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Sample records for potential respiratory pathogens

  1. Modulation of potential respiratory pathogens by pH1N1 viral infection.

    PubMed

    Leung, R K-K; Zhou, J-W; Guan, W; Li, S-K; Yang, Z-F; Tsui, S K-W

    2013-10-01

    While much effort has been made to characterize influenza A pdm09 virus (pH1N1), the flu that was responsible for the fourth influenza pandemic, there is a lack of study on the composition of bacteria that lead to secondary infection. In this study, we recruited pneumonia patients with and without pH1N1 infection and characterized their oropharyngeal microbiota by the unbiased high-throughput sequencing method. While there were no significant differences in common bacterial pneumonia-causative agents (Acinetobacter and Streptococcus species), previously unreported Pseudomonas species equipped with chemotaxis and flagellar assembly genes significantly increased (>20-fold) in the pH1N1-infected group. Bacillus and Ralstonia species that also increased significantly (5-10-fold) were also found to possess similar signaling and motility genes. In contrast, no such genes were found in oral commensal Prevotella, Veillonella and Neisseria species, which decreased significantly, or in either Acinetobacter or 10 out of 21 Streptococcus species, including Streptococcus pneumoniae. Our results support the notion that pH1N1 infection provides a niche for previously unnoticed potential respiratory pathogens that were able to access the lower respiratory tract with weakened immunity. PMID:23167452

  2. Multiplex detection of respiratory pathogens

    DOEpatents

    McBride, Mary; Slezak, Thomas; Birch, James M.

    2012-07-31

    Described are kits and methods useful for detection of respiratory pathogens (influenza A (including subtyping capability for H1, H3, H5 and H7 subtypes) influenza B, parainfluenza (type 2), respiratory syncytial virus, and adenovirus) in a sample. Genomic sequence information from the respiratory pathogens was analyzed to identify signature sequences, e.g., polynucleotide sequences useful for confirming the presence or absence of a pathogen in a sample. Primer and probe sets were designed and optimized for use in a PCR based, multiplexed Luminex assay to successfully identify the presence or absence of pathogens in a sample.

  3. Effectiveness of Polyvalent Bacterial Lysate and Autovaccines Against Upper Respiratory Tract Bacterial Colonization by Potential Pathogens: A Randomized Study

    PubMed Central

    Zagólski, Olaf; Stręk, Paweł; Kasprowicz, Andrzej; Białecka, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Background Polyvalent bacterial lysate (PBL) is an oral immunostimulating vaccine consisting of bacterial standardized lysates obtained by lysis of different strains of bacteria. Autovaccines are individually prepared based on the results of smears obtained from the patient. Both types of vaccine can be used to treat an ongoing chronic infection. This study sought to determine which method is more effective against nasal colonization by potential respiratory tract pathogens. Material/Methods We enrolled 150 patients with aerobic Gram stain culture and count results indicating bacterial colonization of the nose and/or throat by potential pathogens. The participants were randomly assigned to each of the following groups: 1. administration of PBL, 2. administration of autovaccine, and 3. no intervention (controls). Results Reduction of the bacterial count in Streptococcus pneumoniae-colonized participants was significant after the autovaccine (p<0.001) and PBL (p<0.01). Reduction of the bacterial count of other β-hemolytic streptococcal strains after treatment with the autovaccine was significant (p<0.01) and was non-significant after PBL. In Haemophilus influenzae colonization, significant reduction in the bacterial count was noted in the PBL group (p<0.01). Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization did not respond to either treatment. Conclusions The autovaccine is more effective than PBL for reducing bacterial count of Streptococcus pneumoniae and β-hemolytic streptococci, while PBL was more effective against Haemophilus influenzae colonization. PMID:26434686

  4. The Interaction between Respiratory Pathogens and Mucus.

    PubMed

    Zanin, Mark; Baviskar, Pradyumna; Webster, Robert; Webby, Richard

    2016-02-10

    The interaction between respiratory pathogens and their hosts is complex and incompletely understood. This is particularly true when pathogens encounter the mucus layer covering the respiratory tract. The mucus layer provides an essential first host barrier to inhaled pathogens that can prevent pathogen invasion and subsequent infection. Respiratory mucus has numerous functions and interactions, both with the host and with pathogens. This review summarizes the current understanding of respiratory mucus and its interactions with the respiratory pathogens Pseudomonas aeruginosa, respiratory syncytial virus and influenza viruses, with particular focus on influenza virus transmissibility and host-range specificity. Based on current findings we propose that respiratory mucus represents an understudied host-restriction factor for influenza virus. PMID:26867175

  5. [THE PATHOGENIC POTENTIAL OF MORAXELLA CATARRHALIS AND STAPHYLOCOCCUS EPIDERMIDIS UNDER INFLAMMATORY PROCESSES OF UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACTS].

    PubMed

    Kraeva, L A; Burgasova, O A; Kunilova, E S; Petrova, I S; Tseneva, G Ya; Bespalova, G L

    2015-11-01

    The frequent isolation from biological material of Moraxella catarrhalis under bronchitis and pneumonia and Staphilococcus epidermidis under rhinitis and sinusitis requires profound investigation offactors ofpathogenicity ofthe mentioned microorganisms. The genetic and phenotypic markers of virulence of strains M. catarrhalis and S. epidermidis are examined. Their etiologic role in development of infection processes of respiratory tract and middle ear is determined The most of M catarrhalis strains isolated under bronchitis and pneumonia have gene mcaP responsiblefor production ofprotein McaP that provides adhesion to epithelium cell of host and lipolitic activity of bacteria. The strains isolated from patients with pneumonia had the most adhesive activity. The cluster of genes ICA with leading role of gene icaA is responsible for for availability offactors of intercellular adhesion in Staphilococci strains. In the clinical samples from patients with sinusitis this gene is detected 5 times more frequently than from healthy individuals. In phenotypic tests, expression of gene icaA in S. epidermidis isolated from patients is three times higher than in strains isolated from healthy individuals. To establish etiologic role of M. catarrhalis and S. epidermidis and to develop tactic of therapy of patients with bronchitis, pneumonia and sinusitis complex approach is needed, including detection of genetic and phenotypic markers of virulence in isolated microorganisms. PMID:26999868

  6. New pathogens for respiratory infections.

    PubMed

    Cosentini, R; Blasi, F

    1996-05-01

    The emergence of new pathogens and the increasing antimicrobial resistance patterns of old pathogens are contributing factors to the high epidemiologic impact of lower respiratory tract infections. Hantaviruses, Chlamydia pneumoniae, and penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae have recently gained most of the attention of international researchers. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome has been confirmed in 100 cases with a very high mortality (52%). Risk factors for infection are peridomestic cleaning, agricultural activities, and an increased number of small rodents like deer mouse, mainly Peromyscus maniculatus. Pulmonary capillary leak and multiorgan involvement characterise Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. Most recent reports rank C. pneumoniae among the three most common etiologic agents in community-acquired pneumonia, but it is also involved in chronic diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma. Several recent reports indicate the striking increase of penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae strains. These data emphasize the crucial need for new therapeutic agents and more effective prevention programs. PMID:9363136

  7. Particle size and pathogenicity in the respiratory tract

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Richard James

    2013-01-01

    Particle size dictates where aerosolized pathogens deposit in the respiratory tract, thereafter the pathogens potential to cause disease is influenced by tissue tropism, clearance kinetics and the host immunological response. This interplay brings pathogens into contact with a range of tissues spanning the respiratory tract and associated anatomical structures. In animal models, differential deposition within the respiratory tract influences infection kinetics for numerous select agents. Greater numbers of pathogens are required to infect the upper (URT) compared with the lower respiratory tract (LRT), and in comparison the URT infections are protracted with reduced mortality. Pathogenesis in the URT is characterized by infection of the URT lymphoid tissues, cervical lymphadenopathy and septicemia, closely resembling reported human infections of the URT. The olfactory, gastrointestinal, and ophthalmic systems are also infected in a pathogen-dependent manner. The relevant literature is reviewed with respect to particle size and infection of the URT in animal models and humans. PMID:24225380

  8. Potentiation Effects of Amikacin and Fosfomycin against Selected Amikacin-Nonsusceptible Gram-Negative Respiratory Tract Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Rhomberg, Paul R.; Abuan, Tammy; Walters, Kathie-Anne; Flamm, Robert K.

    2014-01-01

    The amikacin-fosfomycin inhalation system (AFIS) is a combination of 2 antibiotics and an in-line nebulizer delivery system that is being developed for adjunctive treatment of pneumonia caused by Gram-negative organisms in patients on mechanical ventilation. AFIS consists of a combination of amikacin and fosfomycin solutions at a 5:2 ratio (amikacin, 3 ml at 100 mg/ml; fosfomycin, 3 ml at 40 mg/ml) and the PARI Investigational eFlow Inline System. In this antibiotic potentiation study, the antimicrobial activities of amikacin and fosfomycin, alone and in a 5:2 combination, were assessed against 62 Gram-negative pathogens from a worldwide antimicrobial surveillance collection (SENTRY). The amikacin MICs for 62 isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae were ≥32 μg/ml (intermediate or resistant according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute [CLSI]; resistant according to the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing [EUCAST]). Each isolate was tested against amikacin (0.25 to 1,024 μg/ml), fosfomycin (0.1 to 409.6 μg/ml), and amikacin-fosfomycin (at a 5:2 ratio) using CLSI reference agar dilution methods. The median MIC values for amikacin and fosfomycin against the 62 isolates each decreased 2-fold with the amikacin-fosfomycin (5:2) combination from that with either antibiotic alone. Interactions between amikacin and fosfomycin differed by isolate and ranged from no detectable interaction to high potentiation. The amikacin-fosfomycin (5:2) combination reduced the amikacin concentration required to inhibit all 62 isolates from >1,024 to ≤256 μg/ml and reduced the required fosfomycin concentration from 204.8 to 102.4 μg/ml. These results support continued development of the amikacin-fosfomycin combination for aerosolized administration, where high drug levels can be achieved. PMID:24752275

  9. Crystal structures of respiratory pathogen neuraminidases

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Yu-Shan; Parker, Dane; Ratner, Adam J.; Prince, Alice; Tong, Liang

    2013-01-01

    Currently there is pressing need to develop novel therapeutic agents for the treatment of infections by the human respiratory pathogens Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus pneumoniae. The neuraminidases of these pathogens are important for host colonization in animal models of infection and are attractive targets for drug discovery. To aid in the development of inhibitors against these neuraminidases, we have determined the crystal structures of the P. aeruginosa enzyme NanPs and S. pneumoniae enzyme NanA at 1.6 and 1.7 Å resolution, respectively. In situ proteolysis with trypsin was essential for the crystallization of our recombinant NanA. The active site regions of the two enzymes are strikingly different. NanA contains a deep pocket that is similar to that in canonical neuraminidases, while the NanPs active site is much more open. The comparative studies suggest that NanPs may not be a classical neuraminidase, and may have distinct natural substrates and physiological functions. This work represents an important step in the development of drugs to prevent respiratory tract colonization by these two pathogens. PMID:19284989

  10. Crystal Structures of Respiratory Pathogen Neuraminidases

    SciTech Connect

    Hsiao, Y.; Parker, D; Ratner, A; Prince, A; Tong, L

    2009-01-01

    Currently there is pressing need to develop novel therapeutic agents for the treatment of infections by the human respiratory pathogens Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus pneumoniae. The neuraminidases of these pathogens are important for host colonization in animal models of infection and are attractive targets for drug discovery. To aid in the development of inhibitors against these neuraminidases, we have determined the crystal structures of the P. aeruginosa enzyme NanPs and S. pneumoniae enzyme NanA at 1.6 and 1.7 {angstrom} resolution, respectively. In situ proteolysis with trypsin was essential for the crystallization of our recombinant NanA. The active site regions of the two enzymes are strikingly different. NanA contains a deep pocket that is similar to that in canonical neuraminidases, while the NanPs active site is much more open. The comparative studies suggest that NanPs may not be a classical neuraminidase, and may have distinct natural substrates and physiological functions. This work represents an important step in the development of drugs to prevent respiratory tract colonization by these two pathogens.

  11. Parachlamydiaceae: Potential Emerging Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Greub, Gilbert

    2002-01-01

    Parachlamydiaceae, which naturally infect amoebae, form a sister taxon to the Chlamydiaceae on the basis of the Chlamydia-like cycle of replication and 80% to 90% homology of ribosomal RNA genes. Because intra-amoebal growth could increase the virulence of some intracellular bacteria, Parachlamydiaceae may be pathogenic. Arguments supporting a pathogenic role are that Chlamydia pneumoniae, a well-recognized agent of pneumonia, was shown to infect free-living amoebae and that another member of the Chlamydiales, Simkania negevensis, which has 88% homology with Parachlamydia acanthamoebae, has caused pneumonia in adults and acute bronchiolitis in infants. The recent identification of a 16S rRNA gene sequence of a Parachlamydiaceae from bronchoalveolar lavage is additional evidence supporting potential for pathogenicity. PMID:12023921

  12. Production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases and the potential indirect pathogenic role of Prevotella isolates from the cystic fibrosis respiratory microbiota.

    PubMed

    Sherrard, Laura J; McGrath, Stef J; McIlreavey, Leanne; Hatch, Joseph; Wolfgang, Matthew C; Muhlebach, Marianne S; Gilpin, Deirdre F; Elborn, J Stuart; Tunney, Michael M

    2016-02-01

    Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) production and the prevalence of the β-lactamase-encoding gene blaTEM were determined in Prevotella isolates (n=50) cultured from the respiratory tract of adults and young people with cystic fibrosis (CF). Time-kill studies were used to investigate the concept of passive antibiotic resistance and to ascertain whether a β-lactamase-positive Prevotella isolate can protect a recognised CF pathogen from the action of ceftazidime in vitro. The results indicated that approximately three-quarters (38/50; 76%) of Prevotella isolates produced ESBLs. Isolates positive for ESBL production had higher minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of β-lactam antibiotics compared with isolates negative for production of ESBLs (P<0.001). The blaTEM gene was detected more frequently in CF Prevotella isolates from paediatric patients compared with isolates from adults (P=0.002), with sequence analysis demonstrating that 21/22 (95%) partial blaTEM genes detected were identical to blaTEM-116. Furthermore, a β-lactamase-positive Prevotella isolate protected Pseudomonas aeruginosa from the antimicrobial effects of ceftazidime (P=0.03). Prevotella isolated from the CF respiratory microbiota produce ESBLs and may influence the pathogenesis of chronic lung infection via indirect methods, including shielding recognised pathogens from the action of ceftazidime. PMID:26774156

  13. Eosinophils and their Interactions with Respiratory Virus Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Helene F.; Dyer, Kimberly D.; Domachowske, Joseph B.

    2009-01-01

    Eosinophils are implicated in the pathophysiology of respiratory virus infection, most typically in negative roles, such as promoting wheezing and bronchoconstriction in conjunction with virus-induced exacerbations of reactive airways disease and in association with aberrant hypersensitivity responses to antiviral vaccines. However, experiments carried out in vitro and in vivo suggest positive roles for eosinophils, as they have been shown to reduce virus infectivity in tissue culture and promote clearance of the human pathogen, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in a mouse challenge model. The related natural rodent pathogen, pneumonia virus of mice (PVM) is highly virulent in mice, and is not readily cleared by eosinophils in vivo. Interestingly, PVM replicates in eosinophils and promotes cytokine release. The molecular basis of virus infection in eosinophils and its relationship to disease outcome is currently under study. PMID:18818885

  14. Cohort Profile: The Study of Respiratory Pathogens in Andean Children

    PubMed Central

    Grijalva, Carlos G; Griffin, Marie R; Edwards, Kathryn M; Williams, John V; Gil, Ana I; Verastegui, Héctor; Hartinger, Stella M; Vidal, Jorge E; Klugman, Keith P; Lanata, Claudio F

    2014-01-01

    We investigated respiratory pathogens in a prospective cohort study of young children living in the Peruvian Andes. In the study we assessed viral respiratory infections among young children, and explored interactions of viruses with common respiratory bacteria, especially Streptococcus pneumoniae. Through weekly household visits, data were collected on the signs and symptoms of acute respiratory illness (ARI), nasal samples were collected to test for viruses during episodes of ARI, and nasopharyngeal samples were collected on a monthly basis to monitor bacterial colonisation. We also collected data on vaccination coverage, patterns of social mixing, geographic information, and environmental and socio-demographic variables. Understanding the interaction of respiratory viruses with bacteria and its impact on the burden and severity of ARIs in rural areas of developing countries is critical to designing strategies for preventing such infections. Investigators interested in more details about this study or in accessing these resources should contact Dr. Carlos G. Grijalva at Vanderbilt University (carlos.grijalva@vanderbilt.edu). PMID:23771719

  15. Comprehensive Molecular Testing for Respiratory Pathogens in Community-Acquired Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Gadsby, Naomi J.; Russell, Clark D.; McHugh, Martin P.; Mark, Harriet; Conway Morris, Andrew; Laurenson, Ian F.; Hill, Adam T.; Templeton, Kate E.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The frequent lack of a microbiological diagnosis in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) impairs pathogen-directed antimicrobial therapy. This study assessed the use of comprehensive multibacterial, multiviral molecular testing, including quantification, in adults hospitalized with CAP. Methods. Clinical and laboratory data were collected for 323 adults with radiologically-confirmed CAP admitted to 2 UK tertiary care hospitals. Sputum (96%) or endotracheal aspirate (4%) specimens were cultured as per routine practice and also tested with fast multiplex real-time polymerase-chain reaction (PCR) assays for 26 respiratory bacteria and viruses. Bacterial loads were also calculated for 8 bacterial pathogens. Appropriate pathogen-directed therapy was retrospectively assessed using national guidelines adapted for local antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. Results. Comprehensive molecular testing of single lower respiratory tract (LRT) specimens achieved pathogen detection in 87% of CAP patients compared with 39% with culture-based methods. Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae were the main agents detected, along with a wide variety of typical and atypical pathogens. Viruses were present in 30% of cases; 82% of these were codetections with bacteria. Most (85%) patients had received antimicrobials in the 72 hours before admission. Of these, 78% had a bacterial pathogen detected by PCR but only 32% were culture-positive (P < .0001). Molecular testing had the potential to enable de-escalation in number and/or spectrum of antimicrobials in 77% of patients. Conclusions. Comprehensive molecular testing significantly improves pathogen detection in CAP, particularly in antimicrobial-exposed patients, and requires only a single LRT specimen. It also has the potential to enable early de-escalation from broad-spectrum empirical antimicrobials to pathogen-directed therapy. PMID:26747825

  16. Detection Of Viral And Bacterial Pathogens In Acute Respiratory Infections

    PubMed Central

    Obasi, Chidi N.; Barrett, Bruce; Brown, Roger; Vrtis, Rose; Barlow, Shari; Muller, Daniel; Gern, James

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The role of bacteria in acute respiratory illnesses (ARI) of adults and interactions with viral infections is incompletely understood. This study tested the hypothesis that bacterial co-infection during ARI adds to airway inflammation and illness severity. Methods Two groups of 97 specimens each were randomly selected from multiplex-PCR identified virus-positive and virus-negative nasal specimens obtained from adults with new onset ARI, and 40 control specimens were collected from healthy adults. All specimens were analyzed for Haemophilus influenza(HI), Moraxella catarrhalis(MC) and Streptococcus pneumonia(SP) by quantitative-PCR. General linear models tested for relationships between respiratory pathogens, biomarkers (nasal wash neutrophils and CXCL8), and ARI-severity. Results Nasal specimens from adults with ARIs were more likely to contain bacteria (37% overall; HI=28%, MC=14%, SP=7%) compared to specimens from healthy adults (5% overall; HI=0%, MC=2.5%, SP=2.5%;p<0.001). Among ARI specimens, bacteria were more likely to be detected among virus-negative specimens compared to virus-positive specimens (46% vs. 27%;p=0.0046). The presence of bacteria was significantly associated with increased CXCL8 and neutrophils, but not increased symptoms. Conclusion Pathogenic bacteria were more often detected in virus-negative ARI, and also associated with increased inflammatory biomarkers. These findings suggest the possibility that bacteria may augment virus-induced ARI and contribute to airway inflammation. Summary We tested whether bacterial pathogens were associated with ARI illness and inflammation. Bacteria were detected more often in nasal secretions during ARI, especially in samples without detectable viruses, and were associated with increased airway inflammation, but not increased symptoms. PMID:24211414

  17. Early emergence of Yersinia pestis as a severe respiratory pathogen.

    PubMed

    Zimbler, Daniel L; Schroeder, Jay A; Eddy, Justin L; Lathem, Wyndham W

    2015-01-01

    Yersinia pestis causes the fatal respiratory disease pneumonic plague. Y. pestis recently evolved from the gastrointestinal pathogen Y. pseudotuberculosis; however, it is not known at what point Y. pestis gained the ability to induce a fulminant pneumonia. Here we show that the acquisition of a single gene encoding the protease Pla was sufficient for the most ancestral, deeply rooted strains of Y. pestis to cause pneumonic plague, indicating that Y. pestis was primed to infect the lungs at a very early stage in its evolution. As Y. pestis further evolved, modern strains acquired a single amino-acid modification within Pla that optimizes protease activity. While this modification is unnecessary to cause pneumonic plague, the substitution is instead needed to efficiently induce the invasive infection associated with bubonic plague. These findings indicate that Y. pestis was capable of causing pneumonic plague before it evolved to optimally cause invasive infections in mammals. PMID:26123398

  18. Early emergence of Yersinia pestis as a severe respiratory pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Zimbler, Daniel L.; Schroeder, Jay A.; Eddy, Justin L.; Lathem, Wyndham W.

    2015-01-01

    Yersinia pestis causes the fatal respiratory disease pneumonic plague. Y. pestis recently evolved from the gastrointestinal pathogen Y. pseudotuberculosis; however, it is not known at what point Y. pestis gained the ability to induce a fulminant pneumonia. Here we show that the acquisition of a single gene encoding the protease Pla was sufficient for the most ancestral, deeply rooted strains of Y. pestis to cause pneumonic plague, indicating that Y. pestis was primed to infect the lungs at a very early stage in its evolution. As Y. pestis further evolved, modern strains acquired a single amino-acid modification within Pla that optimizes protease activity. While this modification is unnecessary to cause pneumonic plague, the substitution is instead needed to efficiently induce the invasive infection associated with bubonic plague. These findings indicate that Y. pestis was capable of causing pneumonic plague before it evolved to optimally cause invasive infections in mammals. PMID:26123398

  19. Detection of respiratory pathogens in aerosols from acutely infected pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infectious agents that cause respiratory disease in pigs include porcine reproductive respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), swine influenza virus (SIV), porcine respiratory corona virus (PRCV), Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, and Bordetella bronchiseptica. The objective of...

  20. Clinical differences between respiratory viral and bacterial mono- and dual pathogen detected among Singapore military servicemen with febrile respiratory illness

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Zheng Jie Marc; Zhao, Xiahong; Cook, Alex R; Loh, Jin Phang; Ng, Sock Hoon; Tan, Boon Huan; Lee, Vernon J

    2015-01-01

    Background Although it is known that febrile respiratory illnesses (FRI) may be caused by multiple respiratory pathogens, there are no population-level studies describing its impact on clinical disease. Methods Between May 2009 and October 2012, 7733 FRI patients and controls in the Singapore military had clinical data and nasal wash samples collected prospectively and sent for PCR testing. Patients with one pathogen detected (mono-pathogen) were compared with those with two pathogens (dual pathogen) for differences in basic demographics and clinical presentation. Results In total, 45.8% had one pathogen detected, 20.2% had two pathogens detected, 30.9% had no pathogens detected, and 3.1% had more than two pathogens. Multiple pathogens were associated with recruits, those with asthma and non-smokers. Influenza A (80.0%), influenza B (73.0%) and mycoplasma (70.6%) were most commonly associated with mono-infections, while adenovirus was most commonly associated with dual infections (62.9%). Influenza A paired with S. pneumoniae had higher proportions of chills and rigors than their respective mono-pathogens (P = 0.03, P = 0.009). H. influenzae paired with either enterovirus or parainfluenzae had higher proportions of cough with phlegm than their respective mono-pathogens. Although there were observed differences in mean proportions of body temperature, nasal symptoms, sore throat, body aches and joint pains between viral and bacterial mono-pathogens, there were few differences between distinct dual-pathogen pairs and their respective mono-pathogen counterparts. Conclusion A substantial number of FRI patients have multiple pathogens detected. Observed clinical differences between patients of dual pathogen and mono-pathogen indicate the likely presence of complex microbial interactions between the various pathogens. PMID:25827870

  1. Potential impact of fireworks on respiratory health

    PubMed Central

    Gouder, Caroline; Montefort, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    The world-wide use of fireworks with their consequent detrimental effect on the air quality is widely recognized with elevated ambient air levels of particulate matter and its several metallic components and gases identified in several studies carried out during such events. Exposed individuals may be at risk following inhalation of such produced pollutants. This review focuses on the impact of fireworks on air quality and the potential effect of fireworks on the respiratory system of healthy individuals as well as those suffering from underlying respiratory diseases, particularly asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This applies not only to spectators including children but also to pyrotechnicians themselves. An extensive Medline search revealed that a strong evidence of the impact of fireworks on respiratory health is lacking in susceptible as well as healthy individuals with no formal studies on COPD or asthma, other than a few case reports in the latter. The implementation of global strategies to control the use of fireworks and hence improve air quality could possibly reduce their likely detrimental effect on human respiratory health in exposed individuals, but clearly a more targeted research is needed. PMID:25378846

  2. Potential impact of fireworks on respiratory health.

    PubMed

    Gouder, Caroline; Montefort, Stephen

    2014-10-01

    The world-wide use of fireworks with their consequent detrimental effect on the air quality is widely recognized with elevated ambient air levels of particulate matter and its several metallic components and gases identified in several studies carried out during such events. Exposed individuals may be at risk following inhalation of such produced pollutants. This review focuses on the impact of fireworks on air quality and the potential effect of fireworks on the respiratory system of healthy individuals as well as those suffering from underlying respiratory diseases, particularly asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This applies not only to spectators including children but also to pyrotechnicians themselves. An extensive Medline search revealed that a strong evidence of the impact of fireworks on respiratory health is lacking in susceptible as well as healthy individuals with no formal studies on COPD or asthma, other than a few case reports in the latter. The implementation of global strategies to control the use of fireworks and hence improve air quality could possibly reduce their likely detrimental effect on human respiratory health in exposed individuals, but clearly a more targeted research is needed. PMID:25378846

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of the Oral Commensal Streptococcus oralis 89a with Interference Activity against Respiratory Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Sidjabat, Hanna E; Grahn Håkansson, Eva; Cervin, Anders

    2016-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of the oral commensal Streptococcus oralis 89a isolated from the throat of a healthy child during a streptococcal tonsillitis outbreak in Umeå, Sweden. S. oralis 89a was known to have interference activity against respiratory pathogens in which the colicin V was the potential bacteriocin-encoding gene. PMID:26769934

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of the Oral Commensal Streptococcus oralis 89a with Interference Activity against Respiratory Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Grahn Håkansson, Eva; Cervin, Anders

    2016-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of the oral commensal Streptococcus oralis 89a isolated from the throat of a healthy child during a streptococcal tonsillitis outbreak in Umeå, Sweden. S. oralis 89a was known to have interference activity against respiratory pathogens in which the colicin V was the potential bacteriocin-encoding gene. PMID:26769934

  5. The bioactivity of plant extracts against representative bacterial pathogens of the lower respiratory tract

    PubMed Central

    Bocanegra-García, Virgilio; del Rayo Camacho-Corona, María; Ramírez-Cabrera, Mónica; Rivera, Gildardo; Garza-González, Elvira

    2009-01-01

    Background Lower respiratory tract infections are a major cause of illness and death. Such infections are common in intensive care units (ICU) and their lethality persists despite advances in diagnosis, treatment and prevention. In Mexico, some plants are used in traditional medicine to treat respiratory diseases or ailments such as cough, bronchitis, tuberculosis and other infections. Medical knowledge derived from traditional societies has motivated searches for new bioactive molecules derived from plants that show potent activity against bacterial pathogens. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hexanic, chloroformic (CLO), methanolic (MET) and aqueous extracts from various plants used in Mexican traditional medicine on various microorganisms associated with respiratory disease. Methods thirty-five extracts prepared from nine plants used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of respiratory infections were evaluated against 15 control bacterial species and clinical isolates. Results Both chloroformic (CLO) and methanolic (MET) extracts of Larrea tridentata were active against Methicillin-resistant S. aureus, B. subtilis and L. monocytogenes. A MET extract of L. tridentata was also active against S. aureus, S. pneumoniae, S. maltophilia, E. faecalis and H. influenzae and the CLO extract was active against A. baumannii. An Aqueous extract of M. acumitata and a MET extract of N. officinale were active against S. pneumoniae. CLO and MET extracts of L. tridentata were active against clinical isolates of S. aureus, S. pneumoniae and E. faecalis. Conclusion Overall, our results support the potential use of L. tridentata as a source of antibacterial compounds. PMID:19486533

  6. Is There Still Room for Novel Viral Pathogens in Pediatric Respiratory Tract Infections?

    PubMed Central

    Taboada, Blanca; Espinoza, Marco A.; Isa, Pavel; Aponte, Fernando E.; Arias-Ortiz, María A.; Monge-Martínez, Jesús; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Rubén; Díaz-Hernández, Fidel; Zárate-Vidal, Fernando; Wong-Chew, Rosa María; Firo-Reyes, Verónica; del Río-Almendárez, Carlos N.; Gaitán-Meza, Jesús; Villaseñor-Sierra, Alberto; Martínez-Aguilar, Gerardo; Salas-Mier, Ma. del Carmen; Noyola, Daniel E.; Pérez-Gónzalez, Luis F.; López, Susana; Santos-Preciado, José I.; Arias, Carlos F.

    2014-01-01

    Viruses are the most frequent cause of respiratory disease in children. However, despite the advanced diagnostic methods currently in use, in 20 to 50% of respiratory samples a specific pathogen cannot be detected. In this work, we used a metagenomic approach and deep sequencing to examine respiratory samples from children with lower and upper respiratory tract infections that had been previously found negative for 6 bacteria and 15 respiratory viruses by PCR. Nasal washings from 25 children (out of 250) hospitalized with a diagnosis of pneumonia and nasopharyngeal swabs from 46 outpatient children (out of 526) were studied. DNA reads for at least one virus commonly associated to respiratory infections was found in 20 of 25 hospitalized patients, while reads for pathogenic respiratory bacteria were detected in the remaining 5 children. For outpatients, all the samples were pooled into 25 DNA libraries for sequencing. In this case, in 22 of the 25 sequenced libraries at least one respiratory virus was identified, while in all other, but one, pathogenic bacteria were detected. In both patient groups reads for respiratory syncytial virus, coronavirus-OC43, and rhinovirus were identified. In addition, viruses less frequently associated to respiratory infections were also found. Saffold virus was detected in outpatient but not in hospitalized children. Anellovirus, rotavirus, and astrovirus, as well as several animal and plant viruses were detected in both groups. No novel viruses were identified. Adding up the deep sequencing results to the PCR data, 79.2% of 250 hospitalized and 76.6% of 526 ambulatory patients were positive for viruses, and all other children, but one, had pathogenic respiratory bacteria identified. These results suggest that at least in the type of populations studied and with the sampling methods used the odds of finding novel, clinically relevant viruses, in pediatric respiratory infections are low. PMID:25412469

  7. Non-diphtheriae Corynebacterium species: an emerging respiratory pathogen.

    PubMed

    Díez-Aguilar, M; Ruiz-Garbajosa, P; Fernández-Olmos, A; Guisado, P; Del Campo, R; Quereda, C; Cantón, R; Meseguer, M A

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe the microbiological and clinical features of ten cases of lower respiratory tract infection due to Corynebacterium striatum, Corynebacterium propinquum and Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum. Respiratory samples were recovered from hospitalised patients who were diagnosed of pneumonia and exacerbations of chronic respiratory infections. The samples were Gram-stained and seeded on conventional bacterial growing media. Bacteria were identified by matrix-assisted linear desorption/ionisation-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Antibiotic susceptibility was tested by the disk diffusion method. All patients presented an acute respiratory onset, most of them in the context of an underlying disease and/or immunosuppression. In all patients, the microscopical examination of Gram-stained respiratory samples showed numerous polymorphonuclear cells and Gram-positive bacilli, suggestive of the Corynebacterium morphotype. A pure culture growth of Corynebacterium was obtained in the majority (72 %) of samples. The conclusions are that non-diphtheriae Corynebacterium species are an emerging cause of respiratory infection among patients with chronic respiratory disease and/or immunosuppression, and cannot always be considered as mere colonisers. The microorganism's predominance in Gram-stained purulent respiratory samples together with abundant growth in the culture is the key for the microbiological diagnosis. PMID:23271676

  8. Implementing hospital-based surveillance for severe acute respiratory infections caused by influenza and other respiratory pathogens in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Michael; McArthur, Colin; Roberts, Sally; Williamson, Deborah; Grant, Cameron; Trenholme, Adrian; Wong, Conroy; Taylor, Susan; LeComte, Lyndsay; Mackereth, Graham; Bandaranayake, Don; Wood, Tim; Bissielo, Ange; Se, Ruth; Turner, Nikki; Pierse, Nevil; Thomas, Paul; Webby, Richard; Gross, Diane; Duque, Jazmin; Thompson, Mark; Widdowson, Marc-Alain

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent experience with pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 highlighted the importance of global surveillance for severe respiratory disease to support pandemic preparedness and seasonal influenza control. Improved surveillance in the southern hemisphere is needed to provide critical data on influenza epidemiology, disease burden, circulating strains and effectiveness of influenza prevention and control measures. Hospital-based surveillance for severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) cases was established in New Zealand on 30 April 2012. The aims were to measure incidence, prevalence, risk factors, clinical spectrum and outcomes for SARI and associated influenza and other respiratory pathogen cases as well as to understand influenza contribution to patients not meeting SARI case definition. Methods/Design All inpatients with suspected respiratory infections who were admitted overnight to the study hospitals were screened daily. If a patient met the World Health Organization’s SARI case definition, a respiratory specimen was tested for influenza and other respiratory pathogens. A case report form captured demographics, history of presenting illness, co-morbidities, disease course and outcome and risk factors. These data were supplemented from electronic clinical records and other linked data sources. Discussion Hospital-based SARI surveillance has been implemented and is fully functioning in New Zealand. Active, prospective, continuous, hospital-based SARI surveillance is useful in supporting pandemic preparedness for emerging influenza A(H7N9) virus infections and seasonal influenza prevention and control. PMID:25077034

  9. Epidemiology of Pathogen-Specific Respiratory Infections among Three US Populations

    PubMed Central

    Radin, Jennifer M.; Hawksworth, Anthony W.; Kammerer, Peter E.; Balansay, Melinda; Raman, Rema; Lindsay, Suzanne P.; Brice, Gary T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Diagnostic tests for respiratory infections can be costly and time-consuming. Improved characterization of specific respiratory pathogens by identifying frequent signs, symptoms and demographic characteristics, along with improving our understanding of coinfection rates and seasonality, may improve treatment and prevention measures. Methods Febrile respiratory illness (FRI) and severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) surveillance was conducted from October 2011 through March 2013 among three US populations: civilians near the US–Mexico border, Department of Defense (DoD) beneficiaries, and military recruits. Clinical and demographic questionnaire data and respiratory swabs were collected from participants, tested by PCR for nine different respiratory pathogens and summarized. Age stratified characteristics of civilians positive for influenza and recruits positive for rhinovirus were compared to other and no/unknown pathogen. Seasonality and coinfection rates were also described. Results A total of 1444 patients met the FRI or SARI case definition and were enrolled in this study. Influenza signs and symptoms varied across age groups of civilians. Recruits with rhinovirus had higher percentages of pneumonia, cough, shortness of breath, congestion, cough, less fever and longer time to seeking care and were more likely to be male compared to those in the no/unknown pathogen group. Coinfections were found in 6% of all FRI/SARI cases tested and were most frequently seen among children and with rhinovirus infections. Clear seasonal trends were identified for influenza, rhinovirus, and respiratory syncytial virus. Conclusions The age-stratified clinical characteristics associated with influenza suggest that age-specific case definitions may improve influenza surveillance and identification. Improving identification of rhinoviruses, the most frequent respiratory infection among recruits, may be useful for separating out contagious individuals, especially when larger outbreaks occur. Overall, describing the epidemiology of pathogen specific respiratory diseases can help improve clinical diagnoses, establish baselines of infection, identify outbreaks, and help prioritize the development of new vaccines and treatments. PMID:25549089

  10. Respiratory sensory gating measured by respiratory-related evoked potentials in generalized anxiety disorder

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Pei-Ying S.; Cheng, Chia-Hsiung; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Liu, Chia-Yih; Davenport, Paul W.; von Leupoldt, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The perception of respiratory sensations plays an important role both in respiratory diseases and in anxiety disorders. However, little is known about the neural processes underlying respiratory sensory perception, especially in patient groups. Therefore, the present study examined whether patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) would demonstrate altered respiratory sensory gating compared to a healthy control group. Respiratory-related evoked potentials (RREP) were measured in a paired inspiratory occlusion paradigm presenting two brief occlusion stimuli (S1 and S2) within one inspiration. The results showed a significantly greater S2/S1 ratio for the N1 component of the RREP in the GAD group compared to the control group. Our findings suggest altered respiratory sensory processing in patients with GAD, which might contribute to altered perception of respiratory sensations in these patients. PMID:26217278

  11. Molecular versus conventional culture for detection of respiratory bacterial pathogens in poultry.

    PubMed

    Ammar, A M; Abd El-Aziz, N K; Abd El Wanis, S; Bakry, N R

    2016-01-01

    Acute respiratory tract infections are leading causes of morbidity in poultry farms allover the world. Six pathogens; Escherichia coli, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Staphylococcus aureus, Pasteurella multocida, Mannheimia haemolytica and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were involved in respiratory infections in poultry. Herein, conventional identification procedures and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were applied for detection of the most common respiratory bacterial pathogens in clinical specimens of poultry obtained from 53 Egyptian farms with various respiratory problems and the results were compared statistically. The analyzed data demonstrated a significantly higher rate of detection of the most recovered microorganisms (P<0.05) by PCR comparing to classical culture procedures. Further, multiplex PCR could detect E. coli, M. gallisepticum, S. aureus and Ps. aeruginosa in a single reaction, however, M. haemolytica was reported in a uinplex system. According to PCR results, the most commonly recorded bacterial pathogens in examined poultry farms were E. coli and Ps. aeruginosa (54.71% each), followed by M. haemolylica (35.85%) and M. gallisepticum (20.75%). In conclusion, PCR assay offered an effective alternative to traditional typing methods for the identification and simultaneous detection of the most clinically relevant respiratory pathogens in poultry. PMID:26950451

  12. Antibacterial activity of RU 64004 (HMR 3004), a novel ketolide derivative active against respiratory pathogens.

    PubMed Central

    Agouridas, C; Bonnefoy, A; Chantot, J F

    1997-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of RU 64004, a new ketolide, was evaluated against more than 600 bacterial strains and was compared with those of various macrolides and pristinamycin. RU 64004 had good activity against multiresistant pneumococci, whether they were erythromycin A resistant or not, including penicillin-resistant strains. RU 64004 inhibited 90% of pneumococci resistant to erythromycin A and penicillin G at 0.6 and 0.15 microg/ml, respectively. Unlike macrolides, RU 64004 did not induce the phenotype of resistance to macrolides-lincosamides-streptogramin B. Its good antibacterial activity against multiresistant pneumococci ran in parallel with its well-balanced activity against all bacteria involved in respiratory infections (e.g., Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Streptococcus pyogenes). In contrast to all comparators (14- and 16-membered-ring macrolides and pristinamycin), RU 64004 displayed high therapeutic activity in animals infected with all major strains, irrespective of the phenotypes of the strains. The results suggest that RU 64004 has potential for use in the treatment of infections caused by respiratory pathogens including multiresistant pneumococci. PMID:9333040

  13. Simultaneous typing of nine avian respiratory pathogens using a novel GeXP analyzer-based multiplex PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhixun; Luo, Sisi; Xie, Liji; Liu, Jiabo; Pang, Yaoshan; Deng, Xianwen; Xie, Zhiqin; Fan, Qing; Khan, Mazhar I

    2014-10-01

    A new, rapid, and high-throughput GenomeLab Gene Expression Profiler (GeXP) analyzer-based multiplex PCR method was developed for simultaneous detection and differentiation of nine avian respiratory pathogens. The respiratory pathogens included in this study were avian influenza subtypes H5, H7, and H9, infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV), infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), Mycoplasma synoviae (MS) and Haemophilus paragallinarum (HPG). Ten pairs of primers were designed using conserved and specific sequence genes of AIV subtypes and respiratory pathogens from GenBank. Single and mixed pathogen cDNA/DNA templates were used to evaluate the specificity of the GeXP-multiplex assay. The corresponding specific DNA products were amplified for each pathogen. The specific DNA product amplification peaks of nine respiratory pathogens were observed on the GeXP analyzer. Non-respiratory avian pathogens, including chicken infectious anemia virus, fowl adenovirus, avian reovirus and infectious bursal disease virus, did not produce DNA products. The detection limit for the GeXP-multiplex assay was determined to be 100 copies/μl using various pre-mixed plasmids/ssRNAs containing known target genes of the respiratory pathogens. Further, GeXP-multiplex PCR assay was 100% specific when 24 clinical samples with respiratory infections were tested in comparison with conventional PCR method. The GeXP-multiplex PCR assay provides a novel tool for simultaneous detection and differentiation of nine avian respiratory pathogens. PMID:25025815

  14. Co-infection with Multiple Respiratory Pathogens Contributes to Increased Mortality Rates in Algerian Poultry Flocks.

    PubMed

    Sid, Hicham; Benachour, Karine; Rautenschlein, Silke

    2015-09-01

    Respiratory infections are a common cause for increased mortality rates in poultry worldwide. To improve intervention strategies, circulating pathogens have to be identified and further characterized. Because of the lack of diagnostic tools, it was not known what pathogens contribute to the high mortality rates in association with respiratory disease in Algeria. Our objective was to determine if primary pathogens including Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), Mycoplasma synoviae (MS), avian influenza virus (AIV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), and avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), known to be present in neighboring countries, can also be detected in Algerian chicken and turkey flocks. Results demonstrate the circulation of the investigated pathogens in Algerian poultry flocks as multi-infections. Phylogenetic characterization of the Algerian IBV strains confirmed the circulation of nephropathogenic viruses that are different from the strains isolated in neighboring countries. This could suggest the existence of a new IBV genotype in North Africa. Additionally, we detected for the first time an aMPV subtype B field strain and avian influenza virus. Interestingly, all viral pathogens were present in co-infections with MG, which could exacerbate clinical disease. Additional pathogens may be present and should be investigated in the future. Our results suggest that multiple respiratory infections may be responsible for high mortality in Algerian poultry flocks and very probably also in other regions of the world, which demonstrates the need for the establishment of more comprehensive control strategies. PMID:26478165

  15. Potentiation of Taishan Pinus massoniana pollen polysaccharide on the immune response and protection elicited by a highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus glycoprotein 5 subunit in pigs.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jun; Yuan, Yanmei; Du, Yijun; Wu, Jiaqiang; Li, Baoquan; Li, Jun; Yu, Jiang; Hu, Liping; Shen, Si; Wang, Jinbao; Zhu, Ruiliang

    2016-04-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) heavily affects the global pork industry. Current available vaccine strategies have inherent drawbacks. In this work, the immune enhancement from Taishan Pinus massoniana pollen polysaccharide (TPPPS) and Freund's adjuvant on the efficacy of a PRRSV subunit vaccine were examined. Titers of specific anti-highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) ELISA antibody and neutralizing antibody were significantly higher in pigs from the groups inoculated with medium- and high-dose TPPPS (mTPPPS, hTPPPS) adjuvant co-administered with a recombinant HP-PRRSV glycoprotein 5 subunit (GP5) than those from other groups (P < 0.05). Pigs inoculated with GP5 + Freund's adjuvant developed severely delayed humoral immune responses specific to GP5 within 28 days post-inoculation (dpi). The groups treated with mTPPPS and hTPPPS adjuvant exhibited the most potent immune enhancement effects on GP5 inoculation with cellular immunity developing, as shown by the level of T lymphocyte proliferation and the percentage of the CD3(+) T lymphocyte subpopulation. Although complete Freund's adjuvant elicited cell-mediated immune responses, the level of T lymphocyte proliferation in this group decreased quickly and no significant differences were observed compared with other adjuvant-alone groups at 56 dpi (P > 0.05). The ratio between CD3(+)CD4(+) and CD3(+)CD8(+) T lymphocyte subpopulations indicated the inoculums of GP5 + mTPPPS and GP5 + hTPPPS induced consistently higher CD3(+)CD4(+) T lymphocyte subpopulations than other inoculums (P < 0.05). The immune responses caused by complete Freund's adjuvant were mainly mediated by CD3(+)CD8(+) T lymphocyte subpopulation (cytotoxic T lymphocytes) in the early stage of inoculation and had no significant difference compared with other adjuvant-alone groups after 28 dpi (P > 0.05). The low-dose TPPPS (lTPPPS) adjuvant also exhibited enhancement effects on humoral immune and T lymphocyte proliferation responses but these were significantly lower than the mTPPPS and hTPPPS doses (P < 0.05). Pigs challenged with HP-PRRSV from the GP5 + mTPPPS, GP5 + hTPPPS, and GP5 + Freund's adjuvant groups showed lower viremia, fewer clinical signs, and fewer pathological lung lesions compared with the groups of GP5-alone and GP5 + lTPPPS (P < 0.05). There were significant differences between the GP5-alone and GP5 + lTPPPS groups in detection indexes after viral challenge (P < 0.05). In conclusion, moderate doses of TPPPS as an adjuvant with GP5 show promise as a candidate for a HP-PRRSV subunit vaccine to efficiently prevent and control HP-PRRSV. PMID:26828953

  16. Highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus JXwn06 causes high mortality in vivo

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2006, a large-scale outbreak of highly pathogenic atypical porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) spread throughout the swine population in China. Causative PRRSV isolates were characterized genetically by a unique 30aa deletion in PRRSV nonstructural protein 2 and clinically...

  17. Effect of Bovine Respiratory Disease and Overall Pathogenic Disease Incidence on Carcass Traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to evaluate the effects of incidence of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) and overall incidence of pathogenic diseases (IPD) on carcass traits. Two independent populations were used; the first population comprised crossbred steers (GPE7; n=642) derived from sires of seven Bos tauru...

  18. Highly pathogenic Chinese porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus strain JXwn06 in US swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2006, a large-scale outbreak of highly pathogenic atypical porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) spread throughout the swine population in China. Causative PRRSV isolates were characterized genetically by a unique 30aa deletion in PRRSV nonstructural protein 2 and clinically...

  19. Reverse Transcription-PCR–Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry for Rapid Detection of Biothreat and Common Respiratory Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Jeng, Kevin; Rothman, Richard; Yang, Samuel; Won, Helen; Peterson, Stephen; Hsieh, Yu-Hsiang; Masek, Billie Jo; Carroll, Karen C.; Gaydos, Charlotte A.

    2013-01-01

    Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) analysis of reverse transcription (RT)-PCR amplicons from human respiratory samples allows for broad pathogen identification approximately 8 h after collection. We investigated the performance characteristics of a high-throughput RT-PCR-coupled ESI-MS assay for distinguishing biothreat (BT) agents from common bacterial, fungal, and viral respiratory pathogens in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid specimens from subjects with suspected respiratory infections. In a retrospective case series, 202 BAL fluid specimens were collected at the Johns Hopkins Hospital between August 2010 and February 2011 from patients with suspected acute respiratory infections. Samples were processed using standard bacterial, viral, and fungal testing in the clinical microbiology laboratory as part of routine care and then were blindly spiked with either water or nucleic acids from BT organisms (Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, Francisella tularensis, Brucella spp., Burkholderia spp., and Rickettsia prowazekii) and tested by RT-PCR–ESI-MS. The sensitivities and specificities of RT-PCR–ESI-MS versus standard clinical methods were as follows: for mock BT DNA, 98.5% sensitivity (95% confidence interval [CI], 94.2 to 99.7%) and 100% specificity (95% CI, 93.1 to 100.0%); for bacterial pathogens, 81.8% sensitivity (95% CI, 74.3 to 87.6%) and 73.6% specificity (95% CI, 64.2 to 81.4%); for viral pathogens, 93.3% sensitivity (95% CI, 66.0 to 99.7%) and 97.3% specificity (95% CI, 89.7 to 99.5%); for fungal pathogens, 42.6% sensitivity (95% CI, 29.5 to 56.7%) and 97.8% specificity (95% CI, 91.8 to 99.6%). Our data suggest that RT-PCR–ESI-MS is a useful adjunct to standard culture protocols for rapid detection of both BT and common respiratory pathogens; further study is required for assay validation, especially for fungal detection, and potential implementation. PMID:23903543

  20. Comprehensive real-time epidemiological data from respiratory infections in Finland between 2010 and 2014 obtained from an automated and multianalyte mariPOC® respiratory pathogen test.

    PubMed

    Gunell, M; Antikainen, P; Porjo, N; Irjala, K; Vakkila, J; Hotakainen, K; Kaukoranta, S S; Hirvonen, J J; Saha, K; Manninen, R; Forsblom, B; Rantakokko-Jalava, K; Peltola, V; Koskinen, J O; Huovinen, P

    2016-03-01

    Respiratory viruses cause seasonal epidemics every year. Several respiratory pathogens are circulating simultaneously and typical symptoms of different respiratory infections are alike, meaning it is challenging to identify and diagnose different respiratory pathogens based on symptoms alone. mariPOC® is an automated, multianalyte antigen test which allows the rapid detection of nine respiratory infection pathogens [influenza A and B viruses, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human metapneumovirus, adenovirus, parainfluenza 1-3 viruses and pneumococci] from a single nasopharyngeal swab or aspirate samples, and, in addition, can be linked to laboratory information systems. During the study period from November 2010 to June 2014, a total of 22,485 multianalyte respi tests were performed in the 14 participating laboratories in Finland and, in total, 6897 positive analyte results were recorded. Of the tested samples, 25 % were positive for one respiratory pathogen, with RSV (9.8 %) and influenza A virus (7.2 %) being the most common findings, and 0.65 % of the samples were multivirus-positive. Only small geographical variations in seasonal epidemics occurred. Our results show that the mariPOC® multianalyte respi test allows simultaneous detection of several respiratory pathogens in real time. The results are reliable and give the clinician a picture of the current epidemiological situation, thus minimising guesswork. PMID:26740322

  1. Single Pathogen Challenge with Agents of the Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex

    PubMed Central

    Gershwin, Laurel J.; Van Eenennaam, Alison L.; Anderson, Mark L.; McEligot, Heather A.; Toaff-Rosenstein, Rachel; Taylor, Jeremy F.; Neibergs, Holly L.; Womack, James

    2015-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in cattle; costing the dairy and beef industries millions of dollars annually, despite the use of vaccines and antibiotics. BRDC is caused by one or more of several viruses (bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpes type 1 also known as infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, and bovine viral diarrhea virus), which predispose animals to infection with one or more bacteria. These include: Pasteurella multocida, Mannheimia haemolytica, Mycoplasma bovis, and Histophilus somni. Some cattle appear to be more resistant to BRDC than others. We hypothesize that appropriate immune responses to these pathogens are subject to genetic control. To determine which genes are involved in the immune response to each of these pathogens it was first necessary to experimentally induce infection separately with each pathogen to document clinical and pathological responses in animals from which tissues were harvested for subsequent RNA sequencing. Herein these infections and animal responses are described. PMID:26571015

  2. Respiratory Pathology and Pathogens in Wild Urban Rats (Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus).

    PubMed

    Rothenburger, J L; Himsworth, C G; Clifford, C B; Ellis, J; Treuting, P M; Leighton, F A

    2015-11-01

    Norway (Rattus norvegicus) and black rats (Rattus rattus) are common peridomestic species, yet little is known about wild rat ecology, including their natural diseases. We describe gross and histological lesions in the respiratory tract of a sample of 711 wild urban rats. A subset was examined for 19 distinct categories of histological lesions in the respiratory tract. Testing for known respiratory pathogens included serology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of lung samples. Grossly evident lesions were rare (8/711; 1%). Upper respiratory tract inflammation was present in 93 of 107 (87%) rats and included rhinitis, submucosal and periglandular lymphoplasmacytic tracheitis, and/or tracheal intraluminal necrotic debris and was significantly associated (P < .05) with the presence of cilia-associated respiratory bacillus (CARB), Mycoplasma pulmonis, and increased body mass (odds ratio [OR] = 1.09; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05-1.14 per 10 g). Within the lungs, peribronchiolar and/or perivascular lymphoplasmacytic cuffs were present in 152 of 199 rats (76%) and were also significantly associated (P ≤ .02) with CARB, M. pulmonis, and increased body mass (OR = 1.20; 95% CI = 1.14-1.27 per 10 g). Rats were frequently coinfected with M. pulmonis and CARB, and lesions associated with these pathogens were histologically indistinguishable. Pneumocystis sp was detected in 48 of 102 (47%) rats using PCR but was not significantly associated with lesions. This description of pathology in the respiratory system of wild rats demonstrates that respiratory disease is common. Although the impact of these lesions on individual and population health remains to be investigated, respiratory disease may be an important contributor to wild rat morbidity and mortality. PMID:26169386

  3. Genomic Investigations Unmask Mycoplasma amphoriforme, a New Respiratory Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Stephen H.; Ling, Clare L.; Oravcova, Katarina; Pinheiro, Miguel; Wells, Louise; Bryant, Josephine M.; McHugh, Timothy D.; Bébéar, Cecile; Webster, David; Harris, Simon R.; Seth-Smith, Helena M. B.; Thomson, Nicholas R.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Mycoplasma amphoriforme has been associated with infection in patients with primary antibody deficiency (PAD). Little is known about the natural history of infection with this organism and its ability to be transmitted in the community. Methods. The bacterial load was estimated in sequential sputum samples from 9 patients by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The genomes of all available isolates, originating from patients in the United Kingdom, France, and Tunisia, were sequenced along with the type strain. Genomic data were assembled and annotated, and a high-resolution phylogenetic tree was constructed. Results. By using high-resolution whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data, we show that patients can be chronically infected with M. amphoriforme manifesting as a relapsing-remitting bacterial load, interspersed by periods when the organism is undetectable. Importantly, we demonstrate transmission of strains within a clinical environment. Antibiotic resistance mutations accumulate in isolates taken from patients who received multiple courses of antibiotics. Conclusions. Mycoplasma amphoriforme isolates form a closely related species responsible for a chronic relapsing and remitting infection in PAD patients in the United Kingdom and from immunocompetent patients in other countries. We provide strong evidence of transmission between patients attending the same clinic, suggesting that screening and isolation may be necessary for susceptible patients. This work demonstrates the critical role that WGS can play in rapidly unraveling the biology of a novel pathogen. PMID:25344534

  4. Association of targeted multiplex PCR with resequencing microarray for the detection of multiple respiratory pathogens.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hongwei; Zhu, Bingqing; Wang, Shulian; Mo, Haolian; Wang, Ji; Li, Jin; Zhang, Chen; Zeng, Huashu; Guan, Li; Shi, Weixian; Zhang, Yong; Ma, Xuejun

    2015-01-01

    A large number of viral and bacterial organisms are responsible for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) which contributes to substantial burden on health management. A new resequencing microarray (RPM-IVDC1) associated with targeted multiplex PCR was recently developed and validated for multiple respiratory viruses detection and discrimination. In this study, we evaluated the capability of RPM-IVDC1 for simultaneous identification of multiple viral and bacterial organisms. The nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPAs) of 110 consecutive CAP patients, aged from 1 month to 96 years old, were collected from five distinct general hospitals in Beijing during 1-year period. The samples were subjected to the RPM-IVDC1 established protocol as compared to a real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), which was used as standard. The results of virus detection were consistent with those previously described. A total of 37 of Streptococcus pneumoniae, 14 of Haemophilus influenzae, 10 of Mycoplasma pneumoniae, two of Klebsiella pneumoniae and one of Moraxella catarrhalis were detected by RPM-IVDC1. The sensitivities and specificities were compared with those of qRT-PCR for S. pneumoniae (100, 100%, respectively), H. influenzae (92.3, 97.9%, respectively), M. pneumoniae (69.2, 99.0%, respectively), K. pneumoniae (100, 100%, respectively), and M. catarrhalis (100, 100%, respectively). Additional 22 of Streptococcus spp., 24 of Haemophilus spp. and 16 of Neisseria spp. were identified. In addition, methicillin-resistant and carbapenemases allele were also found in nine of Staphylococcus spp. and one of K. pneumoniae, respectively. These results demonstrated the capability of RPM-IVDC1 for simultaneous detection of broad-spectrum respiratory pathogens in complex backgrounds and the advantage of accessing to the actual sequences, showing great potential use of epidemic outbreak investigation. The detection results should be carefully interpreted when introducing this technique in the clinical diagnostics. PMID:26074910

  5. Association of targeted multiplex PCR with resequencing microarray for the detection of multiple respiratory pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Hongwei; Zhu, Bingqing; Wang, Shulian; Mo, Haolian; Wang, Ji; Li, Jin; Zhang, Chen; Zeng, Huashu; Guan, Li; Shi, Weixian; Zhang, Yong; Ma, Xuejun

    2015-01-01

    A large number of viral and bacterial organisms are responsible for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) which contributes to substantial burden on health management. A new resequencing microarray (RPM-IVDC1) associated with targeted multiplex PCR was recently developed and validated for multiple respiratory viruses detection and discrimination. In this study, we evaluated the capability of RPM-IVDC1 for simultaneous identification of multiple viral and bacterial organisms. The nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPAs) of 110 consecutive CAP patients, aged from 1 month to 96 years old, were collected from five distinct general hospitals in Beijing during 1-year period. The samples were subjected to the RPM-IVDC1 established protocol as compared to a real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), which was used as standard. The results of virus detection were consistent with those previously described. A total of 37 of Streptococcus pneumoniae, 14 of Haemophilus influenzae, 10 of Mycoplasma pneumoniae, two of Klebsiella pneumoniae and one of Moraxella catarrhalis were detected by RPM-IVDC1. The sensitivities and specificities were compared with those of qRT-PCR for S. pneumoniae (100, 100%, respectively), H. influenzae (92.3, 97.9%, respectively), M. pneumoniae (69.2, 99.0%, respectively), K. pneumoniae (100, 100%, respectively), and M. catarrhalis (100, 100%, respectively). Additional 22 of Streptococcus spp., 24 of Haemophilus spp. and 16 of Neisseria spp. were identified. In addition, methicillin-resistant and carbapenemases allele were also found in nine of Staphylococcus spp. and one of K. pneumoniae, respectively. These results demonstrated the capability of RPM-IVDC1 for simultaneous detection of broad-spectrum respiratory pathogens in complex backgrounds and the advantage of accessing to the actual sequences, showing great potential use of epidemic outbreak investigation. The detection results should be carefully interpreted when introducing this technique in the clinical diagnostics. PMID:26074910

  6. The role of nicotine on respiratory sensory gating measured by respiratory-related evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Chan, Pei-Ying Sarah; Davenport, P W

    2010-03-01

    Respiratory perception can be altered by changes in emotional or psychological states. This may be due to affective (i.e., anxiety) modulation of respiratory sensory gating. Nicotine withdrawal induces elevated anxiety and decreased somatosensory gating. Respiratory sensory gating is evidenced by decreased amplitude of the respiratory-related evoked potentials (RREP) N(1) peak for the second occlusion (S2) when two 150-ms occlusions are presented with a 500-ms interval during an inspiration. The N(1) peak amplitude ratio of the S2 and first occlusion (S1) (S2/S1) is <0.5 and due to central neural sensory gating. We hypothesized that withdrawal from nicotine is anxiogenic and reduces respiratory gating in smokers. The RREP was recorded in smokers with 12-h withdrawal from nicotine and nonsmokers using a paired occlusion protocol. In smokers, the RREP was measured after nicotine withdrawal, then with either nicotine or placebo gum, followed by the second RREP trial. Nonsmokers received only placebo gum. After nicotine withdrawal, the smokers had a higher state anxiety compared with nonsmokers. There was a significant interaction between groups (nonsmokers vs. smokers with nicotine vs. smokers with placebo) and test (pre- vs. posttreatment) in RREP N(1) peak amplitude S2/S1. The S2/S1 in the smokers were larger than in nonsmokers before treatment. After gum treatment, the smoker-with-placebo group had a significantly larger S2/S1 than the other two groups. The S2/S1 was significantly decreased after the administration of nicotine gum in smokers due to significantly decreased S2 amplitudes. The RREP N(f) and P(1) peaks were unaffected. These results demonstrated that respiratory sensory gating was decreased in smokers after nicotine withdrawal. Nicotine increased respiratory sensory gating in smokers with a S2/S1 similar to that of the nonsmokers. Nicotine did not change respiratory sensory information arrival, but secondary information processing in respiratory sensation. PMID:20056851

  7. Association of serum Clara cell protein CC16 with respiratory infections and immune response to respiratory pathogens in elite athletes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Respiratory epithelium integrity impairment caused by intensive exercise may lead to exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Clara cell protein (CC16) has anti-inflammatory properties and its serum level reflects changes in epithelium integrity and airway inflammation. This study aimed to investigate serum CC16 in elite athletes and to seek associations of CC16 with asthma or allergy, respiratory tract infections (RTIs) and immune response to respiratory pathogens. Methods The study was performed in 203 Olympic athletes. Control groups comprised 53 healthy subjects and 49 mild allergic asthmatics. Serum levels of CC16 and IgG against respiratory viruses and Mycoplasma pneumoniae were assessed. Allergy questionnaire for athletes was used to determine symptoms and exercise pattern. Current versions of ARIA and GINA guidelines were used when diagnosing allergic rhinitis and asthma, respectively. Results Asthma was diagnosed in 13.3% athletes, of whom 55.6% had concomitant allergic rhinitis. Allergic rhinitis without asthma was diagnosed in 14.8% of athletes. Mean CC16 concentration was significantly lower in athletes versus healthy controls and mild asthmatics. Athletes reporting frequent RTIs had significantly lower serum CC16 and the risk of frequent RTIs was more than 2-fold higher in athletes with low serum CC16 (defined as equal to or less than 4.99 ng/ml). Athletes had significantly higher anti-adenovirus IgG than healthy controls while only non-atopic athletes had anti-parainfluenza virus IgG significantly lower than controls. In all athletes weak correlation of serum CC16 and anti-parainfluenza virus IgG was present (R = 0.20, p < 0.01). In atopic athletes a weak positive correlations of CC16 with IgG specific for respiratory syncytial virus (R = 0.29, p = 0.009), parainfluenza virus (R = 0.31, p = 0.01) and adenovirus (R = 0.27, p = 0.02) were seen as well. Conclusions Regular high-load exercise is associated with decrease in serum CC16 levels. Athletes with decreased CC16 are more susceptible to respiratory infections. Atopy may be an additional factor modifying susceptibility to infections in subjects performing regular high-load exercise. PMID:24735334

  8. Comparison of commercial systems for extraction of nucleic acids from DNA/RNA respiratory pathogens.

    PubMed

    Yang, Genyan; Erdman, Dean E; Kodani, Maja; Kools, John; Bowen, Michael D; Fields, Barry S

    2011-01-01

    This study compared six automated nucleic acid extraction systems and one manual kit for their ability to recover nucleic acids from human nasal wash specimens spiked with five respiratory pathogens, representing Gram-positive bacteria (Streptococcus pyogenes), Gram-negative bacteria (Legionella pneumophila), DNA viruses (adenovirus), segmented RNA viruses (human influenza virus A), and non-segmented RNA viruses (respiratory syncytial virus). The robots and kit evaluated represent major commercially available methods that are capable of simultaneous extraction of DNA and RNA from respiratory specimens, and included platforms based on magnetic-bead technology (KingFisher mL, Biorobot EZ1, easyMAG, KingFisher Flex, and MagNA Pure Compact) or glass fiber filter technology (Biorobot MDX and the manual kit Allprep). All methods yielded extracts free of cross-contamination and RT-PCR inhibition. All automated systems recovered L. pneumophila and adenovirus DNA equivalently. However, the MagNA Pure protocol demonstrated more than 4-fold higher DNA recovery from the S. pyogenes than other methods. The KingFisher mL and easyMAG protocols provided 1- to 3-log wider linearity and extracted 3- to 4-fold more RNA from the human influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus. These findings suggest that systems differed in nucleic acid recovery, reproducibility, and linearity in a pathogen specific manner. PMID:21034773

  9. Surveillance programme for important equine infectious respiratory pathogens in the USA.

    PubMed

    Pusterla, N; Kass, P H; Mapes, S; Johnson, C; Barnett, D C; Vaala, W; Gutierrez, C; McDaniel, R; Whitehead, B; Manning, J

    2011-07-01

    The prevalence and epidemiology of important viral (equine influenza virus [EIV], equine herpesvirus type 1 [EHV-1] and EHV-4) and bacterial (Streptococcus equi subspecies equi) respiratory pathogens shed by horses presented to equine veterinarians with upper respiratory tract signs and/or acute febrile neurological disease were studied. Veterinarians from throughout the USA were enrolled in a surveillance programme and were asked to collect blood and nasal secretions from equine cases with acute infectious upper respiratory tract disease and/or acute onset of neurological disease. A questionnaire was used to collect information pertaining to each case and its clinical signs. Samples were tested by real-time PCR for the presence of EHV-1, EHV-4, EIV and S equi subspecies equi. A total of 761 horses, mules and donkeys were enrolled in the surveillance programme over a 24-month study period. In total, 201 (26.4 per cent) index cases tested PCR-positive for one or more of the four pathogens. The highest detection rate was for EHV-4 (82 cases), followed by EIV (60 cases), S equi subspecies equi (49 cases) and EHV-1 (23 cases). There were 15 horses with double infections and one horse with a triple infection. The detection rate by PCR for the different pathogens varied with season and with the age, breed, sex and use of the animal. PMID:21676986

  10. Prediction of respiratory disease and diarrhea in veal calves based on immunoglobulin levels and the serostatus for respiratory pathogens measured at arrival.

    PubMed

    Pardon, Bart; Allit, Jeroen; Boone, Randy; Roelandt, Sophie; Valgaeren, Bonnie; Deprez, Piet

    2015-06-15

    Failure of passive transfer is a common problem in calves destined for veal production. At present it is unknown whether the risk for respiratory disease (BRD) or neonatal calf diarrhea (NCD) in the veal herd is associated with total immunoglobulin (Ig) and/or on the serostatus for respiratory pathogens measured at arrival. Therefore, the first objective of this prospective longitudinal cohort study was to determine associations between serum protein fractions as determined by routine electrophoresis (total protein, albumin, alpha-1 and -2 globulins, beta-globulins and Ig's) at arrival and BRD and NCD in the first 3 weeks of the production cycle. The second objective was to determine whether the serostatus (seropositive/seronegative) of seven respiratory pathogens (bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), parainfluenzavirus-3, bovine coronavirus (BCV), bovine herpesvirus-1, bovine viral diarrhea virus, Mannheimia haemolytica and Mycoplasma bovis) of these arrival serum samples could be associated with the risk of having BRD. The third objective was to determine which of the electrophoresis proteins and respiratory serostatuses were associated with average daily gain (ADG) in the study period. The study population consisted of 150 ros veal calves housed in a single air-space. The study period ended at day 18 post arrival, when BRD incidence was judged to be too high to further postpone a group treatment. A Cox regression model was used to determine the effect of the studied protein fractions and antibodies on the time to BRD and NCD occurrence. The effect of the studied predictors on ADG was determined by linear regression. Calves with Ig levels under 7.5g/L had an increased BRD hazard (hazard ratio (HR)=1.9 (95% confidence interval (CI)=1.2-3.0)). NCD was only positively associated with the alpha-2 globulin concentration. Calves with a negative serostatus for BCV (HR=1.7 (95% CI=1.0-2.8)) or BRSV (HR=2.0 (95% CI=1.0-3.9)) had an increased BRD hazard. Average daily gain (ADG) was 0.242kg/day (SD=0.142) and was not related to the occurrence of BRD or NCD. Calves with Ig's below 7.5g/L and with increased levels of alpha-2 globulins showed a decrease in ADG. This study showed the importance of providing sufficient colostrum to veal calves and the potential benefit of the presence of BCV and BRSV antibodies at arrival to reduce the BRD hazard in the first 3 weeks. PMID:25937168

  11. Targeting the mitochondrial respiratory chain of Cryptococcus through antifungal chemosensitization: a model for control of non-fermentative pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enhanced control of species of Cryptococcus, non-fermentative yeast pathogens, was achieved by chemosensitization through co-application of certain compounds with a conventional antimicrobial drug. The species of Cryptococcus tested showed higher sensitivity to mitochondrial respiratory chain inhibi...

  12. Identification of upper respiratory tract pathogens using electrochemical detection on an oligonucleotide microarray.

    PubMed

    Lodes, Michael J; Suciu, Dominic; Wilmoth, Jodi L; Ross, Marty; Munro, Sandra; Dix, Kim; Bernards, Karen; Stöver, Axel G; Quintana, Miguel; Iihoshi, Naomi; Lyon, Wanda J; Danley, David L; McShea, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Bacterial and viral upper respiratory infections (URI) produce highly variable clinical symptoms that cannot be used to identify the etiologic agent. Proper treatment, however, depends on correct identification of the pathogen involved as antibiotics provide little or no benefit with viral infections. Here we describe a rapid and sensitive genotyping assay and microarray for URI identification using standard amplification and hybridization techniques, with electrochemical detection (ECD) on a semiconductor-based oligonucleotide microarray. The assay was developed to detect four bacterial pathogens (Bordetella pertussis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Chlamydia pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae) and 9 viral pathogens (adenovirus 4, coronavirus OC43, 229E and HK, influenza A and B, parainfluenza types 1, 2, and 3 and respiratory syncytial virus. This new platform forms the basis for a fully automated diagnostics system that is very flexible and can be customized to suit different or additional pathogens. Multiple probes on a flexible platform allow one to test probes empirically and then select highly reactive probes for further iterative evaluation. Because ECD uses an enzymatic reaction to create electrical signals that can be read directly from the array, there is no need for image analysis or for expensive and delicate optical scanning equipment. We show assay sensitivity and specificity that are excellent for a multiplexed format. PMID:17895966

  13. Global reemergence of enterovirus D68 as an important pathogen for acute respiratory infections

    PubMed Central

    Imamura, Tadatsugu; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    We previously detected enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) in children with severe acute respiratory infections in the Philippines in 20082009. Since then, the detection frequency of EV-D68 has increased in different parts of the world, and EV-D68 is now recognized as a reemerging pathogen. However, the epidemiological profile and clinical significance of EV-D68 is yet to be defined, and the virological characteristics of EV-D68 are not fully understood. Recent studies have revealed that EV-D68 is detected among patients with acute respiratory infections of differing severities ranging from mild upper respiratory tract infections to severe pneumonia including fatal cases in pediatric and adult patients. In some study sites, the EV-D68 detection rate was higher among patients with lower respiratory tract infections than among those with upper respiratory tract infections, suggesting that EV-D68 infections are more likely to be associated with severe respiratory illnesses. EV-D68 strains circulating in recent years have been divided into three distinct genetic lineages with different antigenicity. However, the association between genetic differences and disease severity, as well as the occurrence of large-scale outbreaks, remains elusive. Previous studies have revealed that EV-D68 is acid sensitive and has an optimal growth temperature of 33 C. EV-D68 binds to ?2,6-linked sialic acids; hence, it is assumed that it has an affinity for the upper respiratory track where these glycans are present. However, the lack of suitable animal model constrains comprehensive understanding of the pathogenesis of EV-D68. 2014 The Authors. Reviews in Medical Virology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:25471236

  14. Characterization of Potential Surrogates for Produce Pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background Escherichia coli (E. coli) is commonly used as a surrogate for pathogens in research to identify sources of agricultural contamination and to characterize how pathogens persist on plant surfaces. However, E. coli strains are highly diverse, exhibiting differences in physical, chemical and...

  15. Potential pathogenic aspects of denture plaque.

    PubMed

    Coulthwaite, L; Verran, J

    2007-01-01

    Oral health status declines with age and as a result the need for removable prostheses increases. Oral health is a reflection of one's general health, affecting the ability of an individual to eat and speak, and contributes significantly to a sense of confidence and well-being. Currently, there are 15 million denture wearers in the UK, representing a significant consumer base and a special healthcare consideration. The microbiology of denture plaque has received little attention in comparison with dental plaque, yet it differs in location and composition. Denture plaque and poor denture hygiene is associated with stomatitis (Candida infection), may also serve as a reservoir of potentially infectious pathogens, and may contribute to oral malodour and to caries and periodontitis in people who have remaining natural teeth. Oral bacteria have been implicated in bacterial endocarditis, aspiration pneumonia, gastrointestinal infection and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, among others, and dentures offer a reservoir for microorganisms associated with these infections. An effective oral hygiene regimen is important to control denture plaque biofilm and contributes to the control of associated oral and systemic diseases. PMID:18236742

  16. Mass gathering and globalization of respiratory pathogens during the 2013 Hajj.

    PubMed

    Memish, Z A; Assiri, A; Turkestani, A; Yezli, S; Al Masri, M; Charrel, R; Drali, T; Gaudart, J; Edouard, S; Parola, P; Gautret, P

    2015-06-01

    Every year, more than 10 million pilgrims arrive in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia for the Hajj or Umrah. Crowding conditions lead to high rates of respiratory infections among the pilgrims, representing a significant cause of morbidity and a major cause of hospitalization. Pre- and post-Hajj nasal specimens were prospectively obtained from a paired cohort (692 pilgrims) and from nonpaired cohorts (514 arriving and 470 departing pilgrims) from 13 countries. The countries of residence included Africa (44.2%), Asia (40.2%), the United States (8.4%) and Europe (7.2%). Nasal specimens were tested for 34 respiratory pathogens using RT-PCR. A total of 80 512 PCRs were performed. The prevalence of viruses and bacteria increased, from 7.4% and 15.4% before the Hajj to 45.4% and 31.0% after the Hajj, respectively, due to the acquisition of rhinovirus, coronaviruses (229E, HKU1, OC43), influenza A H1N1, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Staphylococcus aureus. We did not identify Middle East respiratory coronavirus carriage. At arrival, the prevalence of several viruses was clearly dependent on the pilgrim's country of origin. After Hajj participation, these viruses were isolated among pilgrims from all countries, with few exceptions. No significant differences were observed between paired and nonpaired cohort results. Our results strongly suggest that, given the particularly crowded conditions during the rituals, an international mass gathering such as the Hajj may contribute to the globalization of respiratory pathogens after the cross-contamination of pilgrims harbouring pathogens that easily spread among participants. Influenza and pneumococcal vaccination, face mask use and hand hygiene should be considered in the context of the Hajj. PMID:25700892

  17. Pathogens of Bovine Respiratory Disease in North American Feedlots Conferring Multidrug Resistance via Integrative Conjugative Elements

    PubMed Central

    Klima, Cassidy L.; Zaheer, Rahat; Cook, Shaun R.; Booker, Calvin W.; Hendrick, Steve

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we determined the prevalence of bovine respiratory disease (BRD)-associated viral and bacterial pathogens in cattle and characterized the genetic profiles, antimicrobial susceptibilities, and nature of antimicrobial resistance determinants in collected bacteria. Nasopharyngeal swab and lung tissue samples from 68 BRD mortalities in Alberta, Canada (n = 42), Texas (n = 6), and Nebraska (n = 20) were screened using PCR for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpesvirus 1, parainfluenza type 3 virus, Mycoplasma bovis, Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, and Histophilus somni. Excepting bovine herpesvirus 1, all agents were detected. M. haemolytica (91%) and BVDV (69%) were the most prevalent, with cooccurrence in 63% of the cattle. Isolates of M. haemolytica (n = 55), P. multocida (n = 8), and H. somni (n = 10) from lungs were also collected. Among M. haemolytica isolates, a clonal subpopulation (n = 8) was obtained from a Nebraskan feedlot. All three bacterial pathogens exhibited a high rate of antimicrobial resistance, with 45% exhibiting resistance to three or more antimicrobials. M. haemolytica (n = 18), P. multocida (n = 3), and H. somni (n = 3) from Texas and Nebraska possessed integrative conjugative elements (ICE) that conferred resistance for up to seven different antimicrobial classes. ICE were shown to be transferred via conjugation from P. multocida to Escherichia coli and from M. haemolytica and H. somni to P. multocida. ICE-mediated multidrug-resistant profiles of bacterial BRD pathogens could be a major detriment to many of the therapeutic antimicrobial strategies currently used to control BRD. PMID:24478472

  18. Infection of United States swine with a Chinese highly pathogenic strain of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To assess the pathogenic effects of Type 2 highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) on healthy 10-week old commercial swine in the United States, viral kinetics and resultant disease caused by intranasal inoculation of such virus rescued from an infectious clo...

