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1

Dynamics of nasopharyngeal colonization by potential respiratory pathogens.  

PubMed

Studies have shown that colonization of the nasopharynx by potential respiratory pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis is established early in childhood, although rates vary greatly according to locality, sampling frequency, individual and social factors. Factors influencing colonization and elimination are not as yet fully understood, but adhesion to mucosal receptors and immune responses are implicated in addition to bacterial properties and colonization resistance dynamics. Colonization in children and adults has been intensively studied in various localities. Potential pathogens are more likely to colonize the nasopharynx of children prone to recurrent otitis media, where impaired local immunity and repeated exposure to respiratory pathogens are additional risk factors. Adults with chronic respiratory tract disease also have higher carriage rates. The factors contributing to increased risk of carriage of potential respiratory pathogens, as well as to clinical infection and antimicrobial resistance, are summarized in this review. PMID:12556435

García-Rodríguez, J A; Fresnadillo Martínez, M J

2002-12-01

2

Reduction of potential respiratory pathogens by oral hygienic treatment in patients undergoing endotracheal anesthesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose.?This study was conducted to evaluate the usefulness of mechanical and chemical prophylactic oral cleansing treatments for\\u000a reducing potential respiratory pathogens existing in the oral cavity.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods.?Thirty-two patients scheduled to undergo oral and maxillofacial surgery that required endotracheal anesthesia were randomly\\u000a allocated to one of the two groups, the oral cleansing group (n = 16) or the noncleansing group (n

Minori Okuda; Yuzuru Kaneko; Tatsuya Ichinohe; Kazuyuki Ishihara; Katsuji Okuda

2003-01-01

3

Advances in vaccination against avian pathogenic Escherichia coli respiratory disease: potentials and limitations.  

PubMed

Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) is one of the most economically devastating pathogens affecting the poultry industry. This group of extra-intestinal E. coli causes a variety of clinical conditions including airsacculitis and cellulitis. The economic impact of APEC is mainly due to mortality, slower growth rates, and carcass downgrading. In commercial broiler operations, APEC infections are controlled indirectly by vaccination against other respiratory diseases and minimizing stress conditions, and directly by administration of antimicrobial agents to suppress the infection in already infected flocks. The fact that most APEC strains possess some common virulence factors suggests that an effective vaccine against APEC is a viable option. The most important virulence factors that have been investigated over the years include type I and P fimbriae, aerobactin iron-acquisition system, and serum resistance traits. Despite the potential for developing an efficacious vaccine to combat this economically important poultry disease, several obstacles hinder such efforts. Those obstacles include the cost, vaccine delivery method and timing of vaccination as the birds should be immune to APEC by 21 days of age. Herein, we review the various attempts to develop an effective vaccine against the respiratory form of APEC diseases in poultry. We also discuss in-depth the potentials and limitations of such vaccines. PMID:24878325

Ghunaim, Haitham; Abu-Madi, Marwan Abdelhamid; Kariyawasam, Subhashinie

2014-08-01

4

Prevalence of potential respiratory pathogens in the mouths of elderly patients and effects of professional oral care  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the effectiveness of professional oral health care in reducing the risk of aspiration pneumonia, we examined the prevalence of potential respiratory pathogens in gargled samples from elderly persons. Samples were obtained from 54 elderly subjects over 65 years of age who required daily nursing care, from 21 healthy elderly subjects over 65 years old, and from 22 healthy

Shu Abe; Kazuyuki Ishihara; Katsuji Okuda

2001-01-01

5

Pathogen Chip for Respiratory Tract Infections  

PubMed Central

Determining the viral etiology of respiratory tract infections (RTI) has been limited for the most part to specific primer PCR-based methods due to their increased sensitivity and specificity compared to other methods, such as tissue culture. However, specific primer approaches have limited the ability to fully understand the diversity of infecting pathogens. A pathogen chip system (PathChip), developed at the Genome Institute of Singapore (GIS), using a random-tagged PCR coupled to a chip with over 170,000 probes, has the potential to recognize all known human viral pathogens. We tested 290 nasal wash specimens from Filipino children <2 years of age with respiratory tract infections using culture and 3 PCR methods—EraGen, Luminex, and the GIS PathChip. The PathChip had good diagnostic accuracy, ranging from 85.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 81.3 to 89.7%) for rhinovirus/enteroviruses to 98.6% (95% CI, 96.5 to 99.6%) for PIV 2, compared to the other methods and additionally identified a number of viruses not detected by these methods. PMID:23303493

Patel, Champa; Sung, Wing-Kin; Lee, Charlie W. H.; Loh, Kuan Hon; Lucero, Marilla; Nohynek, Hanna; Nai, Geraldine; Thien, Pei Ling; Koh, Chee Wee; Chan, Yang Sun; Ma, Jianmin; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Carosone-Link, Phyllis; Hibberd, Martin L.; Wong, Christopher W.

2013-01-01

6

Pathogen chip for respiratory tract infections.  

PubMed

Determining the viral etiology of respiratory tract infections (RTI) has been limited for the most part to specific primer PCR-based methods due to their increased sensitivity and specificity compared to other methods, such as tissue culture. However, specific primer approaches have limited the ability to fully understand the diversity of infecting pathogens. A pathogen chip system (PathChip), developed at the Genome Institute of Singapore (GIS), using a random-tagged PCR coupled to a chip with over 170,000 probes, has the potential to recognize all known human viral pathogens. We tested 290 nasal wash specimens from Filipino children <2 years of age with respiratory tract infections using culture and 3 PCR methods-EraGen, Luminex, and the GIS PathChip. The PathChip had good diagnostic accuracy, ranging from 85.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 81.3 to 89.7%) for rhinovirus/enteroviruses to 98.6% (95% CI, 96.5 to 99.6%) for PIV 2, compared to the other methods and additionally identified a number of viruses not detected by these methods. PMID:23303493

Simões, Eric A F; Patel, Champa; Sung, Wing-Kin; Lee, Charlie W H; Loh, Kuan Hon; Lucero, Marilla; Nohynek, Hanna; Nai, Geraldine; Thien, Pei Ling; Koh, Chee Wee; Chan, Yang Sun; Ma, Jianmin; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Carosone-Link, Phyllis; Hibberd, Martin L; Wong, Christopher W

2013-03-01

7

Respiratory pathogens: assessing resistance patterns in Europe and the potential role of grepafloxacin as treatment of patients with infections caused by these organisms.  

PubMed

Although most respiratory tract infections (RTI) are caused by viruses, various bacteria, particularly Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis, are common causes of community-acquired pneumonia, acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis, otitis media and sinusitis. Empirical antibiotic therapy of patients with RTI must take account of the increasing prevalence of resistance among the predominant pathogens. Europe-wide susceptibility surveillance studies have revealed that resistance to penicillin and macrolides is highly prevalent among isolates of S. pneumoniae from France and Spain. Uniquely, in Italy, macrolide resistance is highly prevalent while the prevalence of penicillin resistance is low. Resistance to other antibiotic classes, including chloramphenicol, doxycycline and, in particular, co-trimoxazole, is associated with penicillin resistance in pneumococci, but resistance to the fluoroquinolones is rare. beta-Lactamase production is the principal mechanism of resistance in isolates of H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis, with fluoroquinolone resistance being detected rarely in these pathogens. In 1998 a surveillance study involving 15 European countries determined the susceptibilities of many respiratory pathogens to a range of antimicrobials, including grepafloxacin. The MIC(90) of grepafloxacin for 1251 isolates of S. pneumoniae was 0.25 mg/L, the MICs for only five strains being >2 mg/L, and 99.4% of all of the isolates tested were inhibited by concentrations respiratory tract pathogens are low in European countries. The enhanced potency and activity of grepafloxacin against isolates of S. pneumoniae, including those exhibiting resistance to unrelated classes of antibiotics, together with its activity against other respiratory tract pathogens, suggest that this drug has considerable potential as empirical therapy of patients with a wide range of RTI. PMID:10719006

Felmingham, D

2000-03-01

8

Drug-resistant respiratory pathogens in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In order to investigate the trends of antimicrobial susceptibility in respiratory pathogens in Japan, the Japanese Society\\u000a of Chemotherapy (JSC) established a nationwide surveillance network in 2006. During the period from January to August, 2007,\\u000a 1,178 strains were collected from clinical specimens obtained from adult patients with well-diagnosed respiratory tract infections.\\u000a Susceptibility testing was evaluated for 1,108 strains (226 Staphylococcus

Tetsuya Matsumoto

9

Tools for Detection of Mycoplasma amphoriforme: a Primary Respiratory Pathogen?  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasma amphoriforme is a recently described organism isolated from the respiratory tracts of patients with immunodeficiency and evidence of chronic infection. Novel assays for the molecular detection of the organism by real-time quantitative PCRs (qPCRs) targeting the uracil DNA glycosylase gene (udg) or the 23S rRNA gene are described here. The analytical sensitivities are similar to the existing conventional M. amphoriforme 16S rRNA gene PCR, with the advantage of being species specific, rapid, and quantitative. By using these techniques, we demonstrate the presence of this organism in 17 (19.3%) primary antibody-deficient (PAD) patients, 4 (5%) adults with lower respiratory tract infection, 1 (2.6%) sputum sample from a patient attending a chest clinic, and 23 (0.21%) samples submitted for viral diagnosis of respiratory infection, but not in normal adult control subjects. These data show the presence of this microorganism in respiratory patients and suggest that M. amphoriforme may infect both immunocompetent and immunocompromised people. Further studies to characterize this organism are required, and this report provides the tools that may be used by other research groups to investigate its pathogenic potential. PMID:24478412

Ling, Clare L.; Oravcova, Katarina; Beattie, Thomas F.; Creer, Dean D.; Dilworth, Paul; Fulton, Naomi L.; Hardie, Alison; Munro, Michelle; Pond, Marcus; Templeton, Kate; Webster, David; Workman, Sarita; McHugh, Timothy D.

2014-01-01

10

Human bocavirus, a real respiratory tract pathogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new virus was discovered by molecular techniques in respiratory samples collected from young children with respiratory diseases in Sweden in 2005. The virus, named human bocavirus, is genetically related to the bovine parvovirus and the canine minute virus, both of which belong to the bocavirus genus of the parvoviridae family. Recent studies conducted in different countries have shown that

Zhenqiang Bi; Pierre B. H. Formenty; Cathy E. Roth

2007-01-01

11

Pathogenicity of porcine respiratory coronavirus isolated in Québec.  

PubMed Central

Porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV) is present in many countries, including Canada, but controversy still exists concerning its pathogenicity. Eight-week-old piglets were inoculated intratracheally with a Quebec PRCV isolate (1Q90). Two contact piglets were kept with the inoculated animals. Three animals served as control. Polypnea and dyspnea were the main clinical signs observed. Diffuse bronchioloalveolar damage occurred 24 hours postinoculation. Changes compatible with bronchointerstitial pneumonia were present six days postinoculation. The inoculated virus was recovered from the respiratory tract and mesenteric lymph nodes, but not from the digestive tract, of the inoculated as well as the contact piglets. No virus was isolated from the control piglets. The development of clinical signs and histopathological changes in inoculated as well as in contact piglets and the reisolation of the inoculated virus demonstrated that PRCV can be an important respiratory pathogen. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. PMID:8069830

Jabrane, A; Girard, C; Elazhary, Y

1994-01-01

12

Role of 'atypical' pneumonia pathogens in respiratory tract infections.  

PubMed

The 'atypical' pathogens are important causes of pneumonia, causing illness ranging from mild to life-threatening. The most common atypical pathogens are Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae; others include Legionella species, Chlamydia psittaci and viruses such as influenza, adenovirus and respiratory syncytial virus. Infection rates for these agents are difficult to determine because many clinicians and investigators do not routinely test for them, but reported rates are in the range of up to 8% (for C pneumoniae) and 15% to 20% (M pneumoniae) of all cases of pneumonia. Diagnostic testing is very difficult because most of these agents cannot be easily cultured. Diagnosis relies on either high acute antibody titres (quickly available but not very accurate) or paired serology samples (more accurate but requires at least a week). While rapid identification using automated polymerase chain reaction testing may be possible in the future, current management is based largely on empirical treatment. PMID:10202227

Tan, J S

1999-01-01

13

Host Response to Respiratory Bacterial Pathogens as Identified by Integrated Analysis of Human Gene Expression Data  

PubMed Central

Respiratory bacterial pathogens are one of the leading causes of infectious death in the world and a major health concern complicated by the rise of multi-antibiotic resistant strains. Therapeutics that modulate host genes essential for pathogen infectivity could potentially avoid multi-drug resistance and provide a wider scope of treatment options. Here, we perform an integrative analysis of published human gene expression data generated under challenges from the gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria pathogens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus pneumoniae, respectively. We applied a previously described differential gene and pathway enrichment analysis pipeline to publicly available host mRNA GEO datasets resulting from exposure to bacterial infection. We found 72 canonical human pathways common between four GEO datasets, representing P. aeruginosa and S. pneumoniae. Although the majority of these pathways are known to be involved with immune response, we found several interesting new interactions such as the SUMO1 pathway that might have a role in bacterial infections. Furthermore, 36 host-bacterial pathways were also shared with our previous results for respiratory virus host gene expression. Based on our pathway analysis we propose several drug-repurposing opportunities supported by the literature. PMID:24086587

Smith, Steven B.; Magid-Slav, Michal; Brown, James R.

2013-01-01

14

Potential impact of fireworks on respiratory health  

PubMed Central

The world-wide use of fireworks with their consequent detrimental effect on the air quality is widely recognized with elevated ambient air levels of particulate matter and its several metallic components and gases identified in several studies carried out during such events. Exposed individuals may be at risk following inhalation of such produced pollutants. This review focuses on the impact of fireworks on air quality and the potential effect of fireworks on the respiratory system of healthy individuals as well as those suffering from underlying respiratory diseases, particularly asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This applies not only to spectators including children but also to pyrotechnicians themselves. An extensive Medline search revealed that a strong evidence of the impact of fireworks on respiratory health is lacking in susceptible as well as healthy individuals with no formal studies on COPD or asthma, other than a few case reports in the latter. The implementation of global strategies to control the use of fireworks and hence improve air quality could possibly reduce their likely detrimental effect on human respiratory health in exposed individuals, but clearly a more targeted research is needed. PMID:25378846

Gouder, Caroline; Montefort, Stephen

2014-01-01

15

Potential impact of fireworks on respiratory health.  

PubMed

The world-wide use of fireworks with their consequent detrimental effect on the air quality is widely recognized with elevated ambient air levels of particulate matter and its several metallic components and gases identified in several studies carried out during such events. Exposed individuals may be at risk following inhalation of such produced pollutants. This review focuses on the impact of fireworks on air quality and the potential effect of fireworks on the respiratory system of healthy individuals as well as those suffering from underlying respiratory diseases, particularly asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This applies not only to spectators including children but also to pyrotechnicians themselves. An extensive Medline search revealed that a strong evidence of the impact of fireworks on respiratory health is lacking in susceptible as well as healthy individuals with no formal studies on COPD or asthma, other than a few case reports in the latter. The implementation of global strategies to control the use of fireworks and hence improve air quality could possibly reduce their likely detrimental effect on human respiratory health in exposed individuals, but clearly a more targeted research is needed. PMID:25378846

Gouder, Caroline; Montefort, Stephen

2014-10-01

16

Associations between Pathogens in the Upper Respiratory Tract of Young Children: Interplay between Viruses and Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Background High rates of potentially pathogenic bacteria and respiratory viruses can be detected in the upper respiratory tract of healthy children. Investigating presence of and associations between these pathogens in healthy individuals is still a rather unexplored field of research, but may have implications for interpreting findings during disease. Methodology/Principal Findings We selected 986 nasopharyngeal samples from 433 6- to 24-month-old healthy children that had participated in a randomized controlled trial. We determined the presence of 20 common respiratory viruses using real-time PCR. Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis and Staphylococcus aureus were identified by conventional culture methods. Information on risk factors was obtained by questionnaires. We performed multivariate logistic regression analyses followed by partial correlation analysis to identify the overall pattern of associations. S. pneumoniae colonization was positively associated with the presence of H. influenzae (adjusted odds ratio 1.60, 95% confidence interval 1.18–2.16), M. catarrhalis (1.78, 1.29–2.47), human rhinoviruses (1.63, 1.19–2.22) and enteroviruses (1.97, 1.26–3.10), and negatively associated with S. aureus presence (0.59, 0.35–0.98). H. influenzae was positively associated with human rhinoviruses (1.63, 1.22–2.18) and respiratory syncytial viruses (2.78, 1.06–7.28). M. catarrhalis colonization was positively associated with coronaviruses (1.99, 1.01–3.93) and adenoviruses (3.69, 1.29–10.56), and negatively with S. aureus carriage (0.42, 0.25–0.69). We observed a strong positive association between S. aureus and influenza viruses (4.87, 1.59–14.89). In addition, human rhinoviruses and enteroviruses were positively correlated (2.40, 1.66–3.47), as were enteroviruses and human bocavirus, WU polyomavirus, parainfluenza viruses, and human parechovirus. A negative association was observed between human rhinoviruses and coronaviruses. Conclusions/Significance Our data revealed high viral and bacterial prevalence rates and distinct bacterial-bacterial, viral-bacterial and viral-viral associations in healthy children, hinting towards the complexity and potential dynamics of microbial communities in the upper respiratory tract. This warrants careful consideration when associating microbial presence with specific respiratory diseases. PMID:23082199

van den Bergh, Menno R.; Biesbroek, Giske; Rossen, John W. A.; de Steenhuijsen Piters, Wouter A. A.; Bosch, Astrid A. T. M.; van Gils, Elske J. M.; Wang, Xinhui; Boonacker, Chantal W. B.; Veenhoven, Reinier H.; Bruin, Jacob P.

2012-01-01

17

Is There Still Room for Novel Viral Pathogens in Pediatric Respiratory Tract Infections?  

PubMed Central

Viruses are the most frequent cause of respiratory disease in children. However, despite the advanced diagnostic methods currently in use, in 20 to 50% of respiratory samples a specific pathogen cannot be detected. In this work, we used a metagenomic approach and deep sequencing to examine respiratory samples from children with lower and upper respiratory tract infections that had been previously found negative for 6 bacteria and 15 respiratory viruses by PCR. Nasal washings from 25 children (out of 250) hospitalized with a diagnosis of pneumonia and nasopharyngeal swabs from 46 outpatient children (out of 526) were studied. DNA reads for at least one virus commonly associated to respiratory infections was found in 20 of 25 hospitalized patients, while reads for pathogenic respiratory bacteria were detected in the remaining 5 children. For outpatients, all the samples were pooled into 25 DNA libraries for sequencing. In this case, in 22 of the 25 sequenced libraries at least one respiratory virus was identified, while in all other, but one, pathogenic bacteria were detected. In both patient groups reads for respiratory syncytial virus, coronavirus-OC43, and rhinovirus were identified. In addition, viruses less frequently associated to respiratory infections were also found. Saffold virus was detected in outpatient but not in hospitalized children. Anellovirus, rotavirus, and astrovirus, as well as several animal and plant viruses were detected in both groups. No novel viruses were identified. Adding up the deep sequencing results to the PCR data, 79.2% of 250 hospitalized and 76.6% of 526 ambulatory patients were positive for viruses, and all other children, but one, had pathogenic respiratory bacteria identified. These results suggest that at least in the type of populations studied and with the sampling methods used the odds of finding novel, clinically relevant viruses, in pediatric respiratory infections are low. PMID:25412469

Taboada, Blanca; Espinoza, Marco A.; Isa, Pavel; Aponte, Fernando E.; Arias-Ortiz, María A.; Monge-Martínez, Jesús; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Rubén; Díaz-Hernández, Fidel; Zárate-Vidal, Fernando; Wong-Chew, Rosa María; Firo-Reyes, Verónica; del Río-Almendárez, Carlos N.; Gaitán-Meza, Jesús; Villaseñor-Sierra, Alberto; Martínez-Aguilar, Gerardo; Salas-Mier, Ma. del Carmen; Noyola, Daniel E.; Pérez-Gónzalez, Luis F.; López, Susana; Santos-Preciado, José I.; Arias, Carlos F.

2014-01-01

18

Implementing hospital-based surveillance for severe acute respiratory infections caused by influenza and other respiratory pathogens in New Zealand  

PubMed Central

Background Recent experience with pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 highlighted the importance of global surveillance for severe respiratory disease to support pandemic preparedness and seasonal influenza control. Improved surveillance in the southern hemisphere is needed to provide critical data on influenza epidemiology, disease burden, circulating strains and effectiveness of influenza prevention and control measures. Hospital-based surveillance for severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) cases was established in New Zealand on 30 April 2012. The aims were to measure incidence, prevalence, risk factors, clinical spectrum and outcomes for SARI and associated influenza and other respiratory pathogen cases as well as to understand influenza contribution to patients not meeting SARI case definition. Methods/Design All inpatients with suspected respiratory infections who were admitted overnight to the study hospitals were screened daily. If a patient met the World Health Organization’s SARI case definition, a respiratory specimen was tested for influenza and other respiratory pathogens. A case report form captured demographics, history of presenting illness, co-morbidities, disease course and outcome and risk factors. These data were supplemented from electronic clinical records and other linked data sources. Discussion Hospital-based SARI surveillance has been implemented and is fully functioning in New Zealand. Active, prospective, continuous, hospital-based SARI surveillance is useful in supporting pandemic preparedness for emerging influenza A(H7N9) virus infections and seasonal influenza prevention and control. PMID:25077034

Baker, Michael; McArthur, Colin; Roberts, Sally; Williamson, Deborah; Grant, Cameron; Trenholme, Adrian; Wong, Conroy; Taylor, Susan; LeComte, Lyndsay; Mackereth, Graham; Bandaranayake, Don; Wood, Tim; Bissielo, Ange; Se, Ruth; Turner, Nikki; Pierse, Nevil; Thomas, Paul; Webby, Richard; Gross, Diane; Duque, Jazmin; Thompson, Mark; Widdowson, Marc-Alain

2014-01-01

19

Comparison of the FilmArray Respiratory Panel and Prodesse Real-Time PCR Assays for Detection of Respiratory Pathogens ? †  

PubMed Central

We compared the diagnostic performance and overall respiratory pathogen detection rate of the premarket version of the FilmArray Respiratory Panel (RP) multiplex PCR assay (Idaho Technology, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT) with those of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-cleared Prodesse ProFlu+, ProFAST+, ProParaflu+, Pro hMPV+, and ProAdeno+ real-time PCR assays (Gen-Probe, San Diego, CA). The assays were performed on a panel of 192 nasopharyngeal-secretion specimens collected from 81 children under 1 year of age with upper respiratory tract symptoms. To resolve discordant results and confirm pathogens detected only by the larger FilmArray panel, we performed laboratory-developed real-time PCR assays. Among viruses detectable by both commercial assays (adenovirus, human metapneumovirus, influenza A virus, influenza B virus, parainfluenza viruses 1 to 3, and respiratory syncytial virus), the FilmArray and Prodesse assays showed good overall agreement (181/192 [94.3%]; kappa = 0.87; 95% CI, 0.79 to 0.94). FilmArray RP detected more parainfluenza viruses 1 and 3 than ProParaflu+ (18 versus 13) while ProAdeno+ detected more adenoviruses (11 versus 6), but these differences were not statistically significant. Additionally, FilmArray RP detected 138 pathogens (confirmed as true positives) not included in the Prodesse assays (rhinovirus [RV]/enterovirus [EV], 118; bocavirus, 8; coronavirus, 7; parainfluenza virus 4, 4; Mycoplasma pneumoniae, 1). FilmArray RP was cleared by the FDA following the completion of this study. The FDA-cleared version includes the following targets: adenovirus, coronaviruses HKU1 and NL63, human metapneumovirus (hMPV), influenza A virus (to type level only), influenza A H1 seasonal virus, influenza A H3 seasonal virus, influenza A virus H1-2009, influenza B virus, parainfluenza viruses 1 to 4, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and RV/EV (no differentiation). The larger panel in the FilmArray RP assay allowed the detection of additional respiratory pathogens compared to the Prodesse assays. In this population of young children with upper respiratory tract infection, RV/EV accounted for the majority of the additional pathogens detected by FilmArray RP. PMID:21998418

Loeffelholz, M. J.; Pong, D. L.; Pyles, R. B.; Xiong, Y.; Miller, A. L.; Bufton, K. K.; Chonmaitree, T.

2011-01-01

20

PATHOGEN POPULATION GENETICS, EVOLUTIONARY POTENTIAL, AND DURABLE RESISTANCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract We hypothesize,that the evolutionary potential of a pathogen,popula- tion is reflected in its population genetic structure. Pathogen populations with a high evolutionary potential are more,likely to overcome,genetic resistance than pathogen populations,with a low,evolutionary potential. We propose,a flexible framework,to predict the evolutionary potential of pathogen,populations,based on analysis of their genetic structure. According to this framework, pathogens that pose the

Bruce A. McDonald; Celeste Linde

2002-01-01

21

Application of TaqMan Low-Density Arrays for Simultaneous Detection of Multiple Respiratory Pathogens?  

PubMed Central

The large and growing number of viral and bacterial pathogens responsible for respiratory infections poses a challenge for laboratories seeking to provide rapid and comprehensive pathogen identification. We evaluated a novel application of the TaqMan low-density array (TLDA) cards for real-time PCR detection of 21 respiratory-pathogen targets. The performance of the TLDA was compared to that of individual real-time PCR (IRTP) assays with the same primers and probes using (i) nucleic acids extracted from the 21 pathogen strains and 66 closely related viruses and bacteria and (ii) 292 clinical respiratory specimens. With spiked samples, TLDA cards were about 10-fold less sensitive than IRTP assays. By using 292 clinical specimens to generate 2,238 paired individual assays, the TLDA card exhibited 89% sensitivity (95% confidence interval [CI], 86 to 92%; range per target, 47 to 100%) and 98% specificity (95% CI, 97 to 99%; range per target, 85 to 100%) overall compared to IRTP assays as the gold standard with a threshold cycle (CT) cutoff of 43. The TLDA card approach offers promise for rapid and simultaneous identification of multiple respiratory pathogens for outbreak investigations and disease surveillance. PMID:21471348

Kodani, Maja; Yang, Genyan; Conklin, Laura M.; Travis, Tatiana C.; Whitney, Cynthia G.; Anderson, Larry J.; Schrag, Stephanie J.; Taylor, Thomas H.; Beall, Bernard W.; Breiman, Robert F.; Feikin, Daniel R.; Njenga, M. Kariuki; Mayer, Leonard W.; Oberste, M. Steven; Tondella, Maria Lucia C.; Winchell, Jonas M.; Lindstrom, Stephen L.; Erdman, Dean D.; Fields, Barry S.

2011-01-01

22

Simultaneous typing of nine avian respiratory pathogens using a novel GeXP analyzer-based multiplex PCR assay.  

PubMed

A new, rapid, and high-throughput GenomeLab Gene Expression Profiler (GeXP) analyzer-based multiplex PCR method was developed for simultaneous detection and differentiation of nine avian respiratory pathogens. The respiratory pathogens included in this study were avian influenza subtypes H5, H7, and H9, infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV), infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), Mycoplasma synoviae (MS) and Haemophilus paragallinarum (HPG). Ten pairs of primers were designed using conserved and specific sequence genes of AIV subtypes and respiratory pathogens from GenBank. Single and mixed pathogen cDNA/DNA templates were used to evaluate the specificity of the GeXP-multiplex assay. The corresponding specific DNA products were amplified for each pathogen. The specific DNA product amplification peaks of nine respiratory pathogens were observed on the GeXP analyzer. Non-respiratory avian pathogens, including chicken infectious anemia virus, fowl adenovirus, avian reovirus and infectious bursal disease virus, did not produce DNA products. The detection limit for the GeXP-multiplex assay was determined to be 100 copies/?l using various pre-mixed plasmids/ssRNAs containing known target genes of the respiratory pathogens. Further, GeXP-multiplex PCR assay was 100% specific when 24 clinical samples with respiratory infections were tested in comparison with conventional PCR method. The GeXP-multiplex PCR assay provides a novel tool for simultaneous detection and differentiation of nine avian respiratory pathogens. PMID:25025815

Xie, Zhixun; Luo, Sisi; Xie, Liji; Liu, Jiabo; Pang, Yaoshan; Deng, Xianwen; Xie, Zhiqin; Fan, Qing; Khan, Mazhar I

2014-10-01

23

Reverse Transcription-PCR-Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry for Rapid Detection of Biothreat and Common Respiratory Pathogens  

PubMed Central

Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) analysis of reverse transcription (RT)-PCR amplicons from human respiratory samples allows for broad pathogen identification approximately 8 h after collection. We investigated the performance characteristics of a high-throughput RT-PCR-coupled ESI-MS assay for distinguishing biothreat (BT) agents from common bacterial, fungal, and viral respiratory pathogens in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid specimens from subjects with suspected respiratory infections. In a retrospective case series, 202 BAL fluid specimens were collected at the Johns Hopkins Hospital between August 2010 and February 2011 from patients with suspected acute respiratory infections. Samples were processed using standard bacterial, viral, and fungal testing in the clinical microbiology laboratory as part of routine care and then were blindly spiked with either water or nucleic acids from BT organisms (Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, Francisella tularensis, Brucella spp., Burkholderia spp., and Rickettsia prowazekii) and tested by RT-PCR–ESI-MS. The sensitivities and specificities of RT-PCR–ESI-MS versus standard clinical methods were as follows: for mock BT DNA, 98.5% sensitivity (95% confidence interval [CI], 94.2 to 99.7%) and 100% specificity (95% CI, 93.1 to 100.0%); for bacterial pathogens, 81.8% sensitivity (95% CI, 74.3 to 87.6%) and 73.6% specificity (95% CI, 64.2 to 81.4%); for viral pathogens, 93.3% sensitivity (95% CI, 66.0 to 99.7%) and 97.3% specificity (95% CI, 89.7 to 99.5%); for fungal pathogens, 42.6% sensitivity (95% CI, 29.5 to 56.7%) and 97.8% specificity (95% CI, 91.8 to 99.6%). Our data suggest that RT-PCR–ESI-MS is a useful adjunct to standard culture protocols for rapid detection of both BT and common respiratory pathogens; further study is required for assay validation, especially for fungal detection, and potential implementation. PMID:23903543

Jeng, Kevin; Rothman, Richard; Yang, Samuel; Won, Helen; Peterson, Stephen; Hsieh, Yu-Hsiang; Masek, Billie Jo; Carroll, Karen C.; Gaydos, Charlotte A.

2013-01-01

24

A proposal of clinical breakpoints for amoxicillin applicable to porcine respiratory tract pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present position paper, an attempt was made to establish clinical breakpoints of amoxicillin to classify porcine respiratory tract pathogens as susceptible, intermediate or resistant based on their minimum inhibitory concentrations of amoxicillin. For this, a thorough review of the published literature with regard to swine-specific pharmacological data (including dosages of amoxicillin applied and routes of administration used), clinical

Stefan Schwarz; Alexander Böttner; Luc Goosens; H. Mohamed Hafez; Katrin Hartmann; Martin Kaske; Corinna Kehrenberg; Manfred Kietzmann; Dieter Klarmann; Günter Klein; Peter Krabisch; Gabriele Luhofer; Angelika Richter; Bianka Schulz; Claudia Sigge; Karl-Heinz Waldmann; Jürgen Wallmann; Christiane Werckenthin

2008-01-01

25

In Vitro and In Vivo Activities of LB 10827, a New Oral Cephalosporin, against Respiratory Pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The in vitro antibacterial activities of LB 10827, a new oral cephalosporin, against common respiratory tract pathogens were compared with those of six b-lactams (cefdinir, cefuroxime, cefprozil, penicillin G, amoxicillin- clavulanate, and ampicillin), two quinolones (trovafloxacin and ciprofloxacin), and one macrolide (clarithro- mycin). The MIC of LB 10827 at which 90% of the penicillin-resistant strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae tested were

KYONG-SOOK PAEK; MU-YONG KIM; CHANG-SEOK LEE; HASIK YOUN

2000-01-01

26

Antibacterial activity of Achillea clavennae essential oil against respiratory tract pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil of Achillea clavennae was investigated for its antibacterial activity against some respiratory tract pathogens. Maximum activity was observed against Klebsiella pneumoniae and penicillin-susceptible and penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. The oil also exhibited strong activity against Gram (?) Haemophilus influenzae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Gram (+) Streptococcus pyogenes was the most resistant to the oil.

Mirjana Sko?ibuši?; Nada Bezi?; Valerija Dunki?; Ani Radoni?

2004-01-01

27

The role and regulation of catalase in respiratory tract opportunistic bacterial pathogens.  

PubMed

Respiratory tract bacterial pathogens are the etiologic agents of a variety of illnesses. The ability of these bacteria to cause disease is imparted through survival within the host and avoidance of pathogen clearance by the immune system. Respiratory tract pathogens are continually bombarded by reactive oxygen species (ROS), which may be produced by competing bacteria, normal metabolic function, or host immunological responses. In order to survive and proliferate, bacteria have adapted defense mechanisms to circumvent the effects of ROS. Bacteria employ the use of anti-oxidant enzymes, catalases and catalase-peroxidases, to relieve the effects of the oxidative stressors to which they are continually exposed. The decomposition of ROS has been shown to provide favorable conditions in which respiratory tract opportunistic bacterial pathogens such as Haemophilus influenzae, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Legionella pneumophila, and Neisseria meningitidis are able to withstand exposure to highly reactive molecules and yet survive. Bacteria possessing mutations in the catalase gene have a decreased survival rate, yet may be able to compensate for the lack of catalatic activity if peroxidatic activity is present. An incomplete knowledge of the mechanisms by which catalase and catalase-peroxidases are regulated still persists, however, in some bacterial species, a regulatory factor known as OxyR has been shown to either up-regulate or down-regulate catalase gene expression. Yet, more research is still needed to increase the knowledge base in relation to this enzyme class. As with this review, we focus on major respiratory tract opportunistic bacterial pathogens in order to elucidate the function and regulation of catalases. The importance of the research could lead to the development of novel treatments against respiratory bacterial infections. PMID:25109939

Eason, Mia M; Fan, Xin

2014-09-01

28

Antimicrobial Resistance Trends among Community-Acquired Respiratory Tract Pathogens in Greece, 2009-2012  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to determine the antimicrobial resistance trends of respiratory tract pathogens isolated from patients with community-acquired respiratory tract infections (CARTIs) in Crete, Greece, over a 4-year period (2009–2012). A total of 588 community-acquired respiratory pathogens were isolated during the study period. Streptococcus pneumoniae was the most common organism responsible for 44.4% of CARTIs, followed by Haemophilus influenzae (44.2%) and Moraxella catarrhalis (11.4%). Among S. pneumoniae, the prevalence of isolates with intermediate- and high-level resistance to penicillin was 27.2% and 12.3%, respectively. Macrolide resistance slightly decreased from 29.4% over the period 2009-2010 to 28.8% over the period 2011-2012. Multiresistance was observed among 56 (54.4%) penicillin nonsusceptible isolates. A nonsignificant increase in resistance of H. influenzae isolates was noted for ?-lactams, cotrimoxazole, and tetracycline. Among the 67 M. catarrhalis tested, 32 produced beta-lactamase and were resistant to ampicillin. Macrolide resistance decreased over the study period. All isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin + clavulanic acid, chloramphenicol, rifampicin, and the fluoroquinolones. Although a decreasing trend in the prevalence of resistance of the three most common pathogens involved in CARTIs was noted, continuous surveillance of antimicrobial susceptibility at the local and national level remains important, in order to guide appropriate empirical antimicrobial therapy. PMID:24592201

Maraki, Sofia; Papadakis, Ioannis S.

2014-01-01

29

Randomized clinical trial to evaluate the pathogenicity of Bibersteinia trehalosi in respiratory disease among calves  

PubMed Central

Background Bibersteinia trehalosi causes respiratory disease in ruminants particularly in wild and domestic sheep. Recently, there has been an increased number of B. trehalosi isolates obtained from diagnostic samples from bovine respiratory disease cases. This study evaluated the role of B. trehalosi in bovine respiratory disease using an intra-tracheal inoculation model in calves. Thirty six cross bred 2–3 month old dairy calves were inoculated intra-tracheally with either leukotoxin negative B. trehalosi, leukotoxin positive B. trehalosi isolate, Mannheimia haemolytica, a combination of leukotoxin negative B. trehalosi and M. haemolytica or negative control. Calves were euthanized and necropsy performed on day 10 of study. Results B. trehalosi inoculated calves did not have increased lung involvement compared to control calves. Additionally, B. trehalosi was only cultured once from the lungs of inoculated calves at necropsy. Conclusions Based on these findings B. trehalosi may not be a primary pathogen of respiratory disease in cattle. Culture of B. trehalosi from diagnostic submissions should not be immediately identified as a primary cause of respiratory disease. PMID:24745347

2014-01-01

30

Antibacterial activity of carbapenems against clinical isolates of respiratory bacterial pathogens in the northeastern region of Japan in 2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the increasing prevalence of resistant strains of respiratory bacterial pathogens has recently been reported, continuous\\u000a monitoring of the susceptibility of clinical isolates to antibacterial agents is important. We performed a surveillance study\\u000a focusing on the susceptibility of major respiratory bacterial pathogens in the northeastern region of Japan to carbapenems\\u000a and control drugs. A total of 168 bacterial strains isolated

Kazunori GomiShigeru; Shigeru Fujimura; Katsuhiro Fuse; Hidenari Takane; Yoshihisa Nakano; Yasuko Kariya; Toshiaki Kikuchi; Iku Kurokawa; Yutaka Tokue; Akira Watanabe

2011-01-01

31

Pathogens of bovine respiratory disease in North American feedlots conferring multidrug resistance via integrative conjugative elements.  

PubMed

In this study, we determined the prevalence of bovine respiratory disease (BRD)-associated viral and bacterial pathogens in cattle and characterized the genetic profiles, antimicrobial susceptibilities, and nature of antimicrobial resistance determinants in collected bacteria. Nasopharyngeal swab and lung tissue samples from 68 BRD mortalities in Alberta, Canada (n = 42), Texas (n = 6), and Nebraska (n = 20) were screened using PCR for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpesvirus 1, parainfluenza type 3 virus, Mycoplasma bovis, Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, and Histophilus somni. Excepting bovine herpesvirus 1, all agents were detected. M. haemolytica (91%) and BVDV (69%) were the most prevalent, with cooccurrence in 63% of the cattle. Isolates of M. haemolytica (n = 55), P. multocida (n = 8), and H. somni (n = 10) from lungs were also collected. Among M. haemolytica isolates, a clonal subpopulation (n = 8) was obtained from a Nebraskan feedlot. All three bacterial pathogens exhibited a high rate of antimicrobial resistance, with 45% exhibiting resistance to three or more antimicrobials. M. haemolytica (n = 18), P. multocida (n = 3), and H. somni (n = 3) from Texas and Nebraska possessed integrative conjugative elements (ICE) that conferred resistance for up to seven different antimicrobial classes. ICE were shown to be transferred via conjugation from P. multocida to Escherichia coli and from M. haemolytica and H. somni to P. multocida. ICE-mediated multidrug-resistant profiles of bacterial BRD pathogens could be a major detriment to many of the therapeutic antimicrobial strategies currently used to control BRD. PMID:24478472

Klima, Cassidy L; Zaheer, Rahat; Cook, Shaun R; Booker, Calvin W; Hendrick, Steve; Alexander, Trevor W; McAllister, Tim A

2014-02-01

32

Nationwide surveillance of bacterial respiratory pathogens conducted by the Japanese Society of Chemotherapy in 2007: general view of the pathogens’ antibacterial susceptibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the purpose of a nationwide surveillance of the antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial respiratory pathogens in patients\\u000a in Japan, the Japanese Society of Chemotherapy conducted their second year survey, during the period from January to August,\\u000a 2007. A total of 1178 strains were collected from clinical specimens obtained from adult patients with well-diagnosed respiratory\\u000a tract infections. Susceptibility testing was evaluable

Y. Niki; H. Hanaki; T. Matsumoto; M. Yagisawa; S. Kohno; N. Aoki; A. Watanabe; J. Sato; R. Hattori; M. Terada; N. Koashi; T. Kozuki; A. Maruo; K. Morita; K. Ogasawara; Y. Takahashi; J. Watanabe; K. Takeuchi; S. Fujimura; H. Takeda; H. Ikeda; N. Sato; K. Niitsuma; M. Saito; S. Koshiba; M. Kaneko; M. Miki; S. Nakanowatari; Y. Honda; J. Chiba; H. Takahashi; M. Utagawa; T. Kondo; A. Kawana; H. Konosaki; Y. Aoki; H. Ueda; H. Sugiura; M. Ichioka; H. Goto; D. Kurai; M. Okazaki; K. Yoshida; T. Yoshida; Y. Tanabe; S. Kobayashi; M. Okada; H. Tsukada; Y. Imai; Y. Honma; K. Nishikawa; T. Yamamoto; A. Kawai; T. Kashiwabara; Y. Takesue; Y. Wada; K. Nakajima; T. Miyara; H. Toda; N. Mitsuno; H. Sugimura; S. Yoshioka; M. Kurokawa; Y. Munekawa; H. Nakajima; S. Kubo; Y. Ohta; K. Mikasa; K. Maeda; K. Kasahara; A. Koizumi; R. Sano; S. Yagi; M. Takaya; Y. Kurokawa; N. Kusano; E. Mihara; M. Kuwabara; Y. Fujiue; T. Ishimaru; N. Matsubara; Y. Kawasaki; H. Tokuyasu; K. Masui; K. Negayama; N. Ueda; M. Ishimaru; Y. Nakanishi; M. Fujita; J. Honda; J. Kadota; K. Hiramatsu; Z. Nagasawa; M. Suga; H. Muranaka; K. Yanagihara; J. Fujita; M. Tateyama; K. Sunakawa; K. Totsuka

2009-01-01

33

Nationwide surveillance of bacterial respiratory pathogens conducted by the Japanese Society of Chemotherapy in 2008: general view of the pathogens’ antibacterial susceptibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the purpose of nationwide surveillance of the antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial respiratory pathogens collected\\u000a from patients in Japan, the Japanese Society of Chemotherapy conducted a third year of nationwide surveillance during the\\u000a period from January to April 2008. A total of 1,097 strains were collected from clinical specimens obtained from well-diagnosed\\u000a adult patients with respiratory tract infections. Susceptibility testing

Yoshihito NikiHideaki; Hideaki Hanaki; Tetsuya Matsumoto; Morimasa Yagisawa; Shigeru Kohno; Nobuki Aoki; Akira Watanabe; Junko Sato; Rikizo Hattori; Naoto Koashi; Michinori Terada; Tsuneo Kozuki; Akinori Maruo; Kohei Morita; Kazuhiko Ogasawara; Yoshisaburo Takahashi; Kenji Matsuda; Kunio Nakanishi; Keisuke Sunakawa; Kenichi Takeuchi; Seiichi Fujimura; Hiroaki Takeda; Hideki Ikeda; Naohito Sato; Katsunao Niitsuma; Miwako Saito; Shizuko Koshiba; Michiyo Kaneko; Makoto Miki; Susumu Nakanowatari; Hiroshi Takahashi; Mutsuko Utagawa; Hajime Nishiya; Sayoko Kawakami; Yasuko Aoki; Naohiko Chonabayashi; Hideko Sugiura; Masahiko Ichioka; Hajime Goto; Daisuke Kurai; Takeshi Saraya; Mitsuhiro Okazaki; Koichiro Yoshida; Takashi Yoshida; Hiroki Tsukada; Yumiko Imai; Yasuo Honma; Toshinobu Yamamoto; Atsuro Kawai; Hiroshige Mikamo; Yoshio Takesue; Yasunao Wada; Takeyuki Miyara; Hirofumi Toda; Noriko Mitsuno; Yasunori Fujikawa; Hirokazu Nakajima; Shuichi Kubo; Yoshio Ohta; Keiichi Mikasa; Kei Kasahara; Akira Koizumi; Reiko Sano; Shinichi Yagi; Mariko Takaya; Yukinori Kurokawa; Nobuchika Kusano; Eiichiro Mihara; Motoko Nose; Masao Kuwabara; Yoshihiro Fujiue; Toshiyuki Ishimaru; Nobuo Matsubara; Yuji Kawasaki; Hirokazu Tokuyasu; Kayoko Masui; Masamitsu Kido; Toshiyuki Ota; Junichi Honda; Junichi Kadota; Kazufumi Hiramatsu; Yosuke Aoki; Zenzo Nagasawa; Katsunori Yanagihara; Jiro Fujita; Masao Tateyama; Kyoichi Totsuka

34

Stethoscopes as potential intrahospital carriers of pathogenic microorganisms.  

PubMed

Stethoscopes can take part in the transmission of health care-associated infections. We cultured 112 stethoscopes by direct imprint on blood agar to estimate the prevalence of potentially pathogenic microorganisms. Forty-eight (47%) produced 50 potentially pathogenic microorganisms; from these, 43 (86%) were Staphylococcus aureus, of which 18 (42%) were methicillin-resistant S. aureus. We concluded that stethoscopes should be considered as potential fomites and must be disinfected routinely before and after each patient contact. PMID:24176606

Campos-Murguía, Alejandro; León-Lara, Ximena; Muñoz, Juan M; Macías, Alejandro E; Alvarez, José A

2014-01-01

35

Pathogenic influenza B virus in the ferret model establishes lower respiratory tract infection.  

PubMed

Influenza B viruses have become increasingly more prominent during influenza seasons. Influenza B infection is typically considered a mild disease and receives less attention than influenza A, but has been causing 20 to 50?% of the total influenza incidence in several regions around the world. Although there is increasing evidence of mid to lower respiratory tract diseases such as bronchitis and pneumonia in influenza B patients, little is known about the pathogenesis of recent influenza B viruses. Here we investigated the clinical and pathological profiles of infection with strains representing the two current co-circulating B lineages (B/Yamagata and B/Victoria) in the ferret model. Specifically, we studied two B/Victoria (B/Brisbane/60/2008 and B/Bolivia/1526/2010) and two B/Yamagata (B/Florida/04/2006 and B/Wisconsin/01/2010) strain infections in ferrets and observed strain-specific but not lineage-specific pathogenicity. We found B/Brisbane/60/2008 caused the most severe clinical illness and B/Brisbane/60/2008 and the B/Yamagata strains instigated pathology in the middle to lower respiratory tract. Importantly, B/Brisbane/60/2008 established efficient lower respiratory tract infection with high viral burden. Our phylogenetic analyses demonstrate profound reassortment among recent influenza B viruses, which indicates the genetic make-up of B/Brisbane/60/2008 differs from the other strains. This may explain the pathogenicity difference post-infection in ferrets. PMID:24989173

Huang, Stephen S H; Banner, David; Paquette, Stephane G; Leon, Alberto J; Kelvin, Alyson A; Kelvin, David J

2014-10-01

36

Pathogenic influenza B virus in the ferret model establishes lower respiratory tract infection  

PubMed Central

Influenza B viruses have become increasingly more prominent during influenza seasons. Influenza B infection is typically considered a mild disease and receives less attention than influenza A, but has been causing 20 to 50?% of the total influenza incidence in several regions around the world. Although there is increasing evidence of mid to lower respiratory tract diseases such as bronchitis and pneumonia in influenza B patients, little is known about the pathogenesis of recent influenza B viruses. Here we investigated the clinical and pathological profiles of infection with strains representing the two current co-circulating B lineages (B/Yamagata and B/Victoria) in the ferret model. Specifically, we studied two B/Victoria (B/Brisbane/60/2008 and B/Bolivia/1526/2010) and two B/Yamagata (B/Florida/04/2006 and B/Wisconsin/01/2010) strain infections in ferrets and observed strain-specific but not lineage-specific pathogenicity. We found B/Brisbane/60/2008 caused the most severe clinical illness and B/Brisbane/60/2008 and the B/Yamagata strains instigated pathology in the middle to lower respiratory tract. Importantly, B/Brisbane/60/2008 established efficient lower respiratory tract infection with high viral burden. Our phylogenetic analyses demonstrate profound reassortment among recent influenza B viruses, which indicates the genetic make-up of B/Brisbane/60/2008 differs from the other strains. This may explain the pathogenicity difference post-infection in ferrets. PMID:24989173

Huang, Stephen S. H.; Banner, David; Paquette, Stephane G.; Leon, Alberto J.; Kelvin, Alyson A.

2014-01-01

37

Potential lactoferrin activity against pathogenic viruses.  

PubMed

Lactoferrin (LF) is an 80-kDa globular glycoprotein with high affinity for metal ions, particularly for iron. This protein possesses many biological functions, including the binding and release of iron and serves as one of the important components of the innate immune system, where it acts as a potent inhibitor of several pathogens. LF has efficacious antibacterial and antiviral activities against a wide range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and against both naked and enveloped DNA and RNA viruses. In its antiviral pursuit, LF acts predominantly at the acute phase of the viral infection or even at the intracellular stage, as in hepatitis C virus infection. LF inhibits the entry of viral particles into host cells, either by direct attachment to the viral particles or by blocking their cellular receptors. This wide range of activities may be attributed to the capacity of LF to bind iron and its ability to interfere with the cellular receptors of both hosts and pathogenic microbes. PMID:25282173

Redwan, Elrashdy M; Uversky, Vladimir N; El-Fakharany, Esmail M; Al-Mehdar, Hussein

2014-10-01

38

A group level analysis of the associations between antibodies to seven putative pathogens and respiratory disease and weight gain in Ontario feedlot calves.  

PubMed

The associations, at the group level, between serological titer to Pasteurella haemolytica surface antigens (Ph), Pasteurella haemolytica cytotoxin (Ph-cytox), infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV), bovine virus diarrhea virus (BVDV), parainfluenza-3 virus (PIV3), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), Mycoplasma dispar (Md), M. bovis (Mb), and respiratory disease treatment rates, relapse rates, and 28 day weight gains were investigated in 14 groups of calves entering two feedlots during years 1983-1985, in Ontario. Based on least squares regression analyses, seroconversion rates to Mb and BVDV were predictive of increased respiratory disease rates, and seroconversion rates to Ph, Ph-cytox, Md and PIV3 were predictive of decreased weight gains. The R2 for predicting weight gains was much higher than for morbidity rates (0.75 vs 0.47 respectively). Titer data were not predictive of relapse rates. Group level analyses were performed because calves are managed as groups (e.g. pens) in commercial feedlots. Only BVDV seroconversion rates were related to increased risk of respiratory disease at both the individual and group levels of organization. Mycoplasma may be important factors in causing respiratory disease, and their relationship to potentiating the effects of other respiratory pathogens needs further investigation. PMID:2165846

Martin, S W; Bateman, K G; Shewen, P E; Rosendal, S; Bohac, J G; Thorburn, M

1990-06-01

39

Influence of isolate pathogenicity on the aerosol transmission of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus  

PubMed Central

The objectives of this study were to evaluate the role of isolate pathogenicity in the aerosol transmission of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and to determine whether PRRSV could be detected in air samples. To assess transmission, we exposed naïve recipient pigs to aerosols from pigs inoculated with PRRSV MN-30100, an isolate of low pathogenicity, or MN-184, a highly pathogenic isolate. Blood samples and nasal-swab samples were collected from the inoculated pigs during the exposure period and tested for the presence of PRRSV RNA by quantitative (real-time) reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR); the amount of RNA was expressed as the median tissue culture dose per milliliter (TCID50/mL). The recipient pigs were clinically evaluated for 14 d after exposure and tested on days 7 and 14 by qualitative RT-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). To prove the presence of PRRSV in aerosols, air samples were collected from each recipient-pig chamber by means of an air sampler. The PRRSV RNA concentrations were significantly higher (P = 0.01) in the blood samples from the pigs infected with PRRSV MN-184 than in the blood samples from those infected with PRRSV MN-30100; however, the concentrations in the nasal-swab samples were not significantly different (P = 0.26). Recipient pigs exposed to aerosols from pigs infected with PRRSV MN-184 became infected, whereas those exposed to aerosols from pigs infected with PRRSV MN-30100 did not; the difference in transmission rate was significant at P = 0.04. We detected PRRSV MN-184 RNA but not PRRSV MN-30100 RNA in air samples by PCR. Under the conditions of this study, PRRSV isolate pathogenicity may influence aerosol transmission of the virus. PMID:17193878

Cho, Jenny G.; Deen, John; Dee, Scott A.

2007-01-01

40

The Laboratory Diagnosis of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome: Emerging Laboratory Tests for an Emerging Pathogen  

PubMed Central

The 2003 pandemic of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) profiled the ability of modern diagnostic microbiology and molecular biology to identify, isolate and characterize, within weeks, a previously unknown viral infectious pathogen. The culprit, SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV), was detected in patient specimens by traditional cell culture using an unusual cell line for respiratory viruses, Vero E6, and by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) targeting the polymerase 1 B region of the genome. In addition, serologic assays were rapidly developed, and the genome of this large virus was sequenced within one month of its spread to North America. At the present time, diagnostics have progressed to the point that RT-PCR has a sensitivity approaching 80% within the first few days of onset of illness, while serology has a sensitivity close to 100% on convalescent sera taken >21 days after illness onset. Viral culture remains a method confined to biosafety level III laboratories. The specificity of RT-PCR and serology remains to be conclusively defined, but in most studies to date seems to be >90%. Serologic cross-reactivity with human coronaviruses causing the common cold may be a problem with some serologic assays. The early development of SARS-CoV diagnostics is now being replaced by refinement and optimization of these assays. Although at the present time we do not have a test that will definitively rule in or rule out SARS at the time of initial presentation of a patient with a respiratory infection, modifications of existing assays will hopefully result in our ability to make this diagnosis with a high degree of accuracy in the future. PMID:18458711

Richardson, Susan E.; Tellier, Raymond; Mahony, James

2004-01-01

41

The frequency, distribution and effects of antibodies, to seven putative respiratory pathogens, on respiratory disease and weight gain in feedlot calves in Ontario.  

PubMed

During 1983-85, 279 calves requiring treatment for bovine respiratory disease and 290 comparison (control) animals from 15 different groups of feedlot calves were bled on arrival and again at 28 days postarrival. Their sera were then analyzed for antibodies to seven putative respiratory pathogens. On arrival, the prevalences of indirect agglutination titers to Pasteurella haemolytica, P. haemolytica cytotoxin, Mycoplasma bovis and M. dispar were greater than 50%, the prevalence of titers to bovine virus diarrhea virus (BVDV) was approximately 40%, and the prevalences of titers to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3) were all below 25%. Seroconversion during the first month after arrival occurred in more than half the calves to P. haemolytica cytotoxin, PIV3 and RSV. Seroconversion of agglutination titers to P. haemolytica, Mycoplasma and BVDV occurred in about 40% of calves, and seroconversion to IBRV was infrequent (less than 5%). Initial titers were negatively correlated to subsequent titer changes within organism. Initial titers, and titer changes between organisms were essentially independent. Light calves had an increased risk of being selected for treatment for respiratory disease. Seroconversion to P. haemolytica cytotoxin, RSV and BVDV were predictive of respiratory disease cases, explaining approximately 69% of all respiratory disease cases in the feedlots. It was not possible to accurately predict weight gain or relapse from the serological data. PMID:2766158

Martin, S W; Bateman, K G; Shewen, P E; Rosendal, S; Bohac, J E

1989-07-01

42

Are We Ready for Novel Detection Methods to Treat Respiratory Pathogens in Hospital-Acquired Pneumonia?  

PubMed Central

Hospital-acquired pneumonia represents one of the most difficult treatment challenges in infectious diseases. Many studies suggest that the timely administration of appropriate, pathogen-directed therapy can be lifesaving. Because results of culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing can take 48 h or longer, physicians currently rely on clinical, epidemiological, and demographic factors to assist with the choice of empiric therapy for antibiotic-resistant pathogens. At present, a number of rapid molecular tests are being developed that identify pathogens and the presence of genetic determinants of antimicrobial resistance (eg, GeneXpert [Cepheid], ResPlex [Qiagen], FilmArray [Idaho Technologies], and Microarray [Check-Points]). In this review, the potential impact that molecular diagnostics has to identify and characterize pathogens that cause hospital-acquired bacterial pneumonia at an early stage is examined. In addition, a perspective on a novel technology, polymerase chain reaction followed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, is presented, and its prospective use in the diagnosis of pneumonia is also discussed. The complexities of the pulmonary microbiome represent a novel challenge to clinicians, but many questions still remain even as these technologies improve. PMID:21460299

Endimiani, Andrea; Hujer, Kristine M.; Hujer, Andrea M.; Kurz, Sebastian; Jacobs, Michael R.; Perlin, David S.

2011-01-01

43

Genes controlling vaccine responses and disease resistance to respiratory viral pathogens in cattle  

PubMed Central

Farm animals remain at risk of endemic, exotic and newly emerging viruses. Vaccination is often promoted as the best possible solution, and yet for many pathogens, either there are no appropriate vaccines or those that are available are far from ideal. A complementary approach to disease control may be to identify genes and chromosomal regions that underlie genetic variation in disease resistance and response to vaccination. However, identification of the causal polymorphisms is not straightforward as it generally requires large numbers of animals with linked phenotypes and genotypes. Investigation of genes underlying complex traits such as resistance or response to viral pathogens requires several genetic approaches including candidate genes deduced from knowledge about the cellular pathways leading to protection or pathology, or unbiased whole genome scans using markers spread across the genome. Evidence for host genetic variation exists for a number of viral diseases in cattle including bovine respiratory disease and anecdotally, foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV). We immunised and vaccinated a cattle cross herd with a 40-mer peptide derived from FMDV and a vaccine against bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV). Genetic variation has been quantified. A candidate gene approach has grouped high and low antibody and T cell responders by common motifs in the peptide binding pockets of the bovine major histocompatibility complex (BoLA) DRB3 gene. This suggests that vaccines with a minimal number of epitopes that are recognised by most cattle could be designed. Whole genome scans using microsatellite and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers has revealed many novel quantitative trait loci (QTL) and SNP markers controlling both humoral and cell-mediated immunity, some of which are in genes of known immunological relevance including the toll-like receptors (TLRs). The sequencing, assembly and annotation of livestock genomes and is continuing apace. In addition, provision of high-density SNP chips should make it possible to link phenotypes with genotypes in field populations without the need for structured populations or pedigree information. This will hopefully enable fine mapping of QTL and ultimate identification of the causal gene(s). The research could lead to selection of animals that are more resistant to disease and new ways to improve vaccine efficacy. PMID:21621277

Glass, Elizabeth J.; Baxter, Rebecca; Leach, Richard J.; Jann, Oliver C.

2012-01-01

44

Genes controlling vaccine responses and disease resistance to respiratory viral pathogens in cattle.  

