The implications of the mechanism that we have introduced were investigated by coating a titanium sheet on the MWCNTs/LSG and LSG on the semiconductor electronic device. The photonic response was observed to be markedly high, which can be attributed to the positive synergetic effect between the Ti and LSG sheet of our prepared composites.

  2. Fabrication of large size graphene and Ti- MWCNTs/ large size graphene composites: their photocatalytic properties and potential application.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Kefayat; Oh, Won-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Large size graphene (LSG) and multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on LSG were synthesized on a copper surface via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) at low temperature and normal pressure. The LSG were formed through an easy chemical cyclic reaction in which liquid benzene was heated to a temperature below its boiling point to create benzene vapors as graphene precursor material. The reaction mechanism was observed, and the time-dependent analysis of the reaction revealed that mounds of the carbon nanotubes had grown as a result of the island that was found on the LSG sheet. The implications of the mechanism that we have introduced were investigated by coating a titanium sheet on the MWCNTs/LSG and LSG on the semiconductor electronic device. The photonic response was observed to be markedly high, which can be attributed to the positive synergetic effect between the Ti and LSG sheet of our prepared composites. PMID:26384216

  3. Solar-thermal technology development: estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume I. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, W.R.

    1983-02-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. Three fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. STT R and D is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), depending on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R and D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artifically manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R and D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest. Analysis is also provided regarding two federal incentives currently in use: the Federal Business Energy Tax Credit and direct R and D funding. These mecahnisms can be expected to provide the required incentives to establish a viable self-sustaining private STT industry. Discussions of STT impacts on the environment and oil imports are also included.

  4. Evaluating the potential for stock size to limit recruitment in largemouth bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Michael S.; Rogers, Mark W.; Catalano, Mathew J.; Gwinn, Daniel G.; Walsh, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    Compensatory changes in juvenile survival allow fish stocks to maintain relatively constant recruitment across a wide range of stock sizes (and levels of fishing), but few studies have experimentally explored recruitment compensation in fish populations. We evaluated the potential for recruitment compensation in largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides by stocking six 0.4-ha hatchery ponds with adult densities ranging from 6 to 40 fish over 2 years. Ponds were drained in October each year, and the age-0 fish densities were used as a measure of recruitment. We found no relationship between stock abundance and recruitment; ponds with low adult densities produced nearly as many recruits as the higher-density ponds in some cases. Both prey abundance and the growth of age-0 largemouth bass declined with age-0 fish density. Recruit abundance was highly variable both within and among the adult density groups, and thus we were unable to identify a clear stock–recruit relationship for largemouth bass. Our results indicate that reducing the number of effective spawners via angling practices would not reduce recruitment over a relatively large range in stock size.

  5. Osteogenic potential of murine periosteum for critical-size cranial defects.

    PubMed

    Ruvalcaba-Paredes, E K; Hidalgo-Bastida, L A; Sesman-Bernal, A L; Garciadiego-Cazares, D; Pérez-Dosal, M R; Martínez-López, V; Vargas-Sandoval, B; Pichardo-Bahena, R; Ibarra, C; Velasquillo, C

    2016-09-01

    Tissue engineering of bone has combined bespoke scaffolds and osteoinductive factors to maintain functional osteoprogenitor cells, and the periosteum has been confirmed as a satisfactory source of osteoblasts. Suitable matrices have been identified that support cell proliferation and differentiation, including demineralised bone matrix (both compatible and osteoinductive) and acellular human dermis. We have evaluated the osteogenic potential of an osteogenic unit, developed by combining periosteum, demineralised bone matrix, and acellular human dermis, in rodents with critical-size cranial defects. Briefly, remnants from the superior maxillary periosteum were used to harvest cells, which were characterised by flow cytometry and reverse retrotranscriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Cells were cultured into the osteogenic unit and assessed for viability before being implanted into 3 rodents, These were compared with the control group (n=3) after three months. Histological analyses were made after staining with haematoxylin and eosin and Von Kossa, and immunostaining, and confirmed viable cells that stained for CD90, CD73, CD166, runt-related transcription factor, osteopontin, and collagen type I in the experimental group, while in the control group there was only connective tissue on the edges of the bone in the injury zone. We conclude that osteogenic unit constructs have the osteogenic and regenerative potential for use in engineering bone tissue. PMID:27282080

  6. Six kilowatt, residential photovoltaic power systems study; design, performance, economics, market potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partain, L. D.

    1980-08-01

    A cost and performance analysis is presented for a solar cell electric system that can provide 70% of the electric power to a home in a California-like climate. Both a battery storage and no-storage configuration with a six kilowatt, peak power, solar array were considered, including batteries, for a 15 kWh per day average energy use that equals that of an average household in Northern California. For the promising, no-storage home system the uncertainties in important parameter values are too large to allow definitive assessment until better characterizations have been made. The political and policy decisions that can have a strong influence were assessed and quantified. The effects of tax credits, utility buyback, and proper home construction were considered. Potential markets in the hundreds of millions of dollars per year range that involve on the order of one million peak kilowatts of solar cells per year were estimated.

  7. Anticaries Potential of Low Fluoride Dentifrices Found in The Brazilian Market.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Adriana de Cássia; Tenuta, Livia Maria Andaló; Tabchoury, Cínthia Pereira Machado; Cury, Jaime Aparecido

    2016-01-01

    Low-fluoride (F) dentifrices (<600 µg F/g) are widely available worldwide, but evidence to recommend the use of such dentifrices, with either regular or improved formulations, is still lacking. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the anticaries potential of low-F dentifrices found in the Brazilian market, using a validated and tested pH-cycling model. Enamel blocks were selected by surface hardness (SH) and randomized into four treatment groups (n=12): non-F dentifrice (negative control), low-F dentifrice (500 μg F/g), low-F acidulated dentifrice (550 μg F/g) and 1,100 μg F/g dentifrice (positive control). The blocks were subjected to pH-cycling regimen for 8 days and were treated 2x/day with dentifrice slurries prepared in water (1:3, w/v). The pH of the slurries was checked, and only the acidulated one had low pH. After the pH cycling, SH was again determined and the percentage of surface hardness loss was calculated as indicator of demineralization. Loosely- and firmly-bound F concentrations in enamel were also determined. The 1,100 μg F/g dentifrice was more effective than the low-F ones to reduce enamel demineralization and was the only one that differed from the non-F (p<0.05). All F dentifrices formed higher concentration of loosely-bound F on enamel than the non-F (p<0.05), but the 1,100 μg F/g was the only one that differed from the non-F in the ability to form firmly-bound F. The findings suggest that the low-F dentifrices available in the Brazilian market, irrespective of their formulation, do not have anticaries potential. PMID:27224563

  8. International solar commercialization study of the market potential of solar products in Latin America: Jamaica. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-12-01

    The current and forecasted economic situations in Jamaica are reviewed. The logistics of doing business is reviewed, including finance, labor, investment and import policy. Market penetration strategy is presented, with emphasis on the Kingston free zone analysis. A Market Potential for US Renewable Energy Products in Jamaica included government, agricultural, tourism, manufacturing, and mining sectors. Conclusions and recommendations are given. The market readiness of the following renewable technologies was analyzed: photovoltaics; industrial process heat; active and passive solar; biomass; wind; small-scale hydro; ocean thermal; geothermal; and conservation. When appropriate, the foreign competition was also analyzed.

  9. Relationship Between Aerosol Number Size Distribution and Atmospheric Electric Potential Gradient in an Urban Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Matthew; Matthews, James; Bacak, Asan; Silva, Hugo; Priestley, Michael; Percival, Carl; Shallcross, Dudley

    2016-04-01

    Small ions are created in the atmosphere by ground based radioactive decay and solar and cosmic radiation ionising the air. The ionosphere is maintained at a high potential relative to the Earth due to global thunderstorm activity, a current from the ionosphere transfers charge back to the ground through the weakly ionised atmosphere. A potential gradient (PG) exists between the ionosphere and the ground that can be measured in fair weather using devices such as an electric field mill. PG is inversely-proportional to the conductivity of the air and therefore to the number of ions of a given electrical mobility; a reduction of air ions will cause an increase of PG. Aerosols in the atmosphere act as a sink of air ions with an attachment rate dependent on aerosol size distribution and ion mobility. These relationships have been used to infer high particulate, and hence pollution, levels in historic datasets of atmospheric PG. A measurement campaign was undertaken in Manchester, UK for three weeks in July and August where atmospheric PG was measured with an electric field mill (JCI131, JCI Chilworth) on a second floor balcony, aerosol size distribution measured with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS, TSI3936), aerosol concentration measured with a condensation particle counter (CPC, Grimm 5.403) and local meteorological measurements taken on a rooftop measurement site ~200 m away. Field mill and CPC data were taken at 1 s intervals and SMPS data in 2.5 minute cycles. Data were excluded for one hour either side of rainfall as rainclouds and droplets can carry significant charge which would affect PG. A quantity relating to the attachment of ions to aerosol (Ion Sink) was derived from the effective attachment coefficient of the aerosols. Further measurements with the field mill and CPC were taken at the same location in November 2015 when bonfire events would be expected to increase aerosol concentrations. During the summer measurements, particle number count (PNC

  10. Magnetic Grain-size Proxies in Loessic Soils and Their Potential use in Paleorainfall Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machac, T. A.; Geiss, C. E.; Zanner, C. W.

    2005-05-01

    As part of our ongoing rock-magnetic study of loessic soil profiles we sampled over 70 in Nebraska, Iowa, Missouri and Illinois. Our sampling sites are located in stable upland positions and extend along a rainfall gradient which ranges from an average annual precipitation of less than 500 mm/year in southwestern Nebraska to almost 1000 mm/year in central Missouri. Soil cores were obtained with the aid of a hydraulic soil probe, described and subsampled into small plastic bags. Samples were air-dried in the laboratory and the < 2mm fraction was used for magnetic analyses. We measured magnetic susceptibility X and several remanence parameters (ARM, IRM) for all samples. Hysteresis measurements, IRM acquisition curves and time dependence of IRM acquisition were measured for a subset of samples. All samples show magnetically enhanced A- and B-horizons, which results in increased values of X, ARM and IRM. Changes in the ratio of ARM/IRM suggest an increase in the relative abundance of stable single domain (SSD) particles. VRM analyses show that the upper soil horizons are enhanced in ultrafine superparamagnetic (SP) ferrimagnets as well. Changes in the relative abundance of SP and SSD ferrimagnets along our transsect correlates well with the modern precipitation gradient, suggesting the use of grain-size dependent magnetic parameter as a potential paleorainfall proxy when analyzing paleosols.

  11. The Repopulation Potential of Hepatocyte Populations Differing in Size and Prior Mitotic Expansion

    PubMed Central

    Overturf, Ken; Al-Dhalimy, Muhsen; Finegold, Milton; Grompe, Markus

    1999-01-01

    Recently the stem cell-like regenerative potential of adult liver cells was demonstrated by serial transplantation. This repopulation capacity could be useful for the treatment of genetic liver diseases by cell transplantation and/or expansion of genetically manipulated cells. However, previous experiments used unfractionated populations of liver cells, and therefore it remained undetermined whether all hepatocytes or only a subpopulation (stem cells) possessed this high regenerative ability. To address this question we used centrifugal elutriation to separate hepatocytes by cell density. Unexpectedly, small hepatocytes (16 μm) had lower repopulation capacity during the first round of transplantation when compared with both the medium-sized (21 μm) and large (27 μm) cells. We also compared the repopulation capacity of hepatocytes that had undergone different degrees of in vivo expansion. Previous cell division neither reduced nor increased the repopulation capacity of transplanted liver cells. Finally, retroviral tagging experiments demonstrated that liver-repopulating cells occur at a frequency of >1:10,000. We conclude that short-term therapeutic liver repopulation does not require progenitor or stem cells. PMID:10595942

  12. Potential Market for New Meniscus Repair Strategies: Evaluation of the MOON Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Fetzer, Gary B.; Spindler, Kurt P.; Amendola, Annunziato; Andrish, Jack T.; Bergfeld, John A.; Dunn, Warren R.; Flanigan, David C.; Jones, Morgan; Kaeding, Christopher C.; Marx, Robert G.; Matava, Matthew J.; McCarty, Eric C.; Parker, Richard D.; Wolcott, Michelle; Vidal, Armando; Wolf, Brian R.; Wright, Rick W.

    2013-01-01

    Background An estimated 200,000 ACL reconstructions are performed each year in the United States. The presence of concomitant meniscus tears and subsequent treatment at the time of ACL reconstruction may determine long-term outcomes of these knees. The authors contend that a substantial number of these meniscal tears are treated in a fashion that reduces meniscal function and that new technologies are needed to treat meniscal tears in a fashion that preserves function. A large cohort of patients with meniscal tears is needed to demonstrate this need. The purpose of this study is to determine the incidence of meniscal tears, describe tear morphology, and selected treatment in the MOON prospective longitudinal cohort of ACL reconstruction. We also will demonstrate based on national statistics the large potential market that exists for future tissue engineering aimed at preserving meniscal function. Methods A multicenter cohort of 1014 patients undergoing ACL reconstruction between January 2002 and December 2003 were evaluated. All procedures were performed by nine fellowship trained sports medicine orthopaedic surgeons. Data on patient demographics, presence of a meniscus tear at time of ACL reconstruction, tear morphology, and meniscal treatment were collected prospectively. Meniscal tears were categorized into three potential tissue engineering treatment strategies: all-biologic repair, advanced repair, and scaffold replacement. Results 1014 ACL reconstructions were performed over the two year period. The median age at the time of surgery was 24 years. Thirty-six percent of the knees had medial meniscal tears and 44% of the knees had lateral meniscal tears. Longitudinal tears were the most common tear morphology. The most frequent treatment modality was partial meniscectomy (60%). Thirty percent of medial meniscal tears and 10% of lateral meniscal tears could be treated with all-biologic repair, 32% of medial meniscal tears and 28% of lateral meniscal tears could

  13. Contamination of common spices in Saudi Arabia markets with potential mycotoxin-producing fungi

    PubMed Central

    Hashem, Mohamed; Alamri, Saad

    2010-01-01

    Fifteen spices obtained from common markets were examined for their mould profile. A total of 520 fungal isolates, representing 57 species, were recovered and identified from dried and ground spice samples on three different media using standard dilution plate method. The most heavily contaminated spice samples examined were observed in ginger in order of magnitude of 5325–6800 cfu/g. The most predominant fungal genera encountered were Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Rhizopus. Relative occurrence values of taxa disclosed ranged between 80% for Aspergillusflavus, Aspergillusniger and Penicilliumarenicola, and 10% for some species. Samples obtained from sumac encountered very rare colony counts indicating its antifungal prosperities. The present magnitude of contamination and spectra of mycobiota approximate those reported for similar spice samples. Several potentially mycotoxigenic fungi were isolated from the majority of samples. The present study attracts the attention to potential risk for mycotoxins contamination may be caused as a result of using these spices, especially in great quantities. The study strongly recommends reduction in application of heavily contaminated spices like ginger in food processing and using some others like clove and sumac due to their antimicrobial properties. PMID:23961074

  14. Production characteristics of body composition of Florida pompano reared to market size at two different densities in low salinity recirculating aquaculture systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of culture density on production characteristics and body composition of Florida pompano Trachinotus carolinus reared to market size using recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) at a salinity of 5 g/L was evaluated in a 110 day growth trial (water temperature, 27.0-28.5 C). Juvenile pom...