  19. Pathogenicity of emerging Japanese type 1 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in experimentally infected pigs

    PubMed Central

    ISEKI, Hiroshi; TAKAGI, Michihiro; KAWASHIMA, Kenji; SHIBAHARA, Tomoyuki; KURODA, Yoshiko; TSUNEMITSU, Hiroshi; YAMAKAWA, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    To clarify the pathogenicity of Japanese type 1 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) isolate in experimentally infected pigs, we evaluated clinical signs and monitored viremia for 21 days post-inoculation (dpi). Lungs were mottled, tanned and reddish in appearance; had lesions predominantly in the cranial, middle and accessory lobes; and failed to collapse at 10 dpi. Although microscopic lesions of lungs were reproduced using the Japanese emerging type 1 PRRSV isolate under experimental conditions, no significant differences were noted between the challenge and control groups regarding mean rectal temperature and daily weight gain. These results provide useful insights into the limited pathogenicity of single infection with the Japanese type 1 PRRSV isolate in piglets, which differ from findings in reported field cases. PMID:26156013

  20. Pathogenicity of emerging Japanese type 1 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in experimentally infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Iseki, Hiroshi; Takagi, Michihiro; Kawashima, Kenji; Shibahara, Tomoyuki; Kuroda, Yoshiko; Tsunemitsu, Hiroshi; Yamakawa, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    To clarify the pathogenicity of Japanese type 1 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) isolate in experimentally infected pigs, we evaluated clinical signs and monitored viremia for 21 days post-inoculation (dpi). Lungs were mottled, tanned and reddish in appearance; had lesions predominantly in the cranial, middle and accessory lobes; and failed to collapse at 10 dpi. Although microscopic lesions of lungs were reproduced using the Japanese emerging type 1 PRRSV isolate under experimental conditions, no significant differences were noted between the challenge and control groups regarding mean rectal temperature and daily weight gain. These results provide useful insights into the limited pathogenicity of single infection with the Japanese type 1 PRRSV isolate in piglets, which differ from findings in reported field cases. PMID:26156013

  1. Changes in Clinical Presentation and Epidemiology of Respiratory Pathogens Associated With Acute Respiratory Illness in Military Trainees After Reintroduction of Adenovirus Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Heather C.; Young, Adam N.; Caballero, Manuel Y.; Lott, Lisa; Cropper, Thomas L.; Murray, Clinton K.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Adenovirus (Ad) has long been the predominant cause of acute respiratory illness (ARI) in military trainees. In 2011, live oral Ad vaccines for serotypes 4 and 7 were reintroduced into US basic military training populations. This study evaluated the impact on clinical presentations and other respiratory pathogens. Methods. The Center for Advanced Molecular Detection at Joint Base San Antonio-Lackland prospectively collects demographic, clinical, and polymerase chain reaction data from respiratory specimens (throat swab and nasal wash) among Air Force trainees presenting for care of ARI. Results. From June 2008 to August 2013, 2660 trainees enrolled and were tested for selected respiratory pathogens. Post-vaccine introduction (VI), reported systemic symptoms were less frequent, including fever (38% vs 94%) and myalgia (37% vs 67%; P < .01). Median temperature and heart rate decreased (98.4 vs 101.3°F, 81 vs 96 beats per minute; P < .01). Ad detection decreased for all Ad (3% vs 68%), Ad4 (1% vs 70%), 7 (0% vs 8%), 14 (0% vs 5%), and 3 (0.1% vs 2%); P < .01). Rhinovirus and cases with no pathogen identified increased in frequency (35% vs 18%, 51% vs 14%; P < .01). Conclusions. Acute respiratory illness in military trainees post-VI is associated with decreased severity of systemic symptoms and reduced fever and heart rate. Marked reductions in frequency of Ad serotypes are seen, including those in the vaccine, with no serotype shift. However, detection of several other respiratory pathogens, most notably rhinovirus, is observed in increasing proportions, and a majority are now undiagnosed clinical syndromes. PMID:26380351

  2. Genetic vaccine for respiratory syncytial virus provides protection without disease potentiation.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Teresa R; Rangel, David; Graham, Barney S; Brough, Douglas E; Gall, Jason G

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of infectious lower respiratory disease in infants and the elderly. As there is no vaccine for RSV, we developed a genetic vaccine approach that induced protection of the entire respiratory tract from a single parenteral administration. The approach was based on adenovirus vectors derived from newly isolated nonhuman primate viruses with low seroprevalence. We show for the first time that a single intramuscular (IM) injection of the replication-deficient adenovirus vectors expressing the RSV fusion (F0) glycoprotein induced immune responses that protected both the lungs and noses of cotton rats and mice even at low doses and for several months postimmunization. The immune response included high titers of neutralizing antibody that were maintained ≥ 24 weeks and RSV-specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cells. The vectors were as potently immunogenic as a human adenovirus 5 vector in these two key respiratory pathogen animal models. Importantly, there was minimal alveolitis and granulocytic infiltrates in the lung, and type 2 cytokines were not produced after RSV challenge even under conditions of partial protection. Overall, this genetic vaccine is highly effective without potentiating immunopathology, and the results support development of the vaccine candidate for human testing. PMID:23752342

  3. The Impact of Exogenous Factors on Respiratory Pathogen-Induced Innate Alveolar Macrophage Responses in COPD.

    PubMed

    Berenson, Charles S; Kruzel, Ragina L; Sethi, Sanjay

    2016-02-01

    Alveolar macrophages in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have fundamentally impaired innate immune responses to toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI). However, whether dysfunctional inflammatory responses in COPD extend to macrophage interactions with intact respiratory pathogens beyond NTHI has not been explored. Furthermore, the influences of exogenous factors, including active smoking and medications, on pathogen-induced innate immune responses have only begun to be investigated. We hypothesized that distinct alveolar macrophage impairments in COPD are not limited to NTHI TLR ligands and that active smoking and select COPD medications modulate innate responses. Alveolar macrophages, obtained from COPD ex-smokers (n = 32) and active smokers (n = 64) by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), were incubated with NTHI, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae, and with TLR2 and TLR4 ligands. Elicited IL-8 and TNF-? were measured by multianalyte microsphere flow cytometry to determine proinflammatory responsiveness. Induced IL-8, but not TNF-?, was greater from alveolar macrophages of active smokers compared with ex-smokers, in response to NTHI (p = 0.04), M. catarrhalis (p = 0.003), and S. pneumoniae (p = 0.03). Both IL-8 and TNF-? induction by TLR2 and TLR4 ligands were greater in active smokers. While intergroup NTHI- and M. catarrhalis-induced TNF-? levels were no different, they were notably lower among ex-smokers taking anticholinergic medications (p < 0.04 for each), but not with any other bronchoactive medications. Our results support a paradigm of distinct immunologic responses of COPD alveolar macrophages of ex- and active smokers to diverse respiratory pathogens and highlight a subset of ex-smokers whose diminished alveolar macrophage responsiveness may be associated with anticholinergic agents. PMID:26853802

  4. Metabolic pathways of Pseudomonas aeruginosa involved in competition with respiratory bacterial pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Beaume, Marie; Köhler, Thilo; Fontana, Thierry; Tognon, Mikael; Renzoni, Adriana; van Delden, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chronic airway infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa considerably contributes to lung tissue destruction and impairment of pulmonary function in cystic-fibrosis (CF) patients. Complex interplays between P. aeruginosa and other co-colonizing pathogens including Staphylococcus aureus, Burkholderia sp., and Klebsiella pneumoniae may be crucial for pathogenesis and disease progression. Methods: We generated a library of PA14 transposon insertion mutants to identify P. aeruginosa genes required for exploitative and direct competitions with S. aureus, Burkholderia cenocepacia, and K. pneumoniae. Results: Whereas wild-type PA14 inhibited S. aureus growth, two transposon insertions located in pqsC and carB, resulted in reduced growth inhibition. PqsC is involved in the synthesis of 4-hydroxy-2-alkylquinolines (HAQs), a family of molecules having antibacterial properties, while carB is a key gene in pyrimidine biosynthesis. The carB mutant was also unable to grow in the presence of B. cepacia and K. pneumoniae but not Escherichia coli and S. epidermidis. We further identified a transposon insertion in purF, encoding a key enzyme of purine metabolism. This mutant displayed a severe growth deficiency in the presence of Gram-negative but not of Gram-positive bacteria. We identified a beneficial interaction in a bioA transposon mutant, unable to grow on rich medium. This growth defect could be restored either by addition of biotin or by co-culturing the mutant in the presence of K. pneumoniae or E. coli. Conclusion: Complex interactions take place between the various bacterial species colonizing CF-lungs. This work identified both detrimental and beneficial interactions occurring between P. aeruginosa and three other respiratory pathogens involving several major metabolic pathways. Manipulating these pathways could be used to interfere with bacterial interactions and influence the colonization by respiratory pathogens. PMID:25954256

  5. Antibiotic susceptibility of respiratory pathogens recently isolated in Italy: focus on cefditoren.

    PubMed

    Tempera, G; Furneri, P M; Carlone, N A; Cocuzza, C; Rigoli, R; Musumeci, R; Pilloni, A P; Prenna, M; Tufano, M A; Tullio, V; Vitali, L A; Nicoletti, G

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antibiotic susceptibility of respiratory pathogens recently isolated in Italy to commonly used antibiotics including cefditoren. Six clinical microbiological laboratories collected, between January and September 2009, a total of 2,510 respiratory pathogens from subjects with community-acquired respiratory tract infections (CARTI). Ceftditoren, out of all the beta-lactams studied, had the lowest MIC(90 )against 965 strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae examined, followed by cefotaxime and ceftriaxone (2% resistance in penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae (PRSP)). Against 470 Haemophilus influenzae , independently of their production of beta-lactamases or ampicillin resistance, cefditoren was the oral cephalosporin with the best in vitro activity, comparable to that of the injectable cephalosporins and levofloxacin. Higher MIC(90)s were found for the macrolides (4 - 16 mg/l) and cefaclor (4 - 32 mg/l). As was foreseeable, Streptococcus pyogenes (225 strains) was uniformly sensitive to all the beta-lactam antibiotics, but the elevated MIC(90 )values reduced (<75%) susceptibility of this pathogen to macrolides. Beta-lactamase-negative Moraxella catarrhalis (100 strains) had reduced susceptibility only to the macrolides, while the 250 beta-lactamase-producing strains also had reduced susceptibility to cefuroxime. Levofloxacin showed the lowest MIC(50)/MIC(90 )values in the producing strains, whereas cefditoren, cefotaxime and ceftriaxone in the non-producers. As regards the enterobacteriaceae, cefditoren and levofloxacin had the lowest MIC(90)s against Klebsiella pneumoniae. Cefditoren and the third-generation injectable cephalosporins had the lowest MIC(90)s against Escherichia coli (100% susceptibility) while levofloxacin was less active (86% susceptibility).In conclusion, cefditoren's wide spectrum and high intrinsic activity, as well as its capacity to overcome most of the resistance that has become consolidated in some classes of antibiotics widely used as empiric therapy for CARTI, allows us to suggest that cefditoren might be included in the european guidelines as one of the first-choice antibiotics in the treatment of CARTI. PMID:20566418

  6. Longitudinal monitoring for respiratory pathogens in broiler chickens reveals co-infection of Chlamydia psittaci and Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale.

    PubMed

    De Boeck, Cindy; Kalmar, Isabelle; Dumont, Annelien; Vanrompay, Daisy

    2015-05-01

    Chlamydia psittaci is prevalent in broiler chicken production. However, the role of C. psittaci in the respiratory disease complex needs to be clarified. Our aim was to identify the time point when a C. psittaci infection appeared on a broiler farm and to examine the presence of other respiratory pathogens at that time. We focused on the 'major' respiratory pathogens occurring in Belgian broilers, namely infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale, Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae, and examined their co-occurrence with C. psittaci on three commercial broiler farms. For all farms, 1-day-old broilers showed high maternal antibody titres against C. psittaci in the presence of viable C. psittaci. Maternal antibodies seemed to protect against respiratory signs. Maternal antibodies declined and clinical outbreaks could be identified serologically even before maternal antibodies completely disappeared. Mixed infections with genotypes B/C and B/C/D were observed. Broilers with C. psittaci antibody increases showed conjunctivitis, signs of upper respiratory disease and dyspnoea. C. psittaci always preceded an O. rhinotracheale infection. Infections with aMPV, IBV or Mycoplasma spp. were not observed. Evidence was provided that C. psittaci could occur at an early age in broilers without a predisposing respiratory infection. Both C. psittaci and O. rhinotracheale should be considered when developing prevention strategies for respiratory disease in broilers. PMID:25724936

  7. Biosynthesis of the respiratory toxin bongkrekic acid in the pathogenic bacterium Burkholderia gladioli.

    PubMed

    Moebius, Nadine; Ross, Claudia; Scherlach, Kirstin; Rohm, Barbara; Roth, Martin; Hertweck, Christian

    2012-09-21

    Bongkrekic acid (BA), an infamous respiratory toxin of the pathogenic bacterium Burkholderia gladioli, causes lethal intoxications when tempe bongkrek is produced with contaminated Rhizopus oligosporus cultures. Genome sequencing of B. gladioli pathovar cocovenenans unveiled the genetic basis for BA biosynthesis, and pointed to a homologous bon gene cluster in a B. gladioli strain from an infected rice plant. For functional genetics in B. gladioli λ Red recombination was established. Dissection of the modular type I polyketide synthase (a trans-AT PKS) provided insights into complex polyketide assembly. Isoprenoid-like β-branching events and a six-electron oxidation of a methyl group to a carboxylic acid give rise to the unique branched tricarboxylic fatty acid. The role of the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase, BonL, was proven by structural elucidation of deoxybongkrekic acid from a mutant. PMID:22999884

  8. Comparative analytical evaluation of the respiratory TaqMan Array Card with real-time PCR and commercial multi-pathogen assays.

    PubMed

    Harvey, John J; Chester, Stephanie; Burke, Stephen A; Ansbro, Marisela; Aden, Tricia; Gose, Remedios; Sciulli, Rebecca; Bai, Jing; DesJardin, Lucy; Benfer, Jeffrey L; Hall, Joshua; Smole, Sandra; Doan, Kimberly; Popowich, Michael D; St George, Kirsten; Quinlan, Tammy; Halse, Tanya A; Li, Zhen; Pérez-Osorio, Ailyn C; Glover, William A; Russell, Denny; Reisdorf, Erik; Whyte, Thomas; Whitaker, Brett; Hatcher, Cynthia; Srinivasan, Velusamy; Tatti, Kathleen; Tondella, Maria Lucia; Wang, Xin; Winchell, Jonas M; Mayer, Leonard W; Jernigan, Daniel; Mawle, Alison C

    2016-02-01

    In this study, a multicenter evaluation of the Life Technologies TaqMan(®) Array Card (TAC) with 21 custom viral and bacterial respiratory assays was performed on the Applied Biosystems ViiA™ 7 Real-Time PCR System. The goal of the study was to demonstrate the analytical performance of this platform when compared to identical individual pathogen specific laboratory developed tests (LDTs) designed at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), equivalent LDTs provided by state public health laboratories, or to three different commercial multi-respiratory panels. CDC and Association of Public Health Laboratories (APHL) LDTs had similar analytical sensitivities for viral pathogens, while several of the bacterial pathogen APHL LDTs demonstrated sensitivities one log higher than the corresponding CDC LDT. When compared to CDC LDTs, TAC assays were generally one to two logs less sensitive depending on the site performing the analysis. Finally, TAC assays were generally more sensitive than their counterparts in three different commercial multi-respiratory panels. TAC technology allows users to spot customized assays and design TAC layout, simplify assay setup, conserve specimen, dramatically reduce contamination potential, and as demonstrated in this study, analyze multiple samples in parallel with good reproducibility between instruments and operators. PMID:26640122

  9. The Respiratory Pathogen Moraxella catarrhalis Targets Collagen for Maximal Adherence to Host Tissues.

    PubMed

    Singh, Birendra; Alvarado-Kristensson, Maria; Johansson, Martin; Hallgren, Oskar; Westergren-Thorsson, Gunilla; Mörgelin, Matthias; Riesbeck, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    Moraxella catarrhalisis a human respiratory pathogen that causes acute otitis media in children and is associated with exacerbations in patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The first step inM. catarrhaliscolonization is adherence to the mucosa, epithelial cells, and extracellular matrix (ECM). The objective of this study was to evaluate the role ofM. catarrhalisinteractions with collagens from various angles. Clinical isolates (n= 43) were tested for collagen binding, followed by a detailed analysis of protein-protein interactions using recombinantly expressed proteins.M. catarrhalis-dependent interactions with collagen produced by human lung fibroblasts and tracheal tissues were studied by utilizing confocal immunohistochemistry and high-resolution scanning electron microscopy. A mouse smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) model was used to estimate the adherence ofM. catarrhalisin vivo. We found that allM. catarrhalisclinical isolates tested adhered to fibrillar collagen types I, II, and III and network-forming collagens IV and VI. The trimeric autotransporter adhesinsubiquitoussurfaceproteinA2(UspA2) and UspA2H were identified as major collagen-binding receptors.M. catarrhaliswild type adhered to human tracheal tissue and collagen-producing lung fibroblasts, whereas UspA2 and UspA2H deletion mutants did not. Moreover, in the COPD mouse model, bacteria devoid of UspA2 and UspA2H had a reduced level of adherence to the respiratory tract compared to the adherence of wild-type bacteria. Our data therefore suggest that theM. catarrhalisUspA2 and UspA2H-dependent interaction with collagens is highly critical for adherence in the host and, furthermore, may play an important role in the establishment of disease.IMPORTANCEThe respiratory tract pathogenMoraxella catarrhalisadheres to the host by interacting with several components, including the ECM. Collagen accounts for 30% of total body proteins, and therefore, bacterial adherence to abundant host collagens mediates bacterial persistence and colonization. In this study, we characterized previously unknownM. catarrhalis-dependent interactions with host collagens and found that the trimeric autotransporter adhesinsubiquitoussurfaceproteinA2(UspA2) and UspA2H are highly important. Our observations also suggested that collagen-mediated adherence ofM. catarrhalisis indispensable for bacterial survival in the host, as exemplified by a mouse COPD model. PMID:27006460

  10. Coronavirus Pathogenesis and the Emerging Pathogen Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Susan R.; Navas-Martin, Sonia

    2005-01-01

    Coronaviruses are a family of enveloped, single-stranded, positive-strand RNA viruses classified within the Nidovirales order. This coronavirus family consists of pathogens of many animal species and of humans, including the recently isolated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV). This review is divided into two main parts; the first concerns the animal coronaviruses and their pathogenesis, with an emphasis on the functions of individual viral genes, and the second discusses the newly described human emerging pathogen, SARS-CoV. The coronavirus part covers (i) a description of a group of coronaviruses and the diseases they cause, including the prototype coronavirus, murine hepatitis virus, which is one of the recognized animal models for multiple sclerosis, as well as viruses of veterinary importance that infect the pig, chicken, and cat and a summary of the human viruses; (ii) a short summary of the replication cycle of coronaviruses in cell culture; (iii) the development and application of reverse genetics systems; and (iv) the roles of individual coronavirus proteins in replication and pathogenesis. The SARS-CoV part covers the pathogenesis of SARS, the developing animal models for infection, and the progress in vaccine development and antiviral therapies. The data gathered on the animal coronaviruses continue to be helpful in understanding SARS-CoV. PMID:16339739

  11. The vOTU domain of highly-pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus displays a differential substrate preference

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arterivirus genus member Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes an economically devastating disease that presents global concerns to the pork industry, which have been exacerbated by the emergence of a highly pathogenic PRRSV strain (HP-PRRSV) in China and Southeast Asia....

  12. Pathogenicity of three type 2 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus strains in experimentally inoculated pregnant gilts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mechanisms of reproductive failure resulting from infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv) are still poorly understood. The present study, a side-by-side evaluation of the pathogenicity of three type 2 PRRSv strains in a reproductive model, was used as a pilot study...

  13. New Epidemiological and Clinical Signatures of 18 Pathogens from Respiratory Tract Infections Based on a 5-Year Study

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yan; Chen, Dehui; Chen, Meixin; Qiu, Shuyan; Zeng, Zhiqi; Tian, Xingui; Cui, Hong; Zhou, Rong

    2015-01-01

    Background Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are a heavy burden on society. However, due to the complex etiology of RTIs, the clinical diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of these infections remain challenging, especially in developing countries. Methods To determine the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 18 respiratory pathogens, we analyzed 12,502 patients with acute respiratory infections (ARIs) by performing polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on patient pharyngeal swabs. Results Samples positive for at least 1 pathogen were obtained from 48.42% of the total patients. Of these pathogen-positive patients, 17.99% were infected with more than 1 pathogen. Of the 18 pathogens analyzed, four were detected with a positive detection rate (PDR) > 5%: influenza A virus (IAV) > respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) >Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) > human coronavirus (HCoV). The pathogens with the 4 highest co-infection rates (CIRs) were as follows: HCoV > human bocavirus (HBoV) > enterovirus (EV) > parainfluenza virus (PIV). The overall positive detection rate (PDR) varied significantly according to patient age, the season and year of detection, and the disease subgroup, but not according to patient sex. The individual PDRs of the pathogens followed 3 types of distributions for patient sex, 4 types of distributions for patient age, 4 types of seasonal distributions, 2 types of seasonal epidemic trends, 4 types of yearly epidemic trends, and different susceptibility distributions in the disease subgroups. Additionally, the overall CIR showed significantly different distributions according to patient sex, patient age, and the disease subgroup, whereas the CIRs of individual pathogens suggested significant preference characteristics. Conclusion IAV remains the most common pathogen among the pathogens analyzed. More effort should be directed toward the prevention and control of pathogens that show a trend of increasing incidence such as HCoV, human adenovirus (ADV), and RSV. Although clinically distinguishing specific pathogens responsible for RTIs is difficult, the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of the various RTI-causing agents could provide clues for clinicians, thereby informing decisions regarding prevention and medication and guiding appropriate public health strategies. PMID:26406339

  14. Potential role of calcineurin in pathogenic conditions.

    PubMed

    Kurji, Khaliq; Sharma, Rajendra K

    2010-05-01

    Since its initial discovery as Ca(2+)/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent serine/threonine protein phosphatase, calcineurin (CaN) has been extensively studied in many mammalian tissues. CaN has been shown to be involved in various biological and Ca(2+)-dependent signal transduction pathways. Over the last decade, our laboratory has been interested and has carried out numerous experiments on this specific protein phosphatase. While, a lot of research has been performed studying CaN's involvement in ischemia, the immune system, and various mammalian tissues, not much is known about the potential role of CaN in various eye diseases. This review focuses on the studies that have been carried out in our laboratory on CaN, and specifically CaN's involvement in the eye. We demonstrated that CaN is localized in various eye tissues (cornea, iris, ciliary body, vitreous body, retina, choroid, sclera, and optic nerve) and that both its protein expression and activity were observed in high amounts in the retina, optic nerve and cornea. Recently, we have cloned and characterized the CaN A and B subunits in the bovine retina. These initial findings suggest that CaN may play a potential role in visual transduction and various ocular diseases, including cancer. PMID:19967549

  15. A literature review of antimicrobial resistance in Pathogens associated with bovine respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    DeDonder, K D; Apley, M D

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this paper was to perform a critical review of the literature as it pertains to the current status of antimicrobial resistance in pathogens associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in beef cattle and to provide a concise yet informative narrative on the most relevant publications available. As such, the scientific literature contained in PubMed, AGRICOLA, and CAB were searched in February of 2014 for articles related to susceptibility testing of Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, and Histophilus somni from cases of BRD. Titles and abstracts were read and 105 articles that were relevant to the subject of BRD antibiotic resistance were attained for further review. After the application of exclusion criterion (publications must have originated from North America, be in English, adhere to standards set forth by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, and be concerning antimicrobial resistance in BRD in beef cattle), 16 articles remained and are the focus of this publication. Due to the disparate data from the few studies that investigate susceptibility testing of BRD pathogens, a quantitative assessment or meta-analysis was not performed on the studies presented in this review. However, considering diagnostic lab data, there appears to be a clear trend of a decrease in susceptibility of the three major BRD pathogens to the antimicrobials used commonly for treatment and control of BRD. Studies performing sensitivity testing on healthy cattle report much lower resistance, but it remains unclear if this is because of a true lack of resistance mechanisms, or if the isolates do contain quiescent genes for resistance that are only phenotypically expressed following the administration of an antimicrobial for either treatment or control of BRD. Future research to address this question of genotype and phenotypic expression before and after antimicrobial administration will further advance our knowledge in this area. PMID:26373635

  16. Pathogenic potential of Tannerella forsythia enolase.

    PubMed

    Lee, J-Y; Jung, Y-J; Jun, H-K; Choi, B-K

    2016-04-01

    Although enolases are cytosolic enzymes involved in the glycolytic pathway, they can also be secreted or expressed on the surface of a variety of eukaryotic cells and bacteria. Surface-exposed enolases of eukaryotes and bacteria can function as plasminogen receptors. Furthermore, antibodies raised against bacterial enolases can react with host enolases, suggesting molecular mimicry between bacterial and host enzymes. In this study, we analyzed an enolase of the major periodontopathogen Tannerella forsythia, which is either secreted or present on the cell surface, via matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and immunofluorescence, respectively. The T. forsythia enolase retained the enzymatic activity converting 2-phosphoglycerate to phosphoenolpyruvate and showed plasminogen binding and activating ability, which resulted in the degradation of fibronectin secreted from human gingival fibroblasts. In addition, it induced proinflammatory cytokine production, including interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-8, and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-a) in the human THP-1 monocytic cell line. Taken together, our results demonstrate that T. forsythia enolase plays a role in pathogenesis in the host by plasminogen activation and proinflammatory cytokine induction, which has the potential to exaggerate inflammation in periodontitis. PMID:26172848

  17. Prevalence of Fusobacterium necrophorum and other upper respiratory tract pathogens isolated from throat swabs.

    PubMed

    Batty, A; Wren, M W D

    2005-01-01

    Fusobacterium necrophorum, an anaerobic, Gram-negative rod, has been identified recently as a significant cause of persistent sore throat syndrome (PSTS). This disease is characterised by chronic, recurrent or persistent sore throat, which is believed to respond poorly to penicillin in vivo. The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence of F. necrophorum in all throat swabs received in our diagnostic microbiology department and to compare the results with those for other recognised respiratory pathogens. All throat swabs received in the laboratory over a four-week period were cultured for beta-haemolytic streptococcus groups A, C and G, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Arcanobacterium haemolyticum and F. necrophorum. Latex agglutination techniques, phenotypic reactions and antibiograms are used to identify these organisms. The age of the patient and the clinical details as stated on the request form were noted. Among a total of 248 samples, 27 were positive for beta-haemolytic streptococcus group A, two were positive for beta-haemolytic streptococcus group C, five were positive for beta-haemolytic streptococcus group G and 24 were positive for F. necrophorum. The most common isolate in the under 20 age group was beta-haemolytic streptococcus group A. In the over 20 age group, F. necrophorum was the pathogen most frequently isolated. A clinical diagnosis of 'sore throat' was most likely to be positive for beta-haemolytic streptococcus group A, a clinical diagnosis of PSTS was most likely to be positive for F. necrophorum and a clinical diagnosis of 'tonsillitis' was equally likely to be caused by beta-haemolytic streptococcus group A or F. necrophorum. beta-haemolytic streptococcus group A was present in 11% of the samples and F. necrophorum was present in 10% of the samples. In total, these two pathogens accounted for 18.5% of throat infections in the sampled group. The results show that F. necrophorum is as significant a cause of throat infection as is beta-haemolytic streptococcus group A. Examination of this provisional data suggests that targeting culture towards these two pathogens may be possible in certain cohorts of patients if more precise clinical data are received from medical staff. However, based on the clinical symptoms routinely provided by clinicians requesting microscopy, culture and sensitivity on throat swabs, F. necrophorum culture is required on all throat swabs received in the laboratory. PMID:15997879

  18. The Respiratory Pathogen Moraxella catarrhalis Targets Collagen for Maximal Adherence to Host Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Birendra; Alvarado-Kristensson, Maria; Johansson, Martin; Hallgren, Oskar; Westergren-Thorsson, Gunilla; Mörgelin, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Moraxella catarrhalis is a human respiratory pathogen that causes acute otitis media in children and is associated with exacerbations in patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The first step in M. catarrhalis colonization is adherence to the mucosa, epithelial cells, and extracellular matrix (ECM). The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of M. catarrhalis interactions with collagens from various angles. Clinical isolates (n = 43) were tested for collagen binding, followed by a detailed analysis of protein-protein interactions using recombinantly expressed proteins. M. catarrhalis-dependent interactions with collagen produced by human lung fibroblasts and tracheal tissues were studied by utilizing confocal immunohistochemistry and high-resolution scanning electron microscopy. A mouse smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) model was used to estimate the adherence of M. catarrhalis in vivo. We found that all M. catarrhalis clinical isolates tested adhered to fibrillar collagen types I, II, and III and network-forming collagens IV and VI. The trimeric autotransporter adhesins ubiquitous surface protein A2 (UspA2) and UspA2H were identified as major collagen-binding receptors. M. catarrhalis wild type adhered to human tracheal tissue and collagen-producing lung fibroblasts, whereas UspA2 and UspA2H deletion mutants did not. Moreover, in the COPD mouse model, bacteria devoid of UspA2 and UspA2H had a reduced level of adherence to the respiratory tract compared to the adherence of wild-type bacteria. Our data therefore suggest that the M. catarrhalis UspA2 and UspA2H-dependent interaction with collagens is highly critical for adherence in the host and, furthermore, may play an important role in the establishment of disease. PMID:27006460

  19. The vOTU domain of highly-pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus displays a differential substrate preference

    PubMed Central

    Deaton, Michelle K.; Spear, Allyn; Faaberg, Kay S.; Pegan, Scott D.

    2014-01-01

    Arterivirus genus member Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes an economically devastating disease, recently exacerbated by the emergence of highly pathogenic strains (HP-PRRSV). Within the nonstructural protein 2 of PRRSV is a deubiquitinating enzyme domain belonging to the viral ovarian tumor (vOTU) protease superfamily. vOTUs, which can greatly vary in their preference for their host ubiquitin (Ub) and Ub-like substrates such as interferon stimulated gene 15 (ISG15), have been implicated as a potential virulence factor. Since various strains of PRRSV have large variations in virulence, the specificity of vOTUs from two PRRSV strains of varying virulence were determined. While both vOTUs showed de-ubiquitinating activity and markedly low deISGylating activity, HP-PRRSV demonstrated a strong preference for lysine 63-linked poly-Ubiquitin, tied to innate immune response regulation. This represents the first report of biochemical activity unique to HP-PRRSV that has implications for a potential increase in immunosuppression and virulence. PMID:24725951

  20. Pathogenicity and molecular characterization of emerging porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in Vietnam in 2007.

    PubMed

    Metwally, S; Mohamed, F; Faaberg, K; Burrage, T; Prarat, M; Moran, K; Bracht, A; Mayr, G; Berninger, M; Koster, L; To, T L; Nguyen, V L; Reising, M; Landgraf, J; Cox, L; Lubroth, J; Carrillo, C

    2010-10-01

    In 2007, Vietnam experienced swine disease outbreaks causing clinical signs similar to the 'porcine high fever disease' that occurred in China during 2006. Analysis of diagnostic samples from the disease outbreaks in Vietnam identified porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2). Additionally, Escherichia coli and Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus were cultured from lung and spleen, and Streptococcus suis from one spleen sample. Genetic characterization of the Vietnamese PRRSV isolates revealed that this virus belongs to the North American genotype (type 2) with a high nucleotide identity to the recently reported Chinese strains. Amino acid sequence in the nsp2 region revealed 95.7-99.4% identity to Chinese strain HUN4, 68-69% identity to strain VR-2332 and 58-59% identity to strain MN184. A partial deletion in the nsp2 gene was detected; however, this deletion did not appear to enhance the virus pathogenicity in the inoculated pigs. Animal inoculation studies were conducted to determine the pathogenicity of PRRSV and to identify other possible agents present in the original specimens. Pigs inoculated with PRRSV alone and their contacts showed persistent fever, and two of five pigs developed cough, neurological signs and swollen joints. Necropsy examination showed mild to moderate bronchopneumonia, enlarged lymph nodes, fibrinous pericarditis and polyarthritis. PRRSV was re-isolated from blood and tissues of the inoculated and contact pigs. Pigs inoculated with lung and spleen tissue homogenates from sick pigs from Vietnam developed high fever, septicaemia, and died acutely within 72 h, while their contact pigs showed no clinical signs throughout the experiment. Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus was cultured, and PRRSV was re-isolated only from the inoculated pigs. Results suggest that the cause of the swine deaths in Vietnam is a multifactorial syndrome with PRRSV as a major factor. PMID:20629970

  1. Bdellovibrios, potential biocontrol bacteria against pathogenic Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed

    Cao, Haipeng; He, Shan; Wang, Huicong; Hou, Sanling; Lu, Liqun; Yang, Xianle

    2012-01-27

    Recent studies have revealed that the use of bdellovibrios is an alternative to control bacteriosis. However, no bdellovibrios are available against Aeromonas hydrophila infections in sturgeons. In the present study, a potential Bdellovibrio strain F16 was isolated from sturgeon gut samples, using a sturgeon-pathogenic A. hydrophila as the prey bacterium. It was initially identified as a Bdellovibrio strain using morphological characteristics and specific PCR amplification, and confirmed to be Bdellovibrio sp. strain ETB (GenBank Accession No. DQ302728) and Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus strain SRA9 (GenBank Accession No. AF263833) by phylogenetic analysis. In addition, it was shown to be safe for mammalians and sturgeons, had a wide prey range, and exhibited significant bacteriolytic effects on the pathogenic A. hydrophila. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on a promising gut Bdellovibrio strain against pathogenic A. hydrophila. PMID:21864996

  2. An Acute Immune Response to Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Replication Contributes to Viral Pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Baseler, Laura J; Falzarano, Darryl; Scott, Dana P; Rosenke, Rebecca; Thomas, Tina; Munster, Vincent J; Feldmann, Heinz; de Wit, Emmie

    2016-03-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was first identified in a human with severe pneumonia in 2012. Since then, infections have been detected in >1500 individuals, with disease severity ranging from asymptomatic to severe, fatal pneumonia. To elucidate the pathogenesis of this virus and investigate mechanisms underlying disease severity variation in the absence of autopsy data, a rhesus macaque and common marmoset model of MERS-CoV disease were analyzed. Rhesus macaques developed mild disease, and common marmosets exhibited moderate to severe, potentially lethal, disease. Both nonhuman primate species exhibited respiratory clinical signs after inoculation, which were more severe and of longer duration in the marmosets, and developed bronchointerstitial pneumonia. In marmosets, the pneumonia was more extensive, with development of severe airway lesions. Quantitative analysis showed significantly higher levels of pulmonary neutrophil infiltration and higher amounts of pulmonary viral antigen in marmosets. Pulmonary expression of the MERS-CoV receptor, dipeptidyl peptidase 4, was similar in marmosets and macaques. These results suggest that increased virus replication and the local immune response to MERS-CoV infection likely play a role in pulmonary pathology severity. Together, the rhesus macaque and common marmoset models of MERS-CoV span the wide range of disease severity reported in MERS-CoV-infected humans, which will aid in investigating MERS-CoV disease pathogenesis. PMID:26724387

  3. Pathogenic Potential of Novel Chlamydiae and Diagnostic Approaches to Infections Due to These Obligate Intracellular Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Corsaro, Daniele; Greub, Gilbert

    2006-01-01

    Novel chlamydiae are newly recognized members of the phylum Chlamydiales that are only distantly related to the classic Chlamydiaceae, i.e., Chlamydia and Chlamydophila species. They also exibit an obligate biphasic intracellular life cycle within eukaryote host cells. Some of these new chlamydiae are currently considered potential emerging human and/or animal pathogens. Parachlamydia acanthamoebae and Simkania negevensis are both emerging respiratory human pathogens, Waddlia chondrophila could be a novel abortigenic bovine agent, and Piscichlamydia salmonis has recently been identified as an agent of the gill epitheliocystis in the Atlantic salmon. Fritschea spp. and Rhabdochlamydia spp. seem to be confined to arthropods, but some evidence for human exposure exists. In this review, we first summarize the data supporting a pathogenic potential of the novel chlamydiae for humans and other vertebrates and the interactions that most of these chlamydiae have with free-living amoebae. We then review the diagnostic approaches to infections potentially due to the novel chlamydiae, especially focusing on the currently available PCR-based protocols, mammalian cell culture, the amoebal coculture system, and serology. PMID:16614250

  4. Detection of viral and bacterial pathogens in hospitalized children with acute respiratory illnesses, Chongqing, 2009-2013.

    PubMed

    Wei, Lan; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Xiao-Ai; Liu, En-Mei; Wo, Yin; Cowling, Benjamin J; Cao, Wu-Chun

    2015-04-01

    Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) cause large disease burden each year. The codetection of viral and bacterial pathogens is quite common; however, the significance for clinical severity remains controversial. We aimed to identify viruses and bacteria in hospitalized children with ARI and the impact of mixed detections.Hospitalized children with ARI aged ≤16 were recruited from 2009 to 2013 at the Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China. Nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPAs) were collected for detection of common respiratory viruses by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) or PCR. Bacteria were isolated from NPAs by routine culture methods. Detection and codetection frequencies and clinical features and severity were compared.Of the 3181 hospitalized children, 2375 (74.7%) were detected with ≥1 virus and 707 (22.2%) with ≥1 bacteria, 901 (28.3%) with ≥2 viruses, 57 (1.8%) with ≥2 bacteria, and 542 (17.0%) with both virus and bacteria. The most frequently detected were Streptococcus pneumoniae, respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza virus, and influenza virus. Clinical characteristics were similar among different pathogen infections for older group (≥6 years old), with some significant difference for the younger. Cases with any codetection were more likely to present with fever; those with ≥2 virus detections had higher prevalence of cough; cases with virus and bacteria codetection were more likely to have cough and sputum. No significant difference in the risk of pneumonia, severe pneumonia, and intensive care unit admission were found for any codetection than monodetection.There was a high codetection rate of common respiratory pathogens among hospitalized pediatric ARI cases, with fever as a significant predictor. Cases with codetection showed no significant difference in severity than those with single pathogens. PMID:25906103

  5. Detection of Viral and Bacterial Pathogens in Hospitalized Children With Acute Respiratory Illnesses, Chongqing, 2009–2013

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Lan; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Xiao-Ai; Liu, En-Mei; Wo, Yin; Cowling, Benjamin J.; Cao, Wu-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) cause large disease burden each year. The codetection of viral and bacterial pathogens is quite common; however, the significance for clinical severity remains controversial. We aimed to identify viruses and bacteria in hospitalized children with ARI and the impact of mixed detections. Hospitalized children with ARI aged ≤16 were recruited from 2009 to 2013 at the Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China. Nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPAs) were collected for detection of common respiratory viruses by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) or PCR. Bacteria were isolated from NPAs by routine culture methods. Detection and codetection frequencies and clinical features and severity were compared. Of the 3181 hospitalized children, 2375 (74.7%) were detected with ≥1 virus and 707 (22.2%) with ≥1 bacteria, 901 (28.3%) with ≥2 viruses, 57 (1.8%) with ≥2 bacteria, and 542 (17.0%) with both virus and bacteria. The most frequently detected were Streptococcus pneumoniae, respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza virus, and influenza virus. Clinical characteristics were similar among different pathogen infections for older group (≥6 years old), with some significant difference for the younger. Cases with any codetection were more likely to present with fever; those with ≥2 virus detections had higher prevalence of cough; cases with virus and bacteria codetection were more likely to have cough and sputum. No significant difference in the risk of pneumonia, severe pneumonia, and intensive care unit admission were found for any codetection than monodetection. There was a high codetection rate of common respiratory pathogens among hospitalized pediatric ARI cases, with fever as a significant predictor. Cases with codetection showed no significant difference in severity than those with single pathogens. PMID:25906103

  6. Antibacterial activity of carbapenems against clinical isolates of respiratory bacterial pathogens in the northeastern region of Japan in 2007.

    PubMed

    Gomi, Kazunori; Fujimura, Shigeru; Fuse, Katsuhiro; Takane, Hidenari; Nakano, Yoshihisa; Kariya, Yasuko; Kikuchi, Toshiaki; Kurokawa, Iku; Tokue, Yutaka; Watanabe, Akira

    2011-04-01

    As the increasing prevalence of resistant strains of respiratory bacterial pathogens has recently been reported, continuous monitoring of the susceptibility of clinical isolates to antibacterial agents is important. We performed a surveillance study focusing on the susceptibility of major respiratory bacterial pathogens in the northeastern region of Japan to carbapenems and control drugs. A total of 168 bacterial strains isolated from patients with respiratory tract infections in 2007 were collected and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determined. MIC data were subjected to pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analysis with Monte Carlo simulation to calculate the probability of achieving the target of time above MIC with each carbapenem. All Moraxella catarrhalis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus isolates were susceptible to carbapenems. Despite the increasing prevalence of β-lactamase-nonproducing ampicillin-resistant strains, all Haemophilus influenzae isolates were susceptible to meropenem. For Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the susceptibility rates for meropenem and biapenem were 76.7%, and the highest probability of achieving pharmacodynamic target (40% of the time above MIC) was obtained with meropenem 0.5 g three times daily as a 4-h infusion (89.4%), followed by meropenem 0.5 g four times daily as a 1-h infusion (88.4%). Carbapenems have retained their position as key drugs for severe respiratory tract infections. PMID:20839026

  7. A multiplexed reverse transcriptase PCR assay for identification of viral respiratory pathogens at point-of-care

    SciTech Connect

    Letant, S E; .Ortiz, J I; Tammero, L; Birch, J M; Derlet, R W; Cohen, S; Manning, D; McBride, M T

    2007-04-11

    We have developed a nucleic acid-based assay that is rapid, sensitive, specific, and can be used for the simultaneous detection of 5 common human respiratory pathogens including influenza A, influenza B, parainfluenza type 1 and 3, respiratory syncytial virus, and adenovirus group B, C, and E. Typically, diagnosis on an un-extracted clinical sample can be provided in less than 3 hours, including sample collection, preparation, and processing, as well as data analysis. Such a multiplexed panel would enable rapid broad-spectrum pathogen testing on nasal swabs, and therefore allow implementation of infection control measures, and timely administration of antiviral therapies. This article presents a summary of the assay performance in terms of sensitivity and specificity. Limits of detection are provided for each targeted respiratory pathogen, and result comparisons are performed on clinical samples, our goal being to compare the sensitivity and specificity of the multiplexed assay to the combination of immunofluorescence and shell vial culture currently implemented at the UCDMC hospital. Overall, the use of the multiplexed RT-PCR assay reduced the rate of false negatives by 4% and reduced the rate of false positives by up to 10%. The assay correctly identified 99.3% of the clinical negatives, 97% of adenovirus, 95% of RSV, 92% of influenza B, and 77% of influenza A without any extraction performed on the clinical samples. The data also showed that extraction will be needed for parainfluenza virus, which was only identified correctly 24% of the time on un-extracted samples.

  8. Antibacterial potential of Calotropis procera (flower) extract against various pathogens.

    PubMed

    Ali, Abid; Ansari, Asma; Qader, Shah Ali Ul; Mumtaz, Majid; Saied, Sumayya; Mahboob, Tabassum

    2014-09-01

    Increased bacterial resistance towards commonly used antibiotics has become a debated issue all over the world in a last few decades. Due to this, consumer demand towards natural anti-microbial agents is increasing day by day. Natural anti-microbial agents have gained enormous attention as an alternative therapeutic agent in pharmaceutical industry. Current study is an effort to explore and identify a bactericidal potential of various solvent extracts of Calotropis procera flower. Flowers of C. procera were extracted with hexane, butanol, ethyl acetate and aqua to evaluate the antibacterial activity by agar well diffusion method against the various human pathogens. The microorganisms used in this study includes Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli (O157:H7), Micrococcus luteus KIBGE-IB20 (Gen Bank accession: JQ250612) and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) KIBGE-IB23 (Gen Bank accession: KC465400). Zones of inhibition were observed against all four pathogenic strains. Fraction soluble in hexane showed broad spectrum of inhibition against all the studied pathogens. However, fractions soluble in ethyl acetate inhibited the growth of E. coli, MRSA, and M. luteus. In case of butanol and aqueous extracts only growth of M. luteus was inhibited. Results revealed that the flower extracts of C. procera have a potential to be used as an antibacterial agent against these pathogenic organisms. PMID:25176228

  9. Neuroinvasive and neurotropic human respiratory coronaviruses: potential neurovirulent agents in humans.

    PubMed

    Desforges, Marc; Le Coupanec, Alain; Brison, Elodie; Meessen-Pinard, Mathieu; Talbot, Pierre J

    2014-01-01

    In humans, viral infections of the respiratory tract are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Several recognized respiratory viral agents have a neuroinvasive capacity since they can spread from the respiratory tract to the central nervous system (CNS). Once there, infection of CNS cells (neurotropism) could lead to human health problems, such as encephalitis and long-term neurological diseases. Among the various respiratory viruses, coronaviruses are important pathogens of humans and animals. Human Coronaviruses (HCoV) usually infect the upper respiratory tract, where they are mainly associated with common colds. However, in more vulnerable populations, such as newborns, infants, the elderly, and immune-compromised individuals, they can also affect the lower respiratory tract, leading to pneumonia, exacerbations of asthma, respiratory distress syndrome, or even severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). The respiratory involvement of HCoV has been clearly established since the 1960s. In addition, for almost three decades now, the scientific literature has also demonstrated that HCoV are neuroinvasive and neurotropic and could induce an overactivation of the immune system, in part by participating in the activation of autoreactive immune cells that could be associated with autoimmunity in susceptible individuals. Furthermore, it was shown that in the murine CNS, neurons are the main target of infection, which causes these essential cells to undergo degeneration and eventually die by some form of programmed cell death after virus infection. Moreover, it appears that the viral surface glycoprotein (S) represents an important factor in the neurodegenerative process. Given all these properties, it has been suggested that these recognized human respiratory pathogens could be associated with the triggering or the exacerbation of neurological diseases for which the etiology remains unknown or poorly understood. PMID:24619619

  10. Genetic variation, pathogenicity, and immunogenicity of highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus strain XH-GD at different passage levels.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yao; He, Shuyi; Sun, Long; Luo, Yongfeng; Sun, Yankuo; Xie, Jiexiong; Zhou, Pei; Su, Shuo; Zhang, Guihong

    2016-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is one of the most economically important infectious diseases of swine worldwide. Immunization with an attenuated vaccine is considered an effective method for reducing the economic losses resulting from porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection. Several studies have shown that PRRSV can be attenuated by passage in Marc-145 cells, but it is still not clear whether this attenuation influences the immunogenicity of PRRSV and what the mechanism of attenuation is. In order to study the mechanism of attenuation and immunogenicity of highly pathogenic (HP) PRRSV, the HP-PRRSV strain XH-GD was serially 122 times passaged in Marc-145 cells. Genomic sequence comparisons were made at selected passages. To explore the differences in pathogenicity and immunogenicity at different passages, three passages (P5, P62 and P122) were selected for an animal challenge experiment, which showed that passage in Marc-145 cells resulted in attenuation of the virus. After 122 passages, 35 amino acid changes were observed in the structural proteins and non-structural proteins. The animal challenge experiment showed that pathogenicity decreased with increasing passage number. The N antibody level and specific neutralizing (SN) antibody titers also decreased with increasing passage number in the late stage of the animal experiment. This study indicated that the virulence of XH-GD was decreased by passage in Marc-145 cells and that overattenuation might influence the immunogenicity of virus. These results might contribute to our understanding of the mechanism of attenuation. PMID:26483282

  11. Effects of vaccination against respiratory pathogens on feed intake, metabolic, and inflammatory responses in beef heifers.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, M C; Cooke, R F; Marques, R S; Cappellozza, B I; Arispe, S A; Keisler, D H; Bohnert, D W

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate intake, metabolic, inflammatory, and acute-phase responses in beef heifers vaccinated against pathogens that cause bovine respiratory disease (BRD). Eighteen weaned Angus heifers (initial BW 257 ± 3 kg; initial age 245 ± 2 d) were ranked by BW and allocated to 2 groups, which were assigned to 2 experiments of 7 d and the following treatments on d 1 of each experiment: 1) revaccinated against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, parainfluenza-3 virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine viral diarrhea Types 1 and 2 viruses, and (VAC; 2 mL [s.c.]) and 2) receiving a 2-mL s.c. injection of 0.9% sterile saline (CON). The group receiving VAC in Exp. 1 was assigned to CON in Exp. 2 and vice versa. Heifers were weaned 21 d before Exp. 1, when they all received the first dose of the aforementioned vaccine. Heifers were maintained in individual pens and offered free-choice mixed alfalfa-grass hay and 3.5 kg/d (DM basis) of a corn-based supplement throughout the study. During Exp. 1, hay and concentrate intake were evaluated daily. During Exp. 2, blood samples were collected before (-2 and 0 h) and at 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 96, 120, 144, and 168 h after treatment administration. In Exp. 1, treatment × day interactions were detected ( < 0.01) for forage intake and total DMI; these parameters were reduced ( ≤ 0.05) in VAC heifers compared with CON heifers on d 1 and 2 by an average of 1.7 and 0.8 kg (DM basis), respectively. In Exp. 2, mean serum tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) concentration was greater ( = 0.05) in VAC heifers compared with CON heifers and treatment × hour interactions were detected for all plasma variables ( ≤ 0.02), whereas a similar tendency was detected ( = 0.09) for blood α mRNA expression. Haptoglobin concentrations were greater ( ≤ 0.05) in VAC heifers compared with CON heifers from 16 to 120 h. Blood α mRNA expression was greater ( = 0.05) in VAC heifers compared with CON heifers at 12 h. Cortisol concentrations were greater ( ≤ 0.05) in VAC heifers compared with CON heifers from 2 to 16 h. Insulin concentration was greater ( = 0.02) in VAC heifers compared with CON heifers at 2 h. Leptin concentrations were greater ( ≤ 0.05) in VAC heifers compared with CON heifers from 6 to 16 h. In conclusion, vaccinating beef heifers against BRD pathogens decreased forage intake and total DMI during the 2 d following vaccination in Exp. 1, which can be associated with transient metabolic, inflammatory, and acute-phase responses elicited by vaccination in Exp. 2. PMID:26440344

  12. CRISPR Content Correlates with the Pathogenic Potential of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    García-Gutiérrez, Enriqueta; Almendros, Cristóbal; Mojica, Francisco J. M.; Guzmán, Noemí M.; García-Martínez, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Guide RNA molecules (crRNA) produced from clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) arrays, altogether with effector proteins (Cas) encoded by cognate cas (CRISPR associated) genes, mount an interference mechanism (CRISPR-Cas) that limits acquisition of foreign DNA in Bacteria and Archaea. The specificity of this action is provided by the repeat intervening spacer carried in the crRNA, which upon hybridization with complementary sequences enables their degradation by a Cas endonuclease. Moreover, CRISPR arrays are dynamic landscapes that may gain new spacers from infecting elements or lose them for example during genome replication. Thus, the spacer content of a strain determines the diversity of sequences that can be targeted by the corresponding CRISPR-Cas system reflecting its functionality. Most Escherichia coli strains possess either type I-E or I-F CRISPR-Cas systems. To evaluate their impact on the pathogenicity of the species, we inferred the pathotype and pathogenic potential of 126 strains of this and other closely related species and analyzed their repeat content. Our results revealed a negative correlation between the number of I-E CRISPR units in this system and the presence of pathogenicity traits: the median number of repeats was 2.5-fold higher for commensal isolates (with 29.5 units, range 0–53) than for pathogenic ones (12.0, range 0–42). Moreover, the higher the number of virulence factors within a strain, the lower the repeat content. Additionally, pathogenic strains of distinct ecological niches (i.e., intestinal or extraintestinal) differ in repeat counts. Altogether, these findings support an evolutionary connection between CRISPR and pathogenicity in E. coli. PMID:26136211

  13. Chemical reactivity measurements: potential for characterization of respiratory chemical allergens.

    PubMed

    Lalko, Jon F; Kimber, Ian; Dearman, Rebecca J; Gerberick, G Frank; Sarlo, Katherine; Api, Anne Marie

    2011-03-01

    Allergic diseases of the skin and respiratory tract resulting from exposure to low molecular weight chemicals remain important issues for consumer product development and occupational/environmental health. Widespread opportunities for exposure to chemical allergens require that there are available effective methods for hazard identification and risk assessment. In the search for new tools for hazard identification/characterization there has been interest in developing alternative methods that will reduce, refine or replace the need for animals. One approach that shows promise is based on the measurement of the peptide reactivity of chemicals; the potential to form stable associations with protein/peptide being a key requirement for the induction of sensitization. Recent investigations using these systems have focused primarily on skin sensitizing chemicals. However, there is interest in the possibility of exploiting these same experimental approaches to distinguish between different forms of chemical allergens - as individual materials are primarily associated with one or the other form of sensitization in humans. These investigations may also provide insight into why chemical sensitizers can differ in the form of allergic disease they will preferentially induce. These opportunities are surveyed here against a background of the immunobiology of allergic sensitization and current state-of-the-art approaches to measurement of peptide/protein reactivity. PMID:21092755

  14. Biomarkers of acute respiratory allergen exposure: Screening for sensitization potential

    SciTech Connect

    Pucheu-Haston, Cherie M.; Copeland, Lisa B.; Vallanat, Beena; Boykin, Elizabeth; Ward, Marsha D.W.

    2010-04-15

    Effective hazard screening will require the development of high-throughput or in vitro assays for the identification of potential sensitizers. The goal of this preliminary study was to identify potential biomarkers that differentiate the response to allergens vs non-allergens following an acute exposure in naive individuals. Female BALB/c mice received a single intratracheal aspiration exposure to Metarhizium anisopliae crude antigen (MACA) or bovine serum albumin (BSA) in Hank's Balanced Salt Solution (HBSS) or HBSS alone. Mice were terminated after 1, 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 h. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was evaluated to determine total and differential cellularity, total protein concentration and LDH activity. RNA was isolated from lung tissue for microarray analysis and qRT-PCR. MACA administration induced a rapid increase in BALF neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils and total protein compared to BSA or HBSS. Microarray analysis demonstrated differential expression of genes involved in cytokine production, signaling, inflammatory cell recruitment, adhesion and activation in 3 and 12 h MACA-treated samples compared to BSA or HBSS. Further analyses allowed identification of approx 100 candidate biomarker genes. Eleven genes were selected for further assessment by qRT-PCR. Of these, 6 demonstrated persistently increased expression (Ccl17, Ccl22, Ccl7, Cxcl10, Cxcl2, Saa1), while C3ar1 increased from 6-24 h. In conclusion, a single respiratory exposure of mice to an allergenic mold extract induces an inflammatory response which is distinct in phenotype and gene transcription from the response to a control protein. Further validation of these biomarkers with additional allergens and irritants is needed. These biomarkers may facilitate improvements in screening methods.

  15. Prevalence of upper respiratory pathogens in four management models for unowned cats in the Southeast United States.

    PubMed

    McManus, C M; Levy, J K; Andersen, L A; McGorray, S P; Leutenegger, C M; Gray, L K; Hilligas, J; Tucker, S J

    2014-08-01

    Upper respiratory infection (URI) is a pervasive problem in cats and impacts the capacity and cost of sheltering programs. This study determined the pattern of respiratory pathogens in cats with and without clinical signs of URI in four different models for managing unowned cats, namely, (1) short-term animal shelters (STS), (2) long-term sanctuaries (LTS), (3) home-based foster care programs (FCP), and (4) trap-neuter-return programs for community cats (TNR). Conjunctival and oropharyngeal swabs from 543 cats, approximately half of which showed clinical signs of URI, were tested for feline herpes virus-1 (FHV), feline calicivirus (FCV), Chlamydia felis, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Mycoplasma felis, and canine influenza virus by real-time PCR. FHV (59%, 41%) and B. bronchiseptica (33%, 24%) were more prevalent in both clinically affected and nonclinical cats, respectively, in STS than other management models. FCV (67%, 51%) and M. felis (84%, 86%) were more prevalent in LTS than any other management model. Clinically affected cats in FCP were more likely to carry FHV (23%, 6%), C. felis (24%, 10%), or M. felis (58%, 38%) than were nonclinical cats. Clinically affected cats in TNR were more likely to carry FCV (55%, 36%) or C. felis (23%, 4%) than were nonclinical cats. The prevalence of individual pathogens varied between different management models, but the majority of the cats in each model carried one or more respiratory pathogens regardless of clinical signs. Both confined and free-roaming cats are at risk of developing infectious respiratory disease and their health should be protected by strategic vaccination, appropriate antibiotic therapy, effective biosecurity, feline stress mitigation, and alternatives to high-density confinement. PMID:24923756

  16. Upper Respiratory Tract Microbial Communities, Acute Otitis Media Pathogens, and Antibiotic Use in Healthy and Sick Children

    PubMed Central

    Laufer, Alison S.; Gent, Janneane F.; Kong, Yong; Fennie, Kristopher P.; Metlay, Joshua P.

    2012-01-01

    The composition of the upper respiratory tract microbial community may influence the risk for colonization by the acute otitis media (AOM) pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis. We used culture-independent methods to describe upper respiratory tract microbial communities in healthy children and children with upper respiratory tract infection with and without concurrent AOM. Nasal swabs and data were collected in a cross-sectional study of 240 children between 6 months and 3 years of age. Swabs were cultured for S. pneumoniae, and real-time PCR was used to identify S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, and M. catarrhalis. The V1-V2 16S rRNA gene regions were sequenced using 454 pyrosequencing. Microbial communities were described using a taxon-based approach. Colonization by S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, and M. catarrhalis was associated with lower levels of diversity in upper respiratory tract flora. We identified commensal taxa that were negatively associated with colonization by each AOM bacterial pathogen and with AOM. The balance of these relationships differed according to the colonizing AOM pathogen and history of antibiotic use. Children with antibiotic use in the past 6 months and a greater abundance of taxa, including Lactococcus and Propionibacterium, were less likely to have AOM than healthy children (odds ratio [OR], 0.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.25 to 0.85). Children with no antibiotic use in the past 6 months, a low abundance of Streptococcus and Haemophilus, and a high abundance of Corynebacterium and Dolosigranulum were less likely to have AOM (OR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.31 to 0.83). An increased understanding of polymicrobial interactions will facilitate the development of effective AOM prevention strategies. PMID:22752171

  17. Distribution of Indigenous Bacterial Pathogens and Potential Pathogens Associated with Roof-Harvested Rainwater

    PubMed Central

    Dobrowsky, P. H.; De Kwaadsteniet, M.; Cloete, T. E.

    2014-01-01

    The harvesting of rainwater is gaining acceptance among many governmental authorities in countries such as Australia, Germany, and South Africa, among others. However, conflicting reports on the microbial quality of harvested rainwater have been published. To monitor the presence of potential pathogenic bacteria during high-rainfall periods, rainwater from 29 rainwater tanks was sampled on four occasions (during June and August 2012) in a sustainable housing project in Kleinmond, South Africa. This resulted in the collection of 116 harvested rainwater samples in total throughout the sampling period. The identities of the dominant, indigenous, presumptive pathogenic isolates obtained from the rainwater samples throughout the sampling period were confirmed through universal 16S rRNA PCR, and the results revealed that Pseudomonas (19% of samples) was the dominant genus isolated, followed by Aeromonas (16%), Klebsiella (11%), and Enterobacter (9%). PCR assays employing genus-specific primers also confirmed the presence of Aeromonas spp. (16%), Klebsiella spp. (47%), Legionella spp. (73%), Pseudomonas spp. (13%), Salmonella spp. (6%), Shigella spp. (27%), and Yersinia spp. (28%) in the harvested rainwater samples. In addition, on one sampling occasion, Giardia spp. were detected in 25% of the eight tank water samples analyzed. This study highlights the diverse array of pathogenic bacteria that persist in harvested rainwater during high-rainfall periods. The consumption of untreated harvested rainwater could thus pose a potential significant health threat to consumers, especially children and immunocompromised individuals, and it is recommended that harvested rainwater be treated for safe usage as an alternative water source. PMID:24487540

  18. ANTIMICROBIAL PEPTIDES AND SURFACTANT PROTEINS: POTENTIAL NEW FACTORS AGAINST RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although some vaccines and antibiotics have been very effective in preventing and treating respiratory disease, they have not been fully satisfactory. Recently, components of the innate immune system have been increasingly appreciated for their role in host defense against microbial pathogens. The...

  19. Rethinking biosafety in research on potential pandemic pathogens.

    PubMed

    Lipsitch, Marc; Bloom, Barry R

    2012-01-01

    If accidentally released, mammalian-transmissible influenza A/H5N1 viruses could pose a greater threat to public health than possibly any other infectious agent currently under study in laboratories, because of such viruses' likely combination of transmissibility and virulence to humans. We advocate explicit risk-benefit assessments before work on such pathogens is permitted or funded, improvement of biosafety practices and enforcement, and harmonization of criteria for permitting such experiments across government agencies, as well as internationally. Such potential pandemic pathogens, as they have been called, jeopardize not only laboratory workers and their contacts, but also the wider population, who should be involved in assessments of when such risks are acceptable in the service of scientific knowledge that may itself bear major public health benefits. PMID:23047752

  20. Rethinking Biosafety in Research on Potential Pandemic Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Lipsitch, Marc; Bloom, Barry R.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT If accidentally released, mammalian-transmissible influenza A/H5N1 viruses could pose a greater threat to public health than possibly any other infectious agent currently under study in laboratories, because of such viruses likely combination of transmissibility and virulence to humans. We advocate explicit risk-benefit assessments before work on such pathogens is permitted or funded, improvement of biosafety practices and enforcement, and harmonization of criteria for permitting such experiments across government agencies, as well as internationally. Such potential pandemic pathogens, as they have been called, jeopardize not only laboratory workers and their contacts, but also the wider population, who should be involved in assessments of when such risks are acceptable in the service of scientific knowledge that may itself bear major public health benefits. PMID:23047752

  1. A Network Integration Approach to Predict Conserved Regulators Related to Pathogenicity of Influenza and SARS-CoV Respiratory Viruses

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Hugh D.; Eisfeld, Amie J.; Sims, Amy; McDermott, Jason E.; Matzke, Melissa M.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Tilton, Susan C.; Tchitchek, Nicholas; Josset, Laurence; Li, Chengjun; Ellis, Amy L.; Chang, Jean H.; Heegel, Robert A.; Luna, Maria L.; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Shukla, Anil K.; Metz, Thomas O.; Neumann, Gabriele; Benecke, Arndt; Smith, Richard D.; Baric, Ralph; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Katze, Michael G.; Waters, Katrina M.

    2013-07-25

    Respiratory infections stemming from influenza viruses and the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome corona virus (SARS-CoV) represent a serious public health threat as emerging pandemics. Despite efforts to identify the critical interactions of these viruses with host machinery, the key regulatory events that lead to disease pathology remain poorly targeted with therapeutics. Here we implement an integrated network interrogation approach, in which proteome and transcriptome datasets from infection of both viruses in human lung epithelial cells are utilized to predict regulatory genes involved in the host response. We take advantage of a novel “crowd-based” approach to identify and combine ranking metrics that isolate genes/proteins likely related to the pathogenicity of SARS-CoV and influenza virus. Subsequently, a multivariate regression model is used to compare predicted lung epithelial regulatory influences with data derived from other respiratory virus infection models. We predicted a small set of regulatory factors with conserved behavior for consideration as important components of viral pathogenesis that might also serve as therapeutic targets for intervention. Our results demonstrate the utility of integrating diverse ‘omic datasets to predict and prioritize regulatory features conserved across multiple pathogen infection models.

  2. Analysis of the swine tracheobronchial lymphnode transcriptomic response to infection with a Chinese highly pathogenic strain of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a major pathogen of swine worldwide. Emergence in 2006 of a novel highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) isolate in China necessitated a comparative investigation into the host transcriptome response in tracheobronchial lymph nodes (TBLN) 14...

  3. Analysis of the swine tracheobronchial lymphnode transcriptomic response to infection with a Chinese highly pathogenic strain of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a major pathogen of swine worldwide. Emergence in 2006 of a novel highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) isolate in China necessitated a comparative investigation into the host transcriptome response in tracheobronchial lymph nod...

  4. Swine tracheobronchial lymph node mRNA responses in swine infected with a highly pathogenic strain of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a major pathogen of swine worldwide. Emergence in 2006 of a novel highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) isolate in China necessitated a comparative investigation into the host transcriptome response in tracheobronchial lymph nodes (TBLN) 14...

  5. Analysis of the pathogenic potential of nosocomial Pseudomonas putida strains

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Matilde; Porcel, Mario; de la Torre, Jesús; Molina-Henares, M. A.; Daddaoua, Abdelali; Llamas, María A.; Roca, Amalia; Carriel, Victor; Garzón, Ingrid; Ramos, Juan L.; Alaminos, Miguel; Duque, Estrella

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida strains are ubiquitous in soil and water but have also been reported as opportunistic human pathogens capable of causing nosocomial infections. In this study we describe the multilocus sequence typing of four P. putida strains (HB13667, HB8234, HB4184, and HB3267) isolated from in-patients at the Besançon Hospital (France). The four isolates (in particular HB3267) were resistant to a number of antibiotics. The pathogenicity and virulence potential of the strains was tested ex vivo and in vivo using different biological models: human tissue culture, mammalian tissues, and insect larvae. Our results showed a significant variability in the ability of the four strains to damage the host; HB13667 did not exhibit any pathogenic traits, HB4184 caused damage only ex vivo in human tissue cultures, and HB8234 had a deleterious effect in tissue culture and in vivo on rat skin, but not in insect larvae. Interestingly, strain HB3267 caused damage in all the model systems studied. The putative evolution of these strains in medical environments is discussed. PMID:26379646

  6. Microbial Diversity and Potential Pathogens in Ornamental Fish Aquarium Water

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Katherine F.; Schmidt, Victor; Rosen, Gail E.; Amaral-Zettler, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Ornamental fishes are among the most popular and fastest growing categories of pets in the United States (U.S.). The global scope and scale of the ornamental fish trade and growing popularity of pet fish in the U.S. are strong indicators of the myriad economic and social benefits the pet industry provides. Relatively little is known about the microbial communities associated with these ornamental fishes or the aquarium water in which they are transported and housed. Using conventional molecular approaches and next generation high-throughput amplicon sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA gene hypervariable regions, we characterized the bacterial community of aquarium water containing common goldfish (Carassius auratus) and Chinese algae eaters (Gyrinocheilus aymonieri) purchased from seven pet/aquarium shops in Rhode Island and identified the presence of potential pathogens. Our survey identified a total of 30 phyla, the most common being Proteobacteria (52%), Bacteroidetes (18%) and Planctomycetes (6%), with the top four phyla representing >80% of all sequences. Sequences from our water samples were most closely related to eleven bacterial species that have the potential to cause disease in fishes, humans and other species: Coxiella burnetii, Flavobacterium columnare, Legionella birminghamensis, L. pneumophila, Vibrio cholerae, V. mimicus. V. vulnificus, Aeromonas schubertii, A. veronii, A. hydrophila and Plesiomonas shigelloides. Our results, combined with evidence from the literature, suggest aquarium tank water harboring ornamental fish are an understudied source for novel microbial communities and pathogens that pose potential risks to the pet industry, fishes in trade, humans and other species. PMID:22970112

  7. REVIEW: ASSESSING THE POTENTIAL TO INDUCE RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The respiratory tract has been long recognized as an important target organ in the safety assessment of drugs and chemicals, as well as protein- or peptide-based products. Indeed, acute and repeat dose inhalation studies have been an important part of guideline studies throughou...

  8. Biomarkers of Acute Respiratory Allergen Exposure: Screening For Sensitization Potential

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: An in vitro assay to identify respiratory sensitizers will provide a rapid screen and reduce animal use. The study goal was to identify biomarkers that differentiate allergen versus non-allergen responses following an acute exposure. Methods: Female BALB/c mice rec...

  9. RNA-Seq Based Transcriptional Map of Bovine Respiratory Disease Pathogen Histophilus somni 2336

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ranjit; Lawrence, Mark L.; Watt, James; Cooksey, Amanda M.; Burgess, Shane C.; Nanduri, Bindu

    2012-01-01

    Genome structural annotation, i.e., identification and demarcation of the boundaries for all the functional elements in a genome (e.g., genes, non-coding RNAs, proteins and regulatory elements), is a prerequisite for systems level analysis. Current genome annotation programs do not identify all of the functional elements of the genome, especially small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs). Whole genome transcriptome analysis is a complementary method to identify novel genes, small RNAs, regulatory regions, and operon structures, thus improving the structural annotation in bacteria. In particular, the identification of non-coding RNAs has revealed their widespread occurrence and functional importance in gene regulation, stress and virulence. However, very little is known about non-coding transcripts in Histophilus somni, one of the causative agents of Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD) as well as bovine infertility, abortion, septicemia, arthritis, myocarditis, and thrombotic meningoencephalitis. In this study, we report a single nucleotide resolution transcriptome map of H. somni strain 2336 using RNA-Seq method. The RNA-Seq based transcriptome map identified 94 sRNAs in the H. somni genome of which 82 sRNAs were never predicted or reported in earlier studies. We also identified 38 novel potential protein coding open reading frames that were absent in the current genome annotation. The transcriptome map allowed the identification of 278 operon (total 730 genes) structures in the genome. When compared with the genome sequence of a non-virulent strain 129Pt, a disproportionate number of sRNAs (?30%) were located in genomic region unique to strain 2336 (?18% of the total genome). This observation suggests that a number of the newly identified sRNAs in strain 2336 may be involved in strain-specific adaptations. PMID:22276113

  10. [Activity of tigecycline against pathogen bacteria isolated in respiratory infectious disease in Europe. TEST study 2004-2007].

    PubMed

    Rio, Y; Okamba, P; Staal, A; Didion, J; Jurin, F

    2009-02-01

    Tigecycline (TGC), a semisynthetic glycylcycline, has a documented activity on Gram+ and Gram- pathogens including oxacillin-resistant (MRSA) and an extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial (TEST) is an international surveillance study designed to assess the in vitro activity of TGC and 11 comparators against a range of important clinical pathogens from both the community and the hospital. The aim of this study was to assess efficacy of TGC, using this database, against pathogens implicated in community or hospital pneumonia and sinusitis. A total of 4163 isolates were consecutively collected in 21 European countries during three years (2004-2007). In all center, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were determinated with the same Microscan panel (Dade-Behring). Tigecycline exhibited a good activity against respiratory pathogens, with the exception of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Hundred percent of cocci Gram+ (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus sp.) and 100% of Haemophilus sp. are inhibited with 0.5 mg/L, without effect of an associated beta-lactam resistance mechanism. TGC is active in vitro on 89% of Enterobacteriaceae, with MIC 90 less or equal to 2mg/L. Eighty-nine percent of Enterobacter sp. and 77% of Serratia sp. are susceptible with range of MIC 90 from 2 to 4 mg/L. These interesting results obtained in vitro are to be strengthened by clinical studies. PMID:18829182

  11. When a respiratory pathogen turns to the skin: cutaneous tuberculosis in a lung transplant patient.

    PubMed

    Voigtländer, Torsten; Cornberg, Markus; Gottlieb, Jens; Welte, Tobias; Suerbaum, Sebastian; Bange, Franz-Christoph

    2015-10-01

    A 62-year-old male, who received immune suppressive therapy due to a lung transplantation several years ago, developed multiple painful abscesses in the right forearm. First misdiagnosed as staphylococcal abscesses, Mycobacterium tuberculosis was eventually cultured from the abscesses. In addition, the patient also suffered from pulmonary tuberculosis and respiratory specimens were also culture-positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Cutaneous tuberculosis must be kept as a differential diagnosis in the case of abscess-like lesions on the skin, especially in immunocompromised patients. Mycobacteria specific tests (polymerase chain reaction in respiratory samples and wound smears) and antituberculotic combination therapy are necessary to treat Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection/reactivation adequately. PMID:25902867

  12. Pathogen recognition receptors crosstalk in respiratory syncytial virus sensing: host and cell type perspective

    PubMed Central

    Marr, Nico; Turvey, Stuart E.

    2015-01-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of acute lower respiratory tract infection in young children, immunocompromized adults and the elderly. The innate immune response plays a pivotal role in host defense against RSV, but whether severe outcomes following RSV infection result from excessive or poor innate immune recognition remains unclear. Recent research suggests a situation in which crosstalk between families of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) occurs in a cell type-dependent manner. The current challenge to empower novel therapeutic approaches and vaccine development is to confirm the role of the individual receptors in RSV pathogenesis in humans. PMID:24119913

  13. Aspirin as a potential treatment in sepsis or acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Toner, Philip; McAuley, Danny Francis; Shyamsundar, Murali

    2015-01-01

    Sepsis is a common condition that is associated with significant morbidity, mortality and health-care cost. Pulmonary and non-pulmonary sepsis are common causes of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The mortality from ARDS remains high despite protective lung ventilation, and currently there are no specific pharmacotherapies to treat sepsis or ARDS. Sepsis and ARDS are characterised by activation of the inflammatory cascade. Although there is much focus on the study of the dysregulated inflammation and its suppression, the associated activation of the haemostatic system has been largely ignored until recently. There has been extensive interest in the role that platelet activation can have in the inflammatory response through induction, aggregation and activation of leucocytes and other platelets. Aspirin can modulate multiple pathogenic mechanisms implicated in the development of multiple organ dysfunction in sepsis and ARDS. This review will discuss the role of the platelet, the mechanisms of action of aspirin in sepsis and ARDS, and aspirin as a potential therapy in treating sepsis and ARDS. PMID:26494395

  14. Control of pathogenic effector T-cell activities in situ by PD-L1 expression on respiratory inflammatory dendritic cells during respiratory syncytial virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Yao, S; Jiang, L; Moser, EK; Jewett, LB; Wright, J; Du, J; Zhou, B; Davis, SD; Krupp, NL; Braciale, TJ; Sun, J

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is a leading cause of severe lower respiratory tract illness in young infants, the elderly and immunocompromised individuals. We demonstrate here that the co-inhibitory molecule programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) is selectively upregulated on T cells within the respiratory tract during both murine and human RSV infection. Importantly, the interaction of PD-1 with its ligand PD-L1 is vital to restrict the pro-inflammatory activities of lung effector T cells in situ, thereby inhibiting the development of excessive pulmonary inflammation and injury during RSV infection. We further identify that PD-L1 expression on lung inflammatory dendritic cells is critical to suppress inflammatory T-cell activities, and an interferon–STAT1–IRF1 axis is responsible for increased PD-L1 expression on lung inflammatory dendritic cells. Our findings suggest a potentially critical role of PD-L1 and PD-1 interactions in the lung for controlling host inflammatory responses and disease progression in clinical RSV infection. PMID:25465101

  15. Comparison of the pathogenicity of Chinese and low virulent US porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, a new strain of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has resulted in huge economic losses in the Chinese pig industry. We imported a cDNA clone of the rJXwn06 Chinese strain from which infectious virus was obtained to test the hypothesis that the novel Chinese PRRSV ...