PubMed

Farm animals remain at risk of endemic, exotic and newly emerging viruses. Vaccination is often promoted as the best possible solution, and yet for many pathogens, either there are no appropriate vaccines or those that are available are far from ideal. A complementary approach to disease control may be to identify genes and chromosomal regions that underlie genetic variation in disease resistance and response to vaccination. However, identification of the causal polymorphisms is not straightforward as it generally requires large numbers of animals with linked phenotypes and genotypes. Investigation of genes underlying complex traits such as resistance or response to viral pathogens requires several genetic approaches including candidate genes deduced from knowledge about the cellular pathways leading to protection or pathology, or unbiased whole genome scans using markers spread across the genome. Evidence for host genetic variation exists for a number of viral diseases in cattle including bovine respiratory disease and anecdotally, foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV). We immunised and vaccinated a cattle cross herd with a 40-mer peptide derived from FMDV and a vaccine against bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV). Genetic variation has been quantified. A candidate gene approach has grouped high and low antibody and T cell responders by common motifs in the peptide binding pockets of the bovine major histocompatibility complex (BoLA) DRB3 gene. This suggests that vaccines with a minimal number of epitopes that are recognised by most cattle could be designed. Whole genome scans using microsatellite and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers has revealed many novel quantitative trait loci (QTL) and SNP markers controlling both humoral and cell-mediated immunity, some of which are in genes of known immunological relevance including the toll-like receptors (TLRs). The sequencing, assembly and annotation of livestock genomes and is continuing apace. In addition, provision of high-density SNP chips should make it possible to link phenotypes with genotypes in field populations without the need for structured populations or pedigree information. This will hopefully enable fine mapping of QTL and ultimate identification of the causal gene(s). The research could lead to selection of animals that are more resistant to disease and new ways to improve vaccine efficacy. PMID:21621277

Glass, Elizabeth J; Baxter, Rebecca; Leach, Richard J; Jann, Oliver C

2012-07-15

45

Antimicrobial susceptibility of potentially pathogenic halophilic vibrios isolated from seafood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Susceptibility patterns to 27 antimicrobial agents and ?-lactamase production were investigated in potentially pathogenic halophilic vibrios from seafood. The effect of salinity on the response to the drugs in vitro was also studied. All isolates were uniformly sensitive to choramphenicol, imipenem, meropenem but resistant to lincomycin. All were highly sensitive to oxolinic acid, trimethoprim–sulphamethoxazole, doxycycline, flumequine, cefotaxime, nalidixic acid and

Donatella Ottaviani; Isidoro Bacchiocchi; Laura Masini; Francesca Leoni; Antonio Carraturo; Monica Giammarioli; Giovanni Sbaraglia

2001-01-01

46

Respiratory-Related Evoked Potentials During Sleep in Children  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: The respiratory related evoked potential (RREP) has been previously recorded in children and adults during wakefulness and in adults during sleep. However, there have been no data on RREP during sleep in children. We thus examined children during sleep to determine whether early RREP components would be maintained during all sleep Design and Participants: Twelve healthy, nonsnoring children, aged 5–12 years, screened by polysomnography and found to have no sleep disorders were assessed during stage 2 sleep, slow wave sleep, and REM sleep. Brief occlusions were presented via an occlusion valve at the inspiratory port of a non-rebreathing valve as interruptions of inspiration. EEG responses were averaged and assessed for the presence of early and late RREP components. Results: Robust early components were seen in the majority of subjects in all sleep stages. Late components were also present, although with some apparent differences compared to those previously reported in adults (using the same recording protocol and an almost identical method of stimulus presentation). Specifically, N350 and N550 were less readily differentiated as separate components, and the N550 did not display the clear anterior-posterior amplitude gradient that is ubiquitous in adults. Conclusion: Cortical processing of respiratory-related information persists throughout sleep in children. The pattern of activation in the late components appear to reflect differences in the structure of the developing brain prior to the process of dendritic pruning associated with adolescence. Citation: Melendres MC; Marcus CL; Abi-Raad RF; Trescher WH; Lutz JM; Colrain IM. Respiratory-related evoked potentials during sleep in children. SLEEP 2008;31(1):55-61. PMID:18220078

Melendres, M. Cecilia; Marcus, Carole L.; Abi-Raad, Ronnie F.; Trescher, William H.; Lutz, Janita M.; Colrain, I. M.

2008-01-01

47

Helichrysum arenarium subsp. arenarium: phenolic composition and antibacterial activity against lower respiratory tract pathogens.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the phenolic content and antibacterial activity of the methanol extract from Helichrysum arenarium (L.) Moench subsp. arenarium inflorescences against lower respiratory tract pathogens (standard strains and clinical isolates). The extract was characterised by a total phenolic content of 160.17 mg/g. Several caffeic acid conjugates (chlorogenic acid and dicaffeoylquinic acids) and flavonoids (apigenin, naringenin, apigenin-7-O-glucoside and naringenin-O-hexosides) were identified as major constituents by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS. Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 was more susceptible to Helichrysum extract than Streptococcus pneumoniae ATCC 49619 (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] = 0.62  and 1.25 mg/mL, respectively). The extract exhibited similar antibacterial effects against methicillin-resistant S. aureus and penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae clinical isolates (MIC = 2.5 mg/mL) displaying a higher activity against ampicillin-resistant Moraxella catarrhalis isolate (MIC = 0.15 mg/mL). The combination with ciprofloxacin exhibited additivity against both standard strains (fractional inhibitory concentration [FIC] index = 0.75 and 0.73) and S. aureus isolates (FIC index = 0.62) and synergy against S. pneumoniae isolates (FIC index = 0.5). PMID:24931335

Gradinaru, Adina C; Silion, Mihaela; Trifan, Adriana; Miron, Anca; Aprotosoaie, Ana C

2014-11-01

48

Pathogenic Potential of Novel Chlamydiae and Diagnostic Approaches to Infections Due to These Obligate Intracellular Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Novel chlamydiae are newly recognized members of the phylum Chlamydiales that are only distantly related to the classic Chlamydiaceae, i.e., Chlamydia and Chlamydophila species. They also exibit an obligate biphasic intracellular life cycle within eukaryote host cells. Some of these new chlamydiae are currently considered potential emerging human and/or animal pathogens. Parachlamydia acanthamoebae and Simkania negevensis are both emerging respiratory human pathogens, Waddlia chondrophila could be a novel abortigenic bovine agent, and Piscichlamydia salmonis has recently been identified as an agent of the gill epitheliocystis in the Atlantic salmon. Fritschea spp. and Rhabdochlamydia spp. seem to be confined to arthropods, but some evidence for human exposure exists. In this review, we first summarize the data supporting a pathogenic potential of the novel chlamydiae for humans and other vertebrates and the interactions that most of these chlamydiae have with free-living amoebae. We then review the diagnostic approaches to infections potentially due to the novel chlamydiae, especially focusing on the currently available PCR-based protocols, mammalian cell culture, the amoebal coculture system, and serology. PMID:16614250

Corsaro, Daniele; Greub, Gilbert

2006-01-01

49

Multiplex polymerase chain reaction for the detection and differentiation of avian influenza viruses and other poultry respiratory pathogens.  

PubMed

A multiplex reverse transcription-PCR (mRT-PCR) was developed and standardized for the detection of type A influenza viruses, avian influenza virus (AIV) subtype H7, H9, and H5 hemagglutinin gene with simultaneous detection of 3 other poultry respiratory pathogens, Newcastle disease virus (NDV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), and infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV). Seven sets of specific oligonucleotide primers were used in this study for the M gene of AIV and hemagglutinin gene of subtypes H7, H9, and H5 of AIV. Three sets of other specific oligonucleotide primers were used for the detection of avian respiratory pathogens other than AIV. The mRT-PCR DNA products were visualized by agarose gel electrophoresis and consisted of DNA fragments of 1,023 bp for M gene of AIV, 149 bp for IBV, 320 bp for NDV, and 647 bp for ILTV. The second set of primers used for m-RT-PCR of H7N3, H9N2, and H5N1 provided DNA products of 300 bp for H7, 456 bp for H5, and 808 bp for H9. The mRT-PCR products for the third format consisted of DNA fragments of 149 bp for IBV, 320 bp for NDV, 647 bp for ILTV, 300 bp for H7, 456 bp for H5, and 808 bp for H9. The sensitivity and specificity of mRT-PCR was determined and the test was found to be sensitive and specific for the detection of AIV and other poultry respiratory pathogens. In this present study, multiplex PCR technique has been developed to simultaneously detect and differentiate the 3 most important subtypes of AIV along with the 3 most common avian respiratory pathogens prevalent in poultry in Pakistan. Therefore, a mRT-PCR that can rapidly differentiate between these pathogens will be very important for the control of disease transmission in poultry and in humans, along with the identification of 3 of the most common respiratory pathogens often seen as mixed infections in poultry, and hence economic losses will be reduced in poultry. PMID:19903950

Rashid, S; Naeem, K; Ahmed, Z; Saddique, N; Abbas, M A; Malik, S A

2009-12-01

50

Comparative in vitro activity of cefdinir (CI983; FK-482) against staphylococci, gram-negative bacilli and respiratory tract pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The in vitro activity of cefdinir (CI-983; FK-482), a new oral cephalosporin, was compared with that of other antimicrobial agents against clinical isolates of staphylocci, gram-negative bacilli and common respiratory tract pathogens. Cefdinir (MIC90 ? 2.0 µg\\/ml) was more active than cefixime (MIC90 >64 µg\\/ml) and equally as active as cefuroxime (MIC90 2.0 µg\\/ml) against oxacillin-susceptible staphylococci. Cefdinir was active

S. R. Scriver; B. M. Willey; D. E. Low; A. E. Simor

1992-01-01

51

Potential for palivizumab interference with commercially available antibody-antigen based respiratory syncytial virus diagnostic assays.  

PubMed

Palivizumab is a monoclonal antibody indicated for the prevention of serious lower respiratory tract disease caused by respiratory syncytial virus infection in infants. The potential for palivizumab to interfere with commercially available respiratory syncytial virus diagnostic tests was demonstrated. Negative test results in palivizumab-treated subjects should be interpreted with caution and confirmed by a nucleic acid amplification-based assay. PMID:23584584

Deming, Damon J; Patel, Nita; McCarthy, Michael P; Mishra, Lalji; Shapiro, Alan M; Suzich, JoAnn A

2013-10-01

52

A multiplexed reverse transcriptase PCR assay for identification of viral respiratory pathogens at point-of-care  

SciTech Connect

We have developed a nucleic acid-based assay that is rapid, sensitive, specific, and can be used for the simultaneous detection of 5 common human respiratory pathogens including influenza A, influenza B, parainfluenza type 1 and 3, respiratory syncytial virus, and adenovirus group B, C, and E. Typically, diagnosis on an un-extracted clinical sample can be provided in less than 3 hours, including sample collection, preparation, and processing, as well as data analysis. Such a multiplexed panel would enable rapid broad-spectrum pathogen testing on nasal swabs, and therefore allow implementation of infection control measures, and timely administration of antiviral therapies. This article presents a summary of the assay performance in terms of sensitivity and specificity. Limits of detection are provided for each targeted respiratory pathogen, and result comparisons are performed on clinical samples, our goal being to compare the sensitivity and specificity of the multiplexed assay to the combination of immunofluorescence and shell vial culture currently implemented at the UCDMC hospital. Overall, the use of the multiplexed RT-PCR assay reduced the rate of false negatives by 4% and reduced the rate of false positives by up to 10%. The assay correctly identified 99.3% of the clinical negatives, 97% of adenovirus, 95% of RSV, 92% of influenza B, and 77% of influenza A without any extraction performed on the clinical samples. The data also showed that extraction will be needed for parainfluenza virus, which was only identified correctly 24% of the time on un-extracted samples.

Letant, S E; .Ortiz, J I; Tammero, L; Birch, J M; Derlet, R W; Cohen, S; Manning, D; McBride, M T

2007-04-11

53

Discovering Potential Pathogens among Fungi Identified as Nonsporulating Molds?  

PubMed Central

Fungal infections are increasing, particularly among immunocompromised hosts, and a rapid diagnosis is essential to initiate antifungal therapy. Often fungi cannot be identified by conventional methods and are classified as nonsporulating molds (NSM).We sequenced internal transcribed spacer regions from 50 cultures of NSM and found 16 potential pathogens that can be associated with clinical disease. In selected clinical settings, identification of NSM could prove valuable and have an immediate impact on patient management. PMID:17135442

Pounder, June I.; Simmon, Keith E.; Barton, Claudia A.; Hohmann, Sheri L.; Brandt, Mary E.; Petti, Cathy A.

2007-01-01

54

Evaluation of yield of currently available diagnostics by sample type to optimize detection of respiratory pathogens in patients with a community-acquired pneumonia  

PubMed Central

Background For the detection of respiratory pathogens, the sampling strategy may influence the diagnostic yield. Ideally, samples from the lower respiratory tract are collected, but they are difficult to obtain. Objectives In this study, we compared the diagnostic yield in sputum and oropharyngeal samples (OPS) for the detection of respiratory pathogens in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), with the objective to optimize our diagnostic testing algorithm. Methods Matched sputum samples, OPS, blood cultures, serum, and urine samples were taken from patients (>18 years) with CAP and tested for the presence of possible respiratory pathogens using bacterial cultures, PCR for 17 viruses and five bacteria and urinary antigen testing. Results When using only conventional methods, that is, blood cultures, sputum culture, urinary antigen tests, a pathogen was detected in 49·6% of patients (n = 57). Adding molecular detection assays increased the yield to 80%. A pathogen was detected in 77 of the 115 patients in OPS or sputum samples by PCR. The sensitivity of the OPS was lower than that of the sputum samples (57% versus 74%). In particular, bacterial pathogens were more often detected in sputum samples. The sensitivity of OPS for the detection of most viruses was higher than in sputum samples (72% versus 66%), except for human rhinovirus and respiratory syncytial virus. Conclusion Addition of PCR on both OPS and sputum samples significantly increased the diagnostic yield. For molecular detection of bacterial pathogens, a sputum sample is imperative, but for detection of most viral pathogens, an OPS is sufficient. PMID:23957707

Huijskens, Elisabeth G W; Rossen, John W A; Kluytmans, Jan A J W; Zanden, Adri G M; Koopmans, Marion

2014-01-01

55

Distribution of indigenous bacterial pathogens and potential pathogens associated with roof-harvested rainwater.  

PubMed

The harvesting of rainwater is gaining acceptance among many governmental authorities in countries such as Australia, Germany, and South Africa, among others. However, conflicting reports on the microbial quality of harvested rainwater have been published. To monitor the presence of potential pathogenic bacteria during high-rainfall periods, rainwater from 29 rainwater tanks was sampled on four occasions (during June and August 2012) in a sustainable housing project in Kleinmond, South Africa. This resulted in the collection of 116 harvested rainwater samples in total throughout the sampling period. The identities of the dominant, indigenous, presumptive pathogenic isolates obtained from the rainwater samples throughout the sampling period were confirmed through universal 16S rRNA PCR, and the results revealed that Pseudomonas (19% of samples) was the dominant genus isolated, followed by Aeromonas (16%), Klebsiella (11%), and Enterobacter (9%). PCR assays employing genus-specific primers also confirmed the presence of Aeromonas spp. (16%), Klebsiella spp. (47%), Legionella spp. (73%), Pseudomonas spp. (13%), Salmonella spp. (6%), Shigella spp. (27%), and Yersinia spp. (28%) in the harvested rainwater samples. In addition, on one sampling occasion, Giardia spp. were detected in 25% of the eight tank water samples analyzed. This study highlights the diverse array of pathogenic bacteria that persist in harvested rainwater during high-rainfall periods. The consumption of untreated harvested rainwater could thus pose a potential significant health threat to consumers, especially children and immunocompromised individuals, and it is recommended that harvested rainwater be treated for safe usage as an alternative water source. PMID:24487540

Dobrowsky, P H; De Kwaadsteniet, M; Cloete, T E; Khan, W

2014-04-01

56

Distribution of Indigenous Bacterial Pathogens and Potential Pathogens Associated with Roof-Harvested Rainwater  

PubMed Central

The harvesting of rainwater is gaining acceptance among many governmental authorities in countries such as Australia, Germany, and South Africa, among others. However, conflicting reports on the microbial quality of harvested rainwater have been published. To monitor the presence of potential pathogenic bacteria during high-rainfall periods, rainwater from 29 rainwater tanks was sampled on four occasions (during June and August 2012) in a sustainable housing project in Kleinmond, South Africa. This resulted in the collection of 116 harvested rainwater samples in total throughout the sampling period. The identities of the dominant, indigenous, presumptive pathogenic isolates obtained from the rainwater samples throughout the sampling period were confirmed through universal 16S rRNA PCR, and the results revealed that Pseudomonas (19% of samples) was the dominant genus isolated, followed by Aeromonas (16%), Klebsiella (11%), and Enterobacter (9%). PCR assays employing genus-specific primers also confirmed the presence of Aeromonas spp. (16%), Klebsiella spp. (47%), Legionella spp. (73%), Pseudomonas spp. (13%), Salmonella spp. (6%), Shigella spp. (27%), and Yersinia spp. (28%) in the harvested rainwater samples. In addition, on one sampling occasion, Giardia spp. were detected in 25% of the eight tank water samples analyzed. This study highlights the diverse array of pathogenic bacteria that persist in harvested rainwater during high-rainfall periods. The consumption of untreated harvested rainwater could thus pose a potential significant health threat to consumers, especially children and immunocompromised individuals, and it is recommended that harvested rainwater be treated for safe usage as an alternative water source. PMID:24487540

Dobrowsky, P. H.; De Kwaadsteniet, M.; Cloete, T. E.

2014-01-01

57

Serologic survey for pathogens potentially affecting pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) fawn recruitment in Arizona, USA.  

PubMed

During the 1990s, pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) populations declined in Arizona, USA. To investigate potential causes of decline, we collected blood samples from hunter-harvested male pronghorn from 2001 to 2003 on four Arizona sites. Sera were tested for antibody to parainfluenza virus type 3 (PI3), bovine viral diarrhea virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV), bluetongue virus (BTV), and Chlamydia psittaci. Antibody against PI3 was found in 33% of the samples, whereas antibody against BTV/EHDV was found in 77%. Antibodies to other pathogens were found at low prevalence rates. Although pronghorn decline in Arizona is probably not directly related to disease, potential reproductive effects of BTV/EHDV and PI3 infection on pronghorn in Arizona merit further study. PMID:17255453

Dubay, Shelli A; Noon, Ted H; deVos, James C; Ockenfels, Richard A

2006-10-01

58

Upper respiratory tract microbial communities, acute otitis media pathogens, and antibiotic use in healthy and sick children.  

PubMed

The composition of the upper respiratory tract microbial community may influence the risk for colonization by the acute otitis media (AOM) pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis. We used culture-independent methods to describe upper respiratory tract microbial communities in healthy children and children with upper respiratory tract infection with and without concurrent AOM. Nasal swabs and data were collected in a cross-sectional study of 240 children between 6 months and 3 years of age. Swabs were cultured for S. pneumoniae, and real-time PCR was used to identify S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, and M. catarrhalis. The V1-V2 16S rRNA gene regions were sequenced using 454 pyrosequencing. Microbial communities were described using a taxon-based approach. Colonization by S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, and M. catarrhalis was associated with lower levels of diversity in upper respiratory tract flora. We identified commensal taxa that were negatively associated with colonization by each AOM bacterial pathogen and with AOM. The balance of these relationships differed according to the colonizing AOM pathogen and history of antibiotic use. Children with antibiotic use in the past 6 months and a greater abundance of taxa, including Lactococcus and Propionibacterium, were less likely to have AOM than healthy children (odds ratio [OR], 0.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.25 to 0.85). Children with no antibiotic use in the past 6 months, a low abundance of Streptococcus and Haemophilus, and a high abundance of Corynebacterium and Dolosigranulum were less likely to have AOM (OR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.31 to 0.83). An increased understanding of polymicrobial interactions will facilitate the development of effective AOM prevention strategies. PMID:22752171

Pettigrew, Melinda M; Laufer, Alison S; Gent, Janneane F; Kong, Yong; Fennie, Kristopher P; Metlay, Joshua P

2012-09-01

59

Upper Respiratory Tract Microbial Communities, Acute Otitis Media Pathogens, and Antibiotic Use in Healthy and Sick Children  

PubMed Central

The composition of the upper respiratory tract microbial community may influence the risk for colonization by the acute otitis media (AOM) pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis. We used culture-independent methods to describe upper respiratory tract microbial communities in healthy children and children with upper respiratory tract infection with and without concurrent AOM. Nasal swabs and data were collected in a cross-sectional study of 240 children between 6 months and 3 years of age. Swabs were cultured for S. pneumoniae, and real-time PCR was used to identify S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, and M. catarrhalis. The V1-V2 16S rRNA gene regions were sequenced using 454 pyrosequencing. Microbial communities were described using a taxon-based approach. Colonization by S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, and M. catarrhalis was associated with lower levels of diversity in upper respiratory tract flora. We identified commensal taxa that were negatively associated with colonization by each AOM bacterial pathogen and with AOM. The balance of these relationships differed according to the colonizing AOM pathogen and history of antibiotic use. Children with antibiotic use in the past 6 months and a greater abundance of taxa, including Lactococcus and Propionibacterium, were less likely to have AOM than healthy children (odds ratio [OR], 0.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.25 to 0.85). Children with no antibiotic use in the past 6 months, a low abundance of Streptococcus and Haemophilus, and a high abundance of Corynebacterium and Dolosigranulum were less likely to have AOM (OR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.31 to 0.83). An increased understanding of polymicrobial interactions will facilitate the development of effective AOM prevention strategies. PMID:22752171

Laufer, Alison S.; Gent, Janneane F.; Kong, Yong; Fennie, Kristopher P.; Metlay, Joshua P.

2012-01-01

60

Prevalence of upper respiratory pathogens in four management models for unowned cats in the Southeast United States.  

PubMed

Upper respiratory infection (URI) is a pervasive problem in cats and impacts the capacity and cost of sheltering programs. This study determined the pattern of respiratory pathogens in cats with and without clinical signs of URI in four different models for managing unowned cats, namely, (1) short-term animal shelters (STS), (2) long-term sanctuaries (LTS), (3) home-based foster care programs (FCP), and (4) trap-neuter-return programs for community cats (TNR). Conjunctival and oropharyngeal swabs from 543 cats, approximately half of which showed clinical signs of URI, were tested for feline herpes virus-1 (FHV), feline calicivirus (FCV), Chlamydia felis, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Mycoplasma felis, and canine influenza virus by real-time PCR. FHV (59%, 41%) and B. bronchiseptica (33%, 24%) were more prevalent in both clinically affected and nonclinical cats, respectively, in STS than other management models. FCV (67%, 51%) and M. felis (84%, 86%) were more prevalent in LTS than any other management model. Clinically affected cats in FCP were more likely to carry FHV (23%, 6%), C. felis (24%, 10%), or M. felis (58%, 38%) than were nonclinical cats. Clinically affected cats in TNR were more likely to carry FCV (55%, 36%) or C. felis (23%, 4%) than were nonclinical cats. The prevalence of individual pathogens varied between different management models, but the majority of the cats in each model carried one or more respiratory pathogens regardless of clinical signs. Both confined and free-roaming cats are at risk of developing infectious respiratory disease and their health should be protected by strategic vaccination, appropriate antibiotic therapy, effective biosecurity, feline stress mitigation, and alternatives to high-density confinement. PMID:24923756

McManus, C M; Levy, J K; Andersen, L A; McGorray, S P; Leutenegger, C M; Gray, L K; Hilligas, J; Tucker, S J

2014-08-01

61

Rethinking Biosafety in Research on Potential Pandemic Pathogens  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT If accidentally released, mammalian-transmissible influenza A/H5N1 viruses could pose a greater threat to public health than possibly any other infectious agent currently under study in laboratories, because of such viruses’ likely combination of transmissibility and virulence to humans. We advocate explicit risk-benefit assessments before work on such pathogens is permitted or funded, improvement of biosafety practices and enforcement, and harmonization of criteria for permitting such experiments across government agencies, as well as internationally. Such potential pandemic pathogens, as they have been called, jeopardize not only laboratory workers and their contacts, but also the wider population, who should be involved in assessments of when such risks are acceptable in the service of scientific knowledge that may itself bear major public health benefits. PMID:23047752

Lipsitch, Marc; Bloom, Barry R.

2012-01-01

62

A network integration approach to predict conserved regulators related to pathogenicity of influenza and SARS-CoV respiratory viruses.  

PubMed

Respiratory infections stemming from influenza viruses and the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome corona virus (SARS-CoV) represent a serious public health threat as emerging pandemics. Despite efforts to identify the critical interactions of these viruses with host machinery, the key regulatory events that lead to disease pathology remain poorly targeted with therapeutics. Here we implement an integrated network interrogation approach, in which proteome and transcriptome datasets from infection of both viruses in human lung epithelial cells are utilized to predict regulatory genes involved in the host response. We take advantage of a novel "crowd-based" approach to identify and combine ranking metrics that isolate genes/proteins likely related to the pathogenicity of SARS-CoV and influenza virus. Subsequently, a multivariate regression model is used to compare predicted lung epithelial regulatory influences with data derived from other respiratory virus infection models. We predicted a small set of regulatory factors with conserved behavior for consideration as important components of viral pathogenesis that might also serve as therapeutic targets for intervention. Our results demonstrate the utility of integrating diverse 'omic datasets to predict and prioritize regulatory features conserved across multiple pathogen infection models. PMID:23935999

Mitchell, Hugh D; Eisfeld, Amie J; Sims, Amy C; McDermott, Jason E; Matzke, Melissa M; Webb-Robertson, Bobbi-Jo M; Tilton, Susan C; Tchitchek, Nicolas; Josset, Laurence; Li, Chengjun; Ellis, Amy L; Chang, Jean H; Heegel, Robert A; Luna, Maria L; Schepmoes, Athena A; Shukla, Anil K; Metz, Thomas O; Neumann, Gabriele; Benecke, Arndt G; Smith, Richard D; Baric, Ralph S; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Katze, Michael G; Waters, Katrina M

2013-01-01

63

Human serum activity of telithromycin, azithromycin and amoxicillin/clavulanate against common aerobic and anaerobic respiratory pathogens.  

PubMed

Telithromycin is a new ketolide antimicrobial with a good in vitro activity against both aerobic and anaerobic respiratory pathogens. In this study, we evaluated the antibacterial activity over time of telithromycin (800mg), azithromycin (500mg), and amoxicillin/clavulanate (875/125mg) in serum following single oral doses of these agents to 10 healthy subjects. Inhibitory and bactericidal titers were determined at 2, 6, 12, and 24h after each dose and the median titer was used to determine antibacterial activity. Against two azithromycin-resistant strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae, both telithromycin (MIC=0.25 and 0.5 microg/mL) and amoxicillin/clavulanate exhibited inhibitory and cidal activity for at least 6h. All three antibiotics provided prolonged (>or=12h) inhibitory activity against strains of Hemophilus influenzae (telithromycin MIC=4.0 microg/ml). Both telithromycin and amoxicillin/clavulanate exhibited rapid and prolonged inhibitory activity (>or=12h) against each of the anaerobes studied (Finegoldia [Peptostreptococcus] magna Peptostreptococcus micros, Prevotella bivia, and Prevotella melaninogenica). Moreover, both agents provided bactericidal activity against both Prevotella species. In this ex vivo pharmacodynamic study, we found that telithromycin provided rapid and prolonged antibacterial activity in serum against macrolide-resistant strains of S. pneumoniae, beta-lactamase-positive and -negative strains of H. influenzae, and common respiratory anaerobic pathogens. These findings suggest that telithromycin could have clinical utility in the treatment of community-acquired mixed aerobic-anaerobic respiratory tract infections, including chronic sinusitis and aspiration pneumonia. PMID:17189093

Stein, Gary E; Schooley, Sharon; Tyrrell, Kerin L; Citron, Diane M; Goldstein, Ellie J C

2007-01-01

64

A Network Integration Approach to Predict Conserved Regulators Related to Pathogenicity of Influenza and SARS-CoV Respiratory Viruses  

SciTech Connect

Respiratory infections stemming from influenza viruses and the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome corona virus (SARS-CoV) represent a serious public health threat as emerging pandemics. Despite efforts to identify the critical interactions of these viruses with host machinery, the key regulatory events that lead to disease pathology remain poorly targeted with therapeutics. Here we implement an integrated network interrogation approach, in which proteome and transcriptome datasets from infection of both viruses in human lung epithelial cells are utilized to predict regulatory genes involved in the host response. We take advantage of a novel “crowd-based” approach to identify and combine ranking metrics that isolate genes/proteins likely related to the pathogenicity of SARS-CoV and influenza virus. Subsequently, a multivariate regression model is used to compare predicted lung epithelial regulatory influences with data derived from other respiratory virus infection models. We predicted a small set of regulatory factors with conserved behavior for consideration as important components of viral pathogenesis that might also serve as therapeutic targets for intervention. Our results demonstrate the utility of integrating diverse ‘omic datasets to predict and prioritize regulatory features conserved across multiple pathogen infection models.

Mitchell, Hugh D.; Eisfeld, Amie J.; Sims, Amy; McDermott, Jason E.; Matzke, Melissa M.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Tilton, Susan C.; Tchitchek, Nicholas; Josset, Laurence; Li, Chengjun; Ellis, Amy L.; Chang, Jean H.; Heegel, Robert A.; Luna, Maria L.; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Shukla, Anil K.; Metz, Thomas O.; Neumann, Gabriele; Benecke, Arndt; Smith, Richard D.; Baric, Ralph; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Katze, Michael G.; Waters, Katrina M.

2013-07-25

65

Microbial Diversity and Potential Pathogens in Ornamental Fish Aquarium Water  

PubMed Central

Ornamental fishes are among the most popular and fastest growing categories of pets in the United States (U.S.). The global scope and scale of the ornamental fish trade and growing popularity of pet fish in the U.S. are strong indicators of the myriad economic and social benefits the pet industry provides. Relatively little is known about the microbial communities associated with these ornamental fishes or the aquarium water in which they are transported and housed. Using conventional molecular approaches and next generation high-throughput amplicon sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA gene hypervariable regions, we characterized the bacterial community of aquarium water containing common goldfish (Carassius auratus) and Chinese algae eaters (Gyrinocheilus aymonieri) purchased from seven pet/aquarium shops in Rhode Island and identified the presence of potential pathogens. Our survey identified a total of 30 phyla, the most common being Proteobacteria (52%), Bacteroidetes (18%) and Planctomycetes (6%), with the top four phyla representing >80% of all sequences. Sequences from our water samples were most closely related to eleven bacterial species that have the potential to cause disease in fishes, humans and other species: Coxiella burnetii, Flavobacterium columnare, Legionella birminghamensis, L. pneumophila, Vibrio cholerae, V. mimicus. V. vulnificus, Aeromonas schubertii, A. veronii, A. hydrophila and Plesiomonas shigelloides. Our results, combined with evidence from the literature, suggest aquarium tank water harboring ornamental fish are an understudied source for novel microbial communities and pathogens that pose potential risks to the pet industry, fishes in trade, humans and other species. PMID:22970112

Smith, Katherine F.; Schmidt, Victor; Rosen, Gail E.; Amaral-Zettler, Linda

2012-01-01

66

Biomarkers of acute respiratory allergen exposure: Screening for sensitization potential  

SciTech Connect

Effective hazard screening will require the development of high-throughput or in vitro assays for the identification of potential sensitizers. The goal of this preliminary study was to identify potential biomarkers that differentiate the response to allergens vs non-allergens following an acute exposure in naive individuals. Female BALB/c mice received a single intratracheal aspiration exposure to Metarhizium anisopliae crude antigen (MACA) or bovine serum albumin (BSA) in Hank's Balanced Salt Solution (HBSS) or HBSS alone. Mice were terminated after 1, 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 h. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was evaluated to determine total and differential cellularity, total protein concentration and LDH activity. RNA was isolated from lung tissue for microarray analysis and qRT-PCR. MACA administration induced a rapid increase in BALF neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils and total protein compared to BSA or HBSS. Microarray analysis demonstrated differential expression of genes involved in cytokine production, signaling, inflammatory cell recruitment, adhesion and activation in 3 and 12 h MACA-treated samples compared to BSA or HBSS. Further analyses allowed identification of approx 100 candidate biomarker genes. Eleven genes were selected for further assessment by qRT-PCR. Of these, 6 demonstrated persistently increased expression (Ccl17, Ccl22, Ccl7, Cxcl10, Cxcl2, Saa1), while C3ar1 increased from 6-24 h. In conclusion, a single respiratory exposure of mice to an allergenic mold extract induces an inflammatory response which is distinct in phenotype and gene transcription from the response to a control protein. Further validation of these biomarkers with additional allergens and irritants is needed. These biomarkers may facilitate improvements in screening methods.

Pucheu-Haston, Cherie M., E-mail: Pucheu-Haston.Cherie@epa.go [Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, CB 7270, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7270 (United States); Copeland, Lisa B.; Vallanat, Beena; Boykin, Elizabeth; Ward, Marsha D.W. [National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 109 T.W. Alexander Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States)

2010-04-15

67

RNA-Seq Based Transcriptional Map of Bovine Respiratory Disease Pathogen "Histophilus somni 2336"  

PubMed Central

Genome structural annotation, i.e., identification and demarcation of the boundaries for all the functional elements in a genome (e.g., genes, non-coding RNAs, proteins and regulatory elements), is a prerequisite for systems level analysis. Current genome annotation programs do not identify all of the functional elements of the genome, especially small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs). Whole genome transcriptome analysis is a complementary method to identify “novel” genes, small RNAs, regulatory regions, and operon structures, thus improving the structural annotation in bacteria. In particular, the identification of non-coding RNAs has revealed their widespread occurrence and functional importance in gene regulation, stress and virulence. However, very little is known about non-coding transcripts in Histophilus somni, one of the causative agents of Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD) as well as bovine infertility, abortion, septicemia, arthritis, myocarditis, and thrombotic meningoencephalitis. In this study, we report a single nucleotide resolution transcriptome map of H. somni strain 2336 using RNA-Seq method. The RNA-Seq based transcriptome map identified 94 sRNAs in the H. somni genome of which 82 sRNAs were never predicted or reported in earlier studies. We also identified 38 novel potential protein coding open reading frames that were absent in the current genome annotation. The transcriptome map allowed the identification of 278 operon (total 730 genes) structures in the genome. When compared with the genome sequence of a non-virulent strain 129Pt, a disproportionate number of sRNAs (?30%) were located in genomic region unique to strain 2336 (?18% of the total genome). This observation suggests that a number of the newly identified sRNAs in strain 2336 may be involved in strain-specific adaptations. PMID:22276113

Kumar, Ranjit; Lawrence, Mark L.; Watt, James; Cooksey, Amanda M.; Burgess, Shane C.; Nanduri, Bindu

2012-01-01

68

In Vivo Activity of HSR-903, a New Fluoroquinolone, against Respiratory Pathogens  

PubMed Central

The in vivo activity of HSR-903, a new fluoroquinolone, against major bacteria which cause respiratory tract infections was evaluated. HSR-903 was active against experimental respiratory tract infections in mice challenged with penicillin-susceptible and penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae strains. Treatment with HSR-903 reduced the bacterial numbers in infected murine lungs. In accord with the pulmonary clearance results, the rates of survival for mice treated with HSR-903, sparfloxacin, levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and benzylpenicillin were 50, 30, 10, 0, and 0%, respectively, 14 days after being infected with penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae. A pharmacokinetic study with pneumonic mice showed that the levels of HSR-903 in the lungs were seven to eight times higher than those in the plasma. These results indicate that clinical studies of HSR-903 against respiratory tract infections may be warranted. PMID:9559783

Yoshizumi, Satoshi; Domon, Haruki; Miyazaki, Shuichi; Yamaguchi, Keizo

1998-01-01

69

REVIEW: ASSESSING THE POTENTIAL TO INDUCE RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY  

EPA Science Inventory

The respiratory tract has been long recognized as an important target organ in the safety assessment of drugs and chemicals, as well as protein- or peptide-based products. Indeed, acute and repeat dose inhalation studies have been an important part of guideline studies throughou...

70

Biomarkers of Acute Respiratory Allergen Exposure: Screening For Sensitization Potential  

EPA Science Inventory

Rationale: An in vitro assay to identify respiratory sensitizers will provide a rapid screen and reduce animal use. The study goal was to identify biomarkers that differentiate allergen versus non-allergen responses following an acute exposure. Methods: Female BALB/c mice rec...

71

Nationwide surveillance of bacterial respiratory pathogens conducted by the Japanese Society of Chemotherapy in 2008: general view of the pathogens' antibacterial susceptibility.  

PubMed

For the purpose of nationwide surveillance of the antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial respiratory pathogens collected from patients in Japan, the Japanese Society of Chemotherapy conducted a third year of nationwide surveillance during the period from January to April 2008. A total of 1,097 strains were collected from clinical specimens obtained from well-diagnosed adult patients with respiratory tract infections. Susceptibility testing was evaluable with 987 strains (189 Staphylococcus aureus, 211 Streptococcus pneumoniae, 6 Streptococcus pyogenes, 187 Haemophilus influenzae, 106 Moraxella catarrhalis, 126 Klebsiella pneumoniae, and 162 Pseudomonas aeruginosa). A total of 44 antibacterial agents, including 26 ?-lactams (four penicillins, three penicillins in combination with ?-lactamase inhibitors, four oral cephems, eight parenteral cephems, one monobactam, five carbapenems, and one penem), three aminoglycosides, four macrolides (including a ketolide), one lincosamide, one tetracycline, two glycopeptides, six fluoroquinolones, and one oxazolidinone were used for the study. Analysis was conducted at the central reference laboratory according to the method recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI). The incidence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was as high as 59.8%, and those of penicillin-intermediate and penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae (PISP and PRSP) were 35.5 and 11.8%, respectively. Among H. influenzae, 13.9% of them were found to be ?-lactamase-non-producing ampicillin (ABPC)-intermediately resistant (BLNAI), 26.7% to be ?-lactamase-non-producing ABPC-resistant (BLNAR), and 5.3% to be ?-lactamase-producing ABPC-resistant (BLPAR) strains. A high frequency (76.5%) of ?-lactamase-producing strains was suspected in Moraxella catarrhalis isolates. Four (3.2%) extended-spectrum ?-lactamase-producing K. pneumoniae were found among 126 strains. Four isolates (2.5%) of P. aeruginosa were found to be metallo ?-lactamase-producing strains, including three (1.9%) suspected multidrug-resistant strains showing resistance to imipenem, amikacin, and ciprofloxacin. Continual national surveillance of the antimicrobial susceptibility of respiratory pathogens is crucial in order to monitor changing patterns of susceptibility and to be able to update treatment recommendations on a regular basis. PMID:21409533

Niki, Yoshihito; Hanaki, Hideaki; Matsumoto, Tetsuya; Yagisawa, Morimasa; Kohno, Shigeru; Aoki, Nobuki; Watanabe, Akira; Sato, Junko; Hattori, Rikizo; Koashi, Naoto; Terada, Michinori; Kozuki, Tsuneo; Maruo, Akinori; Morita, Kohei; Ogasawara, Kazuhiko; Takahashi, Yoshisaburo; Matsuda, Kenji; Nakanishi, Kunio; Sunakawa, Keisuke; Takeuchi, Kenichi; Fujimura, Seiichi; Takeda, Hiroaki; Ikeda, Hideki; Sato, Naohito; Niitsuma, Katsunao; Saito, Miwako; Koshiba, Shizuko; Kaneko, Michiyo; Miki, Makoto; Nakanowatari, Susumu; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Utagawa, Mutsuko; Nishiya, Hajime; Kawakami, Sayoko; Aoki, Yasuko; Chonabayashi, Naohiko; Sugiura, Hideko; Ichioka, Masahiko; Goto, Hajime; Kurai, Daisuke; Saraya, Takeshi; Okazaki, Mitsuhiro; Yoshida, Koichiro; Yoshida, Takashi; Tsukada, Hiroki; Imai, Yumiko; Honma, Yasuo; Yamamoto, Toshinobu; Kawai, Atsuro; Mikamo, Hiroshige; Takesue, Yoshio; Wada, Yasunao; Miyara, Takeyuki; Toda, Hirofumi; Mitsuno, Noriko; Fujikawa, Yasunori; Nakajima, Hirokazu; Kubo, Shuichi; Ohta, Yoshio; Mikasa, Keiichi; Kasahara, Kei; Koizumi, Akira; Sano, Reiko; Yagi, Shinichi; Takaya, Mariko; Kurokawa, Yukinori; Kusano, Nobuchika; Mihara, Eiichiro; Nose, Motoko; Kuwabara, Masao; Fujiue, Yoshihiro; Ishimaru, Toshiyuki; Matsubara, Nobuo; Kawasaki, Yuji; Tokuyasu, Hirokazu; Masui, Kayoko; Kido, Masamitsu; Ota, Toshiyuki; Honda, Junichi; Kadota, Junichi; Hiramatsu, Kazufumi; Aoki, Yosuke; Nagasawa, Zenzo; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Fujita, Jiro; Tateyama, Masao; Totsuka, Kyoichi

2011-08-01

72

Protecting health care workers from SARS and other respiratory pathogens: A review of the infection control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods: This paper presents a review of the current scientific knowledge with respect to the efficacy of personal protective equipment in preventing the transmission of respiratory infections. The effectiveness of infection control polices and procedures used in clinical practice is examined. Results: Literature searches were conducted in several databases for articles published in the last 15 years that related to

Bruce Gamage; David Moore; Ray Copes; Annalee Yassi; Elizabeth Bryce

73

Viral Pathogens and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome: Oligodynamic Ag1 for Direct Immune Intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

This retrospective study of silver-based therapeutics briefly reviews their history, and then explores the modern application of charged silver particles, especially as an antiviral agent. The recent outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) suggests this is timely. Medical literature shows that a variety of viruses have been successfully treated with silver- based drugs. However, 'silver salts' and\\/or inferior silver

ERIC J. RENTZ

74

Detection of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus in the Brain: Potential Role of the Chemokine Mig in Pathogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Previous studies have shown that common human coronavirus might be neurotropic, although it was first isolated as a pathogen of the respiratory tract. We noticed that a few patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) experienced central nervous symptoms during the course of illness. In the present study, we isolated a SARS coronavirus strain from a brain tissue specimen

Jun Xu; Shuqing Zhong; Jinghua Liu; Li Li; Yong Li; Xinwei Wu; Zhijie Li; Peng Deng; Jingqiang Zhang; Nanshan Zhong; Yanqing Ding; Yong Jiang

2005-01-01

75

POSTER DISCUSSION PRESENTATION Open Access Respiratory allergens in human milk: potential  

E-print Network

POSTER DISCUSSION PRESENTATION Open Access Respiratory allergens in human milk: potential impact to environmental allergens during early life on allergic sensitization and disease development is controversial. Objective We investigated whether airborne allergen from Dermato- phagoides pteronyssinus (Der p), a major

76

Potential versus actual contribution of vertical transmission to pathogen fitness  

PubMed Central

Theory predicts that virulent parasites cannot be maintained at high prevalence if they are only vertically transmitted. However, parasites with high rates of vertical transmission that cause severe reduction in host fitness have been reported. Atkinsonella hypoxylon is a fungal pathogen capable of both vertical and horizontal transmission that drastically reduces its host's fitness. In contrast with theoretical predictions, field and laboratory observations suggested that the primary mechanism of transmission was vertical. Using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA markers, we investigated the effective contribution of vertical and horizontal transmission to the genetic structure of three natural populations of A. hypoxylon. We found high genotypic diversity and low linkage disequilibrium, indicating that most established genotypes are derived from horizontally transmitted, sexual spores. The low contribution of vertical transmission to the parasite's fitness despite its high potential might be due to lower establishment of cleistogamous seeds (through which vertical transmission occurs) or lower vigour of vertically transmitted fungal genotypes. Low establishment of vertically infected hosts might explain the persistence of virulent parasites with high apparent vertical transmission. Our results suggest that caution must be taken when using the potential for vertical transmission to make predictions about the evolution of parasite virulence.

Kover, P. X.; Dolan, T. E.; Clay, K.

1997-01-01

77

The complete genome sequence of the murine respiratory pathogen Mycoplasma pulmonis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycoplasma pulmonis is a wall-less eubacterium belonging to the Mollicutes (trivial name, myco- plasmas) and responsible for murine respiratory diseases. The genome of strain UAB CTIP is composed of a single circular 963 879 bp chromosome with a G + C content of 26.6 mol%, i.e. the lowest reported among bacteria, Ureaplasma urealyticum apart. This genome contains 782 putative coding

Isabelle Chambaud; Roland Heilig; Stéphane Ferris; Valérie Barbe; Delphine Samson; Frédérique Galisson; I van Moszer; Kevin Dybvig; Henri Wróblewski; Alain Viari; Eduardo P. C. Rocha; Alain Blanchard

2001-01-01

78

Molecular characterization of transcriptome-wide interactions between highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and porcine alveolar macrophages in vivo.  

PubMed

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infects mainly the porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) and causes porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS). Previous studies have analyzed the global gene expression profiles of lung tissue in vivo and PAMs in vitro following infection with PRRSV, however, transcriptome-wide understanding of the interaction between highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) and PAMs in vivo has not yet been established. In this study, we employed Affymetrix microarrays to investigate the gene expression patterns of PAMs isolated from Tongcheng piglets (a Chinese indigenous breed) after infection with HP-PRRSV. During the infection, Tongcheng piglets exhibited typical clinical signs, e.g. fever, asthma, coughing, anorexia, lethargy and convulsion, but displayed mild regional lung damage at 5 and 7 dpi. Microarray analysis revealed that HP-PRRSV infection has affected PAMs in expression of the important genes involved in cytoskeleton and exocytosis organization, protein degradation and folding, intracellular calcium and zinc homeostasis. Several potential antiviral strategies might be employed in PAMs, including upregulating IFN-induced genes and increasing intracellular zinc ion concentration. And inhibition of the complement system likely attenuated the lung damage during HP-PRRSV infection. Transcriptomic analysis of PAMs in vivo could lead to a better understanding of the HP-PRRSV-host interaction, and to the identification of novel antiviral therapies and genetic components of swine tolerance/susceptibility to HP-PRRS. PMID:21850204

Zhou, Ping; Zhai, Shanli; Zhou, Xiang; Lin, Ping; Jiang, Tengfei; Hu, Xueying; Jiang, Yunbo; Wu, Bin; Zhang, Qingde; Xu, Xuewen; Li, Jin-Ping; Liu, Bang

2011-01-01

79

Physiology and metabolism of pathogenic Neisseria: partial characterization of the respiratory chain of Neisseria gonorrhoeae.  

PubMed Central

The cell membrane-associated respiratory electron transport chain of Neisseria gonorrhoeae was examined using electron paramagnetic spectroscopy (EPR) at liquid helium temperatures and optical spectroscopy at liquid nitrogen and room temperatures. EPR spectra of dithionite-reduced particles indicated the presence of centers N-1 and N-3 in the site I region of the respiratory chain, whereas reduction with succinate revealed the existence of center S-1 from the succinate cytochrome c reductase segment. Free radical(s) resembling that due to falvin semiquinone were observed with both reductants. Low temperature (77 K) optical difference spectra indicated the presence of cytochromes with alpha band maxima at 549, 557, and 562. Bands at 567, 535, and 417 nm, characteristic of the CO compound of cytochrome o, were also identified. Cytochromes a1 and a3 were not detected; however, a broad but weak absorbance with an alpha band maximun at 600 nm and a Soret shoulder at 440 nm was observed. Hence the respiratory chain of N. gonorrhoeae appears to contain several nonheme iron centers, cytochrome c, two b cytochromes, with cytochrome o which probably serves as the terminal oxidase. PMID:168181

Winter, D B; Morse, S A

1975-01-01

80

Exploring the potential of next-generation sequencing in detection of respiratory viruses.  

PubMed

Efficient detection of human respiratory viral pathogens is crucial in the management of patients with acute respiratory tract infection. Sequence-independent amplification of nucleic acids combined with next-generation sequencing technology and bioinformatics analyses is a promising strategy for identifying pathogens in clinical and public health settings. It allows the characterization of hundreds of different known pathogens simultaneously and of novel pathogens that elude conventional testing. However, major hurdles for its routine use exist, including cost, turnaround time, and especially sensitivity of the assay, as the detection limit is dependent on viral load, host genetic material, and sequencing depth. To obtain insights into these aspects, we analyzed nasopharyngeal aspirates from a cohort of 81 Thai children with respiratory disease for the presence of respiratory viruses using a sequence-independent next-generation sequencing approach and routinely used diagnostic real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (real-time RT-PCR) assays. With respect to the detection of rhinovirus and human metapneumovirus, the next-generation sequencing approach was at least as sensitive as diagnostic real-time RT-PCR in this small cohort, whereas for bocavirus and enterovirus, next-generation sequencing was less sensitive than real-time RT-PCR. The advantage of the sequencing approach over real-time RT-PCR was the immediate availability of virus-typing information. Considering the development of platforms capable of generating more output data at declining costs, next-generation sequencing remains of interest for future virus diagnosis in clinical and public health settings and certainly as an additional tool when screening results from real-time RT-PCR are negative. PMID:25100822

Prachayangprecha, Slinporn; Schapendonk, Claudia M E; Koopmans, Marion P; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Schürch, Anita C; Pas, Suzan D; van der Eijk, Annemiek A; Poovorawan, Yong; Haagmans, Bart L; Smits, Saskia L

2014-10-01

81

Demonstration of the metaphylactic use of gamithromycin against bacterial pathogens associated with bovine respiratory disease in a multicentre farm trial  

PubMed Central

On five commercial cattle rearing sites across Europe, a total of 802 young cattle at high risk of developing bovine respiratory disease (BRD) associated with the bacterial pathogens Mannheimia haemolytica or Pasteurella multocida and/or Mycoplasma bovis were enrolled into a multicentre, controlled field trial. Half were treated with a single dose of gamithromycin at 6 mg/kg bodyweight by subcutaneous injection and half received an injection of a saline placebo as the control. All animals were observed daily for 14 days for signs of BRD as defined by set criteria. The proportion of metaphylactic preventive treatment successes, defined as animals surviving to day 14 without signs of BRD, in the gamithromycin-treated group (86 per cent) was significantly (P=0.0012) higher than in the saline-treated controls (61 per cent). Morbidity among the treated animals was reduced by 64 per cent compared with the controls. PMID:21493573

Baggott, D.; Casartelli, A.; Fraisse, F.; Manavella, C.; Marteau, R.; Rehbein, S.; Wiedemann, M.; Yoon, S.

2011-01-01

82

LOW PATHOGENIC POTENTIAL IN HETEROTROPHIC BACTERIA FROM POTABLE WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Forty-five isolates of HPC bacteria, most of which express virulence-related characteristics are being tested for pathogenicity in immunocompromised mice. All forty-five were negative for facultative intracellular pathogenicity. All twenty-three isolates tested thus far were a...

83

Respiratory virus is a real pathogen in immunocompetent community-acquired pneumonia: comparing to influenza like illness and volunteer controls  

PubMed Central

Background Viral pathogens were more commonly reported than previously estimated in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) patients. However, the real role of virus was still controversial. Methods Consecutive adult patients with CAP between April and December, 2009 were prospectively enrolled. A four-fold or greater increase of IgG-titres against respiratory viruses in pair sera was tested by means of hemagglutination inhibition assay or indirect immunofluorescence. Swab samples were tested by cell culture and/or nucleic amplification tests. Viral etiology was considered definitive if at least one of the above tests was positive. Results Viral etiology was established in fifty-two (34.9%) of 149 CAP patients, twenty-two (81.5%) of 27 influenza like illness patients, and none of 75 volunteer controls. Forty-seven CAP patients were infected by a single virus (24 influenza A virus, 5 influenza B, 10 parainfluenza virus type 3 [PIV-3], 2 PIV-1, 2 adenovirus, 2 human rhinovirus and 2 coronavirus OC43), five cases by two or three viruses co-infection. Fever???39°C (66.7%), fatigue (64.6%), and purulent sputum (52.1%) was the most common symptoms in viral pneumonia patients. On multivariate analysis, myalgia was included in the model for pneumonia associated with influenza infection. In the CURB-65 model only influenza infection was found independently associated with severe disease (CURB-65 score???3) out of variables, including age(years), sex, current smoking status, sick contact with febrile patients, numbers of comorbidity, presence of influenza infection, presence of PIV infection, with P?=?0.021, OR 7.86 (95% CI 1.37-45.04). Conclusion Respiratory virus was not a bystander, but pathogenic in pneumonia and was a common cause of CAP. PMID:25178477

2014-01-01

84

FilmArray, an Automated Nested Multiplex PCR System for Multi-Pathogen Detection: Development and Application to Respiratory Tract Infection  

PubMed Central

The ideal clinical diagnostic system should deliver rapid, sensitive, specific and reproducible results while minimizing the requirements for specialized laboratory facilities and skilled technicians. We describe an integrated diagnostic platform, the “FilmArray”, which fully automates the detection and identification of multiple organisms from a single sample in about one hour. An unprocessed biologic/clinical sample is subjected to nucleic acid purification, reverse transcription, a high-order nested multiplex polymerase chain reaction and amplicon melt curve analysis. Biochemical reactions are enclosed in a disposable pouch, minimizing the PCR contamination risk. FilmArray has the potential to detect greater than 100 different nucleic acid targets at one time. These features make the system well-suited for molecular detection of infectious agents. Validation of the FilmArray technology was achieved through development of a panel of assays capable of identifying 21 common viral and bacterial respiratory pathogens. Initial testing of the system using both cultured organisms and clinical nasal aspirates obtained from children demonstrated an analytical and clinical sensitivity and specificity comparable to existing diagnostic platforms. We demonstrate that automated identification of pathogens from their corresponding target amplicon(s) can be accomplished by analysis of the DNA melting curve of the amplicon. PMID:22039434

Poritz, Mark A.; Blaschke, Anne J.; Byington, Carrie L.; Meyers, Lindsay; Nilsson, Kody; Jones, David E.; Thatcher, Stephanie A.; Robbins, Thomas; Lingenfelter, Beth; Amiott, Elizabeth; Herbener, Amy; Daly, Judy; Dobrowolski, Steven F.; Teng, David H. -F.; Ririe, Kirk M.

2011-01-01

85

Novel antibiotics targeting respiratory ATP synthesis in Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria.  

PubMed

Emergence of drug-resistant bacteria represents a high, unmet medical need, and discovery of new antibacterials acting on new bacterial targets is strongly needed. ATP synthase has been validated as an antibacterial target in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, where its activity can be specifically blocked by the diarylquinoline TMC207. However, potency of TMC207 is restricted to mycobacteria with little or no effect on the growth of other Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteria. Here, we identify diarylquinolines with activity against key Gram-positive pathogens, significantly extending the antibacterial spectrum of the diarylquinoline class of drugs. These compounds inhibited growth of Staphylococcus aureus in planktonic state as well as in metabolically resting bacteria grown in a biofilm culture. Furthermore, time-kill experiments showed that the selected hits are rapidly bactericidal. Drug-resistant mutations were mapped to the ATP synthase enzyme, and biochemical analysis as well as drug-target interaction studies reveal ATP synthase as a target for these compounds. Moreover, knockdown of the ATP synthase expression strongly suppressed growth of S. aureus, revealing a crucial role of this target in bacterial growth and metabolism. Our data represent a proof of principle for using the diarylquinoline class of antibacterials in key Gram-positive pathogens. Our results suggest that broadening the antibacterial spectrum for this chemical class is possible without drifting off from the target. Development of the diarylquinolines class may represent a promising strategy for combating Gram-positive pathogens. PMID:22615276

Balemans, Wendy; Vranckx, Luc; Lounis, Nacer; Pop, Ovidiu; Guillemont, Jérôme; Vergauwen, Karen; Mol, Selena; Gilissen, Ron; Motte, Magali; Lançois, David; De Bolle, Miguel; Bonroy, Kristien; Lill, Holger; Andries, Koen; Bald, Dirk; Koul, Anil

2012-08-01

86

Pharmacokinetics of cefuroxime axetil and cefaclor: relationship of concentrations in serum to MICs for common respiratory pathogens.  

PubMed Central

The pharmacokinetics of single doses of cefaclor at 250 and 375 mg and cefuroxime axetil at 250 mg administered under optimal conditions (i.e., cefuroxime axetil after food and cefaclor in the fasted state) were studied in 24 healthy male volunteers. Drug concentrations in serum were related to MICs for common respiratory tract pathogens by using data generated from a recently completed national survey. The time the concentrations in serum exceeded the MICs for Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Moraxella (formerly Branhamella) catarrhalis were significantly greater (P less than 0.05) for cefuroxime axetil at 250 mg than for cefaclor at 250 or 375 mg. With the recommended dosing regimens (cefuroxime axetil at 250 mg and cefaclor at 375 mg twice daily or cefaclor at 250 mg three times daily), cefuroxime concentrations exceed the MIC for 90% of the strains tested for a greater time period than cefaclor concentrations with either regimen. The reasons for this difference are (i) the greater potency and slower clearance of cefuroxime compared with those of cefaclor and (ii) the greater sensitivity of these pathogens to cefuroxime. PMID:1952858

James, N C; Donn, K H; Collins, J J; Davis, I M; Lloyd, T L; Hart, R W; Powell, J R

1991-01-01

87

Targeting the mitochondrial respiratory chain of Cryptococcus through antifungal chemosensitization: a model for control of non-fermentative pathogens.  

PubMed

Enhanced control of species of Cryptococcus, non-fermentative yeast pathogens, was achieved by chemosensitization through co-application of certain compounds with a conventional antimicrobial drug. The species of Cryptococcus tested showed higher sensitivity to mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) inhibition compared to species of Candida. This higher sensitivity results from the inability of Cryptococcus to generate cellular energy through fermentation. To heighten disruption of cellular MRC, octyl gallate (OG) or 2,3-dihydroxybenzaldehyde (2,3-DHBA), phenolic compounds inhibiting mitochondrial functions, were selected as chemosensitizers to pyraclostrobin (PCS; an inhibitor of complex III of MRC). The cryptococci were more susceptible to the chemosensitization (i.e., PCS + OG or 2,3-DHBA) than the Candida with all Cryptococcus strains tested being sensitive to this chemosensitization. Alternatively, only few of the Candida strains showed sensitivity. OG possessed higher chemosensitizing potency than 2,3-DHBA, where the concentration of OG required with the drug to achieve chemosensitizing synergism was much lower than that required of 2,3-DHBA. Bioassays with gene deletion mutants of the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed that OG or 2,3-DHBA affect different cellular targets. These assays revealed mitochondrial superoxide dismutase or glutathione homeostasis plays a relatively greater role in fungal tolerance to 2,3-DHBA or OG, respectively. These findings show that application of chemosensitizing compounds that augment MRC debilitation is a promising strategy to antifungal control against yeast pathogens. PMID:23892633

Kim, Jong H; Haff, Ronald P; Faria, Natália C G; Martins, Maria de L; Chan, Kathleen L; Campbell, Bruce C

2013-01-01

88

In vitro activities of oral cephem and telithromycin against clinical isolates of major respiratory pathogens in Japan.  