  15. Reproductive potential of Spodoptera eridania (Stoll) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in the laboratory: effect of multiple couples and the size.

    PubMed

    Specht, A; Montezano, D G; Sosa-Gómez, D R; Paula-Moraes, S V; Roque-Specht, V F; Barros, N M

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of keeping three couples in the same cage, and the size of adults emerged from small, medium-sized and large pupae (278.67 mg; 333.20 mg and 381.58 mg, respectively), on the reproductive potential of S. eridania (Stoll, 1782) adults, under controlled conditions (25 ± 1 °C, 70% RH and 14 hour photophase). We evaluated the survival, number of copulations, fecundity and fertility of the adult females. The survival of females from these different pupal sizes did not differ statistically, but the survival of males from large pupae was statistically shorter than from small pupae. Fecundity differed significantly and correlated positively with size. The number of effective copulations (espematophores) and fertility did not vary significantly with pupal size. Our results emphasize the importance of indicating the number of copulations and the size of the insects when reproductive parameters are compared. PMID:26959952

  16. Characterization and Safety of Uniform Particle Size NovaSil Clay as a Potential Aflatoxin Enterosorbent

    PubMed Central

    Marroquín-Cardona, A.; Deng, Y.; Garcia-Mazcorro, J.; Johnson, N.M.; Mitchell, N.; Tang, L.; Robinson, A.; Taylor, J.; Wang, J.-S.; Phillips, T.D.

    2011-01-01

    NovaSil (NS) clay, a common anti-caking agent in animal feeds, has been shown to adsorb aflatoxins and diminish their bioavailability in multiple animal models. The safety of long-term dietary exposure to NS has also been demonstrated in a 6-month sub-chronic study in rats and in a 3-month intervention in humans highly exposed to aflatoxins. Uniform particle size NovaSil (UPSN) is a refined material derived from parent NS; it contains lower levels of dioxins/furans, and has been selected for a more consistent uniform particle size. Nevertheless, the efficacy and potential safety/toxicity of UPSN for long term-use has not yet been determined. In this research, 4-week-old male and female Sprague Dawley rats were fed rations free of clay (control) and containing UPSN at low dose (0.25%) and high dose (2%) for 13 weeks. AFB1 sorption characteristics remained the same for both clays. When compared to the control, total body weight gain was unaffected in either sex at the doses tested. No UPSN-dependent differences in relative organ weights or gross appearance were observed. Isolated differences between UPSN groups and the control were observed for some biochemical parameters and selected vitamins and minerals. None of these differences were dose-dependent, and all parameters fell between ranges reported as normal for rats less than 6 month old. The Na/K ratio, Na and vitamin E concentrations were the only parameters that were increased in both males and females in the low dose and high dose UPSN groups. Serum Zn levels in males from the 2% UPSN treatment were lower compared to the control. Serum K levels were lower in the males of UPSN groups than in the control. However, neither Na/K ratio, K, nor Zn values were dose dependent and fell outside ranges reported as normal. These results suggest that dietary inclusion of UPSN at levels as high as 2% (w/w) does not result in overt toxicity. Nevertheless, further research on the effects of clays on Na, Zn, K and vitamin E is

  17. The implications of potential `lock-in` markets for renewable energy

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, R.; Kline, D.

    1996-11-01

    Nonlinear economic effects can cause unpredictable and sometimes undesirable outcomes in the marketplace. Increasing returns can lead to self-reinforcing situation in which increasing market share lead to a more attractive product, which leads in turn to further increases in market share. This results in ``lock-in`` of a technology, which cannot be overcome except by a significant shift in technology, consumer tastes, or other market factors.

  18. [The concept of social marketing--potential and limitations for health promotion and prevention in Germany].

    PubMed

    Loss, J; Lang, K; Ultsch, S; Eichhorn, C; Nagel, E

    2006-07-01

    "Social marketing" is the use of marketing principles to design and implement programmes to promote socially beneficial behaviour changes. In the field of health promotion and prevention, the systematic planning process of social marketing can offer new ideas and perspectives to the traditions of social science. Major characteristics of social marketing encompass continuous market research focussing on attitudes, motives and behavioural patterns of the target group, an integrated mix of strategic key elements, and the perpetual evaluation of all procedures. So far, however, it is unclear in how far social marketing is actually more effective than other concepts of programme planning. Furthermore, it has to be discussed whether the underlying philosophy of social marketing and its implicit understanding of relationships to the public are reconcilable with health promotion principles. In Anglo-Saxon countries, the social marketing concept has achieved widespread application and is subject to controversial scientific discussions, whereas this approach is hardly considered in German health promotion research and practice. Given the increasing call for quality management and evaluation of health promotion interventions, the social marketing concept may contribute useful insights at an operational level and thus add to a discussion on effective approaches for programme planning. PMID:16868866

  19. DNA intercalative potential of marketed drugs testing positive in in vitro cytogenetics assays.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Ronald D; Ewing, Douglas; Hendry, Lawrence B

    2006-10-10

    We have previously noted that the Physicians' Desk Reference (PDR) contains over 80 instances in which a drug elicited a positive genotoxic response in one or more in vitro assays, despite having no obvious structural features predictive of covalent drug/DNA interactive potential or known mechanistic basis. Furthermore, in most cases, these drugs were "missed" by computational genotoxicity-predicting models such as DEREK, MCASE and TOPKAT. We have previously reported the application of a V79 cell-based model and a 3D DNA docking model for predicting non-covalent chemical/DNA interactions. Those studies suggested that molecules that are very widely structurally diverse may be capable of intercalating into DNA. To determine whether such non-covalent drug/DNA interactions might be involved in unexpected drug genotoxicity, we evaluated, using both models where possible, 56 marketed pharmaceuticals, 40 of which were reported as being clastogenic in in vitro cytogenetics assays (chromosome aberrations/mouse lymphoma assay). As seen before, the two approaches showed good concordance (62%) and 26 of the 40 (65%) drugs exhibiting in vitro clastogenicity were predicted as intercalators by one or both methods. This finding provides support for the hypothesis that non-covalent DNA interaction may be a common mechanism of clastogenicity for many drugs having no obvious structural alerts for covalent DNA interaction. PMID:16857419

  20. Marketing to Older American Consumers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertz, Barbara; Stephens, Nancy

    1986-01-01

    Examined older adults as a potential market for American businesses. Data indicate that in terms of size and income, senior citizens comprise a substantial buying group. Their buying styles, product and service needs, and shopping behavior vary from younger adults and within the older adult population. Strategies for successful marketing are…

  1. Shared Solar: Current Landscape, Market Potential, and the Impact of Federal Securities Regulation; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-05-27

    This presentation provides a high-level overview of the current U.S. shared solar landscape, the impact that a given shared solar program's structure has on requiring federal securities oversight, as well as an estimate of market potential for U.S. shared solar deployment.

  2. Web Based Interactive Software in International Business: The Case of the Global Market Potential System Online (GMPSO[C])

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janavaras, Basil J.; Gomes, Emanuel; Young, Richard

    2008-01-01

    This paper seeks to confirm whether students using the Global Market Potential System Online (GMPSO) web based software, (http://globalmarketpotential.com), for their class project enhanced their knowledge and understanding of international business. The challenge most business instructors and practitioners face is to determine how to bring the…

  3. Addressing vaccine hesitancy: The potential value of commercial and social marketing principles and practices.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Glen J; Gellin, Bruce G; MacDonald, Noni E; Butler, Robb

    2015-08-14

    Many countries and communities are dealing with groups and growing numbers of individuals who are delaying or refusing recommended vaccinations for themselves or their children. This has created a need for immunization programs to find approaches and strategies to address vaccine hesitancy. An important source of useful approaches and strategies is found in the frameworks, practices, and principles used by commercial and social marketers, many of which have been used by immunization programs. This review examines how social and commercial marketing principles and practices can be used to help address vaccine hesitancy. It provides an introduction to key marketing and social marketing concepts, identifies some of the major challenges to applying commercial and social marketing approaches to immunization programs, illustrates how immunization advocates and programs can use marketing and social marketing approaches to address vaccine hesitancy, and identifies some of the lessons that commercial and non-immunization sectors have learned that may have relevance for immunization. While the use of commercial and social marketing practices and principles does not guarantee success, the evidence, lessons learned, and applications to date indicate that they have considerable value in fostering vaccine acceptance. PMID:25900132

  4. [Post-marketing reevaluation for potential quality risk and quality control in clinical application of traditional Chinese medicines].

    PubMed

    Li, Hong-jiao; He, Li-yun; Liu, Bao-yan

    2015-06-01

    The effective quality control in clinical practices is an effective guarantee for the authenticity and scientificity of the findings. The post-marketing reevaluation for traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) focuses on the efficacy, adverse reaction, combined medication and effective dose of drugs in the market by expanded clinical trials, and requires a larger sample size and a wider range of patients. Therefore, this increases the difficulty of quality control in clinical practices. With the experience in quality control in clinical practices for the post-marketing reevaluation for Kangbingdu oral for cold, researchers in this study reviewed the study purpose, project, scheme design and clinical practice process from an overall point of view, analyzed the study characteristics of the post-marketing reevaluation for TCMs and the quality control risks, designed the quality control contents with quality impacting factors, defined key review contents and summarized the precautions in clinical practices, with the aim to improve the efficiency of quality control of clinical practices. This study can provide reference to clinical units and quality control-related personnel in the post-marketing reevaluation for TCMs. PMID:26591543

  5. Grain characteristics of landslide breccias: the influence of grain size distribution, aspect ratio, grain size and composition on potential rockslope failure.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, I.; Venvik-Ganerod, G.

    2005-12-01

    This study presents the preliminary microstructural analysis of a nationwide study of potential rockslope failures in Norway. All of the potential rockslope failures examined have a similar geometry. These include i) a steep extensional fracture detaching the back edge of the failure block ii) a transfer fault parallel to the movement direction of the block down the fall line and iii) a shallow-angle detachment surface, or Basal Shear Zone (BSZ) along the base of the potential failure block. 15 sites have been examined in Norway as part of this study and all of these features are present. Slow-creep shearing on the BSZ has resulted in the formation of a fault breccia, or gouge, in all cases. 20 breccia and gouge samples have been collected from these BSZ's throughout Norway. The undeformed wall-rock to all of these breccias is granitic to granodioritic gneiss and consists of quartz, feldspar and variable amounts of white mica and biotite with grain sizes of 1-2mm. However, the result of mechanical breakdown along the BSZ has created a non-cohesive breccia averaging 50-80μm in grain size consisting of angular fragments of quartz and feldspar, crushed and milled biotite and white mica grains and the formation of clays from the chemical breakdown of feldspars. SEM paragenesis also demonstrates that these fault rocks have been brecciated several times and cemented by low temperature zeolites. Grain size distribution curves for these samples show a remarkable variation from extremely grain supported to extremely matrix supported. Both Ring Shear and Direct Simple Shear Strength tests have been carried out on the sample material. Comparison of the ring shear tests for the most matrix supported and most grain supported samples as two end members clearly shows that the grain supported samples have the highest residual strength whereas the most matrix supported samples have the lowest residual shear strength. Comparison of the residual shear strength with the amount of

  6. Production of limit size nanoliposomal systems with potential utility as ultra-small drug delivery agents.

    PubMed

    Zhigaltsev, Igor V; Tam, Ying K; Leung, Alex K K; Cullis, Pieter R

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies from this group have shown that limit size lipid-based systems - defined as the smallest achievable aggregates compatible with the packing properties of their molecular constituents - can be efficiently produced using rapid microfluidic mixing technique. In this work, it is shown that similar procedures can be employed for the production of homogeneously sized unilamellar vesicular systems of 30-40 nm size range. These vesicles can be remotely loaded with the protonable drug doxorubicin and exhibit adequate drug retention properties in vitro and in vivo. In particular, it is demonstrated that whereas sub-40 nm lipid nanoparticle (LNP) systems consisting entirely of long-chain saturated phosphatidylcholines cannot be produced, the presence of such lipids may have a beneficial effect on the retention properties of limit size systems consisting of mixed lipid components. Specifically, a 33-nm diameter doxorubicin-loaded LNP system composed of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine (POPC), 1,2-dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC), cholesterol, and PEGylated lipid (DSPE-PEG2000) demonstrated adequate, stable drug retention in the circulation, with a half-life for drug release of ∼12 h. These results indicate that microfluidic mixing is the technique of choice for the production of bilayer LNP systems with sizes less than 50 nm that could lead to development of a novel class of ultra-small drug delivery vehicles. PMID:25856305

  7. Potential of the tractor-trailer and container segments as entry markets for a proposed refrigeration technology

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.A.; Davis, L.J.; Garrett, B.A.

    1987-05-01

    The refrigerated trailer and container segments of the transportation industry are evaluated as potential entry markets for a proposed absorption refrigeration technology. To perform this analysis the existing transportation refrigeration industry is characterized; this includes a description of the current refrigeration technology, rating systems, equipment manufacturers, maintenance requirements, and sales trends. This information indicates that the current transportation refrigeration industry is composed of two major competitors, Thermo King and Carrier. In addition, it has low profit potential, some barriers to entry and low growth potential. Data are also presented that characterize the transportation refrigeration consumers, specifically, major groups, market segmentation, consumer decision process, and buying criteria. This consumer information indicates that the majority of refrigerated trailer consumers are private carriers, and that the majority of refrigerated container consumers are shipping companies. Also, these consumers are primarily interested in buying reliable equipment at a low price, and are quite satisfied with existing refrigeration equipment.