  16. Pathogenicity and Molecular Characterization of Emerging Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus in Vietnam in 2007

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2007, Vietnam experienced swine disease outbreaks causing clinical signs similar to the "porcine high fever disease" that occurred in China during 2006. Analysis of diagnostic samples from the disease outbreaks in Vietnam identified porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and ...

  17. Endobiotic bacteria and their pathogenic potential in cnidarian tentacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuett, Christian; Doepke, Hilke

    2010-09-01

    Endobiotic bacteria colonize the tentacles of cnidaria. This paper provides first insight into the bacterial spectrum and its potential of pathogenic activities inside four cnidarian species. Sample material originating from Scottish waters comprises the jellyfish species Cyanea capillata and C. lamarckii, hydrozoa Tubularia indivisa and sea anemone Sagartia elegans. Mixed cultures of endobiotic bacteria, pure cultures selected on basis of haemolysis, but also lyophilized samples were prepared from tentacles and used for DGGE-profiling with subsequent phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA fragments. Bacteria were detected in each of the cnidarian species tested. Twenty-one bacterial species including four groups of closely related organisms were found in culture material. The species within these groups could not be differentiated from each other (one group of Pseudoalteromonas spp., two groups of Shewanella spp., one group of Vibrio spp.). Each of the hosts exhibits a specific endobacterial spectrum. Solely Cyanea lamarckii harboured Moritella viscosa. Only in Cyanea capillata, members of the Shewanella group #2 and the species Pseudoalteromonas arctica, Shewanella violacea, Sulfitobacter pontiacus and Arcobacter butzleri were detected. Hydrozoa Tubularia indivisa provided an amazingly wide spectrum of nine bacterial species. Exclusively, in the sea anemone Sagartia elegans, the bacterial species P. aliena was found. Overall eleven bacterial species detected were described recently as novel species. Four 16S rDNA fragments generated from lyophilized material displayed extremely low relationship to their next neighbours. These organisms are regarded as members of the endobiotic “terra incognita”. Since the origin of cnidarian toxins is unclear, the possible pathogenic activity of endobiotic bacteria has to be taken into account. Literature data show that their next neighbours display an interesting diversity of haemolytic, septicaemic and necrotic actions including the production of cytotoxins, tetrodotoxin and R-toxin. Findings of haemolysis tests support the literature data. The potential producers are Endozoicimonas elysicola, Moritella viscosa, Photobacterium profundum, P. aliena, P. tetraodonis, Shewanella waksmanii, Vibrio splendidus, V. aestuarius, Arcobacter butzleri.

  18. Use of loop-mediated isothermal amplification to detect six groups of pathogens causing secondary lower respiratory bacterial infections in horses.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Yuta; Niwa, Hidekazu; Katayama, Yoshinari

    2015-06-01

    Microbial substitution occasionally occurs following the administration of antimicrobials to horses that have pneumonia or pleuropneumonia. Four specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays were developed to detect some equine respiratory pathogens, namely strains of the Bacteroides-Prevotella group, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, and Staphylococcus aureus. These four LAMP assays and two previously published LAMP assays targeting Escherichia coli or Pseudomonas aeruginosa were used on clinical respiratory specimens and a high accordance found between the results of the LAMP assays and bacterial culture. Use of these LAMP assays could enable rapid detection of pathogenic bacteria and swift administration of the appropriate antimicrobials. PMID:25846404

  19. Enterohepatic Helicobacter in Ulcerative Colitis: Potential Pathogenic Entities?

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, John M.; Hansen, Richard; Berry, Susan H.; Hope, Mairi E.; Murray, Graeme I.; Mukhopadhya, Indrani; McLean, Mairi H.; Shen, Zeli; Fox, James G.; El-Omar, Emad; Hold, Georgina L.

    2011-01-01

    Background Changes in bacterial populations termed “dysbiosis” are thought central to ulcerative colitis (UC) pathogenesis. In particular, the possibility that novel Helicobacter organisms play a role in human UC has been debated but not comprehensively investigated. The aim of this study was to develop a molecular approach to investigate the presence of Helicobacter organisms in adults with and without UC. Methodology/Principal Findings A dual molecular approach to detect Helicobacter was developed. Oligonucleotide probes against the genus Helicobacter were designed and optimised alongside a validation of published H. pylori probes. A comprehensive evaluation of Helicobacter genus and H. pylori PCR primers was also undertaken. The combined approach was then assessed in a range of gastrointestinal samples prior to assessment of a UC cohort. Archival colonic samples were available from 106 individuals for FISH analysis (57 with UC and 49 non-IBD controls). A further 118 individuals were collected prospectively for dual FISH and PCR analysis (86 UC and 32 non-IBD controls). An additional 27 non-IBD controls were available for PCR analysis. All Helicobacter PCR-positive samples were sequenced. The association between Helicobacter and each study group was statistically analysed using the Pearson Chi Squared 2 tailed test. Helicobacter genus PCR positivity was significantly higher in UC than controls (32 of 77 versus 11 of 59, p = 0.004). Sequence analysis indicated enterohepatic Helicobacter species prevalence was significantly higher in the UC group compared to the control group (30 of 77 versus 2 of 59, p<0.0001). PCR and FISH results were concordant in 74 (67.9%) of subjects. The majority of discordant results were attributable to a higher positivity rate with FISH than PCR. Conclusions/Significance Helicobacter organisms warrant consideration as potential pathogenic entities in UC. Isolation of these organisms from colonic tissue is needed to enable interrogation of pathogenicity against established criteria. PMID:21383845

  20. Partial denture metal framework may harbor potentially pathogenic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Bernardes, Luciano Angelo de Souza; Gomes, Sabrina Carvalho; Silva, Alecsandro Moura

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to characterize and compare bacterial diversity on the removable partial denture (RPD) framework over time. MATERIALS AND METHODS This descriptive pilot study included five women who were rehabilitated with free-end mandibular RPD. The biofilm on T-bar clasps were collected 1 week (t1) and 4 months (t2) after the RPD was inserted (t0). Bacterial 16S rDNA was extracted and PCR amplified. Amplicons were cloned; clones were submitted to cycle sequencing, and sequences were compared with GenBank (98% similarity). RESULTS A total of 180 sequences with more than 499 bp were obtained. Two phylogenetic trees with 84 (t1) and 96 (t2) clones represented the bacteria biofilm at the RPD. About 93% of the obtained phylotypes fell into 25 known species for t1 and 17 for t2, which were grouped in 5 phyla: Firmicutes (t1=82%; t2=60%), Actinobacteria (t1=5%; t2=10%), Bacteroidetes (t1=2%; t2=6%), Proteobacteria (t1=10%; t2=15%) and Fusobacteria (t1=1%; t2=8%). The libraries also include 3 novel phylotypes for t1 and 11 for t2. Library t2 differs from t1 (P=.004); t1 is a subset of the t2 (P=.052). Periodontal pathogens, such as F. nucleatum, were more prevalent in t2. CONCLUSION The biofilm composition of the RPD metal clasps changed along time after RPD wearing. The RPD framework may act as a reservoir for potentially pathogenic bacteria and the RPD wearers may benefit from regular follow-up visits and strategies on prosthesis-related oral health instructions. PMID:26816577

  1. Molecular Characterization of Transcriptome-wide Interactions between Highly Pathogenic Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus and Porcine Alveolar Macrophages in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ping; Zhai, Shanli; Zhou, Xiang; Lin, Ping; Jiang, Tengfei; Hu, Xueying; Jiang, Yunbo; Wu, Bin; Zhang, Qingde; Xu, Xuewen; Li, Jin-ping; Liu, Bang

    2011-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infects mainly the porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) and causes porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS). Previous studies have analyzed the global gene expression profiles of lung tissue in vivo and PAMs in vitro following infection with PRRSV, however, transcriptome-wide understanding of the interaction between highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) and PAMs in vivo has not yet been established. In this study, we employed Affymetrix microarrays to investigate the gene expression patterns of PAMs isolated from Tongcheng piglets (a Chinese indigenous breed) after infection with HP-PRRSV. During the infection, Tongcheng piglets exhibited typical clinical signs, e.g. fever, asthma, coughing, anorexia, lethargy and convulsion, but displayed mild regional lung damage at 5 and 7 dpi. Microarray analysis revealed that HP-PRRSV infection has affected PAMs in expression of the important genes involved in cytoskeleton and exocytosis organization, protein degradation and folding, intracellular calcium and zinc homeostasis. Several potential antiviral strategies might be employed in PAMs, including upregulating IFN-induced genes and increasing intracellular zinc ion concentration. And inhibition of the complement system likely attenuated the lung damage during HP-PRRSV infection. Transcriptomic analysis of PAMs in vivo could lead to a better understanding of the HP-PRRSV-host interaction, and to the identification of novel antiviral therapies and genetic components of swine tolerance/susceptibility to HP-PRRS. PMID:21850204

  2. Draft genome sequences for ten isolates of the swine respiratory pathogen Haemophilus Parasuis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Haemophilus parasuis is a swine pathogen that causes pneumonia and Glässer’s disease, a systemic syndrome of polyserositis, arthritis, and meningitis. We report here the draft genomes of ten geographically diverse isolates collectively representing the full virulence spectrum of H. parasuis. These...

  3. Demonstration of the metaphylactic use of gamithromycin against bacterial pathogens associated with bovine respiratory disease in a multicentre farm trial

    PubMed Central

    Baggott, D.; Casartelli, A.; Fraisse, F.; Manavella, C.; Marteau, R.; Rehbein, S.; Wiedemann, M.; Yoon, S.

    2011-01-01

    On five commercial cattle rearing sites across Europe, a total of 802 young cattle at high risk of developing bovine respiratory disease (BRD) associated with the bacterial pathogens Mannheimia haemolytica or Pasteurella multocida and/or Mycoplasma bovis were enrolled into a multicentre, controlled field trial. Half were treated with a single dose of gamithromycin at 6 mg/kg bodyweight by subcutaneous injection and half received an injection of a saline placebo as the control. All animals were observed daily for 14 days for signs of BRD as defined by set criteria. The proportion of metaphylactic preventive treatment successes, defined as animals surviving to day 14 without signs of BRD, in the gamithromycin-treated group (86 per cent) was significantly (P=0.0012) higher than in the saline-treated controls (61 per cent). Morbidity among the treated animals was reduced by 64 per cent compared with the controls. PMID:21493573

  4. Experimental studies on the pathogenicity of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and Mycoplasma arginini for the respiratory tract of goats.

    PubMed Central

    Goltz, J P; Rosendal, S; McCraw, B M; Ruhnke, H L

    1986-01-01

    Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and Mycoplasma arginini were the species of Mollicutes most commonly isolated from 175 goats with respiratory disease in Ontario. The pathogenicity of M. ovipneumoniae, strain B321B and M. arginini, strain D53e, was assessed in goats following endobronchial inoculation. One out of three two year old goats developed fever after inoculation with a pure culture of strain B321B, and it had extensive subacute fibrinous pleuritis when necropsied three weeks later. Neither of the remaining goats had lesions in the respiratory tract. Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae was recovered from one of the animals four days after inoculation, but not at necropsy from any of the goats, at which time a marked humoral immune response with growth inhibiting antibodies was detected. In a second experiment three four to five week old goats were inoculated with the same strain and three other goats were given placebo treatment. One experimental goat developed fever and coughing, and it had extensive subacute fibrinous pleuritis in the right side and pneumonia. Another goat had focal pneumonia in the left diaphragmatic lobe. Microscopically there was subacute hyperplastic suppurative bronchiolitis, atelectasis and nonsuppurative alveolitis. The infected animals did not clear the mycoplasma and not all of them produced antibodies. Mycoplasma arginini, strain D53e, did not induce lesions in any of four goat kids within 14 days after inoculation but did cause transient elevations in rectal temperature, circulating monocytes, circulating neutrophils and blood fibrinogen. Mycoplasma arginini was infective and immunogenic for all inoculated animals and showed a particular affinity for the tonsil. Thus, this study provides the first evidence that M. ovipneumoniae is pathogenic for goats causing pneumonia and pleuritis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:3742358

  5. Antimicrobial susceptibility monitoring of respiratory tract pathogens isolated from diseased cattle and pigs across Europe: the VetPath study.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Anno; Thomas, Valérie; Simjee, Shabbir; Moyaert, Hilde; El Garch, Farid; Maher, Kirsty; Morrissey, Ian; Butty, Pascal; Klein, Ulrich; Marion, Hervé; Rigaut, Delphine; Vallé, Michel

    2014-08-01

    VetPath is an ongoing pan-European antibiotic susceptibility monitoring programme collecting pathogens from diseased antimicrobial non-treated cattle, pigs and poultry. In the current study, 1001 isolates from cattle and pig respiratory tract infections were tested for their antimicrobial susceptibilities. Non-replicate lung samples or nasopharyngeal/nasal swabs were collected from animals with acute clinical signs in 11 countries during 2002-2006. Pasteurella multocida and Mannheimia haemolytica from cattle and P. multocida, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Streptococcus suis from pigs were isolated by standard methods. S. suis was also isolated from meningitis cases. MICs of 16 antibiotics were assessed centrally by broth microdilution following CLSI recommendations. Results were interpreted using CLSI breakpoints where available. P. multocida (231) and M. haemolytica (138) isolates were all susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ceftiofur, enrofloxacin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Resistance to florfenicol and spectinomycin was 0.4% and 3.5% in P. multocida, respectively, and absent in M. haemolytica isolates. Tetracycline resistance was 5.7% and 14.6% for P. multocida and M. haemolytica. In pigs, 230 P. multocida, 220 A. pleuropneumoniae and 182 S. suis isolates were recovered. Resistance to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ceftiofur, enrofloxacin, florfenicol, tiamulin and tilmicosin was absent or <1%. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole resistance was 3-6% and tetracycline resistance varied from 14.7% in A. pleuropneumoniae to 81.8% in S. suis. In conclusion, low resistance to antibiotics with defined clinical breakpoints, except for tetracycline, was observed among the major respiratory tract pathogens recovered from cattle and pigs. Since for approximately half of the antibiotics in this panel no CLSI-defined breakpoints were available, setting of the missing veterinary breakpoints is important. PMID:24837878

  6. Respiratory virus is a real pathogen in immunocompetent community-acquired pneumonia: comparing to influenza like illness and volunteer controls

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Viral pathogens were more commonly reported than previously estimated in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) patients. However, the real role of virus was still controversial. Methods Consecutive adult patients with CAP between April and December, 2009 were prospectively enrolled. A four-fold or greater increase of IgG-titres against respiratory viruses in pair sera was tested by means of hemagglutination inhibition assay or indirect immunofluorescence. Swab samples were tested by cell culture and/or nucleic amplification tests. Viral etiology was considered definitive if at least one of the above tests was positive. Results Viral etiology was established in fifty-two (34.9%) of 149 CAP patients, twenty-two (81.5%) of 27 influenza like illness patients, and none of 75 volunteer controls. Forty-seven CAP patients were infected by a single virus (24 influenza A virus, 5 influenza B, 10 parainfluenza virus type 3 [PIV-3], 2 PIV-1, 2 adenovirus, 2 human rhinovirus and 2 coronavirus OC43), five cases by two or three viruses co-infection. Fever???39C (66.7%), fatigue (64.6%), and purulent sputum (52.1%) was the most common symptoms in viral pneumonia patients. On multivariate analysis, myalgia was included in the model for pneumonia associated with influenza infection. In the CURB-65 model only influenza infection was found independently associated with severe disease (CURB-65 score???3) out of variables, including age(years), sex, current smoking status, sick contact with febrile patients, numbers of comorbidity, presence of influenza infection, presence of PIV infection, with P?=?0.021, OR 7.86 (95% CI 1.37-45.04). Conclusion Respiratory virus was not a bystander, but pathogenic in pneumonia and was a common cause of CAP. PMID:25178477

  7. The Viriato study: update on antimicrobial resistance of microbial pathogens responsible for community-acquired respiratory tract infections in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Melo-Cristino, José; Santos, Letícia; Silva-Costa, Catarina; Friães, Ana; Pinho, Marcos D; Ramirez, Mário

    2010-06-29

    The Viriato study is a prospective, multicentre laboratory-based surveillance study of antimicrobial susceptibility in which 30 microbiology laboratories throughout Portugal are asked to isolate, identify and submit to a central laboratory for testing Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis responsible for community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections and Streptococcus pyogenes from tonsillitis. To monitor changes in antimicrobial resistance patterns of these frequent respiratory pathogens. Susceptibility was determined by disk diffusion (Kirby-Bauer) or using Etest strips following the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. From 1999 to 2007 over 13 900 isolates were analysed. Among S. pneumoniae penicillin non-susceptibility decreased from 25% in 1999 to 18% in 2007 (p = 0.002) but resistance to macrolides showed a steady increase, reaching 20% in the last 6 years. Resistance to amoxicillin and the quinolones remained stable and very low (1-2%) throughout the study period. Antimicrobial resistance among H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis remained stable. The most significant resistance was to ampicillin, of 10-12% and greater than 80%, respectively, as a result of the production of beta-lactamases. Macrolide resistance among S. pyogenes was stable during 1999-2003 (20-23%) but after 2003 there was a steady decline in resistance, which in 2007 reached 10%. The Viriato surveillance study showed that penicillin remains the most active antimicrobial agent against S. pyogenes causing tonsillitis, and amoxicillin-clavulanate and the quinolones are the most active in vitro simultaneously against S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis responsible for community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections in Portugal. PMID:20590169

  8. Isolation of antibiotic-resistant pathogenic and potentially pathogenic bacteria from carpets of mosques in Tripoli, Libya

    PubMed Central

    Rahouma, Amal; Elghamoudi, Abdunabi; Nashnoush, Halima; Belhaj, Khalifa; Tawil, Khaled; Sifaw Ghenghesh, Khalifa

    2010-01-01

    Objective Isolation of potentially pathogenic bacteria from carpets in hospitals has been reported earlier, but not from carpets in mosques. The aim of the present study is to determine the pathogenic and potentially pathogenic bacteria that may exist on the carpets of mosques in Tripoli, Libya. Methods Dust samples from carpets were collected from 57 mosques in Tripoli. Samples were examined for pathogenic bacteria using standard bacteriological procedures. Susceptibility of isolated bacteria to antimicrobial agents was determined by the disc-diffusion method. Results Of dust samples examined, Salmonella spp. was detected in two samples (3.5%, 1 in group B and 1 in group C1), Escherichia coli in 16 samples (28.1%), Aeromonas spp. in one sample (1.8%), and Staphylococcus aureus in 12 samples (21.1%). Multiple drug resistance was observed in >16.7% of E. coli and in 25% of S. aureus. Conclusion Contamination of carpets in mosques of Tripoli with antibiotic-resistant pathogenic and potentially pathogenic bacteria may pose a health risk to worshipers, particularly, the very young, the old and the immunecompromised. Worshipers are encouraged to use personal praying mats when praying in mosques. PMID:21483559

  9. FilmArray, an Automated Nested Multiplex PCR System for Multi-Pathogen Detection: Development and Application to Respiratory Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Poritz, Mark A.; Blaschke, Anne J.; Byington, Carrie L.; Meyers, Lindsay; Nilsson, Kody; Jones, David E.; Thatcher, Stephanie A.; Robbins, Thomas; Lingenfelter, Beth; Amiott, Elizabeth; Herbener, Amy; Daly, Judy; Dobrowolski, Steven F.; Teng, David H. -F.; Ririe, Kirk M.

    2011-01-01

    The ideal clinical diagnostic system should deliver rapid, sensitive, specific and reproducible results while minimizing the requirements for specialized laboratory facilities and skilled technicians. We describe an integrated diagnostic platform, the “FilmArray”, which fully automates the detection and identification of multiple organisms from a single sample in about one hour. An unprocessed biologic/clinical sample is subjected to nucleic acid purification, reverse transcription, a high-order nested multiplex polymerase chain reaction and amplicon melt curve analysis. Biochemical reactions are enclosed in a disposable pouch, minimizing the PCR contamination risk. FilmArray has the potential to detect greater than 100 different nucleic acid targets at one time. These features make the system well-suited for molecular detection of infectious agents. Validation of the FilmArray technology was achieved through development of a panel of assays capable of identifying 21 common viral and bacterial respiratory pathogens. Initial testing of the system using both cultured organisms and clinical nasal aspirates obtained from children demonstrated an analytical and clinical sensitivity and specificity comparable to existing diagnostic platforms. We demonstrate that automated identification of pathogens from their corresponding target amplicon(s) can be accomplished by analysis of the DNA melting curve of the amplicon. PMID:22039434

  10. The contributions of allergic sensitization and respiratory pathogens to asthma inception.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Daniel J; Gern, James E; Lemanske, Robert F

    2016-03-01

    Of the chronic diseases affecting grade-school children, asthma is the most common and accounts for the greatest number of school days missed. Moreover, it can influence family dynamics and function in other ways, and unfortunately, it can also be associated with mortality, particularly in the inner-city environments of the United States. Thus understanding factors that lead to its development in early life is essential in developing strategies aimed at primary prevention. Two risk factors that have been identified by a number of investigators include the development of allergic sensitization and wheezing respiratory tract illnesses caused by viruses and bacteria, either alone or in combination. Both of these factors appear to exert their influences within the first few years of life, such that asthma becomes established before the child enters grade school at age 5 to 6 years. Therefore, because both allergic sensitization and viral and bacterial illnesses can occur in children who do not have asthma, it is paramount to identify genetic and environmental factors that activate, interact with, and/or direct the immune system and components of the respiratory tract along pathways that allow asthma to become established and expressed clinically. PMID:26947979

  11. *Biomarkers of acute respiratory allergen exposure: Screening for sensitization potential

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effective hazard screening will require the development of high-throughput or in vitro assays for the identification of potential sensitizers. The goal of this preliminary study was to identify potential biomarkers that differentiate the response to allergens vs non-allergens fol...

  12. Location and pathogenic potential of Blastocystis in the porcine intestine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenqi; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Traub, Rebecca J; Cuttell, Leigh; Owen, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Blastocystis is an ubiquitous, enteric protozoan of humans and many other species. Human infection has been associated with gastrointestinal disease such as irritable bowel syndrome, however, this remains unproven. A relevant animal model is needed to investigate the pathogenesis/pathogenicity of Blastocystis. We concluded previously that pigs are likely natural hosts of Blastocystis with a potentially zoonotic, host-adapted subtype (ST), ST5, and may make suitable animal models. In this study, we aimed to characterise the host-agent interaction of Blastocystis and the pig, including localising Blastocystis in porcine intestine using microscopy, PCR and histopathological examination of tissues. Intestines from pigs in three different management systems, i.e., a commercial piggery, a small family farm and a research herd (where the animals were immunosuppressed) were examined. This design was used to determine if environment or immune status influences intestinal colonisation of Blastocystis as immunocompromised individuals may potentially be more susceptible to blastocystosis and development of associated clinical signs. Intestines from all 28 pigs were positive for Blastocystis with all pigs harbouring ST5. In addition, the farm pigs had mixed infections with STs 1 and/or 3. Blastocystis organisms/DNA were predominantly found in the large intestine but were also detected in the small intestine of the immunosuppressed and some of the farm pigs, suggesting that immunosuppression and/or husbandry factors may influence Blastocystis colonisation of the small intestine. No obvious pathology was observed in the histological sections. Blastocystis was present as vacuolar/granular forms and these were found within luminal material or in close proximity to epithelial cells, with no evidence of attachment or invasion. These results concur with most human studies, in which Blastocystis is predominantly found in the large intestine in the absence of significant organic pathology. Our findings also support the use of pigs as animal models and may have implications for blastocystosis diagnosis/treatment. PMID:25093578

  13. Location and Pathogenic Potential of Blastocystis in the Porcine Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenqi; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Traub, Rebecca J.; Cuttell, Leigh; Owen, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Blastocystis is an ubiquitous, enteric protozoan of humans and many other species. Human infection has been associated with gastrointestinal disease such as irritable bowel syndrome, however, this remains unproven. A relevant animal model is needed to investigate the pathogenesis/pathogenicity of Blastocystis. We concluded previously that pigs are likely natural hosts of Blastocystis with a potentially zoonotic, host-adapted subtype (ST), ST5, and may make suitable animal models. In this study, we aimed to characterise the host-agent interaction of Blastocystis and the pig, including localising Blastocystis in porcine intestine using microscopy, PCR and histopathological examination of tissues. Intestines from pigs in three different management systems, i.e., a commercial piggery, a small family farm and a research herd (where the animals were immunosuppressed) were examined. This design was used to determine if environment or immune status influences intestinal colonisation of Blastocystis as immunocompromised individuals may potentially be more susceptible to blastocystosis and development of associated clinical signs. Intestines from all 28 pigs were positive for Blastocystis with all pigs harbouring ST5. In addition, the farm pigs had mixed infections with STs 1 and/or 3. Blastocystis organisms/DNA were predominantly found in the large intestine but were also detected in the small intestine of the immunosuppressed and some of the farm pigs, suggesting that immunosuppression and/or husbandry factors may influence Blastocystis colonisation of the small intestine. No obvious pathology was observed in the histological sections. Blastocystis was present as vacuolar/granular forms and these were found within luminal material or in close proximity to epithelial cells, with no evidence of attachment or invasion. These results concur with most human studies, in which Blastocystis is predominantly found in the large intestine in the absence of significant organic pathology. Our findings also support the use of pigs as animal models and may have implications for blastocystosis diagnosis/treatment. PMID:25093578

  14. Complete Genome Sequence of a Chinese Highly Pathogenic Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus That Has a Further Deletion in the Nsp2 Gene

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Guobiao; Li, Yingying; Tan, Feifei; Zhuang, Jinshan

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the complete genome of a Chinese highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) characterized by a further 29-amino acid (87 nucleotides) deletion in its Nsp2-coding region compared to the prototype of the HP-PRRSV JXA1 strain. PMID:26893437

  15. Complete Genome Sequence of a Chinese Highly Pathogenic Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus That Has a Further Deletion in the Nsp2 Gene.

    PubMed

    Ji, Guobiao; Li, Yingying; Tan, Feifei; Zhuang, Jinshan; Li, Xiangdong; Tian, Kegong

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the complete genome of a Chinese highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) characterized by a further 29-amino acid (87 nucleotides) deletion in its Nsp2-coding region compared to the prototype of the HP-PRRSV JXA1 strain. PMID:26893437

  16. Research Gaps in Protecting Healthcare Workers From SARS and Other Respiratory Pathogens: An Interdisciplinary, Multi-Stakeholder, Evidence-Based Approach

    PubMed Central

    Yassi, Annalee; Moore, David; FitzGerald, J. Mark; Bigelow, Philip; Hon, Chun-Yip; Bryce, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify priorities for further research in protecting healthcare workers (HCWs) from severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and other respiratory pathogens by summarizing the basic science of infectious bioaerosols and the efficacy of facial protective equipment; the organizational, environmental, and individual factors that influence the success of infection control and occupational health programs; and factors identified by HCWs as important. Method An extensive literature review was conducted and 15 focus groups held, mostly with frontline HCWs in Toronto. Critical gaps in knowledge were identified and prioritized. Results Highest priority was given to organizational factors that create a climate of safety. Other priority areas included understanding aerosolization risks and practical measures to control bioaerosols at the source. Conclusions Further research is warranted to improve safety climate in health care and, specifically, to provide greater protection against respiratory pathogens. PMID:15643158

  17. Differences in distribution and drug sensitivity of pathogens in lower respiratory tract infections between general wards and RICU

    PubMed Central

    He, Ruoxi; Luo, Bailing; Hu, Chengping; Li, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Background Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) are common among patients in hospitals worldwide, especially in patients over the age of 60. This study investigates the differences in distribution and drug sensitivity of pathogens in LRTIs. Methods The clinical and laboratory data of 4,762 LRTI patients in the general ward and respiratory intensive care unit (RICU) of Xiangya Hospital (Changsha) were retrospectively analyzed. Results The infection rate of Gram-negative bacteria was significantly higher than that of Gram-positive bacteria in both the general ward and RICU (P<0.05). The incidence of Gram-negative bacteria infection was significantly higher in the RICU than in the general ward (P<0.05), whereas the incidence of Gram-positive bacteria infection is less in the RICU than in the general ward (P<0.05). In the general ward, the incidence of Gram-negative bacteria infection significantly increased (P<0.05) over time, whereas the incidence of Gram-positive bacteria infection significantly decreased from 1996 to 2011 (P<0.05). In the RICU, the incidence of Gram-positive bacteria infection decreased, while Gram-negative bacteria infections increased without statistical significance (P>0.05). Staphylococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus were found to be the predominant Gram-positive strains in the general ward (34.70-41.18%) and RICU (41.66-54.87%), respectively (P>0.05). Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii were the predominant gram negative strains in the general ward (19.17-21.09%) and RICU (29.60-33.88%), respectively (P>0.05). Streptococcus pneumoniae is sensitive to most antibiotics with a sensitivity of more than 70%. Staphylococcus aureus is highly sensitive to vancomycin (100%), linezolid (100%), chloramphenicol (74.36-82.19%), doxycycline (69.57-77.33%), and sulfamethoprim (67.83-72.46%); however, its sensitivity to other antibiotics is low and decreased each year. Sensitivity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to most ?-lactam, aminoglycoside, and quinolone group antibiotics decreased each year. Conclusions The distribution and drug sensitivity of LRTI pathogens exhibit a high divergence between the general ward and RICU. Streptococcus pneumoniae may not be the predominant pathogen in LRTIs in some areas of China. PMID:25364517

  18. Inhibitory activity of a standardized elderberry liquid extract against clinically-relevant human respiratory bacterial pathogens and influenza A and B viruses

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Black elderberries (Sambucus nigra L.) are well known as supportive agents against common cold and influenza. It is further known that bacterial super-infection during an influenza virus (IV) infection can lead to severe pneumonia. We have analyzed a standardized elderberry extract (Rubini, BerryPharma AG) for its antimicrobial and antiviral activity using the microtitre broth micro-dilution assay against three Gram-positive bacteria and one Gram-negative bacteria responsible for infections of the upper respiratory tract, as well as cell culture experiments for two different strains of influenza virus. Methods The antimicrobial activity of the elderberry extract was determined by bacterial growth experiments in liquid cultures using the extract at concentrations of 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%. The inhibitory effects were determined by plating the bacteria on agar plates. In addition, the inhibitory potential of the extract on the propagation of human pathogenic H5N1-type influenza A virus isolated from a patient and an influenza B virus strain was investigated using MTT and focus assays. Results For the first time, it was shown that a standardized elderberry liquid extract possesses antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive bacteria of Streptococcus pyogenes and group C and G Streptococci, and the Gram-negative bacterium Branhamella catarrhalis in liquid cultures. The liquid extract also displays an inhibitory effect on the propagation of human pathogenic influenza viruses. Conclusion Rubini elderberry liquid extract is active against human pathogenic bacteria as well as influenza viruses. The activities shown suggest that additional and alternative approaches to combat infections might be provided by this natural product. PMID:21352539

  19. Lytic bacteriophages: Potential interventions against enteric bacterial pathogens on produce.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Manan

    2013-04-01

    Foodborne illnesses resulting from the consumption of produce commodities contaminated with enteric pathogens continue to be a significant public health issue. Lytic bacteriophages may provide an effective and natural intervention to reduce bacterial pathogens on fresh and fresh-cut produce commodities. The use of multi-phage cocktails specific for a single pathogen has been most frequently assessed on produce commodities to minimize the development of bacteriophage insensitive mutants (BIM) in target pathogen populations. Regulatory approval for the use of several lytic phage products specific for bacterial pathogens such as Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes in foods and on food processing surfaces has been granted by various agencies in the US and other countries, possibly allowing for the more widespread use of bacteriophages in the decontamination of fresh and minimally processed produce. Research studies have shown lytic bacteriophages specific for E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes have been effective in reducing pathogen populations on leafy greens, sprouts and tomatoes. PMID:24228223

  20. Pathogenic Potential of Saccharomyces Strains Isolated from Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Monteoliva, Lucía; Querol, Amparo; Molina, María; Fernández-Espinar, María T.

    2014-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae plays a beneficial role in health because of its intrinsic nutritional value and bio-functional properties, which is why it is also used as a dietary supplement. However, the perception that S. cerevisiae is harmless has changed due to an increasing number of infections caused by this yeast. Given this scenario, we have tested whether viable strains contained in dietary supplements displayed virulence-associated phenotypic traits that could contribute to virulence in humans. We have also performed an in vivo study of the pathogenic potential of these strains using a murine model of systemic infection by intravenous inoculation. A total of 5 strains were isolated from 22 commercial products and tested. Results highlight one strain (D14) in terms of burden levels in brains and kidneys and ability to cause death, whereas the other two strains (D2 and D4) were considered of low virulence. Our results suggest a strong relationship between some of the virulence-associated phenotypic traits (ability to grow at 39°C and pseudohyphal growth) and the in vivo virulence in a mouse model of intravenous inoculation for isolates under study. The isolate displaying greatest virulence (D14) was evaluated in an experimental murine model of gastrointestinal infection with immunosuppression and disruption of mucosal integrity, which are common risk factors for developing infection in humans, and results were compared with an avirulent strain (D23). We showed that D14 was able to spread to mesenteric nodes and distant organs under these conditions. Given the widespread consumption of dietary supplements, we recommend only safe strains be used. PMID:24879417

  1. Identification and Pathogenic Potential of Clinical Bacillus and Paenibacillus Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Celandroni, Francesco; Salvetti, Sara; Gueye, Sokhna Aissatou; Mazzantini, Diletta; Lupetti, Antonella; Senesi, Sonia; Ghelardi, Emilia

    2016-01-01

    The soil-related Bacillus and Paenibacillus species have increasingly been implicated in various human diseases. Nevertheless, their identification still poses problems in the clinical microbiology laboratory and, with the exception of Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus cereus, little is known on their pathogenicity for humans. In this study, we evaluated the use of matrix-assisted laser desorption—ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) in the identification of clinical isolates of these genera and conducted genotypic and phenotypic analyses to highlight specific virulence properties. Seventy-five clinical isolates were subjected to biochemical and MALDI-TOF MS identification. 16S rDNA sequencing and supplemental tests were used to solve any discrepancies or failures in the identification results. MALDI-TOF MS significantly outperformed classical biochemical testing for correct species identification and no misidentification was obtained. One third of the collected strains belonged to the B. cereus species, but also Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus subtilis were isolated at high rate. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed that all the B. cereus, B. licheniformis, B. simplex, B. mycoides, Paenibacillus glucanolyticus and Paenibacillus lautus isolates are resistant to penicillin. The evaluation of toxin/enzyme secretion, toxin-encoding genes, motility, and biofilm formation revealed that B. cereus displays the highest virulence potential. However, although generally considered nonpathogenic, most of the other species were shown to swim, swarm, produce biofilms, and secrete proteases that can have a role in bacterial virulence. In conclusion, MALDI-TOF MS appears useful for fast and accurate identification of Bacillus and Paenibacillus strains whose virulence properties make them of increasing clinical relevance. PMID:27031639

  2. Human Sentinel Surveillance of Influenza and Other Respiratory Viral Pathogens in Border Areas of Western Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Ilin; Samon, Nou; Uthaimongkol, Nichapat; Klungthong, Chonticha; Manasatienkij, Wudtichai; Thaisomboonsuk, Butsaya; Tyner, Stuart D.; Rith, Sareth; Horm, Viseth Srey; Jarman, Richard G.; Bethell, Delia; Chanarat, Nitima; Pavlin, Julie; Wongstitwilairoong, Tippa; Saingam, Piyaporn; El, But Sam; Fukuda, Mark M.; Touch, Sok; Sovann, Ly; Fernandez, Stefan; Buchy, Philippe; Chanthap, Lon; Saunders, David

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about circulation of influenza and other respiratory viruses in remote populations along the Thai-Cambodia border in western Cambodia. We screened 586 outpatients (median age 5, range 1–77) presenting with influenza-like-illness (ILI) at 4 sentinel sites in western Cambodia between May 2010 and December 2012. Real-time reverse transcriptase (rRT) PCR for influenza was performed on combined nasal and throat specimens followed by viral culture, antigenic analysis, antiviral susceptibility testing and full genome sequencing for phylogenetic analysis. ILI-specimens negative for influenza were cultured, followed by rRT-PCR for enterovirus and rhinovirus (EV/RV) and EV71. Influenza was found in 168 cases (29%) and occurred almost exclusively in the rainy season from June to November. Isolated influenza strains had close antigenic and phylogenetic relationships, matching vaccine and circulating strains found elsewhere in Cambodia. Influenza vaccination coverage was low (<20%). Western Cambodian H1N1(2009) isolate genomes were more closely related to 10 earlier Cambodia isolates (94.4% genome conservation) than to 13 Thai isolates (75.9% genome conservation), despite sharing the majority of the amino acid changes with the Thai references. Most genes showed signatures of purifying selection. Viral culture detected only adenovirus (5.7%) and parainfluenza virus (3.8%), while non-polio enteroviruses (10.3%) were detected among 164 culture-negative samples including coxsackievirus A4, A6, A8, A9, A12, B3, B4 and echovirus E6 and E9 using nested RT-PCR methods. A single specimen of EV71 was found. Despite proximity to Thailand, influenza epidemiology of these western Cambodian isolates followed patterns observed elsewhere in Cambodia, continuing to support current vaccine and treatment recommendations from the Cambodian National Influenza Center. Amino acid mutations at non-epitope sites, particularly hemagglutinin genes, require further investigation in light of an increasingly important role of permissive mutations in influenza virus evolution. Further research about the burden of adenovirus and non-polio enteroviruses as etiologic agents in acute respiratory infections in Cambodia is also needed. PMID:27028323

  3. Human Sentinel Surveillance of Influenza and Other Respiratory Viral Pathogens in Border Areas of Western Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Timmermans, Ans; Melendrez, Melanie C; Se, Youry; Chuang, Ilin; Samon, Nou; Uthaimongkol, Nichapat; Klungthong, Chonticha; Manasatienkij, Wudtichai; Thaisomboonsuk, Butsaya; Tyner, Stuart D; Rith, Sareth; Horm, Viseth Srey; Jarman, Richard G; Bethell, Delia; Chanarat, Nitima; Pavlin, Julie; Wongstitwilairoong, Tippa; Saingam, Piyaporn; El, But Sam; Fukuda, Mark M; Touch, Sok; Sovann, Ly; Fernandez, Stefan; Buchy, Philippe; Chanthap, Lon; Saunders, David

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about circulation of influenza and other respiratory viruses in remote populations along the Thai-Cambodia border in western Cambodia. We screened 586 outpatients (median age 5, range 1-77) presenting with influenza-like-illness (ILI) at 4 sentinel sites in western Cambodia between May 2010 and December 2012. Real-time reverse transcriptase (rRT) PCR for influenza was performed on combined nasal and throat specimens followed by viral culture, antigenic analysis, antiviral susceptibility testing and full genome sequencing for phylogenetic analysis. ILI-specimens negative for influenza were cultured, followed by rRT-PCR for enterovirus and rhinovirus (EV/RV) and EV71. Influenza was found in 168 cases (29%) and occurred almost exclusively in the rainy season from June to November. Isolated influenza strains had close antigenic and phylogenetic relationships, matching vaccine and circulating strains found elsewhere in Cambodia. Influenza vaccination coverage was low (<20%). Western Cambodian H1N1(2009) isolate genomes were more closely related to 10 earlier Cambodia isolates (94.4% genome conservation) than to 13 Thai isolates (75.9% genome conservation), despite sharing the majority of the amino acid changes with the Thai references. Most genes showed signatures of purifying selection. Viral culture detected only adenovirus (5.7%) and parainfluenza virus (3.8%), while non-polio enteroviruses (10.3%) were detected among 164 culture-negative samples including coxsackievirus A4, A6, A8, A9, A12, B3, B4 and echovirus E6 and E9 using nested RT-PCR methods. A single specimen of EV71 was found. Despite proximity to Thailand, influenza epidemiology of these western Cambodian isolates followed patterns observed elsewhere in Cambodia, continuing to support current vaccine and treatment recommendations from the Cambodian National Influenza Center. Amino acid mutations at non-epitope sites, particularly hemagglutinin genes, require further investigation in light of an increasingly important role of permissive mutations in influenza virus evolution. Further research about the burden of adenovirus and non-polio enteroviruses as etiologic agents in acute respiratory infections in Cambodia is also needed. PMID:27028323

  4. Respiratory Chain of a Pathogenic Fungus, Microsporum gypseum: Effect of the Antifungal Agent Pyrrolnitrin

    PubMed Central

    Wong, David T.; Horng, Jong-Sin; Gordee, Robert S.

    1971-01-01

    Pyrrolnitrin has been reported to inhibit Bacillus megaterium primarily by forming complexes with phospholipids and to block electron transfer of Saccharomyces cerevisiae between succinate or reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and coenzyme Q. We found that pyrrolnitrin inhibited respiration of conidia of Microsporum gypseum. In mitochondrial preparations, pyrrolnitrin strongly inhibited respiration and the rotenone-sensitive NADH-cytochrome c reductase. The rotenone-insensitive NADH-cytochrome c reductase, the succinate-cytochrome c reductase, and the reduction of dichlorophenolindophenol by either NADH or succinate were inhibited to a lesser extent. However, the activity of cytochrome oxidase was not affected by pyrrolnitrin. The extent of reduction of flavoproteins by NADH and succinate, measured at 465 - 510 nm, was unaltered; however, the reduction of cytochrome b, measured at 560 - 575 nm, was partially inhibited by pyrrolnitrin. The level of totally reduced cytochrome b was restored with antimycin A. We, therefore, concluded that the primary site of action of this antifungal antibiotic is to block electron transfer between the flavoprotein of the NADH-dehydrogenase and cytochrome b segment of the respiratory chain of M. gypseum. PMID:4323963

  5. Spectrum and potency of ceftaroline tested against leading pathogens causing community-acquired respiratory tract infections in Europe (2010).

    PubMed

    Farrell, David J; Flamm, Robert K; Jones, Ronald N; Sader, Helio S

    2013-01-01

    Ceftaroline, the active metabolite of the prodrug ceftaroline fosamil, is a novel cephalosporin exhibiting in vitro bactericidal activity against Gram-positive organisms, including Streptococcus pneumoniae and methicillin-susceptible and -resistant Staphylococcus aureus, as well as common Gram-negative organisms. The objective of this study was to determine the spectrum and potency of ceftaroline against recent leading pathogens causing community-acquired respiratory tract infections (CARTI) isolated in Europe. A total of 1563 isolates from the 2010 Assessing Worldwide Antimicrobial Resistance Evaluation (AWARE) Program were identified as CARTI pathogens by the infection type and/or specimen type recorded by the participating laboratory. Isolates were collected from patients in 52 medical centers located in 19 European countries (including Israel and Turkey). Susceptibility testing for ceftaroline and commonly used antimicrobials was performed by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) broth microdilution methodology. Susceptibility interpretations for comparators were as published in CLSI and the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing guidelines, and for ceftaroline US-FDA breakpoints were also applied. Ceftaroline was very active overall against 799 S. pneumoniae (MIC(50/90,) ≤ 0.008/0.12 μg/mL) and inhibited 100.0% of all isolates at a MIC ≤ 0.5 μg/mL. Ceftaroline was very potent against penicillin-resistant (CLSI oral penicillin V breakpoints) and -intermediate S. pneumoniae (MIC(50/90), 0.12/0.25 and 0.03/0.12 μg/mL, respectively), but potency was lower than observed against penicillin-susceptible isolates (MIC(50/90), ≤ 0.008/≤ 0.008 μg/mL). Ceftaroline was also very active (MIC(50/90), ≤ 0.008/0.015 μg/mL) against 515 Haemophilus influenzae, including β-lactamase-producing strains (MIC(50/90), 0.015/0.06 μg/mL). Ceftaroline also demonstrated good activity against 205 Moraxella catarrhalis isolates (MIC(50/90), 0.06/0.12 μg/mL). This study demonstrated the potent in vitro activity of ceftaroline against contemporary pathogens isolated from patients with documented CARTI from Europe. These data suggest that ceftaroline fosamil has an acceptable in vitro spectrum and potency against CARTI pathogens. PMID:23146404

  6. WORKSHOP ON STATUS OF TEST METHODS FOR ASSESSING POTENTIAL OF CHEMICALS TO INDUCE RESPIRATORY ALLERGIC REACTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because of the association between allergy and asthma and the increasing incidence of morbidity and mortality due to asthma, there is growing concern over the potential of industrial chemicals to produce allergic reactions in the respiratory tract. Two classes of chemicals have b...

  7. CURRENT STATE OF PREDICTING THE RESPIRATORY ALLERGY POTENTIAL OF CHEMICALS: WHAT ARE THE ISSUES?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current State of Predicting the Respiratory Allergy Potential of Chemicals: What Are the Issues? M I. Gilmour1 and S. E. Loveless2, 1USEPA, Research Triangle Park, NC and 2DuPont Haskell Laboratory, Newark, DE.

    Many chemicals are clearly capable of eliciting immune respon...

  8. CYTOKINE MRNA PROFILES FOR ISOCYANATES WITH KNOWN AND UNKNOWN POTENTIAL TO INDUCE RESPIRATORY SENSITIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cytokine mRNA Profiles for Isocyanates with Known and Unknown Potential to Induce Respiratory Sensitization. Plitnick, L.M., Loveless, S.E., Ladics, G.S., Holsapple, M.P., Smialowicz, R.J., Woolhiser, M.R., Anderson, P.K., Smith, C., Sailstad, D.M. and Selgrade, M.J.K (2002) Tox...

  9. Genome Sequences of Vibrio navarrensis, a Potential Human Pathogen.

    PubMed

    Gladney, Lori M; Katz, Lee S; Knipe, Kristen M; Rowe, Lori A; Conley, Andrew B; Rishishwar, Lavanya; Mariño-Ramírez, Leonardo; Jordan, I King; Tarr, Cheryl L

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio navarrensis is an aquatic bacterium recently shown to be associated with human illness. We report the first genome sequences of three V. navarrensis strains obtained from clinical and environmental sources. Preliminary analyses of the sequences reveal that V. navarrensis contains genes commonly associated with virulence in other human pathogens. PMID:25414502

  10. Simultaneous detection of eight swine reproductive and respiratory pathogens using a novel GeXP analyser-based multiplex PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Minxiu; Xie, Zhixun; Xie, Liji; Deng, Xianwen; Xie, Zhiqin; Luo, Sisi; Liu, Jiabo; Pang, Yaoshan; Khan, Mazhar I

    2015-11-01

    A new high-throughput GenomeLab Gene Expression Profiler (GeXP) analyser-based multiplex PCR assay was developed for the detection of eight reproductive and respiratory pathogens in swine. The reproductive and respiratory pathogens include North American porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV-NA), classical swine fever virus (CSFV), porcine circovirus 2 (PCV-2), swine influenza virus (SIV) (including H1 and H3 subtypes), porcine parvovirus (PPV), pseudorabies virus (PRV) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). Nine pairs of specific chimeric primers were designed and used to initiate PCRs, and one pair of universal primers was used for subsequent PCR cycles. The specificity of the GeXP assay was examined using positive controls for each virus. The sensitivity was evaluated using serial ten-fold dilutions of in vitro-transcribed RNA from all of the RNA viruses and plasmids from DNA viruses. The GeXP assay was further evaluated using 114 clinical specimens and was compared with real-time PCR/single RT-PCR methods. The specificity of the GeXP assay for each pathogen was examined using single cDNA/DNA template. Specific amplification peaks of the reproductive and respiratory pathogens were observed on the GeXP analyser. The minimum copies per reaction detected for each virus by the GeXP assay were as follows: 1000 copies/μl for PRV; 100 copies/μl for CSFV, JEV, PCV-2 and PPV; and 10 copies/μl for SIV-H1, SIV-H3 and PRRSV-NA. Analysis of 114 clinical samples using the GeXP assay demonstrated that the GeXP assay had comparable detection to real-time PCR/single RT-PCR. This study demonstrated that the GeXP assay is a new method with high sensitivity and specificity for the identification of these swine reproductive and respiratory pathogens. The GeXP assay may be adopted for molecular epidemiological surveys of these reproductive and respiratory pathogens in swine populations. PMID:26259690

  11. Genomic Investigation into Strain Heterogeneity and Pathogenic Potential of the Emerging Gastrointestinal Pathogen Campylobacter ureolyticus

    PubMed Central

    Bullman, Susan; Lucid, Alan; Corcoran, Daniel; Sleator, Roy D.; Lucey, Brigid

    2013-01-01

    The recent detection and isolation of C. ureolyticus from patients with diarrhoeal illness and inflammatory bowel diseases warrants further investigation into its role as an emerging pathogen of the human gastrointestinal tract. Regarding the pathogenic mechanisms employed by this species we provide the first whole genome analysis of two C. ureolyticus isolates including the type strain. Comparative analysis, subtractive hybridisation and gene ontology searches against other Campylobacter species identifies the high degree of heterogenicity between C. ureolyticus isolates, in addition to the identification of 106 putative virulence associated factors, 52 of which are predicted to be secreted. Such factors encompass each of the known virulence tactics of pathogenic Campylobacter spp. including adhesion and colonisation (CadF, PEB1, IcmF and FlpA), invasion (ciaB and 16 virB-virD4 genes) and toxin production (S-layer RTX and ZOT). Herein, we provide the first virulence catalogue for C. ureolyticus, the components of which theoretically provide this emerging species with sufficient arsenal to establish pathology. PMID:24023611

  12. Highly Pathogenic Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Infection Induced Apoptosis and Autophagy in Thymi of Infected Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Yabin; Tong, Jie; Liu, Yonggang; Zhang, Chong; Chang, Yafei; Wang, Shujie; Jiang, Chenggang; Zhou, En-Min; Cai, Xuehui

    2015-01-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that the highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) HuN4 strain causes obvious thymic atrophy and thymocytes apoptosis in infected piglets after birth, which is more severe than that induced by classical PRRSV. In this study, we investigated apoptosis and autophagy in the thymus of piglets infected with the HP-PRRSV HuN4 strain, and found that both apoptosis and autophagy occurred in the thymus of piglets infected with HP-PRRSV. In addition to a few virus-infected cells, CD14+ cells, the main autophagic cells in the thymus were thymic epithelial cells. These findings demonstrated that HP-PRRSV induces apoptosis in bystander cells, and induces autophagy in both infected and bystander cells in the thymus of infected piglets. Herein, we first present new data on the thymic lesions induced by HP-PRRSV, and show that apoptosis and autophagy are key mechanisms involved in cell survival and determinants of the severity of thymic atrophy in infected piglets. Finally, future studies of the mechanism underlying immune responses are proposed based on our current understanding of PRRSV-host interactions. PMID:26046751

  13. Import risk assessment incorporating a dose-response model: introduction of highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome into Australia via illegally imported raw pork.

    PubMed

    Brookes, V J; Hernández-Jover, M; Holyoake, P; Ward, M P

    2014-03-01

    Highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) has spread through parts of south-east Asia, posing a risk to Australia. The objective of this study was to assess the probability of infection of a feral or domestic pig in Australia with highly pathogenic PRRS following ingestion of illegally imported raw pork. A conservative scenario was considered in which 500 g of raw pork was imported from the Philippines into Australia without being detected by border security, then discarded from a household and potentially accessed by a pig. Monte Carlo simulation of a two-dimensional, stochastic model was used to estimate the probability of entry and exposure, and the probability of infection was assessed by incorporating a virus-decay and mechanistic dose-response model. Results indicated that the probability of infection of a feral pig after ingestion of raw meat was higher than the probability of infection of a domestic pig. Sensitivity analysis was used to assess the influence of input parameters on model output probability estimates, and extension of the virus-decay and dose-response model was used to explore the impact of different temperatures and time from slaughter to ingestion of the meat, different weights of meat, and the level of viraemia at slaughter on the infectivity of meat. Parameters with the highest influence on the model output were the level of viraemia of a pig prior to slaughter and the probability of access by a feral pig to food-waste discarded on property surrounding a household. Extension of the decay and dose-response model showed that small pieces of meat (10 g) from a highly pathogenic PRRS viraemic pig could contain enough virus to have a high probability of infection of a pig, and that routes to Australia by sea or air from all highly pathogenic PRRS virus endemic countries were of interest dependent on the temperature of the raw meat during transport. This study highlighted the importance of mitigation strategies such as disposal of food-waste from international traffic as quarantine waste, and the need for further research into the probability of access to food-waste on properties by feral pigs. PMID:24502944

  14. Detection of feline upper respiratory tract disease pathogens using a commercially available real-time PCR test.

    PubMed

    Litster, A; Wu, C C; Leutenegger, C M

    2015-11-01

    Feline herpesvirus (FHV-1), feline calicivirus (FCV), Bordetella bronchiseptica (Bb), Chlamydia felis (Cf) and Mycoplasma felis (Mf) are common infectious agents identified in cats with upper respiratory tract disease (URTD). Each of these agents can either act as primary pathogens or cause subclinical infections, and pathogen identification can be used to prevent disease transmission in shelters, or to manage individual cats with recurrent URTD. The aim of this study was to compare pathogen detection rates using real-time PCR testing and virus isolation (VI) or bacterial culture in conjunctival, nasal and oropharyngeal swabs from 18 shelter-housed cats with clinical URTD. Co-infections were common; FHV-1 was most prevalent and Cf and FCV were least prevalent. Agents detected by PCR were FCV 2/18 (11%), FHV-1 17/18 (94%), Bb 8/18 (44%) and Mf 15/18 (83%). Agents detected by VI and bacterial culture were FCV 1/18 (6%), FHV-1 12/18 (67%), Bb 8/18 (44%) and Mf 12/18 (67%). Agreement between PCR results and the other two methods was: FHV-1, 57.4%; FCV, 98.1%; Bb, 75.0%; Mf, 60.0%. Discordancies included PCR-positive, VI-negative (FCV, n = 1/54, 1.9%; FHV-1, n = 23/54, 42.6%), PCR-positive, culture-negative (Bb, n = 6/36, 16.7%; Mf, n = 13/36, 36.1%) or PCR-negative, culture-positive (Bb, n = 3/36, 8.3%; Mf, n = 2/36, 5.6%) results. A combination of an oropharyngeal swab and either a conjunctival or a nasal swab submitted for PCR testing was able to detect all infectious agents tested for in each cat. PCR testing was a sensitive and convenient method of detection of infectious agents in cats with clinical signs of URTD. PMID:26324635

  15. Antimicrobial characterisation of CEM-101 activity against respiratory tract pathogens, including multidrug-resistant pneumococcal serogroup 19A isolates.

    PubMed

    Farrell, David J; Sader, Helio S; Castanheira, Mariana; Biedenbach, Douglas J; Rhomberg, Paul R; Jones, Ronald N

    2010-06-01

    CEM-101 is a novel fluorinated macrolide-ketolide with potent activity against bacterial pathogens that are susceptible or resistant to other macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLS(B))-ketolide agents. CEM-101 is being developed for oral and parenteral use in moderate to moderately severe community-acquired bacterial pneumonia. The objective of this study was to assess the activity of CEM-101 and comparators against contemporary respiratory tract infection (RTI) isolates. A worldwide sample of organisms was used, including Streptococcus pneumoniae [n=168; 59.3% erythromycin-resistant and 18 multidrug-resistant (MDR) serogroup 19A strains], Moraxella catarrhalis (n=21; 11 beta-lactamase positive), Haemophilus influenzae (n=100; 48 beta-lactamase positive), Haemophilus parainfluenzae and Haemophilus haemolyticus (n=12), and Legionella pneumophila (n=30). Testing and interpretation were performed using reference Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute methods. CEM-101 was very potent against S. pneumoniae [minimum inhibitory concentration for 90% of the organisms (MIC90)=0.25 mg/L; highest MIC at 0.5 mg/L] and was 2- and > or =32-fold more active than telithromycin and clindamycin, respectively. CEM-101 also demonstrated potent activity against S. pneumoniae MDR-19A strains (MIC90=0.5 mg/L). CEM-101 was the most potent antimicrobial agent tested against L. pneumophila, with all MIC values at < or = 0.015 mg/L (telithromycin MIC90=0.03 mg/L). CEM-101 was as potent as azithromycin against Haemophilus spp. RTI pathogens (MIC90=2 mg/L), with no variations for beta-lactamase production. CEM-101 MIC values against M. catarrhalis were all at < or =0.5mg/L. Interestingly, CEM-101 potency was ca. 6 log(2) dilutions greater than telithromycin MIC results among 44 beta-haemolytic streptococci having telithromycin MICs > or = 2 mg/L. CEM-101 exhibited the greatest potency and widest spectrum of activity against RTI pathogens among the tested MLS(B)-ketolide agents (azithromycin, clarithromycin, erythromycin, telithromycin, clindamycin and quinupristin/dalfopristin) and was comparable overall with levofloxacin. PMID:20211548

  16. Evaluating the Growth Potential of Pathogenic Bacteria in Water ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Vital, Marius; Stucki, David; Egli, Thomas; Hammes, Frederik

    2010-01-01

    The degree to which a water sample can potentially support the growth of human pathogens was evaluated. For this purpose, a pathogen growth potential (PGP) bioassay was developed based on the principles of conventional assimilable organic carbon (AOC) determination, but using pure cultures of selected pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli O157, Vibrio cholerae, or Pseudomonas aeruginosa) as the inoculum. We evaluated 19 water samples collected after different treatment steps from two drinking water production plants and a wastewater treatment plant and from ozone-treated river water. Each pathogen was batch grown to stationary phase in sterile water samples, and the concentration of cells produced was measured using flow cytometry. In addition, the fraction of AOC consumed by each pathogen was estimated. Pathogen growth did not correlate with dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration and correlated only weakly with the concentration of AOC. Furthermore, the three pathogens never grew to the same final concentration in any water sample, and the relative ratio of the cultures to each other was unique in each sample. These results suggest that the extent of pathogen growth is affected not only by the concentration but also by the composition of AOC. Through this bioassay, PGP can be included as a parameter in water treatment system design, control, and operation. Additionally, a multilevel concept that integrates the results from the bioassay into the bigger framework of pathogen growth in water is discussed. The proposed approach provides a first step for including pathogen growth into microbial risk assessment. PMID:20693455

  17. Antibody-Based Sensors: Principles, Problems and Potential for Detection of Pathogens and Associated Toxins

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Barry; Stack, Edwina; Gilmartin, Niamh; O'Kennedy, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Antibody-based sensors permit the rapid and sensitive analysis of a range of pathogens and associated toxins. A critical assessment of the implementation of such formats is provided, with reference to their principles, problems and potential for ‘on-site’ analysis. Particular emphasis is placed on the detection of foodborne bacterial pathogens, such as Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes, and additional examples relating to the monitoring of fungal pathogens, viruses, mycotoxins, marine toxins and parasites are also provided. PMID:22408533

  18. Intranasal inoculation of sows with highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus at mid-gestation causes transplacental infection of fetuses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tongtong; Wang, Xiaofei; Li, Xin-An; Nie, Li; Zhang, Minxia; Liu, Sidang; Zhao, Xiaomin; Shang, Yingli; Zhou, En-Min; Hiscox, Julian A; Xiao, Yihong

    2015-01-01

    Transplacental infection plays a critical role in the reproductive failure induced by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), yet exposure of sows and gilts to classical PRRSV generally leads to reproductive failure after 85 days of gestation. We report, for the first time, that the susceptibility of fetuses to highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) is similar at 60 days and 90 days of gestation. This difference from classical PRRSV may contribute to its high pathogenicity. A field study of the HP-PRRSV vaccine in pregnant sows at mid-gestation should be considered. PMID:26715184

  19. During the summer 2009 outbreak of "swine flu" in Scotland what respiratory pathogens were diagnosed as H1N1/2009?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background During the April-July 2009 outbreak of H1N1/2009 in scotland the West of Scotland Specialist Virology Centre (WoSSVC) in Glasgow tested > 16 000 clinical samples for H1N1/2009. Most were from patients clinically diagnosed with H1N1/2009. Out of these, 9% were positive. This study sought to determine what respiratory pathogens were misdiagnosed as cases of H1N1/2009 during this time. Methods We examined the results from 3247 samples which were sent to the laboratory during April-July 2009. All were from patients clinically diagnosed as having H1N1/2009 (based on accepted criteria) and all were given a full respiratory screen using real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rtRT-PCR) assays. Results In total, respiratory pathogens were detected in 27.9% (95% confidence interval, 26.3-29.5%) of the samples submitted. Numerous pathogens were detected, the most common of which were rhinovirus (8.9% (95% confidence interval, 7.9-9.9%)), parainfluenza 1 (1.9% (95% confidence interval, 1.4-2.4%)) and 3 (4.1% (95% confidence interval, 3.3-4.9%)), and adenovirus ((3.5% (95% confidence interval, 2.9-4.2%)). Conclusions This study highlights the problems of using a clinical algorithm to detect H1N1/2009. Clinicians frequently misdiagnosed common respiratory pathogens as H1N1/2009 during the spring/summer outbreak in Scotland. Many undesirable consequences would have resulted, relating to treatment, infection control, and public health surveillance. PMID:21752259

  20. First Complete Genome Sequence of Escherichia albertii Strain KF1, a New Potential Human Enteric Pathogen.

    PubMed

    Fiedoruk, Krzysztof; Daniluk, Tamara; Swiecicka, Izabela; Murawska, Emilia; Sciepuk, Malgorzata; Leszczynska, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia albertii has been recently recognized as an emerging human and bird enteric pathogen. Here, we report the first complete chromosome nucleotide sequence of a clinical isolate of E. albertii strain KF1, which may provide information about the pathogenic potential of this new species and the mechanisms of evolution of enteropathogenic Escherichia spp. PMID:24482506

  1. The Prevalence of Potential Bacterial Pathogens on Inanimate Objects in a State School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dandy, Tonja Denise

    2012-01-01

    Cleaning and disinfection of environmental surfaces can reduce the transmissibility of potential pathogens on school surfaces. Determining the number of bacteria and investigating the presence of pathogens on school surfaces are beginning steps in managing the well-being of students contacting those surfaces. This research study examines the…

  2. Pathogenic potential of Bacillus cereus strains as revealed by phenotypic analysis.

    PubMed

    Kamar, Rita; Gohar, Michel; Jéhanno, Isabelle; Réjasse, Agnès; Kallassy, Mireille; Lereclus, Didier; Sanchis, Vincent; Ramarao, Nalini

    2013-01-01

    The Bacillus cereus pathogenic spectrum ranges from strains used as probiotics to human-lethal strains. However, prediction of the pathogenic potential of a strain remains difficult. Here, we show that food poisoning and clinical strains can be differentiated from harmless strains on the basis of host colonization phenotypes. PMID:23135929

  3. Pathogenic Potential of Bacillus cereus Strains as Revealed by Phenotypic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kamar, Rita; Gohar, Michel; Jéhanno, Isabelle; Réjasse, Agnès; Kallassy, Mireille; Lereclus, Didier

    2013-01-01

    The Bacillus cereus pathogenic spectrum ranges from strains used as probiotics to human-lethal strains. However, prediction of the pathogenic potential of a strain remains difficult. Here, we show that food poisoning and clinical strains can be differentiated from harmless strains on the basis of host colonization phenotypes. PMID:23135929

  4. Species-specific fate of bacteria in house flies and impact on vector potential for pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    House flies ingest bacteria during filth-feeding and consequently can transport microbes from septic environments to human habitats and food. Vector potential is influenced both by flies encountering pathogens and by the fate of bacteria in the fly alimentary canal. In order for pathogens to be tran...

  5. The Prevalence of Potential Bacterial Pathogens on Inanimate Objects in a State School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dandy, Tonja Denise

    2012-01-01

    Cleaning and disinfection of environmental surfaces can reduce the transmissibility of potential pathogens on school surfaces. Determining the number of bacteria and investigating the presence of pathogens on school surfaces are beginning steps in managing the well-being of students contacting those surfaces. This research study examines the

  6. Air contaminants associated with potential respiratory effects from unconventional resource development activities.

    PubMed

    McCawley, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Unconventional natural gas development uses horizontal drilling in conjunction with hydraulic fracturing to gain access to natural gas deposits which may be tightly held in shale deposits and unavailable to conventional vertical drilling operations. The intensive work required to extract this source of energy results in higher than usual numbers of vehicles involved, potential release of emissions from those vehicles in congested zones surrounding the drill site, and release of other contaminants from materials drawn back out of the borehole after fracturing of the shale. Typical contaminants would be diesel exhaust particulate and gases, volatile organic compounds and other hydrocarbons both from diesels and the drilling process, crystalline silica, used as part of the hydraulic fracturing process in kiloton quantities, and methane escaping from the borehole and piping. A rise in respiratory disease with proximity to the process has been reported in nearby communities and both silica and diesel exposures at the worksite are recognized respiratory hazards. Because of the relatively short time this process has been used to the extent it is currently being used, it is not possible to draw detailed conclusions about the respiratory hazards that may be posed. However, based on the traffic volume associated with each drill site and the number of drill sites in any locale, it is possible at least to compare the effects to that of large traffic volume highways which are known to produce some respiratory effects in surrounding areas. PMID:26024346

  7. Respiratory irregularity and stress hormones in panic disorder: exploring potential linkages.

    PubMed

    Abelson, James L; Khan, Samir; Lyubkin, Mark; Giardino, Nicholas

    2008-01-01

    Dysregulation within both respiratory control systems and the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis has been implicated in the pathophysiological of panic disorder. However, potential linkages between respiration and the HPA axis have rarely been examined in panic patients. We have previously published neuroendocrine and psychophysiological response data from a laboratory panic model using the respiratory stimulant doxapram. We now present a new, theoretically driven re-examination of linkages between HPA axis and respiratory measures in this model. Previous analyses showed elevated corticotropin (ACTH) and persistent tidal volume irregularity in panic patients, due to a high frequency of sighs. Regression analyses now show that tidal volume irregularity and sigh frequency were strongly predicted by pre-challenge ACTH levels, but not by subjective distress or panic symptoms. We predicted this relationship on the basis of our hypothesis that both the HPA axis and respiratory control systems may be reactive to contextual cues such as novelty or anticipation of future challenge. Follow-up work is needed to directly test this hypothesis. PMID:17557312

  8. Pathogenicity of three type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus strains in experimentally inoculated pregnant gilts.

    PubMed

    Ladinig, Andrea; Detmer, Susan E; Clarke, Kyle; Ashley, Carolyn; Rowland, Raymond R R; Lunney, Joan K; Harding, John C S

    2015-05-01

    Mechanisms of reproductive failure resulting from infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) are still poorly understood. Presented herein are the results of a side-by-side evaluation of the pathogenicity of three type 2 PRRSV strains in a reproductive model, from a pilot study used to develop experimental conditions and laboratory methods for a larger experiment. Pregnant gilts were experimentally infected with PRRSV at gestation day 85 or served as uninfected negative controls. After 21 days, all gilts and fetuses were necropsied. Clinical signs, litter outcome, viral load, cytokine levels, and pathology were compared from samples collected among pigs exposed to the three PRRSV strains. Based on differences in histologic lesions, and fetal weights, and numeric differences in gilt serum cytokine levels, litter outcome and virus replication in fetal tissues KS06-483 appeared less virulent than NVSL 97-7895 and KS06-72109 isolates. Levels of chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2), interferon alpha (IFNα), and interferon gamma (IFNγ) were increased in PPRRSV-infected compared to non-infected gilts (0.01 > P < 0.06). Inoculation with NVSL 97-7895 induced higher levels of all three cytokines. All three PRRSV isolates were able to induce high mean viral load in individual litters, which was closely related to the proportion of PRRSV positive fetuses in the litter. Viral load in fetal samples was also positively associated with viral load at the maternal-fetal interface. All but one dead fetus were positive for PRRSV RNA, and higher concentrations of PRRSV RNA in fetal thymus increased the odds of fetal death. Our results suggest that virus replication in fetal tissues and the maternal-fetal interface, but not in other gilt tissues, are important for the outcome of reproductive PRRS. Additionally, our data indicate that umbilical lesions decreased corresponding to the use of pentobarbital sedation prior to euthanasia of pregnant gilts by captive bolt. PMID:25796212

  9. Garlic allicin as a potential agent for controlling oral pathogens.

    PubMed

    Bachrach, Gilad; Jamil, Areen; Naor, Ronit; Tal, Golan; Ludmer, Zvi; Steinberg, Doron

    2011-11-01

    Garlic has been used medicinally throughout human history. Allicin is considered the most therapeutic constituent of garlic. This study tested the antimicrobial activity of garlic allicin on oral pathogens associated with dental caries and periodontitis. Allicin was found effective against all the tested bacteria. The broth dilution method revealed that planktonic growth of the cariogenic, gram-positive species Streptococcus mutans, S. sobrinus, and Actinomyces oris was inhibited by an allicin concentration of 600 μg/mL or higher. Planktonic growth of the tested gram-negative periopathogenic species Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Fusobacterium nucleatum was inhibited by a minimum allicin concentration of 300 μg/mL. Porphyromonas gingivalis, an anaerobic, gram-negative pathogen and the bacterium most associated with chronic periodontitis, demonstrated the lowest sensitivity to allicin (2,400 μg/mL). Gel zymography and the synthetic chromogenic substrate N(α)-benzoyl-L-arginine 4-nitroanilide hydrochloride demonstrated that allicin inhibits the proteases of P. gingivalis, including the arginine and lysine gingipains known as major virulence factors of this organism. A gingipain-inactivated mutant demonstrated high sensitivity to allicin (<300 μg/mL), revealing that gingipains confer resistance to allicin. Live/dead staining followed by analysis with confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that allicin was bactericidal to S. mutans grown in mature biofilms. However, this bactericidal effect was reduced as biofilm depth increased. In conclusion, these results support the traditional medicinal use of garlic and suggest the use of allicin for alleviating dental diseases. PMID:21548800

  10. Cryptococcus Strains with Different Pathogenic Potentials Have Diverse Protein Secretomes

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Leona T.; Simonin, Anna R.; Chen, Cuilan; Ferdous, Jannatul; Padula, Matthew P.; Harry, Elizabeth; Hofer, Markus; Campbell, Iain L.

    2015-01-01

    Secreted proteins are the frontline between the host and pathogen. In mammalian hosts, secreted proteins enable invasive infection and can modulate the host immune response. Cryptococcosis, caused by pathogenic Cryptococcus species, begins when inhaled infectious propagules establish to produce pulmonary infection, which, if not resolved, can disseminate to the central nervous system to cause meningoencephalitis. Strains of Cryptococcus species differ in their capacity to cause disease, and the mechanisms underlying this are not well understood. To investigate the role of secreted proteins in disease, we determined the secretome for three genome strains of Cryptococcus species, including a hypovirulent and a hypervirulent strain of C. gattii and a virulent strain of C. neoformans. Sixty-seven unique proteins were identified, with different numbers and types of proteins secreted by each strain. The secretomes of the virulent strains were largely limited to proteolytic and hydrolytic enzymes, while the hypovirulent strain had a diverse secretome, including non-conventionally secreted canonical cytosolic and immunogenic proteins that have been implicated in virulence. The hypovirulent strain cannot establish pulmonary infection in a mouse model, but strains of this genotype have caused human meningitis. To directly test brain infection, we used intracranial inoculation and found that the hypovirulent strain was substantially more invasive than its hypervirulent counterpart. We suggest that immunogenic proteins secreted by this strain invoke a host response that limits pulmonary infection but that there can be invasive growth and damage if infection reaches the brain. Given their known role in virulence, it is possible that non-conventionally secreted proteins mediate this process. PMID:25841021

  11. Occurrence of Potentially Pathogenic Bacterial-Endosymbionts in Acanthamoeba Spp.

    PubMed Central

    NIYYATI, Maryam; MAFI, Mahyar; HAGHIGHI, Ali; HAKEMI VALA, Mojdeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Acanthamoeba- bacteria interactions enable pathogenic bacteria to tolerate harsh conditions and lead to transmission to the susceptible host. The present study was aimed to address the presence of bacterial endosymbionts of Acanthamoeba isolated from recreational water sources of Tehran, Iran. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study regarding occurrence of bacteria in environmental Acanthamoeba spp. in Iran. Methods: A total of 75 samples of recreational water sources were collected. Samples were cultured on non- nutrient agar 1.5% plates. Positive Acanthamoeba spp. were axenically grown. DNA extraction and PCR reaction was performed using JDP1-2 primers. All positive samples of Acanthamoeba were examined for the presence of endosymbionts using staining and molecular methods. The PCR products were then sequenced in order to determine the genotypes of Acanthamoeba and bacteria genera. Results: Out of 75 samples, 16 (21.3%) plates were positive for Acanthamoeba according to the morphological criteria. Molecular analysis revealed that Acanthamoeba belonged to T4 and T5 genotypes. Five isolates (35.7%) were positive for bacterial endosymbionts using staining method and PCR test. Sequencing of PCR products confirmed the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Agrobacterium tumefasiens. Conclusion: The presence of Acanthamoeba bearing pathogenic endosymbionts in water sources leads us to public health issues including improved sanitation and decontamination measures in recreational water sources in order to prevent amoebae-related infection. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report regarding the isolation of A. tumefasiens from Acanthamoeba in Iran and worldwide. PMID:26246815

  12. National and Regional Assessment of Antimicrobial Resistance among Community-Acquired Respiratory Tract Pathogens Identified in a 2005-2006 U.S. Faropenem Surveillance Study▿

    PubMed Central

    Critchley, Ian A.; Brown, Steven D.; Traczewski, Maria M.; Tillotson, Glenn S.; Janjic, Nebojsa

    2007-01-01

    Surveillance studies conducted in the United States over the last decade have revealed increasing resistance among community-acquired respiratory pathogens, especially Streptococcus pneumoniae, that may limit future options for empirical therapy. The objective of this study was to assess the scope and magnitude of the problem at the national and regional levels during the 2005-2006 respiratory season (the season when community-acquired respiratory pathogens are prevalent) in the United States. Also, since faropenem is an oral penem being developed for the treatment of community-acquired respiratory tract infections, another study objective was to provide baseline data to benchmark changes in the susceptibility of U.S. respiratory pathogens to the drug in the future. The in vitro activities of faropenem and other agents were determined against 1,543 S. pneumoniae isolates, 978 Haemophilus influenzae isolates, and 489 Moraxella catarrhalis isolates collected from 104 U.S. laboratories across six geographic regions during the 2005-2006 respiratory season. Among S. pneumoniae isolates, the rates of resistance to penicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, and cefdinir were 16, 6.4, and 19.2%, respectively. The least effective agents were trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT) and azithromycin, with resistance rates of 23.5 and 34%, respectively. Penicillin resistance rates for S. pneumoniae varied by region (from 8.7 to 22.5%), as did multidrug resistance rates for S. pneumoniae (from 8.8 to 24.9%). Resistance to β-lactams, azithromycin, and SXT was higher among S. pneumoniae isolates from children than those from adults. β-Lactamase production rates among H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis isolates were 27.4 and 91.6%, respectively. Faropenem MICs at which 90% of isolates are inhibited were 0.5 μg/ml for S. pneumoniae, 1 μg/ml for H. influenzae, and 0.5 μg/ml for M. catarrhalis, suggesting that faropenem shows promise as a treatment option for respiratory infections caused by contemporary resistant phenotypes. PMID:17908940

  13. National and regional assessment of antimicrobial resistance among community-acquired respiratory tract pathogens identified in a 2005-2006 U.S. Faropenem surveillance study.