PubMed

The in vitro antibacterial activities of oral cephem antibiotics and ketolide telithromycin against major respiratory pathogens possessing beta-lactam-resistant mutations (within the pbp gene) and/or macrolide-resistant genes (erm and mef) were examined in clinical isolates collected at 66 institutes in all over the Japan between 2002 and 2003. Telithromycin showed the strongest antibacterial activity against methicillinsusceptible Staphylococcus aureus strains with and without macrolide-resistant genes, such as ermA or ermC gene. All the cephem antibiotics showed potent antibacterial activity against Streptococcus pyogenes, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 0.015 mg/L or lower. Cefdinir had a much higher MIC90 against genotypic penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (gPRSP) than cefditoren and cefcapene (8 mg/L cefdinir vs. 1 mg/L cefditoren and cefcapene). The majority of gPRSP harbored either ermB or mefA, and the antibacterial activity of telithromycin against these strains was decreased however some susceptibility was still sustained. Cefditoren exerted the strongest antibacterial activity against beta-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae, with an MIC90 of 0.5 mg/L. These results underline the importance of checking the susceptibility and selecting an appropriate antibiotic against target pathogens. PMID:17297246

Shimizu, Atsuyuki; Maebashi, Kazunori; Niida, Masashi; Mikuniya, Takeshi; Hikida, Muneo; Ubukata, Kimiko

2007-02-01

89

Epidemiology of nasopharyngeal carriage of respiratory bacterial pathogens in children and adults: cross-sectional surveys in a population with high rates of pneumococcal disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: To determine the prevalence of carriage of respiratory bacterial pathogens, and the risk factors for and serotype distribution of pneumococcal carriage in an Australian Aboriginal population. METHODS: Surveys of nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae, non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis were conducted among adults (?16 years) and children (2 to 15 years) in four rural communities in 2002 and

Grant A Mackenzie; Amanda J Leach; Jonathan R Carapetis; Janelle Fisher; Peter S Morris

2010-01-01

90

Differences in distribution and drug sensitivity of pathogens in lower respiratory tract infections between general wards and RICU  

PubMed Central

Background Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) are common among patients in hospitals worldwide, especially in patients over the age of 60. This study investigates the differences in distribution and drug sensitivity of pathogens in LRTIs. Methods The clinical and laboratory data of 4,762 LRTI patients in the general ward and respiratory intensive care unit (RICU) of Xiangya Hospital (Changsha) were retrospectively analyzed. Results The infection rate of Gram-negative bacteria was significantly higher than that of Gram-positive bacteria in both the general ward and RICU (P<0.05). The incidence of Gram-negative bacteria infection was significantly higher in the RICU than in the general ward (P<0.05), whereas the incidence of Gram-positive bacteria infection is less in the RICU than in the general ward (P<0.05). In the general ward, the incidence of Gram-negative bacteria infection significantly increased (P<0.05) over time, whereas the incidence of Gram-positive bacteria infection significantly decreased from 1996 to 2011 (P<0.05). In the RICU, the incidence of Gram-positive bacteria infection decreased, while Gram-negative bacteria infections increased without statistical significance (P>0.05). Staphylococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus were found to be the predominant Gram-positive strains in the general ward (34.70-41.18%) and RICU (41.66-54.87%), respectively (P>0.05). Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii were the predominant gram negative strains in the general ward (19.17-21.09%) and RICU (29.60-33.88%), respectively (P>0.05). Streptococcus pneumoniae is sensitive to most antibiotics with a sensitivity of more than 70%. Staphylococcus aureus is highly sensitive to vancomycin (100%), linezolid (100%), chloramphenicol (74.36-82.19%), doxycycline (69.57-77.33%), and sulfamethoprim (67.83-72.46%); however, its sensitivity to other antibiotics is low and decreased each year. Sensitivity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to most ?-lactam, aminoglycoside, and quinolone group antibiotics decreased each year. Conclusions The distribution and drug sensitivity of LRTI pathogens exhibit a high divergence between the general ward and RICU. Streptococcus pneumoniae may not be the predominant pathogen in LRTIs in some areas of China. PMID:25364517

He, Ruoxi; Luo, Bailing; Hu, Chengping; Li, Ying

2014-01-01

91

Inhibitory activity of a standardized elderberry liquid extract against clinically-relevant human respiratory bacterial pathogens and influenza A and B viruses  

PubMed Central

Background Black elderberries (Sambucus nigra L.) are well known as supportive agents against common cold and influenza. It is further known that bacterial super-infection during an influenza virus (IV) infection can lead to severe pneumonia. We have analyzed a standardized elderberry extract (Rubini, BerryPharma AG) for its antimicrobial and antiviral activity using the microtitre broth micro-dilution assay against three Gram-positive bacteria and one Gram-negative bacteria responsible for infections of the upper respiratory tract, as well as cell culture experiments for two different strains of influenza virus. Methods The antimicrobial activity of the elderberry extract was determined by bacterial growth experiments in liquid cultures using the extract at concentrations of 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%. The inhibitory effects were determined by plating the bacteria on agar plates. In addition, the inhibitory potential of the extract on the propagation of human pathogenic H5N1-type influenza A virus isolated from a patient and an influenza B virus strain was investigated using MTT and focus assays. Results For the first time, it was shown that a standardized elderberry liquid extract possesses antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive bacteria of Streptococcus pyogenes and group C and G Streptococci, and the Gram-negative bacterium Branhamella catarrhalis in liquid cultures. The liquid extract also displays an inhibitory effect on the propagation of human pathogenic influenza viruses. Conclusion Rubini elderberry liquid extract is active against human pathogenic bacteria as well as influenza viruses. The activities shown suggest that additional and alternative approaches to combat infections might be provided by this natural product. PMID:21352539

2011-01-01

92

Prevalence of potentially pathogenic bacteria as genital pathogens in dairy cattle.  

PubMed

Bacteria on the genital mucosa have been studied less in healthy, non-puerperal cows than in cows with puerperal endometritis. We have thus analysed bacteria in swabs from the vagina and cervix of post-puerperal cattle (n = 644). Out of the animals, 6.8% had aborted within the last 12 months, 2.6% and 11.6% showed signs of vaginitis and endometritis, respectively. In 17.2% of cervical swabs pathogenic gram-positive and in 11.5% pathogenic gram-negative bacteria were found. Arcanobacterium pyogenes was isolated from 41.3% of cows with endometritis and from 3.5% without endometritis (p < 0.05). From 12.5% of cows with abortion but from no cow without abortion, Staphylococcus aureus was recovered (p < 0.05). Out of 383 vaginal swabs, 88.3% were positive. In 3.4% of swabs pathogenic gram-positive and in 16.7% pathogenic gram-negative microorganisms were found. The percentage of positive vaginal swabs did not differ between pregnant and non-pregnant animals. In the genital tract, the percentage of swabs positive for normal mucosal bacteria decreased from caudally to cranially (p < 0.05). Pathogenic bacteria were found more often in cervical than in vaginal swabs (p < 0.05). In conclusion, bacteria on the vaginal and cervical mucosa in cattle involve a wide range of species. In animals without endometritis or vaginitis, colonization of the mucosa rather than infection has to be assumed. PMID:18537907

Petit, T; Spergser, J; Rosengarten, R; Aurich, J

2009-02-01

93

Nationwide surveillance of bacterial respiratory pathogens conducted by the Japanese Society of Chemotherapy in 2007: general view of the pathogens' antibacterial susceptibility.  

PubMed

For the purpose of a nationwide surveillance of the antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial respiratory pathogens in patients in Japan, the Japanese Society of Chemotherapy conducted their second year survey, during the period from January to August, 2007. A total of 1178 strains were collected from clinical specimens obtained from adult patients with well-diagnosed respiratory tract infections. Susceptibility testing was evaluable for 1108 strains (226 Staphylococcus aureus, 257 Streptococcus pneumoniae, 6 Streptococcus pyogenes, 206 Haemophilus influenzae, 120 Moraxella catarrhalis, 122 Klebsiella pneumoniae, and 171 Pseudomonas aeruginosa). A total of 44 antibacterial agents, including 26 beta-lactams (four penicillins, three penicillins in combination with beta-lactamase inhibitors, four oral cephems, eight parenteral cephems, one monobactam, five carbapenems, and one penem), three aminoglycosides, four macrolides (including ketolide), one lincosamide, one tetracycline, two glycopeptides, six fluoroquinolones, and one oxazolidinone were used for the study. Analysis was conducted at the central reference laboratory according to the method recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). The incidence of methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was high, at 59.7%, and the incidences of penicillin-intermediateresistant and -resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (PISP and PRSP) were 30.4% and 5.1%, respectively. Among Haemophilus influenzae strains, 19.9% of them were found to be beta-lactamase-non-producing ampicillin (ABPC)-intermediately-resistant (BLNAI), 29.1% to be beta-lactamasenon-producing ABPC-resistant (BLNAR), and 6.7% to be beta-lactamase-producing ABPC-resistant (BLPAR) strains. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae was not isolated. Two isolates (1.2%) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were found to be metallo-beta-lactamase-producing strains, including one (0.6%) suspected multidrug-resistant strain showing resistance to imipenem, amikacin, and ciprofloxacin. These data will be a useful reference for future periodic surveillance studies and for investigations to control resistant infections as well. Continued surveillance is required to prevent the further spread of these antimicrobial resistances. PMID:19554400

Niki, Y; Hanaki, H; Matsumoto, T; Yagisawa, M; Kohno, S; Aoki, N; Watanabe, A; Sato, J; Hattori, R; Terada, M; Koashi, N; Kozuki, T; Maruo, A; Morita, K; Ogasawara, K; Takahashi, Y; Watanabe, J; Takeuchi, K; Fujimura, S; Takeda, H; Ikeda, H; Sato, N; Niitsuma, K; Saito, M; Koshiba, S; Kaneko, M; Miki, M; Nakanowatari, S; Honda, Y; Chiba, J; Takahashi, H; Utagawa, M; Kondo, T; Kawana, A; Konosaki, H; Aoki, Y; Ueda, H; Sugiura, H; Ichioka, M; Goto, H; Kurai, D; Okazaki, M; Yoshida, K; Yoshida, T; Tanabe, Y; Kobayashi, S; Okada, M; Tsukada, H; Imai, Y; Honma, Y; Nishikawa, K; Yamamoto, T; Kawai, A; Kashiwabara, T; Takesue, Y; Wada, Y; Nakajima, K; Miyara, T; Toda, H; Mitsuno, N; Sugimura, H; Yoshioka, S; Kurokawa, M; Munekawa, Y; Nakajima, H; Kubo, S; Ohta, Y; Mikasa, K; Maeda, K; Kasahara, K; Koizumi, A; Sano, R; Yagi, S; Takaya, M; Kurokawa, Y; Kusano, N; Mihara, E; Kuwabara, M; Fujiue, Y; Ishimaru, T; Matsubara, N; Kawasaki, Y; Tokuyasu, H; Masui, K; Negayama, K; Ueda, N; Ishimaru, M; Nakanishi, Y; Fujita, M; Honda, J; Kadota, J; Hiramatsu, K; Aoki, Y; Nagasawa, Z; Suga, M; Muranaka, H; Yanagihara, K; Fujita, J; Tateyama, M; Sunakawa, K; Totsuka, K

2009-06-01

94

Telomere components as potential therapeutic targets for treating microbial pathogen infections  

PubMed Central

In a number of microbial pathogens that undergoes antigenic variation to evade the host’s immune attack, genes encoding surface antigens are located at subtelomeric loci, and recent studies have revealed that telomere components play important roles in regulation of surface antigen expression in several of these pathogens, indicating that telomeres play critical roles in microbial pathogen virulence regulation. Importantly, although telomere protein components and their functions are largely conserved from protozoa to mammals, telomere protein homologs in microbial pathogens and humans have low sequence homology. Therefore, pathogen telomere components are potential drug targets for therapeutic approaches because first, most telomere proteins are essential for pathogens’ survival, and second, disruption of pathogens’ antigenic variation mechanism would facilitate host’s immune system to clear the infection. PMID:23125966

Li, Bibo

2012-01-01

95

*Biomarkers of acute respiratory allergen exposure: Screening for sensitization potential  

EPA Science Inventory

Effective hazard screening will require the development of high-throughput or in vitro assays for the identification of potential sensitizers. The goal of this preliminary study was to identify potential biomarkers that differentiate the response to allergens vs non-allergens fol...

96

Genome Sequences of Vibrio navarrensis, a Potential Human Pathogen  

PubMed Central

Vibrio navarrensis is an aquatic bacterium recently shown to be associated with human illness. We report the first genome sequences of three V. navarrensis strains obtained from clinical and environmental sources. Preliminary analyses of the sequences reveal that V. navarrensis contains genes commonly associated with virulence in other human pathogens. PMID:25414502

Gladney, Lori M.; Katz, Lee S.; Knipe, Kristen M.; Rowe, Lori A.; Conley, Andrew B.; Rishishwar, Lavanya; Mariño-Ramírez, Leonardo

2014-01-01

97

The Prevalence of Potential Bacterial Pathogens on Inanimate Objects in a State School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cleaning and disinfection of environmental surfaces can reduce the transmissibility of potential pathogens on school surfaces. Determining the number of bacteria and investigating the presence of pathogens on school surfaces are beginning steps in managing the well-being of students contacting those surfaces. This research study examines the…

Dandy, Tonja Denise

2012-01-01

98

CYTOKINE MRNA PROFILES FOR ISOCYANATES WITH KNOWN AND UNKNOWN POTENTIAL TO INDUCE RESPIRATORY SENSITIZATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Cytokine mRNA Profiles for Isocyanates with Known and Unknown Potential to Induce Respiratory Sensitization. Plitnick, L.M., Loveless, S.E., Ladics, G.S., Holsapple, M.P., Smialowicz, R.J., Woolhiser, M.R., Anderson, P.K., Smith, C., Sailstad, D.M. and Selgrade, M.J.K (2002) Tox...

99

CURRENT STATE OF PREDICTING THE RESPIRATORY ALLERGY POTENTIAL OF CHEMICALS: WHAT ARE THE ISSUES?  

EPA Science Inventory

Current State of Predicting the Respiratory Allergy Potential of Chemicals: What Are the Issues? M I. Gilmour1 and S. E. Loveless2, 1USEPA, Research Triangle Park, NC and 2DuPont Haskell Laboratory, Newark, DE. Many chemicals are clearly capable of eliciting immune respon...

100

WORKSHOP ON STATUS OF TEST METHODS FOR ASSESSING POTENTIAL OF CHEMICALS TO INDUCE RESPIRATORY ALLERGIC REACTIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Because of the association between allergy and asthma and the increasing incidence of morbidity and mortality due to asthma, there is growing concern over the potential of industrial chemicals to produce allergic reactions in the respiratory tract. Two classes of chemicals have b...

101

An Integrated Epidemiological and Economic Analysis of Vaccination against Highly Pathogenic Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) in Thua Thien Hue Province, Vietnam.  

PubMed

The purposes of this study are to assess pig farmers' preference for highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) vaccine, and estimate the cost and benefit of PRRS vaccination in Vietnam. This study employed an integrated epidemiological and economic analysis which combined susceptible-infectious-recovered (SIR) model, choice experiment (CE) and cost-benefit analysis (CBA) together. The result of SIR model showed the basic reproduction number (R0) of PRRS transmission in this study is 1.3, consequently, the optimal vaccination percentage is 26%. The results of CE in this study indicate that Vietnam pig farmers are showing a high preference for the PRRS vaccine. However, their mean willingness to pay is lower than the potential cost of PRRS vaccine. It can be considered to be one of the reasons that the PRRS vaccination ratio is still low in Vietnam. The results of CBA specified from the whole society's point of view (Social perspective), the benefits of PRRS vaccination are 2.3 to 4.5 times larger than the costs. To support policy making for increasing the PRRS vaccination proportion, this study indicates two ways to increase the vaccination proportion: i) decrease vaccine price by providing a subsidy, ii) provide compensation of culling only for PRRS vaccinated pigs. PMID:25178303

Zhang, Haifeng; Kono, Hiroichi; Kubota, Satoko

2014-10-01

102

An Integrated Epidemiological and Economic Analysis of Vaccination against Highly Pathogenic Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) in Thua Thien Hue Province, Vietnam  

PubMed Central

The purposes of this study are to assess pig farmers’ preference for highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) vaccine, and estimate the cost and benefit of PRRS vaccination in Vietnam. This study employed an integrated epidemiological and economic analysis which combined susceptible-infectious-recovered (SIR) model, choice experiment (CE) and cost-benefit analysis (CBA) together. The result of SIR model showed the basic reproduction number (R0) of PRRS transmission in this study is 1.3, consequently, the optimal vaccination percentage is 26%. The results of CE in this study indicate that Vietnam pig farmers are showing a high preference for the PRRS vaccine. However, their mean willingness to pay is lower than the potential cost of PRRS vaccine. It can be considered to be one of the reasons that the PRRS vaccination ratio is still low in Vietnam. The results of CBA specified from the whole society’s point of view (Social perspective), the benefits of PRRS vaccination are 2.3 to 4.5 times larger than the costs. To support policy making for increasing the PRRS vaccination proportion, this study indicates two ways to increase the vaccination proportion: i) decrease vaccine price by providing a subsidy, ii) provide compensation of culling only for PRRS vaccinated pigs. PMID:25178303

Zhang, Haifeng; Kono, Hiroichi; Kubota, Satoko

2014-01-01

103

Screening of the antibacterial effects of a variety of essential oils on respiratory tract pathogens, using a modified dilution assay method  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The purpose of this study was to examine the antibacterial effects of a wide variety of essential oils on major respiratory\\u000a tract pathogens. The antibacterial activity of 14 essential oils and their major components was evaluated by agar-plate dilution\\u000a assay under sealed conditions, with agar used as a stabilizer for homogeneous dispersion. Of the selected strains of four\\u000a major

Shigeharu Inouye; Hideyo Yamaguchi; Toshio Takizawa

2001-01-01

104

[Assessment of persistent potential dominant pathogens of acute intestinal infections].  

PubMed

To determine the prevalence,and etiological structure of acute intestinal infections, to investigate the dominant agents' persistence factors. According with materials of statistical reports we did the retrospective epidemiological analysis of acute intestinal infections incidence in Sumy region from 2006 till 2011. Biological properties of 40 strains of Klebsiella pneumonia, 40 strains of Enterobacter cloacae and 50 strains of Staphylococcus aureus were investigated. Moderate trend of acute intestinal infections incidence increase was indicated. Bacteria of genera Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Staphylococcus were predominated in etiological structure. Incidence of acute diarrheal infections caused by Klebsiella and Enterobacter was reached the maximum in the spring-summer period. The incidence of staphylococcal etiology was discrete. The strains of Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterobacter cloacae were remarkable for different frequency and intensity of persistence factors. ?nti-interferon activity was detected in 100% of clinical isolates of microorganisms, anti-lysozym activity was detected in 87.3 ± 2.9% of clinical isolates of microorganisms, anti-complementary activity was detected in 72.3 ± 3.9% of clinical isolates of microorganisms. Biological properties of opportunistic pathogens that cause acute intestinal infections can be used as epidemiological factors for differentiation of microorganisms pathogenicity. PMID:23787508

Malysh, N G; Golubnichaia, V N; Chemich, N D; Doan, S I

2013-05-01

105

Potential mechanisms underlying the acute lung dysfunction and bacterial extrapulmonary dissemination during Burkholderia cenocepacia respiratory infection  

PubMed Central

Background Burkholderia cenocepacia, an opportunistic pathogen that causes lung infections in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, is associated with rapid and usually fatal lung deterioration due to necrotizing pneumonia and sepsis, a condition known as cepacia syndrome. The key bacterial determinants associated with this poor clinical outcome in CF patients are not clear. In this study, the cytotoxicity and procoagulant activity of B. cenocepacia from the ET-12 lineage, that has been linked to the cepacia syndrome, and four clinical isolates recovered from CF patients with mild clinical courses were analysed in both in vitro and in vivo assays. Methods B. cenocepacia-infected BEAS-2B epithelial respiratory cells were used to investigate the bacterial cytotoxicity assessed by the flow cytometric detection of cell staining with propidium iodide. Bacteria-induced procoagulant activity in cell cultures was assessed by a colorimetric assay and by the flow cytometric detection of tissue factor (TF)-bearing microparticles in cell culture supernatants. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) from intratracheally infected mice were assessed for bacterial proinflammatory and procoagulant activities as well as for bacterial cytotoxicity, by the detection of released lactate dehydrogenase. Results ET-12 was significantly more cytotoxic to cell cultures but clinical isolates Cl-2, Cl-3 and Cl-4 exhibited also a cytotoxic profile. ET-12 and CI-2 were similarly able to generate a TF-dependent procoagulant environment in cell culture supernatant and to enhance the release of TF-bearing microparticles from infected cells. In the in vivo assay, all bacterial isolates disseminated from the mice lungs, but Cl-2 and Cl-4 exhibited the highest rates of recovery from mice livers. Interestingly, Cl-2 and Cl-4, together with ET-12, exhibited the highest cytotoxicity. All bacteria were similarly capable of generating a procoagulant and inflammatory environment in animal lungs. Conclusion B. cenocepacia were shown to exhibit cytotoxic and procoagulant activities potentially implicated in bacterial dissemination into the circulation and acute pulmonary decline detected in susceptible CF patients. Improved understanding of the mechanisms accounting for B. cenocepacia-induced clinical decline has the potential to indicate novel therapeutic strategies to be included in the care B. cenocepacia-infected patients. PMID:20082687

2010-01-01

106

Microbial studies of compost: bacterial identification, and their potential for turfgrass pathogen suppression  

E-print Network

Microbial studies of compost: bacterial identification, and their potential for turfgrass pathogen; accepted 17 April 2002 Keywords: Bacteria, compost, biocontrol disease suppression, grey snow mould Composting is the degradation of organic materials through the activities of diverse microorganisms

Boland, Greg J.

107

Prediction and validation of potential pathogenic microRNAs involved in Phytophthora infestans infection.  

PubMed

Being one kind of approximately 22nt long small RNA, miRNA has shown its roles in host-pathogen interaction, providing one possible way for pathogen infection. Though Phytophthora infestans is a major pathogen that causes devastating late blight of potato, tomato and so on, so far there have not been any systematic researches on miRNAs and even pathogenic miRNAs in P. infestans. Here, for the first time we comprehensively predicted and identified pathogenic miRNAs that may exist in P. infestans. First, a total of 128 putative miRNAs belonging to 66 miRNA family were identified by bioinformatic approaches. Then, 33 vital pathogenic miRNAs were screened by constructing miRNA-miRNA relationship networks. Finally, four potential pathogenic miRNAs were chosen for detection, two of which are chosen for validation. The expression quantity of pi-miR466 and pi-miR1918 changed dramatically during incubation of tomato leaves, implying that they are potential pathogenic miRNAs. PMID:24430294

Cui, Juanjuan; Luan, Yushi; Wang, Weichen; Zhai, Junmiao

2014-03-01

108

Highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus GP5 B antigenic region is not a neutralizing antigenic region.  

PubMed

In 2006, highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) caused great economic losses emerged in China and continues to be a threat for the pig industry. B antigenic region (AR) ((37)SHL/FQLIYNL(45)) of GP5 was considered to be a major linear neutralizing AR in PRRSV classical strains. However, peptide-purified antibodies against this AR did not neutralize PRRSV in a recent report. Compared with classical PRRSV, one amino acid mutation (L/F(39)? I(39)) was found in B AR of HP-PRRSV. To study the ability of B AR of HP-PRRSV to induce neutralizing antibody (NA) in vitro and in vivo, rabbit antisera against B AR with and without the mutation and pig hyperimmune sera with high titer of NAs against HP-PRRSV were prepared. Immunofluorescence assays (IFA) showed that the two rabbit antisera both had reactivity to classical PRRSV CH-1a and HP-PRRSV HuN4 with no observable difference in IFA titer. However, antisera did not have neutralizing activity against classical PRRSV CH-1a and HP-PRRSV HuN4. No correlation was observed between the levels of anti-B AR peptide antibodies and NAs in pig hyperimmune sera that were detected by indirect ELISA and virus neutralization, respectively. B AR peptide-specific serum antibodies had no neutralizing activity and, GST-B fusion protein could not inhibit neutralization of NAs in pig hyperimmune sera. Based on these findings, we conclude that B AR of HP-PRRSV is not a neutralizing AR of HP-PRRSV GP5. PMID:22771210

Leng, Chao-Liang; An, Tong-Qing; Chen, Jia-Zeng; Gong, Da-Qing; Peng, Jin-Mei; Yang, Yong-Qian; Wu, Jiang; Guo, Juan-Juan; Li, Deng-Yun; Zhang, Yi; Meng, Zhen-Xiang; Wu, Yu-Quan; Tian, Zhi-Jun; Tong, Guang-Zhi

2012-10-12

109

National and regional assessment of antimicrobial resistance among community-acquired respiratory tract pathogens identified in a 2005-2006 U.S. Faropenem surveillance study.  

PubMed

Surveillance studies conducted in the United States over the last decade have revealed increasing resistance among community-acquired respiratory pathogens, especially Streptococcus pneumoniae, that may limit future options for empirical therapy. The objective of this study was to assess the scope and magnitude of the problem at the national and regional levels during the 2005-2006 respiratory season (the season when community-acquired respiratory pathogens are prevalent) in the United States. Also, since faropenem is an oral penem being developed for the treatment of community-acquired respiratory tract infections, another study objective was to provide baseline data to benchmark changes in the susceptibility of U.S. respiratory pathogens to the drug in the future. The in vitro activities of faropenem and other agents were determined against 1,543 S. pneumoniae isolates, 978 Haemophilus influenzae isolates, and 489 Moraxella catarrhalis isolates collected from 104 U.S. laboratories across six geographic regions during the 2005-2006 respiratory season. Among S. pneumoniae isolates, the rates of resistance to penicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, and cefdinir were 16, 6.4, and 19.2%, respectively. The least effective agents were trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT) and azithromycin, with resistance rates of 23.5 and 34%, respectively. Penicillin resistance rates for S. pneumoniae varied by region (from 8.7 to 22.5%), as did multidrug resistance rates for S. pneumoniae (from 8.8 to 24.9%). Resistance to beta-lactams, azithromycin, and SXT was higher among S. pneumoniae isolates from children than those from adults. beta-Lactamase production rates among H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis isolates were 27.4 and 91.6%, respectively. Faropenem MICs at which 90% of isolates are inhibited were 0.5 mug/ml for S. pneumoniae, 1 mug/ml for H. influenzae, and 0.5 mug/ml for M. catarrhalis, suggesting that faropenem shows promise as a treatment option for respiratory infections caused by contemporary resistant phenotypes. PMID:17908940

Critchley, Ian A; Brown, Steven D; Traczewski, Maria M; Tillotson, Glenn S; Janjic, Nebojsa

2007-12-01

110

Global human frequencies of predicted nuclear pathogenic variants and the role played by protein hydrophobicity in pathogenicity potential.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial proteins are coded by nuclear (nDNA) and mitochondrial (mtDNA) genes, implying a complex cross-talk between the two genomes. Here we investigated the diversity displayed in 104 nuclear-coded mitochondrial proteins from 1,092 individuals from the 1000 Genomes dataset, in order to evaluate if these genes are under the effects of purifying selection and how that selection compares with their mitochondrial encoded counterparts. Only the very rare variants (frequency < 0.1%) in these nDNA genes are indistinguishable from a random set from all possible variants in terms of predicted pathogenicity score, but more frequent variants display distinct signs of purifying selection. Comparisons of selection strength indicate stronger selection in the mtDNA genes compared to this set of nDNA genes, accounted for by the high hydrophobicity of the proteins coded by the mtDNA. Most of the predicted pathogenic variants in the nDNA genes were restricted to a single continental population. The proportion of individuals having at least one potential pathogenic mutation in this gene set was significantly lower in Europeans than in Africans and Asians. This difference may reflect demographic asymmetries, since African and Asian populations experienced main expansions in middle Holocene, while in Europeans the main expansions occurred earlier in the post-glacial period. PMID:25412673

Pereira, Luísa; Soares, Pedro; Triska, Petr; Rito, Teresa; van der Waerden, Agnes; Li, Biao; Radivojac, Predrag; Samuels, David C

2014-01-01

111

Potential Human Pathogenic Bacteria in a Mixed Urban Watershed as Revealed by Pyrosequencing  

PubMed Central

Current microbial source tracking (MST) methods for water depend on testing for fecal indicator bacterial counts or specific marker gene sequences to identify fecal contamination where potential human pathogenic bacteria could be present. In this study, we applied 454 high-throughput pyrosequencing to identify bacterial pathogen DNA sequences, including those not traditionally monitored by MST and correlated their abundances to specific sources of contamination such as urban runoff and agricultural runoff from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), recreation park area, waste-water treatment plants, and natural sites with little or no human activities. Samples for pyrosequencing were surface water, and sediment collected from 19 sites. A total of 12,959 16S rRNA gene sequences with average length of ?400 bp were obtained, and were assigned to corresponding taxonomic ranks using ribosomal database project (RDP), Classifier and Greengenes databases. The percent of total potential pathogens were highest in urban runoff water (7.94%), agricultural runoff sediment (6.52%), and Prado Park sediment (6.00%), respectively. Although the numbers of DNA sequence tags from pyrosequencing were very high for the natural site, corresponding percent potential pathogens were very low (3.78–4.08%). Most of the potential pathogenic bacterial sequences identified were from three major phyla, namely, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes. The use of deep sequencing may provide improved and faster methods for the identification of pathogen sources in most watersheds so that better risk assessment methods may be developed to enhance public health. PMID:24278139

Ibekwe, A. Mark; Leddy, Menu; Murinda, Shelton E.

2013-01-01

112

Comparison of in vivo and in vitro methods for pathogenicity evaluation for mycoplasma gallisepticum in respiratory infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designated to examine the pathogenicity of several strains of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (R, F, S?6, 227 and A5969) and laboratory derived substrains. Preliminary results indicated that the nine M. gallisepticum strains differed markedly in their pathogenicity for chickens. A comparison was made between various in vivo and in vitro methods for quantitative evaluation of pathogenicity. Reproducibility, convenience, and

Sharon Levisohn; M. J. Dykstra; M. Y. Lin; S. H. Kleven

1986-01-01

113

Serologic Survey for Pathogens Potentially Affecting Pronghorn (Antilocapra Americana) Fawn Recruitment in Arizona, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the 1990s, pronghorn (An- tilocapra americana) populations declined in Arizona, USA. To investigate potential causes of decline, we collected blood samples from hunter-harvested male pronghorn from 2001 to 2003 on four Arizona sites. Sera were tested for antibody to parainfluenza virus type 3 (PI3), bovine viral diarrhea virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, bovine respiratory syncy- tial virus, epizootic hemorrhagic

Shelli A. Dubay; Ted H. Noon; James C. deVos; Richard A. Ockenfels

114

Intercostal and forearm muscle deoxygenation during respiratory fatigue in patients with heart failure: potential role of a respiratory muscle metaboreflex.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of respiratory muscle fatigue on intercostal and forearm muscle perfusion and oxygenation in patients with heart failure. Five clinically stable heart failure patients with respiratory muscle weakness (age, 66±12 years; left ventricle ejection fraction, 34±3%) and nine matched healthy controls underwent a respiratory muscle fatigue protocol, breathing against a fixed resistance at 60% of their maximal inspiratory pressure for as long as they could sustain the predetermined inspiratory pressure. Intercostal and forearm muscle blood volume and oxygenation were continuously monitored by near-infrared spectroscopy with transducers placed on the seventh left intercostal space and the left forearm. Data were compared by two-way ANOVA and Bonferroni correction. Respiratory fatigue occurred at 5.1±1.3 min in heart failure patients and at 9.3±1.4 min in controls (P<0.05), but perceived effort, changes in heart rate, and in systolic blood pressure were similar between groups (P>0.05). Respiratory fatigue in heart failure reduced intercostal and forearm muscle blood volume (P<0.05) along with decreased tissue oxygenation both in intercostal (heart failure, -2.6±1.6%; controls, +1.6±0.5%; P<0.05) and in forearm muscles (heart failure, -4.5±0.5%; controls, +0.5±0.8%; P<0.05). These results suggest that respiratory fatigue in patients with heart failure causes an oxygen demand/delivery mismatch in respiratory muscles, probably leading to a reflex reduction in peripheral limb muscle perfusion, featuring a respiratory metaboreflex. PMID:25296359

Moreno, A M; Castro, R R T; Silva, B M; Villacorta, H; Junior, M Sant'Anna; Nóbrega, A C L

2014-11-01

115

Detection of multiple potentially pathogenic bacteria in Matang mangrove estuaries, Malaysia.  

PubMed

The deltaic estuarine system of the Matang Mangrove Forest Reserve of Malaysia is a site where several human settlements and brackish water aquaculture have been established. Here, we evaluated the level of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and the presence of potentially pathogenic bacteria in the surface water and sediments. Higher levels of FIB were detected at downstream sampling sites from the fishing village, indicating it as a possible source of anthropogenic pollution to the estuary. Enterococci levels in the estuarine sediments were higher than in the surface water, while total coliforms and E. coli in the estuarine sediments were not detected in all samples. Also, various types of potentially pathogenic bacteria, including Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens and Enterobacter cloacae were isolated. The results indicate that the Matang estuarine system is contaminated with various types of potential human bacterial pathogens which might pose a health risk to the public. PMID:24820641

Ghaderpour, Aziz; Mohd Nasori, Khairul Nazrin; Chew, Li Lee; Chong, Ving Ching; Thong, Kwai Lin; Chai, Lay Ching

2014-06-15

116

Evaluating the Pathogenic Potential of Environmental Escherichia coli by Using the Caenorhabditis elegans Infection Model  

PubMed Central

The detection and abundance of Escherichia coli in water is used to monitor and mandate the quality of drinking and recreational water. Distinguishing commensal waterborne E. coli isolates from those that cause diarrhea or extraintestinal disease in humans is important for quantifying human health risk. A DNA microarray was used to evaluate the distribution of virulence genes in 148 E. coli environmental isolates from a watershed in eastern Ontario, Canada, and in eight clinical isolates. Their pathogenic potential was evaluated with Caenorhabditis elegans, and the concordance between the bioassay result and the pathotype deduced by genotyping was explored. Isolates identified as potentially pathogenic on the basis of their complement of virulence genes were significantly more likely to be pathogenic to C. elegans than those determined to be potentially nonpathogenic. A number of isolates that were identified as nonpathogenic on the basis of genotyping were pathogenic in the infection assay, suggesting that genotyping did not capture all potentially pathogenic types. The detection of the adhesin-encoding genes sfaD, focA, and focG, which encode adhesins; of iroN2, which encodes a siderophore receptor; of pic, which encodes an autotransporter protein; and of b1432, which encodes a putative transposase, was significantly associated with pathogenicity in the infection assay. Overall, E. coli isolates predicted to be pathogenic on the basis of genotyping were indeed so in the C. elegans infection assay. Furthermore, the detection of C. elegans-infective environmental isolates predicted to be nonpathogenic on the basis of genotyping suggests that there are hitherto-unrecognized virulence factors or combinations thereof that are important in the establishment of infection. PMID:23377948

Merkx-Jacques, Alexandra; Coors, Anja; Brousseau, Roland; Masson, Luke; Mazza, Alberto; Tien, Yuan-Ching

2013-01-01

117

Bacteria isolated from parasitic nematodes--a potential novel vector of pathogens?  

PubMed

Bacterial pathogens are ubiquitous in soil and water - concurrently so are free-living helminths that feed on bacteria. These helminths fall into two categories; the non-parasitic and the parasitic. The former have been the focus of previous work, finding that bacterial pathogens inside helminths are conferred survival advantages over and above bacteria alone in the environment, and that accidental ingestion of non-parasitic helminths can cause systemic infection in vertebrate hosts. Here, we determine the potential for bacteria to be associated with parasitic helminths. After culturing helminths from fecal samples obtained from livestock the external bacteria were removed. Two-hundred parasitic helminths from three different species were homogenised and the bacteria that were internal to the helminths were isolated and cultured. Eleven different bacterial isolates were found; of which eight were indentified. The bacteria identified included known human and cattle pathogens. We concluded that bacteria of livestock can be isolated in parasitic helminths and that this suggests a mechanism by which bacteria, pathogenic or otherwise, can be transmitted between individuals. The potential for helminths to play a role as pathogen vectors poses a potential livestock and human health risk. Further work is required to assess the epidemiological impact of this finding. PMID:20102584

Lacharme-Lora, Lizeth; Salisbury, Vyv; Humphrey, Tom J; Stafford, Kathryn; Perkins, Sarah E

2009-01-01

118

Stem respiratory potential in six softwood and four hardwood tree species in the central cascades of Oregon.  

PubMed

Mature and old growth trees of varying sapwood thickness were compared with regard to stem respiration. An increment core-based, laboratory method under controlled temperature was used to measure tissue-level respiration (termed respiratory potential) of ten different tree species. Bark (dead outer and live inner combined), sapwood, and heartwood thickness measurements were used to predict sapwood volume from stem diameter (including bark) for four of the ten species. These predictions of sapwood volume were used to scale respiratory potential to the main-bole level (excluding all branches). On the core level, species that maintained narrow sapwood (8-16% of bole radius) such as Pseudotusga menziesii, Taxus brevifolia, and Thuja plicata, had sapwood respiratory potentials in the lower bole that were 50% higher (P<0.05) than species with wide sapwood (>16% of bole radius), such as Abies amabilis, Pinus monticola, and Tsuga heterophylla. This pattern was not observed for inner bark respiratory potential, or for sapwood respiratory potential within the crown. On the main-bole level, respiratory potential per unit volume was inversely correlated to the live bole volumetric fraction (inner bark plus sapwood divided by whole bole volume) (Adj. R(2)=0.6). Specifically, tree species with 18-20% of the main bole alive potentially respired 1.3-3 times more per unit live bole volume than species with over 40%, suggesting that the live bole was less metabolically active in tree species that maintained large volumes of sapwood. PMID:12844251

Pruyn, Michele L; Harmon, Mark E; Gartner, B L

2003-09-01

119

Isolation and characterization of soil Streptomyces species as potential biological control agents against fungal plant pathogens.  

PubMed

The use of antagonist microorganisms against fungal plant pathogens is an attractive and ecologically alternative to the use of chemical pesticides. Streptomyces are beneficial soil bacteria and potential candidates for biocontrol agents. This study reports the isolation, characterization and antagonist activity of soil streptomycetes from the Los Petenes Biosphere Reserve, a Natural protected area in Campeche, Mexico. The results showed morphological, physiological and biochemical characterization of six actinomycetes and their inhibitory activity against Curvularia sp., Aspergillus niger, Helminthosporium sp. and Fusarium sp. One isolate, identified as Streptomyces sp. CACIS-1.16CA showed the potential to inhibit additional pathogens as Alternaria sp., Phytophthora capsici, Colletotrichum sp. and Rhizoctonia sp. with percentages ranging from 47 to 90 %. This study identified a streptomycete strain with a broad antagonist activity that could be used for biocontrol of plant pathogenic fungi. PMID:24310522

Evangelista-Martínez, Zahaed

2014-05-01

120

Assessment of the respiratory sensitization potential of proteins using an enhanced mouse intranasal test (MINT).  

PubMed

There remains a need for a simple and predictive animal model to identify potential respiratory sensitizers. The mouse intranasal test (MINT) was developed to assess the relative allergic potential of detergent enzymes, however, the experimental endpoints were limited to evaluation of antibody levels. The present study was designed to evaluate additional endpoints (serum and allergic antibody levels, pulmonary inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR)) to determine their value in improving the predictive accuracy of the MINT. BDF1 mice were intranasally instilled on days 1, 3, 10, 17 and 24 with subtilisin, ovalbumin, betalactoglobulin, mouse serum albumin or keyhole limpet hemocyanin; challenged with aerosolized methacholine or the sensitizing protein on day 29 to assess AHR, and sacrificed on day 29 or 30. Under the conditions of this study, evaluation of AHR did not improve the predictive power of this experimental model. Allergic antibody responses and IgG isotype characterization proved to be the most sensitive and reliable indicators of the protein allergenic potential with BAL responses providing additional insight. These data highlight that the evaluation of the respiratory sensitization potential of proteins can be best informed when multiple parameters are evaluated and that further improvements and refinements of the assay are necessary. PMID:23747714

Krieger, S M; Boverhof, D R; Woolhiser, M R; Hotchkiss, J A

2013-09-01

121

Drug use as potential protection against pathogens: Tobacco consumption vs. helminth load in  

E-print Network

Drug use as potential protection against pathogens: Tobacco consumption vs. helminth load in Aka) Neurobiology (Proximate level) Dopamine neurons #12;The reward model of drug use (proximate level) #12;The mesolimbic dopamine system Reward! This explains initial seeking and use (not addiction). #12;The punishment

122

Molecular identification of potential pathogens in water and air of a hospital therapy pool  

E-print Network

Molecular identification of potential pathogens in water and air of a hospital therapy pool Largus warm-water therapy pool workers in a Midwestern re- gional hospital were diagnosed with non a multiseason survey of microorganisms present in this therapy pool water, in biofilms associated with the pool

Kelley, Scott

123

A Legacy of Low-Impact Logging does not Elevate Prevalence of Potentially Pathogenic Protozoa  

E-print Network

in Free-Ranging Gorillas and Chimpanzees in the Republic of Congo: Logging and Parasitism in African Apes with these potentially pathogenic protozoa in sympatric western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla or gorillas. These results provide a baseline for prevalence of these protozoa in forest-dwelling African apes

124

Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus H7N7 Isolated From a Fatal Human Case Causes Respiratory Disease in Cats but Does Not Spread Systemically  

PubMed Central

Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) of the H5 and H7 subtypes primarily infect poultry but are occasionally transmitted to humans and other mammalian species, often causing severe disease. Previously we have shown that HPAIV H5N1 causes severe systemic disease in cats. In this study, we investigated whether HPAIV H7N7 isolated from a fatal human case is also able to cause disease in cats. Additionally, we compared the cell tropism of both viruses by immunohistochemistry and virus histochemistry. Three domestic cats were inoculated intratracheally with HPAIV H7N7. Virus excretion was restricted to the pharynx. At necropsy, 7 days post inoculation, lesions were restricted to the respiratory tract in all cats. Lesions consisted of diffuse alveolar damage and colocalized with virus antigen expression in type II pneumocytes and nonciliated bronchiolar cells. The attachment patterns of HPAIV H7N7 and H5N1 were similar: both viruses attached to nonciliated bronchiolar epithelial cells, type II pneumocytes, as well as alveolar macrophages. These data show for the first time that a non-H5 HPAIV is able to infect and cause respiratory disease in cats. The failure of HPAIV H7N7 to spread beyond the respiratory tract was not explained by differences in cell tropism compared to HPAIV H5N1. These findings suggest that HPAIV H5N1 possesses other characteristics that allow it to cause systemic disease in both humans and cats. PMID:20847292

van Riel, Debby; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F.; van Amerongen, Geert; Osterhaus, Albert D.M.E.; Kuiken, Thijs

2010-01-01

125

Nasopharyngeal colonization by potentially pathogenic bacteria found in healthy semi-captive wild-born chimpanzees in Uganda.  

PubMed

Information on the chimpanzee nasopharygeal colonization in captive sanctuaries and in the wild is rare. This study was undertaken to establish the nasopharygeal colonization and potential bacterial pathogens in sanctuary chimpanzees as a basis for improving chimpanzee and employee health. Nasopharygeal colonization of 39 healthy chimpanzees were analyzed by microbiological cultivation method and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. We report four major phyla dominated by Proteobacteria (50%), Fermicutes (35.7%), Bacteriodes (7.1%), and Cynobacteria (7.1%) in healthy semi-captive chimpanzees. Further classification based on 7-base oligomers revealed the following genera: Streptococcus, Veillonella, Neisseria, Prevotella, Kingella and unclassified Cynobacteria, Actinobacillus, Bacteriodes and Pasteurellaceae. On microbiological cultivation we were able to identify and characterize some of the bacteria to species level as Klebsiella pneumonie and Pseudomonas aeruginosa being dominant bacteria with 54.7% and 50% colonization, respectively. Of these, Streptococcus, Neisseria, Klebsiella, and Haemophillus have representatives known to potentially cause severe respiratory disease. Our data present important information on chimpanzee nasopharygeal colonization as a guide to understanding disease processes and pharmaceutical therapies required for improving the health of chimpanzees. The results from this study will guide the processes to improve procedures for routine management of sanctuary chimpanzees and use it as a basis for evaluation of future reintroduction possibilities. PMID:24395648

Mugisha, Lawrence; Köndgen, Sophie; Kaddu-Mulindwa, Deogratias; Gaffikin, Lynne; Leendertz, Fabian H

2014-02-01

126

Potential for the International Spread of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome in Association with Mass Gatherings in Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Background: A novel coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causing severe, life-threatening respiratory disease has emerged in the Middle East at a time when two international mass gatherings in Saudi Arabia are imminent. While MERS-CoV has already spread to and within other countries, these mass gatherings could further amplify and/or accelerate its international dissemination, especially since the origins and geographic source of the virus remain poorly understood. Methods: We analyzed 2012 worldwide flight itinerary data and historic Hajj pilgrim data to predict population movements out of Saudi Arabia and the broader Middle East to help cities and countries assess their potential for MERS-CoV importation. We compared the magnitude of travel to countries with their World Bank economic status and per capita healthcare expenditures as surrogate markers of their capacity for timely detection of imported MERS-CoV and their ability to mount an effective public health response. Results: 16.8 million travelers flew on commercial flights out of Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates between June and November 2012, of which 51.6% were destined for India (16.3%), Egypt (10.4%), Pakistan (7.8%), the United Kingdom (4.3%), Kuwait (3.6%), Bangladesh (3.1%), Iran (3.1%) and Bahrain (2.9%). Among the 1.74 million foreign pilgrims who performed the Hajj last year, an estimated 65.1% originated from low and lower-middle income countries. Conclusion: MERS-CoV is an emerging pathogen with pandemic potential with its apparent epicenter in Saudi Arabia, where millions of pilgrims will imminently congregate for two international mass gatherings. Understanding global population movements out of the Middle East through the end of this year's Hajj could help direct anticipatory MERS-CoV surveillance and public health preparedness to mitigate its potential global health and economic impacts. PMID:23884087

Khan, Kamran; Sears, Jennifer; Hu, Vivian Wei; Brownstein, John S; Hay, Simon; Kossowsky, David; Eckhardt, Rose; Chim, Tina; Berry, Isha; Bogoch, Isaac; Cetron, Martin

2013-01-01

127

Nsp9 and Nsp10 contribute to the fatal virulence of highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus emerging in China.  

PubMed

Atypical porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), which is caused by the Chinese highly pathogenic PRRS virus (HP-PRRSV), has resulted in large economic loss to the swine industry since its outbreak in 2006. However, to date, the region(s) within the viral genome that are related to the fatal virulence of HP-PRRSV remain unknown. In the present study, we generated a series of full-length infectious cDNA clones with swapped coding regions between the highly pathogenic RvJXwn and low pathogenic RvHB-1/3.9. Next, the in vitro and in vivo replication and pathogenicity for piglets of the rescued chimeric viruses were systematically analyzed and compared with their backbone viruses. First, we swapped the regions including the 5'UTR+ORF1a, ORF1b, and structural proteins (SPs)-coding region between the two viruses and demonstrated that the nonstructural protein-coding region, ORF1b, is directly related to the fatal virulence and increased replication efficiency of HP-PRRSV both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we substituted the nonstructural protein (Nsp) 9-, Nsp10-, Nsp11- and Nsp12-coding regions separately; or Nsp9- and Nsp10-coding regions together; or Nsp9-, Nsp10- and Nsp11-coding regions simultaneously between the two viruses. Our results indicated that the HP-PRRSV Nsp9- and Nsp10-coding regions together are closely related to the replication efficiency in vitro and in vivo and are related to the increased pathogenicity and fatal virulence for piglets. Our findings suggest that Nsp9 and Nsp10 together contribute to the fatal virulence of HP-PRRSV emerging in China, helping to elucidate the pathogenesis of this virus. PMID:24992286

Li, Yan; Zhou, Lei; Zhang, Jialong; Ge, Xinna; Zhou, Rong; Zheng, Huaguo; Geng, Gang; Guo, Xin; Yang, Hanchun

2014-07-01

128

Occurrence of Potentially Human-Pathogenic Escherichia coli O103 in Norwegian Sheep  

PubMed Central

The investigation of an outbreak of hemorrhagic-uremic syndrome in Norway in 2006 indicated that the outbreak strain Escherichia coli O103:H25 could originate from sheep. A national survey of the Norwegian sheep population was performed, with the aim of identifying and describing a possible reservoir of potentially human-pathogenic E. coli O103, in particular of the H types 2 and 25. The investigation of fecal samples from 585 sheep flocks resulted in 1,222 E. coli O103 isolates that were analyzed for the presence of eae and stx genes, while a subset of 369 isolates was further examined for flagellar antigens (H typing), stx subtypes, bfpA, astA, and molecular typing by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The total ovine E. coli O103 serogroup was genetically diverse by numbers of H types, virulotypes, and PFGE banding patterns identified, although a tendency of clustering toward serotypes was seen. The flocks positive for potentially human-pathogenic E. coli O103 were geographically widely distributed, and no association could be found with county or geographical region. The survey showed that eae-negative, stx-negative E. coli O103, probably nonpathogenic to humans, is very common in sheep, with 27.5% of flocks positive. Moreover, the study documented a low prevalence (0.7%) of potentially human-pathogenic Shiga toxin-producing E. coli O103:H2, while STEC O103:H25 was not detected. However, 3.1% and 5.8% of the flocks were positive for enteropathogenic E. coli O103 belonging to H types 2 and 25, respectively. These isolates are of concern as potential human pathogens by themselves but more importantly as possible precursors for human-pathogenic STEC. PMID:24077709

Sekse, Camilla; Sunde, Marianne; Hopp, Petter; Bruheim, Torkjel; Cudjoe, Kofitsyo Sewornu; Kvitle, Bj?rg

2013-01-01

129

Cytokine mRNA profiles for isocyanates with known and unknown potential to induce respiratory sensitization.  

PubMed

Isocyanates are low-molecular-weight chemicals implicated in allergic asthmatic-type reactions. Identification of chemicals likely to cause asthma is difficult due to the lack of a validated test method. One hypothesis is that differential cytokine induction (Th1 versus Th2 profiles) in the draining lymph node following dermal application can be used to identify asthmagens and distinguish them from contact allergens. In this study, we compared the cytokine mRNA profiles of six chemicals: toluene diisocyanate (TDI), diphenylmethane-4,4'-diisocyanate (MDI), dicyclohexylmethane-4,4'-diisocyanate (HMDI), isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI), p-tolyl(mono)isocyanate (TMI), and meta-tetramethylene xylene diisocyanate (TMXDI). Whereas TDI and MDI are well-known respiratory sensitizers, documentation for HMDI, IPDI, TMI, and TMXDI is limited, but suggests that HMDI and IPDI may have respiratory sensitization potential in humans and TMI and TMXDI do not. Following dermal exposure of BALB/c mice, all six isocyanates induced cytokines characteristic of a Th2 response. Although LLNAs suggested that the doses chosen for the RPA were immunologically equivalent, the isocyanates tested differentiated into two groups, high responders and low responders. However, two of the low responders (TMI and TMXDI) were further tested and induced higher levels of Th2 cytokine message than dinitrochlorobenzene (not an asthmagen). Further study of these chemicals is needed to determine whether the Th2 cytokine responses observed for these low responders is predictive of asthmagenic potential or represents an insufficient signal. PMID:15664275

Plitnick, L M; Loveless, S E; Ladics, G S; Holsapple, M P; Smialowicz, R J; Woolhiser, M R; Anderson, P K; Smith, C; Selgrade, M J K

2005-02-28

130

Screening of Swiss hot spring resorts for potentially pathogenic free-living amoebae.  

PubMed

Free-living amoebae (FLA) belonging to Acanthamoeba spp., Naegleria fowleri, Balamuthia mandrillaris, and Sappinia pedata are known to cause infections in humans and animals leading to severe brain pathologies. Worldwide, warm aquatic environments have been found to be suitable habitats for pathogenic FLA. The present study reports on screening for potentially pathogenic FLA in four hot spring resorts in Switzerland. Water samples were taken from water filtration units and from the pools, respectively. Amoebae isolated from samples taken during, or before, the filtration process were demonstrated to be morphologically and phylogenetically related to Stenoamoeba sp., Hartmannella vermiformis, Echinamoeba exundans, and Acanthamoeba healyi. With regard to the swimming pools, FLA were isolated only in one resort, and the isolate was identified as non-pathogenic and as related to E. exundans. Further investigations showed that the isolates morphologically and phylogenetically related to A. healyi displayed a pronounced thermotolerance, and exhibited a marked in vitro cytotoxicity upon 5-day exposure to murine L929 fibroblasts. Experimental intranasal infection of Rag2-immunodeficient mice with these isolates led to severe brain pathologies, and viable trophozoites were isolated from the nasal mucosa, brain tissue, and lungs post mortem. In summary, isolates related to A. healyi were suggestive of being potentially pathogenic to immunocompromised persons. However, the presence of these isolates was limited to the filtration units, and an effective threat for health can therefore be excluded. PMID:20036656

Gianinazzi, Christian; Schild, Marc; Zumkehr, Beatrice; Wüthrich, Fritz; Nüesch, Irina; Ryter, Regula; Schürch, Nadia; Gottstein, Bruno; Müller, Norbert

2010-09-01

131

Probiotic potential of Lactobacillus strains with antimicrobial activity against some human pathogenic strains.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to isolate, identify, and characterize some lactic acid bacterial strains from human milk, infant feces, and fermented grapes and dates, as potential probiotics with antimicrobial activity against some human pathogenic strains. One hundred and forty bacterial strains were isolated and, after initial identification and a preliminary screening for acid and bile tolerance, nine of the best isolates were selected and further identified using 16 S rRNA gene sequences. The nine selected isolates were then characterized in vitro for their probiotic characteristics and their antimicrobial activities against some human pathogens. Results showed that all nine isolates belonged to the genus Lactobacillus. They were able to tolerate pH 3 for 3 h, 0.3% bile salts for 4 h, and 1.9 mg/mL pancreatic enzymes for 3 h. They exhibited good ability to attach to intestinal epithelial cells and were not resistant to the tested antibiotics. They also showed good antimicrobial activities against the tested pathogenic strains of humans, and most of them exhibited stronger antimicrobial activity than the reference strain L. casei Shirota. Thus, the nine Lactobacillus strains could be considered as potential antimicrobial probiotic strains against human pathogens and should be further studied for their human health benefits. PMID:25105147

Shokryazdan, Parisa; Sieo, Chin Chin; Kalavathy, Ramasamy; Liang, Juan Boo; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Faseleh Jahromi, Mohammad; Ho, Yin Wan

2014-01-01

132

Experimental demonstration of pathogenic potential of Anisakis physeteris and Anisakis paggiae in Wistar rats.  

PubMed

Anisakis morphotype I is the principal etiologic agent of human anisakiasis, with differences in pathogenicity found between the Anisakis simplex s.s. and A. pegreffii species; however, the role of morphotype II larvae in this illness is not well understood. The purpose of this study is to verify the ability of morphotype II larvae to invade tissues via the experimental infection of Wistar rats, an animal model which simulates infection in humans. In the in vivo assay, 7.1 % (4/56 L3 morphotype II) showed pathogenic potential, defined as the capacity of the larvae to cause lesions, attach to the gastrointestinal wall or penetrate it. Two of these larvae, one of A. physeteris and one of A. paggiae, penetrated the stomach wall and were found within the abdominal cavity, with the first one producing a small lesion with blood vessel breakage. The majority of the L3 larvae of morphotype II were found in the intestine (51.8 %; 29/56) with the caecum being the least frequent location (8.9 %; 5/56). In contrast, 44.0 % (11/25) of the morphotype I larvae demonstrated pathogenic potential. Isoenzyme electrophoresis, PCR-RFLP of ITS1-5.8 s-ITS2 and PCR-sequencing of the cox2 mitochondrial gene were used to identify these larvae as A. physeteris (42.9 %), A. paggiae (30.3 %) and A. brevispiculata (1.8 %). Although the morphotype II larvae of A. physeteris and A. paggiae have lower pathogenic potential than morphotype I larvae of A. simplex s.s. (93 and 91 % lower, respectively), they may still be implicated in human anisakiasis, as they are capable of attaching to and penetrating the gastrointestinal wall of animals, demonstrating a similar pathogenicity to that of A. pegreffii. The techniques used for the identification of species reveal a great genetic heterogeneity of A. paggiae and A. physeteris, suggesting the existence of sibling species. PMID:25240961

Romero, María Carmen; Valero, Adela; Navarro, María Concepción; Hierro, Ignacio; Barón, Sergio David; Martín-Sánchez, Joaquina

2014-12-01

133

Snow in the city as a spore bank of potentially pathogenic fungi.  