  8. Parametric study of potential early commercial MHD power plants. Task 3: Parameter variation of plant size

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hals, F. A.

    1981-01-01

    Plants with a nominal output of 200 and 500 MWe and conforming to the same design configuration as the Task II plant were investigated. This information is intended to permit an assessment of the competitiveness of first generation MHD/steam plants with conventional steam plants over the range of 200 to 1000 MWe. The results show that net plant efficiency of the MHD plant is significantly higher than a conventional steam plant of corresponding size. The cost of electricity is also less for the MHD plant over the entire plant size range. As expected, the cost differential is higher for the larger plant and decreases with plant size. Even at the 200 MWe capacity, however, the differential in COE between the MHD plant and the conventional plant is sufficient attractive to warrant serious consideration. Escalating fuel costs will enhance the competitive position of MHD plants because they can utilize the fuel more efficiently than conventional steam plants.

  9. Potential problems with increasing serving sizes on the Nutrition Facts label.

    PubMed

    Dallas, Steven K; Liu, Peggy J; Ubel, Peter A

    2015-12-01

    The United States Food and Drug Administration recently announced that the serving sizes on the Nutrition Facts labels for many products will be increased, but the effect of these increases remains unclear. The present research examined consumers' interpretation of the meaning of serving size information (study 1) and tested whether exposing consumers to the increased serving sizes of the proposed Nutrition Facts label leads consumers to serve and purchase more food for themselves and others (studies 2-4). Study 1 (N = 101; 44.7% female) tested what consumers believe the serving sizes on Nutrition Facts labels refer to, and the majority of participants (over 78%) incorrectly believed that the serving sizes refer to how much food can or should be consumed in one sitting as part of a healthy diet. Study 2 (N = 51; 41.2% female) tested how exposure to the current versus proposed Nutrition Facts label influences the amount of food that consumers serve themselves, and studies 3 (N = 60; 46.7% female) and 4 (N = 61; 48.2% female) assessed how exposure to the current versus proposed label influences the amount of food that people serve and purchase for others. In studies 2-4, the proposed label (vs. the current label) led consumers to serve themselves 41% more cookies (study 2); serve 27% more cheese crackers to another person (study 3); and buy 43% more lasagnas for others and divide a lasagna into 22% larger slices (study 4). The results suggest that the proposed Nutrition Facts label's increased serving sizes may lead people who use this information as a reference to serve more food to themselves and others. PMID:26278876

  10. Development and Validation of an Instrument for Early Assessment of Management Potential in a Mid-Size Chemical Company

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehner, Robert L.; Holton, Elwood F., III

    2004-01-01

    This study reports on development and concurrent validation of a competency instrument to identify potential leaders in a mid-size chemical company. Four competencies were identified: courageous problem solving, perceived energy, networking, and perceived motivation. Four different comparison groups were examined in logistic regression analyses.…

  11. Advanced Sensors and Controls for Building Applications: Market Assessment and Potential R&D Pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Brambley, M. R.; Haves, P.; McDonald, S. C.; Torcellini, P.; Hansen, D.; Holmberg, D. R.; Roth, K. W.

    2005-04-01

    This document provides a market assessment of existing building sensors and controls and presents a range of technology pathways (R&D options) for pursuing advanced sensors and building control strategies.

  12. Existing and potential market for residential solar energy use in California

    SciTech Connect

    Rains, D.

    1980-01-01

    Research findings are reported on a four-part solar market survey program which identified barriers for residential solar energy use in California. The approach and the framework for analysis are described for the survey program. Summaries and discussions are presented on survey data from solar retrofitters; new construction solar home market and buyers; focus groups of non-solar homeowners; and a statewide survey. (MCW)

  13. Agri-Environmental Policy Measures in Israel: The Potential of Using Market-Oriented Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amdur, Liron; Bertke, Elke; Freese, Jan; Marggraf, Rainer

    2011-05-01

    This paper examines the possibilities of developing agri-environmental policy measures in Israel, focusing on market-oriented instruments. A conceptual framework for developing agri-environmental policy measures is presented, first in very broad lines (mandatory regulations, economic instruments and advisory measures) and subsequently focusing on economic instruments, and specifically, on market-oriented ones. Two criteria of choice between the measures are suggested: their contribution to improving the effectiveness of the policy; and the feasibility of their implementation. This is the framework used for analyzing agri-environmental measures in Israel. Israel currently implements a mix of mandatory regulations, economic instruments and advisory measures to promote the agri-environment. The use of additional economic instruments may improve the effectiveness of the policy. When comparing the effectiveness of various economic measures, we found that the feasibility of implementation of market-oriented instruments is greater, due to the Israeli public's preference for strengthening market orientation in the agricultural sector. Four market-oriented instruments were practiced in a pilot project conducted in an Israeli rural area. We found that in this case study, the institutional feasibility and acceptance by stakeholders were the major parameters influencing the implementation of the market-oriented instruments, whereas the instruments' contribution to enhancing the ecological or economic effectiveness were hardly considered by the stakeholders as arguments in favor of their use.

  14. Size-Tunable Synthesis of Stable Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Potential Biomedical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Faquan; Yang, Victor C.

    2009-01-01

    Dextran-coated superparamagnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have widespread biomedical applications. The superparamagnetic behavior, specifically regulated size, and smooth morphology are crucial requirements for essentially all of these applications. Presented herein is an innovative double-coating strategy that would allow for a size-controlled synthesis of MNPs. Small monocrystalline iron oxide nanoparticles (MIONs) were first synthesized, which served as the source of superparamagnetic properties. These MIONs were then treated in an acetate buffer containing biocompatible dextran polymer. Under such an environment, the colloidal MIONs would be quickly agglomerated by the acetate ions, and the formed coalescent body of MION would then be stabilized simultaneously by coating with dextran. By regulating the MION or dextran concentration as well as the thermal incubation time, the sizes of these first formed nanoparticles (termed 1st-NPs) could be readily controlled. A second dextran coating step was further applied to smoothen the 1st-NPs in attaining a final product (termed 2nd-NPs). The 2nd-NPs exhibited robustly storage stability due to the additional coating shell. Results successfully confirmed the plausibility of this approach, as these MNPs displayed not only a smooth outline and a narrow size distribution, but also the essential superparamagnetic behavior and a significantly prolonged stability upon storage. PMID:19402138

  15. The Potential for Accurately Measuring Behavioral and Economic Dimensions of Consumption, Prices, and Markets for Illegal Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Bruce D.; Golub, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    There are numerous analytic and methodological limitations to current measures of drug market activity. This paper explores the structure of markets and individual user behavior to provide an integrated understanding of behavioral and economic (and market) aspects of illegal drug use with an aim toward developing improved procedures for measurement. This involves understanding the social processes that structure illegal distribution networks and drug users’ interactions with them. These networks are where and how social behaviors, prices, and markets for illegal drugs intersect. Our focus is upon getting an up close measurement of these activities. Building better measures of consumption behaviors necessitates building better rapport with subjects than typically achieved with one-time surveys in order to overcome withholding and underreporting and to get a comprehensive understanding of the processes involved. This can be achieved through repeated interviews and observations of behaviors. This paper also describes analytic advances that could be adopted to direct this inquiry including behavioral templates, and insights into the economic valuation of labor inputs and cash expenditures for various illegal drugs. Additionally, the paper makes recommendations to funding organizations for developing the mechanisms that would support behavioral scientists to weigh specimens and to collect small samples for laboratory analysis—by providing protection from the potential for arrest. The primary focus is upon U.S. markets. The implications for other countries are discussed. PMID:16978801

  16. Reproductive Potential of Salmon Spawning Substrates Inferred from Grain Size and Fish Length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riebe, C. S.; Sklar, L. S.; Overstreet, B. T.; Wooster, J. K.; Bellugi, D. G.

    2014-12-01

    The river restoration industry spends millions of dollars every year on improving salmon spawning in riverbeds where sediment is too big for fish to move and thus use during redd building. However, few studies have addressed the question of how big is too big in salmon spawning substrates. Hence managers have had little quantitative basis for gauging the amount of spawning habitat in coarse-bedded rivers. Moreover, the scientific framework has remained weak for restoration projects that seek to improve spawning conditions. To overcome these limitations, we developed a physically based, field-calibrated model for the fraction of the bed that is fine-grained enough to support spawning by fish of a given size. Model inputs are fish length and easy-to-measure indices of bed-surface grain size. Model outputs include the number of redds and eggs the substrate can accommodate when flow depth, temperature, and other environmental factors are not limiting. The mechanistic framework of the model captures the biophysical limits on sediment movement and the space limitations on redd building and egg deposition in riverbeds. We explored the parameter space of the model and found a previously unrecognized tradeoff in salmon size: bigger fish can move larger sediment and thus use more riverbed area for spawning; they also tend to have higher fecundity, and so can deposit more eggs per redd; however, because redd area increases with fish length, the number of eggs a substrate can accommodate is highest for moderate-sized fish. One implication of this tradeoff is that differences in grain size may help regulate river-to-river differences in salmon size. Thus, our model suggests that population diversity and, by extension, species resilience are linked to lithologic, geomorphic, and climatic factors that determine grain size in rivers. We cast the model into easy-to-use look-up tables, charts, and computer applications, including a JavaScript app that works on tablets and mobile

  17. Oxidative potential of size-fractionated atmospheric aerosol in urban and rural sites across Europe.

    PubMed

    Shafer, Martin M; Hemming, Jocelyn D C; Antkiewicz, Dagmara S; Schauer, James J

    2016-07-18

    In this study we applied several assays, an in vitro rat alveolar macrophage model, a chemical ROS probe (DTT, dithiothreitol), and cytokine induction (TNFα) to examine relationships between PM-induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and PM composition, using a unique set of size-resolved PM samples obtained from urban and rural environments across Europe. From April-July 2012, we collected PM from roadside canyon, roadside motorway, and background urban sites in each of six European cities and from three rural sites spanning the continent. A Hi-Vol sampler was used to collect PM in three size classes (PM>7, PM7-3, PM3) and PM was characterized for total elements, and oxidative activity quantified in unfiltered and filtered PM extracts. We measured a remarkable uniformity in air concentrations of ROS and especially DTT activity across the continent. Only a 4-fold difference was documented for DTT across the urban sites and a similar variance was documented for ROS, implying that chemical drivers of oxidative activity are relatively similar between sites. The ROS and DTT specific activity was greater at urban background sites (and also rural sites) than at urban canyon locations. PM3 dominated the size distribution of both ROS activity (86% of total) and DTT activity (76% of total), reflecting both the large contribution of PM3 to total PM mass levels and importantly the higher specific oxidative activity of the PM3 in comparison with the larger particles. The soluble fraction of total activity was very high for DTT (94%) as well as for ROS (64%) in the PM3. However in the larger PM size fractions the contributions of the insoluble components became increasingly significant. The dominance of the insoluble PM drivers of activity was particularly evident in the TNFα data, where the insoluble contribution to cytokine production could be 100-fold greater than that from soluble components. ROS and DTT activity were strongly correlated in the PM3 (r = 0

  18. Genetic factors associated with population size may increase extinction risks and decrease colonization potential in a keystone tropical pine

    PubMed Central

    del Castillo, Rafael F; Trujillo-Argueta, Sonia; Sánchez-Vargas, Nahúm; Newton, Adrian C

    2011-01-01

    Pioneer species are essential for forest regeneration and ecosystem resilience. Pinus chiapensis is an endangered pioneer key species for tropical montane cloud forest regeneration in Mesoamerica. Human activities have severely reduced some P. chiapensis populations, which exhibited a small or null colonization potential suggesting the involvement of genetic factors associated with small populations. We explored the relationships between (i) population genetic diversity (allozymes) and population size, including sampling size effects, (ii) fitness estimates associated with colonization potential (seed viability and seedling performance) in a common environment and population size, and (iii) fitness estimates and observed heterozygosity in populations with sizes spanning five orders of magnitude. All the estimates of genetic diversity and fitness increased significantly with population size. Low fitness was detected in progenies of small populations of disturbed and undisturbed habitats. Progenies with the lowest observed heterozygosity displayed the lowest fitness estimates, which, in turn, increased with heterozygosity, but seed viability peaked at intermediate heterozygosity values suggesting inbreeding and outbreeding depression. Inbreeding depression appears to be the most immediate genetic factor in population decline. Conservation efforts should try to maintain large and genetically diverse populations, enhance gene flow by restoring connectivity between adjacent populations, and avoid genetically distant individuals. PMID:25568006

  19. Crystal size of epidotes: A potentially exploitable geothermometer in geothermal fields

    SciTech Connect

    Patrier, P.; Beaufort, D.; Touchard, G. ); Fouillac, A.M. )

    1990-11-01

    Crystal size of epidotes crystallized in quartz + epidote veins is used as the basis for a new geothermometer from the fossil geothermal field of Saint Martin (Lesser Antilles). The epidote-bearing alteration paragenesis is developed as far as 3 km from a quartz diorite pluton at temperatures of 220-350C. The length/width ratio of the epidote grains is constant for all the analyzed samples and suggests isotropic growth environments. However, the length and width of the grains vary exponentially with temperature. The obtained results offer new perspectives for simple grain-size geothermomentry but must be extended to other geologic environments to clarify the influence of different rock types.

  20. Size variation of 0-group plaice: Are earlier influences on growth potential a contributing factor?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Clive J.; Targett, Timothy E.; Ciotti, Benjamin J.; de Kroon, Kasper; Hortsmeyer, Lena; Burrows, Michael T.

    2014-04-01

    Over a decade of sampling has shown that there are consistent differences in the sizes of 0-group plaice by late summer comparing 21 nursery sites on the Scottish west coast. However, when young fish were collected from two sites which produce particularly small and large fish and reared using a common garden design, growth rates between fish from the two sites were indistinguishable. Either there is little selection for fast or slow growth up to a few weeks post-settlement, or such effects do not persist sufficiently strongly to influence later growth. There were also no significant correlations between the time-series of fish size comparing sites, although within some sites there was evidence of inter-annual density-dependent effects. Any influences of offshore regional-scale factors, such as sea temperature or pelagic primary productivity on growth thus appear to be heavily modified by local conditions on the nursery grounds. The field observations combined with the experimental results lead us to conclude that the size 0-group plaice attain in late summer is mainly controlled by post-settlement habitat quality.