    PubMed

    Critchley, Ian A; Brown, Steven D; Traczewski, Maria M; Tillotson, Glenn S; Janjic, Nebojsa

    2007-12-01

    Surveillance studies conducted in the United States over the last decade have revealed increasing resistance among community-acquired respiratory pathogens, especially Streptococcus pneumoniae, that may limit future options for empirical therapy. The objective of this study was to assess the scope and magnitude of the problem at the national and regional levels during the 2005-2006 respiratory season (the season when community-acquired respiratory pathogens are prevalent) in the United States. Also, since faropenem is an oral penem being developed for the treatment of community-acquired respiratory tract infections, another study objective was to provide baseline data to benchmark changes in the susceptibility of U.S. respiratory pathogens to the drug in the future. The in vitro activities of faropenem and other agents were determined against 1,543 S. pneumoniae isolates, 978 Haemophilus influenzae isolates, and 489 Moraxella catarrhalis isolates collected from 104 U.S. laboratories across six geographic regions during the 2005-2006 respiratory season. Among S. pneumoniae isolates, the rates of resistance to penicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, and cefdinir were 16, 6.4, and 19.2%, respectively. The least effective agents were trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT) and azithromycin, with resistance rates of 23.5 and 34%, respectively. Penicillin resistance rates for S. pneumoniae varied by region (from 8.7 to 22.5%), as did multidrug resistance rates for S. pneumoniae (from 8.8 to 24.9%). Resistance to beta-lactams, azithromycin, and SXT was higher among S. pneumoniae isolates from children than those from adults. beta-Lactamase production rates among H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis isolates were 27.4 and 91.6%, respectively. Faropenem MICs at which 90% of isolates are inhibited were 0.5 mug/ml for S. pneumoniae, 1 mug/ml for H. influenzae, and 0.5 mug/ml for M. catarrhalis, suggesting that faropenem shows promise as a treatment option for respiratory infections caused by contemporary resistant phenotypes. PMID:17908940

  14. Membrane potentials of respiratory neurones during dizocilpine-induced apneusis in adult cats.

    PubMed Central

    Haji, A; Pierrefiche, O; Takeda, R; Foutz, A S; Champagnat, J; Denavit-Saubié, M

    1996-01-01

    1. In the vagotomized cat, blockade of NMDA receptors by dizocilpine (MK-801) produces an apneustic pattern of respiration characterized by a large increase in the duration of inspiration. 2. To identify dizocilpine-induced disfacilitations and disinhibitions in respiratory neurones generating the respiratory rhythm, membrane potential and input resistance of augmenting inspiratory (I; n = 11) and post-inspiratory (PI; n = 9) neurones were examined in the ventral respiratory group area, before and after administration of dizocilpine (0.1-0.3 mg kg-1 i.v.) in decerebrate, vagotomized, paralysed and artificially ventilated cats. 3. In I neurones, dizocilpine decreased the ramp depolarization and an 82% increase in input resistance was observed during inspiration. The inspiratory phase was prolonged, leading to a sustained level of depolarization during apneusis. The amplitude of stage 1 expiratory hyperpolarization decreased and its decay, which is normally slow, was faster. Throughout the remainder of expiration (stage 2) the membrane potential levelled off and the input resistance increased slightly (by 15%). 4. In PI neurones, dizocilpine depressed depolarization and suppressed firing in eight out of nine cells during the stage 1 expiratory phase. This was associated with a large (91%) increase of input resistance. The membrane potential switched quickly to stage 2 expiratory repolarization, during which a slight (19%) increase in input resistance occurred. 5. The hyperpolarization of PI neurones during early inspiration was reduced in amplitude by dizocilpine and input resistance was increased by 75% during inspiration, indicating that dizocilpine reduced the activity of the presynaptic inhibitory early-inspiratory (eI) neurones. 6. We conclude that NMDA receptor blockade in the respiratory network disfacilitates eI, I and PI neurones during their active phase. Decreased inhibitory processes during the inspiratory phase probably play a major role in the prolongation of inspiration. PMID:8887787

  15. Evolutionary Dynamics of a Highly Pathogenic Type 2 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus: Analyses of Envelope Protein-Coding Genes.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, V G; Kim, H K; Moon, H J; Park, S J; Chung, H C; Choi, M K; Park, B K

    2015-08-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has long been an economically devastating swine viral disease. The recent emergence of a highly pathogenic type 2 PRRSV with high mobility and mortality in China, spreading in Vietnam, Laos, and Thailand has placed neighbouring countries at risk. This study applied a codon-based extension of the Bayesian relaxed clock model and the fixed effects maximum-likelihood method to investigate and compare the evolutionary dynamics of type 2 PRRSV for all of known structural envelope protein-coding genes. By comparing the highly pathogenic type 2 PRRSV clade against the typical type 2 PRRSV clade, this study demonstrated that the highly pathogenic clade evolved at high rates in all of the known structural genes but did not display rapid evolutionary dynamics compared with typical type 2 PRRSV. In contrast, the ORF3, ORF5 and ORF6 genes of the highly pathogenic clade evolved in a qualitatively different manner from the genes of the typical clade. At the population level, several codons of the sequence elements that were involved in viral neutralization, as well as codons that were associated with in vitro attenuation/over-attenuation, were predicted to be selected differentially between the typical clade and the highly pathogenic clade. The results of this study suggest that the multigenic factors of the envelope protein-coding genes contribute to diversifying the biological properties (virulence, antigenicity, etc.) of the highly pathogenic clade compared with the typical clade of type 2 PRRSV. PMID:23981823

  16. Genotypic, physiological, and biochemical characterization of potentially pathogenic Acanthamoeba isolated from the environment in Cairo, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Tawfeek, Gihan Mostafa; Bishara, Sawsan Abdel-Hamid; Sarhan, Rania Mohammad; ElShabrawi Taher, Eman; ElSaady Khayyal, Amira

    2016-05-01

    Acanthamoebae are the most common opportunistic amphizoic protozoa that cause life-threatening granulomatous amoebic encephalitis in immunocompromised individuals and sight-threatening amoebic keratitis (AK) in contact lens wearers. The present work aimed to determine the presence of Acanthamoeba isolates in different environmental sources: water, soil, and dust in Cairo, Egypt and to characterize the pathogenic potential of the isolated Acanthamoeba using physiological and biochemical assays as well as determination of the genotypes in an attempt to correlate pathogenicity with certain genotypes. The study included the collection of 22 corneal scrapings from patients complaining of symptoms and signs indicative of acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) and 75 environmental samples followed by cultivation on non-nutrient agar plates preseeded with E. coli. Positive samples for Acanthamoeba were subjected to osmo- and thermo-tolerance assays and zymography analysis. Potentially pathogenic isolates were subjected to PCR amplification using genus-specific primer pair. Isolates were classified at the genotype level based on the sequence analysis of Acanthamoeba 18S rRNA gene (diagnostic fragment 3). The total detection rate for Acanthamoeba in environmental samples was 33.3 %, 31.4 % in water, 40 % in soil, and 20 % in dust samples. Three and two Acanthamoeba isolates from water and soil sources, respectively, had the potential for pathogenicity as they exhibited full range of pathogenic traits. Other 12 isolates were designated as weak potential pathogens. Only ten of the environmental isolates were positive in PCR and were classified by genotype analysis into T4 genotype (70 %), T3 (10 %) and T5 (20 %). Potential pathogens belonged to genotypes T4 (from water) and T5 (from soil) while weak potential pathogens belonged to genotypes T3 (from water) and T4 (from water and soil). Additionally, T7 genotype was isolated from keratitis patients. There is a considerable variation in the response of Acanthamoeba members of the same genotype to pathogenicity indicator assays making correlation of pathogenicity with certain genotypes difficult. Presence of potentially pathogenic Acanthamoeba isolates in habitats related directly to human populations represent a risk for human health. Isolation of Acanthamoeba genotype T7 from AK cases, which is commonly considered as nonpathogenic, might draw the attention to other Acanthamoeba genotypes considered as non pathogenic and reevaluate their role in production of human infections. To our knowledge, this is the first study on the presence and distribution of Acanthamoeba genotypes in the environment, Cairo, Egypt. PMID:26841771

  17. Immunological Response to Single Pathogen Challenge with Agents of the Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex: An RNA-Sequence Analysis of the Bronchial Lymph Node Transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Seabury, Christopher M.; Schnabel, Robert D.; Gershwin, Laurel J.; Van Eenennaam, Alison L.; Toaff-Rosenstein, Rachel; Neibergs, Holly L.; Taylor, Jeremy F.

    2015-01-01

    Susceptibility to bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is multi-factorial and is influenced by stress in conjunction with infection by both bacterial and viral pathogens. While vaccination is broadly used in an effort to prevent BRD, it is far from being fully protective and cases diagnosed from a combination of observed clinical signs without any attempt at identifying the causal pathogens are usually treated with antibiotics. Dairy and beef cattle losses from BRD are profound worldwide and genetic studies have now been initiated to elucidate host loci which underlie susceptibility with the objective of enabling molecular breeding to reduce disease prevalence. In this study, we employed RNA sequencing to examine the bronchial lymph node transcriptomes of controls and beef cattle which had individually been experimentally challenged with bovine respiratory syncytial virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine viral diarrhea virus, Pasteurella multocida, Mannheimia haemolytica or Mycoplasma bovis to identify the genes that are involved in the bovine immune response to infection. We found that 142 differentially expressed genes were located in previously described quantitative trait locus regions associated with risk of BRD. Mutations affecting the expression or amino acid composition of these genes may affect disease susceptibility and could be incorporated into molecular breeding programs. Genes involved in innate immunity were generally found to be differentially expressed between the control and pathogen-challenged animals suggesting that variation in these genes may lead to a heritability of susceptibility that is pathogen independent. However, we also found pathogen-specific expression profiles which suggest that host genetic variation for BRD susceptibility is pathogen dependent. PMID:26121276

  18. The potential of methylxanthine-based therapies in pediatric respiratory tract diseases.

    PubMed

    Oñatibia-Astibia, Ainhoa; Martínez-Pinilla, Eva; Franco, Rafael

    2016-03-01

    Caffeine, theophylline and theobromine are the most known methylxanthines as they are present in coffee, tea and/or chocolate. In the last decades, a huge experimental effort has been devoted to get insight into the variety of actions that these compounds exert in humans. From such knowledge it is known that methylxanthines have a great potential in prevention, therapy and/or management of a variety of diseases. The benefits of methylxanthine-based therapies in the apnea of prematurity and their translational potential in pediatric affections of the respiratory tract are here presented. PMID:26880379

  19. Telomere components as potential therapeutic targets for treating microbial pathogen infections

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bibo

    2012-01-01

    In a number of microbial pathogens that undergoes antigenic variation to evade the host’s immune attack, genes encoding surface antigens are located at subtelomeric loci, and recent studies have revealed that telomere components play important roles in regulation of surface antigen expression in several of these pathogens, indicating that telomeres play critical roles in microbial pathogen virulence regulation. Importantly, although telomere protein components and their functions are largely conserved from protozoa to mammals, telomere protein homologs in microbial pathogens and humans have low sequence homology. Therefore, pathogen telomere components are potential drug targets for therapeutic approaches because first, most telomere proteins are essential for pathogens’ survival, and second, disruption of pathogens’ antigenic variation mechanism would facilitate host’s immune system to clear the infection. PMID:23125966

  20. Correlation of gross tumor volume excursion with potential benefits of respiratory gating

    SciTech Connect

    Starkschall, George . E-mail: gstarksc@mdanderson.org; Forster, Kenneth M.; Kitamura, Kei; Cardenas, Alex; Tucker, Susan L.; Stevens, Craig W.

    2004-11-15

    Purpose: To test the hypothesis that the magnitude of thoracic tumor motion can be used to determine the desirability of respiratory gating. Methods and materials: Twenty patients to be treated for lung tumors had computed tomography image data sets acquired under assisted breath hold at normal inspiration (100% tidal volume), at full expiration (0% tidal volume), and under free breathing. A radiation oncologist outlined gross tumor volumes (GTVs) on the breath-hold computed tomographic images. These data sets were registered to the free-breathing image data set. Two sets of treatment plans were generated: one based on an internal target volume explicitly formed from assessment of the excursion of the clinical target volume (CTV) through the respiratory cycle, representing an ungated treatment, and the other based on the 0% tidal volume CTV, representing a gated treatment with little margin for residual motion. Dose-volume statistics were correlated to the magnitude of the motion of the center of the GTV during respiration. Results: Patients whose GTVs were >100 cm{sup 3} showed little decrease in lung dose under gating. The other patients showed a correlation between the excursion of the center of the GTV and a reduction in potential lung toxicity. As residual motion increased, the benefits of respiratory gating increased. Conclusion: Gating seems to be advantageous for patients whose GTVs are <100 cm{sup 3} and for whom the center of the GTV exhibits significant motion, provided residual motion under gating is kept small.

  1. Assessment of the respiratory sensitization potential of proteins using an enhanced mouse intranasal test (MINT).

    PubMed

    Krieger, S M; Boverhof, D R; Woolhiser, M R; Hotchkiss, J A

    2013-09-01

    There remains a need for a simple and predictive animal model to identify potential respiratory sensitizers. The mouse intranasal test (MINT) was developed to assess the relative allergic potential of detergent enzymes, however, the experimental endpoints were limited to evaluation of antibody levels. The present study was designed to evaluate additional endpoints (serum and allergic antibody levels, pulmonary inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR)) to determine their value in improving the predictive accuracy of the MINT. BDF1 mice were intranasally instilled on days 1, 3, 10, 17 and 24 with subtilisin, ovalbumin, betalactoglobulin, mouse serum albumin or keyhole limpet hemocyanin; challenged with aerosolized methacholine or the sensitizing protein on day 29 to assess AHR, and sacrificed on day 29 or 30. Under the conditions of this study, evaluation of AHR did not improve the predictive power of this experimental model. Allergic antibody responses and IgG isotype characterization proved to be the most sensitive and reliable indicators of the protein allergenic potential with BAL responses providing additional insight. These data highlight that the evaluation of the respiratory sensitization potential of proteins can be best informed when multiple parameters are evaluated and that further improvements and refinements of the assay are necessary. PMID:23747714

  2. Changes in epithelial secretory cells and potentiation of neurogenic inflammation in the trachea of rats with respiratory tract infections.

    PubMed

    Huang, H T; Haskell, A; McDonald, D M

    1989-01-01

    In rats respiratory tract infections due to Sendai virus and coronavirus usually are transient, but they can have long-lasting consequences when accompanied by Mycoplasma pulmonis infections. Morphological alterations in the tracheal epithelium and a potentiation of the inflammatory response evoked by sensory nerve stimulation ("neurogenic inflammation") are evident nine weeks after the infections begin, but the extent to which these changes are present at earlier times is not known. In the present study we characterized these abnormalities in the epithelium and determined the extent to which they are present 3 and 6 weeks after the infections begin. We also determined the magnitude of the potentiation of neurogenic inflammation at these times, whether the potentiation can be reversed by glucocorticoids, and whether a proliferation of blood vessels contributes to the abnormally large amount of plasma extravasation associated with this potentiation. To this end, we studied Long-Evans rats that acquired these viral and mycoplasmal infections from other rats. We found that the tracheal epithelium of the infected rats had ten times as many Alcian blue-PAS positive mucous cells as did that of pathogen-free rats; but it contained none of the serous cells typical of pathogen-free rats, so the total number of secretory cells was not increased. In addition, the epithelium of the infected rats had three times the number of ciliated cells and had only a third of the number of globule leukocytes. In response to an injection of capsaicin (150 micrograms/kg i.v.), the tracheas of the infected rats developed an abnormally large amount of extravasation of two tracers, Evans blue dye and Monastral blue pigment, and had an abnormally large number of Monastral blue-labeled venules, particularly in regions of mucosa overlying the cartilaginous rings. This abnormally large amount of extravasation was blocked by dexamethasone (1 mg/day i.p. for 5 days). We conclude that M. pulmonis infections, exacerbated at the outset by viral infections, result within three weeks in the transformation of epithelial serous cells into mucous cells, the proliferation of ciliated cells, and the depletion of globule leukocytes. They also cause a proliferation of mediator-sensitive blood vessels in the airway mucosa, which is likely to contribute to the potentiation of neurogenic inflammation that accompanies these infections. PMID:2552865

  3. Foliar endophytic fungi as potential protectors from pathogens in myrmecophytic Acacia plants.

    PubMed

    Gonzlez-Teuber, Marcia; Jimnez-Alemn, Guillermo H; Boland, Wilhelm

    2014-10-01

    In defensive ant-plant interactions myrmecophytic plants express reduced chemical defense in their leaves to protect themselves from pathogens, and it seems that mutualistic partners are required to make up for this lack of defensive function. Previously, we reported that mutualistic ants confer plants of Acacia hindsii protection from pathogens, and that the protection is given by the ant-associated bacteria. Here, we examined whether foliar endophytic fungi may potentially act as a new partner, in addition to mutualistic ants and their bacteria inhabitants, involved in the protection from pathogens in myrmecophytic Acacia plants. Fungal endophytes were isolated from the asymptomatic leaves of A. hindsii plants for further molecular identification of 18S rRNA gene. Inhibitory effects of fungal endophytes were tested against Pseudomonas plant pathogens. Our findings support a potential role of fungal endophytes in pathogen the protection mechanisms against pathogens in myrmecophytic plants and provide the evidence of novel fungal endophytes capable of biosynthesizing bioactive metabolites. PMID:26843901

  4. Foliar endophytic fungi as potential protectors from pathogens in myrmecophytic Acacia plants

    PubMed Central

    González-Teuber, Marcia; Jiménez-Alemán, Guillermo H; Boland, Wilhelm

    2014-01-01

    In defensive ant-plant interactions myrmecophytic plants express reduced chemical defense in their leaves to protect themselves from pathogens, and it seems that mutualistic partners are required to make up for this lack of defensive function. Previously, we reported that mutualistic ants confer plants of Acacia hindsii protection from pathogens, and that the protection is given by the ant-associated bacteria. Here, we examined whether foliar endophytic fungi may potentially act as a new partner, in addition to mutualistic ants and their bacteria inhabitants, involved in the protection from pathogens in myrmecophytic Acacia plants. Fungal endophytes were isolated from the asymptomatic leaves of A. hindsii plants for further molecular identification of 18S rRNA gene. Inhibitory effects of fungal endophytes were tested against Pseudomonas plant pathogens. Our findings support a potential role of fungal endophytes in pathogen the protection mechanisms against pathogens in myrmecophytic plants and provide the evidence of novel fungal endophytes capable of biosynthesizing bioactive metabolites. PMID:26843901

  5. Evaluating the Pathogenic Potential of Environmental Escherichia coli by Using the Caenorhabditis elegans Infection Model

    PubMed Central

    Merkx-Jacques, Alexandra; Coors, Anja; Brousseau, Roland; Masson, Luke; Mazza, Alberto; Tien, Yuan-Ching

    2013-01-01

    The detection and abundance of Escherichia coli in water is used to monitor and mandate the quality of drinking and recreational water. Distinguishing commensal waterborne E. coli isolates from those that cause diarrhea or extraintestinal disease in humans is important for quantifying human health risk. A DNA microarray was used to evaluate the distribution of virulence genes in 148 E. coli environmental isolates from a watershed in eastern Ontario, Canada, and in eight clinical isolates. Their pathogenic potential was evaluated with Caenorhabditis elegans, and the concordance between the bioassay result and the pathotype deduced by genotyping was explored. Isolates identified as potentially pathogenic on the basis of their complement of virulence genes were significantly more likely to be pathogenic to C. elegans than those determined to be potentially nonpathogenic. A number of isolates that were identified as nonpathogenic on the basis of genotyping were pathogenic in the infection assay, suggesting that genotyping did not capture all potentially pathogenic types. The detection of the adhesin-encoding genes sfaD, focA, and focG, which encode adhesins; of iroN2, which encodes a siderophore receptor; of pic, which encodes an autotransporter protein; and of b1432, which encodes a putative transposase, was significantly associated with pathogenicity in the infection assay. Overall, E. coli isolates predicted to be pathogenic on the basis of genotyping were indeed so in the C. elegans infection assay. Furthermore, the detection of C. elegans-infective environmental isolates predicted to be nonpathogenic on the basis of genotyping suggests that there are hitherto-unrecognized virulence factors or combinations thereof that are important in the establishment of infection. PMID:23377948

  6. Identification of viral and atypical bacterial pathogens in children hospitalized with acute respiratory infections in Hong Kong by multiplex PCR assays.

    PubMed

    Sung, R Y T; Chan, Paul K S; Tsen, Tracy; Li, A M; Lam, W Y; Yeung, Apple C M; Nelson, E A S

    2009-01-01

    Acute respiratory tract infection is a leading cause of hospital admission of children. This study used a broad capture, rapid and sensitive method (multiplex PCR assay) to detect 20 different respiratory pathogens including influenza A subtypes H1, H3, and H5; influenza B; parainfluenza types 1, 2, 3, and 4; respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) groups A and B; adenoviruses; human rhinoviruses; enteroviruses; human metapneumoviruses; human coronaviruses OC43, 229E, and SARS-CoV; Chlamydophila pneumoniae; Legionella pneumophila; and Mycoplasma pneumoniae; from respiratory specimens of 475 children hospitalized over a 12-month period for acute respiratory tract infections. The overall positive rate (47%) was about twice higher than previous reports based on conventional methods. Influenza A, parainfluenza and RSV accounted for 51%, and non-cultivable viruses accounted for 30% of positive cases. Influenza A peaked at March and June. Influenza B was detected in January, February, and April. Parainfluenza was prevalent throughout the year except from April to June. Most RSV infections were found between February and September. Adenovirus had multiple peaks, whereas rhinovirus and coronavirus OC43 were detected mainly in winter and early spring. RSV infection was associated with bronchiolitis, and parainfluenza was associated with croup; otherwise the clinical manifestations were largely nonspecific. In general, children infected with influenza A, adenovirus and mixed viruses had higher temperatures. In view of the increasing concern about unexpected outbreaks of severe viral infections, a rapid multiplex PCR assay is a valuable tool to enhance the management of hospitalized patients, and for the surveillance for viral infections circulating in the community. PMID:19031443

  7. The poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae): a potential vector of pathogenic agents.

    PubMed

    Valiente Moro, Claire; De Luna, Carlos J; Tod, Alexander; Guy, Jonathan H; Sparagano, Olivier A E; Zenner, Lionel

    2009-06-01

    The poultry red mite, D. gallinae has been involved in the transmission of many pathogenic agents, responsible for serious diseases both in animals and humans. Nowadays, few effective methods are available to control the ectoparasite in poultry farms. Consequently, this is an emerging problem which must be taken into account to maintain good health in commercial egg production. This paper addresses the vector capacity of the ectoparasite with special emphasis on salmonellae, pathogenic agents responsible for many of the most important outbreaks of food-borne diseases worlwide. It has been experimentally shown that D. gallinae could act as a biological vector of S. enteritidis and natural carriage of these bacteria by the mite on poultry premises has also been reported. It was also found that D. gallinae carried other pathogens such as E. coli, Shigella sp., and Staphylococcus, thus increasing the list of pathogenic agents potentially transmitted by the mite. PMID:19205905

  8. Potential for the International Spread of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome in Association with Mass Gatherings in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Kamran; Sears, Jennifer; Hu, Vivian Wei; Brownstein, John S; Hay, Simon; Kossowsky, David; Eckhardt, Rose; Chim, Tina; Berry, Isha; Bogoch, Isaac; Cetron, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Background: A novel coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causing severe, life-threatening respiratory disease has emerged in the Middle East at a time when two international mass gatherings in Saudi Arabia are imminent. While MERS-CoV has already spread to and within other countries, these mass gatherings could further amplify and/or accelerate its international dissemination, especially since the origins and geographic source of the virus remain poorly understood. Methods: We analyzed 2012 worldwide flight itinerary data and historic Hajj pilgrim data to predict population movements out of Saudi Arabia and the broader Middle East to help cities and countries assess their potential for MERS-CoV importation. We compared the magnitude of travel to countries with their World Bank economic status and per capita healthcare expenditures as surrogate markers of their capacity for timely detection of imported MERS-CoV and their ability to mount an effective public health response. Results: 16.8 million travelers flew on commercial flights out of Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates between June and November 2012, of which 51.6% were destined for India (16.3%), Egypt (10.4%), Pakistan (7.8%), the United Kingdom (4.3%), Kuwait (3.6%), Bangladesh (3.1%), Iran (3.1%) and Bahrain (2.9%). Among the 1.74 million foreign pilgrims who performed the Hajj last year, an estimated 65.1% originated from low and lower-middle income countries. Conclusion: MERS-CoV is an emerging pathogen with pandemic potential with its apparent epicenter in Saudi Arabia, where millions of pilgrims will imminently congregate for two international mass gatherings. Understanding global population movements out of the Middle East through the end of this year's Hajj could help direct anticipatory MERS-CoV surveillance and public health preparedness to mitigate its potential global health and economic impacts. PMID:23884087

  9. Experience with a mouse intranasal test for the predictive identification of respiratory sensitization potential of proteins.

    PubMed

    Blaikie, L; Basketter, D A

    1999-08-01

    The predictive identification of respiratory allergenic potential is an important primary step in the safety evaluation of (novel) proteins, such as the enzymes used in a range of consumer laundry products. In the past this has been achieved by assessing the relative ability of proteins to give rise to the formation of anaphylactic antibody in the guinea pig. Recently, an alternative model has been proposed which assesses the formation of specific IgG1 antibody in a mouse intranasal test (MINT), the assumption being that specific IgG1 antibody is a surrogate for anaphylactic antibody in the mouse. This procedure has undergone successful initial intralaboratory and interlaboratory assessment. In the present work, the MINT has been evaluated in a more thorough intralaboratory study using eight enzymes plus ovalbumin. While the data generated with a reference enzyme protein, Alcalase, showed good reproducibility, results with the remaining eight proteins led to estimates of their relative antigenic or sensitization potential several of which were at variance from those derived from the guinea pig/ human experience. In consequence, it is concluded that the MINT requires substantial further investigation before it can be adopted as a model for the assessment of the relative ability of proteins to behave as respiratory allergens. PMID:10506013

  10. Genome sequence of Valsa canker pathogens uncovers a potential adaptation of colonization of woody bark.

    PubMed

    Yin, Zhiyuan; Liu, Huiquan; Li, Zhengpeng; Ke, Xiwang; Dou, Daolong; Gao, Xiaoning; Song, Na; Dai, Qingqing; Wu, Yuxing; Xu, Jin-Rong; Kang, Zhensheng; Huang, Lili

    2015-12-01

    Canker caused by ascomycetous Valsa species are among the most destructive diseases of woody plants worldwide. These pathogens are distinct from other pathogens because they only effectively attack tree bark in the field. To unravel the potential adaptation mechanism of bark colonization, we examined the genomes of Valsa mali and Valsa pyri that preferentially infect apple and pear, respectively. We reported the 44.7 and 35.7 Mb genomes of V. mali and V. pyri, respectively. We also identified the potential genomic determinants of wood colonization by comparing them with related cereal pathogens. Both genomes encode a plethora of pathogenicity-related genes involved in plant cell wall degradation and secondary metabolite biosynthesis. In order to adapt to the nutrient limitation and low pH environment in bark, they seem to employ membrane transporters associated with nitrogen uptake and secrete proteases predominantly with acidic pH optima. Remarkably, both Valsa genomes are especially suited for pectin decomposition, but are limited in lignocellulose and cutin degradation. Besides many similarities, the two genomes show distinct variations in many secondary metabolism gene clusters. Our results show a potential adaptation of Valsa canker pathogens to colonize woody bark. Secondary metabolism gene clusters are probably responsible for this host specificity. PMID:26137988

  11. Direct identification of major Gram-negative pathogens in respiratory specimens by respiFISH® HAP Gram (-) Panel, a beacon-based FISH methodology.

    PubMed

    Koncan, R; Parisato, M; Sakarikou, C; Stringari, G; Fontana, C; Favuzzi, V; Ligozzi, M; Lo Cascio, G

    2015-10-01

    Rapid detection of microorganisms in respiratory specimens is of paramount importance to drive the proper antibiotic regimen to prevent complications and transmission of infections. In the present study, the respiFISH® HAP Gram (-) Panel (miacom diagnostics GmbH, Duesseldorf, Germany) for the etiological diagnosis of hospital-acquired pneumonia was compared with the traditional culture method for the detection of major Gram-negative pathogens in respiratory specimens. respiFISH® combined the classical fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technology with fluorescence-labeled DNA molecular beacons as probes. From September 2011 to January 2012, 165 samples were analyzed: the sensitivity and specificity were 94.39 and 87.93%, respectively. Only six pathogens (3.6%) were not identified with respiFISH®, while seven specimens (3%) provided false-positive results. This beacon-based identification shortens the time to result by at least one work day, providing species-level identification within half an hour. Considering the high sensitivity and specificity and the significant time saving, the introduction of bbFISH® assays could effectively complement traditional systems in microbiology laboratories. PMID:26219682

  12. The Potential for Cereal Rye Cover Crops to Host Corn Seedling Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Bakker, Matthew G; Acharya, Jyotsna; Moorman, Thomas B; Robertson, Alison E; Kaspar, Thomas C

    2016-06-01

    Cover cropping is a prevalent conservation practice that offers substantial benefits to soil and water quality. However, winter cereal cover crops preceding corn may diminish beneficial rotation effects because two grass species are grown in succession. Here, we show that rye cover crops host pathogens capable of causing corn seedling disease. We isolated Fusarium graminearum, F. oxysporum, Pythium sylvaticum, and P. torulosum from roots of rye and demonstrate their pathogenicity on corn seedlings. Over 2 years, we quantified the densities of these organisms in rye roots from several field experiments and at various intervals of time after rye cover crops were terminated. Pathogen load in rye roots differed among fields and among years for particular fields. Each of the four pathogen species increased in density over time on roots of herbicide-terminated rye in at least one field site, suggesting the broad potential for rye cover crops to elevate corn seedling pathogen densities. The radicles of corn seedlings planted following a rye cover crop had higher pathogen densities compared with seedlings following a winter fallow. Management practices that limit seedling disease may be required to allow corn yields to respond positively to improvements in soil quality brought about by cover cropping. PMID:26926485

  13. Tick-borne pathogens and the vector potential of ticks in China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhijun; Wang, Hui; Wang, Tianhong; Sun, Wenying; Yang, Xiaolong; Liu, Jingze

    2015-01-01

    Ticks, as obligate blood-sucking ectoparasites, attack a broad range of vertebrates and transmit a great diversity of pathogenic microorganisms. They are considered second only to mosquitoes as vectors of human disease, and the most important vector of pathogens of domestic and wild animals. Of the 117 described species in the Chinese tick fauna, 60 are known to transmit one or more diseases: 36 species isolated within China and 24 species isolated outside China. Moreover, 38 of these species carry multiple pathogens, indicating the potentially vast role of these vectors in transmitting pathogens. Spotted fever is the most common tick-borne disease, and is carried by at least 27 tick species, with Lyme disease and human granulocytic anaplasmosis ranked as the second and third most widespread tick-borne diseases, carried by 13 and 10 species, respectively. Such knowledge provides us with clues for the identification of tick-associated pathogens and suggests ideas for the control of tick-borne diseases in China. However, the numbers of tick-associated pathogens and tick-borne diseases in China are probably underestimated because of the complex distribution and great diversity of tick species in this country. PMID:25586007

  14. The clinical impact of the detection of potential etiologic pathogens of community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Gelfer, Gita; Leggett, James; Myers, Jillian; Wang, Luan; Gilbert, David N

    2015-12-01

    The etiology of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is determined in less than half of the patients based on cultures of sputum and blood plus testing urine for the antigens of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Legionella pneumophila. This study added nasal polymerase chain reaction (PCR) probes for S. pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and respiratory viruses. Serum procalcitonin (PCT) levels were measured. Pathogens were identified in 78% of the patients. For detection of viruses, patients were randomized to either a 5-virus laboratory-generated PCR bundle or the 17-virus FilmArray PCR platform. The FilmArray PCR platform detected more viruses than the laboratory-generated bundle and did so in less than 2 hours. There were fewer days of antibiotic therapy, P = 0.003, in CAP patients with viral infections and a low serum PCT levels. PMID:26341706

  15. Potential Human Pathogenic Bacteria in a Mixed Urban Watershed as Revealed by Pyrosequencing

    PubMed Central

    Ibekwe, A. Mark; Leddy, Menu; Murinda, Shelton E.

    2013-01-01

    Current microbial source tracking (MST) methods for water depend on testing for fecal indicator bacterial counts or specific marker gene sequences to identify fecal contamination where potential human pathogenic bacteria could be present. In this study, we applied 454 high-throughput pyrosequencing to identify bacterial pathogen DNA sequences, including those not traditionally monitored by MST and correlated their abundances to specific sources of contamination such as urban runoff and agricultural runoff from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), recreation park area, waste-water treatment plants, and natural sites with little or no human activities. Samples for pyrosequencing were surface water, and sediment collected from 19 sites. A total of 12,959 16S rRNA gene sequences with average length of ≤400 bp were obtained, and were assigned to corresponding taxonomic ranks using ribosomal database project (RDP), Classifier and Greengenes databases. The percent of total potential pathogens were highest in urban runoff water (7.94%), agricultural runoff sediment (6.52%), and Prado Park sediment (6.00%), respectively. Although the numbers of DNA sequence tags from pyrosequencing were very high for the natural site, corresponding percent potential pathogens were very low (3.78–4.08%). Most of the potential pathogenic bacterial sequences identified were from three major phyla, namely, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes. The use of deep sequencing may provide improved and faster methods for the identification of pathogen sources in most watersheds so that better risk assessment methods may be developed to enhance public health. PMID:24278139

  16. Mitochondrial respiratory pathways inhibition in Rhizopus oryzae potentiates activity of posaconazole and itraconazole via apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Shirazi, Fazal; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of mucormycosis has increased drastically in immunocompromised patients. Also the array of targets whose inhibition results in Mucorales death is limited. Recently, researchers identified mitochondria as important regulators of detoxification and virulence mechanisms in fungi. In this context, targeting the mitochondrial respiratory chain may provide a new platform for antifungal development. We hypothesized that targeting respiratory pathways potentiates triazoles activity via apoptosis. We found that simultaneous administration of antimycin A (AA) and benzohydroxamate (BHAM), inhibitors of classical and alternative mitochondrial pathways respectively, resulted in potent activity of posaconazole (PCZ) and itraconazole (ICZ) against Rhizopus oryzae. We observed cellular changes characteristic of apoptosis in R. oryzae cells treated with PCZ or ICZ in combination with AA and BHAM. The fungicidal activity of this combination against R. oryzae was correlated with intracellular reactive oxygen species accumulation (ROS), phosphatidylserine externalization, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, and increased caspase like activity. DNA fragmentation and condensation assays also revealed apoptosis of R. oryzae cells. These apoptotic features were prevented by the addition of the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-cysteine. Taken together, these findings suggest that the use of PCZ or ICZ in combination with AA and BHAM makes R. oryzae exquisitely sensitive to treatment with triazoles via apoptosis. This strategy may serve as a new model for the development of improved or novel antifungal agents. PMID:23696824

  17. Potentiation of pathogen-specific defense mechanisms in Arabidopsis by β-aminobutyric acid

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerli, Laurent; Jakab, Gabor; Métraux, Jean-Pierre; Mauch-Mani, Brigitte

    2000-01-01

    The nonprotein amino acids γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and β-aminobutyric acid (BABA) have known biological effects in animals and plants. Their mode of action has been the object of thorough research in animals but remains unclear in plants. Our objective was to study the mode of action of BABA in the protection of Arabidopis plants against virulent pathogens. BABA protected Arabidopsis against the oomycete pathogen Peronospora parasitica through activation of natural defense mechanisms of the plant such as callose deposition, the hypersensitive response, and the formation of trailing necroses. BABA was still fully protective against P. parasitica in transgenic plants or mutants impaired in the salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and ethylene signaling pathways. Treatment with BABA did not induce the accumulation of mRNA of the systemic acquired resistance (SAR)-associated PR-1 and the ethylene- and jasmonic acid-dependent PDF1.2 genes. However, BABA potentiated the accumulation of PR-1 mRNA after attack by virulent pathogenic bacteria. As a result, BABA-treated Arabidopsis plants were less diseased compared with the untreated control. In the case of bacteria, BABA protected mutants insensitive to jasmonic acid and ethylene but was not active in plants impaired in the SAR transduction pathway. Thus, BABA protects Arabidopsis against different virulent pathogens by potentiating pathogen-specific plant resistance mechanisms. In addition, we provide evidence that BABA-mediated papilla formation after P. parasitica infection is independent of the SAR signaling pathway. PMID:11058166

  18. Nationwide surveillance of bacterial respiratory pathogens conducted by the surveillance committee of Japanese Society of Chemotherapy, the Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases, and the Japanese Society for Clinical Microbiology in 2010: General view of the pathogens' antibacterial susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Yanagihara, Katsunori; Kadota, Junichi; Aoki, Nobuki; Matsumoto, Tetsuya; Yoshida, Masaki; Yagisawa, Morimasa; Oguri, Toyoko; Sato, Junko; Ogasawara, Kazuhiko; Wakamura, Tomotaro; Sunakawa, Keisuke; Watanabe, Akira; Iwata, Satoshi; Kaku, Mitsuo; Hanaki, Hideaki; Ohsaki, Yoshinobu; Watari, Tomohisa; Toyoshima, Eri; Takeuchi, Kenichi; Shiokoshi, Mayumi; Takeda, Hiroaki; Miki, Makoto; Kumagai, Toshio; Nakanowatari, Susumu; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Utagawa, Mutsuko; Nishiya, Hajime; Kawakami, Sayoko; Kobayashi, Nobuyuki; Takasaki, Jin; Mezaki, Kazuhisa; Konosaki, Hisami; Aoki, Yasuko; Yamamoto, Yumiko; Shoji, Michi; Goto, Hajime; Saraya, Takeshi; Kurai, Daisuke; Okazaki, Mitsuhiro; Niki, Yoshihito; Yoshida, Koichiro; Kawana, Akihiko; Saionji, Katsu; Fujikura, Yuji; Miyazawa, Naoki; Kudo, Makoto; Sato, Yoshimi; Yamamoto, Masaki; Yoshida, Takashi; Nakamura, Masahiko; Tsukada, Hiroki; Imai, Yumiko; Tsukada, Ayami; Kawasaki, Satoshi; Honma, Yasuo; Yamamoto, Toshinobu; Ban, Nobuyoshi; Mikamo, Hiroshige; Sawamura, Haruki; Miyara, Takayuki; Toda, Hirofumi; Sato, Kaori; Nakamura, Tadahiro; Fujikawa, Yasunori; Mitsuno, Noriko; Mikasa, Keiichi; Kasahara, Kei; Sano, Reiko; Sugimoto, Keisuke; Asari, Seishi; Nishi, Isao; Toyokawa, Masahiro; Miyashita, Naoyuki; Koguchi, Yutaka; Kusano, Nobuchika; Mihara, Eiichirou; Kuwabara, Masao; Watanabe, Yaeko; Kawasaki, Yuji; Takeda, Kenichi; Tokuyasu, Hirokazu; Masui, Kayoko; Negayama, Kiyoshi; Hiramatsu, Kazufumi; Aoki, Yosuke; Fukuoka, Mami; Magarifuchi, Hiroki; Nagasawa, Zenzo; Suga, Moritaka; Muranaka, Hiroyuki; Morinaga, Yoshitomo; Honda, Junichi; Fujita, Masaki

    2015-06-01

    The nationwide surveillance on antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial respiratory pathogens from patients in Japan, was conducted by Japanese Society of Chemotherapy, Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases and Japanese Society for Clinical Microbiology in 2010. The isolates were collected from clinical specimens obtained from well-diagnosed adult patients with respiratory tract infections during the period from January and April 2010 by three societies. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was conducted at the central reference laboratory according to the method recommended by Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institutes using maximum 45 antibacterial agents. Susceptibility testing was evaluable with 954 strains (206 Staphylococcus aureus, 189 Streptococcus pneumoniae, 4 Streptococcus pyogenes, 182 Haemophilus influenzae, 74 Moraxella catarrhalis, 139 Klebsiella pneumoniae and 160 Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Ratio of methicillin-resistant S. aureus was as high as 50.5%, and those of penicillin-intermediate and -resistant S. pneumoniae were 1.1% and 0.0%, respectively. Among H. influenzae, 17.6% of them were found to be β-lactamase-non-producing ampicillin (ABPC)-intermediately resistant, 33.5% to be β-lactamase-non-producing ABPC-resistant and 11.0% to be β-lactamase-producing ABPC-resistant strains. Extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing K. pneumoniae and multi-drug resistant P. aeruginosa with metallo β-lactamase were 2.9% and 0.6%, respectively. Continuous national surveillance of antimicrobial susceptibility of respiratory pathogens is crucial in order to monitor changing patterns of susceptibility and to be able to update treatment recommendations on a regular basis. PMID:25817352

  19. Potentially pathogenic Acanthamoeba in swimming pools: a survey in the southern Brazilian city of Porto Alegre.

    PubMed

    Caumo, K; Frasson, A P; Pens, C J; Panatieri, L F; Frazzon, A P G; Rott, M B

    2009-09-01

    Between May 2006 and March 2007, 65 water samples were collected from both heated and unheated swimming pools in the city of Porto Alegre, the capital of the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul. The aim was to explore the problem posed by, and the pathogenic potential of, Acanthamoeba in the pools. Free-living amoebae in the samples were isolated by culture with Escherichia coli and identified from trophozoite and cyst morphology and the results of a PCR with Acanthamoeba-specific oligonucleotide primers. Potential pathogenicity was assessed in osmotolerance and thermotolerance assays. Thirteen (20%) of the water samples investigated were found positive for free-living amoebae, all identified as belonging to morphological groups II (nine isolates) or III (four isolates) of the genus Acanthamoeba. All 13 isolates were found positive in the Acanthamoeba-specific PCR, and the results of the tolerance assays indicated that five (38%) of the isolates should be considered potentially pathogenic. The results of this first study on the occurrence and distribution of Acanthamoeba in the water of swimming pools in Porto Alegre confirm the presence of potentially pathogenic types that may present a risk to human health. PMID:19695153

  20. The potential for early and rapid pathogen detection within poultry processing through hyperspectral microscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The acquisition of hyperspectral microscopic images containing both spatial and spectral data has shown potential for the early and rapid optical classification of foodborne pathogens. A hyperspectral microscope with a metal halide light source and acousto-optical tunable filter (AOTF) collects 89 ...

  1. Sensitivity of Escherichia albertii, a potential foodborne pathogen, to food preservation treatments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Escherichia albertii is a potential foodborne pathogen because of its documented ability to cause diarrheal disease by producing attachment and effacement lesions. Its tolerance to food preservation treatments has not been investigated. Heat, acid, and pressure tolerance were determined for stationa...

  2. Cloacibacillus sp., a Potential Human Pathogen Associated with Bacteremia in Quebec and New Brunswick

    PubMed Central

    Yansouni, C.; Gaudreau, C.; Lamothe, F.; Lévesque, S.; Tremblay, C.; Garceau, R.

    2015-01-01

    Bacteremia due to Cloacibacillus species is poorly described. We present three cases involving either Cloacibacillus evryensis or Cloacibacillus porcorum. The isolates were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and were susceptible to antibiotics commonly used for anaerobic infections. The clinical significance of these organisms as potential emerging pathogens is discussed. PMID:26224843

  3. Potential human pathogenic bacteria in a mixed urban watershed as revealed by pyrosequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current microbial source tracking (MST) methods for water depend on testing for fecal indicator bacterial counts or specific marker gene sequences to identify fecal contamination where potential human pathogenic bacteria could be present. In this study, we applied 454 high-throughput pyrosequencing ...

  4. Nasopharyngeal colonization by potentially pathogenic bacteria found in healthy semi-captive wild-born chimpanzees in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Mugisha, Lawrence; Köndgen, Sophie; Kaddu-Mulindwa, Deogratias; Gaffikin, Lynne; Leendertz, Fabian H

    2014-02-01

    Information on the chimpanzee nasopharygeal colonization in captive sanctuaries and in the wild is rare. This study was undertaken to establish the nasopharygeal colonization and potential bacterial pathogens in sanctuary chimpanzees as a basis for improving chimpanzee and employee health. Nasopharygeal colonization of 39 healthy chimpanzees were analyzed by microbiological cultivation method and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. We report four major phyla dominated by Proteobacteria (50%), Fermicutes (35.7%), Bacteriodes (7.1%), and Cynobacteria (7.1%) in healthy semi-captive chimpanzees. Further classification based on 7-base oligomers revealed the following genera: Streptococcus, Veillonella, Neisseria, Prevotella, Kingella and unclassified Cynobacteria, Actinobacillus, Bacteriodes and Pasteurellaceae. On microbiological cultivation we were able to identify and characterize some of the bacteria to species level as Klebsiella pneumonie and Pseudomonas aeruginosa being dominant bacteria with 54.7% and 50% colonization, respectively. Of these, Streptococcus, Neisseria, Klebsiella, and Haemophillus have representatives known to potentially cause severe respiratory disease. Our data present important information on chimpanzee nasopharygeal colonization as a guide to understanding disease processes and pharmaceutical therapies required for improving the health of chimpanzees. The results from this study will guide the processes to improve procedures for routine management of sanctuary chimpanzees and use it as a basis for evaluation of future reintroduction possibilities. PMID:24395648

  5. Flocked nasal swab versus nasopharyngeal aspirate in adult emergency room patients: similar multiplex PCR respiratory pathogen results and patient discomfort.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Karin B; Westin, Johan; Andersson, Lars-Magnus; Lindh, Magnus; Widell, Anders; Nilsson, Anna C

    2016-03-01

    Fifty adult emergency room patients with symptoms of respiratory tract infections or acute onset of extreme fatigue were sampled by both nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA) and flocked nasal swab (fNS). Respiratory agents were detected by a qualitative influenza PCR and an 18-valent multiplex PCR in 20 of 29 patients with a clinical diagnosis of respiratory tract infection, and in 3 of 21 without such a diagnosis. PCR detected influenza A and B in NPA samples from 11 patients and in fNS samples from 10 patients. Little or no discomfort was perceived by 60% of the patients when sampled by NPA and by 66% when sampled by fNS. We conclude that NPA and fNS were equally sensitive for detection of respiratory agents by multiplex PCR, and the two sampling methods did not differ significantly regarding discomfort perceived by patients (p = 0.171, Wilcoxon signed rank test). Hence less invasive sampling by fNS might be preferable in certain settings and situations. PMID:26466764

  6. Problem of immunoglobulin M co-detection in serological response to bacterial and viral respiratory pathogens among children suspected of legionellosis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research was an analysis of the serological response to respiratory bacterial and viral pathogens, in 156 children admitted to hospital in Warsaw with a suspicion of legionellosis. Levels of immunoglobulin (Ig) M to Bordetella pertussis, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), adenoviruses, human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) t. 1-4 and influenza t. A + B viruses were determined retrospectively by ELISAs. In the prospective examinations (only Legionella pneumophila sg1), a positive level of IgM was found in 35 patients, but in 59 children together with retrospective tests. There were positive results for B. pertussis (21 children), followed by HPIV (10 children), M. pneumoniae (5 patients), RSV (4 persons), adenoviruses (3 children), and influenza A + B virus (3 persons). Positive results for > 1 agent were found in 16 children. The most often co-detected IgM were to L. pneumophila sg1 and B. pertussis (9 children) and L. pneumophila sg1 and M. pneumoniae (5 patients). The distribution of IgM to L. pneumophila sg1, B. pertussis and HPIV among children ≤ 4 years differed significantly from IgM specific to other pathogens. A high number of HPIV infections, mainly single, was found among infants. Positive results of IgM to L. pneumophila sg1 were mainly found in children aged 4-5 years. and the oldest children (over 10 years.). However, among the oldest children, anti-L. pneumophila sg1 antibodies were often found together with IgM to B. pertussis. Infections due to more than 2 pathogens were only observed among patients with pneumonia, especially due to L. pneumophila sg1 and/or B. pertussis. Conversely, co-detection of IgM ELISA for L. pneumophila and M. pneumoniae were mainly detected among patients hospitalized without pneumonia. PMID:26557031

  7. [ASSESSMENT OF POTENTIAL RISK FOR CONTAMINATION OF SURFACE WATER RESERVOIRS BY PATHOGENS OF HUMAN PARASITIC DISEASES].

    PubMed

    Khromenkova, E P; Dimidova, L L; Dumbadze, O S; Aidinov, G T; Shendo, G L; Agirov, A Kh; Batchaev, Kh Kh

    2015-01-01

    Sanitary and parasitological studies of the waste effluents and surface reservoir waters were conducted in the south of Russia. The efficiency of purification of waste effluents from the pathogens of parasitic diseases was investigated in the region's sewage-purification facilities. The water of the surface water reservoirs was found to contain helminthic eggs and larvae and intestinal protozoan cysts because of the poor purification and disinfection of service fecal sewage waters. The poor purification and disinvasion of waste effluents in the region determine the potential risk of contamination of the surface water reservoirs and infection of the population with the pathogens of human parasitic diseases. PMID:26152029

  8. Therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stromal cells for acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Matthay, Michael A

    2015-03-01

    Based on preclinical data, cell-based therapy with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem (stromal) cells (MSCs) is a potentially attractive new therapeutic option for treating patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome. Small and large animal models of acute lung injury from endotoxin, live bacteria, and sepsis have shown that MSCs can decrease lung injury and increase survival. The mechanisms for benefit are mediated in part by paracrine release of several antiinflammatory cytokines, keratinocyte growth factor, angiopoietin-1, as well as the release of antimicrobial peptides. There is also evidence that MSCs can transfer mitochondria and restore normal bioenergetics to injured alveolar epithelium. Some of the beneficial effects are mediated by microvesicles. A phase 1 safety and dose-escalation trial was completed and a randomized, double-blind clinical trial is currently underway. PMID:25830837

  9. Anti-virulence potential of eugenyl acetate against pathogenic bacteria of medical importance.

    PubMed

    Musthafa, Khadar Syed; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang Piyawan

    2015-03-01

    Considering the role of virulence factors in bacterial pathogenicity, interfering with the virulence factor production could afford a novel way for the treatment of infections caused by pathogenic bacteria. In the present study, an effect of eugenyl acetate (EA), a well-known phytochemical from Syzygium aromaticum (clove bud) was assessed for its anti-virulence potential against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive pathogens. Eugenyl acetate at 150 µg/ml, significantly inhibited virulence factor production such as pyocyanin and pyoverdin by Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 up to 9.4 (P < 0.01) and 3.7 fold (P < 0.01), respectively. In addition, protease activity of P. aeruginosa was significantly reduced upon treatment with EA (P < 0.05). The test compound (150 µg/ml) lowered haemolytic activity of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213 up to tenfold (P < 0.01). Furthermore, a decrease in staphyloxanthin pigment production was observed when S. aureus cells were treated with increasing concentrations of EA (37.5-150 µg/ml). The test compound at 75 µg/ml exhibited quorum sensing inhibitory potential in inhibiting violacein production by Chromobacterium violaceum DMST 21761 up to 27.7 fold (P < 0.01). Thus, results of the present work reveal the potential of EA as an alternative candidate to control pathogenicity of both Gram-negative and Gram-positive organisms. PMID:25613850

  10. Detection of respiratory pathogens in pediatric acute otitis media by PCR and comparison of findings in the middle ear and nasopharynx.

    PubMed

    Yatsyshina, Svetlana; Mayanskiy, Nikolay; Shipulina, Olga; Kulichenko, Tatiana; Alyabieva, Natalia; Katosova, Lyubovj; Lazareva, Anna; Skachkova, Tatyana; Elkina, Maria; Matosova, Svetlana; Shipulin, German

    2016-05-01

    We conducted a series of polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) in order to detect bacteria (7 species) and viruses (17 species) in middle ear fluid (MEF) and nasopharynx (Nph) of children with acute otitis media (AOM; n=179). Bacterial and viral nucleic acids were detected in MEF of 78.8% and 14.5% patients, respectively. The prevalence was as follows: Streptococcus pneumoniae, 70.4%; Haemophilus influenzae, 17.9%; Staphylococcus aureus, 16.8%; Streptococcus pyogenes, 12.3%; Moraxella catarrhalis, 9.5%; rhinovirus, 9.5%; and adenovirus, 3.4%. The overall rate of PCR-positive specimens for bacterial pathogens was 2.6 times higher, compared to culture results. The rate of PCR-positive results and the distribution of pathogens in the Nph were similar to those in the MEF. Nph PCR results had variable positive predictive values and high negative predictive values in predicting MEF findings. Our results indicate that Nph PCR could be a practical tool for examining respiratory pathogens in children with acute infections. PMID:26971180

  11. Colonization capability of lactobacilli and pathogens in the respiratory tract of mice: microbiological, cytological, structural, and ultrastructural studies.

    PubMed

    Cangemi de Gutierrez, Rosa; Santos, Viviana M; Nader-Macas, Mara Elena

    2004-01-01

    Respiratory tract infections are among the bacterial infections that affect humans with higher frequency. Those produced by Streptococcus pneumoniae are reported to have the highest incidence in the world, affecting both children and old people. As a 2001 report from the World Health Organization expressed it, the basic fight of children under 5 yr old is to survive. Five different conditions (acute respiratory infections, diarrhea, measles, palludism, and undernutrition) directly produce more than 50% of the deaths in this age group. Respiratory tract infections in the developing countries in the Americas are among the first three causes of death in children under 1 yr and between the first and second cause in children between 1 and 4 yr old. Pneumonia is responsible for 85 and 90% of deaths in children under 5 yr old (approx 150,000 annually), 95% of them occurring in the developing countries in the Americas. There is an increased worldwide tendency to use preventive measures and to consume products that help to maintain the health status of the individual. Thus the use of probiotics has increased systematically during the last decade, and the scientific literature trying to demonstrate the positive effect of such preparations has also increased. The term probiotic has been applied to products that (1) contain live microorganisms, freeze-dried or included in fermented products or (2) improve the health status of humans and animals, exerting effects in the mouth or gastrointestinal tract (included in foods or capsules), in the respiratory tract (as aerosols), or in the urogenital tract (by local application)Having in mind the high incidence of respiratory tract infections, and looking for preventive measures as well as the possible applications of probiotics, the aim of this chapter was to use mice as experimental models to determine whether members of the genus Lactobacillus were able to colonize and give protection from infections after inoculation by the intranasal route. To this end, the following procedures were carried out: 1. Screening of the predominant bacterial species in respiratory organs. 2. Study of the kinetics of colonization of the different groups of microorganisms from 15 d up to adult (2 mo). 3. Screening of the probiotic characteristics of all the isolated strains. PMID:15156048

  12. Update on the pathogenic potential and treatment options for Blastocystis sp.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Tamalee; Stark, Damien; Harkness, John; Ellis, John

    2014-01-01

    Although Blastocystis is one of the most common enteric parasites, there is still much controversy surrounding the pathogenicity and potential treatment options for this parasite. In this review we look at the evidence supporting Blastocystis as an intestinal pathogen as shown by numerous case studies and several in vivo studies and the evidence against. We describe the chronic nature of some infections and show the role of Blastocystis in immunocompromised patients and the relationship between irritable bowel syndrome and Blastocystis infection. There have been several studies that have suggested that pathogenicity may be subtype related. Metronidazole is the most widely accepted treatment for Blastocystis but several cases of treatment failure and resistance have been described. Other treatment options which have been suggested include paromomycin and trimethroprim- sulfamethoxazole. PMID:24883113

  13. Update on the pathogenic potential and treatment options for Blastocystis sp

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Although Blastocystis is one of the most common enteric parasites, there is still much controversy surrounding the pathogenicity and potential treatment options for this parasite. In this review we look at the evidence supporting Blastocystis as an intestinal pathogen as shown by numerous case studies and several in vivo studies and the evidence against. We describe the chronic nature of some infections and show the role of Blastocystis in immunocompromised patients and the relationship between irritable bowel syndrome and Blastocystis infection. There have been several studies that have suggested that pathogenicity may be subtype related. Metronidazole is the most widely accepted treatment for Blastocystis but several cases of treatment failure and resistance have been described. Other treatment options which have been suggested include paromomycin and trimethroprim- sulfamethoxazole. PMID:24883113

  14. Occurrence of Potentially Human-Pathogenic Escherichia coli O103 in Norwegian Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Sekse, Camilla; Sunde, Marianne; Hopp, Petter; Bruheim, Torkjel; Cudjoe, Kofitsyo Sewornu; Kvitle, Bjrg

    2013-01-01

    The investigation of an outbreak of hemorrhagic-uremic syndrome in Norway in 2006 indicated that the outbreak strain Escherichia coli O103:H25 could originate from sheep. A national survey of the Norwegian sheep population was performed, with the aim of identifying and describing a possible reservoir of potentially human-pathogenic E. coli O103, in particular of the H types 2 and 25. The investigation of fecal samples from 585 sheep flocks resulted in 1,222 E. coli O103 isolates that were analyzed for the presence of eae and stx genes, while a subset of 369 isolates was further examined for flagellar antigens (H typing), stx subtypes, bfpA, astA, and molecular typing by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The total ovine E. coli O103 serogroup was genetically diverse by numbers of H types, virulotypes, and PFGE banding patterns identified, although a tendency of clustering toward serotypes was seen. The flocks positive for potentially human-pathogenic E. coli O103 were geographically widely distributed, and no association could be found with county or geographical region. The survey showed that eae-negative, stx-negative E. coli O103, probably nonpathogenic to humans, is very common in sheep, with 27.5% of flocks positive. Moreover, the study documented a low prevalence (0.7%) of potentially human-pathogenic Shiga toxin-producing E. coli O103:H2, while STEC O103:H25 was not detected. However, 3.1% and 5.8% of the flocks were positive for enteropathogenic E. coli O103 belonging to H types 2 and 25, respectively. These isolates are of concern as potential human pathogens by themselves but more importantly as possible precursors for human-pathogenic STEC. PMID:24077709

  15. Occurrence of potentially human-pathogenic Escherichia coli O103 in Norwegian sheep.

    PubMed

    Sekse, Camilla; Sunde, Marianne; Hopp, Petter; Bruheim, Torkjel; Cudjoe, Kofitsyo Sewornu; Kvitle, Bjrg; Urdahl, Anne Margrete

    2013-12-01

    The investigation of an outbreak of hemorrhagic-uremic syndrome in Norway in 2006 indicated that the outbreak strain Escherichia coli O103:H25 could originate from sheep. A national survey of the Norwegian sheep population was performed, with the aim of identifying and describing a possible reservoir of potentially human-pathogenic E. coli O103, in particular of the H types 2 and 25. The investigation of fecal samples from 585 sheep flocks resulted in 1,222 E. coli O103 isolates that were analyzed for the presence of eae and stx genes, while a subset of 369 isolates was further examined for flagellar antigens (H typing), stx subtypes, bfpA, astA, and molecular typing by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The total ovine E. coli O103 serogroup was genetically diverse by numbers of H types, virulotypes, and PFGE banding patterns identified, although a tendency of clustering toward serotypes was seen. The flocks positive for potentially human-pathogenic E. coli O103 were geographically widely distributed, and no association could be found with county or geographical region. The survey showed that eae-negative, stx-negative E. coli O103, probably nonpathogenic to humans, is very common in sheep, with 27.5% of flocks positive. Moreover, the study documented a low prevalence (0.7%) of potentially human-pathogenic Shiga toxin-producing E. coli O103:H2, while STEC O103:H25 was not detected. However, 3.1% and 5.8% of the flocks were positive for enteropathogenic E. coli O103 belonging to H types 2 and 25, respectively. These isolates are of concern as potential human pathogens by themselves but more importantly as possible precursors for human-pathogenic STEC. PMID:24077709

  16. Bacterial inclusion bodies as potential synthetic devices for pathogen recognition and a therapeutic substance release

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Adhesins of pathogens recognise the glycans on the host cell and mediate adherence. They are also crucial for determining the tissue preferences of pathogens. Currently, glyco-nanomaterials provide potential tool for antimicrobial therapy. We demonstrate that properly glyco-tailored inclusion bodies can specifically bind pathogen adhesins and release therapeutic substances. Results In this paper, we describe the preparation of tailored inclusion bodies via the conjugation of indicator protein aggregated to form inclusion bodies with soluble proteins. Whereas the indicator protein represents a remedy, the soluble proteins play a role in pathogen recognition. For conjugation, glutaraldehyde was used as linker. The treatment of conjugates with polar lysine, which was used to inactivate the residual glutaraldehyde, inhibited unwanted hydrophobic interactions between inclusion bodies. The tailored inclusion bodies specifically interacted with the SabA adhesin from Helicobacter pylori aggregated to form inclusion bodies that were bound to the sialic acids decorating the surface of human erythrocytes. We also tested the release of indicator proteins from the inclusion bodies using sortase A and Ssp DNAB intein self-cleaving modules, respectively. Sortase A released proteins in a relatively short period of time, whereas the intein cleavage took several weeks. Conclusions The tailored inclusion bodies are promising “nanopills” for biomedical applications. They are able to specifically target the pathogen, while a self-cleaving module releases a soluble remedy. Various self-cleaving modules can be enabled to achieve the diverse pace of remedy release. PMID:23391325

  17. Probiotic Potential of Lactobacillus Strains with Antimicrobial Activity against Some Human Pathogenic Strains

    PubMed Central

    Shokryazdan, Parisa; Sieo, Chin Chin; Kalavathy, Ramasamy; Liang, Juan Boo; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Faseleh Jahromi, Mohammad; Ho, Yin Wan

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to isolate, identify, and characterize some lactic acid bacterial strains from human milk, infant feces, and fermented grapes and dates, as potential probiotics with antimicrobial activity against some human pathogenic strains. One hundred and forty bacterial strains were isolated and, after initial identification and a preliminary screening for acid and bile tolerance, nine of the best isolates were selected and further identified using 16 S rRNA gene sequences. The nine selected isolates were then characterized in vitro for their probiotic characteristics and their antimicrobial activities against some human pathogens. Results showed that all nine isolates belonged to the genus Lactobacillus. They were able to tolerate pH 3 for 3 h, 0.3% bile salts for 4 h, and 1.9 mg/mL pancreatic enzymes for 3 h. They exhibited good ability to attach to intestinal epithelial cells and were not resistant to the tested antibiotics. They also showed good antimicrobial activities against the tested pathogenic strains of humans, and most of them exhibited stronger antimicrobial activity than the reference strain L. casei Shirota. Thus, the nine Lactobacillus strains could be considered as potential antimicrobial probiotic strains against human pathogens and should be further studied for their human health benefits. PMID:25105147

  18. Potential pathogenicity of Aeromonas hydrophila complex strains isolated from clinical, food, and environmental sources.

    PubMed

    Albarral, Vicenta; Sanglas, Ariadna; Palau, Montserrat; Miñana-Galbis, David; Fusté, M Carmen

    2016-04-01

    Aeromonas are autochthonous inhabitants of aquatic environments, including chlorinated and polluted waters, although they can also be isolated from a wide variety of environmental and clinical sources. They cause infections in vertebrates and invertebrates and are considered to be an emerging pathogen in humans, producing intestinal and extra-intestinal diseases. Most of the clinical isolates correspond to A. hydrophila, A. caviae, and A. veronii bv. Sobria, which are described as the causative agents of wound infections, septicaemia, and meningitis in immunocompromised people, and diarrhoea and dysenteric infections in the elderly and children. The pathogenic factors associated with Aeromonas are multifactorial and involve structural components, siderophores, quorum-sensing mechanisms, secretion systems, extracellular enzymes, and exotoxins. In this study, we analysed a representative number of clinical and environmental strains belonging to the A. hydrophila species complex to evaluate their potential pathogenicity. We thereby detected their enzymatic activities and antibiotic susceptibility pattern and the presence of virulence genes (aer, alt, ast, and ascV). The notably high prevalence of these virulence factors, even in environmental strains, indicated a potential pathogenic capacity. Additionally, we determined the adhesion capacity and cytopathic effects of this group of strains in Caco-2 cells. Most of the strains exhibited adherence and caused complete lysis. PMID:26889703

  19. Probiotic potential of Lactobacillus strains with antimicrobial activity against some human pathogenic strains.

    PubMed

    Shokryazdan, Parisa; Sieo, Chin Chin; Kalavathy, Ramasamy; Liang, Juan Boo; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Faseleh Jahromi, Mohammad; Ho, Yin Wan

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to isolate, identify, and characterize some lactic acid bacterial strains from human milk, infant feces, and fermented grapes and dates, as potential probiotics with antimicrobial activity against some human pathogenic strains. One hundred and forty bacterial strains were isolated and, after initial identification and a preliminary screening for acid and bile tolerance, nine of the best isolates were selected and further identified using 16 S rRNA gene sequences. The nine selected isolates were then characterized in vitro for their probiotic characteristics and their antimicrobial activities against some human pathogens. Results showed that all nine isolates belonged to the genus Lactobacillus. They were able to tolerate pH 3 for 3 h, 0.3% bile salts for 4 h, and 1.9 mg/mL pancreatic enzymes for 3 h. They exhibited good ability to attach to intestinal epithelial cells and were not resistant to the tested antibiotics. They also showed good antimicrobial activities against the tested pathogenic strains of humans, and most of them exhibited stronger antimicrobial activity than the reference strain L. casei Shirota. Thus, the nine Lactobacillus strains could be considered as potential antimicrobial probiotic strains against human pathogens and should be further studied for their human health benefits. PMID:25105147

  20. Experimental demonstration of pathogenic potential of Anisakis physeteris and Anisakis paggiae in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Romero, María Carmen; Valero, Adela; Navarro, María Concepción; Hierro, Ignacio; Barón, Sergio David; Martín-Sánchez, Joaquina

    2014-12-01

    Anisakis morphotype I is the principal etiologic agent of human anisakiasis, with differences in pathogenicity found between the Anisakis simplex s.s. and A. pegreffii species; however, the role of morphotype II larvae in this illness is not well understood. The purpose of this study is to verify the ability of morphotype II larvae to invade tissues via the experimental infection of Wistar rats, an animal model which simulates infection in humans. In the in vivo assay, 7.1% (4/56 L3 morphotype II) showed pathogenic potential, defined as the capacity of the larvae to cause lesions, attach to the gastrointestinal wall or penetrate it. Two of these larvae, one of A. physeteris and one of A. paggiae, penetrated the stomach wall and were found within the abdominal cavity, with the first one producing a small lesion with blood vessel breakage. The majority of the L3 larvae of morphotype II were found in the intestine (51.8%; 29/56) with the caecum being the least frequent location (8.9%; 5/56). In contrast, 44.0% (11/25) of the morphotype I larvae demonstrated pathogenic potential. Isoenzyme electrophoresis, PCR-RFLP of ITS1-5.8 s-ITS2 and PCR-sequencing of the cox2 mitochondrial gene were used to identify these larvae as A. physeteris (42.9%), A. paggiae (30.3%) and A. brevispiculata (1.8%). Although the morphotype II larvae of A. physeteris and A. paggiae have lower pathogenic potential than morphotype I larvae of A. simplex s.s. (93 and 91% lower, respectively), they may still be implicated in human anisakiasis, as they are capable of attaching to and penetrating the gastrointestinal wall of animals, demonstrating a similar pathogenicity to that of A. pegreffii. The techniques used for the identification of species reveal a great genetic heterogeneity of A. paggiae and A. physeteris, suggesting the existence of sibling species. PMID:25240961

  1. LabDisk with complete reagent prestorage for sample-to-answer nucleic acid based detection of respiratory pathogens verified with influenza A H3N2 virus.

    PubMed

    Stumpf, F; Schwemmer, F; Hutzenlaub, T; Baumann, D; Strohmeier, O; Dingemanns, G; Simons, G; Sager, C; Plobner, L; von Stetten, F; Zengerle, R; Mark, D

    2016-01-01

    Portable point-of-care devices for pathogen detection require easy, minimal and user-friendly handling steps and need to have the same diagnostic performance compared to centralized laboratories. In this work we present a fully automated sample-to-answer detection of influenza A H3N2 virus in a centrifugal LabDisk with complete prestorage of reagents. Thus, the initial supply of the sample remains the only manual handling step. The self-contained LabDisk automates by centrifugal microfluidics all necessary process chains for PCR-based pathogen detection: pathogen lysis, magnetic bead based nucleic acid extraction, aliquoting of the eluate into 8 reaction cavities, and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Prestored reagents comprise air dried specific primers and fluorescence probes, lyophilized RT-PCR mastermix and stick-packaged liquid reagents for nucleic acid extraction. Employing two different release frequencies for the stick-packaged liquid reagents enables on-demand release of highly wetting extraction buffers, such as sequential release of lysis and binding buffer. Microfluidic process-flow was successful in 54 out of 55 tested LabDisks. We demonstrate successful detection of the respiratory pathogen influenza A H3N2 virus in a total of 18 LabDisks with sample concentrations down to 2.39 × 10(4) viral RNA copies per ml, which is in the range of clinical relevance. Furthermore, we detected RNA bacteriophage MS2 acting as internal control in 3 LabDisks with a sample concentration down to 75 plaque forming units (pfu) per ml. All experiments were applied in a 2 kg portable, laptop controlled point-of-care device. The turnaround time of the complete analysis from sample-to-answer was less than 3.5 hours. PMID:26610171

  2. Bartonella Infection in Animals: Carriership, Reservoir Potential, Pathogenicity, and Zoonotic Potential for Human Infection

    PubMed Central

    Breitschwerdt, Edward B.; Kordick, Dorsey L.

    2000-01-01

    Recent observations have begun to support a role for Bartonella spp. as animal as well as human pathogens. Bartonella spp. are vector-transmitted, blood-borne, intracellular, gram-negative bacteria that can induce prolonged infection in the host. Persistent infections in domestic and wild animals result in a substantial reservoir of Bartonella organisms in nature that can serve as a source for inadvertent human infection. The prevalence of bacteremia can range from 50 to 95% in selected rodent, cat, deer, and cattle populations. Dogs infected with Bartonella spp. can develop lameness, endocarditis, granulomatous lymphadenitis, and peliosis hepatis, lesions that have also been reported in association with human infection. Understanding the role of Bartonella spp. as pathogens in cats and other wild or domestic animals awaits the results of additional studies. Considering the extensive animal reservoirs and the large number of insects that have been implicated in the transmission of Bartonella spp., both animal and human exposure to these organisms may be more substantial than is currently believed. PMID:10885985

  3. Snow in the city as a spore bank of potentially pathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Ejdys, Elżbieta; Biedunkiewicz, Anna; Dynowska, Maria; Sucharzewska, Ewa

    2014-02-01

    This study evaluates the role of snow as a specific ecological niche and a vector in fungal spreading with particular emphasis on potential pathogens in seasonally and daily changing conditions. The experimental material was fungi isolated from the atmospheric air, snow cover, and fragments of ice and soil from underneath the snow cover. The total count of microfungi in the air before snowfall, i.e. in the autumn, reached 1756.1 CFU/m(3) on average. After the first snowfalls, it dropped to 85.2 CFU/m(3). The analyzed samples of snow cover contained from 101.6 to 8500.0 CFU/m(3) of fungi. Furthermore, 26 species of yeast and yeast-like fungi were isolated from the experimental material. Amongst the analyzed species, 13 were potential anthropopathogens. Though another three species were isolated from organ ontocenoses, i.e. Candida intermedia, Saccharomyces bayanus and Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, their pathogenic potential has not yet been explicitly confirmed. The results of the presented study may be applied in predicting concentrations of fungal spores responsible for mycoses. The first snowfalls significantly reduced the number of colony-forming units of fungi in the air. Under conditions of temperate climate, snow becomes a temporary bank of yeast-like fungi spores and while it melts cells of deposited microfungi migrate to the atmosphere. Hence, individuals with impaired immunity or in the course of immunosuppression or recovery should avoid long walks during periods of snow melting. The count of fungi in urban bioaerosol during the melt may be reduced through systematic removal of snow cover, which is a significant reservoir of potential pathogens. In addition, it should be noted that even a typical psychrophilic strain, capable of surviving at a temperature of 37°C, may bear a significant pathogenic potential. PMID:24176713

  4. Differences of immune responses between Tongcheng (Chinese local breed) and Large White pigs after artificial infection with highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Liang, Wan; Li, Zhenhong; Wang, Peng; Fan, Pengcheng; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Qingde; Wang, Yan; Xu, Xuewen; Liu, Bang

    2016-04-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is one of the severest infectious diseases of pigs throughout the world. Pigs of different breeds infected with PRRS virus (PRRSV) have been reported to vary in their immune responses. Here, the differences of immune responses to highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) were investigated by artificially infecting Tongcheng (TC) pigs (a Chinese indigenous breed) and Large White (LW) pigs with PRRSV WUH3. Compared to LW pigs, TC pigs showed less severe symptoms and lower level of viral load. The routine blood test results indicated that TC pigs were relatively steady in terms of erythrocyte, leukocyte and platelet. Additionally, PRRSV infection induced higher IFN-γ activity in TC pigs, but stimulated an excessive level of IL-10 and IL-12p40 in LW pigs. Our study provides direct evidence that TC pigs have stronger resistance to early PRRSV infection than LW pigs, suggesting that the resistance of pigs to PRRSV is likely associated with breed differences. PMID:26878768

  5. Respiratory Displacement of the Thoracic Aorta: Physiological Phenomenon With Potential Implications for Thoracic Endovascular Repair

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Tim Frederik; Tetzlaff, Ralf; Rengier, Fabian; Geisbuesch, Philipp; Kopp-Schneider, Annette; Boeckler, Dittmar; Eichinger, Monika; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Tengg-Kobligk, Hendrik von

    2009-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess the magnitude and direction of respiratory displacement of the ascending and descending thoracic aorta during breathing maneuvers. In 11 healthy nonsmokers, dynamic magnetic resonance imaging was performed in transverse orientation at the tracheal bifurcation during maximum expiration and inspiration as well as tidal breathing. The magnitude and direction of aortic displacement was determined relatively to resting respiratory position for the ascending (AA) and descending (DA) aorta. To estimate a respiratory threshold for occurrence of distinct respiratory aortic motion, the latter was related to the underlying change in anterior-posterior thorax diameter. Compound displacement between maximum expiration and inspiration was 24.3 {+-} 6.0 mm for the AA in the left anterior direction and 18.2 {+-} 5.5 mm for the DA in the right anterior direction. The mean respiratory thorax excursion during tidal breathing was 8.9 {+-} 2.8 mm. The respiratory threshold, i.e., the increase in thorax diameter necessary to result in respiratory aortic displacement, was estimated to be 15.7 mm. The data suggest that after a threshold of respiratory thorax excursion is exceeded, respiration is accompanied by significant displacement of the thoracic aorta. Although this threshold may not be reached during tidal breathing in the majority of individuals, segmental differences during forced respiration impact on aortic geometry, may result in additional extrinsic forces on the aortic wall, and may be of significance for aortic prostheses designed for thoracic endovascular aortic repair.