PubMed

This study evaluates the role of snow as a specific ecological niche and a vector in fungal spreading with particular emphasis on potential pathogens in seasonally and daily changing conditions. The experimental material was fungi isolated from the atmospheric air, snow cover, and fragments of ice and soil from underneath the snow cover. The total count of microfungi in the air before snowfall, i.e. in the autumn, reached 1756.1 CFU/m(3) on average. After the first snowfalls, it dropped to 85.2 CFU/m(3). The analyzed samples of snow cover contained from 101.6 to 8500.0 CFU/m(3) of fungi. Furthermore, 26 species of yeast and yeast-like fungi were isolated from the experimental material. Amongst the analyzed species, 13 were potential anthropopathogens. Though another three species were isolated from organ ontocenoses, i.e. Candida intermedia, Saccharomyces bayanus and Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, their pathogenic potential has not yet been explicitly confirmed. The results of the presented study may be applied in predicting concentrations of fungal spores responsible for mycoses. The first snowfalls significantly reduced the number of colony-forming units of fungi in the air. Under conditions of temperate climate, snow becomes a temporary bank of yeast-like fungi spores and while it melts cells of deposited microfungi migrate to the atmosphere. Hence, individuals with impaired immunity or in the course of immunosuppression or recovery should avoid long walks during periods of snow melting. The count of fungi in urban bioaerosol during the melt may be reduced through systematic removal of snow cover, which is a significant reservoir of potential pathogens. In addition, it should be noted that even a typical psychrophilic strain, capable of surviving at a temperature of 37°C, may bear a significant pathogenic potential. PMID:24176713

Ejdys, El?bieta; Biedunkiewicz, Anna; Dynowska, Maria; Sucharzewska, Ewa

2014-02-01

134

Mitochondrial Respiratory Pathways Inhibition in Rhizopus oryzae Potentiates Activity of Posaconazole and Itraconazole via Apoptosis  

PubMed Central

The incidence of mucormycosis has increased drastically in immunocompromised patients. Also the array of targets whose inhibition results in Mucorales death is limited. Recently, researchers identified mitochondria as important regulators of detoxification and virulence mechanisms in fungi. In this context, targeting the mitochondrial respiratory chain may provide a new platform for antifungal development. We hypothesized that targeting respiratory pathways potentiates triazoles activity via apoptosis. We found that simultaneous administration of antimycin A (AA) and benzohydroxamate (BHAM), inhibitors of classical and alternative mitochondrial pathways respectively, resulted in potent activity of posaconazole (PCZ) and itraconazole (ICZ) against Rhizopus oryzae. We observed cellular changes characteristic of apoptosis in R. oryzae cells treated with PCZ or ICZ in combination with AA and BHAM. The fungicidal activity of this combination against R. oryzae was correlated with intracellular reactive oxygen species accumulation (ROS), phosphatidylserine externalization, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, and increased caspase like activity. DNA fragmentation and condensation assays also revealed apoptosis of R. oryzae cells. These apoptotic features were prevented by the addition of the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-cysteine. Taken together, these findings suggest that the use of PCZ or ICZ in combination with AA and BHAM makes R. oryzae exquisitely sensitive to treatment with triazoles via apoptosis. This strategy may serve as a new model for the development of improved or novel antifungal agents. PMID:23696824

Shirazi, Fazal; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P.

2013-01-01

135

Bartonella Infection in Animals: Carriership, Reservoir Potential, Pathogenicity, and Zoonotic Potential for Human Infection  

PubMed Central

Recent observations have begun to support a role for Bartonella spp. as animal as well as human pathogens. Bartonella spp. are vector-transmitted, blood-borne, intracellular, gram-negative bacteria that can induce prolonged infection in the host. Persistent infections in domestic and wild animals result in a substantial reservoir of Bartonella organisms in nature that can serve as a source for inadvertent human infection. The prevalence of bacteremia can range from 50 to 95% in selected rodent, cat, deer, and cattle populations. Dogs infected with Bartonella spp. can develop lameness, endocarditis, granulomatous lymphadenitis, and peliosis hepatis, lesions that have also been reported in association with human infection. Understanding the role of Bartonella spp. as pathogens in cats and other wild or domestic animals awaits the results of additional studies. Considering the extensive animal reservoirs and the large number of insects that have been implicated in the transmission of Bartonella spp., both animal and human exposure to these organisms may be more substantial than is currently believed. PMID:10885985

Breitschwerdt, Edward B.; Kordick, Dorsey L.

2000-01-01

136

Nationwide surveillance of bacterial respiratory pathogens conducted by the Surveillance Committee of Japanese Society of Chemotherapy, Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases, and Japanese Society for Clinical Microbiology in 2009: general view of the pathogens' antibacterial susceptibility.  

PubMed

For the purpose of nationwide surveillance of antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial respiratory pathogens from patients in Japan, the Japanese Society of Chemotherapy (JSC) started a survey in 2006. From 2009, JSC continued the survey in collaboration with the Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases and the Japanese Society for Clinical Microbiology. The fourth-year survey was conducted during the period from January and April 2009 by the three societies. A total of 684 strains were collected from clinical specimens obtained from well-diagnosed adult patients with respiratory tract infections. Susceptibility testing was evaluable with 635 strains (130 Staphylococcus aureus, 127 Streptococcus pneumoniae, 4 Streptococcus pyogenes, 123 Haemophilus influenzae, 70 Moraxella catarrhalis, 78 Klebsiella pneumoniae, and 103 Pseudomonas aeruginosa). A maximum of 45 antibacterial agents including 26 ?-lactams (four penicillins, three penicillins in combination with ?-lactamase inhibitors, four oral cephems, eight parenteral cephems, one monobactam, five carbapenems, and one penem), four aminoglycosides, four macrolides (including ketolide), one lincosamide, one tetracycline, two glycopeptides, six fluoroquinolones, and one oxazolidinone were used for the study. Analysis was conducted at the central reference laboratory according to the method recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI). Incidence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was as high as 58.5 %, and that of penicillin-intermediate and penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae (PISP and PRSP) was 6.3 % and 0.0 %, respectively. Among H. influenzae, 21.1 % of them were found to be ?-lactamase-non-producing ampicillin (ABPC)-intermediately resistant (BLNAI), 18.7 % to be ?-lactamase-non-producing ABPC-resistant (BLNAR), and 5.7 % to be ?-lactamase-producing ABPC-resistant (BLPAR) strains. A high frequency (76.5 %) of ?-lactamase-producing strains has been suspected in Moraxella catarrhalis isolates. Four (3.2 %) extended-spectrum ?-lactamase-producing K. pneumoniae were found among 126 strains. Four isolates (2.5 %) of P. aeruginosa were found to be metallo-?-lactamase-producing strains, including three (1.9 %) suspected multi-drug resistant strains showing resistance against imipenem, amikacin, and ciprofloxacin. Continuous national surveillance of the antimicrobial susceptibility of respiratory pathogens is crucial to monitor changing patterns of susceptibility and to be able to update treatment recommendations on a regular basis. PMID:22766652

Watanabe, Akira; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Matsumoto, Tetsuya; Kohno, Shigeru; Aoki, Nobuki; Oguri, Toyoko; Sato, Junko; Muratani, Tetsuro; Yagisawa, Morimasa; Ogasawara, Kazuhiko; Koashi, Naoto; Kozuki, Tsuneo; Komoto, Akira; Takahashi, Yoshisaburo; Tsuji, Toshikatsu; Terada, Michinori; Nakanishi, Kunio; Hattori, Rikizo; Hirako, Yukio; Maruo, Akinori; Minamitani, Shinichi; Morita, Kohei; Wakamura, Tomotaro; Sunakawa, Keisuke; Hanaki, Hideaki; Ohsaki, Yoshinobu; Honda, Yasuhito; Sasaoka, Shoichi; Takeda, Hiroaki; Ikeda, Hideki; Sugai, Atsuko; Miki, Makoto; Nakanowatari, Susumu; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Utagawa, Mutsuko; Kobayashi, Nobuyuki; Takasaki, Jin; Konosaki, Hisami; Aoki, Yasuko; Shoji, Michi; Goto, Hajime; Saraya, Takeshi; Kurai, Daisuke; Okazaki, Mitsuhiro; Kobayashi, Yoshio; Katono, Yasuhiro; Kawana, Akihiko; Saionji, Katsu; Miyazawa, Naoki; Sato, Yoshimi; Watanuki, Yuji; Kudo, Makoto; Ehara, Shigeru; Tsukada, Hiroki; Imai, Yumiko; Watabe, Nobuei; Aso, Sakura; Honma, Yasuo; Mikamo, Hiroshige; Yamagishi, Yuka; Takesue, Yoshio; Wada, Yasunao; Nakamura, Tadahiro; Mitsuno, Noriko; Mikasa, Keiichi; Kasahara, Kei; Uno, Kenji; Sano, Reiko; Miyashita, Naoyuki; Kurokawa, Yukinori; Takaya, Mariko; Kuwabara, Masao; Watanabe, Yaeko; Doi, Masao; Shimizu, Satomi; Negayama, Kiyoshi; Kadota, Junichi; Hiramatsu, Kazufumi; Morinaga, Yoshitomo; Honda, Junichi; Fujita, Masaki; Iwata, Satoshi; Iwamoto, Aikichi; Ezaki, Takayuki; Onodera, Shoichi; Kusachi, Shinya; Tateda, Kazuhiro; Tanaka, Michio; Totsuka, Kyoichi; Niki, Yoshihito; Matsumoto, Tetsuro

2012-10-01

137

ZOONOTIC POTENTIAL OF HIGHLY PATHOGENIC AVIAN H7N3 INFLUENZA VIRUSES FROM PAKISTAN  

PubMed Central

H5 and H7 avian influenza viruses can become highly pathogenic in chickens after interspecies transmission. These viruses have transmitted directly to humans from birds in Eurasia and Africa (H5N1), the Netherlands (H7N7), and Canada (H7N3). Here we report antigenic, sequence, and phylogenetic analyses of H7N3 viruses isolated from chickens in Pakistan from 1995 to 2002. We compared the pathogenic and zoonotic potential of the Pakistani viruses in avian and mammalian hosts. In chickens, all of the isolates showed high pathogenicity with poor transmissibility to contact birds. Viral shedding from the trachea and cloaca was equivalent, but cloacal shedding occurred longer; dissemination of virus into the tissues was widespread. In contrast, the viruses replicated poorly in 6-week-old mallard ducks. In mammalian hosts, of the two Pakistani H7N3/02 viruses that caused weight loss, one also caused 40% mortality in mice without prior adaptation, and preliminary experiments in ferrets showed significant virus multiplication in the lungs, intestine, and conjunctiva. We conclude that the H7N3/02 isolates from Pakistan show limited antigenic drift and have evolved slowly during their 8-year circulation in chickens; however, these viruses have the potential to infect mammals. PMID:19535120

Aamir, Uzma B.; Naeem, Khalid; Ahmed, Zaheer; Obert, Caroline A; Franks, John; Krauss, Scott; Seiler, Patrick; Webster, Robert G.

2009-01-01

138

Asociación entre anticuerpos contra el virus del síndrome disgenésico y respiratorio porcino y anticuerpos contra otros patógenos Association between antibodies against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and other pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to investigate a possible association between porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and other viral and bacterial pathogenic agents found in swine, a serological model was followed. For this study, 3600, 4 to 6 month-old fi nishers were bled and tested for antibodies against various infectious agents. The specifi c antibodies against PRRSV, Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV),

Fernando Diosdado Vargas; Dolores González-Vega; Luis Pedro Moles-Cervantes; Antonio Morilla González

139

Biochemical characterization of potential virulence markers in the human fungal pathogen Pseudallescheria boydii.  

PubMed

The ubiquitous Pseudallescheria boydii (anamorph Scedosporium apiospermum) is a saprophytic filamentous fungus recognized as a potent etiologic agent of a wide variety of infections in immunocompromised as well as in immunocompetent patients. Very little is known about the virulence factors expressed by this fungal pathogen. The present review provides an overview of recent discoveries related to the identification and biochemical characterization of potential virulence attributes produced by P. boydii, with special emphasis on surface and released molecules. These structures include polysaccharides (glucans), glycopeptides (peptidorhamnomannans), glycolipids (glucosylceramides) and hydrolytic enzymes (proteases, phosphatases and superoxide dismutase), which have been implicated in some fundamental cellular processes in P. boydii including growth, differentiation and interaction with host molecules. Elucidation of the structure of cell surface components as well as the secreted molecules, especially those that function as virulence determinants, is of great relevance to understand the pathogenic mechanisms of P. boydii. PMID:19235547

Santos, André L S; Bittencourt, Vera C B; Pinto, Marcia R; Silva, Bianca A; Barreto-Bergter, Eliana

2009-06-01

140

Potential strategies and biosafety protocols used for dual-use research on highly pathogenic influenza viruses  

PubMed Central

Summary Influenza A viruses (IAVs), particularly the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1, have posed a substantial threat to public health worldwide. Although the laboratory generation of the mutant influenza virus H5N1 with airborne transmissibility among mammals, which has been considered as a dual-use research, may benefit the development of effective vaccines and therapeutics against the emerging infectious agents, it may also pose threats to national biosecurity, laboratory biosafety, and/or public health. This review introduces the classification and characterization of IAVs, pinpoints historic pandemics and epidemics caused by IAVs, emphasizes the significance and necessity of biosafety, summarizes currently established biosafety-related protocols for IAV research, and provides potential strategies to improve biosafety protocols for dual-use research on the highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses and other emerging infectious agents. PMID:22987727

Du, Lanying; Li, Ye; Gao, Jimin; Zhou, Yusen; Jiang, Shibo

2013-01-01

141

A potential link between bacterial pathogens and allergic conjunctivitis by dendritic cells.  

PubMed

The association and mechanism of bacteria linking to the allergic inflammation have not been well elucidated. This study was to explore a potential link between bacterial pathogens and allergic conjunctivitis by dendritic cells (DCs). Bone marrow-derived DCs from BALB/c and MyD88 knockout mice were treated with or without bacterial pathogens or thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP). Two murine models of the topical challenge with LPS or flagellin and experimental allergic conjunctivitis (EAC) were used for in vivo study. The mRNA expression was determined by reverse transcription and real time PCR, and protein production was evaluated by ELISA, Western blotting, immunofluorescent staining and flow cytometry. TSLP mRNA and protein were found to be largely induced by DCs challenged with microbial pathogens, highly by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and flagellin. The expression of MyD88, NF?B1, NF?B2 and RelA accompanied by NF?B p65 nuclear translocation and TSLP induction were significantly stimulated by flagellin, but blocked by TLR5 antibody or NF?B inhibitor in DCs from MyD88(+/+) but not MyD88(-/-) mice. TSLP promoted the expression of CD40, CD80, OX40 ligand (OX40L), IL-13 and CCL17 by DCs. TSLP-producing DCs were identified in vivo in ocular surface conjunctiva and draining cervical lymph nodes from two murine models of topical challenge with LPS or flagellin, and EAC in BALB/c mice. TSLP/TSLPR/OX40L signaling was observed in DCs of EAC mice. Our findings demonstrate that DCs not only respond to TSLP, but also produce TSLP via TLR/MyD88/NF?B pathways in response to bacterial pathogens, suggesting a potential link between bacteria and allergic disease. PMID:24486456

Deng, Ruzhi; Su, Zhitao; Lu, Fan; Zhang, Lili; Lin, Jing; Zhang, Xiaobo; de Paiva, Cintia S; Pflugfelder, Stephen C; Li, De-Quan

2014-03-01

142

Systems Integration of Biodefense Omics Data for Analysis of Pathogen-Host Interactions and Identification of Potential Targets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NIAID (National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Diseases) Biodefense Proteomics program aims to identify targets for potential vaccines, therapeutics, and diagnostics for agents of concern in bioterrorism, including bacterial, parasitic, and viral pathogens. The program includes seven Proteomics Research Centers, generating diverse types of pathogen-host data, including mass spectrometry, microarray transcriptional profiles, protein interactions, protein structures and biological reagents.

Peter B. McGarvey; Hongzhan Huang; Raja Mazumder; Jian Zhang; Yongxing Chen; Chengdong Zhang; Stephen Cammer; Rebecca Will; Margie Odle; Bruno Sobral; Margaret Moore; Cathy H. Wu; Jörg Hoheisel

2009-01-01

143

Iron Availability Increases the Pathogenic Potential of Salmonella Typhimurium and Other Enteric Pathogens at the Intestinal Epithelial Interface  

PubMed Central

Recent trials have questioned the safety of untargeted oral iron supplementation in developing regions. Excess of luminal iron could select for enteric pathogens at the expense of beneficial commensals in the human gut microflora, thereby increasing the incidence of infectious diseases. The objective of the current study was to determine the effect of high iron availability on virulence traits of prevalent enteric pathogens at the host-microbe interface. A panel of enteric bacteria was cultured under iron-limiting conditions and in the presence of increasing concentrations of ferric citrate to assess the effect on bacterial growth, epithelial adhesion, invasion, translocation and epithelial damage in vitro. Translocation and epithelial integrity experiments were performed using a transwell system in which Caco-2 cells were allowed to differentiate to a tight epithelial monolayer mimicking the intestinal epithelial barrier. Growth of Salmonella typhimurium and other enteric pathogens was increased in response to iron. Adhesion of S. typhimurium to epithelial cells markedly increased when these bacteria were pre-incubated with increasing iron concentration (P?=?0.0001), whereas this was not the case for the non-pathogenic Lactobacillus plantarum (P?=?0.42). Cellular invasion and epithelial translocation of S. typhimurium followed the trend of increased adhesion. Epithelial damage was increased upon incubation with S. typhimurium or Citrobacter freundii that were pre-incubated under iron-rich conditions. In conclusion, our data fit with the consensus that oral iron supplementation is not without risk as iron could, in addition to inducing pathogenic overgrowth, also increase the virulence of prevalent enteric pathogens. PMID:22272265

Kortman, Guus A. M.; Boleij, Annemarie; Swinkels, Dorine W.; Tjalsma, Harold

2012-01-01

144

Genotyping of Environmental and Clinical Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Isolates and their Pathogenic Potential  

PubMed Central

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is a highly versatile species with useful biotechnological potential but also with pathogenic properties. In light of possible differences in virulence characteristics, knowledge about genomic subgroups is therefore desirable. Two different genotyping methods, rep-PCR fingerprinting and partial gyrB gene sequencing were used to elucidate S. maltophilia intraspecies diversity. Rep-PCR fingerprinting revealed the presence of 12 large subgroups, while gyrB gene sequencing distinguished 10 subgroups. For 8 of them, the same strain composition was shown with both typing methods. A subset of 59 isolates representative for the gyrB groups was further investigated with regards to their pathogenic properties in a virulence model using Dictyostelium discoideum and Acanthamoeba castellanii as host organisms. A clear tendency towards accumulation of virulent strains could be observed for one group with A. castellanii and for two groups with D. discoideum. Several virulent strains did not cluster in any of the genetic groups, while other groups displayed no virulence properties at all. The amoeba pathogenicity model proved suitable in showing differences in S. maltophilia virulence. However, the model is still not sufficient to completely elucidate virulence as critical for a human host, since several strains involved in human infections did not show any virulence against amoeba. PMID:22110692

Adamek, Martina; Overhage, Jorg; Bathe, Stephan; Winter, Josef; Fischer, Reinhard; Schwartz, Thomas

2011-01-01

145

The Pathogenic Potential of Campylobacter concisus Strains Associated with Chronic Intestinal Diseases  

PubMed Central

Campylobacter concisus has garnered increasing attention due to its association with intestinal disease, thus, the pathogenic potential of strains isolated from different intestinal diseases was investigated. A method to isolate C. concisus was developed and the ability of eight strains from chronic and acute intestinal diseases to adhere to and invade intestinal epithelial cells was determined. Features associated with bacterial invasion were investigated using comparative genomic analyses and the effect of C. concisus on host protein expression was examined using proteomics. Our isolation method from intestinal biopsies resulted in the isolation of three C. concisus strains from children with Crohn's disease or chronic gastroenteritis. Four C. concisus strains from patients with chronic intestinal diseases can attach to and invade host cells using mechanisms such as chemoattraction to mucin, aggregation, flagellum-mediated attachment, “membrane ruffling”, cell penetration and damage. C. concisus strains isolated from patients with chronic intestinal diseases have significantly higher invasive potential than those from acute intestinal diseases. Investigation of the cause of this increased pathogenic potential revealed a plasmid to be responsible. 78 and 47 proteins were upregulated and downregulated in cells infected with C. concisus, respectively. Functional analysis of these proteins showed that C. concisus infection regulated processes related to interleukin-12 production, proteasome activation and NF-?B activation. Infection with all eight C. concisus strains resulted in host cells producing high levels of interleukin-12, however, only strains capable of invading host cells resulted in interferon-? production as confirmed by ELISA. These findings considerably support the emergence of C. concisus as an intestinal pathogen, but more significantly, provide novel insights into the host immune response and an explanation for the heterogeneity observed in the outcome of C. concisus infection. Moreover, response to infection with invasive strains has substantial similarities to that observed in the inflamed mucosa of Crohn's disease patients. PMID:22194985

Kaakoush, Nadeem O.; Deshpande, Nandan P.; Wilkins, Marc R.; Tan, Chew Gee; Burgos-Portugal, Jose A.; Raftery, Mark J.; Day, Andrew S.; Lemberg, Daniel A.; Mitchell, Hazel

2011-01-01

146

Stem respiratory potential in six softwood and four hardwood tree species in the central cascades of Oregon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mature and old growth trees of varying sapwood thickness were compared with regard to stem respiration. An increment core-based, laboratory method under controlled temperature was used to measure tissue-level respiration (termed respiratory potential) of ten different tree species. Bark (dead outer and live inner combined), sapwood, and heartwood thickness measurements were used to predict sapwood volume from stem diameter (including

Michele L. Pruyn; Mark E. Harmon; B. L. Gartner

2003-01-01

147

Aerobic bacterial oral flora of garter snakes: development of normal flora and pathogenic potential for snakes and humans.  

PubMed Central

Garter snakes that are used for scientific laboratory studies or kept as exotic pets often become ill and die early in captivity. They may also act as reservoirs of potential human pathogens or transmit infection to man. A total of 126 strains of aerobic and facultative bacteria, most potential human and snake pathogens, were isolated from 82 garter snake oropharyngeal cultures. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species were the most common species isolated. Acinetobacter calcoaceticus var. anitratus, Hafnia alvei, Arizona hinshawii, Salmonella species, Shigella species, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were among the potential pathogens isolated. The spectrum of bacteria with potential for causing oral and pulmonary infections in garter snakes is greater than has been previously appreciated. Garter snakes should also be considered reservoirs of human pathogens, and appropriate precautions should be taken by laboratory personnel and pet owners. PMID:7240404

Goldstein, E J; Agyare, E O; Vagvolgyi, A E; Halpern, M

1981-01-01

148

Diagnostic potential of the pulsed discharged helium ionization detector (PDHID) for pathogenic Mycobacterial volatile biomarkers.  

PubMed

Pathogenic Mycobacteria cause diseases in animals and humans with significant economic and societal consequences. Current methods for Mycobacterial detection relies upon time- and labor-intensive techniques such as culturing or DNA analysis. Using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, four volatile compounds (methyl phenylacetate, methyl p-anisate, methyl nicotinate and o-phenyl anisole) were recently proposed as potential biomarkers for Mycobacteria. We demonstrate for the first time the capabilities of a field-deployable, pulsed discharge helium ionization detector (PDHID) for sensing these volatiles. We determined the analytical performance of the PDHID toward these Mycobacterial volatiles. Detector performance was moderately affected over the temperature range of 150 to 350 °C. The linear dynamic range for all four analytes exceeded three orders of magnitude. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantitation (LOQ) were calculated as 150 and 450 pg respectively, for all compounds, except methyl phenylacetate (LOD and LOQ, 90 and 270 pg, respectively). Control charts revealed that the PDHID detection system was generally stable, and deviations could be traced to common causes and excluded special causes. Grob tests and ionization potential data suggest that the PDHID is capable of detecting Mycobacterial volatiles in a complex milieu such as culture headspace or breath samples from tuberculosis patients. The diagnostic potential of the PDHID is critical to our goal of a handheld, field-deployable 'sniffer' system for biological pathogens and chemical warfare agents. PMID:23867723

Manginell, Ronald P; Pimentel, Adam S; Mowry, Curtis D; Mangan, Michael A; Moorman, Matthew W; Allen, Amy; Schares, Elizabeth S; Achyuthan, Komandoor E

2013-09-01

149

High Pathogenic Potential of Low-Affinity Autoantibodies in Experimental Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary To assess the potency of low-affinity anti-red blood cell (RBC) autoantibodies in the induc- tion of anemia, we generated an immunoglobulin (Ig)G2a class-switch variant of a 4C8 IgM anti-mouse RBC autoantibody, and compared its pathogenic potential with that of its IgM isotype and a high-affinity 34-3C IgG2a autoantibody. The RBC-binding activity of the 4C8 IgG2a variant was barely detectable,

Liliane Fossati-Jimack; Luc Reininger; Yves Chicheportiche; Raphael Clynes; Jeffrey V. Ravetch; Tasuku Honjo; Shozo Izui

2010-01-01

150

Avian reservoirs and zoonotic potential of the emerging human pathogen Helicobacter canadensis.  

PubMed

A polyphasic identification approach was used to investigate the taxonomic position of Campylobacter-like isolates recovered from barnacle geese (Branta leucopsis) and Canada geese (Branta candensis). Seven strains were selected from a collection of 21 isolates and analyzed by extensive phenotypic testing; four strains were characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The results clearly identified the bird isolates as Helicobacter canadensis, recently described as an emerging human pathogen. This is the first report of an animal reservoir for this organism and of its presence in Europe and confirms the zoonotic potential of H. canadensis. PMID:14660407

Waldenström, Jonas; On, Stephen L W; Ottvall, Richard; Hasselquist, Dennis; Harrington, Clare S; Olsen, Björn

2003-12-01

151

Surveillance for emerging respiratory viruses.  

PubMed

Several new viral respiratory tract infectious diseases with epidemic potential that threaten global health security have emerged in the past 15 years. In 2003, WHO issued a worldwide alert for an unknown emerging illness, later named severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). The disease caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV) rapidly spread worldwide, causing more than 8000 cases and 800 deaths in more than 30 countries with a substantial economic impact. Since then, we have witnessed the emergence of several other viral respiratory pathogens including influenza viruses (avian influenza H5N1, H7N9, and H10N8; variant influenza A H3N2 virus), human adenovirus-14, and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). In response, various surveillance systems have been developed to monitor the emergence of respiratory-tract infections. These include systems based on identification of syndromes, web-based systems, systems that gather health data from health facilities (such as emergency departments and family doctors), and systems that rely on self-reporting by patients. More effective national, regional, and international surveillance systems are required to enable rapid identification of emerging respiratory epidemics, diseases with epidemic potential, their specific microbial cause, origin, mode of acquisition, and transmission dynamics. PMID:25189347

Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A; Zumla, Alimuddin; Gautret, Philippe; Gray, Gregory C; Hui, David S; Al-Rabeeah, Abdullah A; Memish, Ziad A

2014-10-01

152

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection induces cyclooxygenase 2: a potential target for RSV therapy.  

PubMed

Cyclooxygenases (COXs) are rate-limiting enzymes that initiate the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostanoids. COX-2 is the inducible isoform that is up-regulated by proinflammatory agents, initiating many prostanoid-mediated pathological aspects of inflammation. The roles of cyclooxygenases and their products, PGs, have not been evaluated during respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. In this study we demonstrate that COX-2 is induced by RSV infection of human lung alveolar epithelial cells with the concomitant production of PGs. COX-2 induction was dependent on the dose of virus and the time postinfection. PG production was inhibited preferentially by NS-398, a COX-2-specific inhibitor, and indomethacin, a pan-COX inhibitor, but not by SC-560, a COX-1-specific inhibitor. In vivo, COX-2 mRNA expression and protein production were strongly induced in the lungs and cells derived from bronchioalveolar lavage of cotton rats infected with RSV. The pattern of COX-2 expression in vivo in lungs is cyclical, with a final peak on day 5 that correlates with maximal histopathology. Treatment of cotton rats with indomethacin significantly mitigated lung histopathology produced by RSV. The studies described in this study provide the first evidence that COX-2 is a potential therapeutic target in RSV-induced disease. PMID:15778400

Richardson, Joann Y; Ottolini, Martin G; Pletneva, Lioubov; Boukhvalova, Marina; Zhang, Shuling; Vogel, Stefanie N; Prince, Gregory A; Blanco, Jorge C G

2005-04-01

153

The respiratory cycle modulates brain potentials, sympathetic activity, and subjective pain sensation induced by noxious stimulation.  

PubMed

To test the hypothesis that a respiratory cycle influences pain processing, we conducted an experimental pain study in 10 healthy volunteers. Intraepidermal electrical stimulation (IES) with a concentric bipolar needle electrode was applied to the hand dorsum at pain perceptual threshold or four times the perceptual threshold to produce first pain during expiration or inspiration either of which was determined by the abrupt change in an exhaled CO2 level. IES-evoked potentials (IESEPs), sympathetic skin response (SSR), digital plethysmogram (DPG), and subjective pain intensity rating scale were simultaneously recorded. With either stimulus intensity, IES during expiration produced weaker pain feeling compared to IES during inspiration. The mean amplitude of N200/P400 in IESEPs and that of SSR were smaller when IES was applied during expiration. The magnitude of DPG wave gradually decreased after IES, but a decrease in the magnitude of DPG wave was less evident when IES was delivered during expiration. Regardless of stimulus timing or stimulus intensity, pain perception was always concomitant with appearance of IESEPs and SSR, and changes in DPG. Our findings suggest that pain processing fluctuates during normal breathing and that pain is gated within the central nervous system during expiration. PMID:24667456

Iwabe, Tatsuya; Ozaki, Isamu; Hashizume, Akira

2014-07-01

154

Climate Change and the Potential Spreading of Marine Mucilage and Microbial Pathogens in the Mediterranean Sea  

PubMed Central

Background Marine snow (small amorphous aggregates with colloidal properties) is present in all oceans of the world. Surface water warming and the consequent increase of water column stability can favour the coalescence of marine snow into marine mucilage, large marine aggregates representing an ephemeral and extreme habitat. Marine mucilage characterize aquatic systems with altered environmental conditions. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated, by means of molecular techniques, viruses and prokaryotes within the mucilage and in surrounding seawater to examine the potential of mucilage to host new microbial diversity and/or spread marine diseases. We found that marine mucilage contained a large and unexpectedly exclusive microbial biodiversity and hosted pathogenic species that were absent in surrounding seawater. We also investigated the relationship between climate change and the frequency of mucilage in the Mediterranean Sea over the last 200 years and found that the number of mucilage outbreaks increased almost exponentially in the last 20 years. The increasing frequency of mucilage outbreaks is closely associated with the temperature anomalies. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that the spreading of mucilage in the Mediterranean Sea is linked to climate-driven sea surface warming. The mucilage can act as a controlling factor of microbial diversity across wide oceanic regions and could have the potential to act as a carrier of specific microorganisms, thereby increasing the spread of pathogenic bacteria. PMID:19759910

Danovaro, Roberto; Fonda Umani, Serena; Pusceddu, Antonio

2009-01-01

155

Impact of milk fish farming in the tropics on potentially pathogenic vibrios.  

PubMed

Ratios of sucrose-negative to sucrose-positive vibrios on TCBS agar (suc-/suc+) indicate the abundance of potential human pathogenic non-cholera vibrios in coastal mariculture environments of the Lingayen Gulf (Philippines. In guts of adult maricultured milkfish (Chanos chanos) of suc- vibrios reached extreme peak values ranging between 2 and 545 million per g wet weight. Suc- vibrios outnumbered suc+ vibrios in anoxic sediments, too, and were rarely predominant in coastal waters or in oxidized sediments. Suc-/suc+ ratios in sediments increased toward the mariculture areas with distance from the open sea at decreasing redox potentials. There is circumstantial evidence that suc- vibrios can be dispersed from mariculture areas to adjacent environments including coral reefs. An immediate human health risk by pathogenic Vibrio species is discounted, since milkfish guts contained mainly members of the Enterovibrio group. A representative isolate of these contained proteolytic and other virulence factors, but no genes encoding toxins characteristic of clinical Vibrio species. PMID:24079922

Reichardt, W T; Reyes, J M; Pueblos, M J; Lluisma, A O

2013-12-15

156

In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Modithromycin, a Novel 6,11-Bridged Bicyclolide, against Respiratory Pathogens, Including Macrolide-Resistant Gram-Positive Cocci?  

PubMed Central

The in vitro activities of modithromycin against Gram-positive and -negative respiratory pathogens, including macrolide-resistant cocci with different resistance mechanisms, were compared with those of other macrolide and ketolide agents. MICs were determined by the broth microdilution method. All 595 test strains used in this study were isolated from Japanese medical facilities. The erm (ribosome methylase) and/or mef (efflux pump) gene, which correlated with resistance to erythromycin as well as clarithromycin and azithromycin, was found in 81.8%, 21.3%, and 23.2% of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) strains, respectively. Modithromycin showed MIC90s of 0.125 ?g/ml against these three cocci, including macrolide-resistant strains. In particular, the MIC of modithromycin against ermB-carrying S. pyogenes was ?32-fold lower than that of telithromycin. The activities of modithromycin as well as telithromycin were little affected by the presence of mefA or mefE in both streptococci. Against Gram-negative pathogens, modithromycin showed MIC90s of 0.5, 8, and 0.031 ?g/ml against Moraxella catarrhalis, Haemophilus influenzae, and Legionella spp., respectively. The MICs of modithromycin against M. catarrhalis and H. influenzae were higher than those of telithromycin and azithromycin. However, modithromycin showed the most potent anti-Legionella activity among the macrolide and ketolide agents tested. These results suggested that the bicyclolide agent modithromycin is a novel class of macrolides with improved antibacterial activity against Gram-positive cocci, including telithromycin-resistant streptococci and intracellular Gram-negative bacteria of the Legionella species. PMID:21220534

Sato, Takafumi; Tateda, Kazuhiro; Kimura, Soichiro; Iwata, Morihiro; Ishii, Yoshikazu; Yamaguchi, Keizo

2011-01-01

157

Prevalence and Pathogenic Potential of Campylobacter Isolates from Free-Living, Human-Commensal American Crows  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have suggested a potential role for wild birds in zoonotic transmission of Campylobacter jejuni, the leading cause of gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. In this study, we detected Campylobacter spp. in 66.9% (85/127) of free-ranging American crows (Corvus brachyrhyncos) sampled in the Sacramento Valley of California in 2012 and 2013. Biochemical testing and sequence analysis of 16S rRNA revealed that 93% of isolates (n = 70) were C. jejuni, with cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) and flagellin A genes detected by PCR in 20% and 46% of the C. jejuni isolates (n = 59), respectively. The high prevalence of C. jejuni, coupled with the occurrence of known virulence markers CDT and flagellin A, demonstrates that crows shed Campylobacter spp. in their feces that are potentially pathogenic to humans. Crows are abundant in urban, suburban, and agricultural settings, and thus further study to determine their role in zoonotic transmission of Campylobacter will inform public health. PMID:24375131

Weis, Allison M.; Miller, Woutrina A.; Byrne, Barbara A.; Chouicha, Nadira; Boyce, Walter M.

2014-01-01

158

Prevalence and pathogenic potential of campylobacter isolates from free-living, human-commensal american crows.  

PubMed

Recent studies have suggested a potential role for wild birds in zoonotic transmission of Campylobacter jejuni, the leading cause of gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. In this study, we detected Campylobacter spp. in 66.9% (85/127) of free-ranging American crows (Corvus brachyrhyncos) sampled in the Sacramento Valley of California in 2012 and 2013. Biochemical testing and sequence analysis of 16S rRNA revealed that 93% of isolates (n = 70) were C. jejuni, with cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) and flagellin A genes detected by PCR in 20% and 46% of the C. jejuni isolates (n = 59), respectively. The high prevalence of C. jejuni, coupled with the occurrence of known virulence markers CDT and flagellin A, demonstrates that crows shed Campylobacter spp. in their feces that are potentially pathogenic to humans. Crows are abundant in urban, suburban, and agricultural settings, and thus further study to determine their role in zoonotic transmission of Campylobacter will inform public health. PMID:24375131

Weis, Allison M; Miller, Woutrina A; Byrne, Barbara A; Chouicha, Nadira; Boyce, Walter M; Townsend, Andrea K

2014-03-01

159

New horizons: Current and potential future self-treatments for acute upper respiratory tract conditions.  

PubMed

Acute upper respiratory tract conditions (URTCs), including the common cold, allergic rhinitis (AR), and acute sinusitis, are among the most common afflictions worldwide, affecting millions of individuals annually in the United States alone. A common theme among these conditions is that they share similar symptomatology and are often inadequately treated. These conditions typically cause mild, albeit bothersome, symptoms for a typical duration of 7 to 10 days in the case of the common cold, ? 2 weeks for AR exacerbations, and > 4 weeks for acute sinusitis. The common cold and AR elicit localized (upper airway) and systemic inflammatory cascades responsible for symptoms such as cough, nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, watery eyes, sneezing, headache, and general malaise. Acute sinusitis typically occurs because of a secondary bacterial or fungal infection of mucus-clogged nasal and sinus cavities and has symptoms similar to those previously listed, with the addition of increased facial and ear pressure/pain. Acute URTC symptoms are frequently managed with over-the-counter (OTC) products. Currently available OTC options can have limited efficacy in treating the broad array of symptoms associated with acute URTCs, and some have unwanted side effects. There is an unmet need for OTC therapies that have broad clinical activity, can reduce the severity and duration of illness when taken at the first sign of symptoms, and/or provide prophylaxis. This review article examines the available evidence supporting emerging and potentially new OTC pharmacologic, nutraceutical, and nonpharmacologic therapies on the horizon for the treatment of acute URTCs. This review is not intended to be a comprehensive evaluation of all potential URTC therapies, and the approvability of many of the agents discussed for OTC use in the United States may be subject to debate. PMID:23391674

Derebery, M Jennifer; Dicpinigaitis, Peter V

2013-01-01

160

Saffold cardioviruses of 3 lineages in children with respiratory tract infections, Beijing, China.  

PubMed

To clarify the potential for respiratory transmission of Saffold cardiovirus (SAFV) and characterize the pathogen, we analyzed respiratory specimens from 1,558 pediatric patients in Beijing. We detected SAFV in 7 (0.5%) patients and identified lineages 1-3. However, because 3 patients had co-infections, we could not definitively say SAFV caused disease. PMID:20587195

Ren, Lili; Gonzalez, Richard; Xie, Zhengde; Xiao, Yan; Li, Yongjun; Liu, Chunyan; Chen, Lan; Yang, Qingqing; Vernet, Guy; Paranhos-Baccalà, Glaucia; Jin, Qi; Shen, Kunling; Wang, Jianwei

2010-07-01

161

Enteric bacterial pathogens with zoonotic potential isolated from farm-raised deer.  

PubMed

The raising of captive white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) is a growing agricultural industry in Ohio as it is in several other areas of the United States and around the world. Pooled fecal samples were collected from 30 white-tailed deer confinement facilities. Samples were cultured for five enteric bacterial pathogens. Premise prevalence rates were as follows: Escherichia coli O157, 3.3%; Listeria monocytogenes, 3.3%; Salmonella enterica, 0%; Yersinia enterocolitica, 30%; and Clostridium difficile, 36.7%. The ail virulence gene could not be amplified from any of the Y. enterocolitica isolates recovered. Toxigenic strains of C. difficile polymerase chain reaction ribotype 078, an emerging C. difficile genotype of humans and food animals, were recovered from 4 of 11 (36.4%) C. difficile-positive deer farms. Venison from farm-raised deer might become contaminated with foodborne pathogens, deer farmers may have occupational exposure to these zoonotic agents, and farm-raised deer could be a reservoir from which the environment and other livestock may become contaminated with a number of potentially zoonotic bacteria. PMID:20575673

French, Elizabeth; Rodriguez-Palacios, Alex; LeJeune, Jeffrey T

2010-09-01

162

Screening for several potential pathogens in feral pigeons (Columba livia) in Madrid  

PubMed Central

Background Pathogens with the zoonotic potential to infect humans, such as Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli and Chlamydophila psittaci, can be found in feral pigeons (Columba livia). Given the high density of these birds in the public parks and gardens of most cities, they may pose a direct threat to public health. Methods A total of 118 pigeons were captured in three samplings carried out in 2006-2007 in public parks and gardens in Madrid, Spain. Standard haematological and morphological analyses were carried out on the pigeons. PCR was used to screen for the presence of Campylobacter jejuni, C. coli and Chlamydophila psittaci. Positive samples were confirmed by DNA sequencing. Results The analyses demonstrated a high prevalence of Chlamydophila psittaci (52.6%) and Campylobacter jejuni (69.1%) among the birds captured. In contrast, Campylobacter coli was rarely detected (1.1%). Conclusions Pigeons in Madrid can carry Chlamydophila psittaci and Campylobacter jejuni. They may be asymptomatic or subclinical carriers of both pathogens. PMID:20569487

2010-01-01

163

Antifungal Susceptibility Profiles of 1698 Yeast Reference Strains Revealing Potential Emerging Human Pathogens  

PubMed Central

New molecular identification techniques and the increased number of patients with various immune defects or underlying conditions lead to the emergence and/or the description of novel species of human and animal fungal opportunistic pathogens. Antifungal susceptibility provides important information for ecological, epidemiological and therapeutic issues. The aim of this study was to assess the potential risk of the various species based on their antifungal drug resistance, keeping in mind the methodological limitations. Antifungal susceptibility profiles to the five classes of antifungal drugs (polyens, azoles, echinocandins, allylamines and antimetabolites) were determined for 1698 yeast reference strains belonging to 992 species (634 Ascomycetes and 358 Basidiomycetes). Interestingly, geometric mean minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of all antifungal drugs tested were significantly higher for Basidiomycetes compared to Ascomycetes (p<0.001). Twenty four strains belonging to 23 species of which 19 were Basidiomycetes seem to be intrinsically “resistant” to all drugs. Comparison of the antifungal susceptibility profiles of the 4240 clinical isolates and the 315 reference strains belonging to 53 shared species showed similar results. Even in the absence of demonstrated in vitro/in vivo correlation, knowing the in vitro susceptibility to systemic antifungal agents and the putative intrinsic resistance of yeast species present in the environment is important because they could become opportunistic pathogens. PMID:22396754

Desnos-Ollivier, Marie; Robert, Vincent; Raoux-Barbot, Dorothee; Groenewald, Marizeth; Dromer, Francoise

2012-01-01

164

RARE OCCURRENCE OF HETEROTROPHIC BACTERIA WITH PATHOGENIC POTENTIAL IN POTABLE WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Since the discovery of Legionella pneumophila, an opportunistic pathogen that is indigenous to water, microbiologists have speculated that there may be other opportunistic pathogens among the numerous heterotrophic bacteria found in potable water. The USEPA developed a series of...

165

The Relationship between Host Lifespan and Pathogen Reservoir Potential: An Analysis in the System Arabidopsis thaliana-Cucumber mosaic virus.  

PubMed

Identification of the determinants of pathogen reservoir potential is central to understand disease emergence. It has been proposed that host lifespan is one such determinant: short-lived hosts will invest less in costly defenses against pathogens, so that they will be more susceptible to infection, more competent as sources of infection and/or will sustain larger vector populations, thus being effective reservoirs for the infection of long-lived hosts. This hypothesis is sustained by analyses of different hosts of multihost pathogens, but not of different genotypes of the same host species. Here we examined this hypothesis by comparing two genotypes of the plant Arabidopsis thaliana that differ largely both in life-span and in tolerance to its natural pathogen Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). Experiments with the aphid vector Myzus persicae showed that both genotypes were similarly competent as sources for virus transmission, but the short-lived genotype was more susceptible to infection and was able to sustain larger vector populations. To explore how differences in defense against CMV and its vector relate to reservoir potential, we developed a model that was run for a set of experimentally-determined parameters, and for a realistic range of host plant and vector population densities. Model simulations showed that the less efficient defenses of the short-lived genotype resulted in higher reservoir potential, which in heterogeneous host populations may be balanced by the longer infectious period of the long-lived genotype. This balance was modulated by the demography of both host and vector populations, and by the genetic composition of the host population. Thus, within-species genetic diversity for lifespan and defenses against pathogens will result in polymorphisms for pathogen reservoir potential, which will condition within-population infection dynamics. These results are relevant for a better understanding of host-pathogen co-evolution, and of the dynamics of pathogen emergence. PMID:25375140

Hily, Jean Michel; García, Adrián; Moreno, Arancha; Plaza, María; Wilkinson, Mark D; Fereres, Alberto; Fraile, Aurora; García-Arenal, Fernando

2014-11-01

166

The Relationship between Host Lifespan and Pathogen Reservoir Potential: An Analysis in the System Arabidopsis thaliana-Cucumber mosaic virus  

PubMed Central

Identification of the determinants of pathogen reservoir potential is central to understand disease emergence. It has been proposed that host lifespan is one such determinant: short-lived hosts will invest less in costly defenses against pathogens, so that they will be more susceptible to infection, more competent as sources of infection and/or will sustain larger vector populations, thus being effective reservoirs for the infection of long-lived hosts. This hypothesis is sustained by analyses of different hosts of multihost pathogens, but not of different genotypes of the same host species. Here we examined this hypothesis by comparing two genotypes of the plant Arabidopsis thaliana that differ largely both in life-span and in tolerance to its natural pathogen Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). Experiments with the aphid vector Myzus persicae showed that both genotypes were similarly competent as sources for virus transmission, but the short-lived genotype was more susceptible to infection and was able to sustain larger vector populations. To explore how differences in defense against CMV and its vector relate to reservoir potential, we developed a model that was run for a set of experimentally-determined parameters, and for a realistic range of host plant and vector population densities. Model simulations showed that the less efficient defenses of the short-lived genotype resulted in higher reservoir potential, which in heterogeneous host populations may be balanced by the longer infectious period of the long-lived genotype. This balance was modulated by the demography of both host and vector populations, and by the genetic composition of the host population. Thus, within-species genetic diversity for lifespan and defenses against pathogens will result in polymorphisms for pathogen reservoir potential, which will condition within-population infection dynamics. These results are relevant for a better understanding of host-pathogen co-evolution, and of the dynamics of pathogen emergence. PMID:25375140

Hily, Jean Michel; García, Adrián; Moreno, Arancha; Plaza, María; Wilkinson, Mark D.; Fereres, Alberto; Fraile, Aurora; García-Arenal, Fernando

2014-01-01

167

Aeroallergens and viable microbes in sandstorm dust. Potential triggers of allergic and nonallergic respiratory ailments.  

PubMed

Aeroallergens and antigens in sandstorm dust, extracts of which were skin prick test (SPT) positive in allergic patients, were detected by rocket immunoelectrophoresis and ELISA. Fungi and bacteria isolated by agar settle plates and soil dilution and soil washing methods were enumerated and identified. Cat dander, Acacia, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Chenopodium, Cladosporium, Bermuda grass, Pithecellobium, Prosopis, Rumex, cultivated rye, and Washingtonia palm allergens were detected by both methods. Viable microbes including 1892 +/- 325 colony-forming units (cfu) of bacteria, and 869 +/- 75 cfu of fungi were isolated per gram of dust by the soil dilution method. Randomly selected microbial colonies on streaking and subculture were found to consist of between two and seven mixed colonies. Fungi including Alternaria, Aspergillus, Botrytis, Cladosporium, Mortierella, Mucor, Mycelia sterilia, Penicillium, Pythium, Ulocladium, Verticillium, and some yeasts were isolated. Actinomyces, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, and mostly coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species were identified, but the bulk of unidentified bacterial isolates were mainly mixed colonies of rods, cocci, coccobacilli, and some filamentous types. Six-hour agar settle-plate counts during sandstorms were 100 and 40% higher for bacteria and fungi, respectively, than without sandstorms. The most abundant aeroallergens were those of Acacia, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Bermuda grass, Cladosporium, cultivated rye, Prosopis, and cat dander. Pithecellobium dulce, Rumex crispus, and Washingtonia palm allergens were detectable for the first time in Riyadh. IgE reactivities of the dust in man were demonstrated by ELISA using sera from atopic, exposed, and normal subjects. These results indicate that sandstorm dust is a prolific source of potential triggers of allergic and nonallergic respiratory ailments, and the methods mentioned here should be routinely used for quick sampling of the environment. PMID:9542605

Kwaasi, A A; Parhar, R S; al-Mohanna, F A; Harfi, H A; Collison, K S; al-Sedairy, S T

1998-03-01

168

Canada goose (Branta canadensis) droppings as a potential source of pathogenic bacteria.  

PubMed

Canada goose droppings, collected in parks to which the public had access, were screened for a range of bacteria that could be pathogenic in man. Droppings of Canada geese, and other waterfowl, did contain such bacteria, including some that are well-known causes of illness in man. These bacteria, plus a species of Salmonella that was experimentally inoculated into droppings, were shown to survive and multiply in the droppings for up to one month after their deposition by geese. Canada geese ranged further from water than other waterfowl species and thus distributed their droppings over a larger area of park grassland. This more widespread distribution of their droppings leads Canada geese to pose a greater potential health risk than other waterfowl studied here, but variations in human responses to challenge with bacteria, and variations in human and waterfowl behaviour in public parks, renders quantification of this risk impossible. PMID:10518352

Feare, C J; Sanders, M F; Blasco, R; Bishop, J D

1999-09-01

169

Potentially Pathogenic Escherichia coli Can Form a Biofilm under Conditions Relevant to the Food Production Chain  

PubMed Central

The biofilm-producing abilities of potentially human-pathogenic serotypes of Escherichia coli from the ovine reservoir were studied at different temperatures and on different surfaces. A possible influence of the hydrophobicity of the bacterial cells, as well as the presence of two virulence factors, the Shiga toxin-encoding (Stx) bacteriophage and the eae gene, was also studied. A total of 99 E. coli isolates of serotypes O26:H11, O103:H2, and O103:H25 isolated from sheep feces were included. The results show that isolates of all three E. coli serotypes investigated can produce biofilm on stainless steel, glass, and polystyrene at 12, 20, and 37°C. There was a good general correlation between the results obtained on the different surfaces. E. coli O103:H2 isolates produced much more biofilm than those of the other two serotypes at all three temperatures. In addition, isolates of serotype O26:H11 produced more biofilm than those of O103:H25 at 37°C. The hydrophobicity of the isolates varied between serotypes and was also influenced by temperature. The results strongly indicated that hydrophobicity influenced the attachment of the bacteria rather than their ability to form biofilm once attached. Isolates with the eae gene produced less biofilm at 37°C than isolates without this gene. The presence of a Stx bacteriophage did not influence biofilm production. In conclusion, our results show that potentially human-pathogenic E. coli from the ovine reservoir can form biofilm on various surfaces and at several temperatures relevant for food production and handling. PMID:24362422

Sekse, Camilla; Berg, Kristin; Johannesen, Karianne C. S.; Solheim, Heidi; Vestby, Lene K.; Urdahl, Anne Margrete

2014-01-01

170

The Potential for pathogenicity was present in the ancestor of the Ascomycete subphylum Pezizomycotina  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies in Ascomycetes have shown that the function of gene families of which the size is considerably larger in extant pathogens than in non-pathogens could be related to pathogenicity traits. However, by only comparing gene inventories in extant species, no insights can be gained into the evolutionary process that gave rise to these larger family sizes in pathogens. Moreover, most studies which consider gene families in extant species only tend to explain observed differences in gene family sizes by gains rather than by losses, hereby largely underestimating the impact of gene loss during genome evolution. Results In our study we used a selection of recently published genomes of Ascomycetes to analyze how gene family gains, duplications and losses have affected the origin of pathogenic traits. By analyzing the evolutionary history of gene families we found that most gene families with an enlarged size in pathogens were present in an ancestor common to both pathogens and non-pathogens. The majority of these families were selectively maintained in pathogenic lineages, but disappeared in non-pathogens. Non-pathogen-specific losses largely outnumbered pathogen-specific losses. Conclusions We conclude that most of the proteins for pathogenicity were already present in the ancestor of the Ascomycete lineages we used in our study. Species that did not develop pathogenicity seemed to have reduced their genetic complexity compared to their ancestors. We further show that expansion of gained or already existing families in a species-specific way is important to fine-tune the specificities of the pathogenic host-fungus interaction. PMID:20964831

2010-01-01

171

Survival of Potentially Pathogenic Human-Associated Bacteria in the Rhizosphere of Hydroponically Grown Wheat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Plants may serve as reservoirs for human-associated bacteria (H-AB) in long-term space missions containing bioregenerative life support systems. The current study examined the abilities of five human-associated potential pathogens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas cepacia, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Escherichia coli, to colonize and grow in the rhizosphere of hydroponically grown wheat, a candidate crop for life support. All of these bacteria have been recovered from past NASA missions and present potential problems for future missions. The abilities of these organisms to adhere to the roots of axenic five-day-old wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Yecora rojo) were evaluated by enumeration of the attached organisms after a one hour incubation of roots in a suspension (approximately 10(exp 8 cu/ml)) of the H-AB. Results showed that a greater percentage of P. aeruginosa cells adhered to the wheat roots than the other four H-AB. Similarly incubated seedlings were also grown under attempted axenic conditions for seven days to examine the potential of each organism to proliferate in the rhizosphere (root colonization capacity). P. cepacia and P. aeruginosa showed considerable growth. E. coli and S. aureus showed no significant growth, and S. pyogenes died off in the wheat rhizosphere. Studies examining the effects of competition on the survival of these microorganisms indicated that P. aeruginosa was the only organism that survived in the rhizosphere of hydroponically grown wheat in the presence of different levels of microbial competition.

Morales, Anabelle; Garland, Jay L.; Lim, Daniel V.

1996-01-01

172

Transient virulence of emerging pathogens  

PubMed Central

Should emerging pathogens be unusually virulent? If so, why? Existing theories of virulence evolution based on a tradeoff between high transmission rates and long infectious periods imply that epidemic growth conditions will select for higher virulence, possibly leading to a transient peak in virulence near the beginning of an epidemic. This transient selection could lead to high virulence in emerging pathogens. Using a simple model of the epidemiological and evolutionary dynamics of emerging pathogens, along with rough estimates of parameters for pathogens such as severe acute respiratory syndrome, West Nile virus and myxomatosis, we estimated the potential magnitude and timing of such transient virulence peaks. Pathogens that are moderately evolvable, highly transmissible, and highly virulent at equilibrium could briefly double their virulence during an epidemic; thus, epidemic-phase selection could contribute significantly to the virulence of emerging pathogens. In order to further assess the potential significance of this mechanism, we bring together data from the literature for the shapes of tradeoff curves for several pathogens (myxomatosis, HIV, and a parasite of Daphnia) and the level of genetic variation for virulence for one (myxomatosis). We discuss the need for better data on tradeoff curves and genetic variance in order to evaluate the plausibility of various scenarios of virulence evolution. PMID:19864267

Bolker, Benjamin M.; Nanda, Arjun; Shah, Dharmini

2010-01-01

173

Assessing pathogenicity of Gallibacterium anatis in a natural infection model: the respiratory and reproductive tracts of chickens are targets for bacterial colonization.  

PubMed

Two separate bird trials were performed to establish a reliable route of infection for Gallibacterium anatis in chickens, comparing intranasal (i.n.) and intravenous (i.v.) applications. Additionally, three mutually divergent isolates from three geographical locations, as shown by MALDI-TOF-MS and partial rpoB gene sequence analysis, were compared. In the first trial, birds were infected with one of the selected isolates by the i.v. or i.n. route. Subsequently, birds were killed 3, 12 and 24 h post infection following i.v. infection while at 3, 7 and 10 days post infection (dpi) in the case of i.n. infection along with birds of the control group. As a result, i.n. infection showed prominent and consistent bacterial tissue distribution in different organs persisting until 10 dpi, which was a striking contrast to the i.v. infection route. Likewise, histopathology revealed mild to severe tracheal lesions following i.n. infection. The second trial was set up to confirm both the achieved results and the robustness of i.n. infection but with an extended observation period, until 28 dpi In agreement with the preceding trial, identical results for bacteriological and histopathological examinations were obtained with persistency of bacteria until 28 dpi Comparing the three different isolates from Mexico, China and Austria, the Mexican isolate showed a somewhat higher pathogenicity than the other strains. Consequently, pathogenesis of G. anatis strains was studied in chickens elucidating i.n. infection as the most reliable route characterized by a long-lasting bacteraemia, targeting the respiratory and reproductive tract. PMID:24098932

Paudel, Surya; Alispahic, Merima; Liebhart, Dieter; Hess, Michael; Hess, Claudia

2013-12-01

174

Molecular cloning and characterizations of porcine SAMHD1 and its roles in replication of highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.  

PubMed

The sterile alpha motif and HD domain 1 (SAMHD1) protein is a novel innate immunity restriction factor that inhibits HIV-1 infection in myeloid cells. Here, we cloned the full-length SAMHD1 complementary DNA (cDNA) from porcine peripheral blood lymphocytes. The porcine SAMHD1 cDNA was of 3951?bp with an open reading frame of 1884?bp, encoding a polypeptide of 627 amino acids. Porcine SAMHD1 mRNA was detected in all swine tissues examined, with the higher expression in the tonsil, lung, liver, and lymph node tissues. The SAMHD1 protein was localized to the nucleus. Overexpression of SAMHD1 blocked the proliferation of HuN4, a highly pathogenic strain of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV), in MARC-145 cells, by inhibiting the synthesis of the HuN4 complement RNA. The antiviral effects of the simian SAMHD1 protein were nearly equivalent to those of porcine SAMHD1 in the HuN4-infected MARC-145 cells. Phosphorylation analysis of SAMHD1 showed that overexpressed SAMHD1 protein was in primarily an unphosphorylated state. SAMHD1 overexpression increased the transcript abundance of IFN-stimulated genes ISG15 and ISG56. The mRNA levels of SAMHD1 and ISGs were significantly increased in porcine alveolar macrophages infected with HP-PRRSV. SAMHD1 protein level was also elevated, and the protein was not phosphorylated during infection. Collectively, our data indicate that SAMHDI inhibits HP-PRRSV proliferation through inhibiting the replication of HP-PRRSV. SAMHD1 might be the protein participating in the IFN signaling and is thus an important immunoregulatory protein in innate immunity. PMID:25106914

Yang, Shen; Shan, Tongling; Zhou, Yanjun; Jiang, Yifeng; Tong, Wu; Liu, Fei; Wen, Feng; Zhang, Qingzhan; Tong, Guangzhi

2014-12-01

175

Potential oversummering and overwintering regions for the wheat stripe rust pathogen in the contiguous United States.  