  1. The Potential for Renewable Energy Development to Benefit Restoration of the Salton Sea. Analysis of Technical and Market Potential

    SciTech Connect

    Gagne, Douglas; Haase, Scott; Oakleaf, Brett; Hurlbut, David; Akar, Sertac; Wall, Anna; Turchi, Craig; Pienkos, Philip; Melius, Jennifer; Melaina, Marc

    2015-11-01

    This report summarizes the potential for renewable energy development in the Salton Sea region, as well as the potential for revenues from this development to contribute financially to Salton Sea restoration costs. It considers solar, geothermal, biofuels or nutraceutical production from algae pond cultivation, desalination using renewable energy, and mineral recovery from geothermal fluids.


  2. Using Market Research to Characterize College Students and Identify Potential Targets for Influencing Health Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Carla J.; Ling, Pamela M.; Guo, Hongfei; Windle, Michael; Thomas, Janet L.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.; An, Lawrence C.

    2013-01-01

    Marketing campaigns, such as those developed by the tobacco industry, are based on market research, which defines segments of a population by assessing psychographic characteristics (i.e., attitudes, interests). This study uses a similar approach to define market segments of college smokers, to examine differences in their health behaviors (smoking, drinking, binge drinking, exercise, diet), and to determine the validity of these segments. A total of 2,265 undergraduate students aged 18–25 years completed a 108-item online survey in fall 2008 assessing demographic, psychographic (i.e., attitudes, interests), and health-related variables. Among the 753 students reporting past 30-day smoking, cluster analysis was conducted using 21 psychographic questions and identified three market segments – Stoic Individualists, Responsible Traditionalists, and Thrill-Seeking Socializers. We found that segment membership was related to frequency of alcohol use, binge drinking, and limiting dietary fat. We then developed three messages targeting each segment and conducted message testing to validate the segments on a subset of 73 smokers representing each segment in spring 2009. As hypothesized, each segment indicated greater relevance and salience for their respective message. These findings indicate that identifying qualitatively different subgroups of young adults through market research may inform the development of engaging interventions and health campaigns targeting college students. PMID:25264429

  3. Self-insurance and the potential effects of health reform on the small-group market.

    PubMed

    Linehan, Kathryn

    2010-12-21

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) as amended by the Health Care Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 makes landmark changes to health insurance markets. Individual and small-group insurance plans and markets will see the biggest changes, but PPACA also affects large employer and self-insured plans by imposing rules for benefit design and health plan practices. Over half of workers--most often those in very large firms--are covered by self-insured health plans in which employers (or employee groups) bear all or some of the risk of providing insurance coverage to a defined population of workers and their dependents. As PPACA provisions become effective, some have argued that smaller firms that offer insurance may opt to self-insure their health benefits because of new small-group market rules. Such a shift could affect risk pooling in the small-group market. This paper examines the definition and prevalence of self-insured health plans, the application of PPACA provisions to these plans, and the possible effects on the broader health insurance market, should many more employers decide to self-insure. PMID:21192488

  4. Using Market Research to Characterize College Students and Identify Potential Targets for Influencing Health Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Berg, Carla J; Ling, Pamela M; Guo, Hongfei; Windle, Michael; Thomas, Janet L; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; An, Lawrence C

    2010-12-01

    Marketing campaigns, such as those developed by the tobacco industry, are based on market research, which defines segments of a population by assessing psychographic characteristics (i.e., attitudes, interests). This study uses a similar approach to define market segments of college smokers, to examine differences in their health behaviors (smoking, drinking, binge drinking, exercise, diet), and to determine the validity of these segments. A total of 2,265 undergraduate students aged 18-25 years completed a 108-item online survey in fall 2008 assessing demographic, psychographic (i.e., attitudes, interests), and health-related variables. Among the 753 students reporting past 30-day smoking, cluster analysis was conducted using 21 psychographic questions and identified three market segments - Stoic Individualists, Responsible Traditionalists, and Thrill-Seeking Socializers. We found that segment membership was related to frequency of alcohol use, binge drinking, and limiting dietary fat. We then developed three messages targeting each segment and conducted message testing to validate the segments on a subset of 73 smokers representing each segment in spring 2009. As hypothesized, each segment indicated greater relevance and salience for their respective message. These findings indicate that identifying qualitatively different subgroups of young adults through market research may inform the development of engaging interventions and health campaigns targeting college students. PMID:25264429

  5. Crystallographic studies of V44 mutants of Clostridium pasteurianum rubredoxin: Effects of side-chain size on reduction potential

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Il Yeong; Eidsness, Marly K.; Lin, I-Jin; Gebel, Erika B.; Youn, Buhyun; Harley, Jill L.; Machonkin, Timothy E.; Frederick, Ronnie O.; Markley, John L.; Smith, Eugene T.; Ichiye, Toshiko; Kang, ChulHee

    2010-11-16

    Understanding the structural origins of differences in reduction potentials is crucial to understanding how various electron transfer proteins modulate their reduction potentials and how they evolve for diverse functional roles. Here, the high-resolution structures of several Clostridium pasteurianum rubredoxin (Cp Rd) variants with changes in the vicinity of the redox site are reported in order to increase this understanding. Our crystal structures of [V44L] (at 1.8 {angstrom} resolution), [V44A] (1.6 {angstrom}), [V44G] (2.0 {angstrom}) and [V44A, G45P] (1.5 {angstrom}) Rd (all in their oxidized states) show that there is a gradual decrease in the distance between Fe and the amide nitrogen of residue 44 upon reduction in the size of the side chain of residue 44; the decrease occurs from leucine to valine, alanine or glycine and is accompanied by a gradual increase in their reduction potentials. Mutation of Cp Rd at position 44 also changes the hydrogen-bond distance between the amide nitrogen of residue 44 and the sulfur of cysteine 42 in a size-dependent manner. Our results suggest that residue 44 is an important determinant of Rd reduction potential in a manner dictated by side-chain size. Along with the electric dipole moment of the 43-44 peptide bond and the 44-42 NHS type hydrogen bond, a modulation mechanism for solvent accessibility through residue 41 might regulate the redox reaction of the Rds. Proteins 2004.

  6. Can reduced stocking rates and natural forage utilization produce market sized catfish from fingerlings in one growing season

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of growing marketable channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus from pond-run fingerlings (15.9 g/fish) using low stocking densities (7,413 or 14,826 fish/ha) and electrified bug lights to enhance natural forage available to fish. Even at low sto...

  7. Local Density Profiles are Coupled to Solute Size and Attractive Potential for Nanoscopic Hydrophobic Solutes.

    SciTech Connect

    Choudhury, Niharendu; Pettitt, Bernard M.

    2005-05-15

    We employ constant pressure molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the effects of solute size and solute-water dispersion interactions on the salvation behavior of nanoscopic hydrpophobic model solutes in water at normal temperature and pressure. The hydration behavior around a single planar atomic model solute as well as a pair of such solutes have been considered. The hydration water structure of a model nanoscopic solute with standard Lennard-Jones interaction is shown to be significantly different from that of their purely repulsive analogues. The density of water in the first salvation shell of a Lennard-Jones solute is much higher than that of bulk water and it remains almost unchanged with the increase of the solute dimensions from one to a few nanometers. On the other hand, for a purely repulsive analogue of the above model, solute hydration behavior shows a marked solute size dependence. The contact density of water in this case decreases with the increasing dimension of the solute. We also demonstrate the effect of solute-solvent attraction on the cavity formation in the inter solute region between two solutes with an inter solute separation of 6.8A, corresponding to the first solvent separated minimum in the free energy Profile as obtained in our earlier work.

  8. Assessing Market Potential in the Inquiry Pool. AIR Forum 1982 Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lay, Robert; And Others

    The inquiry pool represented by prospective college applicants who seek information from the institution and a marketing response that has been implemented at Boston College are considered. It is suggested that researchers may trace specific individuals from the inquiry stage through application to the final college choice. To benefit from an…

  9. Further and Higher Education Markets' Cushions: Portability of Policy and Potential to Pay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darmanin, Mary

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the coincidence of global, supranational and local demands on a small EU member state. Pressures to open up an internal and external market in further and higher education (F&HE) derive from outside the local education state, most notably from the "knowledge" economy's competition imperative, from the obligations of EU…

  10. Only in Canada: A Study of National Market Potential for Christian Higher Education Canada (CHEC) Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiebert, Al

    2011-01-01

    In July 2007 Ipsos Reid delivered to Christian Higher Education Canada (CHEC) a report entitled "Christian Post-Secondary Education in Canada, Phase 3: Defining the Market". This article is a selective summary of the full 353-page report. It tabulates and analyzes findings from 1,000 phone interviews and 6,689 online surveys from six population…

  11. An observational study of retail availability and in-store marketing of e-cigarettes in London: potential to undermine recent tobacco control gains?

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Robert; Myers, Allison E; Ribisl, Kurt M; Marteau, Theresa M

    2013-01-01

    Objectives E-cigarette companies and vendors claim the potential of e-cigarettes to help smokers reduce or quit tobacco use. E-cigarettes also have the potential to renormalise smoking. The purpose of this study was to describe the availability and in-store marketing of e-cigarettes in London, UK stores selling tobacco and alcohol. Design Observational study. Setting Small and large stores selling alcohol and tobacco in London, UK. Primary and secondary outcome measures The number of stores selling e-cigarettes, the number of stores with an interior or exterior e-cigarette advertisement, the number of stores with an e-cigarette point-of-sale movable display, store size, deprivation index score for store's corresponding lower super output area. Results Audits were completed in 108 of 128 selected stores. 62 of the audited stores (57%) sold e-cigarettes. E-cigarette availability was unrelated to store size. There was a statistically non-significant trend towards increased availability in more deprived areas (p=0.069). 31 of the 62 stores (50%) selling e-cigarettes had a point-of-sale movable display, with all but one found in small stores. Two small stores had interior advertisements and eight had exterior advertisements. No advertisements were observed in large stores. Conclusions This audit revealed widespread availability of e-cigarettes and in-store marketing in London, UK. Even if e-cigarettes prove to be an effective cessation aid, their sale and use are resulting in an increasing public presence of cigarette-like images and smoking behaviour. After decades of work to denormalise smoking, these findings raise the question of whether e-cigarettes are renormalising smoking. PMID:24366581

  12. Future Potential of Hybrid and Diesel Powertrains in the U.S. Light-duty Vehicle Market

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, D.L.

    2004-08-23

    Diesel and hybrid technologies each have the potential to increase light-duty vehicle fuel economy by a third or more without loss of performance, yet these technologies have typically been excluded from technical assessments of fuel economy potential on the grounds that hybrids are too expensive and diesels cannot meet Tier 2 emissions standards. Recently, hybrid costs have come down and the few hybrid makes available are selling well. Diesels have made great strides in reducing particulate and nitrogen oxide emissions, and are likely though not certain to meet future standards. In light of these developments, this study takes a detailed look at the market potential of these two powertrain technologies and their possible impacts on light-duty vehicle fuel economy. A nested multinomial logit model of vehicle choice was calibrated to 2002 model year sales of 930 makes, models and engine-transmission configurations. Based on an assessment of the status and outlook for the two technologies, market shares were predicted for 2008, 2012 and beyond, assuming no additional increase in fuel economy standards or other new policy initiatives. Current tax incentives for hybrids are assumed to be phased out by 2008. Given announced and likely introductions by 2008, hybrids could capture 4-7% and diesels 2-4% of the light-duty market. Based on our best guesses for further introductions, these shares could increase to 10-15% for hybrids and 4-7% for diesels by 2012. The resulting impacts on fleet average fuel economy would be about +2% in 2008 and +4% in 2012. If diesels and hybrids were widely available across vehicle classes, makes, and models, they could capture 40% or more of the light-duty vehicle market.

  13. Study sizes up Iraq`s reserves, exploration status, production potential

    SciTech Connect

    Ibrahim, M.W.

    1996-06-24

    Iraq has a volatile exploration and production history, but unlike more stable OAPEC countries it was National Oil Co. (INOC) rather than foreign oil companies that discovered most of the country`s proved oil reserves. Proved reserves are in Paleozoic, Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous, and Tertiary reservoirs charged by Silurian and Jurassic and/or Cretaceous source rocks. The pre-gulf war production capacity was 3.5 million b/d, but the country`s current damaged production capacity is about 2.5 million b/d. New discoveries have elevated Iraq`s proved reserves to 120 billion bbl of oil. The paper discusses exploration history, proven reserves, exploration plays, exploration potential, and production potential.

  14. Inter-pulse Interval Affects the Size of Single-pulse TMS-induced Motor Evoked Potentials: A Reliability Study

    PubMed Central

    Vaseghi, Bita; Zoghi, Maryam; Jaberzadeh, Shapour

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Measuring the size of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is an investigational technique to show the level of corticospinal excitability; however, some of the fundamental methodological aspects of TMS (such as the effects of inter-pulse intervals (IPI) on MEP size) are not fully understood, this issue raises concerns about the reliability of MEPs, especially in pre-test post-test studies. Methods: MEP size at short and long IPIs was assessed during two separate sessions. Inter- and intra-session reliability of MEP size also was assessed at both short and long IPIs. Results: The results indicated that long IPIs induced larger MEPs (P< 0.05) across all time points. The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) indicated high intra- and inter-session reliability for short (0.87 to 0.96) and long (0.80 to 0.97) IPIs respectively. The amplitude of MEPs also had high intersession reliability for short (ICC=0.87) and long (ICC = 0.80) IPIs. Discussion: This study provides evidence that the length of IPIs determines the size of MEPs. As a result, it is recommended to add the length of IPI to the international checklist of considerations for TMS application.

  15. Size-frequency analysis of petroleum accumulations in selected United States plays: potential analogues for frontier areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Attanasi, E.D.; Freeman, P.A.

    2004-01-01

    This report presents the petroleum accumulation size-frequency relationships of selected mature plays assessed in the U.S. Geological Survey?s 1995 National Assessment of Oil and Gas Resources. The plays provide assessors with potential analogue models from which to estimate the numbers of undiscovered accumulations in medium and smaller size categories. Each play selected was required to have at least 50 discovered accumulations. Discovered accumulations plus the mean number of undiscovered accumulations equals the total accumulations assessed at the play level. There were 36 plays that met the criteria for oil accumulations and 25 plays that met the criteria for gas accumulations. Other properties of the plays such as primary trap type, lithology, depth, and hydrocarbon characteristics are also provided to assist the geologist in choosing an appropriate analogue. The text explains how the analogue size-frequency relationships can be used to estimate the number of small and medium size accumulations for frontier-area plays or partially explored plays in high cost areas. Although this document has been written in support of the Alaska North Slope Assessment, the basic size?frequency relationships provided are applicable elsewhere.