  6. Predicting the potential distribution of the amphibian pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in East and Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Moriguchi, Sachiko; Tominaga, Atsushi; Irwin, Kelly J; Freake, Michael J; Suzuki, Kazutaka; Goka, Koichi

    2015-04-01

    Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is the pathogen responsible for chytridiomycosis, a disease that is associated with a worldwide amphibian population decline. In this study, we predicted the potential distribution of Bd in East and Southeast Asia based on limited occurrence data. Our goal was to design an effective survey area where efforts to detect the pathogen can be focused. We generated ecological niche models using the maximum-entropy approach, with alleviation of multicollinearity and spatial autocorrelation. We applied eigenvector-based spatial filters as independent variables, in addition to environmental variables, to resolve spatial autocorrelation, and compared the model's accuracy and the degree of spatial autocorrelation with those of a model estimated using only environmental variables. We were able to identify areas of high suitability for Bd with accuracy. Among the environmental variables, factors related to temperature and precipitation were more effective in predicting the potential distribution of Bd than factors related to land use and cover type. Our study successfully predicted the potential distribution of Bd in East and Southeast Asia. This information should now be used to prioritize survey areas and generate a surveillance program to detect the pathogen. PMID:25850395

  7. Droplets and modes of respiratory disease transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourouiba, Lydia

    2014-11-01

    Direct observation of violent expirations such as sneezes and coughs events reveal that such flows are multiphase turbulent buoyant clouds with suspended droplets of various sizes. The effects of ambient conditions indoors, such as moisture and temperature, coupled with the water content of such clouds are key in shaping the pathogen footprint emitted by potentially sick individuals. Such pathogen footprint can change the patterns of respiratory disease transmission. We discuss how the fluid dynamics of violent expirations can help inform how.

  8. Local adaptation and evolutionary potential along a temperature gradient in the fungal pathogen Rhynchosporium commune

    PubMed Central

    Stefansson, Tryggvi S; McDonald, Bruce A; Willi, Yvonne

    2013-01-01

    To predict the response of plant pathogens to climate warming, data are needed on current thermal adaptation, the pathogen's evolutionary potential, and the link between them. We conducted a common garden experiment using isolates of the fungal pathogen Rhynchosporium commune from nine barley populations representing climatically diverse locations. Clonal replicates of 126 genetically distinct isolates were assessed for their growth rate at 12°C, 18°C, and 22°C. Populations originating from climates with higher monthly temperature variation had higher growth rate at all three temperatures compared with populations from climates with less temperature fluctuation. Population differentiation in growth rate (QST) was significantly higher at 22°C than population differentiation for neutral microsatellite loci (GST), consistent with local adaptation for growth at higher temperatures. At 18°C, we found evidence for stabilizing selection for growth rate as QST was significantly lower than GST. Heritability of growth rate under the three temperatures was substantial in all populations (0.58–0.76). Genetic variation was lower in populations with higher growth rate at the three temperatures and evolvability increased under heat stress in seven of nine populations. Our findings imply that the distribution of this pathogen is unlikely to be genetically limited under climate warming, due to its high genetic variation and plasticity for thermal tolerance. PMID:23745143

  9. Medfly Ceratitis capitata as Potential Vector for Fire Blight Pathogen Erwinia amylovora: Survival and Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Ordax, Mónica; Piquer-Salcedo, Jaime E.; Santander, Ricardo D.; Sabater-Muñoz, Beatriz; Biosca, Elena G.; López, María M.; Marco-Noales, Ester

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring the ability of bacterial plant pathogens to survive in insects is required for elucidating unknown aspects of their epidemiology and for designing appropriate control strategies. Erwinia amylovora is a plant pathogenic bacterium that causes fire blight, a devastating disease in apple and pear commercial orchards. Studies on fire blight spread by insects have mainly focused on pollinating agents, such as honeybees. However, the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae), one of the most damaging fruit pests worldwide, is also common in pome fruit orchards. The main objective of the study was to investigate whether E. amylovora can survive and be transmitted by the medfly. Our experimental results show: i) E. amylovora can survive for at least 8 days inside the digestive tract of the medfly and until 28 days on its external surface, and ii) medflies are able to transmit the bacteria from inoculated apples to both detached shoots and pear plants, being the pathogen recovered from lesions in both cases. This is the first report on E. amylovora internalization and survival in/on C. capitata, as well as the experimental transmission of the fire blight pathogen by this insect. Our results suggest that medfly can act as a potential vector for E. amylovora, and expand our knowledge on the possible role of these and other insects in its life cycle. PMID:25978369

  10. Medfly Ceratitis capitata as Potential Vector for Fire Blight Pathogen Erwinia amylovora: Survival and Transmission.

    PubMed

    Ordax, Mónica; Piquer-Salcedo, Jaime E; Santander, Ricardo D; Sabater-Muñoz, Beatriz; Biosca, Elena G; López, María M; Marco-Noales, Ester

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring the ability of bacterial plant pathogens to survive in insects is required for elucidating unknown aspects of their epidemiology and for designing appropriate control strategies. Erwinia amylovora is a plant pathogenic bacterium that causes fire blight, a devastating disease in apple and pear commercial orchards. Studies on fire blight spread by insects have mainly focused on pollinating agents, such as honeybees. However, the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae), one of the most damaging fruit pests worldwide, is also common in pome fruit orchards. The main objective of the study was to investigate whether E. amylovora can survive and be transmitted by the medfly. Our experimental results show: i) E. amylovora can survive for at least 8 days inside the digestive tract of the medfly and until 28 days on its external surface, and ii) medflies are able to transmit the bacteria from inoculated apples to both detached shoots and pear plants, being the pathogen recovered from lesions in both cases. This is the first report on E. amylovora internalization and survival in/on C. capitata, as well as the experimental transmission of the fire blight pathogen by this insect. Our results suggest that medfly can act as a potential vector for E. amylovora, and expand our knowledge on the possible role of these and other insects in its life cycle. PMID:25978369

  11. Local adaptation and evolutionary potential along a temperature gradient in the fungal pathogen Rhynchosporium commune.

    PubMed

    Stefansson, Tryggvi S; McDonald, Bruce A; Willi, Yvonne

    2013-04-01

    To predict the response of plant pathogens to climate warming, data are needed on current thermal adaptation, the pathogen's evolutionary potential, and the link between them. We conducted a common garden experiment using isolates of the fungal pathogen Rhynchosporium commune from nine barley populations representing climatically diverse locations. Clonal replicates of 126 genetically distinct isolates were assessed for their growth rate at 12C, 18C, and 22C. Populations originating from climates with higher monthly temperature variation had higher growth rate at all three temperatures compared with populations from climates with less temperature fluctuation. Population differentiation in growth rate (Q ST) was significantly higher at 22C than population differentiation for neutral microsatellite loci (G ST), consistent with local adaptation for growth at higher temperatures. At 18C, we found evidence for stabilizing selection for growth rate as Q ST was significantly lower than G ST. Heritability of growth rate under the three temperatures was substantial in all populations (0.58-0.76). Genetic variation was lower in populations with higher growth rate at the three temperatures and evolvability increased under heat stress in seven of nine populations. Our findings imply that the distribution of this pathogen is unlikely to be genetically limited under climate warming, due to its high genetic variation and plasticity for thermal tolerance. PMID:23745143

  12. Comparison of Contact Patterns Relevant for Transmission of Respiratory Pathogens in Thailand and the Netherlands Using Respondent-Driven Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Mart L.; van Steenbergen, Jim E.; Buskens, Vincent; van der Heijden, Peter G. M.; Chanyasanha, Charnchudhi; Tipayamongkholgul, Mathuros; Thorson, Anna E.; Bengtsson, Linus; Lu, Xin; Kretzschmar, Mirjam E. E.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding infection dynamics of respiratory diseases requires the identification and quantification of behavioural, social and environmental factors that permit the transmission of these infections between humans. Little empirical information is available about contact patterns within real-world social networks, let alone on differences in these contact networks between populations that differ considerably on a socio-cultural level. Here we compared contact network data that were collected in the Netherlands and Thailand using a similar online respondent-driven method. By asking participants to recruit contact persons we studied network links relevant for the transmission of respiratory infections. We studied correlations between recruiter and recruited contacts to investigate mixing patterns in the observed social network components. In both countries, mixing patterns were assortative by demographic variables and random by total numbers of contacts. However, in Thailand participants reported overall more contacts which resulted in higher effective contact rates. Our findings provide new insights on numbers of contacts and mixing patterns in two different populations. These data could be used to improve parameterisation of mathematical models used to design control strategies. Although the spread of infections through populations depends on more factors, found similarities suggest that spread may be similar in the Netherlands and Thailand. PMID:25423343

  13. Storage versus substrate limitation to bole respiratory potential in two coniferous tree species of contrasting sapwood width.

    PubMed

    Pruyn, Michele L; Gartner, Barbara L; Harmon, Mark E

    2005-10-01

    Two coniferous tree species of contrasting sapwood width (Pinus ponderosa L., ponderosa pine and Pseudotsuga menziesii Mirb., Douglas-fir) were compared to determine whether bole respiratory potential was correlated with available storage space in ray parenchyma cells and/or respiratory substrate concentration of tissues (total nitrogen content, N; and total non-structural carbohydrate content, TNC). An increment core-based, laboratory method under controlled temperature was used to measure tissue-level respiration (termed respiratory potential) from multiple positions in mature boles (>100-years-old). The most significant tissue-level differences that occurred were that N and TNC were two to six times higher for inner bark than sapwood, TNC was about two times higher in ponderosa pine than Douglas-fir and there was significant seasonal variation in TNC. Ray cell abundance was not correlated with sapwood respiratory potential, whereas N and TNC often were, implying that respiratory potential tended to be more limited by substrate than storage space. When scaled from cores to whole boles (excluding branches), potential net CO2 efflux correlated positively with live bole volume (inner bark plus sapwood), live bole ray volume, N mass, and TNC mass (adjusted R2 > or =0.4). This relationship did not differ between species for N mass, but did for live bole volume, live bole ray volume, and TNC mass. Therefore, N mass appeared to be a good predictor of bole respiratory potential. The differences in net CO2 efflux between the species were largely explained by the species' relative amounts of whole-bole storage space or substrate mass. For example, ponderosa pine's inner bark was thinner than Douglas-fir's, which had the greater concentration of ray cells and TNC compared with the sapwood. This resulted in ponderosa pine boles having 30-60% less ray volume and 10-30% less TNC mass, and caused ponderosa pine net CO2 efflux/ray volume and net CO2 efflux/TNC mass to be 20-50% higher than Douglas-fir. In addition, because inner bark respiratory potential was 2-25 times higher than that of sapwood, ponderosa pine's thinner inner bark and deeper sapwood (relative to Douglas-fir) caused its bole net CO2 efflux/live bole volume to be 20-25% lower than that of similarly-sized Douglas-fir trees. PMID:16118257

  14. Effect of different antibacterial agents and surfactant protein-A (SP-A) on adherence of some respiratory pathogens to bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, A; Dos Santos, C; Lupi, A

    2001-05-01

    Some antibiotics at sub-inhibitory concentrations are able to alter bacterial surface structures and modulate adhesiveness by affecting the expression of microbial adhesins. An important mechanism of pulmonary defence against pathogens is SP-A, one of the proteins of the alveolar surfactant having opsonizing activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect that sub-inhibitory concentrations of different antibiotics and physiological concentrations of SP-A (1 and 5 microg/ml) could exert on the adherence of respiratory pathogens to the bronchial epithelial cell line, WI26VA4. Cefdinir and clarithromycin showed high efficacy, mainly at 1/2 MIC, in reducing the adherence of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae strains to values lower or equal to 50% of the control; sparfloxacin showed the same effect on S. aureus and S. pneumoniae but teicoplanin only on S. pneumoniae. Other similar results were observed with netilmicin on Klebsiella pneumoniae (40%) and with cefepime and ciprofloxacin on Pseudomonas aeruginosa (60%). Clarithromycin reduced the adherence of K. pneumoniae to 80% although it is not active against this strain. Adherence of the test strains was not modified by SP-A alone or in combination with any of the antibiotics used. PMID:11337228

  15. Effect of porcine circovirus type 2a or 2b on infection kinetics and pathogenicity of two genetically divergent strains of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in the conventional pig model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to characterize the infection dynamics and pathogenicity of two heterologous type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) isolates in a conventional pig model under the influence of concurrent porcine circovirus (PCV) subtype 2a or 2b infection. ...

  16. Thoracic ultrasound: Potential new tool for physiotherapists in respiratory management. A narrative review.

    PubMed

    Le Neindre, Aymeric; Mongodi, Silvia; Philippart, François; Bouhemad, Bélaïd

    2016-02-01

    The use of diagnostic ultrasound by physiotherapists is not a new concept; it is frequently performed in musculoskeletal physiotherapy. Physiotherapists currently lack accurate, reliable, sensitive, and valid measurements for the assessment of the indications and effectiveness of chest physiotherapy. Thoracic ultrasound may be a promising tool for the physiotherapist and could be routinely performed at patients' bedsides to provide real-time and accurate information on the status of pleura, lungs, and diaphragm; this would allow for assessment of lung aeration from interstitial syndrome to lung consolidation with much better accuracy than chest x-rays or auscultation. Diaphragm excursion and contractility may also be assessed by ultrasound. This narrative review refers to lung and diaphragm ultrasound semiology and describes how physiotherapists could use this tool in their clinical decision-making processes in various cases of respiratory disorders. The use of thoracic ultrasound semiology alongside typical examinations may allow for the guiding, monitoring, and evaluating of chest physiotherapy treatments. Thoracic ultrasound is a potential new tool for physiotherapists. PMID:26613650

  17. Potentially Treatable Disorder Diagnosed Post Mortem by Exome Analysis in a Boy with Respiratory Distress.

    PubMed

    Imperatore, Valentina; Mencarelli, Maria Antonietta; Fallerini, Chiara; Bianciardi, Laura; Ariani, Francesca; Furini, Simone; Renieri, Alessandra; Mari, Francesca; Frullanti, Elisa

    2016-01-01

    We highlight the importance of exome sequencing in solving a clinical case of a child who died at 14 months after a series of respiratory crises. He was the half-brother of a girl diagnosed at 7 years with the early-onset seizure variant of Rett syndrome due to CDKL5 mutation. We performed a test for CDKL5 in the boy, which came back negative. Driven by the mother's compelling need for a diagnosis, we moved forward performing whole exome sequencing analysis. Surprisingly, two missense mutations in compound heterozygosity were identified in the RAPSN gene encoding a receptor-associated protein with a key role in clustering and anchoring nicotinic acetylcholine receptors at synaptic sites. This gene is responsible for a congenital form of myasthenic syndrome, a disease potentially treatable with cholinesterase inhibitors. Therefore, an earlier diagnosis in this boy would have led to a better clinical management and prognosis. Our study supports the key role of exome sequencing in achieving a definite diagnosis in severe perinatal diseases, an essential step especially when a specific therapy is available. PMID:26927095

  18. Potentially Treatable Disorder Diagnosed Post Mortem by Exome Analysis in a Boy with Respiratory Distress

    PubMed Central

    Imperatore, Valentina; Mencarelli, Maria Antonietta; Fallerini, Chiara; Bianciardi, Laura; Ariani, Francesca; Furini, Simone; Renieri, Alessandra; Mari, Francesca; Frullanti, Elisa

    2016-01-01

    We highlight the importance of exome sequencing in solving a clinical case of a child who died at 14 months after a series of respiratory crises. He was the half-brother of a girl diagnosed at 7 years with the early-onset seizure variant of Rett syndrome due to CDKL5 mutation. We performed a test for CDKL5 in the boy, which came back negative. Driven by the mother’s compelling need for a diagnosis, we moved forward performing whole exome sequencing analysis. Surprisingly, two missense mutations in compound heterozygosity were identified in the RAPSN gene encoding a receptor-associated protein with a key role in clustering and anchoring nicotinic acetylcholine receptors at synaptic sites. This gene is responsible for a congenital form of myasthenic syndrome, a disease potentially treatable with cholinesterase inhibitors. Therefore, an earlier diagnosis in this boy would have led to a better clinical management and prognosis. Our study supports the key role of exome sequencing in achieving a definite diagnosis in severe perinatal diseases, an essential step especially when a specific therapy is available. PMID:26927095

  19. Virulence Attributes and Host Response Assays for Determining Pathogenic Potential of Pseudomonas Strains Used in Biotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Tayabali, Azam F.; Coleman, Gordon; Nguyen, Kathy C.

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas species are opportunistically pathogenic to humans, yet closely related species are used in biotechnology applications. In order to screen for the pathogenic potential of strains considered for biotechnology applications, several Pseudomonas strains (P.aeruginosa (Pa), P.fluorescens (Pf), P.putida (Pp), P.stutzeri (Ps)) were compared using functional virulence and toxicity assays. Most Pa strains and Ps grew at temperatures between 28°C and 42°C. However, Pf and Pp strains were the most antibiotic resistant, with ciprofloxacin and colistin being the most effective of those tested. No strain was haemolytic on sheep blood agar. Almost all Pa, but not other test strains, produced a pyocyanin-like chromophore, and caused cytotoxicity towards cultured human HT29 cells. Murine endotracheal exposures indicated that the laboratory reference strain, PAO1, was most persistent in the lungs. Only Pa strains induced pro-inflammatory and inflammatory responses, as measured by elevated cytokines and pulmonary Gr-1 -positive cells. Serum amyloid A was elevated at ≥ 48 h post-exposure by only some Pa strains. No relationship was observed between strains and levels of peripheral leukocytes. The species designation or isolation source may not accurately reflect pathogenic potential, since the clinical strain Pa10752 was relatively nonvirulent, but the industrial strain Pa31480 showed comparable virulence to PAO1. Functional assays involving microbial growth, cytotoxicity and murine immunological responses may be most useful for identifying problematic Pseudomonas strains being considered for biotechnology applications. PMID:26619347

  20. Immune Defense in Upper Airways: A Single-Cell Study of Pathogen-Specific Plasmablasts and Their Migratory Potentials in Acute Sinusitis and Tonsillitis

    PubMed Central

    Palkola, Nina V.; Blomgren, Karin; Pakkanen, Sari H.; Puohiniemi, Ritvaleena; Kantele, Jussi M.; Kantele, Anu

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite the high frequency of upper respiratory tract (URT) infections and use of the nasal mucosa as route for vaccination, the local immune mechanism and dissemination of effector lymphocytes from the URT have been insufficiently characterized. To devise a single-cell approach for studying the mucosal immune response in the URT, we explored URT-originating B effector lymphocytes in the circulation of patients with one of two common respiratory infections, acute sinusitis or tonsillitis. Methods Patients with acute sinusitis (n = 13) or tonsillitis (n = 11) were investigated by ELISPOT for circulating pathogen-specific antibody-secreting cells (ASCs) of IgA, IgG and IgM isotypes approximately one week after the onset of symptoms. These cells’ potential to home into tissues was explored by assessing their expression of tissue-specific homing receptors α4β7, L-selectin, and cutaneous lymphocyte antigen (CLA). Results Pathogen-specific ASCs were detected in the circulation of all patients, with a geometric mean of 115 (95% CI 46–282) /106 PBMC in sinusitis, and 48 (27–88) in tonsillitis. These responses were mainly dominated by IgG. In sinusitis α4β7 integrin was expressed by 24% of the ASCs, L-selectin by 82%, and CLA by 21%. The proportions for tonsillitis were 15%, 80%, and 23%, respectively. Healthy individuals had no ASCs. Conclusions URT infections–acute sinusitis and tonsillitis–both elicited a response of circulating pathogen-specific plasmablasts. The magnitude of the response was greater in sinusitis than tonsillitis, but the homing receptor profiles were similar. Human nasopharynx-associated lymphoid structures were found to disseminate immune effector cells with a distinct homing profile. PMID:27128095

  1. Surveillance for emerging respiratory viruses.

    PubMed

    Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A; Zumla, Alimuddin; Gautret, Philippe; Gray, Gregory C; Hui, David S; Al-Rabeeah, Abdullah A; Memish, Ziad A

    2014-10-01

    Several new viral respiratory tract infectious diseases with epidemic potential that threaten global health security have emerged in the past 15 years. In 2003, WHO issued a worldwide alert for an unknown emerging illness, later named severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). The disease caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV) rapidly spread worldwide, causing more than 8000 cases and 800 deaths in more than 30 countries with a substantial economic impact. Since then, we have witnessed the emergence of several other viral respiratory pathogens including influenza viruses (avian influenza H5N1, H7N9, and H10N8; variant influenza A H3N2 virus), human adenovirus-14, and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). In response, various surveillance systems have been developed to monitor the emergence of respiratory-tract infections. These include systems based on identification of syndromes, web-based systems, systems that gather health data from health facilities (such as emergency departments and family doctors), and systems that rely on self-reporting by patients. More effective national, regional, and international surveillance systems are required to enable rapid identification of emerging respiratory epidemics, diseases with epidemic potential, their specific microbial cause, origin, mode of acquisition, and transmission dynamics. PMID:25189347

  2. Comparative Genomic Analysis Reveals a Possible Novel Non-Tuberculous Mycobacterium Species with High Pathogenic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Choo, Siew Woh; Dutta, Avirup; Wong, Guat Jah; Wee, Wei Yee; Ang, Mia Yang; Siow, Cheuk Chuen

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacteria have been reported to cause a wide range of human diseases. We present the first whole-genome study of a Non-Tuberculous Mycobacterium, Mycobacterium sp. UM_CSW (referred to hereafter as UM_CSW), isolated from a patient diagnosed with bronchiectasis. Our data suggest that this clinical isolate is likely a novel mycobacterial species, supported by clear evidence from molecular phylogenetic, comparative genomic, ANI and AAI analyses. UM_CSW is closely related to the Mycobacterium avium complex. While it has characteristic features of an environmental bacterium, it also shows a high pathogenic potential with the presence of a wide variety of putative genes related to bacterial virulence and shares very similar pathogenomic profiles with the known pathogenic mycobacterial species. Thus, we conclude that this possible novel Mycobacterium species should be tightly monitored for its possible causative role in human infections. PMID:27035710

  3. Potential strategies and biosafety protocols used for dual-use research on highly pathogenic influenza viruses

    PubMed Central

    Du, Lanying; Li, Ye; Gao, Jimin; Zhou, Yusen; Jiang, Shibo

    2013-01-01

    Summary Influenza A viruses (IAVs), particularly the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1, have posed a substantial threat to public health worldwide. Although the laboratory generation of the mutant influenza virus H5N1 with airborne transmissibility among mammals, which has been considered as a dual-use research, may benefit the development of effective vaccines and therapeutics against the emerging infectious agents, it may also pose threats to national biosecurity, laboratory biosafety, and/or public health. This review introduces the classification and characterization of IAVs, pinpoints historic pandemics and epidemics caused by IAVs, emphasizes the significance and necessity of biosafety, summarizes currently established biosafety-related protocols for IAV research, and provides potential strategies to improve biosafety protocols for dual-use research on the highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses and other emerging infectious agents. PMID:22987727

  4. Making vaccines "on demand": a potential solution for emerging pathogens and biodefense?

    PubMed

    De Groot, Anne S; Einck, Leo; Moise, Leonard; Chambers, Michael; Ballantyne, John; Malone, Robert W; Ardito, Matthew; Martin, William

    2013-09-01

    The integrated US Public Health Emergency Medical Countermeasures Enterprise (PHEMCE) has made great strides in strategic preparedness and response capabilities. There have been numerous advances in planning, biothreat countermeasure development, licensure, manufacturing, stockpiling and deployment. Increased biodefense surveillance capability has dramatically improved, while new tools and increased awareness have fostered rapid identification of new potential public health pathogens. Unfortunately, structural delays in vaccine design, development, manufacture, clinical testing and licensure processes remain significant obstacles to an effective national biodefense rapid response capability. This is particularly true for the very real threat of "novel pathogens" such as the avian-origin influenzas H7N9 and H5N1, and new coronaviruses such as hCoV-EMC. Conventional approaches to vaccine development, production, clinical testing and licensure are incompatible with the prompt deployment needed for an effective public health response. An alternative approach, proposed here, is to apply computational vaccine design tools and rapid production technologies that now make it possible to engineer vaccines for novel emerging pathogen and WMD biowarfare agent countermeasures in record time. These new tools have the potential to significantly reduce the time needed to design string-of-epitope vaccines for previously unknown pathogens. The design process-from genome to gene sequence, ready to insert in a DNA plasmid-can now be accomplished in less than 24 h. While these vaccines are by no means "standard," the need for innovation in the vaccine design and production process is great. Should such vaccines be developed, their 60-d start-to-finish timeline would represent a 2-fold faster response than the current standard. PMID:23877094

  5. Multiple Pathogens Including Potential New Species in Tick Vectors in Côte d’Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Ehounoud, Cyrille Bilé; Yao, Kouassi Patrick; Dahmani, Mustapha; Achi, Yaba Louise; Amanzougaghene, Nadia; Kacou N’Douba, Adèle; N’Guessan, Jean David; Raoult, Didier; Fenollar, Florence; Mediannikov, Oleg

    2016-01-01

    Background Our study aimed to assess the presence of different pathogens in ticks collected in two regions in Côte d’Ivoire. Methodology/Principal Findings Real-time PCR and standard PCR assays coupled to sequencing were used. Three hundred and seventy eight (378) ticks (170 Amblyomma variegatum, 161 Rhipicepalus microplus, 3 Rhipicephalus senegalensis, 27 Hyalomma truncatum, 16 Hyalomma marginatum rufipes, and 1 Hyalomma impressum) were identified and analyzed. We identified as pathogenic bacteria, Rickettsia africae in Am. variegatum (90%), Rh. microplus (10%) and Hyalomma spp. (9%), Rickettsia aeschlimannii in Hyalomma spp. (23%), Rickettsia massiliae in Rh. senegalensis (33%) as well as Coxiella burnetii in 0.2%, Borrelia sp. in 0.2%, Anaplasma centrale in 0.2%, Anaplasma marginale in 0.5%, and Ehrlichia ruminantium in 0.5% of all ticks. Potential new species of Borrelia, Anaplasma, and Wolbachia were detected. Candidatus Borrelia africana and Candidatus Borrelia ivorensis (detected in three ticks) are phylogenetically distant from both the relapsing fever group and Lyme disease group borreliae; both were detected in Am. variegatum. Four new genotypes of bacteria from the Anaplasmataceae family were identified, namely Candidatus Anaplasma ivorensis (detected in three ticks), Candidatus Ehrlichia urmitei (in nine ticks), Candidatus Ehrlichia rustica (in four ticks), and Candidatus Wolbachia ivorensis (in one tick). Conclusions/Significance For the first time, we demonstrate the presence of different pathogens such as R. aeschlimannii, C. burnetii, Borrelia sp., A. centrale, A. marginale, and E. ruminantium in ticks in Côte d’Ivoire as well as potential new species of unknown pathogenicity. PMID:26771308

  6. The potential role and limitations of echocardiography in acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lazzeri, Chiara; Cianchi, Giovanni; Bonizzoli, Manuela; Batacchi, Stefano; Peris, Adriano; Gensini, Gian Franco

    2016-04-01

    Bedside use of Doppler echocardiography is being featured as a promising, clinically useful tool in assessing the pulmonary circulation in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The present review is aimed at summarizing the available evidence obtained with echocardiography on right ventricle (RV) function and pulmonary circulation in ARDS and to highlight the potential of this technique in clinical practice (only articles in English language were considered). According to the available evidence on echocardiographic findings, the following conclusions can be drawn: (a) echocardiography (transthoracic and transesophageal) has a growing role in the management ARDS patients mainly because of the strict interactions between the lung (and ventilation) and the RV and pulmonary circulation; (b) there may be a continuum of alterations in RV size and function and pulmonary circulation which may end in the development of acute cor pulmonale, probably paralleling ARDS disease severity; and (c) the detection of acute cor pulmonale should prompt intensivists to tailor their ventilatory strategy to the individual patient depending on the echocardiography findings. Bearing in mind the clinical role and growing importance of echocardiography in ARDS and the available evidence on this topic, we present a flow chart including the parameters to be measured and the timing of echo exams in ARDS patients. Despite the important progress that echocardiography has gained in the evaluation of patients with ARDS, several open questions remain and echocardiography still appears to be underused in these patients. A more systematic use of echocardiography (mainly through shared protocols) in ARDS could help intensivists to tailor the optimal treatment in individual patients as well as highlighting the limits and potential of this methodology in patients with ALI. PMID:26660667

  7. Characterizing the thymic lesions in piglets infected with attenuated strains of highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gang; Yu, Ying; Tu, Yabin; Li, Yuming; Tong, Jie; Zhang, Chong; Liu, Yonggang; Li, Aidong; Jiang, Chenggang; Wang, Shujie; Tao, Ye; Cai, Xuehui

    2015-12-15

    Piglets infected with the highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) HuN4 strain develop severe thymus atrophy. However, the attenuated strain HuN4-F112 does not lead to lesions in organs. Here, we have characterized the thymic lesions in piglets infected with attenuated strains of HP-PRRSV HuN4 isolated at different passages in the attenuation process to produce HuN4-F112 from the parent HuN4 strain (HuN4-F5, HuN4-F15, HuN4-F23, HuN4-F30, and HuN4-F112). The thymic effects of infection were evaluated in terms of the thymus/body weight ratio, pathological changes, and thymocytes apoptosis. The ability of HP-PRRSV to induce thymus atrophy was reduced following attenuation after 23 passages; the HuN4-F23, but not HuN4-F30, caused thymus atrophy. The ability of the virus to induce thymocyte apoptosis decreased as it became attenuated. In addition, the viral load in the thymus was reduced as the virus was attenuated. The HuN4-F23 and HuN4-F30 strains might provide insight into the molecular mechanisms of HP-PRRSV pathogenesis. Taken together, our results indicate that the ability of HP-PRRSV to induce thymic atrophy is related to its pathogenicity. PMID:26564577

  8. Iron Availability Increases the Pathogenic Potential of Salmonella Typhimurium and Other Enteric Pathogens at the Intestinal Epithelial Interface

    PubMed Central

    Kortman, Guus A. M.; Boleij, Annemarie; Swinkels, Dorine W.; Tjalsma, Harold

    2012-01-01

    Recent trials have questioned the safety of untargeted oral iron supplementation in developing regions. Excess of luminal iron could select for enteric pathogens at the expense of beneficial commensals in the human gut microflora, thereby increasing the incidence of infectious diseases. The objective of the current study was to determine the effect of high iron availability on virulence traits of prevalent enteric pathogens at the host-microbe interface. A panel of enteric bacteria was cultured under iron-limiting conditions and in the presence of increasing concentrations of ferric citrate to assess the effect on bacterial growth, epithelial adhesion, invasion, translocation and epithelial damage in vitro. Translocation and epithelial integrity experiments were performed using a transwell system in which Caco-2 cells were allowed to differentiate to a tight epithelial monolayer mimicking the intestinal epithelial barrier. Growth of Salmonella typhimurium and other enteric pathogens was increased in response to iron. Adhesion of S. typhimurium to epithelial cells markedly increased when these bacteria were pre-incubated with increasing iron concentration (P = 0.0001), whereas this was not the case for the non-pathogenic Lactobacillus plantarum (P = 0.42). Cellular invasion and epithelial translocation of S. typhimurium followed the trend of increased adhesion. Epithelial damage was increased upon incubation with S. typhimurium or Citrobacter freundii that were pre-incubated under iron-rich conditions. In conclusion, our data fit with the consensus that oral iron supplementation is not without risk as iron could, in addition to inducing pathogenic overgrowth, also increase the virulence of prevalent enteric pathogens. PMID:22272265

  9. Other viral pneumonias: coronavirus, respiratory syncytial virus, adenovirus, hantavirus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nelson; Qureshi, Salman T

    2013-10-01

    Severe viral pneumonia is an increasing problem among adults. The incidence and number of viruses known to cause pneumonia and respiratory failure have also expanded in recent years. This article provides an overview of severe respiratory disease caused by coronavirus, respiratory syncytial virus, adenovirus, and hantavirus. These emerging pathogens are easily overlooked and timely diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion and confirmation by molecular testing. Management of individual cases is mainly supportive and requires institution of appropriate infection control measures. Vaccines and effective therapeutics for these potentially devastating respiratory viruses are urgently required. PMID:24094390

  10. Potential effects of mixed infections in ticks on transmission dynamics of pathogens: comparative analysis of published records

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ginsberg, H.S.

    2008-01-01

    Ticks are often infected with more than one pathogen, and several field surveys have documented nonrandom levels of coinfection. Levels of coinfection by pathogens in four tick species were analyzed using published infection data. Coinfection patterns of pathogens in field-collected ticks include numerous cases of higher or lower levels of coinfection than would be expected due to chance alone, but the vast majority of these cases can be explained on the basis of vertebrate host associations of the pathogens, without invoking interactions between pathogens within ticks. Nevertheless, some studies have demonstrated antagonistic interactions, and some have suggested potential mutualisms, between pathogens in ticks. Negative or positive interactions between pathogens within ticks can affect pathogen prevalence, and thus transmission patterns. Probabilistic projections suggest that the effect on transmission depends on initial conditions. When the number of tick bites is relatively low (e.g., for ticks biting humans) changes in prevalence in ticks are predicted to have a commensurate effects on pathogen transmission. In contrast, when the number of tick bites is high (e.g., for wild animal hosts) changes in pathogen prevalence in ticks have relatively little effect on levels of transmission to reservoir hosts, and thus on natural transmission cycles.

  11. Advances in T Helper 17 Cell Biology: Pathogenic Role and Potential Therapy in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Volpe, Elisabetta; Battistini, Luca; Borsellino, Giovanna

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of the T helper (Th) 17 lineage, involved in the protection against fungal and extracellular bacterial infections, has profoundly revolutionized our current understanding of T cell-mediated responses in autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS). Indeed, recent data demonstrate the pathogenic role of Th17 cells in autoimmune disorders. In particular, studies in MS and in its animal model (EAE, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis) have revealed a crucial role of Th17 cells in the pathogenesis of autoimmune demyelinating diseases in both mice and humans. Over the past years, several important aspects concerning Th17 cells have been elucidated, such as the factors which promote or inhibit their differentiation and the effector cytokines which mediate their responses. The identification of the features endowing Th17 cells with high pathogenicity in MS is of particular interest, and discoveries in Th17 cell biology and function could lead to the design of new strategies aimed at modulating the immune response in MS. Here, we will discuss recent advances in this field, with particular focus on the mechanisms conferring pathogenicity in MS and their potential modulation. PMID:26770017

  12. Elucidation of bacteria found in car interiors and strategies to reduce the presence of potential pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Rachel E.; Gutierrez, Daniel; Peters, Cindy; Nichols, Mark; Boles, Blaise R.

    2014-01-01

    The human microbiome is influenced by a number of factors, including environmental exposure to microbes. Because many humans spend a large amount of time in built environments, it can be expected that the microbial ecology of these environments will influence the human microbiome. In an attempt to further understand the microbial ecology of built environments, the microbiota of car interiors was analyzed using culture dependent and culture independent methods. While it was found that the number and type of bacteria varied widely among the cars and sites tested, Staphylococcus and Propionibacterium were nearly always the dominant genera found at the locations sampled. Because Staphylococcus is of particular concern to human health, the characteristics of this genus found in car interiors were investigated. Staphylococcus epidermidis, S. aureus, and S. warnerii were the most prevalent staphylococcal species found, and 22.6% of S. aureus strains isolated from shared community vehicles were resistant to methicillin. The reduction in the prevalence of pathogenic bacteria in cars by using silver-based antimicrobial surface coatings was also evaluated. Coatings containing 5% silver ion additives were applied to steering wheels, placed in cars for five months and were found to eliminate the presence of culturable pathogenic bacteria recovered from these sites relative to controls. Together, these results provide new insight into the microbiota found in an important built environment, the automobile, and potential strategies for controlling the presence of human pathogens. PMID:24564823

  13. Elucidation of bacteria found in car interiors and strategies to reduce the presence of potential pathogens.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Rachel E; Gutierrez, Daniel; Peters, Cindy; Nichols, Mark; Boles, Blaise R

    2014-01-01

    The human microbiome is influenced by a number of factors, including environmental exposure to microbes. Because many humans spend a large amount of time in built environments, it can be expected that the microbial ecology of these environments will influence the human microbiome. In an attempt to further understand the microbial ecology of built environments, the microbiota of car interiors was analyzed using culture dependent and culture independent methods. While it was found that the number and type of bacteria varied widely among the cars and sites tested, Staphylococcus and Propionibacterium were nearly always the dominant genera found at the locations sampled. Because Staphylococcus is of particular concern to human health, the characteristics of this genus found in car interiors were investigated. Staphylococcus epidermidis, S. aureus, and S. warnerii were the most prevalent staphylococcal species found, and 22.6% of S. aureus strains isolated from shared community vehicles were resistant to methicillin. The reduction in the prevalence of pathogenic bacteria in cars by using silver-based antimicrobial surface coatings was also evaluated. Coatings containing 5% silver ion additives were applied to steering wheels, placed in cars for five months and were found to eliminate the presence of culturable pathogenic bacteria recovered from these sites relative to controls. Together, these results provide new insight into the microbiota found in an important built environment, the automobile, and potential strategies for controlling the presence of human pathogens. PMID:24564823

  14. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens G1: A Potential Antagonistic Bacterium against Eel-Pathogenic Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed

    Cao, Haipeng; He, Shan; Wei, Ruopeng; Diong, Marek; Lu, Liqun

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed that the use of probiotics is an alternative to control marine aeromonas. However, few probiotics are available against Aeromonas hydrophila infections in eels. In the present study, a potential antagonistic strain G1 against the eel-pathogenic A. hydrophila was isolated from sediment underlying brackish water. Its extracellular products with antibacterial activities were shown to be stable under wide range of pH, temperature, and proteinase K. It was initially identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens using API identification kits and confirmed to be B. amyloliquefaciens strain (GenBank accession number DQ422953) by phylogenetic analysis. In addition, it was shown to be safe for mammalians, had a wide anti-A. hydrophila spectrum, and exhibited significant effects on inhibiting the growth of the eel-pathogenic A. hydrophila both in vitro and in vivo. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on a promising antagonistic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain from brackish water sediment against eel-pathogenic A. hydrophila. PMID:21754944

  15. Analyzing the antagonistic potential of the lichen microbiome against pathogens by bridging metagenomic with culture studies

    PubMed Central

    Cernava, Tomislav; Müller, Henry; Aschenbrenner, Ines A.; Grube, Martin; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Naturally occurring antagonists toward pathogens play an important role to avoid pathogen outbreaks in ecosystems, and they can be applied as biocontrol agents for crops. Lichens present long-living symbiotic systems continuously exposed to pathogens. To analyze the antagonistic potential in lichens, we studied the bacterial community active against model bacteria and fungi by an integrative approach combining isolate screening, omics techniques, and high resolution mass spectrometry. The highly diverse microbiome of the lung lichen [Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm.] included an abundant antagonistic community dominated by Stenotrophomonas, Pseudomonas, and Burkholderia. While antagonists represent 24.5% of the isolates, they were identified with only 7% in the metagenome; which means that they were overrepresented in the culturable fraction. Isolates of the dominant antagonistic genus Stenotrophomonas produced spermidine as main bioactive component. Moreover, spermidine-related genes, especially for the transport, were identified in the metagenome. The majority of hits identified belonged to Alphaproteobacteria, while Stenotrophomonas-specific spermidine synthases were not present in the dataset. Evidence for plant growth promoting effects was found for lichen-associated strains of Stenotrophomonas. Linking of metagenomic and culture data was possible but showed partly contradictory results, which required a comparative assessment. However, we have shown that lichens are important reservoirs for antagonistic bacteria, which open broad possibilities for biotechnological applications. PMID:26157431

  16. Subtype distribution of Blastocystis isolates identified in a Sydney population and pathogenic potential of Blastocystis.

    PubMed

    Roberts, T; Stark, D; Harkness, J; Ellis, J

    2013-03-01

    Blastocystis is one of the most common enteric parasites present in humans. There is still much uncertainty about the pathogenic potential of this parasite, and it was suggested that its pathogenicity could be subtype-related. This report aimed to study 98 Blastocystis isolates found in human stool specimens to identify the subtypes present and carry out phylogenetic analysis on these isolates. This study also aimed to show the relationship between subtype and symptoms. Five-hundred and thirteen stool samples were submitted to five different diagnostic techniques for the detection of Blastocystis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive samples were then sequenced and the small subunit (SSU) rDNA sequences were aligned and submitted to phylogenetic analysis. Ninety-eight samples were positive by any of the diagnostic methods for Blastocystis and 96 were positive by PCR. There were seven different subtypes (1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7 and 8) identified by PCR and sequencing. This is the first large-scale study to examine the occurrence of Blastocystis in Australia. This study reports the high incidence of subtype 3 (44%) in this population and discusses the emerging idea of subtype-dependent pathogenicity. PMID:22996007

  17. Genotyping of Environmental and Clinical Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Isolates and their Pathogenic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Adamek, Martina; Overhage, Jörg; Bathe, Stephan; Winter, Josef; Fischer, Reinhard; Schwartz, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is a highly versatile species with useful biotechnological potential but also with pathogenic properties. In light of possible differences in virulence characteristics, knowledge about genomic subgroups is therefore desirable. Two different genotyping methods, rep-PCR fingerprinting and partial gyrB gene sequencing were used to elucidate S. maltophilia intraspecies diversity. Rep-PCR fingerprinting revealed the presence of 12 large subgroups, while gyrB gene sequencing distinguished 10 subgroups. For 8 of them, the same strain composition was shown with both typing methods. A subset of 59 isolates representative for the gyrB groups was further investigated with regards to their pathogenic properties in a virulence model using Dictyostelium discoideum and Acanthamoeba castellanii as host organisms. A clear tendency towards accumulation of virulent strains could be observed for one group with A. castellanii and for two groups with D. discoideum. Several virulent strains did not cluster in any of the genetic groups, while other groups displayed no virulence properties at all. The amoeba pathogenicity model proved suitable in showing differences in S. maltophilia virulence. However, the model is still not sufficient to completely elucidate virulence as critical for a human host, since several strains involved in human infections did not show any virulence against amoeba. PMID:22110692

  18. The Pathogenic Potential of Campylobacter concisus Strains Associated with Chronic Intestinal Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kaakoush, Nadeem O.; Deshpande, Nandan P.; Wilkins, Marc R.; Tan, Chew Gee; Burgos-Portugal, Jose A.; Raftery, Mark J.; Day, Andrew S.; Lemberg, Daniel A.; Mitchell, Hazel

    2011-01-01

    Campylobacter concisus has garnered increasing attention due to its association with intestinal disease, thus, the pathogenic potential of strains isolated from different intestinal diseases was investigated. A method to isolate C. concisus was developed and the ability of eight strains from chronic and acute intestinal diseases to adhere to and invade intestinal epithelial cells was determined. Features associated with bacterial invasion were investigated using comparative genomic analyses and the effect of C. concisus on host protein expression was examined using proteomics. Our isolation method from intestinal biopsies resulted in the isolation of three C. concisus strains from children with Crohn's disease or chronic gastroenteritis. Four C. concisus strains from patients with chronic intestinal diseases can attach to and invade host cells using mechanisms such as chemoattraction to mucin, aggregation, flagellum-mediated attachment, “membrane ruffling”, cell penetration and damage. C. concisus strains isolated from patients with chronic intestinal diseases have significantly higher invasive potential than those from acute intestinal diseases. Investigation of the cause of this increased pathogenic potential revealed a plasmid to be responsible. 78 and 47 proteins were upregulated and downregulated in cells infected with C. concisus, respectively. Functional analysis of these proteins showed that C. concisus infection regulated processes related to interleukin-12 production, proteasome activation and NF-κB activation. Infection with all eight C. concisus strains resulted in host cells producing high levels of interleukin-12, however, only strains capable of invading host cells resulted in interferon-γ production as confirmed by ELISA. These findings considerably support the emergence of C. concisus as an intestinal pathogen, but more significantly, provide novel insights into the host immune response and an explanation for the heterogeneity observed in the outcome of C. concisus infection. Moreover, response to infection with invasive strains has substantial similarities to that observed in the inflamed mucosa of Crohn's disease patients. PMID:22194985

  19. Potentially Pathogenic Bacteria in Shower Water and Air of a Stem Cell Transplant Unit▿

    PubMed Central

    Perkins, Sarah D.; Mayfield, Jennie; Fraser, Victoria; Angenent, Largus T.

    2009-01-01

    Potential pathogens from shower water and aerosolized shower mist (i.e., shower aerosol) have been suggested as an environmental source of infection for immunocompromised patients. To quantify the microbial load in shower water and aerosol samples, we used culture, microscopic, and quantitative PCR methods to investigate four shower stalls in a stem cell transplant unit at Barnes-Jewish Hospital in St. Louis, MO. We also tested membrane-integrated showerheads as a possible mitigation strategy. In addition to quantification, a 16S rRNA gene sequencing survey was used to characterize the abundant bacterial populations within shower water and aerosols. The average total bacterial counts were 2.2 × 107 cells/liter in shower water and 3.4 × 104 cells/m3 in shower aerosol, and these counts were reduced to 6.3 × 104 cells/liter (99.6% efficiency) and 8.9 × 103 cells/m3 (82.4% efficiency), respectively, after membrane-integrated showerheads were installed. Potentially pathogenic organisms were found in both water and aerosol samples from the conventional showers. Most notable was the presence of Mycobacterium mucogenicum (99.5% identity) in the water and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (99.3% identity) in the aerosol samples. Membrane-integrated showerheads may protect immunocompromised patients from waterborne infections in a stem cell transplant unit because of efficient capture of vast numbers of potentially pathogenic bacteria from hospital water. However, an in-depth epidemiological study is necessary to investigate whether membrane-integrated showerheads reduce hospital-acquired infections. The microbial load in shower aerosols with conventional showerheads was elevated compared to the load in HEPA-filtered background air in the stem cell unit, but it was considerably lower than typical indoor air. Thus, in shower environments without HEPA filtration, the increase in microbial load due to shower water aerosolization would not have been distinguishable from anticipated variations in background levels. PMID:19581474

  20. Diagnostic potential of the pulsed discharged helium ionization detector (PDHID) for pathogenic Mycobacterial volatile biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Manginell, Ronald P; Pimentel, Adam S; Mowry, Curtis D; Mangan, Michael A; Moorman, Matthew W; Allen, Amy; Schares, Elizabeth S; Achyuthan, Komandoor E

    2013-09-01

    Pathogenic Mycobacteria cause diseases in animals and humans with significant economic and societal consequences. Current methods for Mycobacterial detection relies upon time- and labor-intensive techniques such as culturing or DNA analysis. Using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, four volatile compounds (methyl phenylacetate, methyl p-anisate, methyl nicotinate and o-phenyl anisole) were recently proposed as potential biomarkers for Mycobacteria. We demonstrate for the first time the capabilities of a field-deployable, pulsed discharge helium ionization detector (PDHID) for sensing these volatiles. We determined the analytical performance of the PDHID toward these Mycobacterial volatiles. Detector performance was moderately affected over the temperature range of 150 to 350 °C. The linear dynamic range for all four analytes exceeded three orders of magnitude. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantitation (LOQ) were calculated as 150 and 450 pg respectively, for all compounds, except methyl phenylacetate (LOD and LOQ, 90 and 270 pg, respectively). Control charts revealed that the PDHID detection system was generally stable, and deviations could be traced to common causes and excluded special causes. Grob tests and ionization potential data suggest that the PDHID is capable of detecting Mycobacterial volatiles in a complex milieu such as culture headspace or breath samples from tuberculosis patients. The diagnostic potential of the PDHID is critical to our goal of a handheld, field-deployable 'sniffer' system for biological pathogens and chemical warfare agents. PMID:23867723

  1. Growth and Pathogenic Potential of Naturally Selected Reassortants after Coinfection with Pandemic H1N1 and Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 Viruses.

    PubMed

    Song, Min-Suk; Baek, Yun Hee; Pascua, Philippe Noriel Q; Kwon, Hyeok-Il; Kim, Eun-Ha; Park, Su-Jin; Kim, Se Mi; Kim, Young-Il; Choi, Won-Suk; Kim, Eung-Gook; Kim, Chul-Joong; Choi, Young Ki

    2016-01-01

    Coinfection of ferrets with H5N1 and pH1N1 viruses resulted in two predominate genotypes in the lungs containing surface genes of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus in the backbone of pandemic H1N1 2009 (pH1N1). Compared to parental strains, these reassortants exhibited increased growth and virulence in vitro and in mice but failed to be transmitted indirectly to naive contact ferrets. Thus, this demonstrates a possible natural reassortment following coinfection as well as the pathogenicity of the potential reassortants. PMID:26491154

  2. Aerobic bacterial oral flora of garter snakes: development of normal flora and pathogenic potential for snakes and humans.

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, E J; Agyare, E O; Vagvolgyi, A E; Halpern, M

    1981-01-01

    Garter snakes that are used for scientific laboratory studies or kept as exotic pets often become ill and die early in captivity. They may also act as reservoirs of potential human pathogens or transmit infection to man. A total of 126 strains of aerobic and facultative bacteria, most potential human and snake pathogens, were isolated from 82 garter snake oropharyngeal cultures. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species were the most common species isolated. Acinetobacter calcoaceticus var. anitratus, Hafnia alvei, Arizona hinshawii, Salmonella species, Shigella species, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were among the potential pathogens isolated. The spectrum of bacteria with potential for causing oral and pulmonary infections in garter snakes is greater than has been previously appreciated. Garter snakes should also be considered reservoirs of human pathogens, and appropriate precautions should be taken by laboratory personnel and pet owners. PMID:7240404

  3. Respiratory hygiene in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Rothman, Richard E; Irvin, Charlene B; Moran, Gregory J; Sauer, Lauren; Bradshaw, Ylisabyth S; Fry, Robert B; Josephson, Elaine B; Josephine, Elaine B; Ledyard, Holly K; Hirshon, Jon Mark

    2006-11-01

    The emergency department (ED) is an essential component of the public health response plan for control of acute respiratory infectious threats. Effective respiratory hygiene in the ED is imperative to limit the spread of dangerous respiratory pathogens, including influenza, severe acute respiratory syndrome, avian influenza, and bioterrorism agents, particularly given that these agents may not be immediately identifiable. Sustaining effective respiratory control measures is especially challenging in the ED because of patient crowding, inadequate staffing and resources, and ever-increasing numbers of immunocompromised patients. Threat of contagion exists not only for ED patients but also for visitors, health care workers, and inpatient populations. Potential physical sites for respiratory disease transmission extend from out-of-hospital care, to triage, waiting room, ED treatment area, and the hospital at large. This article presents a summary of the most current information available in the literature about respiratory hygiene in the ED, including administrative, patient, and legal issues. Wherever possible, specific recommendations and references to practical information from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention are provided. The "Administrative Issues" section describes coordination with public health departments, procedures for effective facility planning, and measures for health care worker protection (education, staffing optimization, and vaccination). The patient care section addresses the potentially infected ED patient, including emergency medical services concerns, triage planning, and patient transport. "Legal Issues" discusses the interplay between public safety and patient privacy. Emergency physicians play a critical role in early identification, treatment, and containment of potentially lethal respiratory pathogens. This brief synopsis should help clinicians and administrators understand, develop, and implement appropriate policies and procedures to address respiratory hygiene in the ED. PMID:17052558

  4. Respiratory hygiene in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Rothman, Richard E; Irvin, Charlene B; Moran, Gregory J; Sauer, Lauren; Bradshaw, Ylisabyth S; Fry, Robert B; Josephine, Elaine B; Ledyard, Holly K; Hirshon, Jon Mark

    2007-04-01

    The emergency department (ED) is an essential component of the public health response plan for control of acute respiratory infectious threats. Effective respiratory hygiene in the ED is imperative to limit the spread of dangerous respiratory pathogens, including influenza, severe acute respiratory syndrome, avian influenza, and bioterrorism agents, particularly given that these agents may not be immediately identifiable. Sustaining effective respiratory control measures is especially challenging in the ED because of patient crowding, inadequate staffing and resources, and ever-increasing numbers of immunocompromised patients. Threat of contagion exists not only for ED patients but also for visitors, health care workers, and inpatient populations. Potential physical sites for respiratory disease transmission extend from out-of-hospital care, to triage, waiting room, ED treatment area, and the hospital at large. This article presents a summary of the most current information available in the literature about respiratory hygiene in the ED, including administrative, patient, and legal issues. Wherever possible, specific recommendations and references to practical information from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention are provided. The "Administrative Issues" section describes coordination with public health departments, procedures for effective facility planning, and measures for health care worker protection (education, staffing optimization, and vaccination). The patient care section addresses the potentially infected ED patient, including emergency medical services concerns, triage planning, and patient transport. "Legal Issues" discusses the interplay between public safety and patient privacy. Emergency physicians play a critical role in early identification, treatment, and containment of potentially lethal respiratory pathogens. This brief synopsis should help clinicians and administrators understand, develop, and implement appropriate policies and procedures to address respiratory hygiene in the ED. PMID:17379028

  5. Pathogenicity and genetic characteristics associated with cell adaptation of a virulent porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus nsp2 DEL strain CA-2.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Chul; Choi, Hwan-Won; Nam, Eeuri; Noh, Yun-Hee; Lee, Sunhee; Lee, Yoo Jin; Park, Gun-Seok; Shin, Jae-Ho; Yoon, In-Joong; Kang, Shien-Young; Lee, Changhee

    2016-04-15

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the most common and world-widespread viral pathogen of swine. We previously reported genomic sequences and pathogenicity of type 2 Korean PRRSV strains belonging to the virulent lineage 1 family, which contain remarkable amino acid deletions in nonstructural protein 2 (nsp2 DEL) compared to VR-2332. Here, a virulent type 2 Korean PRRSV nsp2 DEL strain, CA-2, was serially propagated in MARC-145 cells for up to 100 passages (CA-2-P100). As the passage number increased, the phenotypic characteristics of cell-adapted CA-2 strains were altered, in terms of higher viral titers and larger plaque sizes compared to the parental virus. Pro-inflammatory cytokine genes, including TNF-α, IL-8, MCP-1, and MCP-2, were found to be significantly down-regulated in PAM cells with the CA-2-P100 strain compared to its parental nsp2 DEL virus. Animal inoculation studies demonstrated that the virulence of CA-2-P100 was reduced significantly, with showing normal weight gain, body temperatures, and lung lesions comparable to the control group. Furthermore, high-passage CA-2-P100 showed declined and transient viremia kinetics, as well as delayed and low PRRSV-specific antibody responses in infected pigs. In addition, we determined whole genome sequences of low to high-passage derivatives of CA-2. The nsp2 DEL pattern was conserved for 100 passages, whereas no other deletions or insertions arose during the cell adaptation process. However, CA-2-P100 possessed 54 random nucleotide substitutions that resulted in 27 amino acid changes distributed throughout the genome, suggesting that these genetic drifts provide a possible molecular basis correlated with the cell-adapted features in vitro and the attenuated phenotype in vivo. Taken together, our data indicate that the cell-attenuated CA-2-P100 strain is a promising candidate for developing a safe and effective live PRRSV vaccine. PMID:27016772

  6. Unravelling Linkages between Plant Community Composition and the Pathogen-Suppressive Potential of Soils

    PubMed Central

    Latz, Ellen; Eisenhauer, Nico; Rall, Björn Christian; Scheu, Stefan; Jousset, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Plant diseases cause dramatic yield losses worldwide. Current disease control practices can be deleterious for the environment and human health, calling for alternative and sustainable management regimes. Soils harbour microorganisms that can efficiently suppress pathogens. Uncovering mediators driving their functioning in the field still remains challenging, but represents an essential step in order to develop strategies for increased soil health. We set up plant communities of varying richness to experimentally test the potential of soils differing in plant community history to suppress the pathogen Rhizoctonia solani. The results indicate that plant communities shape soil-disease suppression via changes in abiotic soil properties and the abundance of bacterial groups including species of the genera Actinomyces, Bacillus and Pseudomonas. Further, the results suggest that pairwise interactions between specific plant species strongly affect soil suppressiveness. Using structural equation modelling, we provide a pathway orientated framework showing how the complex interactions between plants, soil and microorganisms jointly shape soil suppressiveness. Our results stress the importance of plant community composition as a determinant of soil functioning, such as the disease suppressive potential of soils. PMID:27021053

  7. Climate Change and the Potential Spreading of Marine Mucilage and Microbial Pathogens in the Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Danovaro, Roberto; Fonda Umani, Serena; Pusceddu, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Background Marine snow (small amorphous aggregates with colloidal properties) is present in all oceans of the world. Surface water warming and the consequent increase of water column stability can favour the coalescence of marine snow into marine mucilage, large marine aggregates representing an ephemeral and extreme habitat. Marine mucilage characterize aquatic systems with altered environmental conditions. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated, by means of molecular techniques, viruses and prokaryotes within the mucilage and in surrounding seawater to examine the potential of mucilage to host new microbial diversity and/or spread marine diseases. We found that marine mucilage contained a large and unexpectedly exclusive microbial biodiversity and hosted pathogenic species that were absent in surrounding seawater. We also investigated the relationship between climate change and the frequency of mucilage in the Mediterranean Sea over the last 200 years and found that the number of mucilage outbreaks increased almost exponentially in the last 20 years. The increasing frequency of mucilage outbreaks is closely associated with the temperature anomalies. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that the spreading of mucilage in the Mediterranean Sea is linked to climate-driven sea surface warming. The mucilage can act as a controlling factor of microbial diversity across wide oceanic regions and could have the potential to act as a carrier of specific microorganisms, thereby increasing the spread of pathogenic bacteria. PMID:19759910

  8. Coral transplantation triggers shift in microbiome and promotion of coral disease associated potential pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Casey, Jordan M.; Connolly, Sean R.; Ainsworth, Tracy D.

    2015-01-01

    By cultivating turf algae and aggressively defending their territories, territorial damselfishes in the genus Stegastes play a major role in shaping coral-algal dynamics on coral reefs. The epilithic algal matrix (EAM) inside Stegastes’ territories is known to harbor high abundances of potential coral disease pathogens. To determine the impact of territorial grazers on coral microbial assemblages, we established a coral transplant inside and outside of Stegastes’ territories. Over the course of one year, the percent mortality of transplanted corals was monitored and coral samples were collected for microbial analysis. As compared to outside damselfish territories, Stegastes were associated with a higher rate of mortality of transplanted corals. However, 16S rDNA sequencing revealed that territorial grazers do not differentially impact the microbial assemblage of corals exposed to the EAM. Regardless of Stegastes presence or absence, coral transplantation resulted in a shift in the coral-associated microbial community and an increase in coral disease associated potential pathogens. Further, transplanted corals that suffer low to high mortality undergo a microbial transition from a microbiome similar to that of healthy corals to that resembling the EAM. These findings demonstrate that coral transplantation significantly impacts coral microbial communities, and transplantation may increase susceptibility to coral disease. PMID:26144865

  9. Unravelling Linkages between Plant Community Composition and the Pathogen-Suppressive Potential of Soils.

    PubMed

    Latz, Ellen; Eisenhauer, Nico; Rall, Björn Christian; Scheu, Stefan; Jousset, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Plant diseases cause dramatic yield losses worldwide. Current disease control practices can be deleterious for the environment and human health, calling for alternative and sustainable management regimes. Soils harbour microorganisms that can efficiently suppress pathogens. Uncovering mediators driving their functioning in the field still remains challenging, but represents an essential step in order to develop strategies for increased soil health. We set up plant communities of varying richness to experimentally test the potential of soils differing in plant community history to suppress the pathogen Rhizoctonia solani. The results indicate that plant communities shape soil-disease suppression via changes in abiotic soil properties and the abundance of bacterial groups including species of the genera Actinomyces, Bacillus and Pseudomonas. Further, the results suggest that pairwise interactions between specific plant species strongly affect soil suppressiveness. Using structural equation modelling, we provide a pathway orientated framework showing how the complex interactions between plants, soil and microorganisms jointly shape soil suppressiveness. Our results stress the importance of plant community composition as a determinant of soil functioning, such as the disease suppressive potential of soils. PMID:27021053

  10. Potential applications of cryogenic technologies to plant genetic improvement and pathogen eradication.

    PubMed

    Wang, Biao; Wang, Ren-Rui; Cui, Zhen-Hua; Bi, Wen-Lu; Li, Jing-Wei; Li, Bai-Quan; Ozudogru, Elif Aylin; Volk, Gayle M; Wang, Qiao-Chun

    2014-01-01

    Rapid increases in human populations provide a great challenge to ensure that adequate quantities of food are available. Sustainable development of agricultural production by breeding more productive cultivars and by increasing the productive potential of existing cultivars can help meet this demand. The present paper provides information on the potential uses of cryogenic techniques in ensuring food security, including: (1) long-term conservation of a diverse germplasm and successful establishment of cryo-banks; (2) maintenance of the regenerative ability of embryogenic tissues that are frequently the target for genetic transformation; (3) enhancement of genetic transformation and plant regeneration of transformed cells, and safe, long-term conservation for transgenic materials; (4) production and maintenance of viable protoplasts for transformation and somatic hybridization; and (5) efficient production of pathogen-free plants. These roles demonstrate that cryogenic technologies offer opportunities to ensure food security. PMID:24681087

  11. Prevalence and Pathogenic Potential of Campylobacter Isolates from Free-Living, Human-Commensal American Crows

    PubMed Central

    Weis, Allison M.; Miller, Woutrina A.; Byrne, Barbara A.; Chouicha, Nadira; Boyce, Walter M.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested a potential role for wild birds in zoonotic transmission of Campylobacter jejuni, the leading cause of gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. In this study, we detected Campylobacter spp. in 66.9% (85/127) of free-ranging American crows (Corvus brachyrhyncos) sampled in the Sacramento Valley of California in 2012 and 2013. Biochemical testing and sequence analysis of 16S rRNA revealed that 93% of isolates (n = 70) were C. jejuni, with cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) and flagellin A genes detected by PCR in 20% and 46% of the C. jejuni isolates (n = 59), respectively. The high prevalence of C. jejuni, coupled with the occurrence of known virulence markers CDT and flagellin A, demonstrates that crows shed Campylobacter spp. in their feces that are potentially pathogenic to humans. Crows are abundant in urban, suburban, and agricultural settings, and thus further study to determine their role in zoonotic transmission of Campylobacter will inform public health. PMID:24375131

  12. Influenza virus respiratory infection and transmission following ocular inoculation in ferrets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While influenza viruses are a common respiratory pathogen, sporadic reports of conjunctivitis following human infection demonstrates the ability of this virus to cause disease outside of the respiratory tract. The ocular surface represents both a potential site of virus replication and a portal of e...

  13. The 15N and 46R Residues of Highly Pathogenic Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Nucleocapsid Protein Enhance Regulatory T Lymphocytes Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Juan; Li, Yufeng; Zhang, Qiaoya; Jiang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) negatively modulates host immune responses, resulting in persistent infection and immunosuppression. PRRSV infection increases the number of PRRSV-specific regulatory T lymphocytes (Tregs) in infected pigs. However, the target antigens for Tregs proliferation in PRRSV infection have not been fully understood. In this study, we demonstrated that the highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) induced more CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Tregs than classical PRRSV (C-PRRSV) strain. Of the recombinant GP5, M and N proteins of HP-PRRSV expressed in baculovirus expression systems, only N protein induced Tregs proliferation. The Tregs assays showed that three amino-acid regions, 15–21, 42–48 and 88–94, in N protein played an important role in induction of Tregs proliferation with synthetic peptides covering the whole length of N protein. By using reverse genetic methods, it was firstly found that the 15N and 46R residues in PRRSV N protein were critical for induction of Tregs proliferation. The phenotype of induced Tregs closely resembled that of transforming-growth-factor-β-secreting T helper 3 Tregs in swine. These data should be useful for understanding the mechanism of immunity to PRRSV and development of infection control strategies in the future. PMID:26397116

  14. Nucleotide sequence analysis of Vietnamese highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus from 2013 to 2014 based on the NSP2 and ORF5 coding regions.

    PubMed

    Do, Duy Tien; Park, Changhoon; Choi, Kyuhyung; Jeong, Jiwoon; Nguyen, Toan Tat; Le, Dung Thi Hanh; Vo, Khoa Minh; Chae, Chanhee

    2016-03-01

    A total of 34 highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) strains isolated from Vietnam during 2013-2014 were sequenced and analyzed. A partial sequence of ORF1a corresponding to the nonstructural protein 2 (Nsp2) coding region and the full sequence of open reading frame 5 (ORF5) gene was used for the analysis. The HP-PRRSV strains were isolated from pig herds that had never been vaccinated for PRRSV. Nucleotide sequence identities in the portions of ORF1a corresponding to the nonstructural protein 2 (Nsp2) coding region and ORF5 ranged from 96.4 to 100 % and 83.2 to 100 %, respectively. All of the 34 Vietnamese HP-PRRSV strains showed two discontinuous 30-amino-acid deletions in the Nsp2 coding region as a genetic marker of prototypic Chinese HP-PRRSV. The amino acid arginine (R) was present at positions 13 and 151 in ORF5 in 29 out of 34 Vietnamese HP-PRRSV isolates, as well as in the prototypic Chinese HP-PRRSV. Sequence analysis of the ORF5 genes of all Vietnamese HP-PRRSVs revealed six subgroups: Viet 1 to 4, JAX1-like, and VR-2332-like. Nucleotide and amino acid sequence analysis of 34 Vietnamese HP-PRRSV isolates from 2013-2014 indicated that Vietnamese HP-PRRSV has undergone rapid evolutionary changes in recent years when compared with Vietnamese HP-PRRSV isolated before 2012. PMID:26615550

  15. Mitochondrial genome acquisition restores respiratory function and tumorigenic potential of cancer cells without mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Tan, An S; Baty, James W; Dong, Lan-Feng; Bezawork-Geleta, Ayenachew; Endaya, Berwini; Goodwin, Jacob; Bajzikova, Martina; Kovarova, Jaromira; Peterka, Martin; Yan, Bing; Pesdar, Elham Alizadeh; Sobol, Margarita; Filimonenko, Anatolyj; Stuart, Shani; Vondrusova, Magdalena; Kluckova, Katarina; Sachaphibulkij, Karishma; Rohlena, Jakub; Hozak, Pavel; Truksa, Jaroslav; Eccles, David; Haupt, Larisa M; Griffiths, Lyn R; Neuzil, Jiri; Berridge, Michael V

    2015-01-01

    We report that tumor cells without mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) show delayed tumor growth, and that tumor formation is associated with acquisition of mtDNA from host cells. This leads to partial recovery of mitochondrial function in cells derived from primary tumors grown from cells without mtDNA and a shorter lag in tumor growth. Cell lines from circulating tumor cells showed further recovery of mitochondrial respiration and an intermediate lag to tumor growth, while cells from lung metastases exhibited full restoration of respiratory function and no lag in tumor growth. Stepwise assembly of mitochondrial respiratory (super)complexes was correlated with acquisition of respiratory function. Our findings indicate horizontal transfer of mtDNA from host cells in the tumor microenvironment to tumor cells with compromised respiratory function to re-establish respiration and tumor-initiating efficacy. These results suggest pathophysiological processes for overcoming mtDNA damage and support the notion of high plasticity of malignant cells. PMID:25565207

  16. 77 FR 68789 - Establishing a List of Qualifying Pathogens That Have the Potential To Pose a Serious Threat to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ... Potential To Pose a Serious Threat to Public Health; Public Hearing; Request for Comments AGENCY: Food and... qualifying pathogens (i.e., those that have the potential to pose a serious threat to public health), as... listed by the Secretary * * * that has the potential to pose a serious threat to public health, such...

  17. Pathogen Loading From Canada Geese Faeces in Freshwater: Potential Risks to Human Health Through Recreational Water Exposure.

    PubMed

    Gorham, T J; Lee, J

    2016-05-01

    Canada geese (Branta canadensis) faeces have been shown to contain pathogenic protozoa and bacteria in numerous studies over the past 15 years. Further, increases in both the Canada geese populations and their ideal habitat requirements in the United States (US) translate to a greater presence of these human pathogens in public areas, such as recreational freshwater beaches. Combining these factors, the potential health risk posed by Canada geese faeces at freshwater beaches presents an emerging public health issue that warrants further study. Here, literature concerning human pathogens in Canada geese faeces is reviewed and the potential impacts these pathogens may have on human health are discussed. Pathogens of potential concern include Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella Typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes, Helicobacter canadensis, Arcobacter spp., Enterohemorragic Escherichia coli pathogenic strains, Chlamydia psitacci, Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia. Scenarios presenting potential exposure to pathogens eluted from faeces include bathers swimming in lakes, children playing with wet and dry sand impacted by geese droppings and other common recreational activities associated with public beaches. Recent recreational water-associated disease outbreaks in the US support the plausibility for some of these pathogens, including Cryptosporidium spp. and C. jejuni, to cause human illness in this setting. In view of these findings and the uncertainties associated with the real health risk posed by Canada geese faecal pathogens to users of freshwater lakes, it is recommended that beach managers use microbial source tracking and conduct a quantitative microbial risk assessment to analyse the local impact of Canada geese on microbial water quality during their decision-making process in beach and watershed management. PMID:26414207

  18. Recombinant Kluyveromyces lactis expressing highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus GP5 elicits mucosal and cell-mediated immune responses in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Haiyan; Wang, Yalan; Ma, Zhitao; Wang, Yongqiang

    2014-01-01

    Currently, killed-virus and modified-live porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccines are used to control porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome. However, both types of vaccines have inherent drawbacks; accordingly, the development of novel PRRSV vaccines is urgently needed. Previous studies have suggested that yeast possesses adjuvant activities, and it has been used as an expression vehicle to elicit immune responses to foreign antigens. In this report, recombinant Kluyveromyces lactis expressing GP5 of HP-PRRSV (Yeast-GP5) was generated and immune responses to this construct were analyzed in mice. Intestinal mucosal PRRSV-specific sIgA antibody and higher levels of IFN-? in spleen CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were induced by oral administration of Yeast-GP5. Additionally, Yeast-GP5 administered subcutaneously evoked vigorous cell-mediated immunity, and PRRSV-specific lymphocyte proliferation and IFN-? secretion were detected in the splenocytes of mice. These results suggest that Yeast-GP5 has the potential for use as a vaccine for PRRSV in the future. PMID:24378591

  19. Promote potential applications of nanoparticles as respiratory drug carrier: insights from molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Xubo; Bai, Tingting; Zuo, Yi Y.; Gu, Ning

    2014-02-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) show great promises in biomedical applications as the respiratory drug carrier system. Once reaching the alveolar region, NPs first interact with the pulmonary surfactant (PS) film, which serves as the first biological barrier and plays an important role in maintaining the normal respiratory mechanics. Therefore, understanding the interactions between NPs and PS can help promote the NP-based respiratory drug carrier systems. Using coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations, we studied the effect of rigid spherical NPs with different hydrophobicity and sizes on a dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) monolayer at the air-water interface. Four different NPs were considered, including hydrophilic and hydrophobic NPs, each with two diameters of 3 nm and 5 nm (the sizes are comparable to that of generation 3 and 5 PAMAM dendrimers, which have been widely used for nanoscale drug carrier systems). Our simulations showed that hydrophilic NPs can readily penetrate into the aqueous phase with little or no disturbance on the DPPC monolayer. However, hydrophobic NPs tend to induce large structural disruptions, thus inhibiting the normal phase transition of the DPPC monolayer upon film compression. Our simulations also showed that this inhibitory effect of hydrophobic NPs can be mitigated through PEGylation. Our results provide useful guidelines for molecular design of NPs as carrier systems for pulmonary drug delivery.Nanoparticles (NPs) show great promises in biomedical applications as the respiratory drug carrier system. Once reaching the alveolar region, NPs first interact with the pulmonary surfactant (PS) film, which serves as the first biological barrier and plays an important role in maintaining the normal respiratory mechanics. Therefore, understanding the interactions between NPs and PS can help promote the NP-based respiratory drug carrier systems. Using coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations, we studied the effect of rigid spherical NPs with different hydrophobicity and sizes on a dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) monolayer at the air-water interface. Four different NPs were considered, including hydrophilic and hydrophobic NPs, each with two diameters of 3 nm and 5 nm (the sizes are comparable to that of generation 3 and 5 PAMAM dendrimers, which have been widely used for nanoscale drug carrier systems). Our simulations showed that hydrophilic NPs can readily penetrate into the aqueous phase with little or no disturbance on the DPPC monolayer. However, hydrophobic NPs tend to induce large structural disruptions, thus inhibiting the normal phase transition of the DPPC monolayer upon film compression. Our simulations also showed that this inhibitory effect of hydrophobic NPs can be mitigated through PEGylation. Our results provide useful guidelines for molecular design of NPs as carrier systems for pulmonary drug delivery. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr04163h

  20. Birds as potential reservoirs of tick-borne pathogens: first evidence of bacteraemia with Rickettsia helvetica

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Birds have long been known as carriers of ticks, but data from the literature are lacking on their role as a reservoir in the epidemiology of certain tick-borne disease-causing agents. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of three emerging, zoonotic tick-borne pathogens in blood samples and ticks of birds and to assess the impact of feeding location preference and migration distance of bird species on their tick infestation. Methods Blood samples and ticks of birds were analysed with TaqMan real-time PCRs and conventional PCR followed by sequencing. Results During the spring and autumn bird migrations, 128 blood samples and 140 ticks (Ixodes ricinus, Haemaphysalis concinna and a Hyalomma specimen) were collected from birds belonging to 16 species. The prevalence of tick infestation and the presence of tick species were related to the feeding and migration habits of avian hosts. Birds were shown to be bacteraemic with Rickettsia helvetica and Anaplasma phagocytophilum, but not with Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis. The prevalence of rickettsiae was high (51.4%) in ticks, suggesting that some of them may have acquired their infection from their avian host. Conclusion Based on the present results birds are potential reservoirs of both I. ricinus transmitted zoonotic pathogens, R. helvetica and A. phagocytophilum, but their epidemiological role appears to be less important concerning the latter, at least in Central Europe. PMID:24679245

  1. Persistence, Seasonal Dynamics and Pathogenic Potential of Vibrio Communities from Pacific Oyster Hemolymph

    PubMed Central

    Wendling, Carolin C.; Batista, Frederico M.; Wegner, K. Mathias

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria of the genus Vibrio occur at a continuum from free-living to symbiotic life forms, including opportunists and pathogens, that can contribute to severe diseases, for instance summer mortality events of Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas. While most studies focused on Vibrio isolated from moribund oysters during mortality outbreaks, investigations of the Vibrio community in healthy oysters are rare. Therefore, we characterized the persistence, diversity, seasonal dynamics, and pathogenicity of the Vibrio community isolated from healthy Pacific oysters. In a reciprocal transplant experiment we repeatedly sampled hemolymph from adult Pacific oysters to differentiate population from site-specific effects during six months of in situ incubation in the field. We characterized virulence phenotypes and genomic diversity based on multilocus sequence typing in a total of 70 Vibrio strains. Based on controlled infection experiments we could show that strains with the ability to colonize healthy adult oysters can also have the potential to induce high mortality rates on larvae. Diversity and abundance of Vibrio varied significantly over time with highest values during and after spawning season. Vibrio communities from transplanted and stationary oysters converged over time, indicating that communities were not population specific, but rather assemble from the surrounding environment forming communities, some of which can persist over longer periods. PMID:24728233

  2. A review on the inhibitory potential of Nigella sativa against pathogenic and toxigenic fungi

    PubMed Central

    Shokri, Hojjatollah

    2016-01-01

    Nigella sativa (N. sativa) grows in various parts of the world, particularly in Iran. It has been traditionally used as a folk remedy to treat a number of diseases. The seeds of this plant contain moisture, proteins, carbohydrates, crude fiber, alkaloids, saponins, ash, fixed oils and essential oil. The major components of the essential oil are thymoquinone, p-cymene, trans-anethole, 2-methyl-5(1-methyl ethyl)-Bicyclo[3.1.0]hex-2-en and γ-terpinene. So far, several pharmacological effects such as anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and anti-microbial have been reported for N. sativa or its active compounds. Thymoquinone, thymohydroquinone and thymol are the most active constituents which have different beneficial properties. The oil, extracts and some of N. sativa active components possessed moderate in vitro and in vivo inhibitory activity against pathogenic yeasts, dermatophytes, non-dermatophytic filamentous fungi and aflatoxin-producing fungi. The main morphological changes of pathogenic and toxigenic fungi treated with N. sativa oil were observed in the cell wall, plasma membrane and membranous organelles, particularly in the nuclei and mitochondria. Although this review represents first step in the search for a new anti-fungal drug, the full potential of N. sativa as a fungitoxic agent has not been exploited and necessitates further investigations.