PubMed

Epidemics of wheat stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), are more frequent in the regions where Pst can oversummer and overwinter. Regions for potential oversummering and overwintering of Pst were determined in the contiguous United States using a survival index (SI) ranging from 0 (most unfavorable) to 10 (most favorable) developed based on long-term weather data. The pathogen can survive in cool summer in the most regions north of latitude 40°N, particularly Washington, Idaho, Montana, Oregon and California. Due to limiting high temperatures, it survives marginally during summer in Arkansas, Delaware, Georgia, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Missouri, Ohio, Oklahoma, Rhode Island and Texas. Similarly, unfavorable hot summer restricts summer survival of the pathogen in the most regions south of 40°N except for highlands in the Rocky or Appalachian Mountains. Warm winters favor fungal survival in most regions south of 40°N and the Pacific Coast, including Alabama, Arkansas, Arizona, California, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Louisiana, Mississippi, New Mexico, Nevada, Oregon, South Carolina, Texas and Washington. Severe winters do not allow survival in most regions north of 40°N and east of the Rocky Mountains, whereas less severe winter in Delaware, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Maryland, Michigan, Missouri, North Carolina, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Tennessee, Utah and Virginia permits marginal survival of Pst. Most wheat-growing regions have climatic suitability for either oversummering or overwintering. Both oversummering and overwintering can occur in the Pacific Northwest (Idaho, Oregon and Washington), Arizona, California, North Carolina, New Mexico, Pennsylvania, Virginia and West Virginia. These regions may provide primary inoculum for stripe rust epidemics in their own and surrounding regions. PMID:23722926

Sharma-Poudyal, Dipak; Chen, Xianming; Rupp, Richard Alan

2014-07-01

176

Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas veronii Predominate among Potentially Pathogenic Ciprofloxacin- and Tetracycline-Resistant Aeromonas Isolates from Lake Erie  

PubMed Central

Members of the genus Aeromonas are ubiquitous in nature and have increasingly been implicated in numerous diseases of humans and other animal taxa. Although some species of aeromonads are human pathogens, their presence, density, and relative abundance are rarely considered in assessing water quality. The objectives of this study were to identify Aeromonas species within Lake Erie, determine their antibiotic resistance patterns, and assess their potential pathogenicity. Aeromonas strains were isolated from Lake Erie water by use of Aeromonas selective agar with and without tetracycline and ciprofloxacin. All isolates were analyzed for hemolytic ability and cytotoxicity against human epithelial cells and were identified to the species level by using 16S rRNA gene restriction fragment length polymorphisms and phylogenetic analysis based on gyrB gene sequences. A molecular virulence profile was identified for each isolate, using multiplex PCR analysis of six virulence genes. We demonstrated that Aeromonas comprised 16% of all culturable bacteria from Lake Erie. Among 119 Aeromonas isolates, six species were identified, though only two species (Aeromonas hydrophila and A. veronii) predominated among tetracycline- and ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates. Additionally, both of these species demonstrated pathogenic phenotypes in vitro. Virulence gene profiles demonstrated a high prevalence of aerolysin and serine protease genes among A. hydrophila and A. veronii isolates, a genetic profile which corresponded with pathogenic phenotypes. Together, our findings demonstrate increased antibiotic resistance among potentially pathogenic strains of aeromonads, illustrating an emerging potential health concern. PMID:24242249

Shinko, Jasmine; Augustyniak, Alexander; Gee, Christopher; Andraso, Greg

2014-01-01

177

Benefits of a European Project on Diagnostics of Highly Pathogenic Agents and Assessment of Potential “Dual Use” Issues  

PubMed Central

Quality assurance exercises and networking on the detection of highly infectious pathogens (QUANDHIP) is a joint action initiative set up in 2011 that has successfully unified the primary objectives of the European Network on Highly Pathogenic Bacteria (ENHPB) and of P4-laboratories (ENP4-Lab) both of which aimed to improve the efficiency, effectiveness, and response capabilities of laboratories directed at protecting the health of European citizens against high consequence bacteria and viruses of significant public health concern. Both networks have established a common collaborative consortium of 37 nationally and internationally recognized institutions with laboratory facilities from 22 European countries. The specific objectives and achievements include the initiation and establishment of a recognized and acceptable quality assurance scheme, including practical external quality assurance exercises, comprising living agents, that aims to improve laboratory performance, accuracy, and detection capabilities in support of patient management and public health responses; recognized training schemes for diagnostics and handling of highly pathogenic agents; international repositories comprising highly pathogenic bacteria and viruses for the development of standardized reference material; a standardized and transparent Biosafety and Biosecurity strategy protecting healthcare personnel and the community in dealing with high consequence pathogens; the design and organization of response capabilities dealing with cross-border events with highly infectious pathogens including the consideration of diagnostic capabilities of individual European laboratories. The project tackled several sensitive issues regarding Biosafety, Biosecurity and “dual use” concerns. The article will give an overview of the project outcomes and discuss the assessment of potential “dual use” issues.

Grunow, Roland; Ippolito, G.; Jacob, D.; Sauer, U.; Rohleder, A.; Di Caro, A.; Iacovino, R.

2014-01-01

178

Infected or not: are PCR-positive oropharyngeal swabs indicative of low pathogenic influenza A virus infection in the respiratory tract of Mallard Anas platyrhynchos?  

PubMed Central

Detection of influenza virus in oropharyngeal swabs collected during wild bird surveillance is assumed to represent respiratory infection, although intestine is the main site of infection. We tested this assumption by histological examination of the respiratory tract of wild Mallards with virus-positive oropharyngeal swabs. Thirty-two of 125 Mallards tested had viral-RNA positive oropharyngeal swabs. The respiratory tracts of four Mallards with the most virus were examined in detail by immunohistochemistry. None had detectable virus antigen in the respiratory tract, suggesting it was not infected. An alternative explanation is that the oropharynx was contaminated with virus through feeding in surface water or through preening. PMID:24885647

2014-01-01

179

Biological control of foliar pathogens by means of Trichoderma harzianum and potential modes of action  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biocontrol of foliar diseases is an alternative means of management of foliar pathogens. One of the most studied commercial biocontrol agents is isolate T39 of Trichoderma harzianum which can be regarded as a model to demonstrate biocontrol under commercial conditions and the mechanisms involved. This biocontrol agent (BCA) controls the foliar pathogens, Botrytis cinerea, Pseuperonospora cubensis, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Sphaerotheca

Y. Elad

2000-01-01

180

Genome Sequence of Aureobasidium pullulans AY4, an Emerging Opportunistic Fungal Pathogen with Diverse Biotechnological Potential  

PubMed Central

Aureobasidium pullulans AY4 is an opportunistic pathogen that was isolated from the skin of an immunocompromised patient. We present here the draft genome of strain AY4, which reveals an abundance of genes relevant to bioindustrial applications, including biocontrol and biodegradation. Putative genes responsible for the pathogenicity of strain AY4 were also identified. PMID:23104371

Bamadhaj, Hasima Mustafa; Gan, Han Ming; Rashid, Noor Aini Abdul

2012-01-01

181

Adaptive potential of ash (Fraxinus excelsior) populations against the novel emerging pathogen Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidus  

PubMed Central

An emerging infectious pathogen Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidus has spread across much of Europe within recent years causing devastating damage on European common ash trees (Fraxinus excelsior) and associated plant communities. The present study demonstrates the presence of additive genetic variation in susceptibility of natural F. excelsior populations to the new invasive disease. We observe high levels of additive variation in the degree of susceptibility with relatively low influence of environmental factors (narrow-sense heritability = 0.37–0.52). Most native trees are found to be highly susceptible, and we estimate that only around 1% has the potential of producing offspring with expected crown damage of <10% under the present disease pressure. The results suggest that the presence of additive genetic diversity in natural F. excelsior populations can confer the species with important ability to recover, but that low resistance within natural European populations is to be expected because of a low frequency of the hypo-sensitive trees. Large effective population sizes will be required to avoid genetic bottlenecks. The role of artificial selection and breeding for protection of the species is discussed based on the findings.

Kjaer, Erik Dahl; McKinney, Lea Vig; Nielsen, Lene Rostgaard; Hansen, Lars N?rgaard; Hansen, Jon Kehlet

2012-01-01

182

Prevalence of potentially pathogenic enteric organisms in clinically healthy kittens in the UK.  

PubMed

Faecal samples were collected from 57 clinically healthy kittens presented for initial vaccination, in the UK. Routine bacteriological examination identified Salmonella species in one and Campylobacter species in five samples. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detected the presence of Campylobacter species in a further four samples. Routine parasitological examination revealed Toxocara species ova in nine (including four kittens stated to have been administered an anthelmintic) and Isospora species in four samples. No Giardia or Cryptosporidium species were detected by routine methods. A Giardia species enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test kit designed for use in cats was positive in three kittens. A similar test kit designed for use in humans was negative in all samples and produced negative results even when known positive samples were tested. Potentially pathogenic enteric organisms were detected in 19 kittens by routine methods and 26 (prevalence 45%) by all methods. The high prevalence in asymptomatic kittens highlights the possibility that the detection of these organisms in kittens with gastrointestinal disease may be an incidental finding. PMID:19249233

Gow, Adam G; Gow, Deborah J; Hall, Edward J; Langton, Debra; Clarke, Chris; Papasouliotis, Kostas

2009-08-01

183

Antibacterial potential of silver nanoparticles against isolated urinary tract infectious bacterial pathogens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The silver nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical reduction method and the nanoparticles were characterized using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorption spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were investigated to evaluate the antibacterial activity against urinary tract infectious (UTIs) bacterial pathogens. Thirty-two bacteria were isolated from mid urine samples of 25 male and 25 female patients from Thondi, Ramanathapuram District, Tamil Nadu, India and identified by conventional methods. Escherichia coli was predominant (47%) followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (22%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (19%), Enterobacter sp. (6%), Proteus morganii (3%) and Staphylococcus aureus (3%). The antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles was evaluated by disc diffusion assay. P. aeruginosa showed maximum sensitivity (11 ± 0.58 mm) followed by Enterobacter sp. (8 ± 0.49 mm) at a concentration of 20 ?g disc-1 and the sensitivity was highly comparable with the positive control kanamycin and tetracycline. K. pneumoniae, E. coli, P. morganii and S. aureus showed no sensitivity against all the tested concentrations of silver nanoparticles. The results provided evidence that, the silver nanoparticles might indeed be the potential sources to treat urinary tract infections caused by P. aeruginosa and Enterobacter sp.

Jacob Inbaneson, Samuel; Ravikumar, Sundaram; Manikandan, Nachiappan

2011-12-01

184

Antimicrobial Resistance among Respiratory Pathogens in Spain: Latest Data and Changes over 11 Years (1996-1997 to 2006-2007)?  

PubMed Central

A nationwide multicenter susceptibility surveillance study (Susceptibility to the Antimicrobials Used in the Community in España [SAUCE] project), SAUCE-4, including 2,559 Streptococcus pneumoniae, 2,287 Streptococcus pyogenes, and 2,736 Haemophilus influenzae isolates was carried out from May 2006 to June 2007 in 34 Spanish hospitals. Then, the results from SAUCE-4 were compared to those from all three previous SAUCE studies carried out in 1996-1997, 1998-1999, and 2001-2002 to assess the temporal trends in resistance and the phenotypes of resistance over the 11-year period. In SAUCE-4, on the basis of the CLSI breakpoints, penicillin (parenteral, nonmeningitis breakpoint) and cefotaxime were the antimicrobials that were the most active against S. pneumoniae (99.8% and 99.6%, respectively). Only 0.9% of isolates had a penicillin MIC of ?2 ?g/ml. In S. pyogenes, nonsusceptibility to erythromycin was observed in 19.4% of isolates. Among the H. influenzae isolates, a ?-lactamase-positive prevalence of 15.7% was found. A statistically significant temporal decreasing trend over the 11-year period was observed for nonsusceptibility (from 60.0% to 22.9%) and resistance (from 36.5% to 0.9%) to penicillin and for the proportion of erythromycin-resistant isolates of S. pneumoniae of the macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLSB) phenotype (from 98.4% to 81.3%). A similar trend was observed for the prevalence of ampicillin resistance (from 37.6% to 16.1%), ?-lactamase production (from 25.7% to 15.7%), and ?-lactamase-negative ampicillin resistance (BLNAR) in H. influenzae (from 13.5% to 0.7%). Among erythromycin-resistant isolates of S. pyogenes, a significant increasing trend in the prevalence of MLSB was observed (from 7.0% to 35.5%). SAUCE-4 confirms a generalized decline in the resistance of the main respiratory pathogens to the antimicrobials as well as a shift in their resistance phenotypes. PMID:20439616

Perez-Trallero, Emilio; Martin-Herrero, Jose E.; Mazon, Ana; Garcia-Delafuente, Celia; Robles, Purificacion; Iriarte, Victor; Dal-Re, Rafael; Garcia-de-Lomas, Juan

2010-01-01

185

Update of cefditoren activity tested against community-acquired pathogens associated with infections of the respiratory tract and skin and skin structures, including recent pharmacodynamic considerations.  

PubMed

Antimicrobial resistance rates have noticeably increased among commonly isolated species associated with respiratory tract infections and skin and skin structure infections, particularly Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus. Cefditoren, an oral 3rd-generation-like cephalosporin, has been shown to be very active against many Gram-positive and Gram-negative species with favorable attributes including bactericidal activity and stability against many beta-lactamase enzymes. Clinical trial data worldwide support the use of cefditoren for infections and species that have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (US-FDA). This review and a contemporary study report provide an update of clinical trial and in vitro data for cefditoren especially against pathogens within the spectrum of activity since 2002. A large collection of 7279 clinical isolates collected during 2002 and 2003 from medical centers in North and Latin America and Europe were tested to confirm cefditoren potency and spectrum compared with other oral cephalosporins and other class agents. Isolates were tested at a reference laboratory using reference broth microdilution methods. Cefditoren was shown to be active against nearly all (>99%) isolates of penicillin-susceptible S. pneumoniae isolates (MIC(90), < or = 0.03 microg/mL) and was the most potent orally administered cephalosporin against this organism. Cefditoren was the most active oral cephem tested against Haemophilus influenzae (MIC(90), < or = 0.03 microg/mL) and had >99% activity versus both beta-lactamase-positive and beta-lactamase-negative isolates. The potency of cefditoren (MIC(90), 0.5 microg/mL) was similar to that of amoxicillin/clavulanate and cefdinir (MIC(90), 0.25 microg/mL) when tested against Moraxella catarrhalis. Cefditoren was the most potent cephalosporin tested against oxacillin-susceptible S. aureus with an MIC(90) value of only 1 microg/mL, and it was 100% active against the tested beta-hemolytic streptococci. Using the data generated from the large collection of isolates tested in this global surveillance collection, as well as other summarized supporting studies and clinical trial information, we show that cefditoren has sustained in vitro activity and documented clinical efficacy for indications that have been approved by regulators (US-FDA). PMID:19321284

Biedenbach, Douglas J; Jones, Ronald N

2009-06-01

186

Secretome analysis identifies potential virulence factors of Diplodia corticola, a fungal pathogen involved in cork oak (Quercus suber) decline.  

PubMed

The characterisation of the secretome of phytopathogenic fungi may contribute to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis. This is particularly relevant for Diplodia corticola, a fungal plant pathogen belonging to the family Botryosphaeriaceae, whose genome remains unsequenced. This phytopathogenic fungus is recognised as one of the most important pathogens of cork oak, being related to the decline of cork oak forests in the Iberian Peninsula. Unfortunately, secretome analysis of filamentous fungi is limited by the low protein concentration and by the presence of many interfering substances, such as polysaccharides, which affect the separation and analysis by 1D and 2D gel electrophoresis. We compared six protein extraction protocols concerning their suitability for further application with proteomic workflows. The protocols involving protein precipitation were the most efficient, with emphasis on TCA-acetone protocol, allowing us to identify the most abundant proteins on the secretome of this plant pathogen. Approximately 60% of the spots detected were identified, all corresponding to extracellular proteins. Most proteins identified were carbohydrate degrading enzymes and proteases that may be related to D. corticola pathogenicity. Although the secretome was assessed in a noninfection environment, potential virulence factors such as the putative glucan-?-glucosidase, neuraminidase, and the putative ferulic acid esterase were identified. The data obtained forms a useful basis for a deeper understanding of the pathogenicity and infection biology of D. corticola. Moreover, it will contribute to the development of proteomics studies on other members of the Botryosphaeriaceae. PMID:24863480

Fernandes, Isabel; Alves, Artur; Correia, António; Devreese, Bart; Esteves, Ana Cristina

2014-01-01

187

Respiratory symptoms among glass bottle makers exposed to stannic chloride solution and other potentially hazardous substances  

SciTech Connect

Concern about upper respiratory tract irritation and other symptoms among workers at a glass bottle manufacturing plant led to an epidemiologic and an industrial hygiene survey. Questionnaire responses from 35 hot end and 53 cold end workers indicated that the incidence of wheezing, chest pain, dyspnea on exertion, and cough was significantly elevated among hot end workers. Among both smokers and nonsmokers, hot end workers reported higher, but not significantly higher, rates of wheezing and chest pain. Among smokers, hot end workers reported significantly higher rates of dyspnea on exertion and cough than did cold end workers. Data suggest that reported exposure to stannic chloride solution likely caused these symptoms. The industrial hygiene survey, conducted when stannic chloride use had been reduced, cleaning had been done, and ventilation improved, focused on measuring air contaminants that might possibly cause symptoms. Levels of hydrogen chloride, which apparently was formed by the combination of stannic chloride and water in the presence of heat, were elevated. The finding of increased prevalence of respiratory symptoms among hot end workers was consistent with this exposure. Recommendations were made to reduce hazardous exposures at this plant. Individuals responsible for occupational health should be aware that relatively benign substances, such as stannic chloride and water, can combine spontaneously to form hazardous substances.

Levy, B.S.; Davis, F.; Johnson, B.

1985-04-01

188

Interaction of a Hydroxyproline-Rich Glycoprotein from Tobacco Callus with Potential Pathogens 1  

PubMed Central

A hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein was isolated from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) callus tissue cultures by an acidic-ethanol extraction procedure and purified to about 95% homogeneity by ion exchange chromatography on carboxymethyl cellulose. This glycoprotein agglutinated cells of an avirulent strain (B-1) of the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas solanacearum but not its parental, virulent isolate (K-60). Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (from K-60 strain) inhibited this agglutination. The tobacco glycoprotein also agglutinated zoospores of both compatible and incompatible races of Phytophthora parasitica var. nicotianae. Although 34 potential haptens were tested, no low-molecular-weight carbohydrate that inhibited bacterial or fungal agglutination was found. The agglutination activity of the tobacco glycoprotein was sensitive to pronase and sodium periodate. The apparent molecular weight of the glycoprotein was 120,000. The protein moiety was basic (12% lysine and 5% histidine) and contained 38% hydroxyproline. The carbohydrate moiety comprised 26% (by weight) of the glycoprotein, and contained 87% arabinose, 8% galactose, and 5% glucose. The glycoprotein labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate bound significantly better to the avirulent isolate (B-1) of P. solanacearum than to the virulent strain (K-60). Binding to the avirulent cells was inhibited by incubation in a higher ionic strength medium (e.g. 0.2 m NaCl). The labeled glycoprotein also bound to cystospores and mycelia of both races of P. parasitica var. nicotianae. This fungal-glycoprotein interaction was inhibited by the lipopolysaccharide from strain K-60 and by higher ionic strength conditions. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 4 PMID:16662504

Mellon, Jay E.; Helgeson, John P.

1982-01-01

189

Molecular identification of potential pathogens in water and air of a hospital therapy pool  

PubMed Central

Indoor warm-water therapy pool workers in a Midwestern regional hospital were diagnosed with non-tuberculosis pulmonary hypersensitive pneumonitis and Mycobacterium avium infections. In response, we conducted a multiseason survey of microorganisms present in this therapy pool water, in biofilms associated with the pool containment walls, and in air immediately above the pool. The survey used culture, microscopy, and culture-independent molecular phylogenetic analyses. Although outfitted with a state-of-the-art UV-peroxide disinfection system, the numbers of bacteria in the therapy pool water were relatively high compared with the potable water used to fill the pool. Regardless of the source, direct microscopic counts of microbes were routinely ?1,000 times greater than conventional plate counts. Analysis of clone libraries of small subunit rRNA genes from environmental DNA provided phylogenetic diversity estimates of the microorganisms collected in and above the pool. A survey of >1,300 rRNA genes yielded a total of 628 unique sequences, the most common of which was nearly identical to that of M. avium strains. The high proportion of clones with different Mycobacterium spp. rRNA genes suggested that such organisms comprised a significant fraction of microbes in the pool water (to >30%) and preferentially partition into aerosols (to >80%) relative to other waterborne bacteria present. The results of the study strongly validate aerosol partitioning as a mechanism for disease transfer in these environments. The results also show that culture protocols currently used by public health facilities and agencies are seriously inadequate for the detection and enumeration of potential pathogens. PMID:15769858

Angenent, Largus T.; Kelley, Scott T.; Amand, Allison St.; Pace, Norman R.; Hernandez, Mark T.

2005-01-01

190

Molecular identification of potential pathogens in water and air of a hospital therapy pool.  

PubMed

Indoor warm-water therapy pool workers in a Midwestern regional hospital were diagnosed with non-tuberculosis pulmonary hypersensitive pneumonitis and Mycobacterium avium infections. In response, we conducted a multiseason survey of microorganisms present in this therapy pool water, in biofilms associated with the pool containment walls, and in air immediately above the pool. The survey used culture, microscopy, and culture-independent molecular phylogenetic analyses. Although outfitted with a state-of-the-art UV-peroxide disinfection system, the numbers of bacteria in the therapy pool water were relatively high compared with the potable water used to fill the pool. Regardless of the source, direct microscopic counts of microbes were routinely approximately 1,000 times greater than conventional plate counts. Analysis of clone libraries of small subunit rRNA genes from environmental DNA provided phylogenetic diversity estimates of the microorganisms collected in and above the pool. A survey of >1,300 rRNA genes yielded a total of 628 unique sequences, the most common of which was nearly identical to that of M. avium strains. The high proportion of clones with different Mycobacterium spp. rRNA genes suggested that such organisms comprised a significant fraction of microbes in the pool water (to >30%) and preferentially partition into aerosols (to >80%) relative to other waterborne bacteria present. The results of the study strongly validate aerosol partitioning as a mechanism for disease transfer in these environments. The results also show that culture protocols currently used by public health facilities and agencies are seriously inadequate for the detection and enumeration of potential pathogens. PMID:15769858

Angenent, Largus T; Kelley, Scott T; St Amand, Allison; Pace, Norman R; Hernandez, Mark T

2005-03-29

191

Oscillatory behavior of ventricular action potential duration in heart failure patients at respiratory rate and low frequency  

PubMed Central

Oscillations of arterial pressure occur spontaneously at a frequency of approximately 0.1 Hz coupled with synchronous oscillations of sympathetic nerve activity (“Mayer waves”). This study investigated the extent to which corresponding oscillations may occur in ventricular action potential duration (APD). Fourteen ambulatory (outpatient) heart failure patients with biventricular pacing devices were studied while seated upright watching movie clips to maintain arousal. Activation recovery intervals (ARI) as a measure of ventricular APD were obtained from unipolar electrograms recorded from the LV epicardial pacing lead during steady state RV pacing from the device. Arterial blood pressure was measured non-invasively (Finapress) and respiration monitored. Oscillations were quantified using time frequency and coherence analysis. Oscillatory behavior of ARI at the respiratory frequency was observed in all subjects. The magnitude of the ARI variation ranged from 2.2 to 6.9 ms (mean 5.0 ms). Coherence analysis showed a correlation with respiratory oscillation for an average of 43% of the recording time at a significance level of p < 0.05. Oscillations in systolic blood pressure in the Mayer wave frequency range were observed in all subjects for whom blood pressure was recorded (n = 13). ARI oscillation in the Mayer wave frequency range was observed in 6/13 subjects (46%) over a range of 2.9 to 9.2 ms. Coherence with Mayer waves at the p < 0.05 significance level was present for an average of 29% of the recording time. In ambulatory patients with heart failure during enhanced mental arousal, left ventricular epicardial APD (ARI) oscillated at the respiratory frequency (approximately 0.25 Hz). In 6 patients (46%) APD oscillated at the slower Mayer wave frequency (approximately 0.1 Hz). These findings may be important in understanding sympathetic activity-related arrhythmogenesis. PMID:25389408

Hanson, Ben; Child, Nick; Van Duijvenboden, Stefan; Orini, Michele; Chen, Zhong; Coronel, Ruben; Rinaldi, Christopher A.; Gill, Jaspal S.; Gill, Jaswinder S.; Taggart, Peter

2014-01-01

192

Potential role of bacteria packaging by protozoa in the persistence and transmission of pathogenic bacteria.  

PubMed

Many pathogenic bacteria live in close association with protozoa. These unicellular eukaryotic microorganisms are ubiquitous in various environments. A number of protozoa such as amoebae and ciliates ingest pathogenic bacteria, package them usually in membrane structures, and then release them into the environment. Packaged bacteria are more resistant to various stresses and are more apt to survive than free bacteria. New evidence indicates that protozoa and not bacteria control the packaging process. It is possible that packaging is more common than suspected and may play a major role in the persistence and transmission of pathogenic bacteria. To confirm the role of packaging in the propagation of infections, it is vital that the molecular mechanisms governing the packaging of bacteria by protozoa be identified as well as elements related to the ecology of this process in order to determine whether packaging acts as a Trojan Horse. PMID:24904553

Denoncourt, Alix M; Paquet, Valérie E; Charette, Steve J

2014-01-01

193

Genomic reconnaissance of clinical isolates of emerging human pathogen Mycobacterium abscessus reveals high evolutionary potential  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium abscessus (Ma) is an emerging human pathogen that causes both soft tissue infections and systemic disease. We present the first comparative whole-genome study of Ma strains isolated from patients of wide geographical origin. We found a high proportion of accessory strain-specific genes indicating an open, non-conservative pan-genome structure, and clear evidence of rapid phage-mediated evolution. Although we found fewer virulence factors in Ma compared to M. tuberculosis, our data indicated that Ma evolves rapidly and therefore should be monitored closely for the acquisition of more pathogenic traits. This comparative study provides a better understanding of Ma and forms the basis for future functional work on this important pathogen. PMID:24515248

Choo, Siew Woh; Wee, Wei Yee; Ngeow, Yun Fong; Mitchell, Wayne; Tan, Joon Liang; Wong, Guat Jah; Zhao, Yongbing; Xiao, Jingfa

2014-01-01

194

Disease induction by human microbial pathogens in plant-model systems: potential, problems and prospects.  

PubMed

Relatively simple eukaryotic model organisms such as the genetic model weed plant Arabidopsis thaliana possess an innate immune system that shares important similarities with its mammalian counterpart. In fact, some human pathogens infect Arabidopsis and cause overt disease with human symptomology. In such cases, decisive elements of the plant's immune system are likely to be targeted by the same microbial factors that are necessary for causing disease in humans. These similarities can be exploited to identify elementary microbial pathogenicity factors and their corresponding targets in a green host. This circumvents important cost aspects that often frustrate studies in humans or animal models and, in addition, results in facile ethical clearance. PMID:17275738

van Baarlen, Peter; van Belkum, Alex; Thomma, Bart P H J

2007-02-01

195

Potentiation of pathogen-specific defense mechanisms in Arabidopsis by -aminobutyric acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nonprotein amino acids -aminobutyric acid (GABA) and -aminobutyric acid (BABA) have known biological effects in animals and plants. Their mode of action has been the object of thorough research in animals but remains unclear in plants. Our objective was to study the mode of action of BABA in the protection of Arabidopis plants against virulent pathogens. BABA protected Arabidopsis

Laurent Zimmerli; Gabor Jakab; Jean-Pierre Métraux; Brigitte Mauch-Mani

2000-01-01

196

In Vitro Antimicrobial Potential of the Lichen Parmotrema sp. Extracts against Various Pathogens  

PubMed Central

Objective(s): The ongoing increasing antibiotic resistance is one of the biggest challenges faced by global public health. The perennial need for new antimicrobials against a background of increasing antibiotic resistance in pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms obliges the scientific community to constantly develop new drugs and antimicrobial agents. Lichens are known prolific sources of natural antimicrobial drugs and biologically active natural products. This study was aimed to explore in vitro antimicrobial activity of lichen Parmotrema sp. Material and Methods: The methanol and aqueous extracts of lichen Parmotrema sp. was extracted using Soxhlet extractor. Antibiotic assessment of methanol and aqueous extracts was done against eight bacterial (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella sp., Shigella sp., Enterococci faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae,) clinical pathogens and five plant pathogenic fungal strains (Aspergillus terreus strain JAS1, Scedosporium sp. JAS1, Ganoderma sp. JAS4, Candida tropicalis and Fusarium sp.) by Kirby-Bauer method. Results: The methanol lichen Parmotrema sp. extract inhibited all the test organisms. The highest antibacterial activity was found against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. The weakest activity was manifested in Salmonella sp. and Scedosporium sp. JAS1. Strong antifungal effect was found against Ganoderma sp. JAS4 and Fusarium sp. The aqueous lichen Parmotrema sp. extract revealed neither antibacterial nor antifungal activity. Conclusion: The present study shows that tested lichen Parmotrema sp. extracts demonstrated a strong antimicrobial effect. That suggests the active components from methanol extracts of the investigated lichen Parmotrema sp. can be used as natural antimicrobial agent against pathogens. PMID:23997920

Chauhan, Ritika; Abraham, Jayanthi

2013-01-01

197

Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Potentiation of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus-Induced Pneumonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental model that demonstrates a mycoplasma species acting to potentiate a viral pneumonia was developed. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, which produces a chronic, lymphohistiocytic bronchopneumonia in pigs, was found to potentiate the severity and the duration of a virus-induced pneumonia in pigs. Pigs were inoculated with M. hyopneumoniae 21 days prior to, simultaneously with, or 10 days after inoculation with porcine

EILEEN L. THACKER; PATRICK G. HALBUR; RICHARD F. ROSS; ROONGROJE THANAWONGNUWECH; BRAD J. THACKER

198

Cerebral chemosensory evoked potentials elicited by chemical stimulation of the human olfactory and respiratory nasal mucosa.  

PubMed

A stimulation method was employed by which chemosensory evoked potentials were recorded without tactile somatosensory contamination. The purpose of the study was to determine whether potential components evoked by stimulation of the chemoreceptors of the trigeminal nerve can be distinguished from those of the olfactory nerve. The stimulants (vanillin, phenylethyl alcohol, limonene, menthol, anethol, benzaldehyde, carbon dioxide and a mixture of vanillin and carbon dioxide) were presented in a randomized order to 13 volunteers. Chemosensory evoked potentials to substances which anosmics are unable to perceive (vanillin, phenylethyl alcohol) were termed olfactory evoked potentials; potentials to CO2, which effected no olfactory sensations were termed chemo-somatosensory potentials. Analysis of variance revealed that the different substances resulted in statistically significant changes in the amplitudes and latencies of the evoked potentials, and also in the subjective estimates of intensity. An increased excitation of the somatosensory system resulted in reduced latencies and enhanced amplitudes of the evoked potentials. Responses to the mixture of carbon dioxide and vanillin appeared significantly earlier (50-150 msec) than responses to either substance alone. PMID:2454788

Kobal, G; Hummel, C

1988-01-01

199

In vitro effect of eugenol and cinnamaldehyde on membrane potential and respiratory chain complexes in isolated rat liver mitochondria.  

PubMed

The effect of water extracts of cinnamon and clove on rat mitochondrial F(0)F1ATPase was investigated. Both spices stimulated ATP hydrolysis. Gas chromatography analysis of the water extracts, confirmed the presence of eugenol and cinnamaldehyde as major components in clove and cinnamon, respectively. Both components (1) stimulated ATPase significantly at concentrations equal or greater then 0.3 mM; (2) reduced mitochondrial membrane potential: a 50% decrease in Deltapsi was obtained at 7.56 and 11.6 micromoles/mg protein for eugenol and cinnmaldehyde, respectively; (3) inhibited NADH oxidase or complex I of the respiratory chain with a 50% inhibition at 15 and 20 micromoles/mg protein for eugenol and cinnamaldehyde respectively; (4) had no effect on succinate dehydrogenase activity. The study proposes the mitochondria as a target for the action of the spices resulting in derangement of mitochondrial functions, particularly at proton transferring sites. PMID:12065215

Usta, J; Kreydiyyeh, S; Bajakian, K; Nakkash-Chmaisse, H

2002-07-01

200

The anti-biofilm potential of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) extract against human bacterial and fungal pathogens.  

PubMed

Infectious diseases caused by bacteria and fungi are the major cause of morbidity and mortality across the globe. Multi-drug resistance in these pathogens augments the complexity and severity of the diseases. Various studies have shown the role of biofilms in multi-drug resistance, where the pathogen resides inside a protective coat made of extracellular polymeric substances. Since biofilms directly influence the virulence and pathogenicity of a pathogen, it is optimal to employ a strategy that effectively inhibits the formation of biofilm. Pomegranate is a common food and is also used traditionally to treat various ailments. This study assessed the anti-biofilm activity of a methanolic extract of pomegranate against bacterial and fungal pathogens. Methanolic extract of pomegranate was shown to inhibit the formation of biofilms by Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin resistant S. aureus, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans. Apart from inhibiting the formation of biofilm, pomegranate extract disrupted pre-formed biofilms and inhibited germ tube formation, a virulence trait, in C. albicans. Characterization of the methanolic extract of pomegranate revealed the presence of ellagic acid (2,3,7,8-tetrahydroxy-chromeno[5,4,3-cde]chromene-5,10-dione) as the major component. Ellagic acid is a bioactive tannin known for its antioxidant, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory properties. Further studies revealed the ability of ellagic acid to inhibit the growth of all species in suspension at higher concentrations (>75??g?ml(-1)) and biofilm formation at lower concentrations (<40??g?ml(-1)) which warrants further investigation of the potential of ellagic acid or peel powders of pomegranate for the treatment of human ailments. PMID:23906229

Bakkiyaraj, Dhamodharan; Nandhini, Janarthanam Rathna; Malathy, Balakumar; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha

2013-09-01

201

Antibacterial potentiality of Argemone mexicana solvent extracts against some pathogenic bacteria.  

PubMed

The sensitivity of two Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and two Gram negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) pathogenic multi-drug resistant bacteria was tested against the crude extracts (cold aqueous, hot aqueous, and methanol extracts) of leaves and seeds of Argemone mexicana L. (Papaveraceae) by agar well diffusion method. Though all the extracts were found effective, yet the methanol extract showed maximum inhibition against the test microorganisms followed by hot aqueous extract and cold aqueous extract. PMID:17072477

Bhattacharjee, Indranil; Chatterjee, Soroj Kumar; Chatterjee, Soumendranath; Chandra, Goutam

2006-09-01

202

Mosquito species abundance and diversity in Malindi, Kenya and their potential implication in pathogen transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are important vectors of human disease-causing pathogens. Mosquitoes are found both in rural\\u000a and urban areas. Deteriorating infrastructure, poor access to health, water and sanitation services, increasing population\\u000a density, and widespread poverty contribute to conditions that modify the environment, which directly influences the risk of\\u000a disease within the urban and peri-urban ecosystem. The objective of this study

Joseph M. Mwangangi; Janet Midega; Samuel Kahindi; Laban Njoroge; Joseph Nzovu; John Githure; Charles M. Mbogo; John C. Beier

203

The impact of pesticides on the pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis independent of potential hosts.  

PubMed

Amphibians around the world are experiencing the greatest organismal decline in recent history. Xenobiotics, such as pesticides, and pathogenic biotic perturbations, including the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), have played major roles in amphibian decreases. We conducted laboratory culture studies to determine the effects of three pesticides {carbaryl, glyphosate, and thiophanate-methyl [TM; Topsin-M(R) (Cerexagri-Nisso LLC)]} on Bd zoospore production and zoosporangia growth. We applied Bd to pesticides mixed in an agar culture to simulate pathogen introduction to a system with pre-existing pesticides (Bd addition). Alternatively, pesticides were applied to pre-established Bd to simulate pesticide introduction after Bd establishment (pesticide addition). We then measured Bd zoosporangia and zoospore production. All pesticides significantly inhibited zoospore production; however, glyphosate and TM were more effective at doing so than carbaryl. In addition, only carbaryl and glyphosate inhibited zoosporangia production. Our data suggest that carbaryl and glyphosate are equally effective at inhibiting both zoosporangia and zoospore production; however, TM is selectively toxic to zoospores but not zoosporangia. One possible explanation for this observation could be that TM is toxic to zoospores but not the protective zoosporangia. In the case of pesticides applied to established Bd cultures, all pesticides caused significant mortality in both zoosporangia and zoospores, and no differences were found among pesticides. We conclude that examining pesticide and pathogen interactions independent of hosts provides mechanistic understanding of such interactions before and after host infection or contamination. PMID:22228138

Hanlon, Shane M; Parris, Matthew J

2012-07-01

204

The Key Events Dose-Response Framework: Its Potential for Application to Foodborne Pathogenic Microorganisms  

PubMed Central

The Key Events Dose-Response Framework (KEDRF) is an analytical approach that facilitates the use of currently available data to gain insight regarding dose-response relationships. The use of the KEDRF also helps identify critical knowledge gaps that once filled, will reduce reliance on assumptions. The present study considers how the KEDRF might be applied to pathogenic microorganisms, using fetal listeriosis resulting from maternal ingestion of food contaminated with L. monocytogenes as an initial example. Major biological events along the pathway between food ingestion and the endpoint of concern are systematically considered with regard to dose (i.e., number of organisms), pathogen factors (e.g., virulence), and protective host mechanisms (e.g., immune response or other homeostatic mechanisms). It is concluded that the KEDRF provides a useful structure for systematically evaluating the complex array of host and pathogen factors that influence the dose-response relationship. In particular, the KEDRF supports efforts to specify and quantify the sources of variability, a prerequisite to strengthening the scientific basis for food safety decision making. PMID:19690997

BUCHANAN, ROBERT L.; HAVELAAR, ARIE H.; SMITH, MARY ALICE; WHITING, RICHARD C.; JULIEN, ELIZABETH

2009-01-01

205

Infectious pathogens potentially transmitted by semen of the black variety of the Manchega sheep breed: Health constraints for conservation purposes.  

PubMed

Conservation of genetic resources from endangered breeds may be conducted through germinal banks. Preservation of healthy samples is paramount to avoid preserving pathogens shed with germinal products. The black variety of Manchega sheep (BMS), and endangered breed endemic to south-central Spain, is the subject of a conservation program; a germinal bank has been recently established. However, several pathogens circulating in BMS flocks may be shed with semen and threaten BMS preservation. Therefore, we investigated the sanitary status of BMS flocks and semen samples from 4 of the 17 flocks in which this variety is bred worldwide. A serological screening for Maedi-Visna virus, bluetongue virus, Pestivirus spp., Brucella spp., Coxiella burnetii, Chlamydophila spp., Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis, Anaplasma spp., Mycoplasma agalactiae, Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum was performed to assess for pathogens potentially shed by semen. Semen samples from 11 of the 35 BMS rams and 4 samples from coexisting rams of the white variety (WMS) were analyzed by PCR to detect Maedi-Visna virus, C. burnetii, Anaplasma marginale, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and T. gondii. Maedi-Visna virus RNA was detected in 3 semen samples (2 BMS and 1 WMS) while C. burnetii DNA was detected in 3 samples from WMS rams. Pathogens that can be transmitted by semen were present in BMS flocks, and Maedi-Visna virus and C. burnetii showed the highest potential for transmission by artificial insemination. Our results point to the need of testing semen samples kept for conservation purposes of BMS before using them for artificial insemination. PMID:25066603

Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; González-Barrio, David; Aguilar-Ríos, Fernando; Soler, Ana J; Garde, José Julián; Gortázar, Christian; Fernández-Santos, María Del Rocío

2014-10-01

206

Regrowth of potential opportunistic pathogens and algae in reclaimed-water distribution systems.  

PubMed

A study of the quality of reclaimed water in treated effluent, after storage, and at three points in the distribution system of four plants in California, Florida, Massachusetts, and New York was conducted for 1 year. The plants had different treatment processes (conventional versus membrane bioreactor), production capacities, and methods for storage of the water, and the intended end uses of the water were different. The analysis focused on the occurrence of indicator bacteria (heterotrophic bacteria, coliforms, Escherichia coli, and enterococci) and opportunistic pathogens (Aeromonas spp., enteropathogenic E. coli O157:H7, Legionella spp., Mycobacterium spp., and Pseudomonas spp.), as well as algae. Using immunological methods, E. coli O157:H7 was detected in the effluent of only one system, but it was not detected at the sampling points, suggesting that its survival in the system was poor. Although all of the treatment systems effectively reduced the levels of bacteria in the effluent, bacteria regrew in the reservoir and distribution systems because of the loss of residual disinfectant and high assimilable organic carbon levels. In the systems with open reservoirs, algal growth reduced the water quality by increasing the turbidity and accumulating at the end of the distribution system. Opportunistic pathogens, notably Aeromonas, Legionella, Mycobacterium, and Pseudomonas, occurred more frequently than indicator bacteria (enterococci, coliforms, and E. coli). The Mycobacterium spp. were very diverse and occurred most frequently in membrane bioreactor systems, and Mycobacterium cookii was identified more often than the other species. The public health risk associated with these opportunistic pathogens in reclaimed water is unknown. Collectively, our results show the need to develop best management practices for reclaimed water to control bacterial regrowth and degradation of water before it is utilized at the point of use. PMID:20453149

Jjemba, Patrick K; Weinrich, Lauren A; Cheng, Wei; Giraldo, Eugenio; Lechevallier, Mark W

2010-07-01

207

Lycorine: a potential broad-spectrum agent against crop pathogenic fungi.  

PubMed

A screening test showed that lycorine exhibited significant antifungal activity against 24 pathogenic crop fungi at concentrations of 500 ?g/ml and 100 ?g/ml, respectively. Fusarium graminearum was selected for antifungal mechanism studies by observing its mycelial morphology and investigating the variations in its conductivity. In addition, the substance absorption and metabolism of F. graminearum were explored. The mechanism was revealed as being one by which lycorine destroyed the cellular membrane and further influenced substance absorption and cell metabolism. PMID:24346469

Shen, Jin-Wen; Ruan, Yuan; Ren, Wei; Ma, Bing-Ji; Wang, Xiao-Long; Zheng, Chun-Feng

2014-03-28

208

Experimental vaccines against potentially pandemic and highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses  

PubMed Central

Influenza A viruses continue to emerge and re-emerge, causing outbreaks, epidemics and occasionally pandemics. While the influenza vaccines licensed for public use are generally effective against seasonal influenza, issues arise with production, immunogenicity, and efficacy in the case of vaccines against pandemic and emerging influenza viruses, and highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in particular. Thus, there is need of improved influenza vaccines and vaccination strategies. This review discusses advances in alternative influenza vaccines, touching briefly on licensed vaccines and vaccine antigens; then reviewing recombinant subunit vaccines, virus-like particle vaccines and DNA vaccines, with the main focus on virus-vectored vaccine approaches. PMID:23440999

Mooney, Alaina J; Tompkins, S Mark

2013-01-01

209

Carbon nanotubes as delivery systems for respiratory disease: do the dangers outweigh the potential benefits?  

PubMed Central

Nanoparticle drug-delivery systems offer the potential for improved efficacy of treatment, and yet there are also potential risks associated with these novel therapeutic strategies. An attractive property of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is that the tube- or fiber-like structure allows for extensive functionalization and loading of cargo. However, a large body of evidence indicates that CNTs may have adverse effects if used in drug delivery as they have been shown to cause pulmonary fibrosis and exacerbate lung disease in rodents with pre-existing lung diseases. Major factors that cause these toxic effects are the high aspect ratio, durability and residual metal content that generate reactive oxygen species. Therefore, careful consideration should be given to the possibility that lung inflammation or fibrosis could be significant side effects caused by a CNT-based drug-delivery system, thereby outweighing any potential beneficial effects of therapeutic treatment. However, functionalization of CNTs to modulate aspect ratio, biodegradability and to remove residual metals could allow for safe design of CNTs for use in drug delivery in certain circumstances. PMID:22082164

Bonner, James C

2012-01-01

210

Calpains: Potential Targets for Alternative Chemotherapeutic Intervention Against Human Pathogenic Trypanosomatids  

PubMed Central

The treatment for both leishmaniasis and trypanosomiasis, which are severe human infections caused by trypanosomatids belonging to Leishmania and Trypanosoma genera, respectively, is extremely limited because of concerns of toxicity and efficacy with the available anti-protozoan drugs, as well as the emergence of drug resistance. Consequently, the urgency for the discovery of new trypanosomatid targets and novel bioactive compounds is particularly necessary. In this context, the investigation of changes in parasite gene expression between drug resistant/sensitive strains and in the up-regulation of virulence-related genes in infective forms has brought to the fore the involvement of calpain-like proteins in several crucial pathophysiological processes performed by trypanosomatids. These studies were encouraged by the publication of the complete genome sequences of three human pathogenic trypanosomatids, Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania major, which allowed in silico analyses that in turn directed the identification of numerous genes with interesting chemotherapeutic characteristics, including a large family of calpain-related proteins, in which to date 23 genes were assigned as calpains in T. brucei, 40 in T. cruzi and 33 in L. braziliensis. In the present review, we intend to add to these biochemical/biological reports the investigations performed upon the inhibitory capability of calpain inhibitors against human pathogenic trypanosomatids. PMID:23899207

M.H, Branquinha; F.A, Marinho; L.S, Sangenito; S.S.C, Oliveira; K.C, Goncalves; V, Ennes-Vidal; C.M, d'Avila-Levy; A.L.S, Santos

2013-01-01

211

The potential distance of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus dispersal by mallard, common teal and Eurasian pochard.  

PubMed

Waterbirds represent the major natural reservoir for low pathogenic (LP) avian influenza viruses (AIV). Among the wide diversity of subtypes that have been described, two of them (H5 and H7) may become highly pathogenic (HP) after their introduction into domestic bird populations and cause severe outbreaks, as is the case for HP H5N1 in South-Eastern Asia. Recent experimental studies demonstrated that HP H5N1 AIV infection in ducks does not necessarily have significant pathological effects. These results suggest that wild migratory ducks may asymptomatically carry HP AIV and potentially spread viruses over large geographical distances. In this study, we investigated the potential spreading distance of HP AIV by common teal (Anas crecca), mallard (A. platyrhynchos), and Eurasian pochard (Aythya ferina). Based on capture-mark-recapture method, we characterized their wintering movements from a western Mediterranean wetland (Camargue, South of France) and identified the potential distance and direction of virus dispersal. Such data may be crucial in determining higher-risk areas in the case of HP AIV infection detection in this major wintering quarter, and may serve as a valuable reference for virus outbreaks elsewhere. PMID:20112048

Brochet, Anne-Laure; Guillemain, Matthieu; Lebarbenchon, Camille; Simon, Géraldine; Fritz, Hervé; Green, Andy J; Renaud, François; Thomas, Frédéric; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel

2009-09-01

212

[Serologic studies of domestic cats for potential human pathogenic virus infections from wild rodents].  

PubMed

For several viral infections a reservoir in wild rodents has been demonstrated. Some of the agents are known or suspected to be pathogenic for humans. Because improvements in hygiene have reduced direct human contact with rodents, domestic cats could be acting as active transmitters of these viruses from rodents to man. We selected 4 such pathogens--ortho- and parapox-, hanta- and encephalomyocarditis viruses--which, in different ways, may lead to serious human illness: Ortho- and parapoxvirus infections may cause localized pox lesions following direct skin contact. In general, the lesions heal without complications; in immunosuppressed or -deficient individuals, however, infection may generalize and take a dramatic course. Hantaviruses exist in various serotypes with different pathogenicity for human beings, varying from asymptomatic infection to highly fatal disease. In central and northern Europe the Puumala serotype is predominant causing influenza-like symptoms and renal dysfunction. Human infections arise from inhalation of aerosolized excreta of persistently infected rodents. Infections of man associated with encephalomyocarditis virus were demonstrated sporadically in cases of encephalitis and meningitis. In the present study, we investigated in 200 feline serum samples the prevalence of antibodies to ortho- and parapox-, hanta- and encephalomyocarditis virus. All serum samples were from cats that had been allowed to roam outside and to hunt. They were submitted from all parts of Austria for routine diagnosis in 1993. Four per cent of cats showed antibodies to orthopoxviruses with haemagglutination inhibition (HI) titres of 16-512; because of extensive cross-reactivity, positive samples reacted with all investigated orthopoxviruses (a feline orthopoxvirus recently isolated in Vienna, the reference strain of cowpox virus, Brighton, and vaccinia virus, strain IHD), only varying in titre. The specificity of the results was confirmed by virus neutralisation (VN) test, in which the same sera showed titres of 4-32. These data imply that, at least in Austria, unrecognized or subclinical orthopoxvirus infection in cats is more common than previously thought. In contrast to orthopoxviruses, all serum samples proved negative to parapoxvirus (parapoxvirus bovis 1) in VN test. In the same 200 samples, a seroprevalence of 5% was found to hantavirus (immunofluorescence antibody assay), indicating that domestic cats are susceptible to this virus and that infection is not uncommon in cat populations. Because higher titres were obtained against the Puumala serotype compared to the more pathogenic serotype Hantaan, it is most likely that the cats had experienced Puumala infections. Using HI test, antibodies to encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) were demonstrated in only 1.5% of the feline serum samples; although the antibody titres were low (16 and 32, respectively) we consider them specific, because these sera proved positive in VN test as well. Nevertheless, EMCV infection in domestic cats seems to be of low importance. The serological results presented in this paper, together with virological and epidemiological data, indicate that the domestic cat plays an important role only in the transmission of orthopoxviruses to human beings, but not in the case of parapox-, hanta-, and encephalomyocarditis virus. PMID:9409901

Nowotny, N

1996-05-01

213

Antimicrobial and antibiofilm potential of biosurfactants isolated from lactobacilli against multi-drug-resistant pathogens  

PubMed Central

Background Biosurfactants (BS) are amphiphilic compounds produced by microbes, either on the cell surface or secreted extracellularly. BS exhibit strong antimicrobial and anti-adhesive properties, making them good candidates for applications used to combat infections. In this study, our goal was to assess the in vitro antimicrobial, anti-adhesive and anti-biofilm abilities of BS produced by Lactobacillus jensenii and Lactobacillus rhamnosus against clinical Multidrug Resistant (MDR) strains of Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Cell-bound BS from both L. jensenii and L. rhamnosus were extracted and isolated. The surface activities of crude BS samples were evaluated using an oil spreading assay. The antimicrobial, anti-adhesive and anti-biofilm activities of both BS against the above mentioned MDR pathogens were determined. Results Surface activities for both BS ranged from 6.25 to 25 mg/ml with clear zones observed between 7 and 11 cm. BS of both L. jensenii and L. rhamnosus showed antimicrobial activities against A. baumannii, E. coli and S. aureus at 25-50 mg/ml. Anti-adhesive and anti-biofilm activities were also observed for the aforementioned pathogens between 25 and 50 mg/ml. Finally, analysis by electron microscope indicated that the BS caused membrane damage for A. baumannii and pronounced cell wall damage in S. aureus. Conclusion Our results indicate that BS isolated from two Lactobacilli strains has antibacterial properties against MDR strains of A. baumannii, E. coli and MRSA. Both BS also displayed anti-adhesive and anti-biofilm abilities against A. baumannii, E. coli and S. aureus. Together, these capabilities may open up possibilities for BS as an alternative therapeutic approach for the prevention and/or treatment of hospital-acquired infections. PMID:25124936

2014-01-01

214

Viral and Bacterial Interactions in the Upper Respiratory Tract  

PubMed Central

Respiratory infectious diseases are mainly caused by viruses or bacteria that often interact with one another. Although their presence is a prerequisite for subsequent infections, viruses and bacteria may be present in the nasopharynx without causing any respiratory symptoms. The upper respiratory tract hosts a vast range of commensals and potential pathogenic bacteria, which form a complex microbial community. This community is assumed to be constantly subject to synergistic and competitive interspecies interactions. Disturbances in the equilibrium, for instance due to the acquisition of new bacteria or viruses, may lead to overgrowth and invasion. A better understanding of the dynamics between commensals and pathogens in the upper respiratory tract may provide better insight into the pathogenesis of respiratory diseases. Here we review the current knowledge regarding specific bacterial–bacterial and viral–bacterial interactions that occur in the upper respiratory niche, and discuss mechanisms by which these interactions might be mediated. Finally, we propose a theoretical model to summarize and illustrate these mechanisms. PMID:23326226

Bosch, Astrid A. T. M.; Biesbroek, Giske; Trzcinski, Krzysztof; Sanders, Elisabeth A. M.; Bogaert, Debby

2013-01-01

215

Lactobacillus crispatus L1: high cell density cultivation and exopolysaccharide structure characterization to highlight potentially beneficial effects against vaginal pathogens  

PubMed Central

Background Vaginal lactic acid bacteria defend the host against pathogens through a combination of competitive exclusion, competition for nutrients, production of antimicrobial substances and through the activation of the immune system. A new human isolate named Lactobacillus crispatus L1 was characterized in this work, and a preliminary evaluation of its probiotic potential is described together with a process to obtain a high productivity of viable biomass. Results In a simulated digestion process 1.8?1010 cells?ml?1 survived the gastric environment with 80% viability, without being affected by small intestine juices. Experiments on six different C sources were performed to analyze growth and organic acids production and, glucose, provided the best performances. A microfiltration strategy was exploited to improve the cellular yield in 2 L-fermentation processes, reaching 27 g?·?l?1 of dry biomass. Moreover, L. crispatus L1 demonstrated a greater stability to high concentrations of lactic acid, compared to other lactobacilli. The specific L. crispatus L1 exopolysaccharide was purified from the fermentation broth and characterized by NMR showing structural features and similarity to exopolysaccharides produced by pathogenic strains. Live L. crispatus L1 cells strongly reduced adhesion of a yeast pathogenic strain, Candida albicans in particular, in adherence assays. Interestingly a higher expression of the human defensin HBD-2 was also observed in vaginal cells treated with the purified exopolysaccharide, indicating a possible correlation with C. albicans growth inhibition. Conclusions The paper describes the evaluation of L. crispatus L1 as potential vaginal probiotic and the fermentation processes to obtain high concentrations of viable cells. PMID:24884965

2014-01-01

216

Highly Pathogenic Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Induces Prostaglandin E2 Production through Cyclooxygenase 1, Which Is Dependent on the ERK1/2-p-C/EBP-? Pathway  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Atypical porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) caused by highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) is characterized by high fever and high mortality. However, the mechanism underlying the fever induction is still unknown. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), synthesized by cyclooxygenase type 1/2 (COX-1/2) enzymes, is essential for inducing fever. In this study, we found that PGE2, together with COX-1, was significantly elevated by HP-PRRSV. We subsequently demonstrated that extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and phosphorylated ERK (p-ERK) were the key nodes to trigger COX-1 expression after HP-PRRSV infection. Furthermore, we proved the direct binding of p-C/EBP-? to the COX-1 promoter by luciferase reporter and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. In addition, silencing of C/EBP-? remarkably impaired the enhancement of COX-1 production induced by HP-PRRSV infection. Taken together, our results indicate that HP-PPRSV elicits the expression of COX-1 through the ERK1/2-p-C/EBP-? signaling pathway, resulting in the increase of PGE2, which might be the cause of high fever in infected pigs. Our findings might provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of HP-PRRSV infection. IMPORTANCE The atypical PRRS caused by HP-PRRSV was characterized by high fever, high morbidity, and high mortality in pigs of all ages, yet how HP-PRRSV induces high fever in pigs remains unknown. In the present study, we found out that HP-PRRSV infection could increase PGE2 production by upregulation of COX-1, and we subsequently characterized the underlying mechanisms about how HP-PRRSV enhances COX-1 production. PGE2 plays a critical role in inducing high temperature in hosts during pathogen infections. Thus, our findings here could help us have a better understanding of HP-PRRSV pathogenesis. PMID:24352469

Bi, Yanmin; Guo, Xue-kun; Zhao, Haiyan; Gao, Li; Wang, Lianghai; Tang, Jun

2014-01-01

217

POTENTIALLY PATHOGENIC FREE-LIVING AMOEBAE IN SOME FLOOD-AFFECTED AREAS DURING 2011 CHIANG MAI FLOOD  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The survey was carried out to investigate the presence of potentially pathogenic free-living amoebae (FLA) during flood in Chiang Mai, Thailand in 2011. From different crisis flood areas, seven water samples were collected and tested for the presence of amoebae using culture and molecular methods. By monoxenic culture, FLA were detected from all samples at 37 °C incubation. The FLA growing at 37 °C were morphologically identified as Acanthamoeba spp., Naegleria spp. and some unidentified amoebae. Only three samples (42.8%), defined as thermotolerant FLA, continued to grow at 42 °C. By molecular methods, two non-thermotolerant FlA were shown to have 99% identity to Acanthamoeba sp. and 98% identity to Hartmannella vermiformis while the two thermotolerant FLA were identified as Echinamoeba exundans (100% identity) and Hartmannella sp. (99% identity). This first report of the occurrence of FLA in water during the flood disaster will provide information to the public to be aware of potentially pathogenic FLA. PMID:24213194

Wannasan, Anchalee; Uparanukraw, Pichart; Songsangchun, Apichart; Morakote, Nimit

2013-01-01

218

tRNA Modification Enzymes GidA and MnmE: Potential Role in Virulence of Bacterial Pathogens  

PubMed Central

Transfer RNA (tRNA) is an RNA molecule that carries amino acids to the ribosomes for protein synthesis. These tRNAs function at the peptidyl (P) and aminoacyl (A) binding sites of the ribosome during translation, with each codon being recognized by a specific tRNA. Due to this specificity, tRNA modification is essential for translational efficiency. Many enzymes have been implicated in the modification of bacterial tRNAs, and these enzymes may complex with one another or interact individually with the tRNA. Approximately, 100 tRNA modification enzymes have been identified with glucose-inhibited division (GidA) protein and MnmE being two of the enzymes studied. In Escherichia coli and Salmonella, GidA and MnmE bind together to form a functional complex responsible for the proper biosynthesis of 5-methylaminomethyl-2-thiouridine (mnm5s2U34) of tRNAs. Studies have implicated this pathway in a major pathogenic regulatory mechanism as deletion of gidA and/or mnmE has attenuated several bacterial pathogens like Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Pseudomonas syringae, Aeromonas hydrophila, and many others. In this review, we summarize the potential role of the GidA/MnmE tRNA modification pathway in bacterial virulence, interactions with the host, and potential therapeutic strategies resulting from a greater understanding of this regulatory mechanism. PMID:25310651

Shippy, Daniel C.; Fadl, Amin A.

2014-01-01

219

Potentially pathogenic free-living amoebae in some flood-affected areas during 2011 Chiang Mai flood.  

PubMed

The survey was carried out to investigate the presence of potentially pathogenic free-living amoebae (FLA) during flood in Chiang Mai, Thailand in 2011. From different crisis flood areas, seven water samples were collected and tested for the presence of amoebae using culture and molecular methods. By monoxenic culture, FLA were detected from all samples at 37 °C incubation. The FLA growing at 37 °C were morphologically identified as Acanthamoeba spp., Naegleria spp. and some unidentified amoebae. Only three samples (42.8%), defined as thermotolerant FLA, continued to grow at 42 °C. By molecular methods, two non-thermotolerant FlA were shown to have 99% identity to Acanthamoeba sp. and 98% identity to Hartmannella vermiformis while the two thermotolerant FLA were identified as Echinamoeba exundans (100% identity) and Hartmannella sp. (99% identity). This first report of the occurrence of FLA in water during the flood disaster will provide information to the public to be aware of potentially pathogenic FLA. PMID:24213194

Wannasan, Anchalee; Uparanukraw, Pichart; Songsangchun, Apichart; Morakote, Nimit

2013-01-01

220

Immunization of Primates with a Newcastle Disease Virus-Vectored Vaccine via the Respiratory Tract Induces a High Titer of Serum Neutralizing Antibodies against Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus?  