  16. Using Geothermal Play Types as an Analogue for Estimating Potential Resource Size

    SciTech Connect

    Terry, Rachel; Young, Katherine

    2015-09-02

    Blind geothermal systems are becoming increasingly common as more geothermal fields are developed. Geothermal development is known to have high risk in the early stages of a project development because reservoir characteristics are relatively unknown until wells are drilled. Play types (or occurrence models) categorize potential geothermal fields into groups based on geologic characteristics. To aid in lowering exploration risk, these groups' reservoir characteristics can be used as analogues in new site exploration. The play type schemes used in this paper were Moeck and Beardsmore play types (Moeck et al. 2014) and Brophy occurrence models (Brophy et al. 2011). Operating geothermal fields throughout the world were classified based on their associated play type, and then reservoir characteristics data were catalogued. The distributions of these characteristics were plotted in histograms to develop probability density functions for each individual characteristic. The probability density functions can be used as input analogues in Monte Carlo estimations of resource potential for similar play types in early exploration phases. A spreadsheet model was created to estimate resource potential in undeveloped fields. The user can choose to input their own values for each reservoir characteristic or choose to use the probability distribution functions provided from the selected play type. This paper also addresses the United States Geological Survey's 1978 and 2008 assessment of geothermal resources by comparing their estimated values to reported values from post-site development. Information from the collected data was used in the comparison for thirty developed sites in the United States. No significant trends or suggestions for methodologies could be made by the comparison.

  17. Estimating Demand Response Market Potential Among Large Commercialand Industrial Customers:A Scoping Study

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, Charles; Hopper, Nicole; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Neenan,Bernie; Cappers, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Demand response is increasingly recognized as an essentialingredient to well functioning electricity markets. This growingconsensus was formalized in the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPACT), whichestablished demand response as an official policy of the U.S. government,and directed states (and their electric utilities) to considerimplementing demand response, with a particular focus on "price-based"mechanisms. The resulting deliberations, along with a variety of stateand regional demand response initiatives, are raising important policyquestions: for example, How much demand response is enough? How much isavailable? From what sources? At what cost? The purpose of this scopingstudy is to examine analytical techniques and data sources to supportdemand response market assessments that can, in turn, answer the secondand third of these questions. We focus on demand response for large(>350 kW), commercial and industrial (C&I) customers, althoughmany of the concepts could equally be applied to similar programs andtariffs for small commercial and residential customers.

  18. Potential metal impurities in active pharmaceutical substances and finished medicinal products - A market surveillance study.

    PubMed

    Wollein, Uwe; Bauer, Bettina; Habernegg, Renate; Schramek, Nicholas

    2015-09-18

    A market surveillance study has been established by using different atomic spectrometric methods for the determination of selected elemental impurities of particular interest, to gain an overview about the quality of presently marketed drug products and their bulk drug substances. The limit tests were carried out with respect to the existing EMA guideline on the specification limits for residuals of metal catalysts or metal reagents. Also attention was given to the future implementation of two new chapters of the United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) stating limit concentrations of elemental impurities. The methods used for determination of metal residues were inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), and atomic absorption spectrometry technologies (GFAAS, CVAAS, HGAAS). This article presents the development and validation of the methods used for the determination of 21 selected metals in 113 samples from drug products and their active pharmaceutical ingredients. PMID:26036232

  19. Improving biodegradation potential of domestic wastewater by manipulating the size distribution of organic matter.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiang; Chen, Qiuwen; Zhu, Liang

    2016-09-01

    Carbon source is a critical constraint on nutrient removal in domestic wastewater treatment. However, the functions of particulate organic matter (POM) and some organics with high molecular weight (HMW) are overlooked in the conventional process, as they cannot be directly assimilated into cells during microbial metabolism. This further aggravates the problem of carbon source shortage and thus affects the effluent quality. Therefore, to better characterize organic matter (OM) based MW distribution, microfiltration/ultrafiltration/nanofiltration (MF/UF/NF) membranes were used in parallel to fractionate OM, which obtained seven fractions. Hydrolysis acidification (HA) was adopted to manipulate the MW distribution of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and further explore the correlation between molecular size and biodegradability. Results showed that HA pretreatment of wastewater not only promoted transformation from POM to DOM, but also boosted biodegradability. After 8hr of HA, the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) increased by 65%, from the initial value of 20.25 to 33.48mg/L, and the biodegradability index (BOD5 (biochemical oxygen demand)/SCOD (soluble chemical oxygen demand)) increased from 0.52 to 0.74. Using MW distribution analysis and composition optimization, a new understanding on the characteristics of organics in wastewater was obtained, which is of importance to solving low C/N wastewater treatment in engineering practice. PMID:27593284

  20. Reporting phenotypes in mouse models when considering body size as a potential confounder.

    PubMed

    Oellrich, Anika; Meehan, Terrence F; Parkinson, Helen; Sarntivijai, Sirarat; White, Jacqueline K; Karp, Natasha A

    2016-01-01

    Genotype-phenotype studies aim to identify causative relationships between genes and phenotypes. The International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium is a high throughput phenotyping program whose goal is to collect phenotype data for a knockout mouse strain of every protein coding gene. The scale of the project requires an automatic analysis pipeline to detect abnormal phenotypes, and disseminate the resulting gene-phenotype annotation data into public resources. A body weight phenotype is a common result of knockout studies. As body weight correlates with many other biological traits, this challenges the interpretation of related gene-phenotype associations. Co-correlation can lead to gene-phenotype associations that are potentially misleading. Here we use statistical modelling to account for body weight as a potential confounder to assess the impact. We find that there is a considerable impact on previously established gene-phenotype associations due to an increase in sensitivity as well as the confounding effect. We investigated the existing ontologies to represent this phenotypic information and we explored ways to ontologically represent the results of the influence of confounders on gene-phenotype associations. With the scale of data being disseminated within the high throughput programs and the range of downstream studies that utilise these data, it is critical to consider how we improve the quality of the disseminated data and provide a robust ontological representation. PMID:26865945

  1. From streets to streams: assessing the toxicity potential of urban sediment by particle size

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Corsi, Steven R.; Selbig, William R.; Roger T. Bannerman; Roger T. Bannerman

    2013-01-01

    Urban sediment can act as a transport mechanism for a variety of pollutants to move towards a receiving water body. The concentrations of these pollutants oftentimes exceed levels that are toxic to aquatic organisms. Many treatment structures are designed to capture coarse sediment but do not work well to similarly capture the fines. This study measured concentrations of select trace metals and PAHs in both the silt and sand fractions of urban sediment from four sources: stormwater bed, stormwater suspended, street dirt, and streambed. Concentrations were used to assess the toxic potential of sediment based on published sediment quality guidelines. All sources of sediment showed some level of toxic potential with stormwater bed sediment the highest followed by stormwater suspended, street dirt, and streambed. Both metal and PAH concentration distributions were highly correlated between the four sampling locations suggesting the presence of one or perhaps only a few sources of these pollutants which remain persistent as sediment is transported from street to stream. Comparison to other forms of combustion- and vehicle-related sources of PAHs revealed coal tar sealants to have the strongest correlation, in both the silt and sand fractions, at all four sampling sites. This information is important for environmental managers when selecting the most appropriate Best Management Practice (BMP) as a way to mitigate pollution conveyed in urban stormwater from source to sink.

  2. Impact of Matric Potential and Pore Size Distribution on Growth Dynamics of Filamentous and Non-Filamentous Soil Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Alexandra B.; Vos, Michiel; de Boer, Wietse; Kowalchuk, George A.

    2013-01-01

    The filamentous growth form is an important strategy for soil microbes to bridge air-filled pores in unsaturated soils. In particular, fungi perform better than bacteria in soils during drought, a property that has been ascribed to the hyphal growth form of fungi. However, it is unknown if, and to what extent, filamentous bacteria may also display similar advantages over non-filamentous bacteria in soils with low hydraulic connectivity. In addition to allowing for microbial interactions and competition across connected micro-sites, water films also facilitate the motility of non-filamentous bacteria. To examine these issues, we constructed and characterized a series of quartz sand microcosms differing in matric potential and pore size distribution and, consequently, in connection of micro-habitats via water films. Our sand microcosms were used to examine the individual and competitive responses of a filamentous bacterium (Streptomyces atratus) and a motile rod-shaped bacterium (Bacillus weihenstephanensis) to differences in pore sizes and matric potential. The Bacillus strain had an initial advantage in all sand microcosms, which could be attributed to its faster growth rate. At later stages of the incubation, Streptomyces became dominant in microcosms with low connectivity (coarse pores and dry conditions). These data, combined with information on bacterial motility (expansion potential) across a range of pore-size and moisture conditions, suggest that, like their much larger fungal counterparts, filamentous bacteria also use this growth form to facilitate growth and expansion under conditions of low hydraulic conductivity. The sand microcosm system developed and used in this study allowed for precise manipulation of hydraulic properties and pore size distribution, thereby providing a useful approach for future examinations of how these properties influence the composition, diversity and function of soil-borne microbial communities. PMID:24391805

  3. Impact of matric potential and pore size distribution on growth dynamics of filamentous and non-filamentous soil bacteria.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Alexandra B; Vos, Michiel; de Boer, Wietse; Kowalchuk, George A

    2013-01-01

    The filamentous growth form is an important strategy for soil microbes to bridge air-filled pores in unsaturated soils. In particular, fungi perform better than bacteria in soils during drought, a property that has been ascribed to the hyphal growth form of fungi. However, it is unknown if, and to what extent, filamentous bacteria may also display similar advantages over non-filamentous bacteria in soils with low hydraulic connectivity. In addition to allowing for microbial interactions and competition across connected micro-sites, water films also facilitate the motility of non-filamentous bacteria. To examine these issues, we constructed and characterized a series of quartz sand microcosms differing in matric potential and pore size distribution and, consequently, in connection of micro-habitats via water films. Our sand microcosms were used to examine the individual and competitive responses of a filamentous bacterium (Streptomyces atratus) and a motile rod-shaped bacterium (Bacillus weihenstephanensis) to differences in pore sizes and matric potential. The Bacillus strain had an initial advantage in all sand microcosms, which could be attributed to its faster growth rate. At later stages of the incubation, Streptomyces became dominant in microcosms with low connectivity (coarse pores and dry conditions). These data, combined with information on bacterial motility (expansion potential) across a range of pore-size and moisture conditions, suggest that, like their much larger fungal counterparts, filamentous bacteria also use this growth form to facilitate growth and expansion under conditions of low hydraulic conductivity. The sand microcosm system developed and used in this study allowed for precise manipulation of hydraulic properties and pore size distribution, thereby providing a useful approach for future examinations of how these properties influence the composition, diversity and function of soil-borne microbial communities. PMID:24391805

  4. Assessment of the potential future market in Sweden for hydrogen as an energy carrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carleson, G.

    Future hydrogen markets for the period 1980-2025 are projected, the probable range of hydrogen production costs for various manufacturing methods is estimated, and expected market shares in competition with alternative energy carriers are evaluated. A general scenario for economic and industrial development in Sweden for the given period was evaluated, showing the average increase in gross national product to become 1.6% per year. Three different energy scenarios were then developed: alternatives were based on nuclear energy, renewable indigenous energy sources, and the present energy situation with free access to imported natural or synthetic fuels. An analysis was made within each scenario of the competitiveness of hydrogen on both the demand and the supply of the following sectors: chemical industry, steel industry, peak power production, residential and commercial heating, and transportation. Costs were calculated for the production, storage and transmission of hydrogen according to technically feasible methods and were compared to those of alternative energy carriers. Health, environmental and societal implications were also considered. The market penetration of hydrogen in each sector was estimated, and the required investment capital was shown to be less than 4% of the national gross investment sum.

  5. Economic potential of market-oriented water storage decisions: Evidence from Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brennan, Donna

    2010-08-01

    Significant reforms made to Australian irrigation property rights in recent years have enabled the development of an active seasonal water market. In contrast, decisions regarding the allocation of water across time are typically based on central decisions, with little or no opportunity offered to irrigators to manage risk by physically transferring their water access right between years by leaving it in the public dam. An empirical examination of the economics of water storage is presented using a case study of the Goulburn Valley, a major irrigation region in the state of Victoria. It is shown that, compared to the historically used, centrally determined storage policy, a market-based storage policy would store more water, on average, and would also allocate more water in periods of low rainfall. The analysis indicates that the costs associated with a recent prolonged drought were $100 million more than they would have been if water storage decisions had been guided by the market and prices were 3 times higher.

  6. Size Distribution for Potentially Unstable Rock Masses and In Situ Rock Blocks Using LIDAR-Generated Digital Elevation Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavrouli, O.; Corominas, J.; Jaboyedoff, M.

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, two analytical procedures which are independent from the existence of empirical data are presented for the calculation of (1) the size distribution of potentially unstable rock masses that expresses the potential rockfall size distribution, including big volumes corresponding to potential rare events with low susceptibility of failure and (2) the in situ block distribution on the slope face. Two approaches are, respectively, used. The first one involves the detection of kinematically unstable surfaces on a digital elevation model (DEM) and on orthophotos and the calculation of the volumes resting on them. For the second one the in situ block volumes formed by the intersection of the existing discontinuity sets are calculated using a high-resolution DEM. The procedures are presented through an application example at the country of Andorra and in particular at the chute of Forat Negre. The results from the first procedure indicate that it is kinematically possible to have mobilized volumes of some thousands of cubic meters; however, these are considered rare events with low susceptibility of failure. The size distribution of potentially unstable rock masses for big volume events was well fitted by a power law with an exponent of -0.5. The in situ block distribution on the slope face from the second procedure, assuming three types of intersection between the joints of the existing discontinuity sets and two extreme cases of discontinuity persistence, was also found to follow a power law, but with an exponent of -1.3. The comparison with the observed in the field block volume distribution on the slope face indicates that in reality discontinuities have a very high persistence and that considering only their visible trace length overestimates volumes, which is conservative.