  3. Bovine mastitis disease/pathogenicity: evidence of the potential role of microbial biofilms.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Fernanda; Saavedra, Maria José; Henriques, Mariana

    2016-04-01

    Bovine mastitis (BM) is a disease with high incidence worldwide and one of the most relevant bovine pathologies and the most costly to the dairy industry. BM is an inflammation of the udder and represents one of the most difficult veterinary diseases to control. Biofilm formation is considered a selective advantage for pathogens causing mastitis, facilitating bacterial persistence in the udder. In fact, recently some authors drew attention to the biofilm formation ability presented by several mastitis causing pathogens and to its possible relation with recurrent mastitis infections and with the increased resistance to antimicrobial agents and host immune defence system. Actually, up to now, several researchers reported the potential role of cells in this mode of growth in the previous facts mentioned. As a consequence of the presence of biofilms, the infection here focused is more difficult to treat and eradicate, making this problem a more relevant pressing issue. Thus, we believe that a deeper knowledge of these structures in mastitis can help to determine the best control strategy to be used in veterinary practice in order to reduce losses in the dairy industry and to ensure milk safety and quality. The aim of this paper was to review the existing research and consequently to provide an overview of the role of biofilms in BM infections. PMID:26772653

  4. Screening for several potential pathogens in feral pigeons (Columba livia) in Madrid

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Pathogens with the zoonotic potential to infect humans, such as Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli and Chlamydophila psittaci, can be found in feral pigeons (Columba livia). Given the high density of these birds in the public parks and gardens of most cities, they may pose a direct threat to public health. Methods A total of 118 pigeons were captured in three samplings carried out in 2006-2007 in public parks and gardens in Madrid, Spain. Standard haematological and morphological analyses were carried out on the pigeons. PCR was used to screen for the presence of Campylobacter jejuni, C. coli and Chlamydophila psittaci. Positive samples were confirmed by DNA sequencing. Results The analyses demonstrated a high prevalence of Chlamydophila psittaci (52.6%) and Campylobacter jejuni (69.1%) among the birds captured. In contrast, Campylobacter coli was rarely detected (1.1%). Conclusions Pigeons in Madrid can carry Chlamydophila psittaci and Campylobacter jejuni. They may be asymptomatic or subclinical carriers of both pathogens. PMID:20569487

  5. Persistence, seasonal dynamics and pathogenic potential of Vibrio communities from Pacific oyster hemolymph.

    PubMed

    Wendling, Carolin C; Batista, Frederico M; Wegner, K Mathias

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria of the genus Vibrio occur at a continuum from free-living to symbiotic life forms, including opportunists and pathogens, that can contribute to severe diseases, for instance summer mortality events of Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas. While most studies focused on Vibrio isolated from moribund oysters during mortality outbreaks, investigations of the Vibrio community in healthy oysters are rare. Therefore, we characterized the persistence, diversity, seasonal dynamics, and pathogenicity of the Vibrio community isolated from healthy Pacific oysters. In a reciprocal transplant experiment we repeatedly sampled hemolymph from adult Pacific oysters to differentiate population from site-specific effects during six months of in situ incubation in the field. We characterized virulence phenotypes and genomic diversity based on multilocus sequence typing in a total of 70 Vibrio strains. Based on controlled infection experiments we could show that strains with the ability to colonize healthy adult oysters can also have the potential to induce high mortality rates on larvae. Diversity and abundance of Vibrio varied significantly over time with highest values during and after spawning season. Vibrio communities from transplanted and stationary oysters converged over time, indicating that communities were not population specific, but rather assemble from the surrounding environment forming communities, some of which can persist over longer periods. PMID:24728233

  6. Health assessment and seroepidemiologic survey of potential pathogens in wild Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sulzner, Kathryn; Johnson, Christine Kreuder; Bonde, Robert K.; Gomez, Nicole Auil; Powell, James; Nielsen, Klaus; Luttrell, M. Page; Osterhaus, A.D.M.E.; Aguirre, A. Alonso

    2012-01-01

    The Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus), a subspecies of the West Indian manatee, inhabits fresh, brackish, and warm coastal waters distributed along the eastern border of Central America, the northern coast of South America, and throughout the Wider Caribbean Region. Threatened primarily by human encroachment, poaching, and habitat degradation, Antillean manatees are listed as endangered by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature. The impact of disease on population viability remains unknown in spite of concerns surrounding the species' ability to rebound from a population crash should an epizootic occur. To gain insight on the baseline health of this subspecies, a total of 191 blood samples were collected opportunistically from wild Antillean manatees in Belize between 1997 and 2009. Hematologic and biochemical reference intervals were established, and antibody prevalence to eight pathogens with zoonotic potential was determined. Age was found to be a significant factor of variation in mean blood values, whereas sex, capture site, and season contributed less to overall differences in parameter values. Negative antibody titers were reported for all pathogens surveyed except for Leptospira bratislava, L. canicola, and L. icterohemorrhagiae, Toxoplasma gondii, and morbillivirus. As part of comprehensive health assessment in manatees from Belize, this study will serve as a benchmark aiding in early disease detection and in the discernment of important epidemiologic patterns in the manatees of this region. Additionally, it will provide some of the initial tools to explore the broader application of manatees as sentinel species of nearshore ecosystem health.

  7. Health assessment and seroepidemiologic survey of potential pathogens in wild Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus).

    PubMed

    Sulzner, Kathryn; Kreuder Johnson, Christine; Bonde, Robert K; Auil Gomez, Nicole; Powell, James; Nielsen, Klaus; Luttrell, M Page; Osterhaus, A D M E; Aguirre, A Alonso

    2012-01-01

    The Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus), a subspecies of the West Indian manatee, inhabits fresh, brackish, and warm coastal waters distributed along the eastern border of Central America, the northern coast of South America, and throughout the Wider Caribbean Region. Threatened primarily by human encroachment, poaching, and habitat degradation, Antillean manatees are listed as endangered by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature. The impact of disease on population viability remains unknown in spite of concerns surrounding the species' ability to rebound from a population crash should an epizootic occur. To gain insight on the baseline health of this subspecies, a total of 191 blood samples were collected opportunistically from wild Antillean manatees in Belize between 1997 and 2009. Hematologic and biochemical reference intervals were established, and antibody prevalence to eight pathogens with zoonotic potential was determined. Age was found to be a significant factor of variation in mean blood values, whereas sex, capture site, and season contributed less to overall differences in parameter values. Negative antibody titers were reported for all pathogens surveyed except for Leptospira bratislava, L. canicola, and L. icterohemorrhagiae, Toxoplasma gondii, and morbillivirus. As part of comprehensive health assessment in manatees from Belize, this study will serve as a benchmark aiding in early disease detection and in the discernment of important epidemiologic patterns in the manatees of this region. Additionally, it will provide some of the initial tools to explore the broader application of manatees as sentinel species of nearshore ecosystem health. PMID:22984521

  8. Metabolomics Analysis Reveals Specific Novel Tetrapeptide and Potential Anti-Inflammatory Metabolites in Pathogenic Aspergillus species

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kim-Chung; Tam, Emily W. T.; Lo, Ka-Ching; Tsang, Alan K. L.; Lau, Candy C. Y.; To, Kelvin K. W.; Chan, Jasper F. W.; Lam, Ching-Wan; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Lau, Susanna K. P.; Woo, Patrick C. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Infections related to Aspergillus species have emerged to become an important focus in infectious diseases, as a result of the increasing use of immunosuppressive agents and high fatality associated with invasive aspergillosis. However, laboratory diagnosis of Aspergillus infections remains difficult. In this study, by comparing the metabolomic profiles of the culture supernatants of 30 strains of six pathogenic Aspergillus species (A. fumigatus, A. flavus, A. niger, A. terreus, A. nomius and A. tamarii) and 31 strains of 10 non-Aspergillus fungi, eight compounds present in all strains of the six Aspergillus species but not in any strain of the non-Aspergillus fungi were observed. One of the eight compounds, Leu–Glu–Leu–Glu, is a novel tetrapeptide and represents the first linear tetrapeptide observed in Aspergillus species, which we propose to be named aspergitide. Two other closely related Aspergillus-specific compounds, hydroxy-(sulfooxy)benzoic acid and (sulfooxy)benzoic acid, may possess anti-inflammatory properties, as 2-(sulfooxy)benzoic acid possesses a structure similar to those of aspirin [2-(acetoxy)benzoic acid] and salicylic acid (2-hydroxybenzoic acid). Further studies to examine the potentials of these Aspergillus-specific compounds for laboratory diagnosis of aspergillosis are warranted and further experiments will reveal whether Leu–Glu–Leu–Glu, hydroxy-(sulfooxy)benzoic acid and (sulfooxy)benzoic acid are virulent factors of the pathogenic Aspergillus species. PMID:26090713

  9. Health Assessment and Seroepidemiologic Survey of Potential Pathogens in Wild Antillean Manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus)

    PubMed Central

    Sulzner, Kathryn; Kreuder Johnson, Christine; Bonde, Robert K.; Auil Gomez, Nicole; Powell, James; Nielsen, Klaus; Luttrell, M. Page; Osterhaus, A. D. M. E.; Aguirre, A. Alonso

    2012-01-01

    The Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus), a subspecies of the West Indian manatee, inhabits fresh, brackish, and warm coastal waters distributed along the eastern border of Central America, the northern coast of South America, and throughout the Wider Caribbean Region. Threatened primarily by human encroachment, poaching, and habitat degradation, Antillean manatees are listed as endangered by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature. The impact of disease on population viability remains unknown in spite of concerns surrounding the species’ ability to rebound from a population crash should an epizootic occur. To gain insight on the baseline health of this subspecies, a total of 191 blood samples were collected opportunistically from wild Antillean manatees in Belize between 1997 and 2009. Hematologic and biochemical reference intervals were established, and antibody prevalence to eight pathogens with zoonotic potential was determined. Age was found to be a significant factor of variation in mean blood values, whereas sex, capture site, and season contributed less to overall differences in parameter values. Negative antibody titers were reported for all pathogens surveyed except for Leptospira bratislava, L. canicola, and L. icterohemorrhagiae, Toxoplasma gondii, and morbillivirus. As part of comprehensive health assessment in manatees from Belize, this study will serve as a benchmark aiding in early disease detection and in the discernment of important epidemiologic patterns in the manatees of this region. Additionally, it will provide some of the initial tools to explore the broader application of manatees as sentinel species of nearshore ecosystem health. PMID:22984521

  10. Antifungal Susceptibility Profiles of 1698 Yeast Reference Strains Revealing Potential Emerging Human Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Desnos-Ollivier, Marie; Robert, Vincent; Raoux-Barbot, Dorothée; Groenewald, Marizeth; Dromer, Françoise

    2012-01-01

    New molecular identification techniques and the increased number of patients with various immune defects or underlying conditions lead to the emergence and/or the description of novel species of human and animal fungal opportunistic pathogens. Antifungal susceptibility provides important information for ecological, epidemiological and therapeutic issues. The aim of this study was to assess the potential risk of the various species based on their antifungal drug resistance, keeping in mind the methodological limitations. Antifungal susceptibility profiles to the five classes of antifungal drugs (polyens, azoles, echinocandins, allylamines and antimetabolites) were determined for 1698 yeast reference strains belonging to 992 species (634 Ascomycetes and 358 Basidiomycetes). Interestingly, geometric mean minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of all antifungal drugs tested were significantly higher for Basidiomycetes compared to Ascomycetes (p<0.001). Twenty four strains belonging to 23 species of which 19 were Basidiomycetes seem to be intrinsically “resistant” to all drugs. Comparison of the antifungal susceptibility profiles of the 4240 clinical isolates and the 315 reference strains belonging to 53 shared species showed similar results. Even in the absence of demonstrated in vitro/in vivo correlation, knowing the in vitro susceptibility to systemic antifungal agents and the putative intrinsic resistance of yeast species present in the environment is important because they could become opportunistic pathogens. PMID:22396754

  11. Potentially pathogenic bacteria in shower water and air of a stem cell transplant unit.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Sarah D; Mayfield, Jennie; Fraser, Victoria; Angenent, Largus T

    2009-08-01

    Potential pathogens from shower water and aerosolized shower mist (i.e., shower aerosol) have been suggested as an environmental source of infection for immunocompromised patients. To quantify the microbial load in shower water and aerosol samples, we used culture, microscopic, and quantitative PCR methods to investigate four shower stalls in a stem cell transplant unit at Barnes-Jewish Hospital in St. Louis, MO. We also tested membrane-integrated showerheads as a possible mitigation strategy. In addition to quantification, a 16S rRNA gene sequencing survey was used to characterize the abundant bacterial populations within shower water and aerosols. The average total bacterial counts were 2.2 x 10(7) cells/liter in shower water and 3.4 x 10(4) cells/m(3) in shower aerosol, and these counts were reduced to 6.3 x 10(4) cells/liter (99.6% efficiency) and 8.9 x 10(3) cells/m(3) (82.4% efficiency), respectively, after membrane-integrated showerheads were installed. Potentially pathogenic organisms were found in both water and aerosol samples from the conventional showers. Most notable was the presence of Mycobacterium mucogenicum (99.5% identity) in the water and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (99.3% identity) in the aerosol samples. Membrane-integrated showerheads may protect immunocompromised patients from waterborne infections in a stem cell transplant unit because of efficient capture of vast numbers of potentially pathogenic bacteria from hospital water. However, an in-depth epidemiological study is necessary to investigate whether membrane-integrated showerheads reduce hospital-acquired infections. The microbial load in shower aerosols with conventional showerheads was elevated compared to the load in HEPA-filtered background air in the stem cell unit, but it was considerably lower than typical indoor air. Thus, in shower environments without HEPA filtration, the increase in microbial load due to shower water aerosolization would not have been distinguishable from anticipated variations in background levels. PMID:19581474

  12. RARE OCCURRENCE OF HETEROTROPHIC BACTERIA WITH PATHOGENIC POTENTIAL IN POTABLE WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since the discovery of Legionella pneumophila, an opportunistic pathogen that is indigenous to water, microbiologists have speculated that there may be other opportunistic pathogens among the numerous heterotrophic bacteria found in potable water. The USEPA developed a series of...

  13. Impact of water potential on growth and germination of Fusarium solani soilborne pathogen of peanut

    PubMed Central

    Palacios, Sofia; Casasnovas, Francisco; Ramirez, María L.; Reynoso, María. M.; Torres, Adriana M.

    2014-01-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the effect of osmotic and matric stress on germination and growth of two Fusarium solani strains, the etiological agent responsible of peanut brown root rot. Both strains had similar osmotic and matric potential ranges that allowed growth, being the latter one narrower. F. solani showed the ability to grow down to −14 MPa at 25 °C in non-ionic modified osmotic medium, while under matric stress this was limited to −8.4 MPa at 25 °C. However, both strains were seen to respond differently to decreasing osmotic and matric potentials, during early stages of germination. One strain (RC 338) showed to be more sensitive to matric than osmotic (non ionic) and the other one (RC 386) showed to be more sensitive to osmotic than matric imposed water stress. After 24 h of incubation, both isolates behaved similarly. The minimum water potential for germination was −8.4 MPa on glycerol amended media and −5.6 MPa for NaCl and PEG amended media, respectively. The knowledge of the water potential range which allow mycelia growth and spore germination of F. solani provides an inside to the likely behaviour of this devastating soilborne plant pathogen in nature and has important practical implications. PMID:25477950

  14. Influenza A virus transmission via respiratory aerosols or droplets as it relates to pandemic potential.

    PubMed

    Richard, Mathilde; Fouchier, Ron A M

    2016-01-01

    Many respiratory viruses of humans originate from animals. For instance, there are now eight paramyxoviruses, four coronaviruses and four orthomxoviruses that cause recurrent epidemics in humans but were once confined to other hosts. In the last decade, several members of the same virus families have jumped the species barrier from animals to humans. Fortunately, these viruses have not become established in humans, because they lacked the ability of sustained transmission between humans. However, these outbreaks highlighted the lack of understanding of what makes a virus transmissible. In part triggered by the relatively high frequency of occurrence of influenza A virus zoonoses and pandemics, the influenza research community has started to investigate the viral genetic and biological traits that drive virus transmission via aerosols or respiratory droplets between mammals. Here we summarize recent discoveries on the genetic and phenotypic traits required for airborne transmission of zoonotic influenza viruses of subtypes H5, H7 and H9 and pandemic viruses of subtypes H1, H2 and H3. Increased understanding of the determinants and mechanisms of respiratory virus transmission is not only key from a basic scientific perspective, but may also aid in assessing the risks posed by zoonotic viruses to human health, and preparedness for such risks. PMID:26385895

  15. Colonization resistance against potentially pathogenic bacteria in hexaflora-associated gnotobiotic mice.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, K K

    1978-02-01

    A study of colonization resistance against potentially pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) was conducted in hexaflora-associated gnotobiotic mice. Groups of germfree AKR mice were swabbed with five bacterial and a single gastrointestinal yeast species: Streptococcus faecalis. Lactobacillus brevis. Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterobacter aerogenes, Bacteroides fragilis var. vulgatus, and Torulopsis sp. All species became established in the gut in 8 weeks. Later these associated mice were divided and challenged by four graded doses of E. coli or P. aeruginosa. The presence of challenge organism was monitored specifically in the freshly voided fecal specimens of the challenged mice. Escherichia coli colonized the gut of each mouse at each level up to 60 days post challenge. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was completely eliminated from each mouse at each dose level after 30 days post challenge. Evidence suggests that all six species were sufficient to prevent the colonization of P. aeruginosa and not of E. coli in the gut of the gnotobiotic mice. PMID:417787

  16. Antimycotic potential of Crataeva religiosa Hook and Forst against some selected fungal pathogens.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Sabuj; Mishra, Sagar K; Panda, Prasana K; Tripathy, Shyamlendu; Mishra, Satya R; Ellaiah, Poluri; Dash, Sashi K

    2008-01-01

    Crataeva religiosa Hook and Forst belonging to family Capparidaceae (Cappaceae) was selected based on its ethnopharmacological uses like diuretic, laxative, lithonotriptic, antirheumatic, antiperiodic, bitter tonic, rubifacient and counterirritant and was investigated to evaluate in vitro antimycotic potential of petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanolic and aqueous extracts against Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei, Cryptococcus marinus and Aspergillus niger by disc diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of C. religiosa extracts were found in the range of 0.062 - 0.5 mg/disc. The ethanolic extract significantly inhibits the growth of selected fungal pathogens, whereas aqueous extract do not show zone of inhibition against the tested Candida species. The results indicate the possible therapeutic uses of the plant as a potent antifungal agent. PMID:18666433

  17. The Relationship between Host Lifespan and Pathogen Reservoir Potential: An Analysis in the System Arabidopsis thaliana-Cucumber mosaic virus

    PubMed Central

    Hily, Jean Michel; García, Adrián; Moreno, Arancha; Plaza, María; Wilkinson, Mark D.; Fereres, Alberto; Fraile, Aurora; García-Arenal, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Identification of the determinants of pathogen reservoir potential is central to understand disease emergence. It has been proposed that host lifespan is one such determinant: short-lived hosts will invest less in costly defenses against pathogens, so that they will be more susceptible to infection, more competent as sources of infection and/or will sustain larger vector populations, thus being effective reservoirs for the infection of long-lived hosts. This hypothesis is sustained by analyses of different hosts of multihost pathogens, but not of different genotypes of the same host species. Here we examined this hypothesis by comparing two genotypes of the plant Arabidopsis thaliana that differ largely both in life-span and in tolerance to its natural pathogen Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). Experiments with the aphid vector Myzus persicae showed that both genotypes were similarly competent as sources for virus transmission, but the short-lived genotype was more susceptible to infection and was able to sustain larger vector populations. To explore how differences in defense against CMV and its vector relate to reservoir potential, we developed a model that was run for a set of experimentally-determined parameters, and for a realistic range of host plant and vector population densities. Model simulations showed that the less efficient defenses of the short-lived genotype resulted in higher reservoir potential, which in heterogeneous host populations may be balanced by the longer infectious period of the long-lived genotype. This balance was modulated by the demography of both host and vector populations, and by the genetic composition of the host population. Thus, within-species genetic diversity for lifespan and defenses against pathogens will result in polymorphisms for pathogen reservoir potential, which will condition within-population infection dynamics. These results are relevant for a better understanding of host-pathogen co-evolution, and of the dynamics of pathogen emergence. PMID:25375140

  18. Potentially Pathogenic Escherichia coli Can Form a Biofilm under Conditions Relevant to the Food Production Chain

    PubMed Central

    Sekse, Camilla; Berg, Kristin; Johannesen, Karianne C. S.; Solheim, Heidi; Vestby, Lene K.; Urdahl, Anne Margrete

    2014-01-01

    The biofilm-producing abilities of potentially human-pathogenic serotypes of Escherichia coli from the ovine reservoir were studied at different temperatures and on different surfaces. A possible influence of the hydrophobicity of the bacterial cells, as well as the presence of two virulence factors, the Shiga toxin-encoding (Stx) bacteriophage and the eae gene, was also studied. A total of 99 E. coli isolates of serotypes O26:H11, O103:H2, and O103:H25 isolated from sheep feces were included. The results show that isolates of all three E. coli serotypes investigated can produce biofilm on stainless steel, glass, and polystyrene at 12, 20, and 37°C. There was a good general correlation between the results obtained on the different surfaces. E. coli O103:H2 isolates produced much more biofilm than those of the other two serotypes at all three temperatures. In addition, isolates of serotype O26:H11 produced more biofilm than those of O103:H25 at 37°C. The hydrophobicity of the isolates varied between serotypes and was also influenced by temperature. The results strongly indicated that hydrophobicity influenced the attachment of the bacteria rather than their ability to form biofilm once attached. Isolates with the eae gene produced less biofilm at 37°C than isolates without this gene. The presence of a Stx bacteriophage did not influence biofilm production. In conclusion, our results show that potentially human-pathogenic E. coli from the ovine reservoir can form biofilm on various surfaces and at several temperatures relevant for food production and handling. PMID:24362422

  19. Potentially pathogenic Escherichia coli can form a biofilm under conditions relevant to the food production chain.

    PubMed

    Nesse, Live L; Sekse, Camilla; Berg, Kristin; Johannesen, Karianne C S; Solheim, Heidi; Vestby, Lene K; Urdahl, Anne Margrete

    2014-04-01

    The biofilm-producing abilities of potentially human-pathogenic serotypes of Escherichia coli from the ovine reservoir were studied at different temperatures and on different surfaces. A possible influence of the hydrophobicity of the bacterial cells, as well as the presence of two virulence factors, the Shiga toxin-encoding (Stx) bacteriophage and the eae gene, was also studied. A total of 99 E. coli isolates of serotypes O26:H11, O103:H2, and O103:H25 isolated from sheep feces were included. The results show that isolates of all three E. coli serotypes investigated can produce biofilm on stainless steel, glass, and polystyrene at 12, 20, and 37C. There was a good general correlation between the results obtained on the different surfaces. E. coli O103:H2 isolates produced much more biofilm than those of the other two serotypes at all three temperatures. In addition, isolates of serotype O26:H11 produced more biofilm than those of O103:H25 at 37C. The hydrophobicity of the isolates varied between serotypes and was also influenced by temperature. The results strongly indicated that hydrophobicity influenced the attachment of the bacteria rather than their ability to form biofilm once attached. Isolates with the eae gene produced less biofilm at 37C than isolates without this gene. The presence of a Stx bacteriophage did not influence biofilm production. In conclusion, our results show that potentially human-pathogenic E. coli from the ovine reservoir can form biofilm on various surfaces and at several temperatures relevant for food production and handling. PMID:24362422

  20. The Potential for pathogenicity was present in the ancestor of the Ascomycete subphylum Pezizomycotina

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous studies in Ascomycetes have shown that the function of gene families of which the size is considerably larger in extant pathogens than in non-pathogens could be related to pathogenicity traits. However, by only comparing gene inventories in extant species, no insights can be gained into the evolutionary process that gave rise to these larger family sizes in pathogens. Moreover, most studies which consider gene families in extant species only tend to explain observed differences in gene family sizes by gains rather than by losses, hereby largely underestimating the impact of gene loss during genome evolution. Results In our study we used a selection of recently published genomes of Ascomycetes to analyze how gene family gains, duplications and losses have affected the origin of pathogenic traits. By analyzing the evolutionary history of gene families we found that most gene families with an enlarged size in pathogens were present in an ancestor common to both pathogens and non-pathogens. The majority of these families were selectively maintained in pathogenic lineages, but disappeared in non-pathogens. Non-pathogen-specific losses largely outnumbered pathogen-specific losses. Conclusions We conclude that most of the proteins for pathogenicity were already present in the ancestor of the Ascomycete lineages we used in our study. Species that did not develop pathogenicity seemed to have reduced their genetic complexity compared to their ancestors. We further show that expansion of gained or already existing families in a species-specific way is important to fine-tune the specificities of the pathogenic host-fungus interaction. PMID:20964831

  1. New Insights on the Maternal Diet Induced-Hypertension: Potential Role of the Phenotypic Plasticity and Sympathetic-Respiratory Overactivity

    PubMed Central

    Costa-Silva, João H.; de Brito-Alves, José L.; Barros, Monique Assis de V.; Nogueira, Viviane Oliveira; Paulino-Silva, Kássya M.; de Oliveira-Lira, Allan; Nobre, Isabele G.; Fragoso, Jéssica; Leandro, Carol G.

    2015-01-01

    Systemic arterial hypertension (SAH) is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease and affects worldwide population. Current environment including life style coupled with genetic programming have been attributed to the rising incidence of hypertension. Besides, environmental conditions during perinatal development such as maternal malnutrition can program changes in the integration among renal, neural, and endocrine system leading to hypertension. This phenomenon is termed phenotypic plasticity and refers to the adjustment of a phenotype in response to environmental stimuli without genetic change, following a novel or unusual input during development. Human and animal studies indicate that fetal exposure to an adverse maternal environment may alter the renal morphology and physiology that contribute to the development of hypertension. Recently, it has been shown that the maternal protein restriction alter the central control of SAH by a mechanism that include respiratory dysfunction and enhanced sympathetic-respiratory coupling at early life, which may contribute to adult hypertension. This review will address the new insights on the maternal diet induced-hypertension that include the potential role of the phenotypic plasticity, specifically the perinatal protein malnutrition, and sympathetic-respiratory overactivity. PMID:26635631

  2. Survival of Potentially Pathogenic Human-Associated Bacteria in the Rhizosphere of Hydroponically Grown Wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morales, Anabelle; Garland, Jay L.; Lim, Daniel V.

    1996-01-01

    Plants may serve as reservoirs for human-associated bacteria (H-AB) in long-term space missions containing bioregenerative life support systems. The current study examined the abilities of five human-associated potential pathogens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas cepacia, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Escherichia coli, to colonize and grow in the rhizosphere of hydroponically grown wheat, a candidate crop for life support. All of these bacteria have been recovered from past NASA missions and present potential problems for future missions. The abilities of these organisms to adhere to the roots of axenic five-day-old wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Yecora rojo) were evaluated by enumeration of the attached organisms after a one hour incubation of roots in a suspension (approximately 10(exp 8 cu/ml)) of the H-AB. Results showed that a greater percentage of P. aeruginosa cells adhered to the wheat roots than the other four H-AB. Similarly incubated seedlings were also grown under attempted axenic conditions for seven days to examine the potential of each organism to proliferate in the rhizosphere (root colonization capacity). P. cepacia and P. aeruginosa showed considerable growth. E. coli and S. aureus showed no significant growth, and S. pyogenes died off in the wheat rhizosphere. Studies examining the effects of competition on the survival of these microorganisms indicated that P. aeruginosa was the only organism that survived in the rhizosphere of hydroponically grown wheat in the presence of different levels of microbial competition.

  3. Seroepidemiologic Survey of Potential Pathogens in Obligate and Facultative Scavenging Avian Species in California.

    PubMed

    Straub, Mary H; Kelly, Terra R; Rideout, Bruce A; Eng, Curtis; Wynne, Janna; Braun, Josephine; Johnson, Christine K

    2015-01-01

    Throughout the world, populations of scavenger birds are declining rapidly with some populations already on the brink of extinction. Much of the current research into the factors contributing to these declines has focused on exposure to drug residues, lead, and other toxins. Despite increased monitoring of these declining populations, little is known about infectious diseases affecting scavenger bird species. To assess potential infectious disease risks to both obligate and facultative scavenger bird species, we performed a serosurvey for eleven potential pathogens in three species of scavenging birds in California: the California condor (Gymnogyps californianus), turkey vulture (Cathartes aura) and golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos). California condors were seropositive for avian adenovirus, infectious bronchitis virus, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, avian paramyxovirus-2, West Nile virus (WNV) and Toxoplasma gondii. Golden eagles were seropositive for avian adenovirus, Chlamydophila psittaci and Toxoplasma gondii, and turkey vultures were seropositive for avian adenovirus, Chlamydophila psittaci, avian paramyxovirus-1, Toxoplasma gondii and WNV. Risk factor analyses indicated that rearing site and original release location were significantly associated with a positive serologic titer to WNV among free-flying condors. This study provides preliminary baseline data on infectious disease exposure in these populations for aiding in early disease detection and provides potentially critical information for conservation of the endangered California condor as it continues to expand its range and encounter new infectious disease threats. PMID:26606755

  4. Seroepidemiologic Survey of Potential Pathogens in Obligate and Facultative Scavenging Avian Species in California

    PubMed Central

    Straub, Mary H.; Kelly, Terra R.; Rideout, Bruce A.; Eng, Curtis; Wynne, Janna; Braun, Josephine; Johnson, Christine K.

    2015-01-01

    Throughout the world, populations of scavenger birds are declining rapidly with some populations already on the brink of extinction. Much of the current research into the factors contributing to these declines has focused on exposure to drug residues, lead, and other toxins. Despite increased monitoring of these declining populations, little is known about infectious diseases affecting scavenger bird species. To assess potential infectious disease risks to both obligate and facultative scavenger bird species, we performed a serosurvey for eleven potential pathogens in three species of scavenging birds in California: the California condor (Gymnogyps californianus), turkey vulture (Cathartes aura) and golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos). California condors were seropositive for avian adenovirus, infectious bronchitis virus, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, avian paramyxovirus-2, West Nile virus (WNV) and Toxoplasma gondii. Golden eagles were seropositive for avian adenovirus, Chlamydophila psittaci and Toxoplasma gondii, and turkey vultures were seropositive for avian adenovirus, Chlamydophila psittaci, avian paramyxovirus-1, Toxoplasma gondii and WNV. Risk factor analyses indicated that rearing site and original release location were significantly associated with a positive serologic titer to WNV among free-flying condors. This study provides preliminary baseline data on infectious disease exposure in these populations for aiding in early disease detection and provides potentially critical information for conservation of the endangered California condor as it continues to expand its range and encounter new infectious disease threats. PMID:26606755

  5. Comparative analysis of cytokine transcript profiles within mediastinal lymph node compartments of pigs after infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome genotype 1 strains differing in pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    García-Nicolás, Obdulio; Rosales, Rubén S; Pallarés, Francisco J; Risco, David; Quereda, Juan J; Graham, Simon P; Frossard, Jean-Pierre; Morgan, Sophie B; Steinbach, Falko; Drew, Trevor W; Strickland, Tony S; Salguero, Francisco J

    2015-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) induces a weak immune response enabling it to persist in different organs of infected pigs. This has been attributed to the ability of PRRSV to influence the induction of cytokine responses. In this study, we investigated the cytokine transcriptional profiles in different compartments of the mediastinal lymph node of pigs infected with three genotype 1 PRRSV strains of differing pathogenicity: the low virulence prototype Lelystad virus (LV), and UK field strain 215-06 and the highly virulent subtype 3 SU1-Bel isolate from Belarus. We have used a combination of laser capture micro-dissection (LCM) followed by real time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and immunohistochemical (IHC) detection of immune cell markers (CD3, CD79a and MAC387) and RT-qPCR quantification of PRRSV and cytokine transcripts. Compared to mock infected pigs, we found a significant downregulation of TNF-α and IFN-α in follicular and interfollicular areas of the mediastinal lymph node from 3 days post-infection (dpi) in animals infected with all three strains. This was accompanied by a transient B cell depletion and T cell and macrophage infiltration in the follicles together with T cell depletion in the interfollicular areas. A delayed upregulation of IFN-γ and IL-23p19 was observed mainly in the follicles. The PRRSV load was higher in all areas and time-points studied in the animals infected with the SU1-Bel strain. This paper describes the first application of LCM to study the cytokine transcript profiles and virus distribution in different compartments of the lymph node of pigs. PMID:25889072

  6. Immunopotentiation of four natural adjuvants co-administered with a highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus glycoprotein 5 subunit.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jun; Yuan, Yanmei; Shen, Si; Niu, Zhongxiang; Du, Yijun; Wu, Jiaqiang; Li, Jun; Yu, Jiang; Wang, Tao; Wang, Jinbao

    2016-04-01

    To improve the efficacy of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) subunit vaccine, the immunological enhancement effects of four natural adjuvants were compared, including Astragalus extract, Astragalus/Bacillus production, propolis, and Freund's adjuvant. The results showed that titers of IgG and neutralizing antibody against highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) glycoprotein 5 (GP5) from the groups of Astragalus/Bacillus adjuvant and Freund's adjuvant co-administered with a recombinant HP-PRRSV GP5 subunit were the highest among all the experimental groups. In cellular immunity, as shown in T lymphocyte proliferation level, Astragalus/Bacillus adjuvant and Freund's adjuvant exhibited the most potent immunological enhancement effects. Exceptionally, pigs inoculated with Freund's adjuvant developed severely delayed humoral immune responses within 28 days post inoculation. The adjuvants of Astragalus extract and propolis also exhibited immunological enhancement effects on humoral immune and cell-mediated immune responses, but which were obviously lower than Astragalus/Bacillus adjuvant and Freund's adjuvant. Following challenge with HP-PRRSV, pigs inoculated with Astragalus/Bacillus adjuvant and Freund's adjuvant co-administered with GP5 subunit showed lower viremia, slighter clinical signs, and less pathological lung lesions compared with the groups inoculated using Astragalus extract and propolis. In conclusion, from immune responses and immunological protection against HP-PRRSV, the Astragalus/Bacillus adjuvant demonstrated the most potent immunological enhancement effect on HP-PRRSV GP5 subunit. Astragalus/Bacillus adjuvant showed promise as a candidate immune adjuvant, to more efficiently prevent and control PRRS. PMID:26856331

  7. Molecular cloning and characterizations of porcine SAMHD1 and its roles in replication of highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shen; Shan, Tongling; Zhou, Yanjun; Jiang, Yifeng; Tong, Wu; Liu, Fei; Wen, Feng; Zhang, Qingzhan; Tong, Guangzhi

    2014-12-01

    The sterile alpha motif and HD domain 1 (SAMHD1) protein is a novel innate immunity restriction factor that inhibits HIV-1 infection in myeloid cells. Here, we cloned the full-length SAMHD1 complementary DNA (cDNA) from porcine peripheral blood lymphocytes. The porcine SAMHD1 cDNA was of 3951 bp with an open reading frame of 1884 bp, encoding a polypeptide of 627 amino acids. Porcine SAMHD1 mRNA was detected in all swine tissues examined, with the higher expression in the tonsil, lung, liver, and lymph node tissues. The SAMHD1 protein was localized to the nucleus. Overexpression of SAMHD1 blocked the proliferation of HuN4, a highly pathogenic strain of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV), in MARC-145 cells, by inhibiting the synthesis of the HuN4 complement RNA. The antiviral effects of the simian SAMHD1 protein were nearly equivalent to those of porcine SAMHD1 in the HuN4-infected MARC-145 cells. Phosphorylation analysis of SAMHD1 showed that overexpressed SAMHD1 protein was in primarily an unphosphorylated state. SAMHD1 overexpression increased the transcript abundance of IFN-stimulated genes ISG15 and ISG56. The mRNA levels of SAMHD1 and ISGs were significantly increased in porcine alveolar macrophages infected with HP-PRRSV. SAMHD1 protein level was also elevated, and the protein was not phosphorylated during infection. Collectively, our data indicate that SAMHDI inhibits HP-PRRSV proliferation through inhibiting the replication of HP-PRRSV. SAMHD1 might be the protein participating in the IFN signaling and is thus an important immunoregulatory protein in innate immunity. PMID:25106914

  8. Antibacterial activity and mode of action of the Artemisia capillaris essential oil and its constituents against respiratory tract infection-causing pathogens.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chang; Hu, Dong-Hui; Feng, Yan

    2015-04-01

    Inhalation therapy using essential oils has been used to treat acute and chronic sinusitis and bronchitis. The aim of the present study was to determine the chemical composition of the essential oil of Artemisia capillaris, and evaluate the antibacterial effects of the essential oil and its main components, against common clinically relevant respiratory bacterial pathogens. Gas chromatography and gas chromatography‑mass spectrometry revealed the presence of 25 chemical constituents, the main constituents being: α‑pinene, β‑pinene, limonene, 1,8‑cineole, piperitone, β‑caryophyllene and capillin. The antibacterial activities of the essential oil, and its major constituents, were evaluated against Streptococcus pyogenes, methicillin‑resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), MRSA (clinical strain), methicillin‑gentamicin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MGRSA), Streptococcus pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Escherichia coli. The essential oil and its constituents exhibited a broad spectrum and variable degree of antibacterial activity against the various strains. The essential oil was observed to be much more potent, as compared with any of its major chemical constituents, exhibiting low minimum inhibitory and bacteriocidal concentration values against all of the bacterial strains. The essential oil was most active against S. pyogenes, MRSA (clinical strain), S. pneumoniae, K. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and E. coli. Piperitone and capillin were the most potent growth inhibitors, among the major chemical constituents. Furthermore, the essential oil of A. capillaris induced significant and dose‑dependent morphological changes in the S. aureus bacterial strain, killing >90% of the bacteria when administered at a higher dose; as determined by scanning electron microscopy. In addition, the essential oil induced a significant leakage of potassium and phosphate ions from the S. aureus bacterial cultures. These results indicate that the antibacterial action of A. capillaris essential oil may be mediated through the leakage of these two important ions. In conclusion, A. capillaris essential oil exhibits potent antibacterial activity by inducing morphological changes and leakage of ions in S. aureus bacterial cultures. PMID:25522803

  9. Antibacterial activity and mechanism of action of Monarda punctata essential oil and its main components against common bacterial pathogens in respiratory tract

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hong; Yang, Tian; Li, Fei-Yan; Yao, Yan; Sun, Zhong-Min

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current research work was to study the chemical composition of the essential oil of Monarda punctata along with evaluating the essential oil and its major components for their antibacterial effects against some frequently encountered respiratory infection causing pathogens. Gas chromatographic mass spectrometric analysis revealed the presence of 13 chemical constituents with thymol (75.2%), p-cymene (6.7%), limonene (5.4), and carvacrol (3.5%) as the major constituents. The oil composition was dominated by the oxygenated monoterpenes. Antibacterial activity of the essential oil and its major constituents (thymol, p-cymene, limonene) was evaluated against Streptococcus pyogenes, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Escherichia coli. The study revealed that the essential oil and its constituents exhibited a broad spectrum and variable degree of antibacterial activity against different strains. Among the tested strains, Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli and Streptococcus pneumoniae were the most susceptible bacterial strain showing lowest MIC and MBC values. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was the most resistant bacterial strain to the essential oil treatment showing relatively higher MIC and MBC values. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the essential oil induced potent and dose-dependent membrane damage in S. pyogenes and MRSA bacterial strains. The reactive oxygen species generated by the Monarda punctata essential oil were identified using 2’, 7’-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFDA).This study indicated that the Monarda punctata essential oil to a great extent and thymol to a lower extent triggered a substantial increase in the ROS levels in S. pyogenes bacterial cultures which ultimately cause membrane damage as revealed by SEM results. PMID:25550774

  10. Neoplastic and potentially prenoeplastic changes in the upper respiratory tract of rats and mice.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, H R

    1990-01-01

    The National Toxicology Program (NTP) database was examined for tumor incidences and chemicals producing tumors in the nasal cavity, larynx, or trachea. Slides from appropriate studies were then examined in an attempt to unify terminology and make comparisons between induced and spontaneous tumors and hyperplastic or preneoplastic lesions produced in the upper respiratory system. An attempt was also made to compare the species affected, route of administration, and tumor types produced by different chemicals. The results are not meant to be all inclusive of the NTP database but to be representative of observed trends. General conclusions that emerged from this review were that rats are much more susceptible to epithelial tumors of the nasal cavity than mice; that only mice have been reported to have chemically induced hemangiomas and hemangiosarcomas of the nasal cavity; that tumors of the olfactory epithelium and squamous cell tumors of the respiratory epithelium are almost uniformly malignant and invasive, while other tumors of the respiratory epithelium are typically less invasive; that most chemically induced tumors of the olfactory region, either mesenchymal or epithelial, do not require an inhalation route of exposure but appear to occur by systemic targeting of this region; and that a uniform nomenclature for tumors of the nasal cavity is needed. Images PLATE 1. PLATE 2. PLATE 3. A PLATE 3. B PLATE 3. C PLATE 4. A PLATE 4. B PLATE 5. A PLATE 5. B PLATE 6. A PLATE 6. B PLATE 7. PLATE 8. A PLATE 8. B PLATE 8. C PLATE 9. PLATE 10. A PLATE 10. B PLATE 11. PLATE 12. PLATE 13. PLATE 14. PLATE 15. PLATE 16. PLATE 17. PLATE 18. A PLATE 18. B PLATE 19. A PLATE 19. B PMID:2384063

  11. Present-day potentialities of endoscopic diagnostics and treatment of early cancer in respiratory and digestive tracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, Victor V.; Zharkova, Natalia N.; Filonenko, E. V.; Telegina, L. V.; Karpova, E. S.

    1999-12-01

    The paper presents the latest potentialities of the endoscopic fluorescent diagnostics as well as endoscopic electric-, laser surgery and photodynamic therapy (PDT) of the early cancer in the respiratory and digestive tracts. We present in detail indication and factors determining the application of the endoscopic resection of the tumor. The advantages of the combination application of PDT, electro-, Nd:YAG laser surgery and brachitherapy are stressed. The near and remote results of endoscopic treatment of the early cancer in larynx (37), lung (109), esophagus (39) and stomach (58) are shown.

  12. Potential oversummering and overwintering regions for the wheat stripe rust pathogen in the contiguous United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma-Poudyal, Dipak; Chen, Xianming; Rupp, Richard Alan

    2014-07-01

    Epidemics of wheat stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici ( Pst), are more frequent in the regions where Pst can oversummer and overwinter. Regions for potential oversummering and overwintering of Pst were determined in the contiguous United States using a survival index (SI) ranging from 0 (most unfavorable) to 10 (most favorable) developed based on long-term weather data. The pathogen can survive in cool summer in the most regions north of latitude 40°N, particularly Washington, Idaho, Montana, Oregon and California. Due to limiting high temperatures, it survives marginally during summer in Arkansas, Delaware, Georgia, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Missouri, Ohio, Oklahoma, Rhode Island and Texas. Similarly, unfavorable hot summer restricts summer survival of the pathogen in the most regions south of 40°N except for highlands in the Rocky or Appalachian Mountains. Warm winters favor fungal survival in most regions south of 40°N and the Pacific Coast, including Alabama, Arkansas, Arizona, California, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Louisiana, Mississippi, New Mexico, Nevada, Oregon, South Carolina, Texas and Washington. Severe winters do not allow survival in most regions north of 40°N and east of the Rocky Mountains, whereas less severe winter in Delaware, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Maryland, Michigan, Missouri, North Carolina, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Tennessee, Utah and Virginia permits marginal survival of Pst. Most wheat-growing regions have climatic suitability for either oversummering or overwintering. Both oversummering and overwintering can occur in the Pacific Northwest (Idaho, Oregon and Washington), Arizona, California, North Carolina, New Mexico, Pennsylvania, Virginia and West Virginia. These regions may provide primary inoculum for stripe rust epidemics in their own and surrounding regions.

  13. Systems Integration of Biodefense Omics Data for Analysis of Pathogen-Host Interactions and Identification of Potential Targets

    PubMed Central

    McGarvey, Peter B.; Huang, Hongzhan; Mazumder, Raja; Zhang, Jian; Chen, Yongxing; Zhang, Chengdong; Cammer, Stephen; Will, Rebecca; Odle, Margie; Sobral, Bruno; Moore, Margaret; Wu, Cathy H.

    2009-01-01

    The NIAID (National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Diseases) Biodefense Proteomics program aims to identify targets for potential vaccines, therapeutics, and diagnostics for agents of concern in bioterrorism, including bacterial, parasitic, and viral pathogens. The program includes seven Proteomics Research Centers, generating diverse types of pathogen-host data, including mass spectrometry, microarray transcriptional profiles, protein interactions, protein structures and biological reagents. The Biodefense Resource Center (www.proteomicsresource.org) has developed a bioinformatics framework, employing a protein-centric approach to integrate and support mining and analysis of the large and heterogeneous data. Underlying this approach is a data warehouse with comprehensive protein + gene identifier and name mappings and annotations extracted from over 100 molecular databases. Value-added annotations are provided for key proteins from experimental findings using controlled vocabulary. The availability of pathogen and host omics data in an integrated framework allows global analysis of the data and comparisons across different experiments and organisms, as illustrated in several case studies presented here. (1) The identification of a hypothetical protein with differential gene and protein expressions in two host systems (mouse macrophage and human HeLa cells) infected by different bacterial (Bacillus anthracis and Salmonella typhimurium) and viral (orthopox) pathogens suggesting that this protein can be prioritized for additional analysis and functional characterization. (2) The analysis of a vaccinia-human protein interaction network supplemented with protein accumulation levels led to the identification of human Keratin, type II cytoskeletal 4 protein as a potential therapeutic target. (3) Comparison of complete genomes from pathogenic variants coupled with experimental information on complete proteomes allowed the identification and prioritization of ten potential diagnostic targets from Bacillus anthracis. The integrative analysis across data sets from multiple centers can reveal potential functional significance and hidden relationships between pathogen and host proteins, thereby providing a systems approach to basic understanding of pathogenicity and target identification. PMID:19779614

  14. [Immunity and pathophysiology of respiratory tract infections].

    PubMed

    Alonso, J-M

    2008-08-01

    The respiratory tract is permanently exposed to infections that may remain localized (bronchitis, pneumonias) or become potentially invasive (bacteremia and meningitis). It can be considered as an immunologic organ the upper part of which, the tracheobronchial tree, has the same secretory epithelium as the naso-oropharynx and shares bronchial associated lymphoid tissue (BALT). In this tissue, secretory IgA are more abundant than IgG. It is colonized by a commensal bacterial flora, including some potentially pathogenic species (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis). The pulmonary compartment includes the bronchioles and the alveoli, the wall of which is made of pneumocytes, resident macrophages, plasmocytoid dendritic cells and T cells. This wall is protected by a film that contains microbicidal agents, such as surfactant and phospholipase A2. Immune defenses of the respiratory tract involve mechanical factors, mucociliary escalator, receptor and effector molecules of the innate immune system and, by the proximity of lymph and blood vessels, humoral and cellular effectors of adaptative immunity. However, this sophisticated respiratory tract immune system can be bypassed in the non immunized host by infections due to primary pathogens (tuberculosis, plague, whooping cough, influenza) and may be impaired by endogenous factors (genetic defects, iatrogenic disorders) or exogenous factors (chemical pollutants, respiratory viruses) making the host susceptible to occasional pathogens, including commensal organisms. PMID:18692336

  15. Proteomic Analysis for Finding Serum Pathogenic Factors and Potential Biomarkers in Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hong-Tao; Tian, En-Bing; Chen, Yu-Ling; Deng, Hai-Teng; Wang, Qing-Tao

    2015-01-01

    Background: Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignant tumor, which takes the second place in malignant blood disease. The clinical symptoms are complicated that make more difficult to diagnose and therapy. Lots of researches focus on the proteins about MM in order to solve those problems. We used proteomic methods to find potential biomarkers in MM patients. Methods: We applied the peptide ligand library beads (PLLBs) to deplete high abundance proteins in serum for finding potential pathogenic factors and biomarkers of MM. Using 1D-Gel-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), we identified 789 and 849 unique serum proteins in MM patients and in healthy controls, respectively. Results: Twenty-two proteins were found differentially expressed between the two groups including serum amyloid A protein, vitamin D-binding protein isoform-1 precursor, plasma kallikrein, and apolipoprotein A-I. Changes of integrin alpha-11 and isoform-1 of multimerin-1 were validated with Western blotting. The linkage of the differentially expressed proteins and the pathogenesis pathways of MM were discussed. Conclusions: PLLB combined with 1D-gel-LC-MS/MS analysis is an efficient method to identify differentially expressed proteins in serum from patients with MM. PMID:25881608

  16. Protective or pathogenic effects of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as potential biomarker in cerebral malaria

    PubMed Central

    Canavese, Miriam; Spaccapelo, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral malaria (CM) is the major lethal complication of Plasmodium falciparum infection. It is characterized by persistent coma along with symmetrical motor signs. Several clinical, histopathological, and laboratory studies have suggested that cytoadherence of parasitized erythrocytes, neural injury by malarial toxin, and excessive inflammatory cytokine production are possible pathogenic mechanisms. Although the detailed pathophysiology of CM remains unsolved, it is thought that the binding of parasitized erythrocytes to the cerebral endothelia of microvessels, leading to their occlusion and the consequent angiogenic dysregulation play a key role in the disease pathogenesis. Recent evidences showed that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor-related molecules are over-expressed in the brain tissues of CM patients, as well as increased levels of VEGF are detectable in biologic samples from malaria patients. Whether the modulation of VEGF is causative agent of CM mortality or a specific phenotype of patients with susceptibility to fatal CM needs further evaluation. Currently, there is no biological test available to confirm the diagnosis of CM and its complications. It is hoped that development of biomarkers to identify patients and potential risk for adverse outcomes would greatly enhance better intervention and clinical management to improve the outcomes. We review and discuss here what it is currently known in regard to the role of VEGF in CM as well as VEGF as a potential biomarker. PMID:24601908

  17. Ecology of H3 avian influenza viruses in Korea and assessment of their pathogenic potentials.

    PubMed

    Song, Min-Suk; Oh, Taek-Kyu; Moon, Ho Jin; Yoo, Dai-Woon; Lee, Eun Ho; Lee, Jong-Soo; Kim, Chul-Jung; Yoo, Gi-Jo; Kim, Hyunggee; Choi, Young-Ki

    2008-04-01

    To determine the genetic origins of novel H3 avian influenza viruses of chickens and ducks in Korea, genetic characterization of H3 avian influenza viruses isolated from live poultry markets and migratory aquatic birds in South Korea during 2004-2006 was conducted. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that at least four novel genotypes of H3N2 and two genotypes of H3N6 avian influenza viruses were co-circulating in backyard poultry of Korea. The viruses were reassortants between H9N2 viruses of Korean chickens and unknown influenza viruses of migratory birds. Genetic comparison of H3 viruses from live bird markets with those from wild bird isolates revealed that certain gene segments of wild bird isolates are related closely to those of Korean group H9N2 viruses isolated from live poultry markets in 2003. Furthermore, animal-challenge studies demonstrated that the pathogenicity of certain avian H3 influenza viruses was altered due to reassortment, leading to H3 avian influenza viruses in Korea that can potentially expand their host range to include mammals. These studies emphasize the continuing need to monitor backyard poultry at live poultry markets to better understand interspecies transmission and the emergence of novel influenza viruses that have the potential to infect humans. PMID:18343836

  18. Potential risks to human respiratory health from "acid fog": evidence from experimental studies of volunteers.

    PubMed Central

    Hackney, J D; Linn, W S; Avol, E L

    1985-01-01

    Observations of high acidity (pH as low as 1.7) in fogwater collected in polluted areas have provoked concern for public health. Effects of exposure to acidic pollutants have not been studied under foggy conditions; thus there is no directly relevant information from which to estimate the health risk. Indirectly relevant information is available from numerous studies of volunteers exposed to "acid fog precursors" under controlled conditions at less than 100% relative humidity. The effect of fog in modifying responses to inhaled acidic pollutants is difficult to predict: depending on circumstances, fog droplets might either increase or decrease the effective dose of pollutants to the lower respiratory tract. Fog inhalation per se may have unfavorable effects in some individuals. Sulfur dioxide is known to exacerbate airway constriction in exercising asthmatics, at exposure concentrations attainable in ambient air. Nitrogen dioxide has shown little untoward respiratory effect at ambient concentrations in most studies, although it has been suggested to increase bronchial reactivity. Sulfuric acid aerosol has shown no clear effects at concentrations within the ambient range. At somewhat higher levels, increased bronchial reactivity and change in mucociliary clearance have been suggested. Almost no information is available concerning nitric acid. PMID:3000761

  19. Respiratory symptoms among glass bottle makers exposed to stannic chloride solution and other potentially hazardous substances

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, B.S.; Davis, F.; Johnson, B.

    1985-04-01

    Concern about upper respiratory tract irritation and other symptoms among workers at a glass bottle manufacturing plant led to an epidemiologic and an industrial hygiene survey. Questionnaire responses from 35 hot end and 53 cold end workers indicated that the incidence of wheezing, chest pain, dyspnea on exertion, and cough was significantly elevated among hot end workers. Among both smokers and nonsmokers, hot end workers reported higher, but not significantly higher, rates of wheezing and chest pain. Among smokers, hot end workers reported significantly higher rates of dyspnea on exertion and cough than did cold end workers. Data suggest that reported exposure to stannic chloride solution likely caused these symptoms. The industrial hygiene survey, conducted when stannic chloride use had been reduced, cleaning had been done, and ventilation improved, focused on measuring air contaminants that might possibly cause symptoms. Levels of hydrogen chloride, which apparently was formed by the combination of stannic chloride and water in the presence of heat, were elevated. The finding of increased prevalence of respiratory symptoms among hot end workers was consistent with this exposure. Recommendations were made to reduce hazardous exposures at this plant. Individuals responsible for occupational health should be aware that relatively benign substances, such as stannic chloride and water, can combine spontaneously to form hazardous substances.

  20. Infected or not: are PCR-positive oropharyngeal swabs indicative of low pathogenic influenza A virus infection in the respiratory tract of Mallard Anas platyrhynchos?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Detection of influenza virus in oropharyngeal swabs collected during wild bird surveillance is assumed to represent respiratory infection, although intestine is the main site of infection. We tested this assumption by histological examination of the respiratory tract of wild Mallards with virus-positive oropharyngeal swabs. Thirty-two of 125 Mallards tested had viral-RNA positive oropharyngeal swabs. The respiratory tracts of four Mallards with the most virus were examined in detail by immunohistochemistry. None had detectable virus antigen in the respiratory tract, suggesting it was not infected. An alternative explanation is that the oropharynx was contaminated with virus through feeding in surface water or through preening. PMID:24885647

  1. Cronobacter sakazakii: stress survival and virulence potential in an opportunistic foodborne pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Feeney, Audrey; Kropp, Kai A; O’Connor, Roxana; Sleator, Roy D

    2014-01-01

    A characteristic feature of the opportunistic foodborne pathogen Cronobacter sakazakii is its ability to survive in extremely arid environments, such as powdered infant formula, making it a dangerous opportunistic pathogen of individuals of all age groups, especially infants and neonates. Herein, we provide a brief overview of the pathogen; clinical manifestations, environmental reservoirs and our current understanding of stress response mechanisms and virulence factors which allow it to cause disease. PMID:25562731

  2. Characterisation of acute respiratory infections at a United Kingdom paediatric teaching hospital: observational study assessing the impact of influenza A (2009 pdmH1N1) on predominant viral pathogens

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background According to the World Health Organisation, influenza A (2009 pdmH1N1) has moved into the post-pandemic phase, but there were still high numbers of infections occurring in the United Kingdom in 2010-11. It is therefore important to examine the burden of acute respiratory infections at a large childrens hospital to determine pathogen prevalence, occurrence of co-infection, prevalence of co-morbidities and diagnostic yield of sampling methods. Methods This was a retrospective study of respiratory virus aetiology in acute admissions to a paediatric teaching hospital in the North West of England between 1st April 2010 and 31st March 2011. Respiratory samples were analysed either with a rapid RSV test if the patient had symptoms suggestive of bronchiolitis, followed by multiplex PCR testing for ten respiratory viruses, or with multiplex PCR testing alone if the patient had suspected other ARI. Patient demographics and data regarding severity of illness, presence of co-morbidities and respiratory virus sampling method were retrieved from case notes. Results 645 patients were admitted during the study period. 82/645 (12.7%) patients were positive for 2009 pdmH1N1, of whom 24 (29.2%) required PICU admission, with 7.3% mortality rate. Viral co-infection occurred in 48/645 (7.4%) patients and was not associated with more severe disease. Co-morbidities were present more frequently in older children, but there was no significant difference in prevalence of co-morbidity between 2009 pdmH1N1 patients and those with other ARI. NPA samples had the highest diagnostic yield with 192/210 (91.4%) samples yielding an organism. Conclusions Influenza A (2009 pdmH1N1) is an ongoing cause of occasionally severe disease affecting both healthy children and those with co-morbidities. Surveillance of viral pathogens provides valuable information on patterns of disease. PMID:24948099

  3. Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas veronii Predominate among Potentially Pathogenic Ciprofloxacin- and Tetracycline-Resistant Aeromonas Isolates from Lake Erie

    PubMed Central

    Shinko, Jasmine; Augustyniak, Alexander; Gee, Christopher; Andraso, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Members of the genus Aeromonas are ubiquitous in nature and have increasingly been implicated in numerous diseases of humans and other animal taxa. Although some species of aeromonads are human pathogens, their presence, density, and relative abundance are rarely considered in assessing water quality. The objectives of this study were to identify Aeromonas species within Lake Erie, determine their antibiotic resistance patterns, and assess their potential pathogenicity. Aeromonas strains were isolated from Lake Erie water by use of Aeromonas selective agar with and without tetracycline and ciprofloxacin. All isolates were analyzed for hemolytic ability and cytotoxicity against human epithelial cells and were identified to the species level by using 16S rRNA gene restriction fragment length polymorphisms and phylogenetic analysis based on gyrB gene sequences. A molecular virulence profile was identified for each isolate, using multiplex PCR analysis of six virulence genes. We demonstrated that Aeromonas comprised 16% of all culturable bacteria from Lake Erie. Among 119 Aeromonas isolates, six species were identified, though only two species (Aeromonas hydrophila and A. veronii) predominated among tetracycline- and ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates. Additionally, both of these species demonstrated pathogenic phenotypes in vitro. Virulence gene profiles demonstrated a high prevalence of aerolysin and serine protease genes among A. hydrophila and A. veronii isolates, a genetic profile which corresponded with pathogenic phenotypes. Together, our findings demonstrate increased antibiotic resistance among potentially pathogenic strains of aeromonads, illustrating an emerging potential health concern. PMID:24242249

  4. Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas veronii predominate among potentially pathogenic ciprofloxacin- and tetracycline-resistant aeromonas isolates from Lake Erie.

    PubMed

    Skwor, Troy; Shinko, Jasmine; Augustyniak, Alexander; Gee, Christopher; Andraso, Greg

    2014-02-01

    Members of the genus Aeromonas are ubiquitous in nature and have increasingly been implicated in numerous diseases of humans and other animal taxa. Although some species of aeromonads are human pathogens, their presence, density, and relative abundance are rarely considered in assessing water quality. The objectives of this study were to identify Aeromonas species within Lake Erie, determine their antibiotic resistance patterns, and assess their potential pathogenicity. Aeromonas strains were isolated from Lake Erie water by use of Aeromonas selective agar with and without tetracycline and ciprofloxacin. All isolates were analyzed for hemolytic ability and cytotoxicity against human epithelial cells and were identified to the species level by using 16S rRNA gene restriction fragment length polymorphisms and phylogenetic analysis based on gyrB gene sequences. A molecular virulence profile was identified for each isolate, using multiplex PCR analysis of six virulence genes. We demonstrated that Aeromonas comprised 16% of all culturable bacteria from Lake Erie. Among 119 Aeromonas isolates, six species were identified, though only two species (Aeromonas hydrophila and A. veronii) predominated among tetracycline- and ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates. Additionally, both of these species demonstrated pathogenic phenotypes in vitro. Virulence gene profiles demonstrated a high prevalence of aerolysin and serine protease genes among A. hydrophila and A. veronii isolates, a genetic profile which corresponded with pathogenic phenotypes. Together, our findings demonstrate increased antibiotic resistance among potentially pathogenic strains of aeromonads, illustrating an emerging potential health concern. PMID:24242249

  5. Tick capillary feeding for the study of proteins involved in tick-pathogen interactions as potential antigens for the control of tick infestation and pathogen infection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Ticks represent a significant health risk to animals and humans due to the variety of pathogens they can transmit during feeding. The traditional use of chemicals to control ticks has serious drawbacks, including the selection of acaricide-resistant ticks and environmental contamination with chemical residues. Vaccination with the tick midgut antigen BM86 was shown to be a good alternative for cattle tick control. However, results vary considerably between tick species and geographic location. Therefore, new antigens are required for the development of vaccines controlling both tick infestations and pathogen infection/transmission. Tick proteins involved in tick-pathogen interactions may provide good candidate protective antigens for these vaccines, but appropriate screening procedures are needed to select the best candidates. Methods In this study, we selected proteins involved in tick-Anaplasma (Subolesin and SILK) and tick-Babesia (TROSPA) interactions and used in vitro capillary feeding to characterize their potential as antigens for the control of cattle tick infestations and infection with Anaplasma marginale and Babesia bigemina. Purified rabbit polyclonal antibodies were generated against recombinant SUB, SILK and TROSPA and added to uninfected or infected bovine blood to capillary-feed female Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks. Tick weight, oviposition and pathogen DNA levels were determined in treated and control ticks. Results The specificity of purified rabbit polyclonal antibodies against tick recombinant proteins was confirmed by Western blot and against native proteins in tick cell lines and tick tissues using immunofluorescence. Capillary-fed ticks ingested antibodies added to the blood meal and the effect of these antibodies on tick weight and oviposition was shown. However, no effect was observed on pathogen DNA levels. Conclusions These results highlighted the advantages and some of the disadvantages of in vitro tick capillary feeding for the characterization of candidate tick protective antigens. While an effect on tick weight and oviposition was observed, the effect on pathogen levels was not evident probably due to high tick-to-tick variations among other factors. Nevertheless, these results together with previous results of RNA interference functional studies suggest that these proteins are good candidate vaccine antigens for the control of R. microplus infestations and infection with A. marginale and B. bigemina. PMID:24450836

  6. New respiratory viruses and the elderly.

    PubMed

    Jartti, Laura; Langen, Henriikka; Sderlund-Venermo, Maria; Vuorinen, Tytti; Ruuskanen, Olli; Jartti, Tuomas

    2011-01-01

    The diagnostics of respiratory viral infections has improved markedly during the last 15 years with the development of PCR techniques. Since 1997, several new respiratory viruses and their subgroups have been discovered: influenza A viruses H5N1 and H1N1, human metapneumovirus, coronaviruses SARS, NL63 and HKU1, human bocavirus, human rhinoviruses C and D and potential respiratory pathogens, the KI and WU polyomaviruses and the torque teno virus. The detection of previously known viruses has also improved. Currently, a viral cause of respiratory illness is almost exclusively identifiable in children, but in the elderly, the detection rates of a viral etiology are below 40%, and this holds also true for exacerbations of chronic respiratory illnesses. The new viruses cause respiratory symptoms like the common cold, cough, bronchitis, bronchiolitis, exacerbations of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and pneumonia. Acute respiratory failure may occur. These viruses are distributed throughout the globe and affect people of all ages. Data regarding these viruses and the elderly are scarce. This review introduces these new viruses and reviews their clinical significance, especially with regard to the elderly population. PMID:21760867

  7. Functional analysis of a lipolytic protein, a potential phytoplasma pathogenicity factor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wall-less bacteria known as phytoplasmas are obligate transkingdom parasites and pathogens of plants and insect vectors. These unusual bacteria possess some of the smallest genomes known among pathogenic bacteria, and have never been successfully isolated in artificial culture. Disease symptoms in...

  8. Prebiotics in food animals, a potential to reduce foodborne pathogens and disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animals can be seriously impacted by bacterial pathogens that affect their growth efficiency and overall health, as well as food safety of animal-derived products. Some pathogenic bacteria, such as Salmonella, can be a shared problem for both human and animal health and can be found in many animal ...

  9. Leaf-footed bug, Leptoglossus phyllopus (Hemiptera: Coreidae), as a potential vector of sorghum fungal pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leaf-footed bugs from a sorghum ergot-infected field located at the USDA-ARS, Southern Plains Agricultural Research Center, College Station, TX, were collected on a weekly basis to determine whether the insects can be passive vectors of sorghum fungal pathogens. Spores from several pathogens of sor...

  10. Pre and post harvest interventions for preventing potential contamination of apples with human pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The possible presence of pathogens on the surface and/or inaccessible sites (calyx, stem, and/or core) of apples has implications for the microbiological safety of supplies to the fresh and fresh-cut industry. Contamination of apples with human pathogen can occur during growth, harvesting, distribut...

  11. Prebiotics in food animals: A potential to reduce foodborne pathogens and disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animals can be seriously impacted by bacterial pathogens that affect their growth efficiency and overall health, as well as food safety of animal-derived products. Some pathogenic bacteria, such as Salmonella, can be a shared problem for both human and animal health and can be found in many animal ...

  12. Benefits of a European project on diagnostics of highly pathogenic agents and assessment of potential "dual use" issues.

    PubMed

    Grunow, Roland; Ippolito, G; Jacob, D; Sauer, U; Rohleder, A; Di Caro, A; Iacovino, R

    2014-01-01

    Quality assurance exercises and networking on the detection of highly infectious pathogens (QUANDHIP) is a joint action initiative set up in 2011 that has successfully unified the primary objectives of the European Network on Highly Pathogenic Bacteria (ENHPB) and of P4-laboratories (ENP4-Lab) both of which aimed to improve the efficiency, effectiveness, and response capabilities of laboratories directed at protecting the health of European citizens against high consequence bacteria and viruses of significant public health concern. Both networks have established a common collaborative consortium of 37 nationally and internationally recognized institutions with laboratory facilities from 22 European countries. The specific objectives and achievements include the initiation and establishment of a recognized and acceptable quality assurance scheme, including practical external quality assurance exercises, comprising living agents, that aims to improve laboratory performance, accuracy, and detection capabilities in support of patient management and public health responses; recognized training schemes for diagnostics and handling of highly pathogenic agents; international repositories comprising highly pathogenic bacteria and viruses for the development of standardized reference material; a standardized and transparent Biosafety and Biosecurity strategy protecting healthcare personnel and the community in dealing with high consequence pathogens; the design and organization of response capabilities dealing with cross-border events with highly infectious pathogens including the consideration of diagnostic capabilities of individual European laboratories. The project tackled several sensitive issues regarding Biosafety, Biosecurity and "dual use" concerns. The article will give an overview of the project outcomes and discuss the assessment of potential "dual use" issues. PMID:25426479

  13. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zumla, Alimuddin; Hui, David S; Perlman, Stanley

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY The Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) is a newly recognized highly lethal respiratory disease caused by a novel single stranded, positive sense RNA betacoronavirus (MERS-CoV). Dromedary camels, host species for MERS-CoV are implicated in the direct or indirect transmission to humans, although the exact mode of transmission remains unknown. First isolated from a patient who died from a severe respiratory illness in June 2012 in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, as of 16 February 2015, 983 laboratory-confirmed cases of MERS-CoV (360 deaths; 36.6% mortality) were reported to the WHO. Cases have been acquired in both the community and hospitals with limited human-to-human transmission reported in the community. Whilst the majority of MERS cases have occurred in Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates, cases have been reported from Europe, USA and Asia in people who traveled from the Middle East or their contacts. Clinical features of MERS range from asymptomatic or mild disease to acute respiratory distress syndrome and multi-organ failure resulting in death, especially in individuals with underlying co-morbidities. There is no specific drug treatment for MERS and infection prevention and control measures are crucial to prevent spread of MERS-CoV in health care facilities. MERS-CoV continues to be an endemic,low level public health threat. However, the concern remains that the virus could mutate to exhibit increased interhuman transmissibility, increasing pandemic potential. Our seminar presents an overview of current knowledge and perspectives on the epidemiology, virology, mode of transmission, pathogen-host responses, clinical features, diagnosis and development of new drugs and vaccines. PMID:26049252

  14. Antibacterial potential of silver nanoparticles against isolated urinary tract infectious bacterial pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob Inbaneson, Samuel; Ravikumar, Sundaram; Manikandan, Nachiappan

    2011-12-01

    The silver nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical reduction method and the nanoparticles were characterized using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorption spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were investigated to evaluate the antibacterial activity against urinary tract infectious (UTIs) bacterial pathogens. Thirty-two bacteria were isolated from mid urine samples of 25 male and 25 female patients from Thondi, Ramanathapuram District, Tamil Nadu, India and identified by conventional methods. Escherichia coli was predominant (47%) followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (22%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (19%), Enterobacter sp. (6%), Proteus morganii (3%) and Staphylococcus aureus (3%). The antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles was evaluated by disc diffusion assay. P. aeruginosa showed maximum sensitivity (11 ± 0.58 mm) followed by Enterobacter sp. (8 ± 0.49 mm) at a concentration of 20 μg disc-1 and the sensitivity was highly comparable with the positive control kanamycin and tetracycline. K. pneumoniae, E. coli, P. morganii and S. aureus showed no sensitivity against all the tested concentrations of silver nanoparticles. The results provided evidence that, the silver nanoparticles might indeed be the potential sources to treat urinary tract infections caused by P. aeruginosa and Enterobacter sp.

  15. Antimicrobial potential of Halophilic actinomycetes against multi drug resistant (MDR) ventilator associated pneumonia causing bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Sana; Sajid, Imran

    2016-03-01

    A collection of forty halophilic actinomycetes isolated from water and mud samples of the saline lake at Kalar Kahar, salt range, Pakistan, was screened to investigate their antimicrobial potential against multi drug resistant (MDR) ventilator associated pneumonia causing bacterial pathogens. The isolates exhibited significant tolerance to alkaline conditions and grew well at pH 9-11. The taxonomic status of the isolated strains was determined by morphological, biochemical and physiological characterization and by 16s rRNA gene sequencing. The results revealed that majority of the isolates (90%) belong to the genus Streptomyces. Most of the isolates exhibited remarkable antimicrobial activity up to 20mm zone of inhibition against MDR ventilator associated pneumonia causing bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter and Acinetobacter spp. Additionally the isolates showed moderate to high cytotoxicity in the range of 40 to 80% larval mortality against Artemia salina in a micro well cytotoxicity assay. The chemical screening or the so called metabolic fingerprinting of the methanolic extracts of each isolate, by thin layer chromatography (TLC) using various staining reagents and by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-UV), indicated an impressive diversity of the compounds produced by these strains. The study reveals that these halophilic actinomycetes are a promising source of bioactive compounds. The preparative scale fermentation, isolation, purification and structure elucidation of the compounds produced by them may yield novel antimicrobial or chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:27087086

  16. Ribotypes and virulence gene polymorphisms suggest three distinct Listeria monocytogenes lineages with differences in pathogenic potential.