PubMed Central

The ongoing outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) in birds, the incidence of transmission to humans with a resulting high mortality rate, and the possibility of a human pandemic warrant the development of effective human vaccines against HPAIV. We developed an experimental live-attenuated vaccine for direct inoculation of the respiratory tract based on recombinant avian Newcastle disease virus (NDV) expressing the hemagglutinin (HA) glycoprotein of H5N1 HPAIV (NDV-HA). Expression of the HPAIV HA gene slightly reduced NDV virulence, as evidenced by the increased mean embryo death time and reduced replication in chickens. NDV-HA was administered to African green monkeys in two doses of 2 × 107 infectious units each with a 28-day interval to evaluate the systemic and local antibody responses specific to H5N1 HPAIV. The virus was shed only at low titers from the monkeys, indicative of safety. Two doses of NDV-HA induced a high titer of H5N1 HPAIV-neutralizing serum antibodies in all of the immunized monkeys. Moreover, a substantial mucosal immunoglobulin A response was induced in the respiratory tract after one and two doses. The titers of neutralizing antibodies achieved in this study suggest that the vaccine would be likely to prevent mortality and reduce morbidity caused by the H5N1 HPAIV. In addition, induction of a local immune response in the respiratory tract is an important advantage that is likely to reduce or prevent transmission of the virus during an outbreak or a pandemic. This vaccine is a candidate for clinical evaluation in humans. PMID:17715243

DiNapoli, Joshua M.; Yang, Lijuan; Suguitan, Amorsolo; Elankumaran, Subbiah; Dorward, David W.; Murphy, Brian R.; Samal, Siba K.; Collins, Peter L.; Bukreyev, Alexander

2007-01-01

221

Dynamic Regulation of Integrin ?6?4 During Angiogenesis: Potential Implications for Pathogenic Wound Healing  

PubMed Central

Objective Angiogenesis is an essential component of normal cutaneous wound repair, but is altered in pathogenic forms of wound healing, such as chronic wounds and fibrosis. We previously reported that endothelial expression of integrin ?6?4 is developmentally regulated, with ?6?4 expression correlating with tissue maturation and further showed that endothelial ?6?4 is downregulated in explant angiogenesis assays. These data support the hypothesis that dynamic regulation of ?6?4 may play an important role during new vessel formation in healing wounds. Approach To test this hypothesis, we examined the endothelial expression of ?6?4 using a murine model of cutaneous wound healing and in vitro cultures of primary human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMECs). Results Expression of ?6?4 is downregulated during early stages of wound healing; angiogenic vessels in day 7 wounds do not express ?6?4. Endothelial expression of ?6?4 is resumed in day 14 wounds. Moreover, explanted HDMECs do not express ?6?4, but expression is induced by treatment with histone deacetylase inhibitors. Innovation We provide in vivo data supporting a role for the dynamic regulation of ?6?4 during vessel formation and remodeling during cutaneous wound repair and in vitro findings that suggest endothelial ?4 expression is regulated transcriptionally, providing an important foundation for future studies to understand the transcriptional mechanisms involved in endothelial cell maturation during normal wound repair. Conclusion Our data indicate that ?6?4 is dynamically regulated during angiogenesis and vessel maturation and suggest that disruption of this regulation may contribute to defective angiogenesis associated with diabetic wounds or cutaneous fibrosis. PMID:24527356

Desai, Diana; Singh, Purva; Van De Water, Livingston; LaFlamme, Susan E.

2013-01-01

222

Detection of seasonal weight loss and a serologic survey of potential pathogens in wild Pallas' cats (Felis [Otocolobus] manul) of the Daurian Steppe, Russia.  

PubMed

We measured seasonal changes in body mass and pathogen exposure in wild Pallas' cats (Felis [Otocolobus] manul) in the Daurian Steppe of Russia in 2010-11. Pallas' cats lost about 30% of body mass over winter. Tests for antibodies to 15 potential pathogens showed that Pallas' cats were exposed to four pathogens. Two of 16 cats had antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii. Two had antibodies to Mycoplasma sp., and one each had antibodies to Influenza A virus and Feline leukemia virus. The percentage of antibody-positive wild Pallas' cats was lower than results reported for other wild felids in the Russian Far East. PMID:24484481

Naidenko, Sergey V; Pavlova, Ekaterina V; Kirilyuk, Vadim E

2014-04-01

223

Presence of potentially pathogenic free-living amoebae strains from well water samples in Guinea-Bissau.  

PubMed

Free-living amoebae (FLA) include opportunistic pathogens such as Naegleria fowleri, Balamuthia mandrillaris, and the genera Sappinia and Acanthamoeba. In this study, a survey was conducted in order to evaluate the presence of potentially pathogenic amoebic strains in water samples collected from wells located in the western part of Guinea-Bissau. The samples were left to precipitate for 48 hours and then the sediments were seeded on non-nutrient agar plates containing Escherichia coli spread and cultures were checked daily for the presence of FLA. Identification of FLA strains was based on the morphological and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using the 18S rDNA or 16S mitochondrial rDNA genes in the case of Naegleria and Balamuthia genera, respectively. In the case of positive samples of Acanthamoeba, strains were further classified at the genotype level by sequencing the diagnostic fragment 3 (DF3) region located in the 18S rDNA gene as previously described. Sappinia sp. was not isolated during the study and thus, no molecular analysis was performed for this genus. The obtained results revealed the presence of Acanthamoeba (genotypes T3 and T4), Naegleria fowleri, and Balamuthia mandrillaris. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the presence of FLA in water bodies from Guinea-Bissau and the first report on the isolation of Balamuthia mandrillaris from environmental sources in Africa. PMID:24934796

Baquero, Rocío A; Reyes-Batlle, María; Nicola, Graciela G; Martín-Navarro, Carmen M; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Guillermo Esteban, J; Valladares, Basilio; Martínez-Carretero, Enrique; Piñero, José E; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

2014-06-01

224

Fungal pathogens of Euphorbia heterophylla and E. hirta in Brazil and their potential as weed biocontrol agents.  

PubMed

A two-year survey of the fungi associated with two important congeneric pantropical weeds, Euphorbia heterophylla and E. hirta, was conducted in part of their native range in southern Brazil. Sampling was concentrated mainly in Rio de Janeiro State and ten species were identified as pathogens of these weeds. Two taxa, Botrytis ricini and Uromyces euphorbiae, were common to both weed hosts. Alternaria euphorbiicola, Bipolaris euphorbiae, Melampsora sp., Oidium sp. and Sphaceloma poinsettiae were recorded only from E. heterophylla, whereas Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Sphaceloma sp. and Sphaerotheca fuliginea were restricted to E. hirta. Botrytis ricini and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides are new records for E. hirta, and Alternaria euphorbiicola and Sphaerotheca fuliginea are new host records for Brazil. Bipolaris euphorbiae, previously identified as Helminthosporium sp., is considered to be the correct name for the causal agent of a major disease of E. heterophyllum in Brazil. The potential of these pathogens as biocontrol agents is discussed and the mycobiota associated with both these weeds worldwide is reviewed. PMID:16284862

Barreto, R W; Evans, H C

1998-01-01

225

Carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Other Respiratory Bacterial Pathogens in Low and Lower-Middle Income Countries: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in low income countries where pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) are still underused. In countries where PCVs have been introduced, much of their efficacy has resulted from their impact on nasopharyngeal carriage in vaccinated children. Understanding the epidemiology of carriage for S. pneumoniae and other common respiratory bacteria in developing countries is crucial for implementing appropriate vaccination strategies and evaluating their impact. Methods and Findings We have systematically reviewed published studies reporting nasopharyngeal or oropharyngeal carriage of S. pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Neisseria meningitidis in children and adults in low and lower-middle income countries. Studies reporting pneumococcal carriage for healthy children <5 years of age were selected for a meta-analysis. The prevalences of carriage for S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, and M. catarrhalis were generally higher in low income than in lower-middle income countries and were higher in young children than in adults. The prevalence of S. aureus was high in neonates. Meta-analysis of data from young children before the introduction of PCVs showed a pooled prevalence estimate of 64.8% (95% confidence interval, 49.8%–76.1%) in low income countries and 47.8% (95% confidence interval, 44.7%–50.8%) in lower-middle income countries. The most frequent serotypes were 6A, 6B, 19A, 19F, and 23F. Conclusions In low and lower-middle income countries, pneumococcal carriage is frequent, especially in children, and the spectrum of serotypes is wide. However, because data are limited, additional studies are needed to adequately assess the impact of PCV introduction on carriage of respiratory bacteria in these countries. PMID:25084351

Adegbola, Richard A.; DeAntonio, Rodrigo; Hill, Philip C.; Roca, Anna; Usuf, Effua; Hoet, Bernard; Greenwood, Brian M.

2014-01-01

226

The Potential Distance of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Dispersal by Mallard, Common Teal and Eurasian  

E-print Network

investigated the potential spreading distance of HP AIV by common teal (Anas crecca), mallard (A. platyrhynchos, approximately 1­5% of migratory mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and other dabbling ducks are infected with LP AIV Don~ana-CSIC, C/ Ame´rico Vespucio s/n, 41092 Sevilla, Spain Abstract: Waterbirds represent the major

Green, Andy J.

227

Complete Genome Sequence of Staphylococcus xylosus HKUOPL8, a Potential Opportunistic Pathogen of Mammals  

PubMed Central

We report here the first complete genome sequence of Staphylococcus xylosus strain HKUOPL8, isolated from giant panda feces. The whole genome sequence of this strain will provide an important framework for investigating the genes responsible for potential opportunistic infections with this species, as well as its survival in various environments. PMID:25059860

Ma, Angel Po Yee; Jiang, Jingwei; Tun, Hein Min; Mauroo, Nathalie France; Yuen, Chan San

2014-01-01

228

Assessing the pathogenic potential of human Nephronophthisis disease-associated NPHP-4 missense mutations in C. elegans.  

PubMed

A spectrum of complex oligogenic disorders called the ciliopathies have been connected to dysfunction of cilia. Among the ciliopathies are Nephronophthisis (NPHP), characterized by cystic kidney disease and retinal degeneration, and Meckel-Gruber syndrome (MKS), a gestational lethal condition with skeletal abnormalities, cystic kidneys and CNS malformation. Mutations in multiple genes have been identified in NPHP and MKS patients, and an unexpected finding has been that mutations within the same gene can cause either disorder. Further, there is minimal genotype-phenotype correlation and despite recessive inheritance, numerous patients were identified as having a single heterozygous mutation. This has made it difficult to determine the significance of these mutations on disease pathogenesis and led to the hypothesis that clinical presentation in an individual will be determined by genetic interactions between mutations in multiple cilia-related genes. Here we utilize Caenorhabditis elegans and cilia-associated behavioral and morphologic assays to evaluate the pathogenic potential of eight previously reported human NPHP4 missense mutations. We assess the impact of these mutations on C. elegans NPHP-4 function, localization and evaluate potential interactions with mutations in MKS complex genes, mksr-2 and mksr-1. Six out of eight nphp-4 mutations analyzed alter ciliary function, and three of these modify the severity of the phenotypes caused by disruption of mksr-2 and mksr-1. Collectively, our studies demonstrate the utility of C. elegans as a tool to assess the pathogenicity of mutations in ciliopathy genes and provide insights into the complex genetic interactions contributing to the diversity of phenotypes associated with cilia disorders. PMID:21546380

Masyukova, Svetlana V; Winkelbauer, Marlene E; Williams, Corey L; Pieczynski, Jay N; Yoder, Bradley K

2011-08-01

229

The Brazilian peppertree seed-borne pathogen, Neofusicoccum batangarum, a potential biocontrol agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

The invasive exotic Brazilian peppertree, Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) has become a serious threat to the delicate ecosystem of Everglades National Park in Florida, USA. More than 4000ha in the Hole-in-the-Donut (HID) area within the park have been infested with Brazilian peppertree. Brazilian peppertree is a prolific seed producer, which enhances its invasive potential. Native phytopathogens can be a

Kateel G. Shetty; Andrew M. Minnis; Amy Y. Rossman; Krishnaswamy Jayachandran

230

Submitted to the Journal of the American Water Resources Association Potential Human Health Effects Associated with Pathogens in Urban Wet Weather Flows  

E-print Network

1 Submitted to the Journal of the American Water Resources Association Potential Human Health and indicator organisms found in urban receiving waters are a common cause of concern. Though some question describing the potential human health effects associated with pathogens and commo n indicator organisms found

Pitt, Robert E.

231

The potential spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus via dynamic contacts between poultry premises in Great Britain  

PubMed Central

Background Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses have had devastating effects on poultry industries worldwide, and there is concern about the potential for HPAI outbreaks in the poultry industry in Great Britain (GB). Critical to the potential for HPAI to spread between poultry premises are the connections made between farms by movements related to human activity. Movement records of catching teams and slaughterhouse vehicles were obtained from a large catching company, and these data were used in a simulation model of HPAI spread between farms serviced by the catching company, and surrounding (geographic) areas. The spread of HPAI through real-time movements was modelled, with the addition of spread via company personnel and local transmission. Results The model predicted that although large outbreaks are rare, they may occur, with long distances between infected premises. Final outbreak size was most sensitive to the probability of spread via slaughterhouse-linked movements whereas the probability of onward spread beyond an index premises was most sensitive to the frequency of company personnel movements. Conclusions Results obtained from this study show that, whilst there is the possibility that HPAI virus will jump from one cluster of farms to another, movements made by catching teams connected fewer poultry premises in an outbreak situation than slaughterhouses and company personnel. The potential connection of a large number of infected farms, however, highlights the importance of retaining up-to-date data on poultry premises so that control measures can be effectively prioritised in an outbreak situation. PMID:21995783

2011-01-01

232

Experimental infection of colostrum deprived piglets with porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) potentiates PCV2 replication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  ?Experimental infection of colostrum-deprived (CD) pigs with a combined inoculum of porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) and porcine\\u000a reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) potentiated the replication and distribution of PCV2 virus, when compared\\u000a with pigs inoculated with PCV2 alone. The replication and distribution of PRRSV in dually infected pigs was not enhanced,\\u000a when compared to pigs inoculated with PRRSV alone.

G. M. Allan; F. McNeilly; J. Ellis; S. Krakowka; B. Meehan; I. McNair; I. Walker; S. Kennedy

2000-01-01

233

The human respiratory gate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Respiratory activity phasically alters membrane potentials of preganglionic vagal and sympathetic motoneurones and continuously modulates their responsiveness to stimulatory inputs. The most obvious manifestation of this 'respiratory gating' is respiratory sinus arrhythmia, the rhythmic fluctuations of electrocardiographic R-R intervals observed in healthy resting humans. Phasic autonomic motoneurone firing, reflecting the throughput of the system, depends importantly on the intensity of stimulatory inputs, such that when levels of stimulation are low (as with high arterial pressure and sympathetic activity, or low arterial pressure and vagal activity), respiratory fluctuations of sympathetic or vagal firing are also low. The respiratory gate has a finite capacity, and high levels of stimulation override the ability of respiration to gate autonomic responsiveness. Autonomic throughput also depends importantly on other factors, including especially, the frequency of breathing, the rate at which the gate opens and closes. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia is small at rapid, and large at slow breathing rates. The strong correlation between systolic pressure and R-R intervals at respiratory frequencies reflects the influence of respiration on these two measures, rather than arterial baroreflex physiology. A wide range of evidence suggests that respiratory activity gates the timing of autonomic motoneurone firing, but does not influence its tonic level. I propose that the most enduring significance of respiratory gating is its use as a precisely controlled experimental tool to tease out and better understand otherwise inaccessible human autonomic neurophysiological mechanisms.

Eckberg, Dwain L.

2003-01-01

234

Development of an EvaGreen-based multiplex real-time PCR assay with melting curve analysis for simultaneous detection and differentiation of six viral pathogens of porcine reproductive and respiratory disorder.  

PubMed

Concurrent infection of pigs with two or more pathogens is common in pigs under intensive rearing conditions. Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), porcine parvovirus (PPV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), classical swine fever virus (CSFV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and pseudorabies virus (PRV) are all associated with reproductive or respiratory disorders or both and can cause significant economic losses in pig production worldwide. An EvaGreen-based multiplex real-time PCR (EG-mPCR) with melting curve analysis was developed in this study for simultaneous detection and differentiation of these six viruses in pigs. This method is able to detect and distinguish PCV2, PPV, PRRSV, CSFV, JEV and PRV with the limits of detection ranging from 100 to 500copies/?L, high reproducibility, and intra-assay and inter-assay variation ranging from 0.11 to 3.20%. After validation, a total of 118 field samples were tested by the newly developed EG-mPCR. PCV2 was identified in 23%, PPV in 15%, PRRSV in 17% and PRV in 5% of the samples. Concurrent PCV2 and PRRSV infection was detected in 6.7%, PCV2 and PPV in 5% and PPV2 and PRRSV infection was detected in 5% of the cases. The agreement of the EG-mPCR and conventional PCR tests was 99.2%. This EG-mPCR will be a useful, rapid, reliable and cost-effective alternative for routine surveillance testing of viral infections in pigs. PMID:25102430

Rao, Pinbin; Wu, Haigang; Jiang, Yonghou; Opriessnig, Tanja; Zheng, Xiaowen; Mo, Yecheng; Yang, Zongqi

2014-11-01

235

Respiratory system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The general anatomy and function of the human respiratory system is summarized. Breathing movements, control of breathing, lung volumes and capacities, mechanical relations, and factors relevant to respiratory support and equipment design are discussed.

Bartlett, R. G., Jr.

1973-01-01

236

Emerging Respiratory Viruses: Challenges and Vaccine Strategies  

PubMed Central

The current threat of avian influenza to the human population, the potential for the reemergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-associated coronavirus, and the identification of multiple novel respiratory viruses underline the necessity for the development of therapeutic and preventive strategies to combat viral infection. Vaccine development is a key component in the prevention of widespread viral infection and in the reduction of morbidity and mortality associated with many viral infections. In this review we describe the different approaches currently being evaluated in the development of vaccines against SARS-associated coronavirus and avian influenza viruses and also highlight the many obstacles encountered in the development of these vaccines. Lessons learned from current vaccine studies, coupled with our increasing knowledge of the host and viral factors involved in viral pathogenesis, will help to increase the speed with which efficacious vaccines targeting newly emerging viral pathogens can be developed. PMID:17041137

Gillim-Ross, Laura; Subbarao, Kanta

2006-01-01

237

Caspase Dependent Programmed Cell Death in Developing Embryos: A Potential Target for Therapeutic Intervention against Pathogenic Nematodes  

PubMed Central

Background Successful embryogenesis is a critical rate limiting step for the survival and transmission of parasitic worms as well as pathology mediated by them. Hence, blockage of this important process through therapeutic induction of apoptosis in their embryonic stages offers promise for developing effective anti-parasitic measures against these extra cellular parasites. However, unlike in the case of protozoan parasites, induction of apoptosis as a therapeutic approach is yet to be explored against metazoan helminth parasites. Methodology/Principal Findings For the first time, here we developed and evaluated flow cytometry based assays to assess several conserved features of apoptosis in developing embryos of a pathogenic filarial nematode Setaria digitata, in-vitro as well as ex-vivo. We validated programmed cell death in developing embryos by using immuno-fluorescence microscopy and scoring expression profile of nematode specific proteins related to apoptosis [e.g. CED-3, CED-4 and CED-9]. Mechanistically, apoptotic death of embryonic stages was found to be a caspase dependent phenomenon mediated primarily through induction of intracellular ROS. The apoptogenicity of some pharmacological compounds viz. DEC, Chloroquine, Primaquine and Curcumin were also evaluated. Curcumin was found to be the most effective pharmacological agent followed by Primaquine while Chloroquine displayed minimal effect and DEC had no demonstrable effect. Further, demonstration of induction of apoptosis in embryonic stages by lipid peroxidation products [molecules commonly associated with inflammatory responses in filarial disease] and demonstration of in-situ apoptosis of developing embryos in adult parasites in a natural bovine model of filariasis have offered a framework to understand anti-fecundity host immunity operational against parasitic helminths. Conclusions/Significance Our observations have revealed for the first time, that induction of apoptosis in developing embryos can be a potential approach for therapeutic intervention against pathogenic nematodes and flow cytometry can be used to address different issues of biological importance during embryogenesis of parasitic worms. PMID:21931872

Mohapatra, Alok Das; Kumar, Sunil; Satapathy, Ashok Kumar; Ravindran, Balachandran

2011-01-01

238

Coagulase-positive staphylococci isolated from chicken meat: pathogenic potential and vancomycin resistance.  

PubMed

Coagulase-positive staphylococci (CPS) cause staphylococcal food poisoning. Recently, these bacteria have received increasing attention due to their potential role in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance markers. The present study aimed to evaluate coagulase-positive staphylococci counts, species distribution, enterotoxin genes prevalence, and the antibiotic resistance profile of CPS isolated from in natura chicken meat. Fifteen frozen and 15 chilled industrialized, uncooked chicken parts or entire carcasses were used. Staphylococcal counts revealed that frozen chicken meat samples displayed the lowest CPS count compared with chilled chicken meat samples (p<0.01). Staphylococcus aureus (62%) was the most common species, followed by S. intermedius, S. delphini, and S. schleiferi subsp. coagulans (10% each) and S. hyicus (8%). The polymerase chain reaction identification of sea, seb, sec, sed, and see genes revealed that 70% of the isolates harbored at least one enterotoxin gene, with sea and sed being the most frequently encountered ones. Two of the 50 investigated strains harbored three different enterotoxin genes. A high frequency of isolates resistant to penicillin, teicoplanin, oxacillin, and clindamycin was observed, and 80% of CPS were found to be resistant to at least one of the 11 tested antimicrobials. Vancomycin-resistant S. aureus and S. intermedius showed minimum inhibitory concentrations of 512 and 64 ?g/mL, respectively. These isolates might indicate the dissemination of vancomycin resistance in the community and imply food safety hazards. PMID:23841655

Martins, Paula Dalcin; de Almeida, Taiana Trindade; Basso, Ana Paula; de Moura, Tiane Martin; Frazzon, Jeverson; Tondo, Eduardo César; Frazzon, Ana Paula Guedes

2013-09-01

239

Genome sequencing of multidrug resistant novel Clostridium sp. BL8 reveals its potential for pathogenicity  

PubMed Central

Background The human gut microbiome is important for maintaining the health status of the host. Clostridia are key members of the human gut microbiome, carrying out several important functions in the gut environment. Hence understanding the role of different Clostridium species isolated from human gut is essential. The present study was aimed at investigating the role of novel Clostridium sp. isolate BL8 in human gut using genome sequencing as a tool. Findings The genome analysis of Clostridium sp. BL8 showed the presence of several adaptive features like bile resistance, presence of sensory and regulatory systems, presence of oxidative stress managing systems and presence of membrane transport systems. The genome of Clostridium sp. BL8 consists of a wide variety of virulence factors like phospholipase C (alpha toxin), hemolysin, aureolysin and exfoliative toxin A, as well as adhesion factors, proteases, Type IV secretion system and antibiotic resistance genes. In vitro antibiotic sensitivity testing showed that Clostridium sp. BL8 was resistant to 11 different tested antibiotics belonging to 6 different classes. The cell cytotoxicity assay confirmed the cytotoxic effect of Clostridium sp. BL8 cells, which killed 40% of the Vero cells after 4 hrs of incubation. Conclusions Clostridium sp. BL8 has adapted for survival in human gut environment, with presence of different adaptive features. The presence of several virulence factors and cell cytotoxic activity indicate that Clostridium sp. BL8 has a potential to cause infections in humans, however further in vivo studies are necessary to ascertain this fact. PMID:25076986

2014-01-01

240

Combining Inferential and Deductive Approaches to Estimate the Potential Geographical Range of the Invasive Plant Pathogen, Phytophthora ramorum  

PubMed Central

Phytophthora ramorum, an invasive plant pathogen of unknown origin, causes considerable and widespread damage in plant industries and natural ecosystems of the USA and Europe. Estimating the potential geographical range of P. ramorum has been complicated by a lack of biological and geographical data with which to calibrate climatic models. Previous attempts to do so, using either invaded range data or surrogate species approaches, have delivered varying results. A simulation model was developed using CLIMEX to estimate the global climate suitability patterns for establishment of P. ramorum. Growth requirements and stress response parameters were derived from ecophysiological laboratory observations and site-level transmission and disease factors related to climate data in the field. Geographical distribution data from the USA (California and Oregon) and Norway were reserved from model-fitting and used to validate the models. The model suggests that the invasion of P. ramorum in both North America and Europe is still in its infancy and that it is presently occupying a small fraction of its potential range. Phytophthora ramorum appears to be climatically suited to large areas of Africa, Australasia and South America, where it could cause biodiversity and economic losses in plant industries and natural ecosystems with susceptible hosts if introduced. PMID:23667628

Ireland, Kylie B.; Hardy, Giles E. St. J.; Kriticos, Darren J.

2013-01-01

241

The impact of dosimetric optimization using respiratory gating and inhomogeneity corrections on potential therapeutic gain in patients with lung cancer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early stage lung cancer is found with increasing frequency by screening high risk patients. Recently, the use of Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) has been found to be highly successful. The hypothesis being tested here is that the use of respiratory gating and tissue heterogeneity corrections are necessary to optimize tumor and normal tissue dose distributions for SBRT.

de La Fuente Herman, Tania

242

Quantitative prediction of respiratory tidal volume based on the external torso volume change: a potential volumetric surrogate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An external respiratory surrogate that not only highly correlates with but also quantitatively predicts internal tidal volume should be useful in guiding four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT), as well as 4D radiation therapy (4DRT). A volumetric surrogate should have advantages over external fiducial point(s) for monitoring respiration-induced motion of the torso, which deforms in synchronization with a patient-specific breathing pattern. This study establishes a linear relationship between the external torso volume change (TVC) and lung air volume change (AVC) by validating a proposed volume conservation hypothesis (TVC = AVC) throughout the respiratory cycle using 4DCT and spirometry. Fourteen patients' torso 4DCT images and corresponding spirometric tidal volumes were acquired to examine this hypothesis. The 4DCT images were acquired using dual surrogates in ciné mode and amplitude-based binning in 12 respiratory stages, minimizing residual motion artifacts. Torso and lung volumes were calculated using threshold-based segmentation algorithms and volume changes were calculated relative to the full-exhalation stage. The TVC and AVC, as functions of respiratory stages, were compared, showing a high correlation (r = 0.992 ± 0.005, p < 0.0001) as well as a linear relationship (slope = 1.027 ± 0.061, R2 = 0.980) without phase shift. The AVC was also compared to the spirometric tidal volumes, showing a similar linearity (slope = 1.030 ± 0.092, R2 = 0.947). In contrast, the thoracic and abdominal heights measured from 4DCT showed relatively low correlation (0.28 ± 0.44 and 0.82 ± 0.30, respectively) and location-dependent phase shifts. This novel approach establishes the foundation for developing an external volumetric respiratory surrogate.

Li, Guang; Arora, Naveen C.; Xie, Huchen; Ning, Holly; Lu, Wei; Low, Daniel; Citrin, Deborah; Kaushal, Aradhana; Zach, Leor; Camphausen, Kevin; Miller, Robert W.

2009-04-01

243

Enhanced infectivity of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus in pig ex vivo respiratory tract organ cultures following adaptation by in vitro passage.  

PubMed

Pigs are thought to play a role in the adaptation of avian influenza (AI) viruses to mammalian hosts. To better understand this mechanism and to identify key mutations two highly pathogenic AI (HPAI) viruses (H5N1 and H7N7) were grown in pig cells, To mimic the pressure of an immune response, these viruses were grown in the presence of antiserum to the homologous virus or porcine IFN-?. Mutations were identified in both viruses grown in vitro in the presence and absence of antisera or IFN-? and included the PB2 mutations, E627K or 627E,D701N, described previously as requirements for the adaptation of AI viruses to mammalian species. Additional mutations were also identified in PB1, HA, NP and M genes for viruses passaged in the presence of immune pressure. The infectivity of these viruses was then assessed using ex vivo pig bronchi and lung organ cultures. For lung explants, higher levels of virus were detected in organ cultures infected with H5N1 HPAI viruses passaged in pig cell lines regardless of the presence or absence of homologous antisera or IFN-? when compared with the wild-type parental viruses. No infection was observed for any of the H7N7 HPAI viruses. These results suggest that the mutations identified in H5N1 HPAI viruses may provide a replication or infection advantage in pigs in vivo and that pigs may continue to play an important role in the ecology of influenza A viruses including those of avian origin. PMID:24050997

Londt, Brandon Z; Brookes, Sharon M; Nash, Bethany J; Núñez, Alejandro; Kelly, Michael D; Garçon, Fanny; Graham, Simon P; Brown, Ian H

2013-12-26

244

Lack of respiratory and contact sensitizing potential of the intranasal antiviral drug candidate rupintrivir (AG7088): a weight-of-the-evidence evaluation.  

PubMed

Rupintrivir, also known as AG7088, is a small molecule 3C protease inhibitor designed to target human rhinovirus as a potential intranasal treatment for the common cold. The ability of rupintrivir to induce both respiratory and contact hypersensitivity responses was evaluated using a weight of the evidence approach. A local lymph node assay (LLNA) in mice evaluating concentrations of rupintrivir up to 50% in dimethylformamide showed no evidence of sensitizing capability. An irritation study conducted in rabbits was performed to assess potential dermal irritancy and provide information for worker safety guidelines. The study showed no evidence of skin irritation when the material was placed in direct contact with the skin in a semi-occluded fashion for four days. Quantitative whole body autoradiography (QWBA) following intranasal instillation of the compound into rabbits showed that the compound was retained in the nasal cavity or was swallowed. No radioactivity was observed in the pulmonary regions of these animals. Histopathologic evaluation of the nasopharyngeal tract and the lungs of both rats and dogs exposed by intranasal instillation acutely or following repeated intranasal exposures for 14 (rat) or 28 days (rat and dog) did not reveal any evidence of irritation or inflammation in these regions of the respiratory tract. These data demonstrate that rupintrivir does not cause irritation or inflammatory responses that may precede the development of sensitization of the skin or respiratory tract. It was concluded that the weight of the available toxicologic evidence indicated that rupintrivir was not likely to cause sensitization of either the skin or the respiratory tract in humans following intranasal delivery. PMID:18958666

Burns-Naas, Leigh Ann; Lee, Caroline; Evering, Winston; Ahern, Lisa; Webber, Stephanie; Zorbas, Mark

2005-07-01

245

DISTRIBUTION OF OROBAMCHE ALBA STEPHAN EX WILLD - POTENTIAL HOST OF PHYTOPHAGOUS ANIMALS AND PATHOGENS ATTACKING THE PEST OROBANCHE RAMOSA L. IN SLOVAKIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary During 2002 and 2003, the survey of distribution of wild broomrapes (Orobanche sp.), as potential hosts of phytophagous animals and pathogens, was done in Slovakia. 50 localities were checked and broomrapes occurred on 30 of them. One of the most abundant broomrape species was Orobanche alba Stephan ex Willd., which infested plants from the genus Thymus L. and was

Peter TÓTH; A. Hlinku

246

Associations Between Multidrug Resistance, Plasmid Content, and Virulence Potential Among Extraintestinal Pathogenic and Commensal Escherichia coli from Humans and Poultry  

PubMed Central

Abstract The emergence of plasmid-mediated multidrug resistance (MDR) among enteric bacteria presents a serious challenge to the treatment of bacterial infections in humans and animals. Recent studies suggest that avian Escherichia coli commonly possess the ability to resist multiple antimicrobial agents, and might serve as reservoirs of MDR for human extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) and commensal E. coli populations. We determined antimicrobial susceptibility profiles for 2202 human and avian E. coli isolates, then sought for associations among resistance profile, plasmid content, virulence factor profile, and phylogenetic group. Avian-source isolates harbored greater proportions of MDR than their human counterparts, and avian ExPEC had higher proportions of MDR than did avian commensal E. coli. MDR was significantly associated with possession of the IncA/C, IncP1-?, IncF, and IncI1 plasmid types. Overall, inferred virulence potential did not correlate with drug susceptibility phenotype. However, certain virulence genes were positively associated with MDR, including ireA, ibeA, fyuA, cvaC, iss, iutA, iha, and afa. According to the total dataset, isolates segregated significantly according to host species and clinical status, thus suggesting that avian and human ExPEC and commensal E. coli represent four distinct populations with limited overlap. These findings suggest that in extraintestinal E. coli, MDR is most commonly associated with plasmids, and that these plasmids are frequently found among avian-source E. coli from poultry production systems. PMID:21988401

Johnson, Timothy J.; Logue, Catherine M.; Johnson, James R.; Kuskowski, Michael A.; Sherwood, Julie S.; Barnes, H. John; DebRoy, Chitrita; Wannemuehler, Yvonne M.; Obata-Yasuoka, Mana; Spanjaard, Lodewijk

2012-01-01

247

Associations between multidrug resistance, plasmid content, and virulence potential among extraintestinal pathogenic and commensal Escherichia coli from humans and poultry.  

PubMed

The emergence of plasmid-mediated multidrug resistance (MDR) among enteric bacteria presents a serious challenge to the treatment of bacterial infections in humans and animals. Recent studies suggest that avian Escherichia coli commonly possess the ability to resist multiple antimicrobial agents, and might serve as reservoirs of MDR for human extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) and commensal E. coli populations. We determined antimicrobial susceptibility profiles for 2202 human and avian E. coli isolates, then sought for associations among resistance profile, plasmid content, virulence factor profile, and phylogenetic group. Avian-source isolates harbored greater proportions of MDR than their human counterparts, and avian ExPEC had higher proportions of MDR than did avian commensal E. coli. MDR was significantly associated with possession of the IncA/C, IncP1-?, IncF, and IncI1 plasmid types. Overall, inferred virulence potential did not correlate with drug susceptibility phenotype. However, certain virulence genes were positively associated with MDR, including ireA, ibeA, fyuA, cvaC, iss, iutA, iha, and afa. According to the total dataset, isolates segregated significantly according to host species and clinical status, thus suggesting that avian and human ExPEC and commensal E. coli represent four distinct populations with limited overlap. These findings suggest that in extraintestinal E. coli, MDR is most commonly associated with plasmids, and that these plasmids are frequently found among avian-source E. coli from poultry production systems. PMID:21988401

Johnson, Timothy J; Logue, Catherine M; Johnson, James R; Kuskowski, Michael A; Sherwood, Julie S; Barnes, H John; DebRoy, Chitrita; Wannemuehler, Yvonne M; Obata-Yasuoka, Mana; Spanjaard, Lodewijk; Nolan, Lisa K

2012-01-01

248

Phylogenetic identification of bacterial MazF toxin protein motifs among probiotic strains and foodborne pathogens and potential implications of engineered probiotic intervention in food  

PubMed Central

Background Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are commonly found in bacteria and Archaea, and it is the most common mechanism involved in bacterial programmed cell death or apoptosis. Recently, MazF, the toxin component of the toxin-antitoxin module, has been categorized as an endoribonuclease, or it may have a function similar to that of a RNA interference enzyme. Results In this paper, with comparative data and phylogenetic analyses, we are able to identify several potential MazF-conserved motifs in limited subsets of foodborne pathogens and probiotic strains and further provide a molecular basis for the development of engineered/synthetic probiotic strains for the mitigation of foodborne illnesses. Our findings also show that some probiotic strains, as fit as many bacterial foodborne pathogens, can be genetically categorized into three major groups based on phylogenetic analysis of MazF. In each group, potential functional motifs are conserved in phylogenetically distant species, including foodborne pathogens and probiotic strains. Conclusion These data provide important knowledge for the identification and computational prediction of functional motifs related to programmed cell death. Potential implications of these findings include the use of engineered probiotic interventions in food or use of a natural probiotic cocktail with specificity for controlling targeted foodborne pathogens. PMID:23186337

2012-01-01

249

The Potential Distance of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Dispersal by Mallard, Common Teal and Eurasian Pochard  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waterbirds represent the major natural reservoir for low pathogenic (LP) avian influenza viruses (AIV). Among the wide diversity\\u000a of subtypes that have been described, two of them (H5 and H7) may become highly pathogenic (HP) after their introduction into\\u000a domestic bird populations and cause severe outbreaks, as is the case for HP H5N1 in South-Eastern Asia. Recent experimental\\u000a studies demonstrated

Anne-Laure Brochet; Matthieu Guillemain; Camille Lebarbenchon; Géraldine Simon; Hervé Fritz; Andy J. Green; François Renaud; Frédéric Thomas; Michel Gauthier-Clerc

2009-01-01

250

Gorilla gorilla gorilla gut: a potential reservoir of pathogenic bacteria as revealed using culturomics and molecular tools  

PubMed Central

Wild apes are considered to be the most serious reservoir and source of zoonoses. However, little data are available about the gut microbiota and pathogenic bacteria in gorillas. For this propose, a total of 48 fecal samples obtained from 21 Gorilla gorilla gorilla individuals (as revealed via microsatellite analysis) were screened for human bacterial pathogens using culturomics and molecular techniques. By applying culturomics to one index gorilla and using specific media supplemented by plants, we tested 12,800 colonies and identified 147 different bacterial species, including 5 new species. Many opportunistic pathogens were isolated, including 8 frequently associated with human diseases; Mycobacterium bolletii, Proteus mirabilis, Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridium botulinum. The genus Treponema accounted for 27.4% of the total reads identified at the genus level via 454 pyrosequencing. Using specific real-time PCR on 48 gorilla fecal samples, in addition to classical human pathogens, we also observed the fastidious bacteria Bartonella spp. Borrelia spp., Coxiella burnetii and Tropheryma whipplei in the gorilla population. We estimated that the prevalence of these pathogens vary between 4.76% and 85.7%. Therefore, gorillas share many bacterial pathogens with humans suggesting that they could be a reservoir for their emergence.

Bittar, Fadi; Keita, Mamadou B.; Lagier, Jean-Christophe; Peeters, Martine; Delaporte, Eric; Raoult, Didier

2014-01-01

251

Characterizing the interface between wild ducks and poultry to evaluate the potential of transmission of avian pathogens  

PubMed Central

Background Characterizing the interface between wild and domestic animal populations is increasingly recognized as essential in the context of emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) that are transmitted by wildlife. More specifically, the spatial and temporal distribution of contact rates between wild and domestic hosts is a key parameter for modeling EIDs transmission dynamics. We integrated satellite telemetry, remote sensing and ground-based surveys to evaluate the spatio-temporal dynamics of indirect contacts between wild and domestic birds to estimate the risk that avian pathogens such as avian influenza and Newcastle viruses will be transmitted between wildlife to poultry. We monitored comb ducks (Sarkidiornis melanotos melanotos) with satellite transmitters for seven months in an extensive Afro-tropical wetland (the Inner Niger Delta) in Mali and characterise the spatial distribution of backyard poultry in villages. We modelled the spatial distribution of wild ducks using 250-meter spatial resolution and 8-days temporal resolution remotely-sensed environmental indicators based on a Maxent niche modelling method. Results Our results show a strong seasonal variation in potential contact rate between wild ducks and poultry. We found that the exposure of poultry to wild birds was greatest at the end of the dry season and the beginning of the rainy season, when comb ducks disperse from natural water bodies to irrigated areas near villages. Conclusions Our study provides at a local scale a quantitative evidence of the seasonal variability of contact rate between wild and domestic bird populations. It illustrates a GIS-based methodology for estimating epidemiological contact rates at the wildlife and livestock interface integrating high-resolution satellite telemetry and remote sensing data. PMID:22085837

2011-01-01

252

Experimental antibiotic treatment identifies potential pathogens of white band disease in the endangered Caribbean coral Acropora cervicornis  

PubMed Central

Coral diseases have been increasingly reported over the past few decades and are a major contributor to coral decline worldwide. The Caribbean, in particular, has been noted as a hotspot for coral disease, and the aptly named white syndromes have caused the decline of the dominant reef building corals throughout their range. White band disease (WBD) has been implicated in the dramatic loss of Acropora cervicornis and Acropora palmata since the 1970s, resulting in both species being listed as critically endangered on the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red list. The causal agent of WBD remains unknown, although recent studies based on challenge experiments with filtrate from infected hosts concluded that the disease is probably caused by bacteria. Here, we report an experiment using four different antibiotic treatments, targeting different members of the disease-associated microbial community. Two antibiotics, ampicillin and paromomycin, arrested the disease completely, and by comparing with community shifts brought about by treatments that did not arrest the disease, we have identified the likely candidate causal agent or agents of WBD. Our interpretation of the experimental treatments is that one or a combination of up to three specific bacterial types, detected consistently in diseased corals but not detectable in healthy corals, are likely causal agents of WBD. In addition, a histophagous ciliate (Philaster lucinda) identical to that found consistently in association with white syndrome in Indo-Pacific acroporas was also consistently detected in all WBD samples and absent in healthy coral. Treatment with metronidazole reduced it to below detection limits, but did not arrest the disease. However, the microscopic disease signs changed, suggesting a secondary role in disease causation for this ciliate. In future studies to identify a causal agent of WBD via tests of Henle–Koch's postulates, it will be vital to experimentally control for populations of the other potential pathogens identified in this study. PMID:24943374

Sweet, M. J.; Croquer, A.; Bythell, J. C.

2014-01-01

253

Vitamin D, respiratory infections, and asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past decade, interest has grown in the role of vitamin D in many nonskeletal medical conditions, including respiratory\\u000a infection. Emerging evidence indicates that vitamin D-mediated innate immunity, particularly through enhanced expression of\\u000a the human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (hCAP-18), is important in host defenses against respiratory tract pathogens.\\u000a Observational studies suggest that vitamin D deficiency increases risk of respiratory

Adit A. Ginde; Jonathan M. Mansbach; Carlos A. Camargo Jr

2009-01-01

254

Molecular analysis of bacterial communities and detection of potential pathogens in a recirculating aquaculture system for Scophthalmus maximus and Solea senegalensis.  

PubMed

The present study combined a DGGE and barcoded 16S rRNA pyrosequencing approach to assess bacterial composition in the water of a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) with a shallow raceway system (SRS) for turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) and sole (Solea senegalensis). Barcoded pyrosequencing results were also used to determine the potential pathogen load in the RAS studied. Samples were collected from the water supply pipeline (Sup), fish production tanks (Pro), sedimentation filter (Sed), biofilter tank (Bio), and protein skimmer (Ozo; also used as an ozone reaction chamber) of twin RAS operating in parallel (one for each fish species). Our results revealed pronounced differences in bacterial community composition between turbot and sole RAS, suggesting that in the systems studied there is a strong species-specific effect on water bacterial communities. Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum in the water supply and all RAS compartments. Other important taxonomic groups included the phylum Bacteriodetes. The saltwater supplied displayed a markedly lower richness and appeared to have very little influence on bacterial composition. The following potentially pathogenic species were detected: Photobacterium damselae in turbot (all compartments), Tenacibaculum discolor in turbot and sole (all compartments), Tenacibaculum soleae in turbot (all compartments) and sole (Pro, Sed and Bio), and Serratia marcescens in turbot (Sup, Sed, Bio and Ozo) and sole (only Sed) RAS. Despite the presence of these pathogens, no symptomatic fish were observed. Although we were able to identify potential pathogens, this approach should be employed with caution when monitoring aquaculture systems, as the required phylogenetic resolution for reliable identification of pathogens may not always be possible to achieve when employing 16S rRNA gene fragments. PMID:24278329

Martins, Patrícia; Cleary, Daniel F R; Pires, Ana C C; Rodrigues, Ana Maria; Quintino, Victor; Calado, Ricardo; Gomes, Newton C M

2013-01-01

255

Antifungal potential of Indian medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fourteen Indian plants, selected based on their use in respiratory and other disorders in traditional systems of medicine, were analyzed for their potential activity against fungi. The antifungal activity was investigated by disc diffusion, microbroth dilution and percent spore germination inhibition tests against pathogenic Aspergilli. Methanolic extracts of Solanum xanthocarpum and Datura metel inhibited the growth of Aspergillus fumigatus, A.

Rajesh Dabur; H. Singh; A. K. Chhillar; M. Ali; G. L. Sharma

2004-01-01

256

Comparative Genomics of Multiple Strains of Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis, a Potential Model Pathogen of Both Monocots and Dicots  

PubMed Central

Comparative genomics of closely related pathogens that differ in host range can provide insights into mechanisms of host-pathogen interactions and host adaptation. Furthermore, sequencing of multiple strains with the same host range reveals information concerning pathogen diversity and the molecular basis of virulence. Here we present a comparative analysis of draft genome sequences for four strains of Pseudomonas cannabina pathovar alisalensis (Pcal), which is pathogenic on a range of monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants. These draft genome sequences provide a foundation for understanding host range evolution across the monocot-dicot divide. Like other phytopathogenic pseudomonads, Pcal strains harboured a hrp/hrc gene cluster that codes for a type III secretion system. Phylogenetic analysis based on the hrp/hrc cluster genes/proteins, suggests localized recombination and functional divergence within the hrp/hrc cluster. Despite significant conservation of overall genetic content across Pcal genomes, comparison of type III effector repertoires reinforced previous molecular data suggesting the existence of two distinct lineages within this pathovar. Furthermore, all Pcal strains analyzed harbored two distinct genomic islands predicted to code for type VI secretion systems (T6SSs). While one of these systems was orthologous to known P. syringae T6SSs, the other more closely resembled a T6SS found within P. aeruginosa. In summary, our study provides a foundation to unravel Pcal adaptation to both monocot and dicot hosts and provides genetic insights into the mechanisms underlying pathogenicity. PMID:23555661

Sarris, Panagiotis F.; Trantas, Emmanouil A.; Baltrus, David A.; Bull, Carolee T.; Wechter, William Patrick; Yan, Shuangchun; Ververidis, Filippos; Almeida, Nalvo F.; Jones, Corbin D.; Dangl, Jeffery L.; Panopoulos, Nickolas J.; Vinatzer, Boris A.; Goumas, Dimitrios E.

2013-01-01

257

Peptides as potential virus inhibitors. Synthesis and bioassay of five respiratory syncytial virus peptide analogs with antimeasles activity.  

PubMed

Five carbobenzoxylated and D-amino acid containing-peptide analogs of the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) F1 glycoprotein amino terminus were chemically synthesized by solution and FMOC-solid phase peptide synthesis methods. Several of these peptides, ranging from 3 to 6 residues in length, raised the bilayer to hexagonal phase transition temperature of dielaidoylphosphatidylethanolamine. None of these peptides were specific inhibitors of RSV or herpes simplex virus infection. Two of the series, CBZ-D-Phe-L-Leu-Gly-D-Phe-D-Leu-D-Leu and CBZ-D-Phe-L-Leu-Gly-D-Phe-D-Leu-D-Leu-Gly, were active in reducing measles virus-induced cytopathic effect at 62 micrograms/mL. Others in the series showed some activity at higher doses or activity simultaneously with some cell toxicity. These results support the view that membrane-stabilizing agents may have non-specific effects on membranes which are responsible for their antimeasles activity. PMID:2850279

Lobl, T J; Renis, H E; Epand, R M; Maggiora, L L; Wathen, M W

1988-11-01

258

The Challenge of Respiratory Virus Infections in Hematopoietic Cell Transplant Recipients  

PubMed Central

Respiratory virus infections in hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. While respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human metapneumonvirus, parainfluenzaviruses, and influenza viruses are well known for their potential to cause fatal pneumonia, information is emerging only recently on the significance of the newly discovered viruses such as human coronaviruses NL63 and HKU1, and human bocavirus. Lymphopenia seems to be the most recent risk factors for progression to lower respiratory tract disease. Airflow obstruction is another complication of respiratory virus infections after HCT, and data to date indicate this complication may occur following parainfluenza virus and RSV infection. Infection control procedures are key for prevention. Unfortunately, there are no randomized treatment studies, which make the interpretation of the literature on interventions difficult. This article reviews the spectrum of pathogens, epidemiology, risk factors and clinical manifestations of infection, as well as recent advances in diagnostic and clinical management. PMID:18785968

Boeckh, Michael

2009-01-01

259

Recognition of Potentially Novel Human Disease-Associated Pathogens by Implementation of Systematic 16S rRNA Gene Sequencing in the Diagnostic Laboratory? †  

PubMed Central

Clinical isolates that are difficult to identify by conventional means form a valuable source of novel human pathogens. We report on a 5-year study based on systematic 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. We found 60 previously unknown 16S rRNA sequences corresponding to potentially novel bacterial taxa. For 30 of 60 isolates, clinical relevance was evaluated; 18 of the 30 isolates analyzed were considered to be associated with human disease. PMID:20631113

Keller, Peter M.; Rampini, Silvana K.; Buchler, Andrea C.; Eich, Gerhard; Wanner, Roger M.; Speck, Roberto F.; Bottger, Erik C.; Bloemberg, Guido V.

2010-01-01

260

Respiratory System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose, components, and functions of the respiratory system are presented in this learning through disussion and visualizations. Participants learn about the nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli.

Bidlack, Jim

261

Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis: A Rare Chronic Disease, Difficult to Treat, with Potential to Lung Cancer Transformation: Apropos of Two Cases and a Brief Literature Review  

PubMed Central

Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP), which is caused exclusively by human papilloma virus (HPV), is a rare condition characterized by recurrent growth of benign papillomata in the respiratory tract. The papillomata can occur anywhere in the aerodigestive tract but most frequently in the larynx, affecting both children and adults. The management of this entity remains still challenging since no specific definitive treatment exists. Nevertheless, novel surgical interventions as well as several adjuvant therapies have shown promising results in the long-term palliative management of this debilitating disease. Despite its mostly benign nature, RRP may cause significant morbidity and mortality because of its unpredictable clinical course and especially its tendency, albeit infrequent, for malignant transformation. In this article, we present two patients with RRP; one underwent bronchoscopic laser ablation in combination with inhaled interferon-alpha administration that led to a long-term regression of the disease while the other patient was diagnosed with transformation to squamous cell lung carcinoma with fatal outcome. We include a review of the current literature with special emphasis on RRP management and the potential role of HPV in the development of lung cancer. PMID:21526134

Katsenos, Stamatis; Becker, Heinrich D.

2011-01-01

262

Range-wide genetic population structure of common pochard (Aythya ferina): a potentially important vector of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses  

PubMed Central

An understanding of the distribution and spatial structure of the natural vectors of zoonothic pathogens is of interest for effective disease control and prevention. Here, we investigate the range-wide population genetic structure of common pochard (Aythya ferina), a long-distance migratory duck and potential vector of highly pathogenic avian influenza. We collected several hundred samples from breeding and wintering grounds across Eurasia including some H5N1-positive individuals and generated partial sequences of the mitochondrial control region and multilocus microsatellite genotypes. Genetic differentiation among breeding populations was significant for both marker types but higher for maternally inherited mtDNA than for biparentally inherited nuclear markers. There was only weak genetic divergence between ducks sampled in Europe and East Asia, and genetic differentiation between populations was not generally associated with geographical distance. No evidence of genetic substructure was detected for ducks sampled on the European wintering grounds. Our results suggest limited breeding-site fidelity, especially in females, but extensive population admixture on the wintering grounds. The specific role of pochards as natural vectors of zoonotic pathogens and in particular H5N1 remains to be clarified but our results point to wintering grounds as potential hotspots for disease transmission. PMID:22393520

Liu, Yang; Keller, Irene; Heckel, Gerald

2011-01-01

263

Fungal pathogens of Euphorbia heterophylla and E. hirta in Brazil and their potential as weed biocontrol agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-year survey of the fungi associated with two important congeneric pantropical weeds, Euphorbia heterophylla and E. hirta, was conducted in part of their native range in southern Brazil. Sampling was concentrated mainly in Rio de Janeiro State\\u000a and ten species were identified as pathogens of these weeds. Two taxa, Botrytis ricini and Uromyces euphorbiae, were common to both weed

Robert W. Barreto; Harry C. Evans

1998-01-01

264

Identification, potential inoculum sources and pathogenicity of botryosphaeriaceous species associated with grapevine dieback disease in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the prevalence and identity of botryosphaeriaceous dieback pathogens in necrotic grapevines tissues\\u000a in New Zealand vineyards, and other woody hosts growing nearby. The presumptive identities of the isolates by conidial and\\u000a cultural morphology were confirmed with ITS sequence data as Neofusicoccum australe, N. luteum, N. parvum and Diplodia seriata. They were isolated predominantly from necrotic stems of

Nicholas T. Amponsah; E. Eirian Jones; Hayley J. Ridgway; Marlene V. Jaspers

265

Sugar Beet-Associated Bacterial and Fungal Communities Show a High Indigenous Antagonistic Potential Against Plant Pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to analyze microbial communities in\\/on sugar beet with special focus on antagonists toward plant\\u000a pathogens. For this purpose, the composition of microorganisms isolated from the rhizosphere, phyllosphere, endorhiza, and\\u000a endosphere of field-grown sugar beet plants was analyzed by a multiphasic approach at three different plant development stages\\u000a at six locations in Europe. The analysis

Christin Zachow; Ralf Tilcher; Gabriele Berg

2008-01-01

266

Genesis of a highly pathogenic and potentially pandemic H5N1 influenza virus in eastern Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A highly pathogenic avian influenza virus, H5N1, caused disease outbreaks in poultry in China and seven other east Asian countries between late 2003 and early 2004; the same virus was fatal to humans in Thailand and Vietnam. Here we demonstrate a series of genetic reassortment events traceable to the precursor of the H5N1 viruses that caused the initial human outbreak

K. S. Li; Y. Guan; J. Wang; G. J. D. Smith; K. M. Xu; L. Duan; A. P. Rahardjo; P. Puthavathana; C. Buranathai; T. D. Nguyen; A. T. S. Estoepangestie; A. Chaisingh; P. Auewarakul; H. T. Long; N. T. H. Hanh; R. J. Webby; L. L. M. Poon; H. Chen; K. F. Shortridge; K. Y. Yuen; R. G. Webster; J. S. M. Peiris

2004-01-01

267

Vermistabilization of sewage sludge (biosolids) by earthworms: converting a potential biohazard destined for landfill disposal into a pathogen-free, nutritive and safe biofertilizer for farms.  

PubMed

Earthworms feed readily upon sludge components, rapidly converting them into vermicompost, reduce the pathogens to safe levels and ingest the heavy metals. Volume is significantly reduced from 1 m³ of wet sludge (80% moisture) to 0.5 m³ of vermicompost (30% moisture). Earthworms have real potential both to increase the rate of aerobic decomposition and composting of organic matter and also to stabilize the organic residues in the sludge--removing the harmful pathogens (by devouring them and also by discharge of antibacterial coelomic fluid) and heavy metals (by bio-accumulation). They also mineralize the essential nutrients nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium from the sludge. It may not be possible to remove toxic substances completely, but at least change the 'chemical make-up' of the sludge to make it harmless to the soil and enable its use as a nutritive organic fertilizer. This method has been found to comply with grade A standards for sludge stabilization. PMID:19710116

Sinha, Rajiv K; Herat, Sunil; Bharambe, Gokul; Brahambhatt, Ashish

2010-10-01

268

Respiratory parameters as a surrogate marker for duration of intubation: potential application of automated vital sign collection.  

PubMed

Prolonged time during endotracheal tube placement has been associated with poor outcomes, including cardiac arrest and death. For this reason, the accurate measurement of the duration of intubation time is an important metric in studies that evaluate interventions to improve airway outcomes. In the current study we correlated the gaps in routinely measured ventilatory parameters with duration of the intubation procedure to determine if these intervals could be used to accurately calculate the intubation time. Fifty-six random airway management encounters were video recorded along with a continuous video feed of the patient monitor. Intubation event times were measured and correlated with "gap" times of end-tidal carbon dioxide, airway pressure, airway flow, tidal volume, and respiratory rate defined as the disappearance of the parameter at the end of mask ventilation to the reappearance after intubation. Scatter plots were generated for intubation times versus each parameter time gap and correlation coefficients were calculated. Of the 56 recordings 50 of were suitable for analysis. The correlation of the gaps in airway pressure and airway flow correlated best with the duration of intubation (R(2) = 0.88) and were available on all cases. The gap in measured tidal volume of 39 ± 53 s most closely approximated the actual duration of intubation of 38 ± 28 s, (R(2) = 0.85, y = x - 0.87). During intubation, the disappearance gaps in tidal volume, and the airway pressure and flow waveforms highly correlate with the duration of the intubation procedure and may be useful in the evaluation of airway management interventions. However, just as there are limitations to a labor-intensive method of recording airway management timing, there are limitations to using an automated method. PMID:23584572

Hester, Doug; McGrane, Stuart; Higgins, Michael S

2013-10-01

269

Assessment of antimicrobial resistance transfer between lactic acid bacteria and potential foodborne pathogens using in vitro methods and mating in a food matrix.  

PubMed

The transferability of antimicrobial resistance from lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to potential pathogenic strains was studied using in vitro methods and mating in a food matrix. Five LAB donors containing either erythromycin or tetracycline resistance markers on transferable elements were conjugally mated with LAB (Enterococcus faecalis, Lactococcus lactis) and pathogenic strains (Listeria spp., Salmonella ssp., Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli). In vitro transfer experiments were carried out with the donors and recipients using both the filter and plate mating methods. The food matrix consisted of fermented whole milk (fermented with the LAB donors) with the pathogenic recipients added as contaminants during the production process. All transconjugants were confirmed by phenotypic and molecular methods. Erythromycin resistance transfer from LAB strains to Listeria spp. was observed using both in vitro mating methods at high transfer frequencies of up to 5.1 x 10(-4) transconjugants per recipient. Also, high frequency transfer (ranging from 2.7 x 10(-8) up to 1.1 x 10(-3) transconjugants per recipient) of both erythromycin and tetracycline-resistance was observed between LAB species using in vitro methods. No resistance transfer was observed to Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, and E. coli. The only conjugal transfer observed in the fermented milk matrix was for tetracycline resistance between two LAB strains (at a transfer frequency of 2.6 x 10(-7) transconjugants per recipients). This study demonstrates the transfer of antimicrobial resistance from LAB to Listeria spp. using in vitro methods and also the transfer of resistance between LAB species in a food matrix. It highlights the involvement of LAB as a potential source of resistance determinants that may be disseminated between LAB and pathogenic strains including Listeria spp. Furthermore, it indicates that food matrices such as fermented milks may provide a suitable environment to support gene exchange. PMID:19799525

Toomey, Niamh; Monaghan, Aine; Fanning, Séamus; Bolton, Declan J

2009-10-01

270

High rate of Simkania negevensis among Canadian inuit infants hospitalized with lower respiratory tract infections.  