  7. 78 FR 68028 - National Defense Stockpile Market Impact Committee Request for Public Comments on the Potential...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ... Concentrates LB W 3,000,000 (\\2\\) Acquisitions CZT (Cadmium Zinc Tellurium substrates)... cm\\2\\ 40,000 TATB (Triamino-Trinitrobenzene) LB 16,000 Lithium Cobalt Oxide (LCO) Kg 150 Lithium Nickel Cobalt Aluminum Oxide... Yttrium Oxide MT 10 \\1\\ Potential Upgrade. \\2\\ Potential Disposal. \\3\\ Potential Disposal...

  8. CANDLES AND INCENSE AS POTENTIAL SOURCES OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTION: MARKET ANALYSIS AND LITERATURE SEARCH (EPA/600/R-01/001)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes available information on candles and incense as potential sources of indoor air pollution. It covers market information and a review of the scientific literature. The market information collected focuses on production and sales data, typical uses in the U.S....

  9. CANDLES AND INCENSE AS POTENTIAL SOURCES OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTION: MARKET ANALYSIS AND LITERATURE REVIEW (EPA/600/R-01/001)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes available information on candles and incense as potential sources of indoor air pollution. It covers market information and a review of the scientific literature. The market information collected focuses on production and sales data, typical uses in the U.S...

  10. PROJECT SUMMARY -CANDLES AND INCENSE AS POTENTIAL SOURCES OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTION: MARKET ANALYSIS AND LITERATURE REVIEW (EPA/600/SR-01/001)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes available information on candles and incense as potential sources ofindoor air pollution. It covers (1) market information and (2) a scientific literature review. The market information collected focuses on production and sales data, typical uses in the US,...

  11. Influence of HX size and augmentation on performance potential of mixtures in air-to-air heat pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, C.K.

    1993-05-01

    A modified Carnot analysis with finite heat exchanger (HX) sizes, counterflow HX configurations, and ideal glide matching was conducted for an air-to-air heat pump application. The purpose of the analysis was to determine the envelope of potential HX size and refrigerant-side augmentation benefits for ideal mixtures relative to pure refrigerant alternatives. The mixture COP benefits examined are those due to exact external fluid glide-matching of idealized mixtures in more effective heat exchangers. Maximum possible mixture COP gains are evaluated for four steady-state air-to-air heat pump conditions. Performance improvement opportunities are found to be primarily in the cooling mode. The effects of deviation from counterflow by use of crossflow and countercrossflow HX configurations are addressed. Refrigerant-side augmentation with pure and mixed refrigerants is examined for air-side dominant and air-to-refrigerant balanced HXs.

  12. Study of integration issues to realize the market potential of OTEC energy in the aluminum industry. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Jr., M. S.; Thiagarajan, V.; Sathyanarayana, K.; Markel, A. L.; Snyder, III, J. E.; Sprouse, A. M.; Leshaw, D.

    1980-09-01

    The various integration issues are studied which must be considered to realize the market potential for the use of OTEC by the aluminum industry. The chloride reduction process has been identified as an attractive candidate for use with OTEC systems, and drained-cathode Hall cells and two alternative chloride reduction processes are considered. OTEC power system and plantships for the different processes are described. Aluminum industry characteristics important for OTEC considerations are given, including economic models and case history analyses. Appended are supporting cost estimates and energy bridge concepts for getting OTEC energy to shore. (LEW)

  13. Amino acid availability from selected animal and plant derived feedstuffs for market size sunshine bass (Morone chrysops X M. saxatilis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate diet formulations are essential for the commercial production of hybrid striped bass. However, limited information is available regarding nutrient digestibility and amino acid availability of readily-used practical ingredients for different size classes of this taxon. Therefore, two trial...

  14. Systemic granuloma observed in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar raised to market size in a freshwater recirculation aquaculture system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Systemic granuloma was observed in sampled adult Atlantic salmon Salmo salar raised to harvest size in a freshwater recirculation aquaculture system. The prevalence of this condition was estimated at 10-20% of the population, with affected individuals grossly demonstrating pathology in varying degre...

  15. Evolution of the U.S. Energy Service Company Industry: Market Size and Project Performance from 1990-2008

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, Peter; Goldman, Charles A.; Satchwell, Andrew

    2012-05-08

    The U.S. energy service company (ESCO) industry is an example of a private sector business model where energy savings are delivered to customers primarily through the use of performance-based contracts. This study was conceived as a snapshot of the ESCO industry prior to the economic slowdown and the introduction of federal stimulus funding mandated by enactment of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA). This study utilizes two parallel analytic approaches to characterize ESCO industry and market trends in the U.S.: (1) a “top-down” approach involving a survey of individual ESCOs to estimate aggregate industry activity and (2) a “bottom-up” analysis of a database of -3,265 projects (representing over $8B in project investment) that reports market trends including installed EE retrofit strategies, project installation costs and savings, project payback times, and benefit-cost ratios over time. Despite the onset of an economic recession, the U.S. ESCO industry managed to grow at about 7% per year between 2006 and 2008. ESCO industry revenues are relatively small compared to total U.S. energy expenditures (about $4.1 billion in 2008), but ESCOs anticipated accelerated growth through 2011 (25% per year). We found that 2,484 ESCO projects in our database generated -$4.0 billion ($2009) in net, direct economic benefits to their customers. We estimate that the ESCO project database includes about 20% of all U.S. ESCO market activity from 1990-2008. Assuming the net benefits per project are comparable for ESCO projects that are not included in the LBNL database, this would suggest that the ESCO industry has generated -$23 billion in net direct economic benefits for customers at projects installed between 1990 and 2008. We found that nearly 85% of all public and institutional projects met or exceeded the guaranteed level of savings. We estimated that a typical ESCO project generated $1.5 dollars of direct benefits for every dollar of customer

  16. Investigation of potentially toxic heavy metals in different organic wastes used to fertilize market garden crops.

    PubMed

    Tella, M; Doelsch, E; Letourmy, P; Chataing, S; Cuoq, F; Bravin, M N; Saint Macary, H

    2013-01-01

    The benefits of using organic waste as fertilizer and soil amendment should be assessed together with the environmental impacts due to the possible presence of heavy metals (HMs). This study involved analysing major element and HM contents in raw and size-fractionated organic wastes (17 sewage sludges and composts) from developed and developing countries. The overall HM concentration pattern showed an asymmetric distribution due to the presence of some wastes with extremely high concentrations. HM concentrations were correlated with the size of cities or farms where the wastes had been produced, and HM were differentiated with respect to their origins (geogenic: Cr-Ni; anthropogenic agricultural and urban: Cu-Zn; anthropogenic urban: Cd-Pb). Size fractionation highlighted Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb accumulation in fine size fractions, while Cr and Ni were accumulated in the coarsest. HM associations with major elements revealed inorganic (Al, Fe, etc.) bearing phases for Cr and Ni, and sulfur or phosphorus species for Cd, Cu Pb and Zn. PMID:22975024

  17. Marketing 101.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Karla A.

    1997-01-01

    A marketing model for camps includes a mix of services, presentation, and communication elements that promote the virtues of camp, convince potential campers and their families of the benefits of camp, and successfully distinguish the camp from others. Includes resources related to marketing strategies, theme merchandise, and market trends…

  18. Potential Risks in the Paradigm of Basic to Translational Research: A Critical Evaluation of qPCR Telomere Size Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Lustig, Arthur J

    2015-01-01

    Real time qPCR has become the method of choice for rapid large-scale telomere length measurements. Large samples sizes are critical for clinical trials, and epidemiological studies. QPCR has become such routine procedure that it is often used with little critical analysis. With proper controls, the mean telomere size can be derived from the data and even the size can be estimated. But there is a need for more consistent and reliable controls that will provide closer to the actual mean size can be obtained with uniform consensus controls. Although originating at the level of basic telomere research, many researchers less familiar with telomeres often misunderstand the source and significance of the qPCR metric. These include researchers and clinicians who are interested in having a rapid tool to produce exciting results in disease prognostics and diagnostics than in the multiple characteristics of telomeres that form the basis of the measurement. But other characteristics of the non-bimodal and heterogeneous telomeres as well as the complexities of telomere dynamics are not easily related to qPCR mean telomere values. The qPCR metric does not reveal the heterogeneity and dynamics of telomeres. This is a critical issue since mutations in multiple genes including telomerase can cause telomere dysfunction and a loss of repeats. The smallest cellular telomere has been shown to arrest growth of the cell carrying the dysfunction telomere. A goal for the future is a simple method that takes into account the heterogeneity by measuring the highest and lowest values as part of the scheme to compare. In the absence of this technique, Southern blots need to be performed in a subset of qPCR samples for both mean telomere size and the upper and lower extremes of the distribution. Most importantly, there is a need for greater transparency in discussing the limitations of the qPCR data. Given the potentially exciting qPCR telomere size results emerging from clinical studies that

  19. Online Business Education in the Twenty-First Century: An Analysis of Potential Target Markets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Joel R.; Haase, Ilene M.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the potential for online business education. Highlights include a background of distance education for higher education; the interest of corporate America in distance education; and results of a survey of Internet users that focused on potential customers for online business education and considered demographics, service expectations,…

  20. [Estimation of location and size of myocardial infarction from body surface potentials using the ECG inverse solution method].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, H; Hirayanagi, K; Aoki, T; Ihara, T; Yamanoi, N; Furukawa, T

    1985-09-01

    This paper describes a non-invasive mathematical method for estimating the locations and sizes of myocardial infarction using body surface electrocardiographic mappings. The inverse calculation is the theoretical basis of our method of estimation. First, the boundary integral equations were used to relate body surface and epicardial potential distributions. Next, a spherical harmonic expansion was used to solve the equations in order to obtain the epicardial potentials from the body surface potentials. The validity of the method was assessed by animal experiments and the clinical application. Body surface potentials were recorded using a 128 channel electrocardiographic mapping device equipped with a 16 bit microprocessor. In the animal study, the epicardial potentials were recorded by another potential mapping device simultaneously with body surface potential recordings. In the animal study, 60 epicardial electrodes and a freezing unit were mounted on a elastic fabric sack and attached to the heart. After completion of open chest surgery, freezing myocardial injury was incurred by perfusing -50 degrees C acetone-dry ice cryogen into the freezing unit. Twenty minutes after the start of freezing, ST elevations of the body surface and epicardial potentials were simultaneously recorded. An ST subtraction map was compiled as the difference between the maps before and after the myocardial freezing injury. Then, an inverse calculation was applied to the ST subtraction potentials to estimate the epicardial ST elevation. The geometric parameters of each electrode were determined from stereometry using two-dimensional X-ray images. In the clinical study, the body surface potentials of a patient with old myocardial infarction were recorded. The abnormal Q subtraction map was calculated as the difference between the measured and standard potentials of a normal subject. In the inverse calculation, the geometric shape of the heart and the body surface were determined from cross

  1. Promoting functional foods as acceptable alternatives to doping: potential for information-based social marketing approach

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Substances with performance enhancing properties appear on a continuum, ranging from prohibited performance enhancing drugs (PED) through dietary supplements to functional foods (FF). Anti-doping messages designed to dissuade athletes from using PEDs have been typically based on moralising sport competition and/or employing scare campaigns with focus on the negative consequences. Campaigns offering comparable and acceptable alternatives are nonexistent, nor are athletes helped in finding these for themselves. It is timely that social marketing strategies for anti-doping prevention and intervention incorporate media messages that complement the existing approaches by promoting comparable and acceptable alternatives to doping. To facilitate this process, the aim of this study was to ascertain whether a single exposure knowledge-based information intervention led to increased knowledge and subsequently result in changes in beliefs and automatic associations regarding performance enhancements. Methods In a repeated measure design, 115 male recreational gym users were recruited and provided with a brief information pamphlet on nitrite/nitrate and erythropoietin as a comparison. Measures of knowledge, beliefs and automatic associations were taken before and after the intervention with at least 24 hours between the two assessments. The psychological tests included explicit measures of beliefs and cognitive attitudes toward FF and PED using a self-reported questionnaire and computerised assessments of automatic associations using the modified and shortened version of the Implicit Association Test. Results The information based intervention significantly increased knowledge (p < 0.001), changed explicit beliefs in specific FF (p < 0.001) and shifted the automatic association of FF with health to performance (p < 0.001). Explicitly expressed beliefs and automatic associations appear to be independent. Conclusion Evidence was found that even a single exposure to a

  2. Market analysis of seismic security systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taglio, S.

    1981-01-01

    This report provides information on the commercialization potential of the NASA Activity Monitor. Data on current commercially available products, market size, and growth are combined with information on the NASA technology and the projected impact of this technology on the market.

  3. Variability in Bioreactivity Linked to Changes in Size and Zeta Potential of Diesel Exhaust Particles in Human Immune Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Srijata; Zhang, Lin; Subramaniam, Prasad; Lee, Ki-Bum; Garfunkel, Eric; Strickland, Pamela A. Ohman.; Mainelis, Gediminas; Lioy, Paul J.; Tetley, Teresa D.; Chung, Kian Fan; Zhang, Junfeng; Ryan, Mary; Porter, Alex; Schwander, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Acting as fuel combustion catalysts to increase fuel economy, cerium dioxide (ceria, CeO2) nanoparticles have been used in Europe as diesel fuel additives (Envirox™). We attempted to examine the effects of particles emitted from a diesel engine burning either diesel (diesel exhaust particles, DEP) or diesel doped with various concentrations of CeO2 (DEP-Env) on innate immune responses in THP-1 and primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Batches of DEP and DEP-Env were obtained on three separate occasions using identical collection and extraction protocols with the aim of determining the reproducibility of particles generated at different times. However, we observed significant differences in size and surface charge (zeta potential) of the DEP and DEP-Env across the three batches. We also observed that exposure of THP-1 cells and PBMC to identical concentrations of DEP and DEP-Env from the three batches resulted in statistically significant differences in bioreactivity as determined by IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, IFN-γ, and IL-12p40 mRNA (by qRT-PCR) and protein expression (by ELISPOT assays). Importantly, bioreactivity was noted in very tight ranges of DEP size (60 to 120 nm) and zeta potential (−37 to −41 mV). Thus, these physical properties of DEP and DEP-Env were found to be the primary determinants of the bioreactivity measured in this study. Our findings also point to the potential risk of over- or under- estimation of expected bioreactivity effects (and by inference of public health risks) from bulk DEP use without taking into account potential batch-to-batch variations in physical (and possibly chemical) properties. PMID:24825358

  4. The potential impact of externalities considerations on the market for biomass power technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Swezey, B.G.; Porter, K.L.; Feher, J.S.