    PubMed Central

    Wiedmann, M; Bruce, J L; Keating, C; Johnson, A E; McDonough, P L; Batt, C A

    1997-01-01

    A total of 133 Listeria monocytogenes isolates were characterized by ribotyping and allelic analysis of the virulence genes hly, actA, and inlA to uncover linkages between independent phylogenetic and specific virulence markers. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphisms revealed 8 hly, 11 inl4, and 2 actA alleles. The combination of these virulence gene alleles and ribotype patterns separated L. monocytogenes into three distinct lineages. While distinct hly and inlA alleles were generally found to cluster into these three lineages, actA alleles segregated independently. These three phylogenetic lineages were confirmed when 22 partial actA DNA sequences were analyzed. The clinical history of the L. monocytogenes strains showed evidence for differences in pathogenic potential among the three lineages. Lineage I contains all strains isolated during epidemic outbreaks of listeriosis, while no human isolates were found in lineage III. Animal isolates were found in all three lineages. We found evidence that isolates from lineages I and III have a higher plaquing efficiency than lineage II strains in a cell culture assay. Strains from lineage III also seem to form larger plaques than strains from lineage II. A distinctive ribotype fragment and unique 16S rRNA gene sequences furthermore suggest that lineage III might represent a L. monocytogenes subspecies. None of the 20 human isolates available but 11% of our animal isolates were grouped in this lineage, indicating that strains in this lineage might have reduced virulence for humans. PMID:9199440

  17. Host-pathogen Interaction at the Intestinal Mucosa Correlates With Zoonotic Potential of Streptococcus suis

    PubMed Central

    Ferrando, Maria Laura; de Greeff, Astrid; van Rooijen, Willemien J. M.; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, Norbert; Nielsen, Jens; Wichgers Schreur, Paul J.; Pannekoek, Yvonne; Heuvelink, Annet; van der Ende, Arie; Smith, Hilde; Schultsz, Constance

    2015-01-01

    Background. Streptococcus suis has emerged as an important cause of bacterial meningitis in adults. The ingestion of undercooked pork is a risk factor for human S. suis serotype 2 (SS2) infection. Here we provide experimental evidence indicating that the gastrointestinal tract is an entry site of SS2 infection. Methods. We developed a noninvasive in vivo model to study oral SS2 infection in piglets. We compared in vitro interaction of S. suis with human and porcine intestinal epithelial cells (IEC). Results. Two out of 15 piglets showed clinical symptoms compatible with S. suis infection 24–48 hours after ingestion of SS2. SS2 was detected in mesenteric lymph nodes of 40% of challenged piglets. SS2 strains isolated from patients showed significantly higher adhesion to human IEC compared to invasive strains isolated from pigs. In contrast, invasive SS9 strains showed significantly higher adhesion to porcine IEC. Translocation across human IEC, which occurred predominately via a paracellular route, was significantly associated with clonal complex 1, the predominant zoonotic genotype. Adhesion and translocation were dependent on capsular polysaccharide production. Conclusions. SS2 should be considered a food-borne pathogen. S. suis interaction with human and pig IEC correlates with S. suis serotype and genotype, which can explain the zoonotic potential of SS2. PMID:25525050

  18. A comparative chemogenomics strategy to predict potential drug targets in the metazoan pathogen, Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Caffrey, Conor R; Rohwer, Andreas; Oellien, Frank; Marhfer, Richard J; Braschi, Simon; Oliveira, Guilherme; McKerrow, James H; Selzer, Paul M

    2009-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a prevalent and chronic helmintic disease in tropical regions. Treatment and control relies on chemotherapy with just one drug, praziquantel and this reliance is of concern should clinically relevant drug resistance emerge and spread. Therefore, to identify potential target proteins for new avenues of drug discovery we have taken a comparative chemogenomics approach utilizing the putative proteome of Schistosoma mansoni compared to the proteomes of two model organisms, the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans and the fruitfly, Drosophila melanogaster. Using the genome comparison software Genlight, two separate in silico workflows were implemented to derive a set of parasite proteins for which gene disruption of the orthologs in both the model organisms yielded deleterious phenotypes (e.g., lethal, impairment of motility), i.e., are essential genes/proteins. Of the 67 and 68 sequences generated for each workflow, 63 were identical in both sets, leading to a final set of 72 parasite proteins. All but one of these were expressed in the relevant developmental stages of the parasite infecting humans. Subsequent in depth manual curation of the combined workflow output revealed 57 candidate proteins. Scrutiny of these for 'druggable' protein homologs in the literature identified 35 S. mansoni sequences, 18 of which were homologous to proteins with 3D structures including co-crystallized ligands that will allow further structure-based drug design studies. The comparative chemogenomics strategy presented generates a tractable set of S. mansoni proteins for experimental validation as drug targets against this insidious human pathogen. PMID:19198654

  19. Years of potential life lost for six major enteric pathogens, Germany, 2004-2008.

    PubMed

    Werber, D; Hille, K; Frank, C; Dehnert, M; Altmann, D; Müller-Nordhorn, J; Koch, J; Stark, K

    2013-05-01

    In industrialized countries, acute infectious enteric diseases are usually mild, but they can also cause death. They do so, however, at different ages. Using 2004-2008 German notification data, we computed and compared crude and premature mortality [three different measures of years of potential life lost (YPLL)] of illnesses caused by Campylobacter spp., Listeria monocytogenes, norovirus, rotavirus, non-typhoidal Salmonella spp., and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). Among ~1.5 million notified illnesses, those caused by norovirus were the most frequent. The highest annual mortality was registered for salmonellosis (0.55/1 000 000 population), but listeriosis accounted for the highest number of YPLL (n=4245). Disregarding death at advanced age (i.e. >70 years), STEC illness (n=757) and rotavirus gastroenteritis (n=648) ranked second and third, following listeriosis (n=2306). Routine surveillance captures only a fraction of all incident cases and deaths, under-ascertaining the true burden of disease. Weighting death by age permits a different view on the disease burden individual enteric pathogens cause and particularly underscores the public health importance of listeriosis prevention. PMID:22813426

  20. Chronic laminitis is associated with potential bacterial pathogens in the laminae.

    PubMed

    Onishi, Janet C; Park, Joong-Wook; Häggblom, Max M; Fennell, Michael J; Fugaro, Michael N

    2012-08-17

    A common sequella of chronic laminitis in horses is repeated abscesses with variable lameness and drainage. It is unclear whether the exudate represents the debridement phase of a non-septic inflammatory process involving clearance of laminar tissue damaged during the acute episode of laminitis, or a response to a microbial infection developed by ascent of microbes from the environment to the tissue via the white line. The objective of this study was to evaluate the possibility that an undiagnosed microbial infection in laminar tissue is present in laminar tissue collected from chronically laminitic horses without an active hoof abscess. Methods to collect laminar tissue, aseptically, from control (non-laminitic) horses and those with chronic/recurrent laminitis are described. Laminae homogenates were evaluated for the presence of bacteria. Bacteria were identified using biochemical tests and sequencing of 16S rRNA and virulence genes. Laminae from chronically laminitic horses revealed 100-fold higher levels (P=0.002) of bacteria compared to control, non-laminitic horses. Although environmental organisms were identified, potential pathogens were identified. Included were Gram positive bacteria, Brevibacterium luteolum, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. as well as Gram negative bacteria, enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli and Alcaligenes faecalis. Further research is warranted to evaluate the role of bacteria in equine chronic laminitis. PMID:22410310

  1. Adaptive potential of ash (Fraxinus excelsior) populations against the novel emerging pathogen Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidus

    PubMed Central

    Kjær, Erik Dahl; McKinney, Lea Vig; Nielsen, Lene Rostgaard; Hansen, Lars Nørgaard; Hansen, Jon Kehlet

    2012-01-01

    An emerging infectious pathogen Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidus has spread across much of Europe within recent years causing devastating damage on European common ash trees (Fraxinus excelsior) and associated plant communities. The present study demonstrates the presence of additive genetic variation in susceptibility of natural F. excelsior populations to the new invasive disease. We observe high levels of additive variation in the degree of susceptibility with relatively low influence of environmental factors (narrow-sense heritability = 0.37–0.52). Most native trees are found to be highly susceptible, and we estimate that only around 1% has the potential of producing offspring with expected crown damage of <10% under the present disease pressure. The results suggest that the presence of additive genetic diversity in natural F. excelsior populations can confer the species with important ability to recover, but that low resistance within natural European populations is to be expected because of a low frequency of the hypo-sensitive trees. Large effective population sizes will be required to avoid genetic bottlenecks. The role of artificial selection and breeding for protection of the species is discussed based on the findings. PMID:25568043

  2. Detection and characterization of potentially pathogenic Aeromonas sobria isolated from fish Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Dar, Gowhar H; Dar, Shoaib A; Kamili, Azra N; Chishti, Mohammad Z; Ahmad, Fayaz

    2016-02-01

    The current study focuses on the detection and characterization of potentially pathogenic Aeromonas sobria from fish silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix). Assessment of clinical, microbiological, pathological and biochemical characteristics of A. sobria were taken into account in order to understand the epidemiology, frequency and occurrence of this infection. Clinically the infected fish (H. molitrix) was observed for various types of symptoms. A total of 33 colonies of A. sobria strain were isolated from 20 cultured H. molitrix, collected from controlled fish pond. Microscopic examination revealed that the strains were rod-shaped, Gram negative bacteria. The revealed percent probability identification of A. sobria from the biochemical characterization in VITEK system was 93% with gram negative (GN) card. The histopathology of Gills caused by this bacterium, A. sobria indicate haemorrhagic gill epithelia and epithelial hyperplasia. Lamelar epithelial hypertrophy and hyperplasia with degenerative changes of the epithelium and hypertrophic epitheliocystis infected cells on gills of H. molitrix were observed during the present study. PMID:26518124

  3. Oscillatory behavior of ventricular action potential duration in heart failure patients at respiratory rate and low frequency

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Ben; Child, Nick; Van Duijvenboden, Stefan; Orini, Michele; Chen, Zhong; Coronel, Ruben; Rinaldi, Christopher A.; Gill, Jaspal S.; Gill, Jaswinder S.; Taggart, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Oscillations of arterial pressure occur spontaneously at a frequency of approximately 0.1 Hz coupled with synchronous oscillations of sympathetic nerve activity (“Mayer waves”). This study investigated the extent to which corresponding oscillations may occur in ventricular action potential duration (APD). Fourteen ambulatory (outpatient) heart failure patients with biventricular pacing devices were studied while seated upright watching movie clips to maintain arousal. Activation recovery intervals (ARI) as a measure of ventricular APD were obtained from unipolar electrograms recorded from the LV epicardial pacing lead during steady state RV pacing from the device. Arterial blood pressure was measured non-invasively (Finapress) and respiration monitored. Oscillations were quantified using time frequency and coherence analysis. Oscillatory behavior of ARI at the respiratory frequency was observed in all subjects. The magnitude of the ARI variation ranged from 2.2 to 6.9 ms (mean 5.0 ms). Coherence analysis showed a correlation with respiratory oscillation for an average of 43% of the recording time at a significance level of p < 0.05. Oscillations in systolic blood pressure in the Mayer wave frequency range were observed in all subjects for whom blood pressure was recorded (n = 13). ARI oscillation in the Mayer wave frequency range was observed in 6/13 subjects (46%) over a range of 2.9 to 9.2 ms. Coherence with Mayer waves at the p < 0.05 significance level was present for an average of 29% of the recording time. In ambulatory patients with heart failure during enhanced mental arousal, left ventricular epicardial APD (ARI) oscillated at the respiratory frequency (approximately 0.25 Hz). In 6 patients (46%) APD oscillated at the slower Mayer wave frequency (approximately 0.1 Hz). These findings may be important in understanding sympathetic activity-related arrhythmogenesis. PMID:25389408

  4. Assessment of the Safety and Efficacy of an Attenuated Live Vaccine Based on Highly Pathogenic Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiuling; Zhou, Zhi; Cao, Zhen; Wu, Jiajun; Zhang, Zhongqiu; Xu, Baiwan; Wang, Chuanbin; Hu, Dongmei; Deng, Xiaoyu; Han, Wei; Gu, Xiaoxue; Zhang, Shuo; Li, Xiaoxia; Wang, Baoyue

    2015-01-01

    The safety and efficacy of the JXA1-R vaccine, an attenuated strain of highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV), were examined using an intramuscular challenge model in piglets. The JXA1-R vaccine was obtained by passing HP-PRRSV JXA1 through Marc-145 cells (82nd passage). Genomic sequence comparisons showed that strain JXA1-R and its parental strain, JXA1, differ by 47 amino acids, and most of these differences are scattered throughout the PRRSV genome. Four-week-old PRRSV-free piglets were inoculated intramuscularly with JXA1-R vaccine (103.0, 104.0, 105.0, 106.0, and 107.0 50% tissue culture infective doses [TCID50]/ml for groups 1 to 5, respectively) and then challenged intramuscularly with the 5th passage virus of JXA1 virus (JXA1-F5, 3 ml × 104.5 TCID50/ml) 28 days after inoculation. The humoral immune response, swine growth, clinical signs, and differential organ lesions were monitored. The results showed that all vaccinated piglets had a perceptible humoral immune response to vaccination after day 7, which then promptly increased, almost reaching the maximum sample/positive (S/P) ratio value at 28 days postimmunization. Viremia detection indicated that the viral replication levels of the challenge virus in the immunized groups (immunization doses ≥104.0/ml) were significantly lower than that of the virus-challenged unvaccinated control group. Piglets in groups 2 to 5 were effectively protected against lethal HP-PRRSV infection and did not show any obvious changes in body temperature or clinical signs of disease at any point during the experiment. However, two of five piglets in group 1 showed mild pathological lesions and transitory high fever. These results suggest that JXA1-R (TCID50/ml ≥104.0) is sufficiently attenuated and can provide effective protection against the lethal wild-type HP-PRRSV. PMID:25739919

  5. Assessment of the safety and efficacy of an attenuated live vaccine based on highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiuling; Zhou, Zhi; Cao, Zhen; Wu, Jiajun; Zhang, Zhongqiu; Xu, Baiwan; Wang, Chuanbin; Hu, Dongmei; Deng, Xiaoyu; Han, Wei; Gu, Xiaoxue; Zhang, Shuo; Li, Xiaoxia; Wang, Baoyue; Zhai, Xinyan; Tian, Kegong

    2015-05-01

    The safety and efficacy of the JXA1-R vaccine, an attenuated strain of highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV), were examined using an intramuscular challenge model in piglets. The JXA1-R vaccine was obtained by passing HP-PRRSV JXA1 through Marc-145 cells (82nd passage). Genomic sequence comparisons showed that strain JXA1-R and its parental strain, JXA1, differ by 47 amino acids, and most of these differences are scattered throughout the PRRSV genome. Four-week-old PRRSV-free piglets were inoculated intramuscularly with JXA1-R vaccine (10(3.0), 10(4.0), 10(5.0), 10(6.0), and 10(7.0) 50% tissue culture infective doses [TCID50]/ml for groups 1 to 5, respectively) and then challenged intramuscularly with the 5th passage virus of JXA1 virus (JXA1-F5, 3 ml × 10(4.5) TCID50/ml) 28 days after inoculation. The humoral immune response, swine growth, clinical signs, and differential organ lesions were monitored. The results showed that all vaccinated piglets had a perceptible humoral immune response to vaccination after day 7, which then promptly increased, almost reaching the maximum sample/positive (S/P) ratio value at 28 days postimmunization. Viremia detection indicated that the viral replication levels of the challenge virus in the immunized groups (immunization doses ≥10(4.0)/ml) were significantly lower than that of the virus-challenged unvaccinated control group. Piglets in groups 2 to 5 were effectively protected against lethal HP-PRRSV infection and did not show any obvious changes in body temperature or clinical signs of disease at any point during the experiment. However, two of five piglets in group 1 showed mild pathological lesions and transitory high fever. These results suggest that JXA1-R (TCID50/ml ≥10(4.0)) is sufficiently attenuated and can provide effective protection against the lethal wild-type HP-PRRSV. PMID:25739919

  6. Antimicrobial Resistance among Respiratory Pathogens in Spain: Latest Data and Changes over 11 Years (1996-1997 to 2006-2007)▿

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Trallero, Emilio; Martín-Herrero, Jose E.; Mazón, Ana; García-Delafuente, Celia; Robles, Purificación; Iriarte, Victor; Dal-Ré, Rafael; García-de-Lomas, Juan

    2010-01-01

    A nationwide multicenter susceptibility surveillance study (Susceptibility to the Antimicrobials Used in the Community in España [SAUCE] project), SAUCE-4, including 2,559 Streptococcus pneumoniae, 2,287 Streptococcus pyogenes, and 2,736 Haemophilus influenzae isolates was carried out from May 2006 to June 2007 in 34 Spanish hospitals. Then, the results from SAUCE-4 were compared to those from all three previous SAUCE studies carried out in 1996-1997, 1998-1999, and 2001-2002 to assess the temporal trends in resistance and the phenotypes of resistance over the 11-year period. In SAUCE-4, on the basis of the CLSI breakpoints, penicillin (parenteral, nonmeningitis breakpoint) and cefotaxime were the antimicrobials that were the most active against S. pneumoniae (99.8% and 99.6%, respectively). Only 0.9% of isolates had a penicillin MIC of ≥2 μg/ml. In S. pyogenes, nonsusceptibility to erythromycin was observed in 19.4% of isolates. Among the H. influenzae isolates, a β-lactamase-positive prevalence of 15.7% was found. A statistically significant temporal decreasing trend over the 11-year period was observed for nonsusceptibility (from 60.0% to 22.9%) and resistance (from 36.5% to 0.9%) to penicillin and for the proportion of erythromycin-resistant isolates of S. pneumoniae of the macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLSB) phenotype (from 98.4% to 81.3%). A similar trend was observed for the prevalence of ampicillin resistance (from 37.6% to 16.1%), β-lactamase production (from 25.7% to 15.7%), and β-lactamase-negative ampicillin resistance (BLNAR) in H. influenzae (from 13.5% to 0.7%). Among erythromycin-resistant isolates of S. pyogenes, a significant increasing trend in the prevalence of MLSB was observed (from 7.0% to 35.5%). SAUCE-4 confirms a generalized decline in the resistance of the main respiratory pathogens to the antimicrobials as well as a shift in their resistance phenotypes. PMID:20439616

  7. Assessing Pathogen Levels in Dairy Lagoon Wastewater and Potential Evaporation Losses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, P.; Biswas, S.; Souza, A.; Silva-del-Rio, N.; Vaddella, V. K.; Castillo, A. R.

    2014-12-01

    The ongoing drought in California necessitates the conservation of existing water resources while protecting the water quality. There is a critical need to improve the understanding of evaporation losses from dairy lagoons in California, and their corresponding changes in pathogen levels in the lagoon wastewater. We have carried out preliminary studies involving extensive dairy lagoon water sampling, and batch-scale experiments. The dairy wastewater was collected from both primary and secondary lagoons in three counties of California (Merced, Tulare, and Glenn Counties) for enumerating the levels of E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes. Subsequently, we conducted batch-scale experiments at mesophilic (31 and 37 ⁰C) and thermophilic temperatures (43 and 49 ⁰C) to understand the E. coli O157:H7 inactivation process and potential evaporative water losses. In addition, we compared the evaporation losses under the environment of biological activity and the environment of restricted biological activity (extreme environment with low pH). For E. coli O157:H7 enumeration, we used MacConkey agar, while for Salmonella spp., XLD agar was used. Listeria monocytogenes levels were measured using PALCAM agar (with selective supplement). In flushed dairy wastewater (fresh) samples, the average of E. coli O157:H7 levels were 2 × 104 CFU/mL. The average Listeria monocytogenes levels in flushed manure were 9 × 101. The levels of Salmonella spp. were non-detectable. In mesophilic condition (37 ⁰C) after 5 days of incubation, 8% of total water loss was observed, while at thermophilic temperature (49 ⁰C), 70% of total water loss was observed. After 5 days of incubation at 37 ⁰C, E. coli O157:H7 levels in flushed dairy manure were increased from 2.8 × 103 to 5.2 × 104 CFU/mL, while at 49 ⁰C, E. coli O157:H7 levels were reduced from 2.8 × 103 to 5 × 101 CFU/mL after 4 days of incubation. We anticipate that the results of this study would be useful in understanding the dynamics of water losses and pathogen inactivation in dairy lagoon wastewater.

  8. Production of prodigiosin and chitinases by tropical Serratia marcescens strains with potential to control plant pathogens.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Román, Martha Ingrid; Holguín-Meléndez, Francisco; Bello-Mendoza, Ricardo; Guillén-Navarro, Karina; Dunn, Michael F; Huerta-Palacios, Graciela

    2012-01-01

    The potential of three Serratia marcescens strains (CFFSUR-B2, CFFSUR-B3 and CFFSUR-B4) isolated from tropical regions in Mexico to inhibit the mycelial growth and conidial germination of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, causal agent of fruit anthracnose, was evaluated. The ability of these strains to produce prodigiosin and chitinases when cultivated in oil seed-based media (peanut, sesame, soybean and castor bean) and in Luria-Bertani medium was determined. All of the strains exhibited similar fungal antagonistic activities and inhibited myceliar growth by more than 40% while inhibiting conidial germination by 81-89% (P = 0.01). The highest level of prodigiosin (40 μg/ml) was produced in the peanut-based medium while growth in soybean-based medium allowed the highest production of chitinases (56 units/ml), independent of the strain used. Strain CFFSUR-B2 grown in peanut medium was used to evaluate the effect of inoculum density and initial pH on metabolite production. The amount of prodigiosin produced increased with greater inoculum densities, with an initial density of 1 × 10(12) resulting in the highest production (60 μg/ml). Prodigiosin production was not affected by pH. The strains studied have the advantage of being adapted to tropical climates and are able to produce chitinases in the absence of chitin induction in vitro. These characteristics suggest their potential as biocontrol agents for fungal pathogens in tropical regions of the world. PMID:22806790

  9. Potential for bio-control of food-borne pathogens with Bacteriovorax spp. and implications for food safety

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacteriovorax spp. (Bvx) are delta proteobacteria adapted to marine ecosystems where salinity concentration range from 1-3%. Due to their predation of Gram-negative bacteria, Bvx may have great potential for biocontrol of food-borne pathogens on fruits and leafy greens. The goal of this research was...

  10. Glycans in pathogenic bacteria – potential for targeted covalent therapeutics and imaging agents

    PubMed Central

    Tra, Van N.; Dube, Danielle H.

    2014-01-01

    A substantial obstacle to the existing treatment of bacterial diseases is the lack of specific probes that can be used to diagnose and treat pathogenic bacteria in a selective manner while leaving the microbiome largely intact. To tackle this problem, there is an urgent need to develop pathogen-specific therapeutics and diagnostics. Here, we describe recent evidence that indicates distinctive glycans found exclusively on pathogenic bacteria could form the basis of targeted therapeutic and diagnostic strategies. In particular, we highlight the use of metabolic oligosaccharide engineering to covalently deliver therapeutics and imaging agents to bacterial glycans. PMID:24647371

  11. Electronic ventilator temperature sensors as a potential source of respiratory tract colonization with Stenotrophomonas maltophilia.

    PubMed

    Rogues, A M; Maugein, J; Allery, A; Fleureau, C; Boulestreau, H; Surcin, S; Bebear, C; Janvier, G; Gachie, J P

    2001-12-01

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (S. maltophilia) is an important cause of nosocomial infection among ventilated and immunocompromised patients, and among patients receiving broad-spectrum antimicrobials. We report a cluster of patients in a surgical intensive care unit who were colonized or infected with S. maltophilia. An epidemiological investigation was initiated after surveillance data revealed that eight patients were culture-positive from sputum for S. maltophilia in the preceding month. Review of respiratory care procedures revealed that when mechanical ventilators were serviced between patients, the electronic temperature probes used with servo-controlled humidifiers were wiped with inadequate disinfection. We collected cultures of case-patient room surfaces, sinks and ventilator equipment. S. maltophilia was recovered from room surfaces, ventilator expiratory circuits and a temperature sensor which had been kept in ambient air after disinfection. Patients and environmental isolates were examined by RAPD-PCR. Three clinical isolates and one environmental isolate had the same profile, which suggests cross-contamination or common source exposure. The outbreak was controlled by adequate disinfection of the temperature sensors. No single epidemic strain was identified but several observations support the conclusion that the temperature probes contributed to the outbreak. PMID:11740879

  12. Complete genome sequence of the fish pathogen Aeromonas veronii TH0426 with potential application in biosynthesis of pullulanase and chitinase.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yuanhuan; Pan, Xiaoyi; Xu, Yang; Siddiqui, Shahrood A; Wang, Chunfeng; Shan, Xiaofeng; Qian, Aidong

    2016-06-10

    Aeromonas veronii TH0426 is a pathogen of the farmed yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco but shows high-level expression of pullulanase and chitinase. Here, we present its genome sequence, which is the first reported complete genome of fish pathogen in A. veronii to date. Strain TH0426 harbors a single circular 4,923,009bp chromosome with a GC content of 58.25%. There are 4525 genes identified on its genome, including 4244 protein-coding genes, 32 rRNA genes, 120 tRNA genes, a noncoding RNA and 128 pseudo genes. We believe that the genomic information of A. veronii TH0426 would facilitate to reveal its pathogenic mechanism associated with yellow catfish, develop vaccine to decrease economic losses for fish farming, meanwhile explore the potential application in producing pullulanase and chitinase. PMID:27080448

  13. Potential of Cerbera odollam as a bio-fungicide for post-harvest pathogen Penicilium digitatum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Harbant; Yin-Chu, Sue; Al-Samarrai, Ghassan; Syarhabil, Muhammad

    2015-05-01

    Postharvest diseases due to fungal infection contribute to economic losses in agriculture industry during storage, transportation or in the market. Penicillium digitatum is one of the common pathogen responsible for the postharvest rot in fruits. This disease is currently being controlled by synthetic fungicides such as Guazatine and Imazalil. However, heavy use of fungicides has resulted in environmental pollution, such as residue in fruit that expose a significant risk to human health. Therefore, there is a strong need to develop alternatives to synthetic fungicide to raise customer confidence. In the current research, different concentrations (500 to 3000 ppm) of ethanol extract of Cerbera odollam or commonly known as Pong-pong were compared with Neem and the controls (Positive control/Guazatine; Negative control/DMSO) for the anti-fungicide activity in PDA media contained in 10 cm diameter Petri dishes, using a modification of Ruch and Worf's method. The toxicity (Lc50) of the C.odollam extract was determined by Brine-shrimp test (BST). The results of the research indicated that crude extraction from C.odollam showed the highest inhibition rate (93%) and smallest colony diameter (0.63 cm) at 3000 ppm in vitro compared with Neem (inhibition rate: 88%; colony diameter: 1.33 cm) and control (Positive control/Guazatine inhibition rate: 79%, colony diameter: 1.9 cm; Negative control/DMSO inhibition rate: 0%, colony diameter: 9.2 cm). C.odollam recorded Lc50 value of 5 µg/ml which is safe but to be used with caution (unsafe level: below 2 µg/ml). The above anti-microbial activity and toxicity value results indicate that C.odollam has a potential of being a future bio-fungicide that could be employed as an alternative to synthetic fungicide.

  14. Potentially Pathogenic Airway Bacteria and Neutrophilic Inflammation in Treatment Resistant Severe Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Grainge, Christopher; Rogers, Geraint B.; Kehagia, Valia; Lau, Laurie; Carroll, Mary P.; Bruce, Kenneth D.; Howarth, Peter H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Molecular microbiological analysis of airway samples in asthma has demonstrated an altered microbiome in comparison to healthy controls. Such changes may have relevance to treatment-resistant severe asthma, particularly those with neutrophilic airway inflammation, as bacteria might be anticipated to activate the innate immune response, a process that is poorly steroid responsive. An understanding of the relationship between airway bacterial presence and dominance in severe asthma may help direct alternative treatment approaches. Objective We aimed to use a culture independent analysis strategy to describe the presence, dominance and abundance of bacterial taxa in induced sputum from treatment resistant severe asthmatics and correlate findings with clinical characteristics and airway inflammatory markers. Methods Induced sputum was obtained from 28 stable treatment-resistant severe asthmatics. The samples were divided for supernatant IL-8 measurement, cytospin preparation for differential cell count and Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) profiling for bacterial community analysis. Results In 17/28 patients, the dominant species within the airway bacterial community was Moraxella catarrhalis or a member of the Haemophilus or Streptococcus genera. Colonisation with these species was associated with longer asthma disease duration (mean (SD) 31.8 years (16.7) vs 15.6 years (8.0), p?=?0.008), worse post-bronchodilator percent predicted FEV1 (68.0% (24.0) vs 85.5% (19.7), p?=?0.025) and higher sputum neutrophil differential cell counts (median (IQR) 80% (6783) vs 43% (2967), p?=?0.001). Total abundance of these organisms significantly and positively correlated with sputum IL-8 concentration and neutrophil count. Conclusions Airway colonisation with potentially pathogenic micro-organisms in asthma is associated with more severe airways obstruction and neutrophilic airway inflammation. This altered colonisation may have a role in the development of an asthma phenotype that responds less well to current asthma therapies. PMID:24955983

  15. Reptiles as potential vectors and hosts of the amphibian pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in Panama.

    PubMed

    Kilburn, Vanessa L; Ibáñez, Roberto; Green, David M

    2011-12-01

    Chytridiomycosis, the disease caused by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, is considered to be a disease exclusively of amphibians. However, B. dendrobatidis may also be capable of persisting in the environment, and non-amphibian vectors or hosts may contribute to disease transmission. Reptiles living in close proximity to amphibians and sharing similar ecological traits could serve as vectors or reservoir hosts for B. dendrobatidis, harbouring the organism on their skin without succumbing to disease. We surveyed for the presence of B. dendrobatidis DNA among 211 lizards and 8 snakes at 8 sites at varying elevations in Panama where the syntopic amphibians were at pre-epizootic, epizootic or post-epizootic stages of chytridiomycosis. Detection of B. dendrobatidis DNA was done using qPCR analysis. Evidence of the amphibian pathogen was present at varying intensities in 29 of 79 examined Anolis humilis lizards (32%) and 9 of 101 A. lionotus lizards (9%), and in one individual each of the snakes Pliocercus euryzonus, Imantodes cenchoa, and Nothopsis rugosus. In general, B. dendrobatidis DNA prevalence among reptiles was positively correlated with the infection prevalence among co-occurring anuran amphibians at any particular site (r = 0.88, p = 0.004). These reptiles, therefore, may likely be vectors or reservoir hosts for B. dendrobatidis and could serve as disease transmission agents. Although there is no evidence of B. dendrobatidis disease-induced declines in reptiles, cases of coincidence of reptile and amphibian declines suggest this potentiality. Our study is the first to provide evidence of non-amphibian carriers for B. dendrobatidis in a natural Neotropical environment. PMID:22303629

  16. Molecular identification of potential pathogens in water and air of a hospital therapy pool.

    PubMed

    Angenent, Largus T; Kelley, Scott T; St Amand, Allison; Pace, Norman R; Hernandez, Mark T

    2005-03-29

    Indoor warm-water therapy pool workers in a Midwestern regional hospital were diagnosed with non-tuberculosis pulmonary hypersensitive pneumonitis and Mycobacterium avium infections. In response, we conducted a multiseason survey of microorganisms present in this therapy pool water, in biofilms associated with the pool containment walls, and in air immediately above the pool. The survey used culture, microscopy, and culture-independent molecular phylogenetic analyses. Although outfitted with a state-of-the-art UV-peroxide disinfection system, the numbers of bacteria in the therapy pool water were relatively high compared with the potable water used to fill the pool. Regardless of the source, direct microscopic counts of microbes were routinely approximately 1,000 times greater than conventional plate counts. Analysis of clone libraries of small subunit rRNA genes from environmental DNA provided phylogenetic diversity estimates of the microorganisms collected in and above the pool. A survey of >1,300 rRNA genes yielded a total of 628 unique sequences, the most common of which was nearly identical to that of M. avium strains. The high proportion of clones with different Mycobacterium spp. rRNA genes suggested that such organisms comprised a significant fraction of microbes in the pool water (to >30%) and preferentially partition into aerosols (to >80%) relative to other waterborne bacteria present. The results of the study strongly validate aerosol partitioning as a mechanism for disease transfer in these environments. The results also show that culture protocols currently used by public health facilities and agencies are seriously inadequate for the detection and enumeration of potential pathogens. PMID:15769858

  17. Characterization and Pathogenic Potential of Listeria monocytogenes Isolates from the Smoked Fish Industry

    PubMed Central

    Norton, Dawn M.; Scarlett, Janet M.; Horton, Kelly; Sue, David; Thimothe, Joanne; Boor, Kathryn J.; Wiedmann, Martin

    2001-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the hypothesis that some of the Listeria monocytogenes subtypes associated with foods, specifically smoked fish, may have an attenuated ability to cause human disease. We tested this hypothesis by using two different approaches: (i) comparison of molecular subtypes found among 117 isolates from smoked fish, raw materials, fish in process, and processing environments with subtypes found among a collection of 275 human clinical isolates and (ii) the evaluation of the cytopathogenicity of industrial isolates. Ribotyping and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism typing of the hlyA and actA genes differentiated 23 subtypes among the industrial isolates and allowed classification of the isolates into three genetic lineages. A significantly higher proportion of human isolates (69.1%) than industrial isolates (36.8%) were classified as lineage I, which contains human sporadic isolates and all epidemic isolates. All other industrial isolates (63.2%) were classified as lineage II, which contains only human sporadic isolates. Lineage I ribotypes DUP-1038B and DUP-1042B represented a significantly higher proportion of the human isolates than industrial isolates (5.1%). Lineage II ribotypes DUP-1039C, DUP-1042C, and DUP-1045, shown previously to persist in the smoked fish processing environment, represented nearly 50% of the industrial isolates, compared to 7.6% of the human isolates. Representatives of each subtype were evaluated with a tissue culture plaque assay. Lineage I isolates formed plaques that were significantly larger than those formed by lineage II isolates. Isolates from the smoked fish industry representing three ribotypes formed no plaques or small plaques, indicating that they had an impaired ability to infect mammalian cells. While L. monocytogenes clonal groups linked to human listeriosis cases and outbreaks were isolated, our data also suggest that at least some L. monocytogenes subtypes present in ready-to-eat foods may have limited human-pathogenic potential. PMID:11157227

  18. Occurrence and pathogenic potential of Bacillus cereus group bacteria in a sandy loam.

    PubMed

    Hendriksen, Niels Bohse; Hansen, Bjarne Munk; Johansen, Jens Efsen

    2006-02-01

    The major part (94%) of the Bacillus cereus-like isolates from a Danish sandy loam are psychrotolerant Bacillus weihenstephanensis according to their ability to grow at temperatures below 7 degrees C and/or two PCR-based methods, while the remaining 6% are B. cereus. The Bacillus mycoides-like isolates could also be divided into psychrotolerant and mesophilic isolates. The psychrotolerant isolates of B. mycoides could be discriminated from the mesophilic by the two PCR-based methods used to characterize B. weihenstephanensis. It is likely that the mesophilic B. mycoides strains are synonymous with Bacillus pseudomycoides, while psychrotolerant B. weihenstephanensis, like B. mycoides, are B. mycoides senso stricto. B. cereus is known to produce a number of factors, which are involved in its ability to cause gastrointestinal and somatic diseases. All the B. cereus-like and B. mycoides like isolates from the sandy loam were investigated by PCR for the presence of 12 genes encoding toxins. Genes for the enterotoxins (hemolysin BL and nonhemolytic enterotoxin) and the two of the enzymes (cereolysin AB) were present in the major part of the isolates, while genes for phospolipase C and hemolysin III were present in fewer isolates, especially among B. mycoides like isolates. Genes for cytotoxin K and the hemolysin II were only present in isolates affiliated to B. cereus. Most of the mesophilic B. mycoides isolates did not possess the genes for the nonhemolytic enterotoxin and the cereolysin AB. The presence of multiple genes coding for virulence factors in all the isolates from the B. cereus group suggests that all the isolates from the sandy loam are potential pathogens. PMID:16710635

  19. Secretome analysis identifies potential virulence factors of Diplodia corticola, a fungal pathogen involved in cork oak (Quercus suber) decline.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Isabel; Alves, Artur; Correia, António; Devreese, Bart; Esteves, Ana Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The characterisation of the secretome of phytopathogenic fungi may contribute to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis. This is particularly relevant for Diplodia corticola, a fungal plant pathogen belonging to the family Botryosphaeriaceae, whose genome remains unsequenced. This phytopathogenic fungus is recognised as one of the most important pathogens of cork oak, being related to the decline of cork oak forests in the Iberian Peninsula. Unfortunately, secretome analysis of filamentous fungi is limited by the low protein concentration and by the presence of many interfering substances, such as polysaccharides, which affect the separation and analysis by 1D and 2D gel electrophoresis. We compared six protein extraction protocols concerning their suitability for further application with proteomic workflows. The protocols involving protein precipitation were the most efficient, with emphasis on TCA-acetone protocol, allowing us to identify the most abundant proteins on the secretome of this plant pathogen. Approximately 60% of the spots detected were identified, all corresponding to extracellular proteins. Most proteins identified were carbohydrate degrading enzymes and proteases that may be related to D. corticola pathogenicity. Although the secretome was assessed in a noninfection environment, potential virulence factors such as the putative glucan-β-glucosidase, neuraminidase, and the putative ferulic acid esterase were identified. The data obtained forms a useful basis for a deeper understanding of the pathogenicity and infection biology of D. corticola. Moreover, it will contribute to the development of proteomics studies on other members of the Botryosphaeriaceae. PMID:24863480

  20. Chemosensory TRP channels in the respiratory tract: role in toxic lung injury and potential as "sweet spots" for targeted therapies.

    PubMed

    Büch, Thomas; Schäfer, Eva; Steinritz, Dirk; Dietrich, Alexander; Gudermann, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Acute toxic lung injury by reactive inhalational compounds is an important and still unresolved medical problem. Hazardous gases or vapors, e. g. chlorine, phosgene, sulfur mustard or methyl isocyanate, are released during occupational accidents or combustion processes and also represent a potential threat in terroristic scenarios. According to their broad-range chemical reactivity, the mechanism of lung injury evoked by these agents has long been described as rather unspecific. Consequently, therapeutic options are still restricted to symptomatic treatment. However, in recent years, ion channels of the transient receptor potential (TRP) family have been identified to act as specific sensor molecules expressed in the respiratory tract and to engage defined signaling pathways upon inhalational exposure to toxic challenges. These pulmonary receptor molecules have been primarily characterized in sensory neurons of the lung. However, chemosensory molecules are also expressed in non-neuronal cells, e.g. in the lung epithelium as well as in the pulmonary vasculature. Thus, activation of respiratory chemosensors by toxic inhalants promotes a complex signaling network directly or indirectly regulating pulmonary blood flow, the integrity of the epithelial lining, and the mucociliary clearance of the bronchial system. This review gives a synopsis on reactive lung-toxic agents and their specific target molecules in the lung and summarizes the current knowledge about the pathophysiological role of chemosensory signaling in neuronal and non-neuronal cells in toxic lung injury. Finally, we describe possible future strategies for a causal, specifically tailored treatment option based on the mechanistic understanding of molecular events ensuing inhalation of lung-toxic agents. PMID:23532495

  1. Distinctive expansion of potential virulence genes in the genome of the oomycete fish pathogen Saprolegnia parasitica.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Rays H Y; de Bruijn, Irene; Haas, Brian J; Belmonte, Rodrigo; Löbach, Lars; Christie, James; van den Ackerveken, Guido; Bottin, Arnaud; Bulone, Vincent; Díaz-Moreno, Sara M; Dumas, Bernard; Fan, Lin; Gaulin, Elodie; Govers, Francine; Grenville-Briggs, Laura J; Horner, Neil R; Levin, Joshua Z; Mammella, Marco; Meijer, Harold J G; Morris, Paul; Nusbaum, Chad; Oome, Stan; Phillips, Andrew J; van Rooyen, David; Rzeszutek, Elzbieta; Saraiva, Marcia; Secombes, Chris J; Seidl, Michael F; Snel, Berend; Stassen, Joost H M; Sykes, Sean; Tripathy, Sucheta; van den Berg, Herbert; Vega-Arreguin, Julio C; Wawra, Stephan; Young, Sarah K; Zeng, Qiandong; Dieguez-Uribeondo, Javier; Russ, Carsten; Tyler, Brett M; van West, Pieter

    2013-06-01

    Oomycetes in the class Saprolegniomycetidae of the Eukaryotic kingdom Stramenopila have evolved as severe pathogens of amphibians, crustaceans, fish and insects, resulting in major losses in aquaculture and damage to aquatic ecosystems. We have sequenced the 63 Mb genome of the fresh water fish pathogen, Saprolegnia parasitica. Approximately 1/3 of the assembled genome exhibits loss of heterozygosity, indicating an efficient mechanism for revealing new variation. Comparison of S. parasitica with plant pathogenic oomycetes suggests that during evolution the host cellular environment has driven distinct patterns of gene expansion and loss in the genomes of plant and animal pathogens. S. parasitica possesses one of the largest repertoires of proteases (270) among eukaryotes that are deployed in waves at different points during infection as determined from RNA-Seq data. In contrast, despite being capable of living saprotrophically, parasitism has led to loss of inorganic nitrogen and sulfur assimilation pathways, strikingly similar to losses in obligate plant pathogenic oomycetes and fungi. The large gene families that are hallmarks of plant pathogenic oomycetes such as Phytophthora appear to be lacking in S. parasitica, including those encoding RXLR effectors, Crinkler's, and Necrosis Inducing-Like Proteins (NLP). S. parasitica also has a very large kinome of 543 kinases, 10% of which is induced upon infection. Moreover, S. parasitica encodes several genes typical of animals or animal-pathogens and lacking from other oomycetes, including disintegrins and galactose-binding lectins, whose expression and evolutionary origins implicate horizontal gene transfer in the evolution of animal pathogenesis in S. parasitica. PMID:23785293

  2. Distinctive Expansion of Potential Virulence Genes in the Genome of the Oomycete Fish Pathogen Saprolegnia parasitica

    PubMed Central

    Belmonte, Rodrigo; Löbach, Lars; Christie, James; van den Ackerveken, Guido; Bottin, Arnaud; Bulone, Vincent; Díaz-Moreno, Sara M.; Dumas, Bernard; Fan, Lin; Gaulin, Elodie; Govers, Francine; Grenville-Briggs, Laura J.; Horner, Neil R.; Levin, Joshua Z.; Mammella, Marco; Meijer, Harold J. G.; Morris, Paul; Nusbaum, Chad; Oome, Stan; Phillips, Andrew J.; van Rooyen, David; Rzeszutek, Elzbieta; Saraiva, Marcia; Secombes, Chris J.; Seidl, Michael F.; Snel, Berend; Stassen, Joost H. M.; Sykes, Sean; Tripathy, Sucheta; van den Berg, Herbert; Vega-Arreguin, Julio C.; Wawra, Stephan; Young, Sarah K.; Zeng, Qiandong; Dieguez-Uribeondo, Javier; Russ, Carsten; Tyler, Brett M.; van West, Pieter

    2013-01-01

    Oomycetes in the class Saprolegniomycetidae of the Eukaryotic kingdom Stramenopila have evolved as severe pathogens of amphibians, crustaceans, fish and insects, resulting in major losses in aquaculture and damage to aquatic ecosystems. We have sequenced the 63 Mb genome of the fresh water fish pathogen, Saprolegnia parasitica. Approximately 1/3 of the assembled genome exhibits loss of heterozygosity, indicating an efficient mechanism for revealing new variation. Comparison of S. parasitica with plant pathogenic oomycetes suggests that during evolution the host cellular environment has driven distinct patterns of gene expansion and loss in the genomes of plant and animal pathogens. S. parasitica possesses one of the largest repertoires of proteases (270) among eukaryotes that are deployed in waves at different points during infection as determined from RNA-Seq data. In contrast, despite being capable of living saprotrophically, parasitism has led to loss of inorganic nitrogen and sulfur assimilation pathways, strikingly similar to losses in obligate plant pathogenic oomycetes and fungi. The large gene families that are hallmarks of plant pathogenic oomycetes such as Phytophthora appear to be lacking in S. parasitica, including those encoding RXLR effectors, Crinkler's, and Necrosis Inducing-Like Proteins (NLP). S. parasitica also has a very large kinome of 543 kinases, 10% of which is induced upon infection. Moreover, S. parasitica encodes several genes typical of animals or animal-pathogens and lacking from other oomycetes, including disintegrins and galactose-binding lectins, whose expression and evolutionary origins implicate horizontal gene transfer in the evolution of animal pathogenesis in S. parasitica. PMID:23785293

  3. Pan-Genome Analysis of Human Gastric Pathogen H. pylori: Comparative Genomics and Pathogenomics Approaches to Identify Regions Associated with Pathogenicity and Prediction of Potential Core Therapeutic Targets

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Amjad; Naz, Anam; Soares, Siomar C; Bakhtiar, Marriam; Tiwari, Sandeep; Hassan, Syed S; Hanan, Fazal; Ramos, Rommel; Pereira, Ulisses; Barh, Debmalya; Figueiredo, Henrique César Pereira; Ussery, David W.; Miyoshi, Anderson; Silva, Artur; Azevedo, Vasco

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a human gastric pathogen implicated as the major cause of peptic ulcer and second leading cause of gastric cancer (~70%) around the world. Conversely, an increased resistance to antibiotics and hindrances in the development of vaccines against H. pylori are observed. Pan-genome analyses of the global representative H. pylori isolates consisting of 39 complete genomes are presented in this paper. Phylogenetic analyses have revealed close relationships among geographically diverse strains of H. pylori. The conservation among these genomes was further analyzed by pan-genome approach; the predicted conserved gene families (1,193) constitute ~77% of the average H. pylori genome and 45% of the global gene repertoire of the species. Reverse vaccinology strategies have been adopted to identify and narrow down the potential core-immunogenic candidates. Total of 28 nonhost homolog proteins were characterized as universal therapeutic targets against H. pylori based on their functional annotation and protein-protein interaction. Finally, pathogenomics and genome plasticity analysis revealed 3 highly conserved and 2 highly variable putative pathogenicity islands in all of the H. pylori genomes been analyzed. PMID:25705648

  4. Bacteriophages with Potential for Inactivation of Fish Pathogenic Bacteria: Survival, Host Specificity and Effect on Bacterial Community Structure

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Carla; Silva, Yolanda J.; Santos, Ana L.; Cunha, Ângela; Gomes, Newton C. M.; Almeida, Adelaide

    2011-01-01

    Phage therapy may represent a viable alternative to antibiotics to inactivate fish pathogenic bacteria. Its use, however, requires the awareness of novel kinetics phenomena not applied to conventional drug treatments. The main objective of this work was to isolate bacteriophages with potential to inactivate fish pathogenic bacteria, without major effects on the structure of natural bacterial communities of aquaculture waters. The survival was determined in marine water, through quantification by the soft agar overlay technique. The host specificity was evaluated by cross infection. The ecological impact of phage addition on the structure of the bacterial community was evaluated by DGGE of PCR amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments. The survival period varied between 12 and 91 days, with a higher viability for Aeromonas salmonicida phages. The phages of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and of A. salmonicida infected bacteria of different families with a high efficacy of plating. The specific phages of pathogenic bacteria had no detectable impact on the structure of the bacterial community. In conclusion, V. parahaemolyticus and A. salmonicida phages show good survival time in marine water, have only a moderated impact on the overall bacterial community structure and the desired specificity for host pathogenic bacteria, being potential candidates for therapy of fish infectious diseases in marine aquaculture systems. PMID:22163184

  5. Evaluation of the pathogenic potential, antimicrobial susceptibility, and genomic relations of Yersinia enterocolitica strains from food and human origin.

    PubMed

    Lucero-Estrada, Cecilia S M; Soria, José Miguel; Favier, Gabriela Isabel; Escudero, María Esther

    2015-11-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is a food-borne pathogen that causes gastroenteritis with occasional postinfection sequels. This study was aimed to determinate the pathogenic potential, antimicrobial susceptibility, and genomic relationships of Y. enterocolitica strains of different bioserotypes (B/O) isolated from foods and human samples in San Luis, Argentina. Strains obtained by culture were bioserotyped and characterized by phenotypic and genotypic virulence markers, antimicrobial susceptibility, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Yersinia enterocolitica was detected in 9.2% of 380 samples, with a distribution of 10.6% (30/284) for food products and 5.2% (5/96) for human samples. Regarding the pathogenic potential, B1A strains of different serotypes were virF(-) ail(-), of which 72.0% (13/18) were ystB(+) with virulence-related phenotypic characteristics. Among B2/O:9 isolates, 75.0% (9/12) exhibited the genotype virF(+) ail(+) ystB(-) along with phenotypic traits associated with virulence; the same genotype was observed in 80.0% (4/5) of B3/O:3 and B3/O:5 strains. By PFGE, it was possible to separate Y. enterocolitica biotypes into 4 clonal groups (A to D) with 23 genomic types, generating a discriminatory index of 0.96. All isolates were susceptible to antimicrobials used for clinical treatment. This study highlights the presence of pathogenic bioserotypes and the high genomic diversity of the Y. enterocolitica strains isolated in our region. PMID:26370735

  6. Isolation and genotyping of potentially pathogenic Acanthamoeba and Naegleria species from tap-water sources in Osaka, Japan.

    PubMed

    Edagawa, Akiko; Kimura, Akio; Kawabuchi-Kurata, Takako; Kusuhara, Yasuhiro; Karanis, Panagiotis

    2009-10-01

    Here, we carried out a survey to determine the prevalence of free-living amoebae (FLA) in tap-water sources from rivers and water treatment plants located in Osaka Prefecture, Japan. A total of 374 raw water samples were collected from 113 sampling points. The samples were filtrated and transferred to non-nutrient agar plates seeded with a heat-killed suspension of Escherichia coli and incubated for 2 to 7 days at 30 degrees C or 42 degrees C. The plates were examined by microscopy to morphologically identify FLA families, and polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis were then performed to define the species of the detected Naegleria and Acanthamoeba isolates. A total of 257 of 374 samples (68.7%) were positive for FLA by microscopy, and among these there were 800 FLA isolates, including Acanthamoeba and Naegleria species. Sequence analysis identified five Acanthamoeba spp. isolates of the known pathogenic T4 genotype and 43 Naegleria australiensis isolates, a reported pathogen to mice and also of concern as a potential pathogen to humans. Our results suggest a wide distribution of FLA, including potential pathogenic species, in tap-water sources of western Japan. PMID:19565268

  7. Potential role of bacteria packaging by protozoa in the persistence and transmission of pathogenic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Denoncourt, Alix M.; Paquet, Valérie E.; Charette, Steve J.

    2014-01-01

    Many pathogenic bacteria live in close association with protozoa. These unicellular eukaryotic microorganisms are ubiquitous in various environments. A number of protozoa such as amoebae and ciliates ingest pathogenic bacteria, package them usually in membrane structures, and then release them into the environment. Packaged bacteria are more resistant to various stresses and are more apt to survive than free bacteria. New evidence indicates that protozoa and not bacteria control the packaging process. It is possible that packaging is more common than suspected and may play a major role in the persistence and transmission of pathogenic bacteria. To confirm the role of packaging in the propagation of infections, it is vital that the molecular mechanisms governing the packaging of bacteria by protozoa be identified as well as elements related to the ecology of this process in order to determine whether packaging acts as a Trojan Horse. PMID:24904553

  8. Development of two real-time multiplex PCR assays for the detection and quantification of eight key bacterial pathogens in lower respiratory tract infections

    PubMed Central

    Gadsby, N.J.; McHugh, M.P.; Russell, C.D.; Mark, H.; Conway Morris, A.; Laurenson, I.F.; Hill, A.T.; Templeton, K.E.

    2015-01-01

    The frequent lack of a positive and timely microbiological diagnosis in patients with lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) is an important obstacle to antimicrobial stewardship. Patients are typically prescribed broad-spectrum empirical antibiotics while microbiology results are awaited, but, because these are often slow, negative, or inconclusive, de-escalation to narrow-spectrum agents rarely occurs in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate two multiplex real-time PCR assays for the sensitive detection and accurate quantification of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus, Moraxella catarrhalis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii. We found that all eight bacterial targets could be reliably quantified from sputum specimens down to a concentration of 100 CFUs/reaction (8333 CFUs/mL). Furthermore, all 249 positive control isolates were correctly detected with our assay, demonstrating effectiveness on both reference strains and local clinical isolates. The specificity was 98% on a panel of nearly 100 negative control isolates. Bacterial load was quantified accurately when three bacterial targets were present in mixtures of varying concentrations, mimicking likely clinical scenarios in LRTI. Concordance with culture was 100% for culture-positive sputum specimens, and 90% for bronchoalveolar lavage fluid specimens, and additional culture-negative bacterial infections were detected and quantified. In conclusion, a quantitative molecular test for eight key bacterial causes of LRTI has the potential to provide a more sensitive decision-making tool, closer to the time-point of patient admission than current standard methods. This should facilitate de-escalation from broad-spectrum to narrow-spectrum antibiotics, substantially improving patient management and supporting efforts to curtail inappropriate antibiotic use. PMID:25980353

  9. Ralstonia solanacearum strains from Martinique (French West Indies) exhibiting a new pathogenic potential.

    PubMed

    Wicker, Emmanuel; Grassart, Laurence; Coranson-Beaudu, Régine; Mian, Danièle; Guilbaud, Caroline; Fegan, Mark; Prior, Philippe

    2007-11-01

    We investigated a destructive pathogenic variant of the plant pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum that was consistently isolated in Martinique (French West Indies). Since the 1960s, bacterial wilt of solanaceous crops in Martinique has been caused primarily by strains of R. solanacearum that belong to either phylotype I or phylotype II. Since 1999, anthurium shade houses have been dramatically affected by uncharacterized phylotype II strains that also affected a wide range of species, such as Heliconia caribea, cucurbitaceous crops, and weeds. From 1989 to 2003, a total of 224 R. solanacearum isolates were collected and compared to 6 strains isolated in Martinique in the 1980s. The genetic diversity and phylogenetic position of selected strains from Martinique were assessed (multiplex PCRs, mutS and egl DNA sequence analysis) and compared to the genetic diversity and phylogenetic position of 32 reference strains covering the known diversity within the R. solanacearum species complex. Twenty-four representative isolates were tested for pathogenicity to Musa species (banana) and tomato, eggplant, and sweet pepper. Based upon both PCR and sequence analysis, 119 Martinique isolates from anthurium, members of the family Cucurbitaceae, Heliconia, and tomato, were determined to belong to a group termed phylotype II/sequevar 4 (II/4). While these strains cluster with the Moko disease-causing strains, they were not pathogenic to banana (NPB). The strains belonging to phylotype II/4NPB were highly pathogenic to tomato, eggplant, and pepper, were able to wilt the resistant tomato variety Hawaii7996, and may latently infect cooking banana. Phylotype II/4NPB constitutes a new pathogenic variant of R. solanacearum that has recently appeared in Martinique and may be latently prevalent throughout Caribbean and Central/South America. PMID:17720825

  10. The changing landscape of respiratory syncytial virus.

    PubMed

    Polack, Fernando P

    2015-11-25

    Recognition of the acute and chronic burden of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) sparked a wave of initiatives to develop preventive and therapeutic products against the pathogen in recent years. RSV is a leading cause of hospitalization in infants in industrialized and developing countries, has been causally linked to recurrent wheezing during childhood, associated with pediatric asthma, and is an important cause of mortality in the first months of life in the developing world. Significant changes in the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and severe consequences of LRTI may emerge in the next decade with the advent of novel preventive strategies against RSV. This manuscript outlines some of these changes and discusses potential scenarios based on the current literature and experiences with other pathogens. PMID:26247900

  11. Benefits of a European Project on Diagnostics of Highly Pathogenic Agents and Assessment of Potential “Dual Use” Issues

    PubMed Central

    Grunow, Roland; Ippolito, G.; Jacob, D.; Sauer, U.; Rohleder, A.; Di Caro, A.; Iacovino, R.

    2014-01-01

    Quality assurance exercises and networking on the detection of highly infectious pathogens (QUANDHIP) is a joint action initiative set up in 2011 that has successfully unified the primary objectives of the European Network on Highly Pathogenic Bacteria (ENHPB) and of P4-laboratories (ENP4-Lab) both of which aimed to improve the efficiency, effectiveness, and response capabilities of laboratories directed at protecting the health of European citizens against high consequence bacteria and viruses of significant public health concern. Both networks have established a common collaborative consortium of 37 nationally and internationally recognized institutions with laboratory facilities from 22 European countries. The specific objectives and achievements include the initiation and establishment of a recognized and acceptable quality assurance scheme, including practical external quality assurance exercises, comprising living agents, that aims to improve laboratory performance, accuracy, and detection capabilities in support of patient management and public health responses; recognized training schemes for diagnostics and handling of highly pathogenic agents; international repositories comprising highly pathogenic bacteria and viruses for the development of standardized reference material; a standardized and transparent Biosafety and Biosecurity strategy protecting healthcare personnel and the community in dealing with high consequence pathogens; the design and organization of response capabilities dealing with cross-border events with highly infectious pathogens including the consideration of diagnostic capabilities of individual European laboratories. The project tackled several sensitive issues regarding Biosafety, Biosecurity and “dual use” concerns. The article will give an overview of the project outcomes and discuss the assessment of potential “dual use” issues. PMID:25426479

  12. Bacterial biofilm in upper respiratory tract infections.

    PubMed

    Morris, David P

    2007-05-01

    The upper respiratory tract is of easy access to pathogens, and although it has evolved a number of defensive barriers to avoid invasion, acute and chronic infections of the ears, nose, and throat are common and present a huge challenge to the healthcare system. Though most infections are viral, mild, and self-limiting, bacterial infection is responsible for considerable morbidity and has potential for life-threatening sequelae. Biofilms form when free-floating planktonic organisms adhere to a surface. Within a polymicrobial, biofilm organisms interact, exchanging metabolites, enzymes, and genetic material. The colony is protected, allowing bacteria to thrive in otherwise unfavorable conditions. A role for the biofilm in upper respiratory tract infections has been proposed because infections often run a persistent, remitting course, samples are sometimes difficult to culture, and resistance to medical management is common. This review presents recently published evidence of bacterial biofilms in established upper respiratory tract infections. PMID:17430699

  13. Potential alternative hosts for the pea powdery mildew pathogen Erysiphe trifolii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Powdery mildew of pea (Pisum sativum) is an important disease in the field and in the greenhouse. The most widely documented powdery mildew pathogen on pea is Erysiphe pisi, but E. baeumleri and E. trifolii have also been reported. We recently showed that E. trifolii is frequently found on pea in th...

  14. Potential of predatory bacteria as biocontrol agents for foodborne and plant pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foodborne pathogens such as Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Shigella are responsible for frequent occurrences of illnesses and mortality in humans and produce losses. Pre-harvest yield losses and post-harvest decay on minimally processed produce (fruits, vegetables...

  15. Rhizoctonia Resistant Wheat -- Potential New Resources for Control for Soilborne Pathogens.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pacific Northwest (PNW) wheat, barley, legume and canola varieties are susceptible to the broad host-range soilborne pathogens that cause Rhizoctonia root rot and Pythium root rot. Effective control of these diseases will likely require additional approaches and resources. We have identified promisi...

  16. Application of a multiplex immunoassay for detection of salivary antibody responses to selected potentially waterborne pathogens

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although this work was reviewed by EPA and approved for publication, it may not necessarily reflect official Agency policy. Pathogen-specific antibodies in saliva can be used as bioindicators of recent or ongoing infection. Because collection of saliva is easy and painless, i...

  17. The East Jakarta Project: surveillance for highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) and seasonal influenza viruses in patients seeking care for respiratory disease, Jakarta, Indonesia, October 2011-September 2012.

    PubMed

    Storms, A D; Kusriastuti, R; Misriyah, S; Praptiningsih, C Y; Amalya, M; Lafond, K E; Samaan, G; Triada, R; Iuliano, A D; Ester, M; Sidjabat, R; Chittenden, K; Vogel, R; Widdowson, M A; Mahoney, F; Uyeki, T M

    2015-12-01

    Indonesia has reported the most human infections with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N1) virus worldwide. We implemented enhanced surveillance in four outpatient clinics and six hospitals for HPAI H5N1 and seasonal influenza viruses in East Jakarta district to assess the public health impact of influenza in Indonesia. Epidemiological and clinical data were collected from outpatients with influenza-like illness (ILI) and hospitalized patients with severe acute respiratory infection (SARI); respiratory specimens were obtained for influenza testing by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. During October 2011-September 2012, 1131/3278 specimens from ILI cases (34·5%) and 276/1787 specimens from SARI cases (15·4%) tested positive for seasonal influenza viruses. The prevalence of influenza virus infections was highest during December-May and the proportion testing positive was 76% for ILI and 36% for SARI during their respective weeks of peak activity. No HPAI H5N1 virus infections were identified, including hundreds of ILI and SARI patients with recent poultry exposures, whereas seasonal influenza was an important contributor to acute respiratory disease in East Jakarta. Overall, 668 (47%) of influenza viruses were influenza B, 384 (27%) were A(H1N1)pdm09, and 359 (25%) were H3. While additional data over multiple years are needed, our findings suggest that seasonal influenza prevention efforts, including influenza vaccination, should target the months preceding the rainy season. PMID:25912029

  18. Carbon nanotubes as delivery systems for respiratory disease: do the dangers outweigh the potential benefits?

    PubMed

    Bonner, James C

    2011-12-01

    Nanoparticle drug-delivery systems offer the potential for improved efficacy of treatment, and yet there are also potential risks associated with these novel therapeutic strategies. An attractive property of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is that the tube- or fiber-like structure allows for extensive functionalization and loading of cargo. However, a large body of evidence indicates that CNTs may have adverse effects if used in drug delivery as they have been shown to cause pulmonary fibrosis and exacerbate lung disease in rodents with pre-existing lung diseases. Major factors that cause these toxic effects are the high aspect ratio, durability and residual metal content that generate reactive oxygen species. Therefore, careful consideration should be given to the possibility that lung inflammation or fibrosis could be significant side effects caused by a CNT-based drug-delivery system, thereby outweighing any potential beneficial effects of therapeutic treatment. However, functionalization of CNTs to modulate aspect ratio, biodegradability and to remove residual metals could allow for safe design of CNTs for use in drug delivery in certain circumstances. PMID:22082164

  19. A novel nanobody specific for respiratory surfactant protein A has potential for lung targeting

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shan-Mei; He, Xian; Li, Nan; Yu, Feng; Hu, Yang; Wang, Liu-Sheng; Zhang, Peng; Du, Yu-Kui; Du, Shan-Shan; Yin, Zhao-Fang; Wei, Ya-Ru; Mulet, Xavier; Coia, Greg; Weng, Dong; He, Jian-Hua; Wu, Min; Li, Hui-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Lung-targeting drugs are thought to be potential therapies of refractory lung diseases by maximizing local drug concentrations in the lung to avoid systemic circulation. However, a major limitation in developing lung-targeted drugs is the acquirement of lung-specific ligands. Pulmonary surfactant protein A (SPA) is predominantly synthesized by type II alveolar epithelial cells, and may serve as a potential lung-targeting ligand. Here, we generated recombinant rat pulmonary SPA (rSPA) as an antigen and immunized an alpaca to produce two nanobodies (the smallest naturally occurring antibodies) specific for rSPA, designated Nb6 and Nb17. To assess these nanobodies’ potential for lung targeting, we evaluated their specificity to lung tissue and toxicity in mice. Using immunohistochemistry, we demonstrated that these anti-rSPA nanobodies selectively bound to rat lungs with high affinity. Furthermore, we intravenously injected fluorescein isothiocyanate-Nb17 in nude mice and observed its preferential accumulation in the lung to other tissues, suggesting high affinity of the nanobody for the lung. Studying acute and chronic toxicity of Nb17 revealed its safety in rats without causing apparent histological alterations. Collectively, we have generated and characterized lung-specific nanobodies, which may be applicable for lung drug delivery. PMID:25926731

  20. Carbon nanotubes as delivery systems for respiratory disease: do the dangers outweigh the potential benefits?

    PubMed Central

    Bonner, James C

    2012-01-01

    Nanoparticle drug-delivery systems offer the potential for improved efficacy of treatment, and yet there are also potential risks associated with these novel therapeutic strategies. An attractive property of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is that the tube- or fiber-like structure allows for extensive functionalization and loading of cargo. However, a large body of evidence indicates that CNTs may have adverse effects if used in drug delivery as they have been shown to cause pulmonary fibrosis and exacerbate lung disease in rodents with pre-existing lung diseases. Major factors that cause these toxic effects are the high aspect ratio, durability and residual metal content that generate reactive oxygen species. Therefore, careful consideration should be given to the possibility that lung inflammation or fibrosis could be significant side effects caused by a CNT-based drug-delivery system, thereby outweighing any potential beneficial effects of therapeutic treatment. However, functionalization of CNTs to modulate aspect ratio, biodegradability and to remove residual metals could allow for safe design of CNTs for use in drug delivery in certain circumstances. PMID:22082164

  1. The bryophyte genus Sphagnum is a reservoir for powerful and extraordinary antagonists and potentially facultative human pathogens.

    PubMed

    Opelt, Katja; Berg, Christian; Berg, Gabriele

    2007-07-01

    Sphagnum plants grow in natural, species-poor carpets at low pH but without any known substantial fungal disease. To investigate this phenomenon, we analysed bacterial populations associated with two Sphagnum species with different ecological behaviour, namely S. magellanicum and S. fallax, from three sites in Germany and three in Norway, with a special focus on the functional group of antagonists. The screening of 493 bacterial isolates for antagonistic activity against fungal pathogens resulted in 237 (48%) active isolates. We found a higher proportion of antagonists for S. magellanicum (24%) than we did for S. fallax (19%) in general. The majority of the antagonists belonged to the genera Serratia (15%), Burkholderia (13.5%), Staphylococcus (13.5%), and Pseudomonas (10%). In contrast to the high moss specificity found for antagonistic bacteria, Burkholderia as well as Serratia isolates with highly similar molecular fingerprints as ascertained by BOX-PCR for both Sphagnum species were found. Interestingly, a high proportion of antagonists, for example Staphylococcus, Hafnia, Yersinia, and Pantoea, were identified as strains that are known as facultative pathogens of humans. Sphagnum plants represent an ecological niche not only for diverse and extraordinary microbial populations with a high potential for biological control of plant pathogens but also for opportunistic human pathogens. PMID:17484734

  2. Pathogen-pathogen interaction

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    There is growing awareness of the health implications of the fact that infectious agents often do not act independently; rather their disease potential is mediated in diverse and significant ways by their relationships with other pathogens. Pathogen-pathogen interaction (PPI), for example, impacts various virulence factors in human infection. Although still in its infancy, the study of PPI, a form of epidemiological synergism, is emerging as an important arena of new research and new understanding in health and clinical care. The aims of this paper are to: (1) draw attention to the role of PPI in human disease patterns; (2) present the syndemics model as a biosocial approach for examining the nature, pathways, contexts, and health implications of PPI and (3) suggest the utility of this approach to PPI. Toward these ends, this paper (a) reviews three case examples of alternative PPIs, (b) describes the development and key concepts and components of the syndemics model with specific reference to interacting infectious agents, (c) contextualizes this discussion with a brief review of broader syndemics disease processes (not necessarily involving infections disease) and (d) comments on the research, treatment and prevention implications of syndemic interaction among pathogens. PMID:21178409

  3. Prospective Associations between Emotion Dysregulation and Fear-Potentiated Startle: The Moderating Effect of Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia

    PubMed Central

    Seligowski, Antonia V.; Lee, Daniel J.; Miron, Lynsey R.; Orcutt, Holly K.; Jovanovic, Tanja; Norrholm, Seth D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Emotion dysregulation has been implicated in the negative outcomes following trauma exposure. A proposed biomarker of emotion dysregulation, respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), has demonstrated associations with trauma-related phenomena, such as the fear-potentiated startle (FPS) response. The current study aimed to examine the prospective association between emotion dysregulation and RSA and FPS several years following trauma exposure. Methods: Participants were 131 women exposed to a campus mass shooting on February 14, 2008. Pre-shooting emotion dysregulation was assessed in 2006–2008. Startle response, measured by orbicularis oculi electromyography (EMG), and RSA were gathered during an FPS paradigm conducted from 2012 to 2015. Results: No significant associations among emotion dysregulation, RSA, and FPS emerged among the full sample. However, emotion dysregulation predicted FPS during both acquisition (r = 0.40, p < 0.05) and extinction (r = 0.57, p < 0.01) among individuals with high resting RSA. Conclusions: Findings suggest that pre-shooting emotion dysregulation is a potent predictor of FPS several years following potential trauma exposure, and this association varies by RSA level. Results emphasize the importance of examining autonomic regulation in the association between emotion dysregulation and recovery from trauma exposure. PMID:27199871

  4. The kinetics of white blood cell counts during vaccination against bovine respiratory disease pathogens and their correlations with lung lesions, diagnosis and average daily gain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD) is the most common disease within US feedlots. Infection can result in morbidity, mortality and reduced average daily gain. The discovery of cheap and reliable methods of prediction and/or protection would be highly advantageous to both breeders and farmers. Cattle (...

  5. A framework to gauge the epidemic potential of plant pathogens in environmental reservoirs: the example of kiwifruit canker.

    PubMed

    Bartoli, Claudia; Lamichhane, Jay Ram; Berge, Odile; Guilbaud, Caroline; Varvaro, Leonardo; Balestra, Giorgio M; Vinatzer, Boris A; Morris, Cindy E

    2015-02-01

    New economically important diseases on crops and forest trees emerge recurrently. An understanding of where new pathogenic lines come from and how they evolve is fundamental for the deployment of accurate surveillance methods. We used kiwifruit bacterial canker as a model to assess the importance of potential reservoirs of new pathogenic lineages. The current kiwifruit canker epidemic is at least the fourth outbreak of the disease on kiwifruit caused by Pseudomonas syringae in the mere 50 years in which this crop has been cultivated worldwide, with each outbreak being caused by different genetic lines of the bacterium. Here, we ask whether strains in natural (non-agricultural) environments could cause future epidemics of canker on kiwifruit. To answer this question, we evaluated the pathogenicity, endophytic colonization capacity and competitiveness on kiwifruit of P. syringae strains genetically similar to epidemic strains and originally isolated from aquatic and subalpine habitats. All environmental strains possessing an operon involved in the degradation of aromatic compounds via the catechol pathway grew endophytically and caused symptoms in kiwifruit vascular tissue. Environmental and epidemic strains showed a wide host range, revealing their potential as future pathogens of a variety of hosts. Environmental strains co-existed endophytically with CFBP 7286, an epidemic strain, and shared about 20 virulence genes, but were missing six virulence genes found in all epidemic strains. By identifying the specific gene content in genetic backgrounds similar to known epidemic strains, we developed criteria to assess the epidemic potential and to survey for such strains as a means of forecasting and managing disease emergence. PMID:24986268

  6. Assessment of oligogalacturonide from citrus pectin as a potential antibacterial agent against foodborne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ming-Chang; Li, Hui-chin; Wu, Po-Hua; Huang, Ping-Hsiu; Wang, Yuh-Tai

    2014-08-01

    Foodborne diseases are an important public health problem in the world. The bacterial resistance against presently used antibiotics is becoming a public health issue; hence, the discovery of new antimicrobial agents from natural sources attracts a lot of attention. Antibacterial activities of oligogalacturonide from commercial microbial pectic enzyme (CPE) treated citrus pectin, which exhibits antioxidant and antitumor activities, against 4 foodborne pathogens including Salmonella Typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was assessed. Pectin hydrolysates from CPE hydrolysis exhibited antibacterial activities. However, no antibacterial activity of pectin was observed. Citrus oligogalacturonide from 24-h hydrolysis exhibited bactericidal effect against all selected foodborne pathogens and displayed minimal inhibitory concentration at 37.5 μg/mL for P. aeruginosa, L. monocytogenes, and S. Typhimurium, and at 150.0 μg/mL for S. aureus. PMID:25048440

  7. Achromobacter respiratory infections.

    PubMed

    Swenson, Colin E; Sadikot, Ruxana T

    2015-02-01

    Achromobacteria are ubiquitous environmental organisms that may also become opportunistic pathogens in certain conditions, such as cystic fibrosis, hematologic and solid organ malignancies, renal failure, and certain immune deficiencies. Some members of this genus, such as xylosoxidans, cause primarily nosocomially acquired infections affecting multiple organ systems, including the respiratory tract, urinary tract, and, less commonly, the cardiovascular and central nervous systems. Despite an increasing number of published case reports and literature reviews suggesting a global increase in achromobacterial disease, most clinicians remain uncertain of the organism's significance when clinically isolated. Moreover, effective treatment can be challenging due to the organism's inherent and acquired multidrug resistance patterns. We reviewed all published cases to date of non-cystic fibrosis achromobacterial lung infections to better understand the organism's pathogenic potential and drug susceptibilities. We found that the majority of these cases were community acquired, typically presenting as pneumonias (88%), and were most frequent in individuals with hematologic and solid organ malignancies. Our findings also suggest that achromobacterial lung infections are difficult to treat, but respond well to extended-spectrum penicillins and cephalosporins, such as ticarcillin, piperacillin, and cefoperazone. PMID:25706494

  8. The anti-biofilm potential of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) extract against human bacterial and fungal pathogens.