PubMed

To determine the prevalence of Simkania negevensis in causing pulmonary infections in children, nasopharyngeal washes were obtained from 22 infants hospitalized with acute bronchiolitis in the Baffin Island, Canada. 14 (63.6%) were positive for S. negevensis. Mixed infections with other respiratory viruses were common. All patients recovered without specific antibiotic treatment. Even though a high prevalence of S. negevensis was found, this organism may potentially well be an opportunistic agent rather than a true pathogen. PMID:14514154

Greenberg, David; Banerji, Anna; Friedman, Maureen G; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun; Kahane, Simona

2003-01-01

271

Intestine and Environment of the Chicken as Reservoirs for Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli Strains with Zoonotic Potential ? †  

PubMed Central

Although research has increasingly focused on the pathogenesis of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) infections and the “APEC pathotype” itself, little is known about the reservoirs of these bacteria. We therefore compared outbreak strains isolated from diseased chickens (n = 121) with nonoutbreak strains, including fecal E. coli strains from clinically healthy chickens (n = 211) and strains from their environment (n = 35) by determining their virulence gene profiles, phylogenetic backgrounds, responses to chicken serum, and in vivo pathogenicities in a chicken infection model. In general, by examining 46 different virulence-associated genes we were able to distinguish the three groups of avian strains, but some specific fecal and environmental isolates had a virulence gene profile that was indistinguishable from that determined for outbreak strains. In addition, a substantial number of phylogenetic EcoR group B2 strains, which are known to include potent human and animal extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) strains, were identified among the APEC strains (44.5%) as well as among the fecal E. coli strains from clinically healthy chickens (23.2%). Comparably high percentages (79.2 to 89.3%) of serum-resistant strains were identified for all three groups of strains tested, bringing into question the usefulness of this phenotype as a principal marker for extraintestinal virulence. Intratracheal infection of 5-week-old chickens corroborated the pathogenicity of a number of nonoutbreak strains. Multilocus sequence typing data revealed that most strains that were virulent in chicken infection experiments belonged to sequence types that are almost exclusively associated with extraintestinal diseases not only in birds but also in humans, like septicemia, urinary tract infection, and newborn meningitis, supporting the hypothesis that not the ecohabitat but the phylogeny of E. coli strains determines virulence. These data provide strong evidence for an avian intestinal reservoir hypothesis which could be used to develop intestinal intervention strategies. These strains pose a zoonotic risk because either they could be transferred directly from birds to humans or they could serve as a genetic pool for ExPEC strains. PMID:18997030

Ewers, Christa; Antao, Esther-Maria; Diehl, Ines; Philipp, Hans-C.; Wieler, Lothar H.

2009-01-01

272

On-chip analysis of respiratory viruses from nasopharyngeal samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Point-of-care (PoC) testing followed by personalized efficient therapy of infectious diseases may result in a considerable\\u000a reduction of associated health care costs. Lab-on-a-chip (LoC) systems represent a potentially high efficient class of PoC\\u000a tools. Here, we present a LoC system for automated pathogen analysis of respiratory viruses from nasopharyngeal specimens.\\u000a The device prepares total nucleic acids from extracted swab samples

Marion Ritzi-Lehnert; Ralf Himmelreich; Hans Attig; Jan Claußen; Rainer Dahlke; Gerd Großhauser; Eva Holzer; Markus Jeziorski; Eva Schaeffer; Andy Wende; Sabine Werner; Jens Ole Wiborg; Isabell Wick; Klaus Stefan Drese; Thomas Rothmann

273

In-vitro renal epithelial cell infection reveals a viral kidney tropism as a potential mechanism for acute renal failure during Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) Coronavirus infection  

PubMed Central

Background The Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes symptoms similar to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV), yet involving an additional component of acute renal failure (ARF) according to several published case reports. Impairment of the kidney is not typically seen in Coronavirus infections. The role of kidney infection in MERS is not understood. Findings A systematic review of communicated and peer-reviewed case reports revealed differences in descriptions of kidney involvement in MERS versus SARS patients. In particular, ARF in MERS patients occurred considerably earlier after a median time to onset of 11 days (SD ±2,0 days) as opposed to 20 days for SARS, according to the literature. In-situ histological staining of the respective cellular receptors for MERS- and SARS-Coronavirus showed highly similar staining patterns with a focus of a receptor-specific signal in kidney epithelial cells. Comparative infection experiments with SARS- and MERS-CoV in primary human kidney cells versus primary human bronchial epithelial cells showed cytopathogenic infection only in kidney cells, and only if infected with MERS-CoV. Kidney epithelial cells produced almost 1000-fold more infectious MERS-CoV progeny than bronchial epithelial cells, while only a small difference was seen between cell types when infected with SARS-CoV. Conclusion Epidemiological studies should analyze kidney impairment and its characteristics in MERS-CoV. Virus replication in the kidney with potential shedding in urine might constitute a way of transmission, and could explain untraceable transmission chains leading to new cases. Individual patients might benefit from early induction of renoprotective treatment. PMID:24364985

2013-01-01

274

Grain dust originating from organic and conventional farming as a potential source of biological agents causing respiratory diseases in farmers  

PubMed Central

Introduction Agricultural producers are exposed to a number of different health risks associated with their work environment. Aim The objective of the study was to assess the degree of colonization by fungi in terms of quantity and in terms of variety of species the samples taken from the settled dust from combine threshing of rye cultivation from organic and conventional farms in the Province of Lublin. Material and methods This paper is a preliminary quantitative assessment of the species of fungi colonizing the samples of settled dust collected during combine threshing from organic and conventional farms in the Province of Lublin. One of the stages of the project was the classification of biosafety BSL (biosafety level) of selected isolates and API ZYM tests to evaluate the potential ability of isolates to cause adverse health effects. To determine the concentration and composition of fungi in collected samples plate dilution method was used with two media: Malt Agar and Potato Dextrose Agar. Results Most commonly isolated fungi in settled dust samples collected during combine threshing from organic farms, on PDA medium were: Alternaria alternata and Aureobasidium pullulans. Cultures on MA medium were dominated by Alternaria alternata, Mycelia sterilia and Fusarium poae. In samples of dust from conventional crops, the predominant species was Alternaria alternata on PDA medium and on MA medium. Conclusions The obtained results show a potential risk of people involved in agricultural work. PMID:24493998

Cholewa, Grazyna; Krasowska, Ewelina; Chmielewska-Badora, Jolanta; Zwolinski, Jacek; Sobczak, Pawel

2013-01-01

275

Bioaerosols and the Risk of Upper Respiratory Infections in Dental Hygienists.  

E-print Network

??Multitudes of pathogenic and infectious microbes are known to spread via contaminated aerosols. Dental personnel have an increased incidence of respiratory infections. Ultrasonic scaling procedures… (more)

Gautreau, Christen Rebecca

2010-01-01

276

Use of Zebrafish to Probe the Divergent Virulence Potentials and Toxin Requirements of Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

Extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) cause an array of diseases, including sepsis, neonatal meningitis, and urinary tract infections. Many putative virulence factors that might modulate ExPEC pathogenesis have been identified through sequencing efforts, epidemiology, and gene expression profiling, but few of these genes have been assigned clearly defined functional roles during infection. Using zebrafish embryos as surrogate hosts, we have developed a model system with the ability to resolve diverse virulence phenotypes and niche-specific restrictions among closely related ExPEC isolates during either localized or systemic infections. In side-by-side comparisons of prototypic ExPEC isolates, we observed an unexpectedly high degree of phenotypic diversity that is not readily apparent using more traditional animal hosts. In particular, the capacity of different ExPEC isolates to persist and multiply within the zebrafish host and cause disease was shown to be variably dependent upon two secreted toxins, ?-hemolysin and cytotoxic necrotizing factor. Both of these toxins appear to function primarily in the neutralization of phagocytes, which are recruited in high numbers to sites of infection where they act as an essential host defense against ExPEC as well as less virulent E. coli strains. These results establish zebrafish as a valuable tool for the elucidation and functional analysis of both ExPEC virulence factors and host defense mechanisms. PMID:20019794

Wiles, Travis J.; Bower, Jean M.; Redd, Michael J.; Mulvey, Matthew A.

2009-01-01

277

Attenuated and replication-competent vaccinia virus strains M65 and M101 with distinct biology and immunogenicity as potential vaccine candidates against pathogens.  

PubMed

Replication-competent poxvirus vectors with an attenuation phenotype and with a high immunogenic capacity of the foreign expressed antigen are being pursued as novel vaccine vectors against different pathogens. In this investigation, we have examined the replication and immunogenic characteristics of two vaccinia virus (VACV) mutants, M65 and M101. These mutants were generated after 65 and 101 serial passages of persistently infected Friend erythroleukemia (FEL) cells. In cultured cells of different origins, the mutants are replication competent and have growth kinetics similar to or slightly reduced in comparison with those of the parental Western Reserve (WR) virus strain. In normal and immune-suppressed infected mice, the mutants showed different levels of attenuation and pathogenicity in comparison with WR and modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) strains. Wide genome analysis after deep sequencing revealed selected genomic deletions and mutations in a number of viral open reading frames (ORFs). Mice immunized in a DNA prime/mutant boost regimen with viral vectors expressing the LACK (Leishmania homologue for receptors of activated C kinase) antigen of Leishmania infantum showed protection or a delay in the onset of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Protection was similar to that triggered by MVA-LACK. In immunized mice, both polyfunctional CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells with an effector memory phenotype were activated by the two mutants, but the DNA-LACK/M65-LACK protocol preferentially induced CD4(+) whereas DNA-LACK/M101-LACK preferentially induced CD8(+) T cell responses. Altogether, our findings showed the adaptive changes of the WR genome during long-term virus-host cell interaction and how the replication competency of M65 and M101 mutants confers distinct biological properties and immunogenicity in mice compared to those of the MVA strain. These mutants could have applicability for understanding VACV biology and as potential vaccine vectors against pathogens and tumors. PMID:23596295

Sánchez-Sampedro, Lucas; Gómez, Carmen Elena; Mejías-Pérez, Ernesto; Pérez-Jiménez, Eva; Oliveros, Juan Carlos; Esteban, Mariano

2013-06-01

278

Biosecurity and Vector Behaviour: Evaluating the Potential Threat Posed by Anglers and Canoeists as Pathways for the Spread of Invasive Non-Native Species and Pathogens  

PubMed Central

Invasive non-native species (INNS) endanger native biodiversity and are a major economic problem. The management of pathways to prevent their introduction and establishment is a key target in the Convention on Biological Diversity's Aichi biodiversity targets for 2020. Freshwater environments are particularly susceptible to invasions as they are exposed to multiple introduction pathways, including non-native fish stocking and the release of boat ballast water. Since many freshwater INNS and aquatic pathogens can survive for several days in damp environments, there is potential for transport between water catchments on the equipment used by recreational anglers and canoeists. To quantify this biosecurity risk, we conducted an online questionnaire with 960 anglers and 599 canoeists to investigate their locations of activity, equipment used, and how frequently equipment was cleaned and/or dried after use. Anglers were also asked about their use and disposal of live bait. Our results indicate that 64% of anglers and 78.5% of canoeists use their equipment/boat in more than one catchment within a fortnight, the survival time of many of the INNS and pathogens considered in this study and that 12% of anglers and 50% of canoeists do so without either cleaning or drying their kit between uses. Furthermore, 8% of anglers and 28% of canoeists had used their equipment overseas without cleaning or drying it after each use which could facilitate both the introduction and secondary spread of INNS in the UK. Our results provide a baseline against which to evaluate the effectiveness of future biosecurity awareness campaigns, and identify groups to target with biosecurity awareness information. Our results also indicate that the biosecurity practices of these groups must improve to reduce the likelihood of inadvertently spreading INNS and pathogens through these activities. PMID:24717714

Anderson, Lucy G.; White, Piran C. L.; Stebbing, Paul D.; Stentiford, Grant D.; Dunn, Alison M.

2014-01-01

279

Sex Hormone Regulation of Innate Immunity in the Female Reproductive Tract: The Role of Epithelial Cells in Balancing Reproductive Potential with Protection against Sexually Transmitted Pathogens  

PubMed Central

The immune system in the female reproductive tract (FRT) does not mount an attack against HIV or other sexually transmitted infections (STI) with a single endogenously produced microbicide or with a single arm of the immune system. Instead, the body deploys dozens of innate antimicrobials to the secretions of the female reproductive tract. Working together, these antimicrobials along with mucosal antibodies attack many different viral, bacterial and fungal targets. Within the FRT, the unique challenges of protection against sexually transmitted pathogens coupled with the need to sustain the development of an allogeneic fetus have evolved in such a way that sex hormones precisely regulate immune function to accomplish both tasks. The studies presented in this review demonstrate that estradiol and progesterone secreted during the menstrual cycle act both directly and indirectly on epithelial cells and other immune cells in the reproductive tract to modify immune function in a way that is unique to specific sites throughout the FRT. As presented in this review, studies from our laboratory and others demonstrate that the innate immune response is under hormonal control, varies with the stage of the menstrual cycle, and as such is suppressed at mid-cycle to optimize conditions for successful fertilization and pregnancy. In doing so, a window of STI vulnerability is created during which potential pathogens including HIV enter the reproductive tract to infect host targets. PMID:20367623

Wira, Charles R.; Fahey, John V.; Ghosh, Mimi; Patel, Mickey V.; Hickey, Danica K.; Ochiel, Daniel O.

2013-01-01

280

EXPERIMENTAL INFECTION OF THE RESPIRATORY TRACT WITH MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIAE  

EPA Science Inventory

Mycoplasma pneumoniae, a common human respiratory pathogen, has been studied experimentally for years using intranasal inoculation of the golden Sytrian hamster. Because of recent evidence outlining the role in pulmonary immune development of particle size and depth of mycoplasma...

281

Propagation of Respiratory Aerosols by the Vuvuzela  

PubMed Central

Vuvuzelas, the plastic blowing horns used by sports fans, recently achieved international recognition during the FIFA World Cup soccer tournament in South Africa. We hypothesised that vuvuzelas might facilitate the generation and dissemination of respiratory aerosols. To investigate the quantity and size of aerosols emitted when the instrument is played, eight healthy volunteers were asked to blow a vuvuzela. For each individual the concentration of particles in expelled air was measured using a six channel laser particle counter and the duration of blowing and velocity of air leaving the vuvuzela were recorded. To allow comparison with other activities undertaken at sports events each individual was also asked to shout and the measurements were repeated while using a paper cone to confine the exhaled air. Triplicate measurements were taken for each individual. The mean peak particle counts were 658×103 per litre for the vuvuzela and 3.7×103 per litre for shouting, representing a mean log10 difference of 2.20 (95% CI: 2.03,2.36; p<0.001). The majority (>97%) of particles captured from either the vuvuzela or shouting were between 0.5 and 5 microns in diameter. Mean peak airflows recorded for the vuvuzela and shouting were 6.1 and 1.8 litres per second respectively. We conclude that plastic blowing horns (vuvuzelas) have the capacity to propel extremely large numbers of aerosols into the atmosphere of a size able to penetrate the lower lung. Some respiratory pathogens are spread via contaminated aerosols emitted by infected persons. Further investigation is required to assess the potential of the vuvuzela to contribute to the transmission of aerosol borne diseases. We recommend, as a precautionary measure, that people with respiratory infections should be advised not to blow their vuvuzela in enclosed spaces and where there is a risk of infecting others. PMID:21629778

Lai, Ka-Man; Bottomley, Christian; McNerney, Ruth

2011-01-01

282

Role of surface layer collagen binding protein from indigenous Lactobacillus plantarum 91 in adhesion and its anti-adhesion potential against gut pathogen.  

PubMed

Human feacal isolates were ascertain as genus Lactobacillus using specific primer LbLMA1/R16-1 and further identified as Lactobacillus plantarum with species specific primers Lpl-3/Lpl-2. 25 L. plantarum strains were further assessed for hydrophobicity following the microbial adhesion to hydrocarbons (MATH) method and colonization potentials based on their adherence to immobilized human collagen type-1. Surface proteins were isolated from selected L. plantarum 91(Lp91) strain. The purified collagen binding protein (Cbp) protein was assessed for its anti-adhesion activity against enteric Escherichia coli 0157:H7 pathogen on immobilized collagen. Four L. plantarum strains displayed high degree of hydrophobicity and significant adhesion to collagen. A 72 kDa protein was purified which reduced 59.71% adhesion of E. coli 0157:H7 on immobilized collagen as compared to control well during adhesion assay. Cbp protein is the major influencing factor in inhibition of E. coli 0157:H7 adhesion with extracellular matrix (ECM) components. Hydrophobicity and adhesion potential are closely linked attributes precipitating in better colonization potential of the lactobacillus strains. Cbp is substantiated as a crucial surface protein contributing in adhesion of lactobacillus strains. The study can very well be the platform for commercialization of indigenous probiotic strain once their functional attributes are clinically explored. PMID:23890721

Yadav, Ashok Kumar; Tyagi, Ashish; Kaushik, Jai Kumar; Saklani, Asha Chandola; Grover, Sunita; Batish, Virender Kumar

2013-12-14

283

Successful topical respiratory tract immunization of primates against Ebola virus.  

PubMed

Ebola virus causes outbreaks of severe viral hemorrhagic fever with high mortality in humans. The virus is highly contagious and can be transmitted by contact and by the aerosol route. These features make Ebola virus a potential weapon for bioterrorism and biological warfare. Therefore, a vaccine that induces both systemic and local immune responses in the respiratory tract would be highly beneficial. We evaluated a common pediatric respiratory pathogen, human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3), as a vaccine vector against Ebola virus. HPIV3 recombinants expressing the Ebola virus (Zaire species) surface glycoprotein (GP) alone or in combination with the nucleocapsid protein NP or with the cytokine adjuvant granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor were administered by the respiratory route to rhesus monkeys--in which HPIV3 infection is mild and asymptomatic--and were evaluated for immunogenicity and protective efficacy against a highly lethal intraperitoneal challenge with Ebola virus. A single immunization with any construct expressing GP was moderately immunogenic against Ebola virus and protected 88% of the animals against severe hemorrhagic fever and death caused by Ebola virus. Two doses were highly immunogenic, and all of the animals survived challenge and were free of signs of disease and of detectable Ebola virus challenge virus. These data illustrate the feasibility of immunization via the respiratory tract against the hemorrhagic fever caused by Ebola virus. To our knowledge, this is the first study in which topical immunization through respiratory tract achieved prevention of a viral hemorrhagic fever infection in a primate model. PMID:17428868

Bukreyev, Alexander; Rollin, Pierre E; Tate, Mallory K; Yang, Lijuan; Zaki, Sherif R; Shieh, Wun-Ju; Murphy, Brian R; Collins, Peter L; Sanchez, Anthony

2007-06-01

284

Potato-associated bacteria and their antagonistic potential towards plant-pathogenic fungi and the plant-parasitic nematode Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood.  

PubMed

To study the effect of microenvironments on potato-associated bacteria, the abundance and diversity of bacteria isolated from the rhizosphere, phyllosphere, endorhiza, and endosphere of field grown potato was analyzed. Culturable bacteria were obtained after plating on R2A medium. The endophytic populations averaged 10(3) and 10(5) CFU/g (fresh wt.) for the endosphere and endorhiza. respectively, which were lower than those for the ectophytic microenvironments, with 10(5) and 10(7) CFU/g (fresh wt.) for the phyllosphere and rhizosphere, respectively. The composition and richness of bacterial species was microenvironment-dependent. The occurrence and diversity of potato-associated bacteria was additionally monitored by a cultivation-independent approach using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of 16S rDNA. The patterns obtained revealed a high heterogeneity of community composition and suggested the existence of microenvironment-specific communities. In an approach to measure the antagonistic potential of potato-associated bacteria, a total of 440 bacteria was screened by dual testing for in vitro antagonism towards the soilborne pathogens Verticillium dahliae and Rhizoctonia solani. The proportion of isolates with antagonistic activity was highest for the rhizosphere (10%), followed by the endorhiza (9%), phyllosphere (6%), and endosphere (5%). All 33 fungal antagonists were characterized by testing their in vitro antagonistic mechanisms, including their glucanolytic, chitinolytic, pectinolytic, cellulolytic, and proteolytic activity, and by their BOX-PCR fingerprints. In addition, they were screened for their biocontrol activity against Meloidogyne incognita. Overall, nine isolates belonging to Pseudomonas and Streptomyces species were found to control both fungal pathogens and M. incognita and were therefore considered as promising biological control agents. PMID:12455609

Krechel, Annette; Faupel, Annekathrin; Hallmann, Johannes; Ulrich, Andreas; Berg, Gabriele

2002-09-01

285

Respiratory infections in patients undergoing mechanical ventilation.  

PubMed

Lower respiratory tract infections in mechanically ventilated patients are a frequent cause of antibiotic treatment in intensive-care units. These infections present as severe sepsis or septic shock with respiratory dysfunction in intubated patients. Purulent respiratory secretions are needed for diagnosis, but distinguishing between pneumonia and tracheobronchitis is not easy. Both presentations are associated with longlasting mechanical ventilation and extended intensive-care unit stay, providing a rationale for antibiotic treatment initiation. Differentiation of colonisers from true pathogens is difficult, and microbiological data show Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa to be of great concern because of clinical outcomes and therapeutic challenges. Key management issues include identification of the pathogen, choice of initial empirical antibiotic, and decisions with regard to the resolution pattern. PMID:25151022

Rello, Jordi; Lisboa, Thiago; Koulenti, Despoina

2014-09-01

286

Pathogenic rare copy number variants in community-based schizophrenia suggest a potential role for clinical microarrays  

PubMed Central

Individually rare, large copy number variants (CNVs) contribute to genetic vulnerability for schizophrenia. Unresolved questions remain, however, regarding the anticipated yield of clinical microarray testing in schizophrenia. Using high-resolution genome-wide microarrays and rigorous methods, we investigated rare CNVs in a prospectively recruited community-based cohort of 459 unrelated adults with schizophrenia and estimated the minimum prevalence of clinically significant CNVs that would be detectable on a clinical microarray. A blinded review by two independent clinical cytogenetic laboratory directors of all large (>500 kb) rare CNVs in cases and well-matched controls showed that those deemed to be clinically significant were highly enriched in schizophrenia (16.4-fold increase, P < 0.0001). In a single community catchment area, the prevalence of individuals with these CNVs was 8.1%. Rare 1.7 Mb CNVs at 2q13 were found to be significantly associated with schizophrenia for the first time, compared with the prevalence in 23 838 population-based controls (42.9-fold increase, P = 0.0002). Additional novel findings that will facilitate the future clinical interpretation of smaller CNVs in schizophrenia include: (i) a greater proportion of individuals with two or more rare exonic CNVs >10 kb in size (1.5-fold increase, P = 0.0109) in schizophrenia; (ii) the systematic discovery of new candidate genes for schizophrenia; and, (iii) functional gene enrichment mapping highlighting a differential impact in schizophrenia of rare exonic deletions involving diverse functions, including neurodevelopmental and synaptic processes (4.7-fold increase, P = 0.0060). These findings suggest consideration of a potential role for clinical microarray testing in schizophrenia, as is now the suggested standard of care for related developmental disorders like autism. PMID:23813976

Costain, Gregory; Lionel, Anath C.; Merico, Daniele; Forsythe, Pamela; Russell, Kathryn; Lowther, Chelsea; Yuen, Tracy; Husted, Janice; Stavropoulos, Dimitri J.; Speevak, Marsha; Chow, Eva W.C.; Marshall, Christian R.; Scherer, Stephen W.; Bassett, Anne S.

2013-01-01

287

EGFR activation suppresses respiratory virus-induced IRF1-dependent CXCL10 production.  

PubMed

Airway epithelial cells are the primary cell type involved in respiratory viral infection. Upon infection, airway epithelium plays a critical role in host defense against viral infection by contributing to innate and adaptive immune responses. Influenza A virus, rhinovirus, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) represent a broad range of human viral pathogens that cause viral pneumonia and induce exacerbations of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. These respiratory viruses induce airway epithelial production of IL-8, which involves epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation. EGFR activation involves an integrated signaling pathway that includes NADPH oxidase activation of metalloproteinase, and EGFR proligand release that activates EGFR. Because respiratory viruses have been shown to activate EGFR via this signaling pathway in airway epithelium, we investigated the effect of virus-induced EGFR activation on airway epithelial antiviral responses. CXCL10, a chemokine produced by airway epithelial cells in response to respiratory viral infection, contributes to the recruitment of lymphocytes to target and kill virus-infected cells. While respiratory viruses activate EGFR, the interaction between CXCL10 and EGFR signaling pathways is unclear, and the potential for EGFR signaling to suppress CXCL10 has not been explored. Here, we report that respiratory virus-induced EGFR activation suppresses CXCL10 production. We found that influenza virus-, rhinovirus-, and RSV-induced EGFR activation suppressed IFN regulatory factor (IRF) 1-dependent CXCL10 production. In addition, inhibition of EGFR during viral infection augmented IRF1 and CXCL10. These findings describe a novel mechanism that viruses use to suppress endogenous antiviral defenses, and provide potential targets for future therapies. PMID:24838750

Kalinowski, April; Ueki, Iris; Min-Oo, Gundula; Ballon-Landa, Eric; Knoff, David; Galen, Benjamin; Lanier, Lewis L; Nadel, Jay A; Koff, Jonathan L

2014-07-15

288

The pathogenicity of avian mycoplasmas.  

PubMed

Based on literature data and own experiences the author gives an outlook about pathogenicity of avian mycoplasmas. In chickens and turkeys M. gallisepticum and M. synoviae (in addition to it M. meleagridis exclusively in turkeys) are the most important mycoplasmas producing respiratory disease, inflamation of synovial membranes and other lesions. Their pathogenic effect is very much influenced by dose of agent, route of entry of microorganism, age of birds, virulence and tropism of organism as well as associated other mycoplasma or virus or bacterial or fungal infections and conditions of environment. These facts rise difficulties in serological diagnostic and erradication program. Recently ureaplasma infection was also established in chickens and turkeys which can also be associated with respiratory disease. From ducks A. laidlawii, M. anatis and various unclassified strains were isolated, among these M. anatis and unclassified arginine splitting mycoplasma strains proved to be pathogenic. In geese M. gallinarum, A. laidlawii and A. axanthum were detected. A. axanthum showed pathogenicity for goslings and goose embryos. Its effect is exacerbated by associated parvovirus infection. PMID:44612

Stipkovits, L

1979-10-01

289

Quantification of the Respiratory Burst Response as an Indicator of Innate Immune Health in Zebrafish  

PubMed Central

The phagocyte respiratory burst is part of the innate immune response to pathogen infection and involves the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS are toxic and function to kill phagocytized microorganisms. In vivo quantification of phagocyte-derived ROS provides information regarding an organism's ability to mount a robust innate immune response. Here we describe a protocol to quantify and compare ROS in whole zebrafish embryos upon chemical induction of the phagocyte respiratory burst. This method makes use of a non-fluorescent compound that becomes fluorescent upon oxidation by ROS. Individual zebrafish embryos are pipetted into the wells of a microplate and incubated in this fluorogenic substrate with or without a chemical inducer of the respiratory burst. Fluorescence in each well is quantified at desired time points using a microplate reader. Fluorescence readings are adjusted to eliminate background fluorescence and then compared using an unpaired t-test. This method allows for comparison of the respiratory burst potential of zebrafish embryos at different developmental stages and in response to experimental manipulations such as protein knockdown, overexpression, or treatment with pharmacological agents. This method can also be used to monitor the respiratory burst response in whole dissected kidneys or cell preparations from kidneys of adult zebrafish and some other fish species. We believe that the relative simplicity and adaptability of this protocol will complement existing protocols and will be of interest to researchers who seek to better understand the innate immune response. PMID:24056405

Goody, Michelle F.; Peterman, Eric; Sullivan, Con; Kim, Carol H.

2013-01-01

290

Characterization of a novel plant growth-promoting bacteria strain Delftia tsuruhatensis HR4 both as a diazotroph and a potential biocontrol agent against various plant pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel, plant growth-promoting bacterium Delftia tsuruhatensis, strain HR4, was isolated from the rhizoplane of rice (Oryza sativa L., cv. Yueguang) in North China. In vitro antagonistic assay showed this strain could suppress the growth of various plant pathogens effectively, especially the three main rice pathogens (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, Rhizoctonia solani and Pyricularia oryzae Cavara). Treated with strain HR4

Jigang Han; Lei Sun; Xiuzhu Dong; Zhengqiu Cai; Xiaolu Sun; Hailian Yang; Yunshan Wang; Wei Song

2005-01-01

291

An analysis of the phylogenetic distribution of the pea pathogenicity genes of Nectria haematococca MPVI supports the hypothesis of their origin by horizontal transfer and uncovers a potentially new pathogen of garden pea: Neocosmospora boniensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The filamentous fungus Nectria haematococca mating population VI (MPVI) contains a cluster of genes required to cause disease on pea. This cluster of pea pathogenicity genes (the PEP cluster) is located on a supernumerary chromosome that is dispensable for normal growth in culture. The genes in the PEP cluster have a different G+C content and codon usage compared with the

Esteban D. Temporini; Hans D. VanEtten

2004-01-01

292

Nasopharyngeal carriage of potential bacterial pathogens related to day care attendance, with special reference to the molecular epidemiology of Haemophilus influenzae.  

PubMed

Nasopharyngeal carriage of Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Moraxella catarrhalis was studied in 259 children attending day care centers (DCC) in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, and in 276 control children. The DCC children were sampled a second time after 4 weeks. Carriage rates for DCC children and controls were 58 and 37% for S. pneumoniae, 37 and 11% for H. influenzae, and 80 and 48% for M. catarrhalis, respectively. No increased antibiotic resistance rates were found in strains isolated from DCC children. All H. influenzae isolates were typed by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. Evidence for frequent transmission of H. influenzae strains within DCC was found. In the control group only two isolates (4%) displayed identical RAPD types versus 38% of strains from DCC children. Colonization with H. influenzae appeared to be short-lived in these children; more than half of the children harboring H. influenzae in the first sample were negative in the second sample, whereas most children still positive in the second sample had a different genotype than in the first sample. Of the newly acquired strains in the second sample, 40% were identical to a strain that had been found in a child in the same DCC in the first sample. DCC are to be considered epidemiological niches with a high potential for the spread of pathogenic microorganisms. PMID:12149338

Peerbooms, Paul G H; Engelen, Marlene N; Stokman, Dominique A J; van Benthem, Birgit H B; van Weert, Maria-Lucia; Bruisten, Sylvia M; van Belkum, Alex; Coutinho, Roel A

2002-08-01

293

Nasopharyngeal Carriage of Potential Bacterial Pathogens Related to Day Care Attendance, with Special Reference to the Molecular Epidemiology of Haemophilus influenzae  

PubMed Central

Nasopharyngeal carriage of Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Moraxella catarrhalis was studied in 259 children attending day care centers (DCC) in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, and in 276 control children. The DCC children were sampled a second time after 4 weeks. Carriage rates for DCC children and controls were 58 and 37% for S. pneumoniae, 37 and 11% for H. influenzae, and 80 and 48% for M. catarrhalis, respectively. No increased antibiotic resistance rates were found in strains isolated from DCC children. All H. influenzae isolates were typed by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. Evidence for frequent transmission of H. influenzae strains within DCC was found. In the control group only two isolates (4%) displayed identical RAPD types versus 38% of strains from DCC children. Colonization with H. influenzae appeared to be short-lived in these children; more than half of the children harboring H. influenzae in the first sample were negative in the second sample, whereas most children still positive in the second sample had a different genotype than in the first sample. Of the newly acquired strains in the second sample, 40% were identical to a strain that had been found in a child in the same DCC in the first sample. DCC are to be considered epidemiological niches with a high potential for the spread of pathogenic microorganisms. PMID:12149338

Peerbooms, Paul G. H.; Engelen, Marlene N.; Stokman, Dominique A. J.; van Benthem, Birgit H. B.; van Weert, Maria-Lucia; Bruisten, Sylvia M.; van Belkum, Alex; Coutinho, Roel A.

2002-01-01

294

Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis for nonlethal detection of Aeromonas salmonicida in salmonid mucus and its potential for other bacterial fish pathogens.  

PubMed

Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S rDNA was used to nonlethally detect Aeromonas salmonicida and other bacteria in salmonid skin mucus. Mucus samples from wild spawning coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) with endemic A. salmonicida and from cultured lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) were tested by PCR-DGGE and were compared with mucus culture on Coomassie brilliant blue agar and internal organ culture. PCR-DGGE gave a highly reproducible 4-band pattern for 9 strains of typical A. salmonicida, which was different from other Aeromonas spp. Aeromonas salmonicida presence in mucus was evident as a band that comigrated with the bottom band of the A. salmonicida 4-band pattern and was verified by sequencing. PCR-DGGE found 36 of 52 coho salmon positive for A. salmonicida, compared with 31 positive by mucus culture and 16 by organ culture. Numerous other bacteria were detected in salmonid mucus, including Pseudomonas spp., Shewanella putrefaciens, Aeromonas hydrophila and other aeromonads. However, Yersinia ruckeri was not detected in mucus from 27 lake trout, but 1 fish had a sorbitol-positive Y. ruckeri isolated from organ culture. Yersinia ruckeri seeded into a mucus sample suggested that PCR-DGGE detection of this bacterium from mucus was possible. PCR-DGGE allows nonlethal detection of A. salmonicida in mucus and differentiation of some Aeromonas spp. and has the potential to allow simultaneous detection of other pathogens present in fish mucus. PMID:22506865

Quinn, Robert A; Stevenson, Roselynn M W

2012-05-01

295

Surfactant Protein-A Enhances Uptake of Respiratory Syncytial Virus by Monocytes and U937 Macrophages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surfactant protein (SP)-A is a known opsonin for a variety of pulmonary pathogens. SP-A enhances ingestion of these pathogens by interaction with an SP-A receptor (SP-AR) found on phagocytic cells such as peripheral blood monocytes (PBMC) and alveolar macrophages. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most important respiratory pathogen in children. Recent studies have indicated that SP-A levels may be

Frederick E. Barr; Heather Pedigo; Teresa R. Johnson; Virginia L. Shepherd

296

Lifestyle and the Respiratory Health of Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article offers a review of the potential influences of personal lifestyle on respiratory health in children, looking at both healthy individuals and those with respiratory disorders. As with many aspects of health, regular physical activity, an appropriate diet, and avoidance of obesity and cigarette smoke all contribute to optimal development of the healthy child. An active lifestyle is associated

Roy J. Shephard

2011-01-01

297

Pathogens: raft hijackers.  

PubMed

Throughout evolution, organisms have developed immune-surveillance networks to protect themselves from potential pathogens. At the cellular level, the signalling events that regulate these defensive responses take place in membrane rafts--dynamic microdomains that are enriched in cholesterol and glycosphingolipids--that facilitate many protein-protein and lipid-protein interactions at the cell surface. Pathogens have evolved many strategies to ensure their own survival and to evade the host immune system, in some cases by hijacking rafts. However, understanding the means by which pathogens exploit rafts might lead to new therapeutic strategies to prevent or alleviate certain infectious diseases, such as those caused by HIV-1 or Ebola virus. PMID:12876558

Mañes, Santos; del Real, Gustavo; Martínez-A, Carlos

2003-07-01

298

Neopolyploidy and pathogen resistance  

PubMed Central

Despite the well-documented historical importance of polyploidy, the mechanisms responsible for the establishment and evolutionary success of novel polyploid lineages remain unresolved. One possibility, which has not been previously evaluated theoretically, is that novel polyploid lineages are initially more resistant to pathogens than the diploid progenitor species. Here, we explore this possibility by developing and analysing mathematical models of interactions between newly formed polyploid lineages and their pathogens. We find that for the genetic mechanisms of pathogen resistance with the best empirical support, newly formed polyploid populations of hosts are expected to be more resistant than their diploid progenitors. This effect can be quite strong and, in the case of perennial species with recurrent polyploid formation, may last indefinitely, potentially providing a general explanation for the successful establishment of novel polyploid lineages. PMID:17686733

Oswald, Benjamin P; Nuismer, Scott L

2007-01-01

299

A Legacy of Low-Impact Logging does not Elevate Prevalence of Potentially Pathogenic Protozoa in Free-Ranging Gorillas and Chimpanzees in the Republic of Congo: Logging and Parasitism in African Apes  

PubMed Central

Many studies have examined the long-term effects of selective logging on the abundance and diversity of free-ranging primates. Logging is known to reduce the abundance of some primate species through associated hunting and the loss of food trees for frugivores; however, the potential role of pathogens in such primate population declines is largely unexplored. Selective logging results in a suite of alterations in host ecology and forest structure that may alter pathogen dynamics in resident wildlife populations. In addition, environmental pollution with human fecal material may present a risk for wildlife infections with zoonotic protozoa, such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia. To better understand this interplay, we compared patterns of infection with these potentially pathogenic protozoa in sympatric western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) in the undisturbed Goualougo Triangle of Nouabalé-Ndoki National Park and the adjacent previously logged Kabo Concession in northern Republic of Congo. No Cryptosporidium infections were detected in any of the apes examined and prevalence of infection with Giardia was low (3.73% overall) and did not differ between logged and undisturbed forest for chimpanzees or gorillas. These results provide a baseline for prevalence of these protozoa in forest-dwelling African apes and suggest that low-intensity logging may not result in long-term elevated prevalence of potentially pathogenic protozoa. PMID:20238141

Morgan, David; Deutsch, J. Charlie; Kuhlenschmidt, Mark S.; Salzer, Johanna S.; Cameron, Kenneth; Reed, Trish; Sanz, Crickette

2010-01-01

300

Globally Mobile Populations and the Spread of Emerging Pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

uring the past decade, the global public health commu- nity has been challenged by the emergence and rapid worldwide spread of novel infl uenza strains, severe acute respiratory syndrome, chikungunya virus, drug-resistant tuberculosis, and other conditions and pathogens. Modern transportation and increased tourism, business travel, and immigration contributed to dissemination of these high-im- pact pathogens. The effectiveness of interventions such

Paul M. Arguin; Nina Marano; David O. Freedman

2009-01-01

301

Detection of respiratory viruses by real-time polymerase chain reaction in outpatients with acute respiratory infection  

PubMed Central

Viruses are the major contributors to the morbidity and mortality of upper and lower acute respiratory infections (ARIs) for all age groups. The aim of this study was to determine the frequencies for a large range of respiratory viruses using a sensitive molecular detection technique in specimens from outpatients of all ages with ARIs. Nasopharyngeal aspirates were obtained from 162 individuals between August 2007-August 2009. Twenty-three pathogenic respiratory agents, 18 respiratory viruses and five bacteria were investigated using multiplex real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and indirect immunofluorescence assay (IIF). Through IIF, 33 (20.4%) specimens with respiratory virus were recognised, with influenza virus representing over half of the positive samples. Through a multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay, 88 (54.3%) positive samples were detected; the most prevalent respiratory viral pathogens were influenza, human rhinovirus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Six cases of viral co-detection were observed, mainly involving RSV. The use of multiplex real-time RT-PCR increased the viral detection by 33.9% and revealed a larger number of respiratory viruses implicated in ARI cases, including the most recently described respiratory viruses [human bocavirus, human metapneumovirus, influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 virus, human coronavirus (HCoV) NL63 and HCoV HKU1]. PMID:25317699

Martins, Ronaldo Bragança; Carney, Sharon; Goldemberg, Daniel; Bonine, Lucas; Spano, Liliana Cruz; Siqueira, Marilda; Checon, Rita Elizabeth

2014-01-01

302

MTO1 Mutations are Associated with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy and Lactic Acidosis and Cause Respiratory Chain Deficiency in Humans and Yeast  

PubMed Central

We report three families presenting with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and multiple defects of mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) activities. By direct sequencing of the candidate gene MTO1, encoding the mitochondrial-tRNA modifier 1, or whole exome sequencing analysis, we identified novel missense mutations. All MTO1 mutations were predicted to be deleterious on MTO1 function. Their pathogenic role was experimentally validated in a recombinant yeast model, by assessing oxidative growth, respiratory activity, mitochondrial protein synthesis, and complex IV activity. In one case, we also demonstrated that expression of wt MTO1 could rescue the respiratory defect in mutant fibroblasts. The severity of the yeast respiratory phenotypes partly correlated with the different clinical presentations observed in MTO1 mutant patients, although the clinical outcome was highly variable in patients with the same mutation and seemed also to depend on timely start of pharmacological treatment, centered on the control of lactic acidosis by dichloroacetate. Our results indicate that MTO1 mutations are commonly associated with a presentation of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and MRC deficiency, and that ad hoc recombinant yeast models represent a useful system to test the pathogenic potential of uncommon variants, and provide insight into their effects on the expression of a biochemical phenotype. PMID:23929671

Baruffini, Enrico; Dallabona, Cristina; Invernizzi, Federica; Yarham, John W; Melchionda, Laura; Blakely, Emma L; Lamantea, Eleonora; Donnini, Claudia; Santra, Saikat; Vijayaraghavan, Suresh; Roper, Helen P; Burlina, Alberto; Kopajtich, Robert; Walther, Anett; Strom, Tim M; Haack, Tobias B; Prokisch, Holger; Taylor, Robert W; Ferrero, Ileana; Zeviani, Massimo; Ghezzi, Daniele

2013-01-01

303

[Monitorization of respiratory mechanics in the ventilated patient].  

PubMed

Monitoring during mechanical ventilation allows the measurement of different parameters of respiratory mechanics. Accurate interpretation of these data can be useful for characterizing the situation of the different components of the respiratory system, and for guiding ventilator settings. In this review, we describe the basic concepts of respiratory mechanics, their interpretation, and their potential use in fine-tuning mechanical ventilation. PMID:24199991

García-Prieto, E; Amado-Rodríguez, L; Albaiceta, G M

2014-01-01

304

Genomic islands in pathogenic and environmental microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Horizontal gene transfer is an important mechanism for the evolution of microbial genomes. Pathogenicity islands — mobile genetic elements that contribute to rapid changes in virulence potential — are known to have contributed to genome evolution by horizontal gene transfer in many bacterial pathogens. Increasing evidence indicates that equivalent elements in non-pathogenic species — genomic islands — are important in

Ulrich Dobrindt; Bianca Hochhut; Ute Hentschel; Jörg Hacker

2004-01-01

305

New use of broomcorn millets for production of granular cultures of aphid-pathogenic fungus Pandora neoaphidis for high sporulation potential and infectivity to Myzus persicae.  

PubMed

Glutinous broomcorn millets from the crop Panicum miliaceum were first used as substrate to produce granular cultures of Pandora neoaphidis, an obligate fungal pathogen specific to aphids. Carrying a water content of 36.5% after being steamed in a regular autoclaving procedure, millet grains of each 15 g (dry weight) in a 100-ml flask were mixed with 3 ml modified Sabouraud dextrose broth containing half a mashed colony of P. neoaphidis grown on egg yolk milk agar and then incubated at 20 degrees C and a light/dark cycle of 12 h/12 h for 21 days. Based on individually monitoring conidial production potential of 20 millet grains sampled from an arbitrarily taken flask at 3-day intervals, the millet cultures incubated for 6-15 days were capable of producing 16.8-23.4 x 10(4) conidia per millet grain with conidial ejection lasting for up to 6 days. The cultured millet grains individually produced significantly more conidia than apterous adults of Myzus persicae killed by P. neoaphidis (8.4 x 10(4) conidia per cadaver) and sporulated twice longer. The modeling of time-dose-mortality data from bioassays on M. persicae apterae exposed to conidial showers from the cultured millet grains and the mycelial mats produced in liquid culture resulted in similar estimates of LC(50) (millets: 21.4, 7.3, and 4.9 conidia mm(-2) on days 5-7 after exposure; mycelial mats: 22.1, 10.6, and 7.7 conidia mm(-2)) although the LT(50) estimated at a given conidial concentration was slightly smaller for the millet cultures than for the mycelial mats. This indicates that the millet grains cultured with P. neoaphidis produced conidia as infective as or slightly more infective to M. persicae than those from the mycelial mats. Based on the sporulation potential, infectivity, and ease and cost of the millet cultures, the method developed in this study highly improved in vitro cultures of P. neoaphidis and may adapt to culturing other entomophthoralean fungi for microbial control of insect pests. PMID:14592724

Hua, Li; Feng, Ming-Guang

2003-10-24

306

Man-made mineral fibers and the respiratory tract.  

PubMed

Man-made mineral fibers are produced using inorganic materials and are widely used as thermal and acoustic insulation. These basically include continuous fiberglass filaments, glass wool (fiberglass insulation), stone wool, slag wool and refractory ceramic fibers. Likewise, in the last two decades nanoscale fibers have also been developed, among these being carbon nanotubes with their high electrical conductivity, mechanical resistance and thermal stability. Both man-made mineral fibers and carbon nanotubes have properties that make them inhalable and potentially harmful, which have led to studies to assess their pathogenicity. The aim of this review is to analyze the knowledge that currently exists about the ability of these fibers to produce respiratory diseases. PMID:22763045

Costa, Roser; Orriols, Ramon

2012-12-01

307

Immunoproteomics: The Key to Discovery of New Vaccine Antigens Against Bacterial Respiratory Infections  

PubMed Central

The increase in antibiotic resistance and the shortage of new antimicrobials to prevent difficult bacterial infections underlines the importance of prophylactic therapies to prevent infection by bacterial pathogens. Vaccination has reduced the incidence of many serious diseases, including respiratory bacterial infections. However, there are many pathogens for which no vaccine is available and some vaccines are not effective among all age groups or among immunocompromised individuals. Immunoproteomics is a powerful technique which has been used to identify potential vaccine candidates to protect against pathogenic bacteria. The combination of proteomics with the detection of immunoreactive antigens using serum highlights immunogenic proteins that are expressed during infection. This is particularly useful when patient serum is used as the antigens that promote a humoral response during human infection are identified. This review outlines examples of vaccine candidates that have been identified using immunoproteomics and have successfully protected animals against challenge when tested in immunisation studies. Many immunoreactive proteins are common to several unrelated pathogens, however some of these are not always protective in animal immunisation and challenge studies. Furthermore, examples of well-established immunogens, including Bordetella pertussis antigen FHA were not detected in immunoproteomics studies, indicating that this technology may underrepresent the immunoreactive proteins in a pathogen. Although only one step in the pathway towards an efficacious approved vaccine, immunoproteomics is an important technology in the identification of novel vaccine antigens. PMID:23305366

Dennehy, Ruth; McClean, Siobhan

2012-01-01

308

Temperature-sensitive bacterial pathogens generated by the substitution of essential genes from cold-loving bacteria: potential use as live vaccines.  

PubMed

Temperature-sensitive (TS) viruses have been used for decades as vaccines capable of limited replication in their hosts. Although attenuated bacteria, such as the Bacille Calmette-Guérin anti-tuberculosis vaccine, have been used for almost a century, it is only recently that there has been progress in using TS bacterial strains as live vaccines. Decades of work on essential bacterial genes and the recent explosion in the number of available bacterial genomic sequences set the groundwork for the identification of essential genes from diverse bacteria. This knowledge has allowed for the substitution of essential genes from cold-loving bacteria into the chromosomes of pathogenic bacteria. Many of these gene substitutions generated TS pathogenic bacterial strains, and some were demonstrated to provide protective immunity in mice. This work opens the possibility of engineering many pathogenic bacteria to create TS strains that can be used as vaccines. PMID:21229224

Duplantis, Barry N; Bosio, Catherine M; Nano, Francis E

2011-05-01

309

Filamentous pathogen effector functions: of pathogens, hosts and microbiomes.  

PubMed

Microorganisms play essential roles in almost every environment on earth. For instance, microbes decompose organic material, or establish symbiotic relationships that range from pathogenic to mutualistic. Symbiotic relationships have been particularly well studied for microbial plant pathogens and have emphasized the role of effectors; secreted molecules that support host colonization. Most effectors characterized thus far play roles in deregulation of host immunity. Arguably, however, pathogens not only deal with immune responses during host colonization, but also encounter other microbes including competitors, (myco)parasites and even potential co-operators. Thus, part of the effector catalog may target microbiome co-inhabitants rather than host physiology. PMID:24879450

Rovenich, Hanna; Boshoven, Jordi C; Thomma, Bart P H J

2014-08-01

310

Pathogenicity and Transmissibility of North American Triple Reassortant Swine Influenza A Viruses in Ferrets  

PubMed Central

North American triple reassortant swine (TRS) influenza A viruses have caused sporadic human infections since 2005, but human-to-human transmission has not been documented. These viruses have six gene segments (PB2, PB1, PA, HA, NP, and NS) closely related to those of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic viruses. Therefore, understanding of these viruses' pathogenicity and transmissibility may help to identify determinants of virulence of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic viruses and to elucidate potential human health threats posed by the TRS viruses. Here we evaluated in a ferret model the pathogenicity and transmissibility of three groups of North American TRS viruses containing swine-like and/or human-like HA and NA gene segments. The study was designed only to detect informative and significant patterns in the transmissibility and pathogenicity of these three groups of viruses. We observed that irrespective of their HA and NA lineages, the TRS viruses were moderately pathogenic in ferrets and grew efficiently in both the upper and lower respiratory tracts. All North American TRS viruses studied were transmitted between ferrets via direct contact. However, their transmissibility by respiratory droplets was related to their HA and NA lineages: TRS viruses with human-like HA and NA were transmitted most efficiently, those with swine-like HA and NA were transmitted minimally or not transmitted, and those with swine-like HA and human-like NA (N2) showed intermediate transmissibility. We conclude that the lineages of HA and NA may play a crucial role in the respiratory droplet transmissibility of these viruses. These findings have important implications for pandemic planning and warrant confirmation. PMID:22829764

Barman, Subrata; Krylov, Petr S.; Fabrizio, Thomas P.; Franks, John; Turner, Jasmine C.; Seiler, Patrick; Wang, David; Rehg, Jerold E.; Erickson, Gene A.; Gramer, Marie; Webster, Robert G.; Webby, Richard J.

2012-01-01

311

A New High-Speed Droplet-Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Method Can Detect Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus in Less than 10 Min  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been widely used for diagnosis of infectious diseases of domestic animals. Rapid detection of respiratory pathogens of cattle is useful for making therapeutic decisions. Therefore, we developed a new genetic-based method called droplet-real-time PCR, which can detect bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) within 10 min. Our droplet-real-time PCR markedly reduced the reaction time of reverse transcription-PCR while maintaining the same sensitivity as conventional real-time PCR, and it can be used as a rapid assay for detection of BRSV. Furthermore, our method is potentially applicable for rapid diagnosis of almost all infectious diseases, including highly pathogenic avian influenza virus. PMID:24285011

UEHARA, Masayuki; MATSUDA, Kazuyuki; SUGANO, Mitsutoshi; HONDA, Takayuki

2013-01-01

312

On the Thermus thermophilus HB8 potential pathogenicity triggered from rhamnolipids secretion: morphological alterations and cytotoxicity induced on fibroblastic cell line.  

PubMed

A limited number of bacterial strains usually grown under nutrient limitation secrete rhamnolipids (RLs), which are recorded as virulence factors that are implicated in the pathogenicity of a microorganism. The non-pathogenic T. thermophilus HB8 produces extracellular rhamnolipids (TthRLs) under defined cultivation conditions using sunflower seed oil and sodium gluconate as carbon sources. In particular, the secreted TthRLs have been isolated, purified and identified with ATR-FTIR. Their effects on the cells' viability were examined when they were supplemented in a culture of human skin fibroblasts. Purified TthRLs triggered a sequence of rapid and pronounced morphological alterations characterized by transformation of fibroblast shape from polygonal to fusiform; retraction with cytoplasm condensation, rounding up, distortion of nuclei and loss of lamellar processes, and finally disruption of membrane. The addition of TthRLs in the cultured fibroblasts caused cytotoxicity, in contrast to that of rhamnose that stimulated viability, as it was assessed by MTT test. These results revealed that among the constituents of RLs that are implicated in the cytotoxicity, it has to be attributed to the lipidic chain variation and not to the carbohydrate part. TthRLs cytotoxicity on fibroblasts is comparable, and provoked similar effects, to that caused by saponin white, a known surfactant. TthRLs secretion might be a crucial point for the transformation of a non-pathogenic bacterium to a pathogenic one under certain environmental conditions favoring their secretion. RLs secretion in the microorganism's world might be a general route for the passage in the pathogenicity to ensure their survival under nutrient limitation conditions. PMID:21611776

Pantazaki, A A; Choli-Papadopoulou, T

2012-05-01

313

Plant Antimicrobial Agents and Their Effects on Plant and Human Pathogens  

PubMed Central

To protect themselves, plants accumulate an armoury of antimicrobial secondary metabolites. Some metabolites represent constitutive chemical barriers to microbial attack (phytoanticipins) and others inducible antimicrobials (phytoalexins). They are extensively studied as promising plant and human disease-controlling agents. This review discusses the bioactivity of several phytoalexins and phytoanticipins defending plants against fungal and bacterial aggressors and those with antibacterial activities against pathogens affecting humans such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus involved in respiratory infections of cystic fibrosis patients. The utility of plant products as “antibiotic potentiators” and “virulence attenuators” is also described as well as some biotechnological applications in phytoprotection. PMID:20111686

Gonzalez-Lamothe, Rocio; Mitchell, Gabriel; Gattuso, Mariza; Diarra, Moussa S.; Malouin, Francois; Bouarab, Kamal

2009-01-01

314

Chitosan against cutaneous pathogens.  

PubMed

Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus aureus are cutaneous pathogens that have become increasingly resistant to antibiotics. We sought to determine if chitosan, a polymer of deacetylated chitin, could be used as a potential treatment against these bacteria. We found that higher molecular weight chitosan had superior antimicrobial properties compared to lower molecular weights, and that this activity occurred in a pH dependent manner. Electron and fluorescence microscopy revealed that chitosan forms aggregates and binds to the surface of bacteria, causing shrinkage of the bacterial membrane from the cell wall. Of special relevance, clinical isolates of P. acnes were vulnerable to chitosan, which could be combined with benzoyl peroxide for additive antibacterial effect. Chitosan also demonstrated significantly less cytotoxicity to monocytes than benzoyl peroxide. Overall, chitosan demonstrates many promising qualities for treatment of cutaneous pathogens. PMID:23829873

Champer, Jackson; Patel, Julie; Fernando, Nathalie; Salehi, Elaheh; Wong, Victoria; Kim, Jenny

2013-01-01

315

Respiratory viruses in children hospitalized for acute lower respiratory tract infection in Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background Acute respiratory tract infections are one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality among young children in developing countries. Information on the viral aetiology of acute respiratory infections in developing countries is very limited. The study was done to identify viruses associated with acute lower respiratory tract infection among children less than 5 years. Method Nasopharyngeal samples and blood cultures were collected from children less than 5 years who have been hospitalized for acute lower respiratory tract infection. Viruses and bacteria were identified using Reverse Transcriptase Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction and conventional biochemical techniques. Results Out of 128 patients recruited, 33(25.88%%, 95%CI: 18.5% to 34.2%) were positive for one or more viruses. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) was detected in 18(14.1%, 95%CI: 8.5% to 21.3%) patients followed by Adenoviruses (AdV) in 13(10.2%, 95%CI: 5.5% to 16.7%), Parainfluenza (PIV type: 1, 2, 3) in 4(3.1%, 95%CI: 0.9% to 7.8%) and influenza B viruses in 1(0.8%, 95%CI: 0.0 to 4.3). Concomitant viral and bacterial co-infection occurred in two patients. There were no detectable significant differences in the clinical signs, symptoms and severity for the various pathogens isolated. A total of 61.1% (22/36) of positive viruses were detected during the rainy season and Respiratory Syncytial Virus was the most predominant. Conclusion The study has demonstrated an important burden of respiratory viruses as major causes of childhood acute respiratory infection in a tertiary health institution in Ghana. The data addresses a need for more studies on viral associated respiratory tract infection. PMID:22490115

2012-01-01

316

Bordetella pertussis entry into respiratory epithelial cells and intracellular survival.  

PubMed

Bordetella pertussis is the causative agent of pertussis, aka whooping cough. Although generally considered an extracellular pathogen, this bacterium has been found inside respiratory epithelial cells, which might represent a survival strategy inside the host. Relatively little is known, however, about the mechanism of internalization and the fate of B. pertussis inside the epithelia. We show here that B. pertussis is able to enter those cells by a mechanism dependent on microtubule assembly, lipid raft integrity, and the activation of a tyrosine-kinase-mediated signaling. Once inside the cell, a significant proportion of the intracellular bacteria evade phagolysosomal fusion and remain viable in nonacidic lysosome-associated membrane-protein-1-negative compartments. In addition, intracellular B. pertussis was found able to repopulate the extracellular environment after complete elimination of the extracellular bacteria with polymyxin B. Taken together, these data suggest that B. pertussis is able to survive within respiratory epithelial cells and by this means potentially contribute to host immune system evasion. PMID:23893966

Lamberti, Yanina; Gorgojo, Juan; Massillo, Cintia; Rodriguez, Maria E

2013-12-01

317

Connexins in respiratory and gastrointestinal mucosal immunity.  

PubMed

The mucosal lining forms the physical and chemical barrier that protects against pathogens and hostile particles and harbors its own population of bacteria, fungi and archea, known as the microbiota. The immune system controls tolerance of this population of microorganisms that have proven to be beneficial for its host. Keeping its physical integrity and a correct balance with the microbiota, the mucosa preserves its homeostasis and its protective function and maintains host's health. However, in some conditions, pathogens may succeed in breaching mucosal homeostasis and successfully infecting the host. In this review we will discuss the role the mucosa plays in the defense against bacterial pathogens by considering the gap junction protein connexins. We will detail their implication in mucosal homeostasis and upon infection with bacteria in the respiratory and the gastrointestinal tracts. PMID:24631537

Bou Saab, Joanna; Losa, Davide; Chanson, Marc; Ruez, Richard

2014-04-17

318

Penetration of erythromycin in respiratory tract infections.  