    1994-02-01

    This study assesses the current status of externalities considerations--nonmarket costs and benefits--in state and utility electricity resource planning processes and determines how externalities considerations might help or hinder the development of biomass power plants. It provides an overview of biomass resources and technologies, including their market status and environmental impacts; reviews the current treatment of externalities in the states; and documents the perspectives of key utility, regulatory, and industry representatives concerning externalities considerations. The authors make the following recommendations to the biomass industry: (1) the wood and agricultural waste industries should work toward having states and utilities recognize that wood and agricultural waste are greenhouse gas neutral resources because of carbon sequestration during growth; (2) the biomass industry should emphasize nonenvironmental benefits such as economic development and job creation; and (3) the biomass industry should pursue and support efforts to establish renewable energy set-asides or ``green`` requests for proposals.

  5. Foods from black market at EU border as a neglected route of potential methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus transmission.

    PubMed

    Oniciuc, Elena-Alexandra; Ariza-Miguel, Jaime; Bolocan, Andrei-Sorin; Diez-Valcarce, Marta; Rovira, Jordi; Hernández, Marta; Fernández-Natal, Isabel; Nicolau, Anca Ioana; Rodríguez-Lázaro, David

    2015-09-16

    The illegal entrance of foods to EU through black markets at the EU borders can constitute a neglected route of dissemination of foodborne pathogens, and in particular of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In this study, we have assessed the presence of MRSA in foods sold in a black market at an EU border (the southeast part of Romania, on the border with Republic of Moldavia). We performed a search for MRSA among 200 food samples collected from 2012 to 2013. All S. aureus were studied by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. MRSA isolates were further characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and SCCmec typing, and tested for the presence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) virulence factors. Overall, 32 S. aureus isolates were recovered from 16 food samples (8%). One isolate detected in a pork lard sample was MRSA (0.5%). PFGE with the restriction enzyme SmaI revealed 12 genotypes among the 32 S. aureus isolates. The MRSA isolate belonged to sequence type 398, harbored SCCmec type V, tested negative for the presence of the PVL genes and was resistant to ciprofloxacin, tetracycline and cefazolin, besides all β-lactams. Among 31 methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA), 29% were resistant to penicillin, 9.7% to tetracycline and 3.2% to ciprofloxacin. In conclusion, in this study we report the presence of livestock-associated MRSA in foods sold in a black market at an EU border: ST398-MRSA-V. These results confirm the potential role of food in the dissemination of MRSA lineages among population, and the potential role of illegally introduced food to EU in the prevalence and evolution of MRSA clones in the community. PMID:25442069

  6. Magneto-optical absorption in semiconducting spherical quantum dots: Influence of the dot-size, confining potential, and magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Kushwaha, Manvir S.

    2014-12-15

    Semiconducting quantum dots – more fancifully dubbed artificial atoms – are quasi-zero dimensional, tiny, man-made systems with charge carriers completely confined in all three dimensions. The scientific quest behind the synthesis of quantum dots is to create and control future electronic and optical nanostructures engineered through tailoring size, shape, and composition. The complete confinement – or the lack of any degree of freedom for the electrons (and/or holes) – in quantum dots limits the exploration of spatially localized elementary excitations such as plasmons to direct rather than reciprocal space. Here we embark on a thorough investigation of the magneto-optical absorption in semiconducting spherical quantum dots characterized by a confining harmonic potential and an applied magnetic field in the symmetric gauge. This is done within the framework of Bohm-Pines’ random-phase approximation that enables us to derive and discuss the full Dyson equation that takes proper account of the Coulomb interactions. As an application of our theoretical strategy, we compute various single-particle and many-particle phenomena such as the Fock-Darwin spectrum; Fermi energy; magneto-optical transitions; probability distribution; and the magneto-optical absorption in the quantum dots. It is observed that the role of an applied magnetic field on the absorption spectrum is comparable to that of a confining potential. Increasing (decreasing) the strength of the magnetic field or the confining potential is found to be analogous to shrinking (expanding) the size of the quantum dots: resulting into a blue (red) shift in the absorption spectrum. The Fermi energy diminishes with both increasing magnetic-field and dot-size; and exhibits saw-tooth-like oscillations at large values of field or dot-size. Unlike laterally confined quantum dots, both (upper and lower) magneto-optical transitions survive even in the extreme instances. However, the intra-Landau level

  7. Magneto-optical absorption in semiconducting spherical quantum dots: Influence of the dot-size, confining potential, and magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushwaha, Manvir S.

    2014-12-01

    Semiconducting quantum dots - more fancifully dubbed artificial atoms - are quasi-zero dimensional, tiny, man-made systems with charge carriers completely confined in all three dimensions. The scientific quest behind the synthesis of quantum dots is to create and control future electronic and optical nanostructures engineered through tailoring size, shape, and composition. The complete confinement - or the lack of any degree of freedom for the electrons (and/or holes) - in quantum dots limits the exploration of spatially localized elementary excitations such as plasmons to direct rather than reciprocal space. Here we embark on a thorough investigation of the magneto-optical absorption in semiconducting spherical quantum dots characterized by a confining harmonic potential and an applied magnetic field in the symmetric gauge. This is done within the framework of Bohm-Pines' random-phase approximation that enables us to derive and discuss the full Dyson equation that takes proper account of the Coulomb interactions. As an application of our theoretical strategy, we compute various single-particle and many-particle phenomena such as the Fock-Darwin spectrum; Fermi energy; magneto-optical transitions; probability distribution; and the magneto-optical absorption in the quantum dots. It is observed that the role of an applied magnetic field on the absorption spectrum is comparable to that of a confining potential. Increasing (decreasing) the strength of the magnetic field or the confining potential is found to be analogous to shrinking (expanding) the size of the quantum dots: resulting into a blue (red) shift in the absorption spectrum. The Fermi energy diminishes with both increasing magnetic-field and dot-size; and exhibits saw-tooth-like oscillations at large values of field or dot-size. Unlike laterally confined quantum dots, both (upper and lower) magneto-optical transitions survive even in the extreme instances. However, the intra-Landau level transitions are seen

  8. The Isolation of DNA by Polycharged Magnetic Particles: An Analysis of the Interaction by Zeta Potential and Particle Size.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Yazan; Xhaxhiu, Kledi; Kopel, Pavel; Hynek, David; Zitka, Ondrej; Adam, Vojtech

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic isolation of biological targets is in major demand in the biotechnology industry today. This study considers the interaction of four surface-modified magnetic micro- and nanoparticles with selected DNA fragments. Different surface modifications of nanomaghemite precursors were investigated: MAN37 (silica-coated), MAN127 (polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated), MAN158 (phosphate-coated), and MAN164 (tripolyphosphate-coated). All particles were positive polycharged agglomerated monodispersed systems. Mean particle sizes were 0.48, 2.97, 2.93, and 3.67 μm for MAN37, MAN127, MAN164, and MAN158, respectively. DNA fragments exhibited negative zeta potential of -0.22 mV under binding conditions (high ionic strength, low pH, and dehydration). A decrease in zeta potential of particles upon exposure to DNA was observed with exception of MAN158 particles. The measured particle size of MAN164 particles increased by nearly twofold upon exposure to DNA. Quantitative PCR isolation of DNA with a high retrieval rate was observed by magnetic particles MAN127 and MAN164. Interaction between polycharged magnetic particles and DNA is mediated by various binding mechanisms such as hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions. Future development of DNA isolation technology requires an understanding of the physical and biochemical conditions of this process. PMID:27104527

  9. The Isolation of DNA by Polycharged Magnetic Particles: An Analysis of the Interaction by Zeta Potential and Particle Size

    PubMed Central

    Haddad, Yazan; Xhaxhiu, Kledi; Kopel, Pavel; Hynek, David; Zitka, Ondrej; Adam, Vojtech

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic isolation of biological targets is in major demand in the biotechnology industry today. This study considers the interaction of four surface-modified magnetic micro- and nanoparticles with selected DNA fragments. Different surface modifications of nanomaghemite precursors were investigated: MAN37 (silica-coated), MAN127 (polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated), MAN158 (phosphate-coated), and MAN164 (tripolyphosphate-coated). All particles were positive polycharged agglomerated monodispersed systems. Mean particle sizes were 0.48, 2.97, 2.93, and 3.67 μm for MAN37, MAN127, MAN164, and MAN158, respectively. DNA fragments exhibited negative zeta potential of −0.22 mV under binding conditions (high ionic strength, low pH, and dehydration). A decrease in zeta potential of particles upon exposure to DNA was observed with exception of MAN158 particles. The measured particle size of MAN164 particles increased by nearly twofold upon exposure to DNA. Quantitative PCR isolation of DNA with a high retrieval rate was observed by magnetic particles MAN127 and MAN164. Interaction between polycharged magnetic particles and DNA is mediated by various binding mechanisms such as hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions. Future development of DNA isolation technology requires an understanding of the physical and biochemical conditions of this process. PMID:27104527

  10. Geothermal direct heat use: market potential/penetration analysis for Federal Region IX (Arizona, California, Hawaii, Nevada)

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, W.; Tang, K.

    1980-05-01

    A preliminary study was made of the potential for geothermal direct heat use in Arizona, California, Hawaii, and Nevada (Federal Region IX). The analysis for each state was performed by a different team, located in that state. For each state, the study team was asked to: (1) define the resource, based on the latest available data; (2) assess the potential market growth for geothermal energy; and (3) estimate the market penetration, projected to 2020. Each of the four states of interest in this study is unique in its own way. Rather than impose the same assumptions as to growth rates, capture rates, etc. on all of the study teams, each team was asked to use the most appropriate set of assumptions for its state. The results, therefore, should reflect the currently accepted views within each state. The four state reports comprise the main portion of this document. A brief regional overview section was prepared by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, following completion of the state reports.

  11. Food, fracking, and freshwater: The potential for markets and cross-sectoral investments to enable water conservation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Cook, Margaret; Webber, Michael

    2016-01-30

    Hydraulic fracturing—the injection of pressurized fluid, often water, to increase recovery of oil or gas—has become increasingly popular in combination with horizontal drilling. Hydraulic fracturing improves production from a well, but requires a significant amount of water to do so and could put pressure on existing water resources, especially in water-stressed areas. To supply water needs, some water rights holders sell or lease their water resources to oil and gas producers in an informal water market. These transactions enable the opportunity for cross-sectoral investments, by which the energy sector either directly or indirectly provides the capital for water efficiency improvementsmore » in the agricultural sector as a mechanism to increase water availability for other purposes, including oil and gas production. In this analysis, we employ an original water and cost model to evaluate the water market in Texas and the potential for cross-sectoral collaboration on water efficiency improvements through a case study of the Lower Rio Grande Valley in Texas. Furthermore, we find that if irrigation efficiency management practices were fully implemented, between 420 and 800 million m3 of water could be spared per year over a ten year period, potentially enabling freshwater use in oil and gas production for up to 26,000 wells, while maintaining agricultural productivity and possibly improving water flows to the ecosystem.« less

  12. Species and Size Composition of Seahorses (Genus Hippocampus, Family Syngnathidae) in the Coastal Waters and Local Market of Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Shapawi, Rossita; Anyie, Adrian Leslie; Hussien, Muhammad Ali Syed; Zuldin, Wahidatul Husna

    2015-01-01

    Seahorse diversity (genus Hippocampus, Family Syngnathidae), species identification, size composition and sexual dimorphism were studied from November 2012 to March 2013 in selected coastal waters around Kota Kinabalu, Sabah and the local market trade. Six species of seahorses were identified in the study: (1) Hippocampus barbouri, (2) Hippocampus comes, (3) Hippocampus kelloggi, (4) Hippocampus kuda, (5) Hippocampus spinosissimus and (6) Hippocampus trimaculatus. All six species were sold at the local market, and the dried seahorses were obtained mainly by local fishermen using trawl by-catch method and traded as traditional medicine, souvenirs and other uses. Four species were identified by direct samplings in various different habitats of Kota Kinabalu coastal waters: (1) H. barbouri, (2) H. comes, (3) H. kuda, and (4) H. spinosissimus. Based on the results, H. comes was the largest in size among the four fresh/live species found (mean standard length [SL]: 148.25±1.26 mm), whereas H. barbouri was the smallest species (mean SL: 129±7.81 mm). For the dried samples, H. kelloggi was the largest (mean SL: 245.25±14.55 mm) and H. barbouri was the smallest (mean SL: 127.21±10.01 mm). No significant difference (p>0.05) was observed between the lengths of males and females in every seahorse species, and there was no sexual size dimorphism in any of the species. The findings from the study are significant to provide baseline data for the conservation efforts of these unique marine teleost. PMID:26868706

  13. Potential use of high levels of vegetal proteins in diets for market-sized gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata).

    PubMed

    Monge-Ortiz, Raquel; Martínez-Llorens, Silvia; Márquez, Lorenzo; Moyano, Francisco Javier; Jover-Cerdá, Miguel; Tomás-Vidal, Ana

    2016-04-01

    The effect of partial or total dietary substitution of fishmeal (FM) by vegetal protein sources on growth and feed efficiency was carried out in on-growing gilthead sea bream (mean initial weight 131 g). The Control diet (FM 100) contained FM as the primary protein source, while in Diets FM 25 and FM 0 the FM protein was replaced at 75% and 100%, respectively, by a vegetable protein mixture consisting of wheat gluten, soybean meal, rapeseed meal and crystalline amino acids. Diets FM 25 and FM 0 also contained krill meal at 47 g/kg in order to improve palatability. At the end of the trial (after 158 d), fish survival was above 90%. Final weight and the specific growth rate were statistically lower in fish fed the Control diet (361 g and 0.64%/d), compared with 390-396 g and 0.69-0.70%/d after feeding vegetal diets. No significant differences were found regarding feed intake and feed conversion ratio. The digestibility of protein and amino acids (determined with chromium oxide as indicator) was similar in all diets. The blood parameters were not significantly affected by treatments. The activity of trypsin and pepsin was significantly reduced after feeding Diet FM 0. In the distal intestine, the villi length in fish fed Diet FM 25 was significantly longer and the intestine of the fish fed the FM 100 diet showed a smaller number of goblet cells. In conclusion, a total FM substitution by a vegetal mix supplemented with synthetic amino acids in on-growing sea bream is feasible. PMID:26880503

  14. Finding Alternatives to the Dogma of Power Based Sample Size Calculation: Is a Fixed Sample Size Prospective Meta-Experiment a Potential Alternative?