PubMed

Successful treatment of respiratory tract infections with erythromycin may depend upon adequate penetration of the drug to the site of infection. The delivery of antibiotics into respiratory tract secretions is a simple passive diffusion process along a concentration gradient according to Fick's principle. A number of other factors including physicochemical characteristics of the drug and host defence mechanisms may further modify the tissue penetration. A common feature of penetration studies in respiratory tract infections is the wide range of results. This is due to the numerous variables involved in this kind of study. However, the studies performed at steady state, and after oral administration of erythromycin, show a rapid increase in drug concentrations in adenoid and tonsillar tissue homogenates and sustained levels equal to or higher than in serum. In secretions of the middle ear, paranasal sinuses and bronchiae the penetration and elimination of erythromycin is much slower. The drug levels were equal to--or in some cases even higher than--steady state serum concentrations. Fluctuations, however, were less pronounced. In lung tissue homogenates erythromycin concentrations higher than the serum levels have generally been found. In respiratory tract secretions and tissues the penetration of erythromycin is good. Sufficient levels are reached to inhibit in vitro the growth of most common pathogens involved in respiratory tract infections with the exception of some strains of Haemophilus influenzae. PMID:6333775

Walstad, R A; Hellum, K B

1984-01-01

319

Analysis and the potential applications of essential oil and leaf extracts of Silene armeria L. to control food spoilage and food-borne pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to analyze the chemical composition of essential oil isolated from the floral parts of Silene armeria L. by hydrodistillation and to test the efficacy of essential oil and the various leaf extracts against a diverse range of\\u000a microorganisms comprising food spoilage and food-borne pathogenic bacteria. The chemical composition of essential oil was\\u000a analyzed by

Vivek K. Bajpai; Nguyen Thi Dung; O. Jun Kwon; Sun Chul Kang

2008-01-01

320

Plant-pathogen interactions and elevated CO2: morphological changes in favour of pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crop losses caused by pests and weeds have been estimated at 42% worldwide, with plant pathogens responsible for almost $10 billion worth of damage in the USA in 1994 alone. Elevated carbon dioxide (ECO2) and associated climate change have the potential to accelerate plant pathogen evolution, which may, in turn, affect virulence. Plant- pathogen interactions under increasing CO2 concentrations have

Janice Ann Lake; Ruth Nicola Wade

2009-01-01

321

Moxifloxacin in respiratory tract infections.  

PubMed

Moxifloxacin is a fourth-generation fluoroquinolone that has been shown to be effective against respiratory pathogens, including Gram-positive (Streptococcus pneumoniae), Gram-negative (Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis), and atypical strains (Chlamydia pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae), as well as multi-drug resistant S. pneumoniae, including strains resistant to penicillin, macrolides, tetracyclines, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and some fluoroquinolones. Moxifloxacin is highly concentrated in lung tissue, and has demonstrated rapid eradication rates. The bioavailability and half-life of moxifloxacin provides potent bactericidal effects at a dose of 400mg/day. The ratio of the area under the concentration-time curve to MIC of moxifloxacin is the highest among the fluoroquinolones against S. pneumoniae. The clinical efficacy of moxifloxacin has been shown in controlled studies of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (CB) and acute bacterial rhinosinusitis. Moxifloxacin has demonstrated a faster resolution of symptoms in CAP and exacerbations of CB patients compared with first-line therapy. It has also demonstrated better eradication in exacerbations of CB compared with standard therapy, in particular the macrolides. Treatment guidelines should take into account the results of clinical trials with moxifloxacin in order to establish the role of this antimicrobial in the therapeutic arsenal against respiratory tract infections. PMID:15757424

Miravitlles, Marc

2005-02-01

322

Vaccine-preventable adenoviral respiratory illness in US military recruits, 1999-2004  

PubMed Central

Background and Methods: The high burden of respiratory infections in military populations is well documented throughout history. The primary pathogen responsible for morbidity among US recruits in training was shown to be adenovirus. Highly efficacious oral vaccines were used for 25 years, but vaccine production ceased in 1996, and available stores were depleted by early 1999. Surveillance for acute febrile respiratory illness was performed at eight military recruit training sites throughout the United States from July 1999 through June 2004 to document rates after loss of the vaccines. Laboratory diagnoses complimented the surveillance efforts. Results: Over the 5 years, nearly 12 million person-weeks were followed and an estimated 110,172 febrile respiratory illness cases and 73,748 adenovirus cases were identified. Rates of illness were highest at the Navy and Air Force training centers, with average annual rates of 1.20 and 1.35 cases per 100 recruit- weeks respectively. Adenoviral-associated illness rates peaked in weeks 3 to 5 of training, depending upon service. Conclusions: The burden of adenoviral illness among US recruit populations has returned to high levels since loss of the vaccines. Restoration of an effective adenovirus vaccine effort within the military is anticipated by 2008, potentially reducing the adenovirus morbidity suffered in this vulnerable population. Efforts to determine the burden of adenovirus and potential benefits of vaccination in civilian populations are being renewed. PMID:16480793

Russell, Kevin L.; Hawksworth, Anthony W.; Ryan, Margaret A. K.; Strickler, Jennifer; Irvine, Marina; Hansen, Christian J.; Gray, Gregory C.; Gaydos, Joel C.

2007-01-01

323

Metagenomic analysis of a sample from a patient with respiratory tract infection reveals the presence of a ?-papillomavirus  

PubMed Central

Previously unknown or unexpected pathogens may be responsible for that proportion of respiratory diseases in which a causative agent cannot be identified. The application of broad-spectrum, sequence independent virus discovery techniques may be useful to reduce this proportion and widen our knowledge about respiratory pathogens. Thanks to the availability of high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technology, it became today possible to detect viruses which are present at a very low load, but the clinical relevance of those viruses must be investigated. In this study we used VIDISCA-454, a restriction enzyme based virus discovery method that utilizes Roche 454 HTS system, on a nasal swab collected from a subject with respiratory complaints. A ?-papillomavirus was detected (complete genome: 7142 bp) and its role in disease was investigated. Respiratory samples collected both during the acute phase of the illness and 2 weeks after full recovery contained the virus. The patient presented antibodies directed against the virus but there was no difference between IgG levels in blood samples collected during the acute phase and 2 weeks after full recovery. We therefore concluded that the detected ?-papillomavirus is unlikely to be the causative agent of the respiratory complaints and its presence in the nose of the patient is not related to the disease. Although HTS based virus discovery techniques proved their great potential as a tool to clarify the etiology of some infectious diseases, the obtained information must be subjected to cautious interpretations. This study underlines the crucial importance of performing careful investigations on viruses identified when applying sensitive virus discovery techniques, since the mere identification of a virus and its presence in a clinical sample are not satisfactory proofs to establish a causative link with a disease. PMID:25071755

Canuti, Marta; Deijs, Martin; Jazaeri Farsani, Seyed M.; Holwerda, Melle; Jebbink, Maarten F.; de Vries, Michel; van Vugt, Saskia; Brugman, Curt; Verheij, Theo; Lammens, Christine; Goossens, Herman; Loens, Katherine; Ieven, Margareta; van der Hoek, Lia

2014-01-01

324

Use of Antimicrobial Agents for Upper Respiratory Tract Infections in Taiwanese Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) are mostly caused by viruses. Antibiotic mis- use for viral URTIs in children is a serious problem that not only results in selection of resis- tant strains of bacteria but also wastes millions of dollars each year in Taiwan. Antibiotic resistance among common respiratory bacterial pathogens such as Streptococcus pneumoni- ae, Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus,and

Yu-Hsuan Huang; Yhu-Chering Huang

325

Progress in understanding and controlling respiratory syncytial virus: Still crazy after all these years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a ubiquitous pathogen that infects everyone worldwide early in life and is a leading cause of severe lower respiratory tract disease in the pediatric population as well as in the elderly and in profoundly immunosuppressed individuals. RSV is an enveloped, nonsegmented negative-sense RNA virus that is classified in Family Paramyxoviridae and is one of

Peter L. Collins; José A. Melero

326

Prospective Evaluation of Rapid Antigen Tests for Diagnosis of Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Human Metapneumovirus Infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human metapneumovirus (hMPV) are two important viral pathogens that cause respiratory tract infections in the pediatric population. The rapid detection of these agents allows the prompt isolation and treatment of infected patients. In the present prospective study, we evaluated the performances of four rapid antigen detection assays, including a rapid chromatographic immunoassay (CIA) for RSV

Jaber Aslanzadeh; Xiaotian Zheng; Haijing Li; Janice Tetreault; Irene Ratkiewicz; Shufang Meng; Pamela Hamilton; Yi-Wei Tang

327

Reduced Risk of Neonatal Respiratory Infections Among Breastfed Girls but Not Boys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. The effect of breastfeeding on community-acquired neonatal infections has not been well studied, although the neonatal period is one of special vulnerability to infectious pathogens. Respiratory tract infections are the neonatal infection most com- monly diagnosed after nursery discharge. We therefore chose respiratory tract infections diagnosed after nursery discharge as representative of neonatal community-ac- quired infection and studied the

Anushua Sinha; Jeanne Madden; Dennis Ross-Degnan; Stephen Soumerai; Richard Platt

2010-01-01

328

Antibiotic Resistance Patterns and Genetic Analysis of Klebsiella Pneumoniae Isolates from the Respiratory Tract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Klebsiella pneumoniae is a pathogenic bacterium causing nosocomial infections in particular severe respiratory tract infections. Little information is available on the antibiotic susceptibility of pulmonary isolates of Klebsiella spp. The aims of this study were to determine the antibiotic resistance patterns and prevalence of extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBLs) producing Kleb. Among the respiratory isolates and to detect the possible clonal

Mohammad Mehdi Feizabadi; Gelavizh Etemadi; Marveh Rahmati; Samira Mohammadi-Yeganeh; Shiveh Shabanpoor; Soroor Asadi

329

DIFFERENTIAL GENE EXPRESSION INDUCED BY RESPIRATORY SYNCTIAL VIRUS IN HUMAN BRONCHIAL EPITHELIAL CELLS  

EPA Science Inventory

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), a negative-stranded RNA virus, is a common viral pathogen for respiratory infection in both children and immunocompromised adults. Early host defense may play a critical role in determining the severity of the infection. To gain further insight ...

330

Iduronic AcidContaining Glycosaminoglycans on Target Cells Are Required for Efficient Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important human respiratory pathogen, particularly in infants. Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) have been implicated in the initiation of RSV infection of cultured cells, but it is not clear what type of GAGs and GAG components are involved, whether the important GAGs are on the virus or the cell, or what the magnitude is of their contribution

Louay K. Hallak; Peter L. Collins; Warren Knudson; Mark E. Peeples

2000-01-01

331

DNA detection and genotypic identification of potentially human-pathogenic microsporidia from asymptomatic pet parrots in South Korea as a risk factor for zoonotic emergence.  

PubMed

We detected and identified genotypes of human-pathogenic microsporidia in fecal samples from 51 asymptomatic captive-bred pet parrots in South Korea. Microsporidia were identified in 8 samples (15.7%); 7 parrots tested positive for Encephalitozoon hellem, and 1 parrot tested positive for both E. hellem and Encephalitozoon cuniculi. In genotypic identifications, E. hellem was present in genotypes 1A and 2B and E. cuniculi was present in genotype II. Pet parrots might be a source of human microsporidian infection. PMID:21965400

Lee, So-Young; Lee, Sung-Seok; Lyoo, Young S; Park, Hee-Myung

2011-12-01

332

Respiratory syncytial virus infection reduces lung inflammation and fibrosis in mice exposed to vanadium pentoxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) exposure is a cause of occupational bronchitis and airway fibrosis. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a ubiquitous pathogen that causes airway inflammation. It is unknown whether individuals with pre-existing respiratory viral infection are susceptible to V2O5-induced bronchitis. We hypothesized that respiratory viral infection will exacerbate vanadium-induced lung fibrosis. METHODS: In this study we investigated the effect

Elizabeth A Turpin; Aurita Antao-Menezes; Mark F Cesta; James B Mangum; Duncan G Wallace; Edilberto Bermudez; James C Bonner

2010-01-01

333

Detection of respiratory viruses and Bordetella bronchiseptica in dogs with acute respiratory tract infections.  

PubMed

Canine infectious respiratory disease (CIRD) is an acute, highly contagious disease complex caused by a variety of infectious agents. At present, the role of viral and bacterial components as primary or secondary pathogens in CIRD is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV), canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2), canine influenza virus (CIV), canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV), canine herpes virus-1 (CHV-1), canine distemper virus (CDV) and Bordetella bronchiseptica in dogs with CIRD and to compare the data with findings in healthy dogs. Sixty-one dogs with CIRD and 90 clinically healthy dogs from Southern Germany were prospectively enrolled in this study. Nasal and pharyngeal swabs were collected from all dogs and were analysed for CPIV, CAV-2, CIV, CRCoV, CHV-1, CDV, and B. bronchiseptica by real-time PCR. In dogs with acute respiratory signs, 37.7% tested positive for CPIV, 9.8% for CRCoV and 78.7% for B. bronchiseptica. Co-infections with more than one agent were detected in 47.9% of B. bronchiseptica-positive, 82.6% of CPIV-positive, and 100% of CRCoV-positive dogs. In clinically healthy dogs, 1.1% tested positive for CAV-2, 7.8% for CPIV and 45.6% for B. bronchiseptica. CPIV and B. bronchiseptica were detected significantly more often in dogs with CIRD than in clinically healthy dogs (P?pathogen) and were the most common infectious agents in dogs with CIRD in Southern Germany. Mixed infections with several pathogens were common. In conclusion, clinically healthy dogs can carry respiratory pathogens and could act as sources of infection for susceptible dogs. PMID:24980809

Schulz, B S; Kurz, S; Weber, K; Balzer, H-J; Hartmann, K

2014-09-01

334

Protection of Mice against Lethal Infection with Highly Pathogenic H7N7 Influenza A Virus by Using a Recombinant Low-Pathogenicity Vaccine Strain  

PubMed Central

In 2003, an outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza occurred in the Netherlands. The avian H7N7 virus causing the outbreak was also detected in 88 humans suffering from conjunctivitis or mild respiratory symptoms and one person who died of pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Here we describe a mouse model for lethal infection with A/Netherlands/219/03 isolated from the fatal case. Because of the zoonotic and pathogenic potential of the H7N7 virus, a candidate vaccine carrying the avian hemagglutinin and neuraminidase proteins produced in the context of the high-throughput vaccine strain A/PR/8/34 was generated by reverse genetics and tested in the mouse model. The hemagglutinin gene of the recombinant vaccine strain was derived from a low-pathogenicity virus obtained prior to the outbreak from a wild mallard. The efficacy of a classical nonadjuvanted subunit vaccine and an immune stimulatory complex-adjuvanted vaccine was compared. Mice receiving the nonadjuvanted vaccine revealed low antibody titers, lack of clinical protection, high virus titers in the lungs, and presence of virus in the spleen, liver, kidneys, and brain. In contrast, mice receiving two doses of the immune stimulatory complex-adjuvanted vaccine revealed high antibody titers, clinical protection, ?1,000-fold reduction of virus titers in the lungs, and rare detection of the virus in other organs. This is the first report of an H7 vaccine candidate tested in a mammalian model. The data presented suggest that vaccine candidates based on low-pathogenicity avian influenza A viruses, which can be prepared ahead of pandemic threats, can be efficacious if an effective adjuvant is used. PMID:16160167

de Wit, Emmie; Munster, Vincent J.; Spronken, Monique I. J.; Bestebroer, Theo M.; Baas, Chantal; Beyer, Walter E. P.; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F.; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.; Fouchier, Ron A. M.

2005-01-01

335

Phylogeny and Phenotypic Characterization of Pathogenic Cryptococcus Species and Closely Related Saprobic Taxa in the Tremellales ? †  

PubMed Central

The basidiomycetous yeasts Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii are closely related sibling species that cause respiratory and neurological disease in humans and animals. Within these two recognized species, phylogenetic analysis reveals at least six cryptic species defined as molecular types (VNI/II/B, VNIV, VGI, VGII, VGIII, and VGIV) that comprise the pathogenic Cryptococcus species complex. These pathogenic species are clustered in the Filobasidiella clade within the order Tremellales. Previous studies have shown that the Filobasidiella clade also includes several saprobic fungi isolated from insect frass, but information evaluating the relatedness of the saprobes and pathogens within this cluster is limited. Here, the phylogeny encompassing a subset of species in the Tremellales lineage that clusters closely with the pathogenic Cryptococcus species complex was resolved by employing a multilocus sequencing approach for phylogenetic analysis. Six highly conserved genomic loci from 15 related basidiomycete species were sequenced, and the alignments from the concatenated gene sequences were evaluated with different tree-building criteria. Furthermore, these 15 species were subjected to virulence and phenotype assays to evaluate their pathogenic potential. These studies revealed that Cryptococcus amylolentus and Tsuchiyaea wingfieldii, two nonpathogenic sibling species, are the taxa most closely related to the pathogens C. neoformans and C. gattii and together with Filobasidiella depauperata form a Cryptococcus sensu stricto group. Five other saprobic yeast species form the Kwoniella clade, which appears to be a part of a more distantly related sensu lato group. This study establishes a foundation for future comparative genomic approaches that will provide insight into the structure, function, and evolution of the mating type locus, the transitions in modes of sexual reproduction, and the emergence of human pathogenic species from related or ancestral saprobic species. PMID:19151324

Findley, Keisha; Rodriguez-Carres, Marianela; Metin, Banu; Kroiss, Johannes; Fonseca, Alvaro; Vilgalys, Rytas; Heitman, Joseph

2009-01-01

336

Respiratory Care Therapist.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of respiratory care therapist, lists technical competencies and competency builders for 18 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general as well as those specific to the occupation of respiratory care therapist. The following…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

337

Identification of Common Biological Pathways and Drug Targets Across Multiple Respiratory Viruses Based on Human Host Gene Expression Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Pandemic and seasonal respiratory viruses are a major global health concern. Given the genetic diversity of respiratory viruses and the emergence of drug resistant strains, the targeted disruption of human host-virus interactions is a potential therapeutic strategy for treating multi-viral infections. The availability of large-scale genomic datasets focused on host-pathogen interactions can be used to discover novel drug targets as well as potential opportunities for drug repositioning. Methods/Results In this study, we performed a large-scale analysis of microarray datasets involving host response to infections by influenza A virus, respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus, SARS-coronavirus, metapneumonia virus, coxsackievirus and cytomegalovirus. Common genes and pathways were found through a rigorous, iterative analysis pipeline where relevant host mRNA expression datasets were identified, analyzed for quality and gene differential expression, then mapped to pathways for enrichment analysis. Possible repurposed drugs targets were found through database and literature searches. A total of 67 common biological pathways were identified among the seven different respiratory viruses analyzed, representing fifteen laboratories, nine different cell types, and seven different array platforms. A large overlap in the general immune response was observed among the top twenty of these 67 pathways, adding validation to our analysis strategy. Of the top five pathways, we found 53 differentially expressed genes affected by at least five of the seven viruses. We suggest five new therapeutic indications for existing small molecules or biological agents targeting proteins encoded by the genes F3, IL1B, TNF, CASP1 and MMP9. Pathway enrichment analysis also identified a potential novel host response, the Parkin-Ubiquitin Proteasomal System (Parkin-UPS) pathway, which is known to be involved in the progression of neurodegenerative Parkinson's disease. Conclusions Our study suggests that multiple and diverse respiratory viruses invoke several common host response pathways. Further analysis of these pathways suggests potential opportunities for therapeutic intervention. PMID:22432004

Smith, Steven B.; Dampier, William; Tozeren, Aydin; Brown, James R.; Magid-Slav, Michal

2012-01-01

338

Contamination of water resources by pathogenic bacteria  

PubMed Central

Water-borne pathogen contamination in water resources and related diseases are a major water quality concern throughout the world. Increasing interest in controlling water-borne pathogens in water resources evidenced by a large number of recent publications clearly attests to the need for studies that synthesize knowledge from multiple fields covering comparative aspects of pathogen contamination, and unify them in a single place in order to present and address the problem as a whole. Providing a broader perceptive of pathogen contamination in freshwater (rivers, lakes, reservoirs, groundwater) and saline water (estuaries and coastal waters) resources, this review paper attempts to develop the first comprehensive single source of existing information on pathogen contamination in multiple types of water resources. In addition, a comprehensive discussion describes the challenges associated with using indicator organisms. Potential impacts of water resources development on pathogen contamination as well as challenges that lie ahead for addressing pathogen contamination are also discussed. PMID:25006540

2014-01-01

339

Comparative Genomics to Delineate Pathogenic Potential in Non-O157 Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli (STEC) from Patients with and without Haemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS) in Norway  

PubMed Central

Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) cause infections in humans ranging from asymptomatic carriage to bloody diarrhoea and haemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Here we present whole genome comparison of Norwegian non-O157 STEC strains with the aim to distinguish between strains with the potential to cause HUS and less virulent strains. Whole genome sequencing and comparisons were performed across 95 non-O157 STEC strains. Twenty-three of these were classified as HUS-associated, including strains from patients with HUS (n?=?19) and persons with an epidemiological link to a HUS-case (n?=?4). Genomic comparison revealed considerable heterogeneity in gene content across the 95 STEC strains. A clear difference in gene profile was observed between strains with and without the Locus of Enterocyte Effacement (LEE) pathogenicity island. Phylogenetic analysis of the core genome showed high degree of diversity among the STEC strains, but all HUS-associated STEC strains were distributed in two distinct clusters within phylogroup B1. However, non-HUS strains were also found in these clusters. A number of accessory genes were found to be significantly overrepresented among HUS-associated STEC, but none of them were unique to this group of strains, suggesting that different sets of genes may contribute to the pathogenic potential in different phylogenetic STEC lineages. In this study we were not able to clearly distinguish between HUS-associated and non-HUS non-O157 STEC by extensive genome comparisons. Our results indicate that STECs from different phylogenetic backgrounds have independently acquired virulence genes that determine pathogenic potential, and that the content of such genes is overlapping between HUS-associated and non-HUS strains. PMID:25360710

Haugum, Kjersti; Johansen, Jostein; Gabrielsen, Christina; Brandal, Lin T.; Bergh, Kare; Ussery, David W.; Drabl?s, Finn; Afset, Jan Egil

2014-01-01

340

Proteomic analysis of phytopathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea as a potential tool for identifying pathogenicity factors, therapeutic targets and for basic research.  

PubMed

Botrytis cinerea is a phytopathogenic fungus causing disease in a substantial number of economically important crops. In an attempt to identify putative fungal virulence factors, the two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) protein profile from two B. cinerea strains differing in virulence and toxin production were compared. Protein extracts from fungal mycelium obtained by tissue homogenization were analyzed. The mycelial 2-DE protein profile revealed the existence of qualitative and quantitative differences between the analyzed strains. The lack of genomic data from B. cinerea required the use of peptide fragmentation data from MALDI-TOF/TOF and ESI ion trap for protein identification, resulting in the identification of 27 protein spots. A significant number of spots were identified as malate dehydrogenase (MDH) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). The different expression patterns revealed by some of the identified proteins could be ascribed to differences in virulence between strains. Our results indicate that proteomic analysis are becoming an important tool to be used as a starting point for identifying new pathogenicity factors, therapeutic targets and for basic research on this plant pathogen in the postgenomic era. PMID:17124592

Fernández-Acero, Francisco Javier; Jorge, Inmaculada; Calvo, Enrique; Vallejo, Inmaculada; Carbú, María; Camafeita, Emilio; Garrido, Carlos; López, Juan Antonio; Jorrin, Jesús; Cantoral, Jesús Manuel

2007-03-01

341

Respiratory syncytial virus vaccine development  

PubMed Central

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract viral disease in infants and young children. Presently, there are no explicit recommendations for RSV treatment apart from supportive care. The virus is therefore responsible for an estimated 160,000 deaths per year worldwide. Despite half a century of dedicated research, there remains no licensed vaccine product. Herein are described past and current efforts to harness innate and adaptive immune potentials to combat RSV. A plethora of candidate vaccine products and strategies are reviewed. The development of a successful RSV vaccine may ultimately stem from attention to historical lessons, in concert with an integral partnering of immunology and virology research fields. PMID:21988307

Hurwitz, Julia L

2011-01-01

342

Surveillance for upper respiratory tract disease and Mycoplasma in free-ranging gopher tortoises (gopherus polyphemus) in georgia, USA.  

PubMed

Abstract Upper respiratory tract disease (URTD) in the gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus) is highly contagious and has been implicated in the reduction of populations throughout the range. With the exception of a few limited studies, the prevalence of URTD in Georgia, USA tortoise populations is poorly known. We found that exposure to Mycoplasma agassizii and Mycoplasma testudineum, associated with URTD, varied geographically among 11 Georgia tortoise populations. The prevalence of antibodies to M. agassizii in individual populations was either very low (0-3%, n?=?7 populations) or very high (96-100%, n?=?4 populations), whereas there was variation in the prevalence of antibodies to M. testudineum among populations (20-61%, n?=?10) with only one site being negative. Five sites had tortoises with antibodies to both pathogens, and these were the only sites where we observed tortoises with clinical signs consistent with URTD. We did not find tortoises with clinical signs of URTD at sites with tortoises with antibodies only to M. testudineum, which provides evidence that this organism may be of limited pathogenicity for gopher tortoises. Collectively, these data indicate that both M. agassizii and M. testudineum are present in Georgia populations of gopher tortoises and that clinical disease is apparent in populations where both pathogens are present. Additional research is needed to better understand the role of these two pathogens, and other potential pathogens, in the overall health of tortoise populations, especially if future conservation efforts involve translocation of tortoises. PMID:25098305

McGuire, Jessica L; Smith, Lora L; Guyer, Craig; Lockhart, J Mitchell; Lee, Gregory W; Yabsley, Michael J

2014-10-01

343

Bovine Respiratory Disease Pathogens in Pre-weaned Holstein Calves  

E-print Network

, Manheima haemolytica, Pasteruella multocida, Histophilus somi, and mycoplasma species. Mycoplasma species 352 246 H. somi 20 16 4 Mycoplasma 1227 607 620 Mycoplasma & BRSV 102 78 24 Mycoplasma & CV 119 62 57 Mycoplasma & H. Somni 18 14 4 Mycoplasma & P. multocida 470 279 191 Mycoplasma & M. haemolytica 251 166 85 H

Collins, Gary S.

344

Microbiology: detection of bacterial pathogens and their occurrence. [Water pollution  

SciTech Connect

Studies of waterborne diseases are reported in this literature review. Contaminated water is a major source of exposure to bacterial pathogens for both humans and animals. Legionella, an aquatic organism, is of special interest because of its importance as a respiratory pathogen and the human disease outbreaks associated with contaminated air conditioning cooling tower waters and contaminated shower heads in health care institutions. The occurrence and detection of Legionella in water is presented in one of seven tables. Included are 147 references. (JMT)

Reasoner, D.J.

1982-01-01

345

Bovine respiratory coronavirus.  

PubMed

Bovine coronaviruses (BCoVs) cause respiratory and enteric infections in cattle and wild ruminants. BCoV is a pneumoenteric virus that infects the upper and lower respiratory tract and intestine. It is shed in feces and nasal secretions and also infects the lung. BCoV is the cause of 3 distinct clinical syndromes in cattle: (1) calf diarrhea, (2) winter dysentery with hemorrhagic diarrhea in adults, and (3) respiratory infections in cattle of various ages including the bovine respiratory disease complex or shipping fever of feedlot cattle. No consistent antigenic or genetic markers have been identified to discriminate BCoVs from the different clinical syndromes. At present, there are no BCoV vaccines to prevent respiratory BCoV infections in cattle, and the correlates of immunity to respiratory BCoV infections are unknown. This article focuses on respiratory BCoV infections including viral characteristics; epidemiology and interspecies transmission; diagnosis, pathogenesis, and clinical signs; and immunity and vaccines. PMID:20619189

Saif, Linda J

2010-07-01

346

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia: an Emerging Global Opportunistic Pathogen  

PubMed Central

Summary: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an emerging multidrug-resistant global opportunistic pathogen. The increasing incidence of nosocomial and community-acquired S. maltophilia infections is of particular concern for immunocompromised individuals, as this bacterial pathogen is associated with a significant fatality/case ratio. S. maltophilia is an environmental bacterium found in aqueous habitats, including plant rhizospheres, animals, foods, and water sources. Infections of S. maltophilia can occur in a range of organs and tissues; the organism is commonly found in respiratory tract infections. This review summarizes the current literature and presents S. maltophilia as an organism with various molecular mechanisms used for colonization and infection. S. maltophilia can be recovered from polymicrobial infections, most notably from the respiratory tract of cystic fibrosis patients, as a cocolonizer with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Recent evidence of cell-cell communication between these pathogens has implications for the development of novel pharmacological therapies. Animal models of S. maltophilia infection have provided useful information about the type of host immune response induced by this opportunistic pathogen. Current and emerging treatments for patients infected with S. maltophilia are discussed. PMID:22232370

2012-01-01

347

Algae as Reservoirs for Coral Pathogens  

PubMed Central

Benthic algae are associated with coral death in the form of stress and disease. It's been proposed that they release exudates, which facilitate invasion of potentially pathogenic microbes at the coral-algal interface, resulting in coral disease. However, the original source of these pathogens remains unknown. This study examined the ability of benthic algae to act as reservoirs of coral pathogens by characterizing surface associated microbes associated with major Caribbean and Indo-Pacific algal species/types and by comparing them to potential pathogens of two dominant coral diseases: White Syndrome (WS) in the Indo-Pacific and Yellow Band Disease (YBD) in the Caribbean. Coral and algal sampling was conducted simultaneously at the same sites to avoid spatial effects. Potential pathogens were defined as those absent or rare in healthy corals, increasing in abundance in healthy tissues adjacent to a disease lesion, and dominant in disease lesions. Potentially pathogenic bacteria were detected in both WS and YBD and were also present within the majority of algal species/types (54 and 100% for WS and YBD respectively). Pathogenic ciliates were associated only with WS and not YBD lesions and these were also present in 36% of the Indo-Pacific algal species. Although potential pathogens were associated with many algal species, their presence was inconsistent among replicate algal samples and detection rates were relatively low, suggestive of low density and occurrence. At the community level, coral-associated microbes irrespective of the health of their host differed from algal-associated microbes, supporting that algae and corals have distinctive microbial communities associated with their tissue. We conclude that benthic algae are common reservoirs for a variety of different potential coral pathogens. However, algal-associated microbes alone are unlikely to cause coral death. Initial damage or stress to the coral via other competitive mechanisms is most likely a prerequisite to potential transmission of these pathogens. PMID:23936086

Sweet, Michael J.; Bythell, John C.; Nugues, Maggy M.

2013-01-01

348

Climate change and respiratory disease: European Respiratory Society position statement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change will affect individuals with pre-existing respiratory disease, but the extent of the effect remains unclear. The present position statement was developed on behalf of the European Respiratory Society in order to identify areas of concern arising from climate change for individuals with respiratory disease, healthcare workers in the respiratory sector and policy makers. The statement was developed following

J. G. Ayres; B. Forsberg; I. Annesi-Maesano; R. Dey; K. L. Ebi; P. J. Helms; M. Medina-Ramon; M. Windt; F. Forastiere

2009-01-01

349

DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN BIOMARKERS OF EXPOSURE TO WATERBORNE PATHOGENS  

EPA Science Inventory

Contaminated drinking water is major source of waterborne diseases. EPA has published a drinking water contaminant candidate list (CCL) that contains a number of pathogens that potentially could be regulated in drinking water. Studies indicate that certain viral pathogens (adenov...

350

RNAi-based inhibition of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus replication in transgenic pigs.  

PubMed

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is an economically devastating viral disease causing heavy losses to the swine industry worldwide. Many studies have shown that transient delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) or adenovirus-mediated RNA interfere (RNAi) could potentially inhibit porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) replication in vivo and in vitro. Here, we applied RNAi to produce transgenic (TG) pigs that constitutively expressed PRRSV-specific siRNA derived from small hairpin RNA (shRNA). First, we evaluated siRNA expression in the founding and F1 generation pigs and confirmed stable transmission. Then, we detected the expression of IFN-? and protein kinase R (PKR) and found no difference among TG, non-transgenic (NTG), and wild-type pigs. Lastly, the F1 generation pigs, including TG and NTG piglets, were challenged with 3×10?·? TCID?? of JXA1, a highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV). Our results showed that the in vivo siRNA expression substantially reduced the serum HP-PRRSV titers and increased survival time by 3 days when TG pigs were compared with the NTG controls. These data suggested that RNAi-based genetic modification might be used to breed viral-resistant livestock with stable siRNA expression with no complications of siRNA toxicity. PMID:24333125

Li, Li; Li, Qiuyan; Bao, Yonghua; Li, Jinxiu; Chen, Zhisheng; Yu, Xiuling; Zhao, Yaofeng; Tian, Kegong; Li, Ning

2014-02-10

351

Application of a Broad-Range Resequencing Array for Detection of Pathogens in Desert Dust Samples from Kuwait and Iraq ?  

PubMed Central

A significant percentage of the human population is exposed to high levels of naturally occurring airborne dusts. Although the link between airborne particulate inhalation and a variety of respiratory diseases has long been established, little is known about the pathogenic role of the microbial component of the dust. In this study, we applied highly multiplexed PCR and a high-density resequencing microarray (RPM-TEI version 1.0) to screen samples of fine topsoil particles and airborne dust collected in 19 locations in Iraq and Kuwait for the presence of a broad range of human pathogens. The results indicated the presence of potential human pathogens, including Mycobacterium, Brucella, Coxiella burnetii, Clostridium perfringens, and Bacillus. The presence of Coxiella burnetii, a highly infectious potential biowarfare agent, was confirmed and detected in additional samples by use of a more sensitive technique (real-time PCR), indicating a high prevalence of this organism in the analyzed samples. The detection of potentially viable pathogens in breathable dusts from arid regions of Iraq and Kuwait underscores the importance of further study of these environments. PMID:21571877

Leski, Tomasz A.; Malanoski, Anthony P.; Gregory, Michael J.; Lin, Baochuan; Stenger, David A.

2011-01-01

352

Community-acquired upper respiratory tract infections and the role of third-generation oral cephalosporins.  

PubMed

Common community-acquired infections include those of the upper respiratory tract. In the 1990s, the antimicrobial treatment of upper respiratory tract infections focused on penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. However, following the introduction of a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, a decrease in invasive pneumococcal disease occurred, and in the case of otitis media a shift towards Haemophilus influenzae as the predominant causative pathogen was observed. Future antimicrobial therapy for outpatient upper respiratory tract infections may need to focus on pathogens such as penicillin-susceptible S. pneumoniae, beta-lactamase-producing H. influenzae, beta-lactamase-negative amoxicillin-resistant H. influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis. In these circumstances, third-generation oral cephalosporins, such as cefixime and cefdinir, could be increasingly used as an optional first-line therapy in community practice for upper respiratory tract infections suspected to be caused by these key pathogens, as an alternative to amoxicillin-clavulanate. PMID:20014898

Hedrick, James A

2010-01-01

353

Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections  

MedlinePLUS

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes mild, cold-like symptoms in adults and older healthy children. It can cause serious problems in ... tests can tell if your child has the virus. There is no specific treatment. You should give ...

354

Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)  

MedlinePLUS

... been added to your dashboard . RSV Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common virus that infects the lungs and breathing passages. Almost ... antiviral is medicine that kills infections caused by viruses. How can you help protect your baby from ...

355

Respiratory distress in neonates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Respiratory distress due to either medical or surgical causes occurs commonly in neonates. It is the most common cause of\\u000a admission to a neonatal surgical intensive care facility in a tertiary care hospital. The distress can be caused by a variety\\u000a of clinical conditions; common conditions treated in medical intensive care units are transient tachypnea of the new born,\\u000a respiratory

Arun Kumar; V. Bhatnagar

2005-01-01

356

Fluoroquinolones for the treatment of respiratory tract infections other than pneumonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A variety of bacterial species are associated with acute respiratory tract infections, including Gram-positive, Gram-negative,\\u000a and atypical pathogens. The most common pathogens include Streptococcus pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumoniae, Legionella species, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis. Because of cost considerations and specimen collection difficulties, primary care physicians seldom attempt to identify the\\u000a causative pathogen. As a result treatment is necessarily

Donald E. Low

357

Prevalence of Chlamydophila pneumoniae among Bangladeshi children under age 5 years with acute respiratory infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite major improvements in the diagnosis of pathogenic organisms causing acute respiratory infections (ARIs), details of\\u000a infections caused by atypical pathogens are not well understood, particularly in developing countries. This clinical and epidemiological\\u000a research was conducted in Bangladesh to explore the prevalence of atypical pathogens in causing childhood pneumonia. Sixty-four\\u000a children with ARI were studied at the Pediatric Outpatient Department

Tetsuya Matsumoto; Katsumi Matsumura; Kazi Selim Anwar; Abid Hossain Mollah; Hinako Murakami; Intetsu Kobayashi; Kiyotaka Kawagoe; Sadashi Shiga; Toshio Kishimoto; Nazmun Nahar; Kazuhiro Tateda; Keizo Yamaguchi

2006-01-01

358

The pathogenicity of Vairimorpha necatrix (Microspora: Microsporidia) against the tomato moth, Lacanobia oleracea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and its potential use for the control of lepidopteran glasshouse pests.  

PubMed

A droplet feeding technique was used to feed known amounts of Vairimorpha necatrix (Kramer) spores to larvae of the tomato moth, Lacanobia oleracea (L) in order to assess the susceptibility of this lepidopteran pest to the pathogen. All first- to fourth-instar larvae died as a result of ingesting 1000 or more V necatrix spores. Two forms of death were observed, which were dependent on the dose and the age of the insect when treated. For first-instar larvae, rapid death (within 6days of dosing) occurred after ingestion of 2000 spores, whereas lower doses resulted in a proportion of larvae dying from chronic infection (microsporidiosis). For more advanced stages, increasing spore doses were required to give rapid death, such that a dose of 200,000 spores was needed to give 80% mortality within 6 days for third-instar larvae. Rapid death was not observed in fourth- to sixth-instar larvae. In all cases successful pupation and adult emergence were much reduced compared with non-infected larvae. Suspensions of V necatrix were sprayed on to tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) plants maintained in small glasshouses prior to infestation of the plants with L oleracea larvae. The numbers and biomass of pest larvae retrieved from the plants sprayed with V necatrix were significantly reduced by up to 40% and 70%, respectively, compared with plants sprayed with water (control). Similarly, plants sprayed with V necatrix showed a reduction in damage of up to 45% compared with the control plants. PMID:15307667

Down, Rachel E; Bell, Howard A; Kirkbride-Smith, Anne E; Edwards, John P

2004-08-01

359

Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Infection of Mallards with Homo- and Heterosubtypic Immunity Induced by Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses  

PubMed Central

The potential role of wild birds as carriers of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) subtype H5N1 is still a matter of debate. Consecutive or simultaneous infections with different subtypes of influenza viruses of low pathogenicity (LPAIV) are very common in wild duck populations. To better understand the epidemiology and pathogenesis of HPAIV H5N1 infections in natural ecosystems, we investigated the influence of prior infection of mallards with homo- (H5N2) and heterosubtypic (H4N6) LPAIV on exposure to HPAIV H5N1. In mallards with homosubtypic immunity induced by LPAIV infection, clinical disease was absent and shedding of HPAIV from respiratory and intestinal tracts was grossly reduced compared to the heterosubtypic and control groups (mean GEC/100 µl at 3 dpi: 3.0×102 vs. 2.3×104 vs. 8.7×104; p<0.05). Heterosubtypic immunity induced by an H4N6 infection mediated a similar but less pronounced effect. We conclude that the epidemiology of HPAIV H5N1 in mallards and probably other aquatic wild bird species is massively influenced by interfering immunity induced by prior homo- and heterosubtypic LPAIV infections. PMID:19693268

Fereidouni, Sasan R.; Starick, Elke; Beer, Martin; Wilking, Hendrik; Kalthoff, Donata; Grund, Christian; Häuslaigner, Rafaela; Breithaupt, Angele; Lange, Elke; Harder, Timm C.

2009-01-01

360

Rye grains and the soil derived from under the organic and conventional rye crops as a potential source of biological agents causing respiratory diseases in farmers  

PubMed Central

Introduction Introduction: Due to the specific work environment, farmers are exposed to various biological occupational hazard. Among these factors significant are fungi present in the grain and also in the soil. The fungi may be the cause of human diseases including skin infections, asthma, allergic rhinitis and many others. Aim The aim of this study was to quantify and identify species of fungi colonizing rye grain samples and the soil under cultivation. Material and methods The material consisted of grain and soil samples from two agricultural systems: organic and conventional. To determine the concentration and composition of fungi in collected samples, two media: Malt Agar (MA, Becton, Dickinson and Company) and Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA, Becton, Dickinson and Company) were used. The composition of species in fungal flora was determined using macroscopic and microscopic methods. The isolates of fungi were ranked in the appropriate classes of biosafety BSL. Results The most frequently isolated fungi from organic rye grain, regardless of the media used, were species: Aureobasidium pullulans and Alternaria alternata. In conventional farms, most species isolated from rye grain were: Aureobasidium pullulans, Cladosporium oxysporum, Alternaria alternata and yeast-like fungi. Most often species isolated from the soil was Penicillium citreo-viride. Conclusions All the results of the research demonstrate the potential hazard to the health of people working in agriculture. Significant exposure of this professional group is associated with the presence of harmful biological agents present in the grain and soil from its cultivation. PMID:24494000

Cholewa, Grazyna; Krasowska, Ewelina; Chmielewska-Badora, Jolanta; Zwolinski, Jacek; Sobczak, Pawel

2013-01-01

361

Nanoparticle diffusion in respiratory mucus from humans without lung disease  

PubMed Central

A major role of respiratory mucus is to trap inhaled particles, including pathogens and environmental particulates, to limit body exposure. Despite the tremendous health implications, how particle size and surface chemistry affect mobility in respiratory mucus from humans without lung disease is not known. We prepared polymeric nanoparticles densely coated with low molecular weight polyethylene glycol (PEG) to minimize muco-adhesion, and compared their transport to that of uncoated particles in human respiratory mucus, which we collected from the endotracheal tubes of surgical patients with no respiratory comorbidities. We found that 100 and 200 nm diameter PEG-coated particles rapidly penetrated respiratory mucus, at rates exceeding their uncoated counterparts by approximately 15- and 35-fold, respectively. In contrast, PEG-coated particles ? 500 nm in diameter were sterically immobilized by the mucus mesh. Thus, even though respiratory mucus is a viscoelastic solid at the macroscopic level (as measured using a bulk rheometer), nanoparticles that are sufficiently small and muco-inert can penetrate the mucus as if it were primarily a viscous liquid. These findings help elucidate the barrier properties of respiratory mucus and provide design criteria for therapeutic nanoparticles capable of penetrating mucus to approach the underlying airway epithelium. PMID:23384790

Schuster, Benjamin S.; Suk, Jung Soo; Woodworth, Graeme F.; Hanes, Justin

2013-01-01

362

Antibacterial activity of cefquinome against equine bacterial pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cefquinome is known for its use as an antibacterial drug in cattle and pigs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of cefquinome against equine pathogenic bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of cefquinome was determined for a total of 205 strains, which had recently been isolated in Europe from diseased horses (respiratory infection, foal septicaemia).

E. Thomas; V. Thomas; C. Wilhelm

2006-01-01

363

Pharmacological Inhibition of Cochlear Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain Induces Secondary Inflammation in the Lateral Wall: A Potential Therapeutic Target for Sensorineural Hearing Loss  

PubMed Central

Cochlear lateral wall has recently been reported as a common site of inflammation, yet precise molecular mechanisms of the inflammatory responses remain elucidated. The present study examined the inflammatory responses in the lateral wall following acute mitochondrial dysfunction induced by a mitochondrial toxin, 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP). Reverse-transcription (RT)-PCR revealed increases in the expression of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1? and IL-6. Immunohistochemistry showed an increase in the number of activated cochlear macrophages in the lateral wall, which were in close proximity to IL-6-expressing cells. A genome-wide DNA microarray analysis of the lateral wall revealed that 35% and 60% of the genes showing >2-fold upregulation at 1 d and 3 d post-3-NP administration, respectively, were inflammatory genes, including CC- and CXC-type chemokine genes. High expression of CCL-1, 2, and 3 at 1 d, and of CCL-1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, CCR-2 and 5, and CX3CR1 at 3 d post-3-NP administration, coupled with no change in the level of CX3CL1 expression suggested that macrophages and monocytes may be involved in the inflammatory response to 3-NP-mediated injury. Quantitative (q)RT-PCR showed a transient induction of IL-1? and IL-6 expression within 24 h of 3-NP-mediated injury, followed by sustained expression of the chemoattractants, CCL-2, 4 and 5, up until 7 d after injury. The expression of CCL-2 and IL-6 was higher in animals showing permanent hearing impairment than in those showing temporary hearing impairment, suggesting that these inflammatory responses may be detrimental to hearing recovery. The present findings suggest that acute mitochondrial dysfunction induces secondary inflammatory responses in the lateral wall of the cochlear and that the IL-6/CCL-2 inflammatory pathway is involved in monocyte activation. Therefore, these secondary inflammatory responses may be a potential post-insult therapeutic target for treatments aimed at preventing the damage caused by acute mitochondrial dysfunction in the cochlear lateral wall. PMID:24614528

Fujioka, Masato; Okamoto, Yasuhide; Shinden, Seiichi; Okano, Hirotaka James; Okano, Hideyuki; Ogawa, Kaoru; Matsunaga, Tatsuo

2014-01-01

364

Respiratory effects of inhalation exposure among workers during the clean-up effort at the World Trade Center disaster site  

Microsoft Academic Search

During December 2001 we conducted a field study of 183 clean-up and recovery workers at the World Trade Center (WTC) disaster site to assess respiratory health effects potentially resulting from their work at the site. On site, we administered a respiratory health questionnaire designed to assess upper respiratory symptoms and lower respiratory symptoms, including cough, phlegm, and wheeze, as well

Julie B. Herbstman; Robert Frank; Margo Schwab; D’Ann L. Williams; Jonathan M. Samet; Patrick N. Breysse; Alison S. Geyh

2005-01-01

365

Environmental attributes to respiratory diseases of small ruminants.  

PubMed

Respiratory diseases are the major disease crisis in small ruminants. A number of pathogenic microorganisms have been implicated in the development of respiratory disease but the importance of environmental factors in the initiation and progress of disease can never be overemphasized. They irritate the respiratory tree producing stress in the microenvironment causing a decline in the immune status of the small ruminants and thereby assisting bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections to break down the tissue defense barriers. Environmental pollutants cause acute or chronic reactions as they deposit on the alveolar surface which are characterized by inflammation or fibrosis and the formation of transitory or persistent tissue manifestation. Some of the effects of exposures may be immediate, whereas others may not be evident for many decades. Although the disease development can be portrayed as three sets of two-way communications (pathogen-environment, host-environment, and host-pathogen), the interactions are highly variable. Moreover, the environmental scenario is never static; new compounds are introduced daily making a precise evaluation of the disease burden almost impossible. The present review presents a detailed overview of these interactions and the ultimate effect on the respiratory health of sheep and goat. PMID:24782941

Rahal, Anu; Ahmad, Abul Hasan; Prakash, Atul; Mandil, Rajesh; Kumar, Aruna T

2014-01-01

366

ECMO for adult respiratory failure: current use and evolving applications.  

PubMed

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is increasingly being used to support adults with severe forms of respiratory failure. Fueling the explosive growth is a combination of technological improvements and accumulating, although controversial, evidence. Current use of ECMO extends beyond its most familiar role in the support of patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) to treat patients with various forms of severe hypoxemic or hypercapnic respiratory failure, ranging from bridging patients to lung transplantation to managing pulmonary hypertensive crises. The role of ECMO used primarily for extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal (ECCO2R) in the support of patients with hypercapnic respiratory failure and less severe forms of ARDS is also evolving. Select patients with respiratory failure may be liberated from invasive mechanical ventilation altogether and some may undergo extensive physical therapy while receiving extracorporeal support. Current research may yield a true artificial lung with the potential to change the paradigm of treatment for adults with chronic respiratory failure. PMID:24625534

Agerstrand, Cara L; Bacchetta, Matthew D; Brodie, Daniel

2014-01-01

367

Mimiviridae, Marseilleviridae, and virophages as emerging human pathogens causing healthcare-associated infections  

PubMed Central

Aim: During the last decade it became obvious that viruses belonging to Mimiviridae and Marseilleviridae families (order Megavirales), may be potential causative agents of pneumonia. Thus, we have performed a review of the association of Mimiviridae, Marseilleviridae, and virophages with pneumonia, particularly healthcare-associated pneumonia, and other infections of the respiratory tract. Results and discussion: According to the analysis of the published articles, viruses belonging to Mimiviridae family can be potential agents of both community-acquired and healthcare-associated pneumonia. In particular, these viruses may be associated with poor outcome in patients of intensive care units. The exact mechanism of their pathogenicity, however, still remains unclear. The discrepancies between the results obtained by serological and genomic methods could be explained by the high polymorphism of nucleotide sequences of Mimiviridae family representatives. Further investigations on the Mimiviridae pathogenicity and on the determination of Mimiviridae-caused pneumonia risk groups are required. However, the pathogenicity of the viruses belonging to Marseilleviridae family and virophages is unclear up to now. PMID:25152861

Kutikhin, Anton G.; Yuzhalin, Arseniy E.; Brusina, Elena B.

2014-01-01

368

Cethromycin: a promising new ketolide antibiotic for respiratory infections.  

PubMed

Community-acquired pneumonia remains the primary infectious cause of death in the United States. At current levels of antimicrobial resistance, conventional agents are at risk of becoming less effective, and the need for new agents is pressing. Cethromycin is a new ketolide antibiotic being investigated for use in respiratory tract infections. To review its pharmacology, in vitro susceptibilities, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, safety, and drug interactions, we conducted a MEDLINE search restricted to English-language articles citing cethromycin or ABT-773 (its original designation) from 1990-May 2009. Additional data sources were identified from the references of selected articles. All published trials and available poster data citing cethromycin were selected for review. In vitro, cethromycin displays more potent antibacterial effects than its predecessor telithromycin. Cethromycin exhibits potent inhibition of both gram-positive and gram-negative respiratory pathogens. A new drug application for cethromycin was submitted to the United States Food and Drug Administration in 2008 for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia. Clinical trial data in the treatment of respiratory tract infections support cethromycin's efficacy. The limited safety data have not included any reports of hepatotoxicity. If cethromycin proves to be safe with regard to hepatotoxicity, it has great promise as an alternative to current standard therapy for community-acquired respiratory infections, especially pneumonia. Given current resistance levels, cethromycin could provide more reliable coverage against common respiratory pathogens than traditional agents in the beta-lactam and macrolide classes. PMID:20180612

Rafie, Sally; MacDougall, Conan; James, Charles L

2010-03-01

369

Manure UseManure Use lthough manure is a valuable source of nutrients, it is also one of the greatest potential sources of pathogens that can  

E-print Network

in the feces of humans, pets and wild animals. Manure can contain harmful bacteria such as E. coli O157:H7 in manure slurries or in the soil for three months or more. Human manure, raw or composted, should never that cause diseases in humans. The following steps will help you reduce potential contamination from other

Liskiewicz, Maciej

370

Universal Respiratory Etiquette: A Modest Proposal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CDC is recommending some simple measures to help prevent the spread of SARS, which will also help contain other potential epidemics such as the flu. These measures include: posting signs at the ED entrance; asking those who are coughing or have other respiratory symptoms to don a mask and to alert staff; providing simple surgical masks to such patients

Gail Pisarcik Lenehan

2004-01-01

371

Equine respiratory pharmacology.  

PubMed

Differentiation of diseases of the equine respiratory tract is based on history, clinical signs, auscultation, endoscopy, imaging, and sampling of airway exudate. Upper respiratory therapies include surgical correction of airway obstructions; flushing of localized abscesses (strangles), guttural pouch disease, or sinusitis; and oral or parenteral antibiotic and anti-inflammatory therapy if deemed necessary. Pneumonia usually is treated with antimicrobials, anti-inflammatories, and bronchodilators. Pleural drainage is indicated if significant pleural effusion is present. The most commonly used therapies for early inflammatory and chronic allergic obstructive conditions include bronchodilators and anti-inflammatories. Acute respiratory distress, particularly acute pulmonary edema, is treated with diuretics (usually furosemide), intranasal oxygen, bronchodilators, corticosteroids, and alleviation of the underlying cause. Furosemide also had been used in North America as a race-day preventative for exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage (EIPH), but recent data have shown that furosemide may be a performance-enhancing agent itself. PMID:10589473

Foreman, J H

1999-12-01

372

Healthcare Workers’ Hand Microbiome May Mediate Carriage of Hospital Pathogens  

PubMed Central

One function of skin microbiota is to resist colonization and infection by external microorganisms. We sought to detect whether the structure of the hand microbiota of 34 healthcare workers (HCW) in a surgical intensive care unit mediates or modifies the relationship between demographic and behavioral factors and potential pathogen carriage on hands after accounting for pathogen exposure. We used a taxonomic screen (16S rRNA) to characterize the bacterial community, and qPCR to detect presence of Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus spp., methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and Candida albicans on their dominant hands. Hands were sampled weekly over a 3-week period. Age, hand hygiene, and work shift were significantly associated with potential pathogen carriage and the associations were pathogen dependent. Additionally, the overall hand microbiota structure was associated with the carriage of potential pathogens. Hand microbiota community structure may act as a biomarker of pathogen carriage, and modifying that structure may potentially limit pathogen carriage among HCW.

Rosenthal, Mariana; Aiello, Allison; Larson, Elaine; Chenoweth, Carol; Foxman, Betsy

2013-01-01

373

Potential Role of Diploscapter sp. Strain LKC25, a Bacterivorous Nematode from Soil, as a Vector of Food-Borne Pathogenic Bacteria to Preharvest Fruits and Vegetables  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diploscapter, a thermotolerant, free-living soil bacterial-feeding nematode commonly found in compost, sewage, and agricultural soil in the United States, was studied to determine its potential role as a vehicle of Salmonella enterica serotype Poona, enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes in contaminating preharvest fruits and vegetables. The ability of Diploscapter sp. strain LKC25 to survive on agar media, in

Daunte S. Gibbs; Gary L. Anderson; Larry R. Beuchat; Lynn K. Carta; Phillip L. Williams

2005-01-01

374

On-chip analysis of respiratory viruses from nasopharyngeal samples.  

PubMed

Point-of-care (PoC) testing followed by personalized efficient therapy of infectious diseases may result in a considerable reduction of associated health care costs. Lab-on-a-chip (LoC) systems represent a potentially high efficient class of PoC tools. Here, we present a LoC system for automated pathogen analysis of respiratory viruses from nasopharyngeal specimens. The device prepares total nucleic acids from extracted swab samples using magnetic silica beads. After reverse transcription the co-purified viral RNA is amplified in accordance with the QIAplex multiplex PCR technology. Hybridized to corresponding QIAGEN LiquiChip beads and labelled with streptavidin R-phycoerythrin, the amplified target sequences are finally detected using a QIAGEN LiquiChip200 workstation. All chemicals needed are either stored freeze-dried on the disposable chip or are provided in liquid form in a reagent cartridge for up to 24 runs. Magnetic stir bars for mixing as well as turning valves with metering structures are integrated into the injection-moulded disposable chip. The core of the controlling instrument is a rotating heating bar construction providing fixed temperatures for fast cycling. PCR times of about half an hour (for 30 cycles) could be achieved for 120 ?l reactions, making this system the fastest currently available high-volume PCR chip. The functionality of the system was shown by comparing automatically processed nasopharyngeal samples to ones processed manually according to the QIAGEN "ResPlex™ II Panel v2.0" respiratory virus detection kit. A prototype of the present instrument revealed slightly weaker signal intensities with a similar sensitivity in comparison to the commercially available kit and automated nucleic acid preparation devices, even without protocol optimization. PMID:21603962

Ritzi-Lehnert, Marion; Himmelreich, Ralf; Attig, Hans; Claussen, Jan; Dahlke, Rainer; Grosshauser, Gerd; Holzer, Eva; Jeziorski, Markus; Schaeffer, Eva; Wende, Andy; Werner, Sabine; Wiborg, Jens Ole; Wick, Isabell; Drese, Klaus Stefan; Rothmann, Thomas

2011-10-01

375

User Experience of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) Respiratory Disease Dashboard  

PubMed Central

Objective Evaluate the user experience of a novel electronic disease reporting and analysis system deployed across the DoD global laboratory surveillance network Introduction Lessons learned from the 2009 influenza pandemic have driven many changes in the standards and practices of respiratory disease surveillance worldwide. In response to the needs for timely information sharing of emerging respiratory pathogens (1), the DoD Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center (AFHSC) collaborated with the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) to develop an Internet-based data management system known as the Respiratory Disease Dashboard (RDD). The goal of the RDD is to provide the AFHSC global respiratory disease surveillance network a centralized system for the monitoring and tracking of lab-confirmed respiratory pathogens, thereby streamlining the data reporting process and enhancing the timeliness for detection of potential pandemic threats. This system consists of a password-protected internet portal that allows users to directly input respiratory specimen data and visualize data on an interactive, global map. Currently, eight DoD partner laboratories are actively entering respiratory pathogen data into the RDD, encompassing specimens from sentinel sites in eleven countries: Cambodia, Colombia, Kenya, Ecuador, Egypt, Honduras, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Peru, Uganda, and the United States. A user satisfaction survey was conducted to guide further development of the RDD and to support other disease surveillance efforts at the AFHSC. Methods User training was provided to partner laboratories during a transition of data submission from Excel spreadsheet to RDD electronic data entry between November 2011 and May 2012. A user experience survey was distributed to the participating laboratories in August 2012 and based on the experience of 139 entries. The survey adopted elements of the SWOT (Strength-Weaknesses-Opportunities-Threats) analysis to determine the system’s strengths and weaknesses as well as to solicit users’ perspectives on the efficiency of the system in assisting with disease surveillance data entry and visualization. Questionnaires in an open-ended (free-text response) format were distributed to all eight participating laboratories. Common themes were identified based on the solicited responses. Results Although only four of eight participating laboratory partners replied to the survey (50% survey response rate), all survey were completed without any omission of questions (100% completion rate). 2/25 (8%) total responses were neutral comments and therefore omitted in the thematic analysis (Table 1). In general, there was a distinct dichotomy in opinion between overseas laboratories and domestic laboratories with regard to the usefulness of the RDD, with overseas laboratories viewing the RDD as more useful than domestic laboratories. A review of the comparison between weekly specimens submitted to the AFHSC via Excel spreadsheet and data entered directly into the RDD revealed misunderstandings about the meaning of the data entry labels in the RDD interface. It was noted by four laboratories that a “Quick Start” user manual would be useful to clarify the definitions of some data labels. Conclusions Overall, this user experience evaluation has identified the needs for additional training on RDD data entry procedures and a “Quick Start” user manual to support the standardization of surveillance definitions. In general, users appreciate the visualization of the global DoD laboratory network data. This evaluation demonstrated the importance of active participation from data contributors and the invaluable organizational support in the development of the RDD as an electronic disease reporting and analysis system.

Cockrill, Jennifer A.; Tsai, Alice Y.; Campbell, Timothy C.; Chretien, Jean-Paul; Pavlin, Julie A.; Burke, Ronald L.

2013-01-01