    PubMed

    Tavernier, Elsa; Trinquart, Ludovic; Giraudeau, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Sample sizes for randomized controlled trials are typically based on power calculations. They require us to specify values for parameters such as the treatment effect, which is often difficult because we lack sufficient prior information. The objective of this paper is to provide an alternative design which circumvents the need for sample size calculation. In a simulation study, we compared a meta-experiment approach to the classical approach to assess treatment efficacy. The meta-experiment approach involves use of meta-analyzed results from 3 randomized trials of fixed sample size, 100 subjects. The classical approach involves a single randomized trial with the sample size calculated on the basis of an a priori-formulated hypothesis. For the sample size calculation in the classical approach, we used observed articles to characterize errors made on the formulated hypothesis. A prospective meta-analysis of data from trials of fixed sample size provided the same precision, power and type I error rate, on average, as the classical approach. The meta-experiment approach may provide an alternative design which does not require a sample size calculation and addresses the essential need for study replication; results may have greater external validity. PMID:27362939

  15. Competitiveness and potentials of UCG-CCS on the European energy market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempka, T.; Nakaten, N.; Schlüter, R.; Fernandez-Steeger, T.; Azzam, R.

    2009-04-01

    The world-wide coal reserves can satisfy the world's primary energy demand for several hundred years. However, deep coal deposits with seams of low thickness and structural complexity do currently not allow an economic exploitation of many deposits. Here, underground coal gasification (UCG) can offer an economical approach for coal extraction. The intended overall process relies on coal deposit exploitation using directed drillings located at the coal seam base and the subsequent in situ coal conversion into a synthesis gas. The resulting synthesis gas is used for electricity generation in a combined cycle plant at the surface. A reduction of the CO2 emissions resulting from the combined process is realized by subsequent CO2 capture and its injection into the previously gasified coal seams. The scope of the present study was the investigation of UCG-CCS competitiveness on the European energy market and the determination of the impacting factors. For that purpose, a modular model for calculation of UCG-CCS electricity generation costs was implemented and adapted to the most relevant process parameters. Furthermore, the range of energy supply coverage was estimated based on different German energy generation scenarios.

  16. 76 FR 58463 - National Defense Stockpile Market Impact Committee Request for Public Comments on the Potential...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ...,000 \\2\\ Manganese, Metallurgical Grade SDT 222,025 2 3 Talc ST 639 2 3 Tin MT 804 \\1\\ Tungsten Metal Powder LB W 77,433 2 3 Tungsten Ores and Concentrates LB W 5,069,782 2 3 \\1\\ Potential...

  17. Utilization of solar energy in developing countries: Identifying some potential markets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hein, G. F.; Siddiqi, T. A.

    1978-01-01

    The potential use of solar electricity generated from photovoltaic cells is examined for nineteen developing nations. Energy and economic profiles are summarized for each country. A comparison is made between the use of autogeneration and photovoltaics in a rural area of Haiti.

  18. Potential environmental influences on variation in body size and sexual size dimorphism among Arizona populations of the western diamond-backed rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amarello, M.; Nowak, E.M.; Taylor, E.N.; Schuett, G.W.; Repp, R.A.; Rosen, P.C.; Hardy, D.L.

    2010-01-01

    Differences in resource availability and quality along environmental gradients are important influences contributing to intraspecific variation in body size, which influences numerous life-history traits. Here, we examined variation in body size and sexual size dimorphism (SSD) in relation to temperature, seasonality, and precipitation among 10 populations located throughout Arizona of the western diamond-backed rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox). Specifically, in our analyses we addressed the following questions: (i) Are adult males larger in cooler, wetter areas? (ii) Does female body size respond differently to environmental variation? (iii) Is seasonality a better predictor of body size variation? (iv) Is SSD positively correlated with increased resources? We demonstrate that male and female C. atrox are larger in body size in cooler (i.e., lower average annual maximum, minimum, and mean temperature) and wetter areas (i.e., higher average annual precipitation, more variable precipitation, and available surface water). Although SSD in C. atrox appeared to be more pronounced in cooler, wetter areas, this relationship did not achieve statistical significance. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  19. The Long-Term Market Potential of Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steven J.

    2012-10-30

    This chapter will examine the conditions under which thermal CSP systems might play a large role in the global energy system. CSP technologies, such as troughs or power towers, have a large advantage over other solar technologies in that they offer the potential for firm power delivery, mitigating intermittency issues. These systems require relatively cloud-free conditions to operate, which limits their geographic applicability.

  20. The effect of grid transparency and finite collector size on determining ion temperature and density by the retarding potential analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Troy, B. E., Jr.; Maier, E. J.

    1973-01-01

    The analysis of ion data from retarding potential analyzers (RPA's) is generally done under the planar approximation, which assumes that the grid transparency is constant with angle of incidence and that all ions reaching the plane of the collectors are collected. These approximations are not valid for situations in which the ion thermal velocity is comparable to the vehicle velocity, causing ions to enter the RPA with high average transverse velocity. To investigate these effects, the current-voltage curves for H+ at 4000 K were calculated, taking into account the finite collector size and the variation of grid transparency with angle. These curves are then analyzed under the planar approximation. The results show that only small errors in temperature and density are introduced for an RPA with typical dimensions; and that even when the density error is substantial for non-typical dimensions, the temperature error remains minimal.

  1. Function-Space-Based Solution Scheme for the Size-Modified Poisson-Boltzmann Equation in Full-Potential DFT.

    PubMed

    Ringe, Stefan; Oberhofer, Harald; Hille, Christoph; Matera, Sebastian; Reuter, Karsten

    2016-08-01

    The size-modified Poisson-Boltzmann (MPB) equation is an efficient implicit solvation model which also captures electrolytic solvent effects. It combines an account of the dielectric solvent response with a mean-field description of solvated finite-sized ions. We present a general solution scheme for the MPB equation based on a fast function-space-oriented Newton method and a Green's function preconditioned iterative linear solver. In contrast to popular multigrid solvers, this approach allows us to fully exploit specialized integration grids and optimized integration schemes. We describe a corresponding numerically efficient implementation for the full-potential density-functional theory (DFT) code FHI-aims. We show that together with an additional Stern layer correction the DFT+MPB approach can describe the mean activity coefficient of a KCl aqueous solution over a wide range of concentrations. The high sensitivity of the calculated activity coefficient on the employed ionic parameters thereby suggests to use extensively tabulated experimental activity coefficients of salt solutions for a systematic parametrization protocol. PMID:27323006

  2. Potential Market for Satellite Technology in Meeting Telecommunication Needs of Developing Nations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    A recent study examined the potential for satellite technology to meet the telecommunication needs of developing nations. The growth of these nations depends on their attracting and holding the industrial investments of developed nations. This will not be likely with the antiquated telecommunications infrastructure typical of developing nations. On the contrary, it will require an infrastructure that is compatible with international standards. Most of the developing nations perceive this necessity and are pursuing the necessary upgrades. The rate of replacement, types of technology, services affected, and the terrestrial/satellite mix differ by each nation's priorities and gross national product (GNP).

  3. Stochastic algorithm for size-extensive vibrational self-consistent field methods on fully anharmonic potential energy surfaces.

    PubMed

    Hermes, Matthew R; Hirata, So

    2014-12-28

    A stochastic algorithm based on Metropolis Monte Carlo (MC) is presented for the size-extensive vibrational self-consistent field methods (XVSCF(n) and XVSCF[n]) for anharmonic molecular vibrations. The new MC-XVSCF methods substitute stochastic evaluations of a small number of high-dimensional integrals of functions of the potential energy surface (PES), which is sampled on demand, for diagrammatic equations involving high-order anharmonic force constants. This algorithm obviates the need to evaluate and store any high-dimensional partial derivatives of the potential and can be applied to the fully anharmonic PES without any Taylor-series approximation in an intrinsically parallelizable algorithm. The MC-XVSCF methods reproduce deterministic XVSCF calculations on the same Taylor-series PES in all energies, frequencies, and geometries. Calculations using the fully anharmonic PES evaluated on the fly with electronic structure methods report anharmonic effects on frequencies and geometries of much greater magnitude than deterministic XVSCF calculations, reflecting an underestimation of anharmonic effects in a Taylor-series approximation to the PES. PMID:25554137

  4. Stochastic algorithm for size-extensive vibrational self-consistent field methods on fully anharmonic potential energy surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Hermes, Matthew R.; Hirata, So

    2014-12-28

    A stochastic algorithm based on Metropolis Monte Carlo (MC) is presented for the size-extensive vibrational self-consistent field methods (XVSCF(n) and XVSCF[n]) for anharmonic molecular vibrations. The new MC-XVSCF methods substitute stochastic evaluations of a small number of high-dimensional integrals of functions of the potential energy surface (PES), which is sampled on demand, for diagrammatic equations involving high-order anharmonic force constants. This algorithm obviates the need to evaluate and store any high-dimensional partial derivatives of the potential and can be applied to the fully anharmonic PES without any Taylor-series approximation in an intrinsically parallelizable algorithm. The MC-XVSCF methods reproduce deterministic XVSCF calculations on the same Taylor-series PES in all energies, frequencies, and geometries. Calculations using the fully anharmonic PES evaluated on the fly with electronic structure methods report anharmonic effects on frequencies and geometries of much greater magnitude than deterministic XVSCF calculations, reflecting an underestimation of anharmonic effects in a Taylor-series approximation to the PES.

  5. Potential enhanced ability of giant squid to detect sperm whales is an exaptation tied to their large body size.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Lars; Motani, Ryosuke; Oufiero, Christopher E; Martin, Christopher H; McGee, Matthew D; Wainwright, Peter C

    2013-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that sperm whale predation is the driver of eye size evolution in giant squid. Given that the eyes of giant squid have the size expected for a squid this big, it is likely that any enhanced ability of giant squid to detect whales is an exaptation tied to their body size. Future studies should target the mechanism behind the evolution of large body size, not eye size. Reconstructions of the evolutionary history of selective regime, eye size, optical performance, and body size will improve the understanding of the evolution of large eyes in large ocean animals. PMID:24127991

  6. Potential (mis)match?: Marriage Markets amidst Socio-Demographic Change in India, 2005–2050

    PubMed Central

    Kashyap, Ridhi; Esteve, Albert; García-Román, Joan

    2015-01-01

    We explore the impact of socio-demographic change on marriage patterns in India by examining the hypothetical consequences of applying three sets of marriage pairing propensities – contemporary patterns by age, by age and education, and changing propensities that allow for greater educational homogamy and reduced educational asymmetries – to future population projections. Future population prospects for India indicate three trends that will impact marriage patterns: i) female-deficit in sex ratios at birth; ii) declining birth cohort size; iii) female educational expansion. Existing literature posits declining marriage rates for men arising from skewed sex ratios at birth (SRB) in India’s population. In addition to skewed SRBs, India’s population will experience female educational expansion in the coming decades. Female educational expansion and its impact on marriage patterns must be jointly considered with demographic changes, given educational differentials and asymmetries in union formation that exist in India, as across much of the world. We systematize contemporary pairing propensities using data from the 2005–2006 Indian National Family Health Survey and the 2004 Socio-Economic Survey and apply these and the third set of changing propensities to IIASA/VID multi-state population projections by educational attainment using an iterative longitudinal projection procedure. If today’s age patterns of marriage are viewed against age-sex population composition until 2050, men experience declining marriage prevalence. However, when education is included, women, particularly those with higher education experience a more salient rise in non-marriage. Significant changes in pairing patterns towards greater levels of educational homogamy and gender symmetry can counteract a marked rise in non-marriage. PMID:25604846

  7. Potential (Mis)match? Marriage Markets Amidst Sociodemographic Change in India, 2005-2050.

    PubMed

    Kashyap, Ridhi; Esteve, Albert; García-Román, Joan

    2015-02-01

    We explore the impact of sociodemographic change on marriage patterns in India by examining the hypothetical consequences of applying three sets of marriage pairing propensities-contemporary patterns by age, contemporary patterns by age and education, and changing propensities that allow for greater educational homogamy and reduced educational asymmetries--to future population projections. Future population prospects for India indicate three trends that will impact marriage patterns: (1) female deficit in sex ratios at birth; (2) declining birth cohort size; (3) female educational expansion. Existing literature posits declining marriage rates for men arising from skewed sex ratios at birth (SRBs) in India's population. In addition to skewed SRBs, India's population will experience female educational expansion in the coming decades. Female educational expansion and its impact on marriage patterns must be jointly considered with demographic changes, given educational differences and asymmetries in union formation that exist in India, as across much of the world. We systematize contemporary pairing propensities using data from the 2005-2006 Indian National Family Health Survey and the 2004 Socio-Economic Survey and apply these and the third set of changing propensities to multistate population projections by educational attainment using an iterative longitudinal projection procedure. If today's age patterns of marriage are viewed against age/sex population composition until 2050, men experience declining marriage prevalence. However, when education is included, women--particularly those with higher education--experience a more salient rise in nonmarriage. Significant changes in pairing patterns toward greater levels of educational homogamy and gender symmetry can counteract a marked rise in nonmarriage. PMID:25604846

  8. Solar thermal technology development: Estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume 2: Assumptions, methodology and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, W. R.

    1983-01-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. Three fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. Solar thermal technology research and development (R&D) is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), depending on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R&D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R&D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest. Analysis is also provided regarding two federal incentives currently in use: The Federal Business Energy Tax Credit and direct R&D funding.

  9. Solar thermal technology development: Estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume 2: Assumptions, methodology and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gates, W. R.

    1983-02-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. Three fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. Solar thermal technology research and development (R&D) is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), depending on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R&D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R&D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest. Analysis is also provided regarding two federal incentives currently in use: The Federal Business Energy Tax Credit and direct R&D funding.

  10. Solar thermal technology development: estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume II. Assumptions, methodology, and results

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, W.R.

    1983-02-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. Three fuel price scenarios and three 1990 SST systems costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. Solar thermal technology research and development (R and D) is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings are projected to range from $0 to 10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), depending on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R and D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artifically manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R and D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest. Analysis is also provided regarding two federal incentives currently in use: the Federal Business Energy Tax Credit and direct R and D funding. These mechanisms can be expected to provide the required incentives to establish a viable self-sustaining private STT industry. Discussions of STT impacts on the environment and on oil imports are also included.