    PubMed

    Bakkiyaraj, Dhamodharan; Nandhini, Janarthanam Rathna; Malathy, Balakumar; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha

    2013-09-01

    Infectious diseases caused by bacteria and fungi are the major cause of morbidity and mortality across the globe. Multi-drug resistance in these pathogens augments the complexity and severity of the diseases. Various studies have shown the role of biofilms in multi-drug resistance, where the pathogen resides inside a protective coat made of extracellular polymeric substances. Since biofilms directly influence the virulence and pathogenicity of a pathogen, it is optimal to employ a strategy that effectively inhibits the formation of biofilm. Pomegranate is a common food and is also used traditionally to treat various ailments. This study assessed the anti-biofilm activity of a methanolic extract of pomegranate against bacterial and fungal pathogens. Methanolic extract of pomegranate was shown to inhibit the formation of biofilms by Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin resistant S. aureus, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans. Apart from inhibiting the formation of biofilm, pomegranate extract disrupted pre-formed biofilms and inhibited germ tube formation, a virulence trait, in C. albicans. Characterization of the methanolic extract of pomegranate revealed the presence of ellagic acid (2,3,7,8-tetrahydroxy-chromeno[5,4,3-cde]chromene-5,10-dione) as the major component. Ellagic acid is a bioactive tannin known for its antioxidant, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory properties. Further studies revealed the ability of ellagic acid to inhibit the growth of all species in suspension at higher concentrations (>75 μg ml(-1)) and biofilm formation at lower concentrations (<40 μg ml(-1)) which warrants further investigation of the potential of ellagic acid or peel powders of pomegranate for the treatment of human ailments. PMID:23906229

  9. Antagonistic Potential of Native Trichoderma viride Strain against Potent Tea Fungal Pathogens in North East India.

    PubMed

    Naglot, A; Goswami, S; Rahman, I; Shrimali, D D; Yadav, Kamlesh K; Gupta, Vikas K; Rabha, Aprana Jyoti; Gogoi, H K; Veer, Vijay

    2015-09-01

    Indigenous strains of Trichoderma species isolated from rhizosphere soils of Tea gardens of Assam, north eastern state of India were assessed for in vitro antagonism against two important tea fungal pathogens namely Pestalotia theae and Fusarium solani. A potent antagonist against both tea pathogenic fungi, designated as SDRLIN1, was selected and identified as Trichoderma viride. The strain also showed substantial antifungal activity against five standard phytopathogenic fungi. Culture filtrate collected from stationary growth phase of the antagonist demonstrated a significantly higher degree of inhibitory activity against all the test fungi, demonstrating the presence of an optimal blend of extracellular antifungal metabolites. Moreover, quantitative enzyme assay of exponential and stationary culture filtrates revealed that the activity of cellulase, β-1,3-glucanase, pectinase, and amylase was highest in the exponential phase, whereas the activity of proteases and chitinase was noted highest in the stationary phase. Morphological changes such as hyphal swelling and distortion were also observed in the fungal pathogen grown on potato dextrose agar containing stationary phase culture filtrate. Moreover, the antifungal activity of the filtrate was significantly reduced but not entirely after heat or proteinase K treatment, demonstrating substantial role of certain unknown thermostable antifungal compound(s) in the inhibitory activity. PMID:26361476

  10. Antagonistic Potential of Native Trichoderma viride Strain against Potent Tea Fungal Pathogens in North East India

    PubMed Central

    Naglot, A.; Goswami, S.; Rahman, I.; Shrimali, D. D.; Yadav, Kamlesh K.; Gupta, Vikas K.; Rabha, Aprana Jyoti; Gogoi, H. K.; Veer, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    Indigenous strains of Trichoderma species isolated from rhizosphere soils of Tea gardens of Assam, north eastern state of India were assessed for in vitro antagonism against two important tea fungal pathogens namely Pestalotia theae and Fusarium solani. A potent antagonist against both tea pathogenic fungi, designated as SDRLIN1, was selected and identified as Trichoderma viride. The strain also showed substantial antifungal activity against five standard phytopathogenic fungi. Culture filtrate collected from stationary growth phase of the antagonist demonstrated a significantly higher degree of inhibitory activity against all the test fungi, demonstrating the presence of an optimal blend of extracellular antifungal metabolites. Moreover, quantitative enzyme assay of exponential and stationary culture filtrates revealed that the activity of cellulase, β-1,3-glucanase, pectinase, and amylase was highest in the exponential phase, whereas the activity of proteases and chitinase was noted highest in the stationary phase. Morphological changes such as hyphal swelling and distortion were also observed in the fungal pathogen grown on potato dextrose agar containing stationary phase culture filtrate. Moreover, the antifungal activity of the filtrate was significantly reduced but not entirely after heat or proteinase K treatment, demonstrating substantial role of certain unknown thermostable antifungal compound(s) in the inhibitory activity. PMID:26361476

  11. A Novel Bacterial Pathogen of Biomphalaria glabrata: A Potential Weapon for Schistosomiasis Control?

    PubMed Central

    Duval, David; Galinier, Richard; Mouahid, Gabriel; Toulza, Eve; Allienne, Jean François; Portela, Julien; Calvayrac, Christophe; Rognon, Anne; Arancibia, Nathalie; Mitta, Guillaume; Théron, André; Gourbal, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis is the second-most widespread tropical parasitic disease after malaria. Various research strategies and treatment programs for achieving the objective of eradicating schistosomiasis within a decade have been recommended and supported by the World Health Organization. One of these approaches is based on the control of snail vectors in endemic areas. Previous field studies have shown that competitor or predator introduction can reduce snail numbers, but no systematic investigation has ever been conducted to identify snail microbial pathogens and evaluate their molluscicidal effects. Methodology/Principal findings In populations of Biomphalaria glabrata snails experiencing high mortalities, white nodules were visible on snail bodies. Infectious agents were isolated from such nodules. Only one type of bacteria, identified as a new species of Paenibacillus named Candidatus Paenibacillus glabratella, was found, and was shown to be closely related to P. alvei through 16S and Rpob DNA analysis. Histopathological examination showed extensive bacterial infiltration leading to overall tissue disorganization. Exposure of healthy snails to Paenibacillus-infected snails caused massive mortality. Moreover, eggs laid by infected snails were also infected, decreasing hatching but without apparent effects on spawning. Embryonic lethality was correlated with the presence of pathogenic bacteria in eggs. Conclusions/Significance This is the first account of a novel Paenibacillus strain, Ca. Paenibacillus glabratella, as a snail microbial pathogen. Since this strain affects both adult and embryonic stages and causes significant mortality, it may hold promise as a biocontrol agent to limit schistosomiasis transmission in the field. PMID:25719489

  12. Serologic survey for potential pathogens and assessment of disease risk in Australian fur seals.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Michael; Nielsen, Ole; Duignan, Pádraig J; Kirkwood, Roger; Hoskins, Andrew; Arnould, John P Y

    2011-07-01

    The introduction of pathogens into populations of animals with no previous exposure to them and, therefore, no immunologic protection, can result in epizootics. Predicting the susceptibility of populations to infectious diseases is crucial for their conservation and management. Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) have a relatively small population size, a restricted range, and form dense aggregations. These factors make this species vulnerable to epizootics of infectious diseases that spread by direct animal-to-animal contact. Blood samples were collected from 125 adult female Australian fur seals between 2007 and 2009 and tested for exposure to selected pathogens. The testing protocol was based on pathogens important to marine mammal health or those significant to public and livestock health. No antibodies were detected to morbilliviruses, influenza A viruses, six Leptospira serovars, Mycobacterium tuberculosis-complex species, or Toxoplasma gondii. Overall antibody prevalence to an unidentified Brucella sp. was 57% but varied significantly (P<0.02) between 2007 (74%) and 2008 (53%). The findings indicate Brucella infection may be enzootic in the Australian fur seal population. Further investigations are required to isolate the bacteria and establish if infection results in morbidity and mortality. Australian fur seals remain vulnerable to the threat of introduced disease and should be managed and monitored accordingly. PMID:21719820

  13. Immunodominant antigens in Naegleria fowleri excretory--secretory proteins were potential pathogenic factors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-Hyun; Yang, Ae-Hee; Sohn, Hae-Jin; Kim, Daesik; Song, Kyoung-Ju; Shin, Ho-Joon

    2009-11-01

    Naegleria fowleri, a ubiquitous pathogenic free-living amoeba, is the most virulent species and causes primary amoebic meningoencephalitis in laboratory animals and humans. The parasite secretes various inducing molecules as biological responses, which are thought to be involved in pathophysiological and immunological events during infection. To investigate what molecules of N. fowleri excretory-secretory proteins (ESPs) are related with amoebic pathogenicity, N. fowleri ESPs fractionated by two-dimensional electrophoresis were reacted with N. fowleri infection or immune sera. To identify immunodominant ESPs, six major protein spots were selected and analyzed by N-terminal sequencing. Finally, six proteins, 58, 40, 24, 21, 18, and 16 kDa of molecular weight, were partially cloned and matched with reference proteins as follow: 58 kDa of exendin-3 precursor, 40 kDa of secretory lipase, 24 kDa of cathepsin B-like proteases and cysteine protease, 21 kDa of cathepsin B, 18 kDa of peroxiredoxin, and 16 kDa of thrombin receptor, respectively. These results suggest that N. fowleri ESPs contained important proteins, which may play an important role in the pathogenicity of N. fowleri. PMID:19756751

  14. Saprophytic and Potentially Pathogenic Fusarium Species from Peat Soil in Perak and Pahang.

    PubMed

    Karim, Nurul Farah Abdul; Mohd, Masratulhawa; Nor, Nik Mohd Izham Mohd; Zakaria, Latiffah

    2016-02-01

    Isolates of Fusarium were discovered in peat soil samples collected from peat swamp forest, waterlogged peat soil, and peat soil from oil palm plantations. Morphological characteristics were used to tentatively identify the isolates, and species confirmation was based on the sequence of translation elongation factor-1α (TEF-1α) and phylogenetic analysis. Based on the closest match of Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) searches against the GenBank and Fusarium-ID databases, five Fusarium species were identified, namely F. oxysporum (60%), F. solani (23%), F. proliferatum (14%), F. semitectum (1%), and F. verticillioides (1%). From a neighbour-joining tree of combined TEF-1α and β-tubulin sequences, isolates from the same species were clustered in the same clade, though intraspecies variations were observed from the phylogenetic analysis. The Fusarium species isolated in the present study are soil inhabitants and are widely distributed worldwide. These species can act as saprophytes and decomposers as well as plant pathogens. The presence of Fusarium species in peat soils suggested that peat soils could be a reservoir of plant pathogens, as well-known plant pathogenic species such F. oxysporum, F. solani, F. proliferatum, and F. verticillioides were identified. The results of the present study provide knowledge on the survival and distribution of Fusarium species. PMID:27019679

  15. The Key Events Dose-Response Framework: Its Potential for Application to Foodborne Pathogenic Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    BUCHANAN, ROBERT L.; HAVELAAR, ARIE H.; SMITH, MARY ALICE; WHITING, RICHARD C.; JULIEN, ELIZABETH

    2009-01-01

    The Key Events Dose-Response Framework (KEDRF) is an analytical approach that facilitates the use of currently available data to gain insight regarding dose-response relationships. The use of the KEDRF also helps identify critical knowledge gaps that once filled, will reduce reliance on assumptions. The present study considers how the KEDRF might be applied to pathogenic microorganisms, using fetal listeriosis resulting from maternal ingestion of food contaminated with L. monocytogenes as an initial example. Major biological events along the pathway between food ingestion and the endpoint of concern are systematically considered with regard to dose (i.e., number of organisms), pathogen factors (e.g., virulence), and protective host mechanisms (e.g., immune response or other homeostatic mechanisms). It is concluded that the KEDRF provides a useful structure for systematically evaluating the complex array of host and pathogen factors that influence the dose-response relationship. In particular, the KEDRF supports efforts to specify and quantify the sources of variability, a prerequisite to strengthening the scientific basis for food safety decision making. PMID:19690997

  16. Saprophytic and Potentially Pathogenic Fusarium Species from Peat Soil in Perak and Pahang

    PubMed Central

    Karim, Nurul Farah Abdul; Mohd, Masratulhawa; Nor, Nik Mohd Izham Mohd; Zakaria, Latiffah

    2016-01-01

    Isolates of Fusarium were discovered in peat soil samples collected from peat swamp forest, waterlogged peat soil, and peat soil from oil palm plantations. Morphological characteristics were used to tentatively identify the isolates, and species confirmation was based on the sequence of translation elongation factor-1α (TEF-1α) and phylogenetic analysis. Based on the closest match of Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) searches against the GenBank and Fusarium-ID databases, five Fusarium species were identified, namely F. oxysporum (60%), F. solani (23%), F. proliferatum (14%), F. semitectum (1%), and F. verticillioides (1%). From a neighbour-joining tree of combined TEF-1α and β-tubulin sequences, isolates from the same species were clustered in the same clade, though intraspecies variations were observed from the phylogenetic analysis. The Fusarium species isolated in the present study are soil inhabitants and are widely distributed worldwide. These species can act as saprophytes and decomposers as well as plant pathogens. The presence of Fusarium species in peat soils suggested that peat soils could be a reservoir of plant pathogens, as well-known plant pathogenic species such F. oxysporum, F. solani, F. proliferatum, and F. verticillioides were identified. The results of the present study provide knowledge on the survival and distribution of Fusarium species. PMID:27019679

  17. Potential Role of Pathogen Signaling in Multitrophic Plant-Microbe Interactions Involved in Disease Protection

    PubMed Central

    Duffy, Brion; Keel, Christoph; Défago, Geneviève

    2004-01-01

    Multitrophic interactions mediate the ability of fungal pathogens to cause plant disease and the ability of bacterial antagonists to suppress disease. Antibiotic production by antagonists, which contributes to disease suppression, is known to be modulated by abiotic and host plant environmental conditions. Here, we demonstrate that a pathogen metabolite functions as a negative signal for bacterial antibiotic biosynthesis, which can determine the relative importance of biological control mechanisms available to antagonists and which may also influence fungus-bacterium ecological interactions. We found that production of the polyketide antibiotic 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG) was the primary biocontrol mechanism of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain Q2-87 against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici on the tomato as determined with mutational analysis. In contrast, DAPG was not important for the less-disease-suppressive strain CHA0. This was explained by differential sensitivity of the bacteria to fusaric acid, a pathogen phyto- and mycotoxin that specifically blocked DAPG biosynthesis in strain CHA0 but not in strain Q2-87. In CHA0, hydrogen cyanide, a biocide not repressed by fusaric acid, played a more important role in disease suppression. PMID:15006813

  18. Microbial communities present in the lower respiratory tract of clinically healthy birds in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Shabbir, Muhammad Zubair; Malys, Tyler; Ivanov, Yury V; Park, Jihye; Shabbir, Muhammad Abu Bakr; Rabbani, Masood; Yaqub, Tahir; Harvill, Eric Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Commercial poultry is an important agricultural industry worldwide. Although dense living conditions and large flocks increase meat and egg production, they also increase the risk of disease outbreaks and zoonoses. Current pathogen identification methods mostly rely on culture-dependent techniques and, therefore, are limited to a very small number of bacteria present in the environment. Next Generation Sequencing allows for culture-independent characterization of lower respiratory microbiome of birds including the identification of novel commensals and potentially emerging pathogens. In this study, we collected tracheo-bronchoalveolar lavage of 14 birds raised at 3 different farms in the Punjab province of Pakistan. To characterize the lower respiratory microbiome of these birds, we sequenced hyper-variable regions of the 16S ribosomal subunit gene. Although dominated by bacteria belonging to a small number of taxonomic classifications, the lower respiratory microbiome from each farm was far more diverse and novel than previously known. The differences in microbiome among farms suggest that inter-farm differences affect the microbiome of birds more than breed, geographic location, or management system. The presence of potential and known pathogens in genetically similar specialty breeds of chickens kept at unnaturally high densities and under variable conditions presents an extraordinary opportunity for the selection of highly pathogenic bacteria. In some instances, opportunistic respiratory pathogens were observed in apparently healthy birds. Understanding and monitoring the respiratory microbiome of such populations may allow the early detection of future disease threats. PMID:25667427

  19. [(15)N(2)]arginine as a first potential inhaled diagnostic agent to characterize respiratory diseases.

    PubMed

    Krumbiegel, P; Denk, E; Russow, R; Rolle-Kampczyk, U; Metzner, G; Herbarth, O

    2002-01-01

    Conventional diagnosis of the pulmonary tract uses physical methods such as spirometry and oscillometry. However, the inhalation of a chemical diagnostic agent ought to provide novel ways of more specific diagnosis, for instance of inflammatory states of the bronchial and lung mucosa. The stable isotope technique using a (15)N-labeled substrate appears to be a suitable tool for this application. In a pilot study, defined amounts of the amino acid L-[guanidino-(15)N(2)]arginine monohydrochloride (aqueous solution, 20 atom % (15)N) were inhaled as a diagnostic agent by healthy volunteers and pulmonary patients suffering from asthma bronchiale. The amino acid is resorbed and partly metabolized to (15)NO. The exhaled air was collected under defined conditions in 10-L breath bags and analyzed for NO using chemiluminescence. Under standardized test conditions, healthy persons (n = 6) exhaled 0.97 +/- 0.08 micromol NO/m(3) and asthmatic patients (n = 7) 1.17 +/- 0.14 micromol NO/m(3). A better distinction was expected comparing the (15)NO exhalation. The (15)N abundance of NO was determined using a Cryotrap gas chromatography - mass spectrometry set-up. Between 30 and 80 minutes after inhaling 700 mg [(15)N]arginine, a maximum with a plateau of the (15)NO abundance was found in the exhaled air. At this time, healthy and asthmatic subjects exhibited clear differences in their exhaled (15)NO amounts. Under standardized test conditions, the healthy persons (n = 6) exhaled 102.3 +/- 6.7 nmol (15)NO/m(3), whereas asthmatic patients (n = 7) exhaled only 76.1 +/- 10.9 nmol (15)NO/m(3). It is concluded that (15)NO yielded after the inhalation of (15)N-labeled arginine could be a potential marker for demonstrating pathophysiological changes in the lung epithelium. This method could pave a new diagnostic principle of "inhalative breath test." PMID:12396247

  20. Infectious pathogens potentially transmitted by semen of the black variety of the Manchega sheep breed: Health constraints for conservation purposes.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; González-Barrio, David; Aguilar-Ríos, Fernando; Soler, Ana J; Garde, José Julián; Gortázar, Christian; Fernández-Santos, María Del Rocío

    2014-10-01

    Conservation of genetic resources from endangered breeds may be conducted through germinal banks. Preservation of healthy samples is paramount to avoid preserving pathogens shed with germinal products. The black variety of Manchega sheep (BMS), and endangered breed endemic to south-central Spain, is the subject of a conservation program; a germinal bank has been recently established. However, several pathogens circulating in BMS flocks may be shed with semen and threaten BMS preservation. Therefore, we investigated the sanitary status of BMS flocks and semen samples from 4 of the 17 flocks in which this variety is bred worldwide. A serological screening for Maedi-Visna virus, bluetongue virus, Pestivirus spp., Brucella spp., Coxiella burnetii, Chlamydophila spp., Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis, Anaplasma spp., Mycoplasma agalactiae, Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum was performed to assess for pathogens potentially shed by semen. Semen samples from 11 of the 35 BMS rams and 4 samples from coexisting rams of the white variety (WMS) were analyzed by PCR to detect Maedi-Visna virus, C. burnetii, Anaplasma marginale, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and T. gondii. Maedi-Visna virus RNA was detected in 3 semen samples (2 BMS and 1 WMS) while C. burnetii DNA was detected in 3 samples from WMS rams. Pathogens that can be transmitted by semen were present in BMS flocks, and Maedi-Visna virus and C. burnetii showed the highest potential for transmission by artificial insemination. Our results point to the need of testing semen samples kept for conservation purposes of BMS before using them for artificial insemination. PMID:25066603

  1. Respiratory allergenic potential of plant-derived proteins: Understanding the relationship between exposure and potency for risk assessments.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, Karen; N'jai, Alhaji U; Dearman, Rebecca J; Kimber, Ian; Gerberick, G Frank

    2015-01-01

    Botanical ingredients (ingredients derived from plants) are finding increasing application in personal care products and the public perceives these ingredients to be safe. However, some proteins in botanicals have the potential to cause immediate-type (IgE-mediated) respiratory allergic reactions. Although reports of such reactions are uncommon, when they do occur, they can be severe. Experience with soap containing wheat proteins illustrated that under certain specific conditions, consumers may be affected. Establishing safe exposure levels for botanical proteins has been challenging. Industrial enzymes provide a rich reference dataset based on their historical association with allergic reactions among workers, which includes robust dose-response information. In the absence of similar data on the potency of plant proteins, a conservative default approach has historically been applied based on information derived from allergenic enzymes. In this article we review the historical default approach and dataset for setting limits for plant proteins in botanical ingredients based on analogy to industrial enzymes followed by a synthesis of literature data on allergic reactions following inhalation exposure to plant-derived proteins. The aim is to share relevant background information and display the relationship between exposure and potency as a first step in the development of a strategy for the development of an improved approach to support the risk assessment of plant-derived proteins. PMID:26565768

  2. Adaptive Potential of Maritime Pine (Pinus pinaster) Populations to the Emerging Pitch Canker Pathogen, Fusarium circinatum

    PubMed Central

    Elvira-Recuenco, Margarita; Iturritxa, Eugenia; Majada, Juan; Alia, Ricardo; Raposo, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    There is a concern on how emerging pests and diseases will affect the distribution range and adaptability of their host species, especially due to different conditions derived from climate change and growing globalization. Fusarium circinatum, which causes pitch canker disease in Pinus species, is an exotic pathogen of recent introduction in Spain that threatens its maritime pine (P. pinaster) stands. To predict the impact this disease will have on the species, we examine host resistance traits and their genetic architecture. Resistance phenotyping was done in a clonal provenance/progeny trial, using three-year-old cuttings artificially inoculated with the pathogen and maintained under controlled environmental conditions. A total number of 670 ramets were assessed, distributed in 10 populations, with a total of 47 families, 2 to 5 half-sibs per family, and 3–7 ramets per clone. High genetic variation was found at the three hierarchical levels studied: population, family and clone, being both additive and non-additive effects important. Narrow-sense and broad-sense heritability estimates were relatively high, with respective values of 0.43–0.58 and 0.51–0.8, depending on the resistance traits measured (lesion length, lesion length rate, time to wilting, and survival). These values suggest the species' high capacity of evolutionary response to the F. circinatum pathogen. A population originated in Northern Spain was the most resistant, while another from Morocco was the most susceptible. The total number of plants that did not show lesion development or presented a small lesion (length<30 mm) was 224 out of 670, indicating a high proportion of resistant trees in the offspring within the analyzed populations. We found large differences among populations and considerable genetic variation within populations, which should allow, through natural or artificial selection, the successful adaptation of maritime pine to pitch canker disease. PMID:25500822

  3. Adaptive potential of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) populations to the emerging pitch canker pathogen, Fusarium circinatum.

    PubMed

    Elvira-Recuenco, Margarita; Iturritxa, Eugenia; Majada, Juan; Alia, Ricardo; Raposo, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    There is a concern on how emerging pests and diseases will affect the distribution range and adaptability of their host species, especially due to different conditions derived from climate change and growing globalization. Fusarium circinatum, which causes pitch canker disease in Pinus species, is an exotic pathogen of recent introduction in Spain that threatens its maritime pine (P. pinaster) stands. To predict the impact this disease will have on the species, we examine host resistance traits and their genetic architecture. Resistance phenotyping was done in a clonal provenance/progeny trial, using three-year-old cuttings artificially inoculated with the pathogen and maintained under controlled environmental conditions. A total number of 670 ramets were assessed, distributed in 10 populations, with a total of 47 families, 2 to 5 half-sibs per family, and 3-7 ramets per clone. High genetic variation was found at the three hierarchical levels studied: population, family and clone, being both additive and non-additive effects important. Narrow-sense and broad-sense heritability estimates were relatively high, with respective values of 0.43-0.58 and 0.51-0.8, depending on the resistance traits measured (lesion length, lesion length rate, time to wilting, and survival). These values suggest the species' high capacity of evolutionary response to the F. circinatum pathogen. A population originated in Northern Spain was the most resistant, while another from Morocco was the most susceptible. The total number of plants that did not show lesion development or presented a small lesion (length<30 mm) was 224 out of 670, indicating a high proportion of resistant trees in the offspring within the analyzed populations. We found large differences among populations and considerable genetic variation within populations, which should allow, through natural or artificial selection, the successful adaptation of maritime pine to pitch canker disease. PMID:25500822

  4. Regrowth of Potential Opportunistic Pathogens and Algae in Reclaimed-Water Distribution Systems ?

    PubMed Central

    Jjemba, Patrick K.; Weinrich, Lauren A.; Cheng, Wei; Giraldo, Eugenio; LeChevallier, Mark W.

    2010-01-01

    A study of the quality of reclaimed water in treated effluent, after storage, and at three points in the distribution system of four plants in California, Florida, Massachusetts, and New York was conducted for 1 year. The plants had different treatment processes (conventional versus membrane bioreactor), production capacities, and methods for storage of the water, and the intended end uses of the water were different. The analysis focused on the occurrence of indicator bacteria (heterotrophic bacteria, coliforms, Escherichia coli, and enterococci) and opportunistic pathogens (Aeromonas spp., enteropathogenic E. coli O157:H7, Legionella spp., Mycobacterium spp., and Pseudomonas spp.), as well as algae. Using immunological methods, E. coli O157:H7 was detected in the effluent of only one system, but it was not detected at the sampling points, suggesting that its survival in the system was poor. Although all of the treatment systems effectively reduced the levels of bacteria in the effluent, bacteria regrew in the reservoir and distribution systems because of the loss of residual disinfectant and high assimilable organic carbon levels. In the systems with open reservoirs, algal growth reduced the water quality by increasing the turbidity and accumulating at the end of the distribution system. Opportunistic pathogens, notably Aeromonas, Legionella, Mycobacterium, and Pseudomonas, occurred more frequently than indicator bacteria (enterococci, coliforms, and E. coli). The Mycobacterium spp. were very diverse and occurred most frequently in membrane bioreactor systems, and Mycobacterium cookii was identified more often than the other species. The public health risk associated with these opportunistic pathogens in reclaimed water is unknown. Collectively, our results show the need to develop best management practices for reclaimed water to control bacterial regrowth and degradation of water before it is utilized at the point of use. PMID:20453149

  5. Viral and Bacterial Interactions in the Upper Respiratory Tract

    PubMed Central

    Bosch, Astrid A. T. M.; Biesbroek, Giske; Trzcinski, Krzysztof; Sanders, Elisabeth A. M.; Bogaert, Debby

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory infectious diseases are mainly caused by viruses or bacteria that often interact with one another. Although their presence is a prerequisite for subsequent infections, viruses and bacteria may be present in the nasopharynx without causing any respiratory symptoms. The upper respiratory tract hosts a vast range of commensals and potential pathogenic bacteria, which form a complex microbial community. This community is assumed to be constantly subject to synergistic and competitive interspecies interactions. Disturbances in the equilibrium, for instance due to the acquisition of new bacteria or viruses, may lead to overgrowth and invasion. A better understanding of the dynamics between commensals and pathogens in the upper respiratory tract may provide better insight into the pathogenesis of respiratory diseases. Here we review the current knowledge regarding specific bacterial–bacterial and viral–bacterial interactions that occur in the upper respiratory niche, and discuss mechanisms by which these interactions might be mediated. Finally, we propose a theoretical model to summarize and illustrate these mechanisms. PMID:23326226

  6. Potentially pathogenic amoeba-associated microorganisms in cooling towers and their control.

    PubMed

    Pagnier, Isabelle; Merchat, Michèle; La Scola, Bernard

    2009-06-01

    Cooling towers provide a favorable environment for the proliferation of microorganisms. Cooling towers generate a biofilm and often aerosolize contaminated water, thereby increasing the risk of microorganism dissemination by human inhalation. This pathogen dissemination was first revealed by the epidemics of Legionnaires' disease that were directly related to the presence of cooling towers, and since then, the ecology of Legionella pneumophila has been well studied. Each country has specific standards regarding the acceptable amount of microorganisms in cooling tower systems. However, those standards typically only concern L. pneumophila, even though many other microorganisms can also be isolated from cooling towers, including protozoa, bacteria and viruses. Microbiological control of the cooling tower system can be principally achieved by chemical treatments and also by improving the system's construction. Several new treatments are being studied to improve the efficiency of disinfection. However, as most of these treatments continue to focus solely on L. pneumophila, reports of other types of pathogens continue to increase. Therefore, how their dissemination affects the human populous health should be addressed now. PMID:19492970

  7. Discovering potential sources of emerging pathogens: South America is a reservoir of generalist avian blood parasites.

    PubMed

    Moens, Michaël A J; Pérez-Tris, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Generalist pathogens are capable of infecting a wide range of host species, and may pose serious disease emergence threats if accidentally moved outside their native areas. To date little effort has been devoted to identifying geographic areas that may act as reservoirs of generalist pathogens. According to current theory, where host diversity is high, parasite specialisation in one host species may be penalised by reduced host availability, while generalist parasites may benefit from the exploitation of various host species. Therefore natural selection could favor generalist parasites where host diversity is high. Here we explored if, in a highly diverse bird community in Ecuador, a generalist strategy is promoted among local Haemoproteus and Plasmodium blood-borne parasites compared with similar parasite communities throughout the world. We reconstructed the phylogenetic relationships of every parasite lineage in order to understand the evolution of host specificity in this megadiverse area. We found high levels of host generalisation for both parasite genera, and the mean host range of the Haemoproteus community in Ecuador was significantly higher than other parasite communities in other areas outside the Neotropics. Generalist Haemoproteus parasites in this bird community had diverse phylogenetic ancestry, were closely related to specialist parasites and were apparently endemic to the Amazon, showing that different parasites have independently evolved into host generalists in this region. Finally we show that Haemoproteus communities in Ecuador and South America are more generalist than in temperate areas, making this continent a hotspot of generalist Haemoproteus parasites for wild birds. PMID:26348660

  8. The Water Cycle, a Potential Source of the Bacterial Pathogen Bacillus cereus.

    PubMed

    Brillard, Julien; Dupont, Christian M S; Berge, Odile; Dargaignaratz, Claire; Oriol-Gagnier, Stphanie; Doussan, Claude; Broussolle, Vronique; Gillon, Marina; Clavel, Thierry; Brard, Annette

    2015-01-01

    The behaviour of the sporulating soil-dwelling Bacillus cereus sensu lato (B. cereus sl) which includes foodborne pathogenic strains has been extensively studied in relation to its various animal hosts. The aim of this environmental study was to investigate the water compartments (rain and soil water, as well as groundwater) closely linked to the primary B. cereus sl reservoir, for which available data are limited. B. cereus sl was present, primarily as spores, in all of the tested compartments of an agricultural site, including water from rain to groundwater through soil. During rain events, leachates collected after transfer through the soil eventually reached the groundwater and were loaded with B. cereus sl. In groundwater samples, newly introduced spores of a B. cereus model strain were able to germinate, and vegetative cells arising from this event were detected for up to 50 days. This first B. cereus sl investigation in the various types of interrelated environments suggests that the consideration of the aquatic compartment linked to soil and to climatic events should provide a better understanding of B. cereus sl ecology and thus be relevant for a more accurate risk assessment of food poisoning caused by B. cereus sl pathogenic strains. PMID:25918712

  9. MicroRNA-150: A potential regulator in pathogens infection and autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiao-Lei; Zhang, Li; Li, Jian-Ping; Wang, Yu-Jie; Duan, Yu; Wang, Jing

    2015-12-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNAs that play an important role in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. The past studies showed that miR-150 might emerge as a master regulator of gene expression during the immune cells differentiation and immune response process. Its regulation ability in immune cellular process might contribute to the host defense against invading pathogens, and dysregulated expression of miR-150 in immune cells might result in autoimmune diseases. This review summarized that miR-150 could regulate B cells, T cells and NK/iNKT cells differentiation and immune response. And also, this review provides a comprehensive view on the association of miR-150 and autoimmune diseases such as systemic sclerosis (SSc), multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus and contact sensitivity. Especially, the duplex role of miR-150 in the fibrosis process might contribute to the pathomechanism of SSc. Though much remains to be explored about the roles of miR-150 in pathogenic infection and autoimmune diseases, targeting miR-150 may serve as a promising therapy strategy. PMID:26287504

  10. Felis catus gammaherpesvirus 1; a widely endemic potential pathogen of domestic cats.

    PubMed

    Beatty, Julia A; Troyer, Ryan M; Carver, Scott; Barrs, Vanessa R; Espinasse, Fanny; Conradi, Oliver; Stutzman-Rodriguez, Kathryn; Chan, Cathy C; Tasker, Séverine; Lappin, Michael R; VandeWoude, Sue

    2014-07-01

    Felis catus gammaherpesvirus 1 (FcaGHV1), recently discovered in the USA, was detected in domestic cats in Australia (11.4%, 95% confidence interval 5.9-19.1, n=110) and Singapore (9.6%, 95% confidence interval 5.9-14.6, n=176) using qPCR. FcaGHV1 qPCR positive cats were 2.8 times more likely to be sick than healthy. Risk factors for FcaGHV1 detection included being male, increasing age and coinfection with pathogenic retroviruses, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) or feline leukaemia virus. FcaGHV1 DNA was detected in multiple tissues from infected cats with consistently high virus loads in the small intestine. FcaGHV1 viral load was significantly higher in FIV-infected cats compared with matched controls, mimicking increased Epstein-Barr virus loads in human immunodeficiency virus-infected humans. FcaGHV1 is endemic in distant geographic regions and is associated with being sick and with coinfections. Horizontal transmission of FcaGHV1 is supported, with biting being a plausible route. A pathogenic role for FcaGHV1 in domestic cats is supported. PMID:25010275

  11. The Water Cycle, a Potential Source of the Bacterial Pathogen Bacillus cereus

    PubMed Central

    Brillard, Julien; Dupont, Christian M. S.; Berge, Odile; Dargaignaratz, Claire; Oriol-Gagnier, Stéphanie; Doussan, Claude; Broussolle, Véronique; Gillon, Marina; Clavel, Thierry; Bérard, Annette

    2015-01-01

    The behaviour of the sporulating soil-dwelling Bacillus cereus sensu lato (B. cereus sl) which includes foodborne pathogenic strains has been extensively studied in relation to its various animal hosts. The aim of this environmental study was to investigate the water compartments (rain and soil water, as well as groundwater) closely linked to the primary B. cereus sl reservoir, for which available data are limited. B. cereus sl was present, primarily as spores, in all of the tested compartments of an agricultural site, including water from rain to groundwater through soil. During rain events, leachates collected after transfer through the soil eventually reached the groundwater and were loaded with B. cereus sl. In groundwater samples, newly introduced spores of a B. cereus model strain were able to germinate, and vegetative cells arising from this event were detected for up to 50 days. This first B. cereus sl investigation in the various types of interrelated environments suggests that the consideration of the aquatic compartment linked to soil and to climatic events should provide a better understanding of B. cereus sl ecology and thus be relevant for a more accurate risk assessment of food poisoning caused by B. cereus sl pathogenic strains. PMID:25918712

  12. The Transcriptome Sequence of Dientamoeba fragilis Offers New Biological Insights on its Metabolism, Kinome, Degradome and Potential Mechanisms of Pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Barratt, Joel L N; Cao, Maisie; Stark, Damien J; Ellis, John T

    2015-09-01

    Dientamoeba fragilis is a human bowel parasite with a worldwide distribution. Dientamoeba was once described as a rare and harmless commensal though recent reports suggest it is common and potentially pathogenic. Molecular data on Dientamoeba is scarce which limits our understanding of this parasite. To address this, sequencing of the Dientamoeba transcriptome was performed. Messenger RNA was extracted from cultured Dientamoeba trophozoites originating from clinical stool specimens, and sequenced using Roche GS FLX and Illumina HiSeq technologies. In total 6,595 Dientamoeba transcripts were identified. These sequences were analysed using the BLAST2GO software suite and via BLAST comparisons to sequences available from TrichDB, GenBank, MEROPS and kinase.com. Several novel KEGG pathway maps were generated and gene ontology analysis was also performed. These results are thoroughly discussed guided by knowledge available for other related protozoa. Attention is paid to the novel biological insights afforded by this data including peptidases and kinases of Dientamoeba, as well as its metabolism, novel chemotherapeutics and possible mechanisms of pathogenicity. Currently, this work represents the largest contribution to our understanding of Dientamoeba molecular biology and also represents a major contribution to our understanding of the trichomonads generally, many of which are important pathogens of humans and animals. PMID:26188431

  13. Swab transport in Amies gel followed by frozen storage in skim milk tryptone glucose glycerol broth (STGGB) for studies of respiratory bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Hare, Kim M; Stubbs, Elizabeth; Beissbarth, Jemima; Morris, Peter Stanley; Leach, Amanda J

    2010-06-01

    Nasopharyngeal carriage studies are needed to monitor changes in important bacterial pathogens in response to vaccination and antibiotics. Commercial swab transport followed by transfer to skim milk tryptone glucose glycerol broth for frozen storage is an option for studies of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis. PMID:20298727

  14. Comparison of pig and ferret models for evaluation of respiratory versus alimentary transmission of H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) have caused over 300 human infections and over 200 deaths since 2003. The majority of the cases have involved close direct or indirect contact with infected poultry but a few cases have incriminated consumption of uncooked poultry p...

  15. The potential distance of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus dispersal by mallard, common teal and Eurasian pochard.

    PubMed

    Brochet, Anne-Laure; Guillemain, Matthieu; Lebarbenchon, Camille; Simon, Géraldine; Fritz, Hervé; Green, Andy J; Renaud, François; Thomas, Frédéric; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel

    2009-09-01

    Waterbirds represent the major natural reservoir for low pathogenic (LP) avian influenza viruses (AIV). Among the wide diversity of subtypes that have been described, two of them (H5 and H7) may become highly pathogenic (HP) after their introduction into domestic bird populations and cause severe outbreaks, as is the case for HP H5N1 in South-Eastern Asia. Recent experimental studies demonstrated that HP H5N1 AIV infection in ducks does not necessarily have significant pathological effects. These results suggest that wild migratory ducks may asymptomatically carry HP AIV and potentially spread viruses over large geographical distances. In this study, we investigated the potential spreading distance of HP AIV by common teal (Anas crecca), mallard (A. platyrhynchos), and Eurasian pochard (Aythya ferina). Based on capture-mark-recapture method, we characterized their wintering movements from a western Mediterranean wetland (Camargue, South of France) and identified the potential distance and direction of virus dispersal. Such data may be crucial in determining higher-risk areas in the case of HP AIV infection detection in this major wintering quarter, and may serve as a valuable reference for virus outbreaks elsewhere. PMID:20112048

  16. [Serologic studies of domestic cats for potential human pathogenic virus infections from wild rodents].

    PubMed

    Nowotny, N

    1996-05-01

    For several viral infections a reservoir in wild rodents has been demonstrated. Some of the agents are known or suspected to be pathogenic for humans. Because improvements in hygiene have reduced direct human contact with rodents, domestic cats could be acting as active transmitters of these viruses from rodents to man. We selected 4 such pathogens--ortho- and parapox-, hanta- and encephalomyocarditis viruses--which, in different ways, may lead to serious human illness: Ortho- and parapoxvirus infections may cause localized pox lesions following direct skin contact. In general, the lesions heal without complications; in immunosuppressed or -deficient individuals, however, infection may generalize and take a dramatic course. Hantaviruses exist in various serotypes with different pathogenicity for human beings, varying from asymptomatic infection to highly fatal disease. In central and northern Europe the Puumala serotype is predominant causing influenza-like symptoms and renal dysfunction. Human infections arise from inhalation of aerosolized excreta of persistently infected rodents. Infections of man associated with encephalomyocarditis virus were demonstrated sporadically in cases of encephalitis and meningitis. In the present study, we investigated in 200 feline serum samples the prevalence of antibodies to ortho- and parapox-, hanta- and encephalomyocarditis virus. All serum samples were from cats that had been allowed to roam outside and to hunt. They were submitted from all parts of Austria for routine diagnosis in 1993. Four per cent of cats showed antibodies to orthopoxviruses with haemagglutination inhibition (HI) titres of 16-512; because of extensive cross-reactivity, positive samples reacted with all investigated orthopoxviruses (a feline orthopoxvirus recently isolated in Vienna, the reference strain of cowpox virus, Brighton, and vaccinia virus, strain IHD), only varying in titre. The specificity of the results was confirmed by virus neutralisation (VN) test, in which the same sera showed titres of 4-32. These data imply that, at least in Austria, unrecognized or subclinical orthopoxvirus infection in cats is more common than previously thought. In contrast to orthopoxviruses, all serum samples proved negative to parapoxvirus (parapoxvirus bovis 1) in VN test. In the same 200 samples, a seroprevalence of 5% was found to hantavirus (immunofluorescence antibody assay), indicating that domestic cats are susceptible to this virus and that infection is not uncommon in cat populations. Because higher titres were obtained against the Puumala serotype compared to the more pathogenic serotype Hantaan, it is most likely that the cats had experienced Puumala infections. Using HI test, antibodies to encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) were demonstrated in only 1.5% of the feline serum samples; although the antibody titres were low (16 and 32, respectively) we consider them specific, because these sera proved positive in VN test as well. Nevertheless, EMCV infection in domestic cats seems to be of low importance. The serological results presented in this paper, together with virological and epidemiological data, indicate that the domestic cat plays an important role only in the transmission of orthopoxviruses to human beings, but not in the case of parapox-, hanta-, and encephalomyocarditis virus. PMID:9409901

  17. Antimicrobial and antibiofilm potential of biosurfactants isolated from lactobacilli against multi-drug-resistant pathogens

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Biosurfactants (BS) are amphiphilic compounds produced by microbes, either on the cell surface or secreted extracellularly. BS exhibit strong antimicrobial and anti-adhesive properties, making them good candidates for applications used to combat infections. In this study, our goal was to assess the in vitro antimicrobial, anti-adhesive and anti-biofilm abilities of BS produced by Lactobacillus jensenii and Lactobacillus rhamnosus against clinical Multidrug Resistant (MDR) strains of Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Cell-bound BS from both L. jensenii and L. rhamnosus were extracted and isolated. The surface activities of crude BS samples were evaluated using an oil spreading assay. The antimicrobial, anti-adhesive and anti-biofilm activities of both BS against the above mentioned MDR pathogens were determined. Results Surface activities for both BS ranged from 6.25 to 25 mg/ml with clear zones observed between 7 and 11 cm. BS of both L. jensenii and L. rhamnosus showed antimicrobial activities against A. baumannii, E. coli and S. aureus at 25-50 mg/ml. Anti-adhesive and anti-biofilm activities were also observed for the aforementioned pathogens between 25 and 50 mg/ml. Finally, analysis by electron microscope indicated that the BS caused membrane damage for A. baumannii and pronounced cell wall damage in S. aureus. Conclusion Our results indicate that BS isolated from two Lactobacilli strains has antibacterial properties against MDR strains of A. baumannii, E. coli and MRSA. Both BS also displayed anti-adhesive and anti-biofilm abilities against A. baumannii, E. coli and S. aureus. Together, these capabilities may open up possibilities for BS as an alternative therapeutic approach for the prevention and/or treatment of hospital-acquired infections. PMID:25124936

  18. Comparative genomics of multiple strains of Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis, a potential model pathogen of both Monocots and Dicots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Comparative genomics of closely related pathogens that differ in host range can provide insights into mechanisms of host-pathogen interactions and host adaptation. Sequencing multiple strains of the same pathogen further reveals information concerning pathogen diversity and the molecular basis of vi...

  19. A Single Amino Acid in the M1 Protein Responsible for the Different Pathogenic Potentials of H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Strains

    PubMed Central

    Nao, Naganori; Kajihara, Masahiro; Manzoor, Rashid; Maruyama, Junki; Yoshida, Reiko; Muramatsu, Mieko; Miyamoto, Hiroko; Igarashi, Manabu; Eguchi, Nao; Sato, Masahiro; Kondoh, Tatsunari; Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Sakoda, Yoshihiro; Kida, Hiroshi; Takada, Ayato

    2015-01-01

    Two highly pathogenic avian influenza virus strains, A/duck/Hokkaido/WZ83/2010 (H5N1) (WZ83) and A/duck/Hokkaido/WZ101/2010 (H5N1) (WZ101), which were isolated from wild ducks in Japan, were found to be genetically similar, with only two amino acid differences in their M1 and PB1 proteins at positions 43 and 317, respectively. We found that both WZ83 and WZ101 caused lethal infection in chickens but WZ101 killed them more rapidly than WZ83. Interestingly, ducks experimentally infected with WZ83 showed no or only mild clinical symptoms, whereas WZ101 was highly lethal. We then generated reassortants between these viruses and found that exchange of the M gene segment completely switched the pathogenic phenotype in both chickens and ducks, indicating that the difference in the pathogenicity for these avian species between WZ83 and WZ101 was determined by only a single amino acid in the M1 protein. It was also found that WZ101 showed higher pathogenicity than WZ83 in mice and that WZ83, whose M gene was replaced with that of WZ101, showed higher pathogenicity than wild-type WZ83, although this reassortant virus was not fully pathogenic compared to wild-type WZ101. These results suggest that the amino acid at position 43 of the M1 protein is one of the factors contributing to the pathogenicity of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in both avian and mammalian hosts. PMID:26368015

  20. Lactobacillus crispatus L1: high cell density cultivation and exopolysaccharide structure characterization to highlight potentially beneficial effects against vaginal pathogens

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Vaginal lactic acid bacteria defend the host against pathogens through a combination of competitive exclusion, competition for nutrients, production of antimicrobial substances and through the activation of the immune system. A new human isolate named Lactobacillus crispatus L1 was characterized in this work, and a preliminary evaluation of its probiotic potential is described together with a process to obtain a high productivity of viable biomass. Results In a simulated digestion process 1.8⋅1010 cells∙ml−1 survived the gastric environment with 80% viability, without being affected by small intestine juices. Experiments on six different C sources were performed to analyze growth and organic acids production and, glucose, provided the best performances. A microfiltration strategy was exploited to improve the cellular yield in 2 L-fermentation processes, reaching 27 g · l−1 of dry biomass. Moreover, L. crispatus L1 demonstrated a greater stability to high concentrations of lactic acid, compared to other lactobacilli. The specific L. crispatus L1 exopolysaccharide was purified from the fermentation broth and characterized by NMR showing structural features and similarity to exopolysaccharides produced by pathogenic strains. Live L. crispatus L1 cells strongly reduced adhesion of a yeast pathogenic strain, Candida albicans in particular, in adherence assays. Interestingly a higher expression of the human defensin HBD-2 was also observed in vaginal cells treated with the purified exopolysaccharide, indicating a possible correlation with C. albicans growth inhibition. Conclusions The paper describes the evaluation of L. crispatus L1 as potential vaginal probiotic and the fermentation processes to obtain high concentrations of viable cells. PMID:24884965

  1. Opportunistic invasive fungal pathogen Macrophomina phaseolina prognosis from immunocompromised humans to potential mitogenic RBL with an exceptional and novel antitumor and cytotoxic effect.

    PubMed

    Arora, P; Dilbaghi, N; Chaudhury, A

    2012-02-01

    With the ever-increasing risk for fungal infections, one can no longer ignore fungi. It is imperative that clinical manifestations "presume fungus" with their epidemiologic and pathogenic features when evaluating a potentially infected patient. In the high-risk patient groups, fungi with intrinsic resistance to antifungal agents already exist, with a tendency to emerge as opportunistic pathogens. One of the smart pathogens is Macrophomina phaseolina, with the potential to disarm plant, animal, and human immunity. The response prophylaxis may vary from antifungal therapy and surgical measures to biochemical (Rhizoctonia bataticola lectin [RBL] with antitumor and cytotoxic nature) and gene therapeutics. PMID:21553299

  2. Potentially pathogenic free-living amoebae in some flood-affected areas during 2011 Chiang Mai flood.

    PubMed

    Wannasan, Anchalee; Uparanukraw, Pichart; Songsangchun, Apichart; Morakote, Nimit

    2013-01-01

    The survey was carried out to investigate the presence of potentially pathogenic free-living amoebae (FLA) during flood in Chiang Mai, Thailand in 2011. From different crisis flood areas, seven water samples were collected and tested for the presence of amoebae using culture and molecular methods. By monoxenic culture, FLA were detected from all samples at 37 °C incubation. The FLA growing at 37 °C were morphologically identified as Acanthamoeba spp., Naegleria spp. and some unidentified amoebae. Only three samples (42.8%), defined as thermotolerant FLA, continued to grow at 42 °C. By molecular methods, two non-thermotolerant FlA were shown to have 99% identity to Acanthamoeba sp. and 98% identity to Hartmannella vermiformis while the two thermotolerant FLA were identified as Echinamoeba exundans (100% identity) and Hartmannella sp. (99% identity). This first report of the occurrence of FLA in water during the flood disaster will provide information to the public to be aware of potentially pathogenic FLA. PMID:24213194

  3. POTENTIALLY PATHOGENIC FREE-LIVING AMOEBAE IN SOME FLOOD-AFFECTED AREAS DURING 2011 CHIANG MAI FLOOD

    PubMed Central

    Wannasan, Anchalee; Uparanukraw, Pichart; Songsangchun, Apichart; Morakote, Nimit

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The survey was carried out to investigate the presence of potentially pathogenic free-living amoebae (FLA) during flood in Chiang Mai, Thailand in 2011. From different crisis flood areas, seven water samples were collected and tested for the presence of amoebae using culture and molecular methods. By monoxenic culture, FLA were detected from all samples at 37 °C incubation. The FLA growing at 37 °C were morphologically identified as Acanthamoeba spp., Naegleria spp. and some unidentified amoebae. Only three samples (42.8%), defined as thermotolerant FLA, continued to grow at 42 °C. By molecular methods, two non-thermotolerant FlA were shown to have 99% identity to Acanthamoeba sp. and 98% identity to Hartmannella vermiformis while the two thermotolerant FLA were identified as Echinamoeba exundans (100% identity) and Hartmannella sp. (99% identity). This first report of the occurrence of FLA in water during the flood disaster will provide information to the public to be aware of potentially pathogenic FLA. PMID:24213194

  4. Temporal and spatial distribution patterns of potentially pathogenic Vibrio spp. at recreational beaches of the German north sea.

    PubMed

    Böer, Simone I; Heinemeyer, Ernst-August; Luden, Katrin; Erler, René; Gerdts, Gunnar; Janssen, Frank; Brennholt, Nicole

    2013-05-01

    The number of reported Vibrio-related wound infections associated with recreational bathing in Northern Europe has increased within the last decades. In order to study the health risk from potentially pathogenic Vibrio spp. in the central Wadden Sea, the seasonal and spatial distribution of Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio cholerae were investigated at ten recreational beaches in this area over a 2-year period. V. alginolyticus and V. parahaemolyticus were found to be omnipresent all year round in the study area, while V. vulnificus occurrence was restricted to summer months in the estuaries of the rivers Ems and Weser. Multiple linear regression models revealed that water temperature is the most important determinant of Vibrio spp. occurrence in the area. Differentiated regression models showed a species-specific response to water temperature and revealed a particularly strong effect of even minor temperature increases on the probability of detecting V. vulnificus in summer. In sediments, Vibrio spp. concentrations were up to three orders of magnitude higher than in water. Also, V. alginolyticus and V. parahaemolyticus were found to be less susceptible towards winter temperatures in the benthic environment than in the water, indicating an important role of sediments for Vibrio ecology. While only a very small percentage of tested V. parahaemolyticus proved to be potentially pathogenic, the presence of V. vulnificus during the summer months should be regarded with care. PMID:23563708

  5. The ethics of biosafety considerations in gain-of-function research resulting in the creation of potential pandemic pathogens.

    PubMed

    Evans, Nicholas Greig; Lipsitch, Marc; Levinson, Meira

    2015-11-01

    This paper proposes an ethical framework for evaluating biosafety risks of gain-of-function (GOF) experiments that create novel strains of influenza expected to be virulent and transmissible in humans, so-called potential pandemic pathogens (PPPs). Such research raises ethical concerns because of the risk that accidental release from a laboratory could lead to extensive or even global spread of a virulent pathogen. Biomedical research ethics has focused largely on human subjects research, while biosafety concerns about accidental infections, seen largely as a problem of occupational health, have been ignored. GOF/PPP research is an example of a small but important class of research where biosafety risks threaten public health, well beyond the small number of persons conducting the research.We argue that bioethical principles that ordinarily apply only to human subjects research should also apply to research that threatens public health, even if, as in GOF/PPP studies, the research involves no human subjects. Specifically we highlight the Nuremberg Code's requirements of 'fruitful results for the good of society, unprocurable by other methods', and proportionality of risk and humanitarian benefit, as broad ethical principles that recur in later documents on research ethics and should also apply to certain types of research not involving human subjects. We address several potential objections to this view, and conclude with recommendations for bringing these ethical considerations into policy development. PMID:26320212

  6. The pathogenic potential of Pseudomonas fluorescens MFN1032 on enterocytes can be modulated by serotonin, substance P and epinephrine.

    PubMed

    Biaggini, Kelly; Barbey, Corinne; Borrel, Valérie; Feuilloley, Marc; Déchelotte, Pierre; Connil, Nathalie

    2015-10-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens is a commensal bacterium present at low level in the human digestive tract that has also been reported in many clinical samples (blood, urinary tract, skin, lung, etc.) and sometimes associated with acute opportunistic infections. It has recently been found that the human β-defensin-2 can enhance the pathogenic potential of P. fluorescens. In this study, we evaluated the effect of other intestinal molecules (5HT, SP and Epi) on growth and virulence of the clinical strain P. fluorescens MFN1032. We found that P. fluorescens MFN1032 growth was not mainly affected by these factors, but several modifications in the virulence behavior of this bacterium were observed. 5HT, SP and Epi were able to modulate the motility of P. fluorescens MFN1032. 5HT and SP had an effect on pyoverdin production and IL-8 secretion, respectively. Infection of Caco-2/TC7 cells with P. fluorescens MFN1032 pretreated by SP or Epi enhanced the permeability of the monolayers and led to a partial delocalization of F-actin to the cytoplasm. These findings show that some intestinal molecules can modulate the pathogenic potential of P. fluorescens MFN1032. We can hypothesize that this dialogue between the host and the human gut microbiota may participate in health and disease. PMID:26175088

  7. Treatment strategies for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Modjarrad, Kayvon

    2016-01-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), an emerging infectious disease of growing global importance, has caused severe acute respiratory disease in more than 1600 people, resulting in almost 600 deaths. The high case fatality rate, growing geographic distribution and vaguely defined epidemiology of this novel pathogen have created an urgent need for effective public health countermeasures, including safe and effective treatment strategies. Despite the relatively few numbers of cases to date, research and development of MERS-CoV therapeutic candidates is advancing quickly. This review surveys the landscape of these efforts and assesses their potential for use in affected populations. PMID:26866060

  8. A study on Blastocystis hominis in food-handlers: diagnosis and potential pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Fathy, Fouad M

    2011-08-01

    Proper diagnosis of Blastocystis hominis in not performed routinely in medical laboratories of developing countries; consequently clinical significance of this common intestinal protozoon is liable to remain unsettled. Food-handlers are more prone to get and transmit this feco-oral infection. This work compared the sensitivity of direct diagnostic methods to detect B. hominis in stool, estimate the true prevalence among food-handlers in Sirte-Libya, to clarify the association between the parasite and gastrointestinal symptoms and the response to specific treatment. A total of 400 male food-handlers aged 18-50 year were included. Each was subjected to clinical questionnaire and 3 stool examinations by different methods. The results showed high prevalence of B. hominis in food-handlers (35.5%). Short- term in vitro culture (on Boeck and Derbholav's medium) was the most sensitive method for detection of B. hominis (35.5%), followed by permanent Trichrome-stained smear (27.5%); saline-sedimentation concentrated smear (21%) and direct iodine smear (14%). Of 108 cases having B. hominis alone, 68.5% were symptomatic. Diarrhea was the most frequent symptom (75.6%), followed by abdominal pain (66.2%) and flatulence (43.2%). Fecal parasite-load was significantly higher in symptomatic cases than asymptomatic; parasite and symptoms disappeared after metronidazole treatment. So, culture should be used on routine basis to detect B. hominis which should be considered pathogenic particularly when present alone in large numbers in symptomatic patients. PMID:21980782

  9. Evidence for carry-over effects of predator exposure on pathogen transmission potential.

    PubMed

    Roux, Olivier; Vantaux, Amélie; Roche, Benjamin; Yameogo, Koudraogo B; Dabiré, Kounbobr R; Diabaté, Abdoulaye; Simard, Frederic; Lefèvre, Thierry

    2015-12-22

    Accumulating evidence indicates that species interactions such as competition and predation can indirectly alter interactions with other community members, including parasites. For example, presence of predators can induce behavioural defences in the prey, resulting in a change in susceptibility to parasites. Such predator-induced phenotypic changes may be especially pervasive in prey with discrete larval and adult stages, for which exposure to predators during larval development can have strong carry-over effects on adult phenotypes. To the best of our knowledge, no study to date has examined possible carry-over effects of predator exposure on pathogen transmission. We addressed this question using a natural food web consisting of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, the mosquito vector Anopheles coluzzii and a backswimmer, an aquatic predator of mosquito larvae. Although predator exposure did not significantly alter mosquito susceptibility to P. falciparum, it incurred strong fitness costs on other key mosquito life-history traits, including larval development, adult size, fecundity and longevity. Using an epidemiological model, we show that larval predator exposure should overall significantly decrease malaria transmission. These results highlight the importance of taking into account the effect of environmental stressors on disease ecology and epidemiology. PMID:26674956

  10. Fungal chitinases: function, regulation, and potential roles in plant/pathogen interactions.

    PubMed

    Langner, Thorsten; Göhre, Vera

    2016-05-01

    In the past decades our knowledge about fungal cell wall architecture increased tremendously and led to the identification of many enzymes involved in polysaccharide synthesis and remodeling, which are also of biotechnological interest. Fungal cell walls play an important role in conferring mechanic stability during cell division and polar growth. Additionally, in phytopathogenic fungi the cell wall is the first structure that gets into intimate contact with the host plant. A major constituent of fungal cell walls is chitin, a homopolymer of N-acetylglucosamine units. To ensure plasticity, polymeric chitin needs continuous remodeling which is maintained by chitinolytic enzymes, including lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases N-acetylglucosaminidases, and chitinases. Depending on the species and lifestyle of fungi, there is great variation in the number of encoded chitinases and their function. Chitinases can have housekeeping function in plasticizing the cell wall or can act more specifically during cell separation, nutritional chitin acquisition, or competitive interaction with other fungi. Although chitinase research made huge progress in the last decades, our knowledge about their role in phytopathogenic fungi is still scarce. Recent findings in the dimorphic basidiomycete Ustilago maydis show that chitinases play different physiological functions throughout the life cycle and raise questions about their role during plant-fungus interactions. In this work we summarize these functions, mechanisms of chitinase regulation and their putative role during pathogen/host interactions. PMID:26527115

  11. Respiratory Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... What Is Respiratory Failure? Respiratory (RES-pih-rah-tor-e) failure is a condition in which not ... the help of a ventilator (VEN-til-a-tor). A ventilator is a machine that supports breathing. ...

  12. Respiratory system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, R. G., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The general anatomy and function of the human respiratory system is summarized. Breathing movements, control of breathing, lung volumes and capacities, mechanical relations, and factors relevant to respiratory support and equipment design are discussed.

  13. Respiratory Failure

    MedlinePlus

    Respiratory failure happens when not enough oxygen passes from your lungs into your blood. Your body's organs, such as ... need oxygen-rich blood to work well. Respiratory failure also can happen if your lungs can't ...

  14. The human respiratory gate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckberg, Dwain L.

    2003-01-01

    Respiratory activity phasically alters membrane potentials of preganglionic vagal and sympathetic motoneurones and continuously modulates their responsiveness to stimulatory inputs. The most obvious manifestation of this 'respiratory gating' is respiratory sinus arrhythmia, the rhythmic fluctuations of electrocardiographic R-R intervals observed in healthy resting humans. Phasic autonomic motoneurone firing, reflecting the throughput of the system, depends importantly on the intensity of stimulatory inputs, such that when levels of stimulation are low (as with high arterial pressure and sympathetic activity, or low arterial pressure and vagal activity), respiratory fluctuations of sympathetic or vagal firing are also low. The respiratory gate has a finite capacity, and high levels of stimulation override the ability of respiration to gate autonomic responsiveness. Autonomic throughput also depends importantly on other factors, including especially, the frequency of breathing, the rate at which the gate opens and closes. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia is small at rapid, and large at slow breathing rates. The strong correlation between systolic pressure and R-R intervals at respiratory frequencies reflects the influence of respiration on these two measures, rather than arterial baroreflex physiology. A wide range of evidence suggests that respiratory activity gates the timing of autonomic motoneurone firing, but does not influence its tonic level. I propose that the most enduring significance of respiratory gating is its use as a precisely controlled experimental tool to tease out and better understand otherwise inaccessible human autonomic neurophysiological mechanisms.

  15. The human respiratory gate

    PubMed Central

    Eckberg, Dwain L

    2003-01-01

    Respiratory activity phasically alters membrane potentials of preganglionic vagal and sympathetic motoneurones and continuously modulates their responsiveness to stimulatory inputs. The most obvious manifestation of this ‘respiratory gating’ is respiratory sinus arrhythmia, the rhythmic fluctuations of electrocardiographic R–R intervals observed in healthy resting humans. Phasic autonomic motoneurone firing, reflecting the throughput of the system, depends importantly on the intensity of stimulatory inputs, such that when levels of stimulation are low (as with high arterial pressure and sympathetic activity, or low arterial pressure and vagal activity), respiratory fluctuations of sympathetic or vagal firing are also low. The respiratory gate has a finite capacity, and high levels of stimulation override the ability of respiration to gate autonomic responsiveness. Autonomic throughput also depends importantly on other factors, including especially, the frequency of breathing, the rate at which the gate opens and closes. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia is small at rapid, and large at slow breathing rates. The strong correlation between systolic pressure and R–R intervals at respiratory frequencies reflects the influence of respiration on these two measures, rather than arterial baroreflex physiology. A wide range of evidence suggests that respiratory activity gates the timing of autonomic motoneurone firing, but does not influence its tonic level. I propose that the most enduring significance of respiratory gating is its use as a precisely controlled experimental tool to tease out and better understand otherwise inaccessible human autonomic neurophysiological mechanisms. PMID:12626671

  16. Carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Other Respiratory Bacterial Pathogens in Low and Lower-Middle Income Countries: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Adegbola, Richard A.; DeAntonio, Rodrigo; Hill, Philip C.; Roca, Anna; Usuf, Effua; Hoet, Bernard; Greenwood, Brian M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in low income countries where pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) are still underused. In countries where PCVs have been introduced, much of their efficacy has resulted from their impact on nasopharyngeal carriage in vaccinated children. Understanding the epidemiology of carriage for S. pneumoniae and other common respiratory bacteria in developing countries is crucial for implementing appropriate vaccination strategies and evaluating their impact. Methods and Findings We have systematically reviewed published studies reporting nasopharyngeal or oropharyngeal carriage of S. pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Neisseria meningitidis in children and adults in low and lower-middle income countries. Studies reporting pneumococcal carriage for healthy children <5 years of age were selected for a meta-analysis. The prevalences of carriage for S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, and M. catarrhalis were generally higher in low income than in lower-middle income countries and were higher in young children than in adults. The prevalence of S. aureus was high in neonates. Meta-analysis of data from young children before the introduction of PCVs showed a pooled prevalence estimate of 64.8% (95% confidence interval, 49.8%–76.1%) in low income countries and 47.8% (95% confidence interval, 44.7%–50.8%) in lower-middle income countries. The most frequent serotypes were 6A, 6B, 19A, 19F, and 23F. Conclusions In low and lower-middle income countries, pneumococcal carriage is frequent, especially in children, and the spectrum of serotypes is wide. However, because data are limited, additional studies are needed to adequately assess the impact of PCV introduction on carriage of respiratory bacteria in these countries. PMID:25084351

  17. Prevalence and pathogenic potential of Escherichia coli isolates from raw milk and raw milk cheese in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Ombarak, Rabee A; Hinenoya, Atsushi; Awasthi, Sharda Prasad; Iguchi, Atsushi; Shima, Ayaka; Elbagory, Abdel-Rahman M; Yamasaki, Shinji

    2016-03-16

    The objectives of this study were to investigate prevalence and pathogenic potential of Escherichia coli contaminating raw milk and its products in Egypt. Out of 187 dairy products including 72 raw milk samples, 55 Karish cheese and 60 Ras cheese, 222 E. coli isolates including 111, 89 and 22 were obtained from 55 raw milk samples (76.4%), 41 Karish cheese (74.5%), and 13 Ras cheese (21.7%), respectively. Isolated E. coli strains were examined for 24 representative virulence genes present in diarrheagenic E. coli (DEC) and extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC). Among DEC and ExPEC virulence factors, genes for enteropathogenic E. coli (eaeA, bfpA, EAF), enterohemorrhagic E. coli (stx1, stx2, eaeA), enterotoxigenic E. coli (elt, est), enteroinvasive E. coli (invE), enteroaggregative E. coli (Eagg, astA), diffusely adherent E. coli (daaD), ExPEC (cdt-I to cdt-V, cnf1, cnf2, hlyA) and putative adhesins (efa1, iha, ehaA, saa, and lpfAO113) were screened by colony hybridization assay. Out of 222 E. coli strains, 104 (46.8%) isolated from 69 (36.9%) samples carried one or more virulence genes. The most prevalent gene detected was lpfAO113 (40.5%), followed by ehaA (32.4%,), astA (3.15%,), iha (1.80%), hlyA (1.35%), stx1 (0.90%), stx2 (0.90%), eaeA (0.45%), cdt-III (0.45%) and cnf2 (0.45%). Two strains isolated from Karish cheese harbored 5 virulence genes (stx1, stx2, iha, ehaA, lpfAO113). Stx subtype was determined to be stx1 (not stx1c or stx1d) and stx2d. Indeed, expression of hemolysin A, CDT-III, CNF-II, Stx1 and Stx2d was confirmed by blood agar plate, cytotoxicity assay and Western blotting, respectively. Among the 222 E. coli strains, 54 (48.6%), 38 (42.6%) and 12 (54.7%) isolated from raw milk, Karish cheese and Ras cheese were potentially virulent, respectively. O-genotyping indicated that most of the potentially virulent E. coli isolates did not belong to clinically important O serogroups except O75, O91 and O166, which have been associated with human diseases. Phylogenetic grouping revealed that 150 (67.6%), 67 (30.2%) and 5 (2.30%) strains were clustered into A, B1 and D groups, respectively, which are considered to be associated with intestinal infection, indicating that these E. coli strains might have a potential to cause gastroenteritis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive study regarding prevalence and pathogenic potential of E. coli in dairy products in Egypt. Raw milk, Karish cheese and Ras cheese in Egypt are highly contaminated with E. coli including potentially pathogenic strains, which may impose a public health threat. PMID:26824810

  18. Prevalence of Salmonella in beef and dairy cattle and potential pathogenicity of their isolates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella is a leading cause of foodborne illness which can be spread to humans from a number of different sources. While all Salmonella serotypes have the potential to cause disease, certain serovars appear to be responsible for a variety of diseases in a diverse array of animal and human hosts. S...

  19. Molecular Mechanisms of Host-Pathogen Interactions and their Potential for the Discovery of New Drug Targets

    PubMed Central

    Briken, Volker

    2008-01-01

    Vaccines and chemotherapy have undeniably been the discoveries in the field of biomedical research that have exerted the biggest impact on the improvement of public health. Nevertheless, the development of bacterial resistance to antibiotics has co-evolved over time with the discovery of new drugs. This entails the necessity for continuous research on new anti-infectious agents.The current review highlights recent discoveries in the molecular mechanisms of specific host pathogen interactions and their potential for drug discovery. The focus is on facultative and obligate intracellular pathogens (Mycobacterium, Chlamydia and Legionella) and their manipulation of host cells in regard to inhibition of phagosome maturation and cell death. Furthermore, the composition and role of the SecA2 and the ESX-1 secretion pathways in bacterial virulence and manipulation of infected host cells is discussed. The central hypothesis proposed in this review is that the characterization of bacterial proteins and lipids involved in host cell manipulation (modulins) will provide an abundance of new drug targets. One advantage of targeting such bacterial modulins for drug development is that these anti-modulin drugs will not disrupt the beneficial host microflora and therefore have fewer side effects. PMID:18288966

  20. Recent Trends in Rapid Environmental Monitoring of Pathogens and Toxicants: Potential of Nanoparticle-Based Biosensor and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Koedrith, Preeyaporn; Thasiphu, Thalisa; Weon, Jong-Il; Boonprasert, Rattana; Tuitemwong, Kooranee; Tuitemwong, Pravate

    2015-01-01

    Of global concern, environmental pollution adversely affects human health and socioeconomic development. The presence of environmental contaminants, especially bacterial, viral, and parasitic pathogens and their toxins as well as chemical substances, poses serious public health concerns. Nanoparticle-based biosensors are considered as potential tools for rapid, specific, and highly sensitive detection of the analyte of interest (both biotic and abiotic contaminants). In particular, there are several limitations of conventional detection methods for water-borne pathogens due to low concentrations and interference with various enzymatic inhibitors in the environmental samples. The increase of cells to detection levels requires long incubation time. This review describes current state of biosensor nanotechnology, the advantage over conventional detection methods, and the challenges due to testing of environmental samples. The major approach is to use nanoparticles as signal reporter to increase output rather than spending time to increase cell concentrations. Trends in future development of novel detection devices and their advantages over other environmental monitoring methodologies are also discussed. PMID:25884032

  1. The Australian bush fly (Musca vetustissima) as a potential vector in the transmission of foodborne pathogens at outdoor eateries.

    PubMed

    Vriesekoop, Frank; Shaw, Rachel

    2010-03-01

    Abstract Australian outdoor activities are often accompanied by a barbeque (BBQ) with family, friends, and guests, which are often interrupted by uninvited guests in the form of the Australian bush fly, Musca vetustissima. We investigated the bacterial loading associated with the Australian bush in three different environments: on a cattle farm, in a typical urban area (shopping center car park), and at a BBQ. The highest bacterial populations per fly were found to occur in a farm environment ( approximately 9.1 x 10(4) CFU per fly), whereas the bacterial population was lowest on flies caught in an urban environment ( approximately 1.9 x 10(4) CFU per fly). The median CFU per fly caught near a BBQ was approximately 5.0 x 10(4). Escherichia coli was the most commonly isolated potential pathogen, whereas Shigella sp. was the least common bacterial isolate that was screened. All isolated foodborne pathogens or indicator bacteria were screened for antibiotic resistance against commonly prescribed antibiotics. This revealed a very high prevalence of multidrug resistance, especially among the Salmonella and Shigella isolates of 94% and 87% resistance, respectively, against amoxicillin, roxythromycin and cefaclor. PMID:19895260

  2. Recent trends in rapid environmental monitoring of pathogens and toxicants: potential of nanoparticle-based biosensor and applications.

    PubMed

    Koedrith, Preeyaporn; Thasiphu, Thalisa; Weon, Jong-Il; Boonprasert, Rattana; Tuitemwong, Kooranee; Tuitemwong, Pravate

    2015-01-01

    Of global concern, environmental pollution adversely affects human health and socioeconomic development. The presence of environmental contaminants, especially bacterial, viral, and parasitic pathogens and their toxins as well as chemical substances, poses serious public health concerns. Nanoparticle-based biosensors are considered as potential tools for rapid, specific, and highly sensitive detection of the analyte of interest (both biotic and abiotic contaminants). In particular, there are several limitations of conventional detection methods for water-borne pathogens due to low concentrations and interference with various enzymatic inhibitors in the environmental samples. The increase of cells to detection levels requires long incubation time. This review describes current state of biosensor nanotechnology, the advantage over conventional detection methods, and the challenges due to testing of environmental samples. The major approach is to use nanoparticles as signal reporter to increase output rather than spending time to increase cell concentrations. Trends in future development of novel detection devices and their advantages over other environmental monitoring methodologies are also discussed. PMID:25884032

  3. Presence of potentially pathogenic free-living amoebae strains from well water samples in Guinea-Bissau

    PubMed Central

    Baquero, Rocío A; Reyes-Batlle, María; Nicola, Graciela G; Martín-Navarro, Carmen M; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Guillermo Esteban, J; Valladares, Basilio; Martínez-Carretero, Enrique; Piñero, José E; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Free-living amoebae (FLA) include opportunistic pathogens such as Naegleria fowleri, Balamuthia mandrillaris, and the genera Sappinia and Acanthamoeba. In this study, a survey was conducted in order to evaluate the presence of potentially pathogenic amoebic strains in water samples collected from wells located in the western part of Guinea-Bissau. The samples were left to precipitate for 48 hours and then the sediments were seeded on non-nutrient agar plates containing Escherichia coli spread and cultures were checked daily for the presence of FLA. Identification of FLA strains was based on the morphological and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using the 18S rDNA or 16S mitochondrial rDNA genes in the case of Naegleria and Balamuthia genera, respectively. In the case of positive samples of Acanthamoeba, strains were further classified at the genotype level by sequencing the diagnostic fragment 3 (DF3) region located in the 18S rDNA gene as previously described. Sappinia sp. was not isolated during the study and thus, no molecular analysis was performed for this genus. The obtained results revealed the presence of Acanthamoeba (genotypes T3 and T4), Naegleria fowleri, and Balamuthia mandrillaris. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the presence of FLA in water bodies from Guinea-Bissau and the first report on the isolation of Balamuthia mandrillaris from environmental sources in Africa. PMID:24934796

  4. A molecular biological protocol to distinguish potentially human pathogenic Stenotrophomonas maltophilia from plant-associated Stenotrophomonas rhizophila.

    PubMed

    Ribbeck-Busch, Kathrin; Roder, Anja; Hasse, Dirk; de Boer, Wietse; Martínez, José Luis; Hagemann, Martin; Berg, Gabriele

    2005-11-01

    In recent years, the importance of the Gram-negative bacterium Stenotrophomonas as an opportunistic pathogen as well as in biotechnology has increased. The aim of the present study was to develop new methods for distinguishing between strains closely related to the potentially human pathogenic Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and those closely related to the plant-associated Stenotrophomonas rhizophila. To accomplish this, 58 strains were characterized by 16S rDNA sequencing and amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA), and the occurrence of specific functional genes. Based on 16S rDNA sequences, an ARDRA protocol was developed which allowed differentiation between strains of the S. maltophilia and the S. rhizophila group. As it was known that only salt-treated cells of S. rhizophila were able to synthesize the compatible solute glucosylglycerol (GG), the ggpS gene responsible for GG synthesis was used for differentiation between both species and it was confirmed that it only occurred in S. rhizophila strains. As a further genetic marker the smeD gene, which is part of the genes coding for the multidrug efflux pump SmeDEF from S. maltophilia, was used. Based on the results we propose a combination of fingerprinting techniques using the 16S rDNA and the functional genes ggpS and smeD to distinguish both Stenotrophomonas species. PMID:16232300

  5. Presence of potentially pathogenic free-living amoebae strains from well water samples in Guinea-Bissau.

    PubMed

    Baquero, Roco A; Reyes-Batlle, Mara; Nicola, Graciela G; Martn-Navarro, Carmen M; Lpez-Arencibia, Atteneri; Guillermo Esteban, J; Valladares, Basilio; Martnez-Carretero, Enrique; Piero, Jos E; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2014-06-01

    Free-living amoebae (FLA) include opportunistic pathogens such as Naegleria fowleri, Balamuthia mandrillaris, and the genera Sappinia and Acanthamoeba. In this study, a survey was conducted in order to evaluate the presence of potentially pathogenic amoebic strains in water samples collected from wells located in the western part of Guinea-Bissau. The samples were left to precipitate for 48 hours and then the sediments were seeded on non-nutrient agar plates containing Escherichia coli spread and cultures were checked daily for the presence of FLA. Identification of FLA strains was based on the morphological and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using the 18S rDNA or 16S mitochondrial rDNA genes in the case of Naegleria and Balamuthia genera, respectively. In the case of positive samples of Acanthamoeba, strains were further classified at the genotype level by sequencing the diagnostic fragment 3 (DF3) region located in the 18S rDNA gene as previously described. Sappinia sp. was not isolated during the study and thus, no molecular analysis was performed for this genus. The obtained results revealed the presence of Acanthamoeba (genotypes T3 and T4), Naegleria fowleri, and Balamuthia mandrillaris. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the presence of FLA in water bodies from Guinea-Bissau and the first report on the isolation of Balamuthia mandrillaris from environmental sources in Africa. PMID:24934796

  6. Synthesis, characterization and amoebicidal potential of locally synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles against pathogenic Acanthamoeba trophozoites in vitro.

    PubMed

    Imran, Muhammad; Muazzam, Ambreen Gul; Habib, Amir; Matin, Abdul

    2016-06-01

    Acanthamoeba is an opportunistic protozoan pathogen that plays a pivotal role in the ecosystem. It may cause blinding keratitis and fatal encephalitis involving the central nervous system. Here we synthesized pure and Zn doped TiO2 nanoparticles (~10-30nm) via sol-gel and sol-hydrothermal methods and demonstrated its impact on the biological characteristics of pathogenic Acanthamoeba castellanii. Our results revealed that pure and Zn doped TiO2 nanoparticles synthesized by sol-hydrothermal methods (ranging 5, 10, 25 and 50μg/ml) exhibited amoebicidal effects i.e., >60% of trophozoites executed under normal light at maximum dose (50μg/ml) within 1h incubation. In contrast pure/doped TiO2 obtained via sol gel method showed ~40% amoeba damage. Furthermore, amoebae growth assay demonstrated that Zn doped TiO2 also inhibited Acanthamoeba numbers up to 7days in dose dependent manner. It was interesting to note that all the tested TiO2 nanoparticles have shown maximum amoebicidal effects at pH7 which is quite relevant to amoebic growth favorable conditions. Our results confirmed that TiO2 has inhibitory effects on Acanthamoeba growth and viability. Overall, we reported the amoebicidal and amoebic growth inhibition potential of pure and Zn doped TiO2 nanoparticles against Acanthamoeba due to attached OH(-) groups, reduced size and decreased band gap of sol hydrothermally synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles. PMID:27054875

  7. Potential pathogens, antimicrobial patterns and genotypic diversity of Escherichia coli isolates in constructed wetlands treating swine wastewater.

    PubMed

    Ibekwe, A M; Murinda, Shelton E; DebRoy, Chitrita; Reddy, Gudigopura B

    2016-02-01

    Escherichia coli populations originating from swine houses through constructed wetlands were analyzed for potential pathogens, antimicrobial susceptibility patterns, and genotypic diversity. Escherichia coli isolates (n = 493) were screened for the presence of the following virulence genes: stx1, stx2 and eae (Shiga toxin-producing E. coli [STEC]), heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) genes and heat stable toxin STa and STb (enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), cytotoxin necrotizing factors 1 and 2 (cnf1 and cnf2 [necrotoxigenic E. coli- NTEC]), as well as O and H antigens, and the presence of the antibiotic resistance genes blaTEM, blaSHV, blaCMY-2, tet A, tet B, tet C, mph(A), aadA, StrA/B, sul1, sul2 and sul3. The commensal strains were further screened for 16 antimicrobials and characterized by BOX AIR-1 PCR for unique genotypes. The highest antibiotic resistance prevalence was for tetracycline, followed by erythromycin, ampicillin, streptomycin, sulfisoxazole and kanamycin. Our data showed that most of the isolates had high distribution of single or multidrug-resistant (MDR) genotypes. Therefore, the occurrence of MDR E. coli in the wetland is a matter of great concern due to possible transfer of resistance genes from nonpathogenic to pathogenic strains or vice versa in the environment. PMID:26839381

  8. Mosquito species abundance and diversity in Malindi, Kenya and their potential implication in pathogen transmission.

    PubMed

    Mwangangi, Joseph M; Midega, Janet; Kahindi, Samuel; Njoroge, Laban; Nzovu, Joseph; Githure, John; Mbogo, Charles M; Beier, John C

    2012-01-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are important vectors of human disease-causing pathogens. Mosquitoes are found both in rural and urban areas. Deteriorating infrastructure, poor access to health, water and sanitation services, increasing population density, and widespread poverty contribute to conditions that modify the environment, which directly influences the risk of disease within the urban and peri-urban ecosystem. The objective of this study was to evaluate the mosquito vector abundance and diversity in urban, peri-urban, and rural strata in Malindi along the Kenya coast. The study was conducted in the coastal district of Malindi between January and December 2005. Three strata were selected which were described as urban, peri-urban, and rural. Sampling was done during the wet and dry seasons. Sampling in the wet season was done in the months of April and June to cover the long rainy season and in November and December to cover the short rainy season, while the dry season was between January and March and September and October. Adult mosquito collection was done using Pyrethrum Spray Collection (PSC) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) light traps inside houses and specimens were identified morphologically. In the three strata (urban, peri-urban, and rural), 78.5% of the total mosquito (n = 7,775) were collected using PSC while 18.1% (n = 1,795) were collected using the CDC light traps. Using oviposition traps, mosquito eggs were collected and reared in the insectary which yielded 329 adults of which 83.8% (n = 276) were Aedes aegypti and 16.2% (n = 53) were Culex quinquefasciatus. The mosquito distribution in the three sites varied significantly in each collection site. Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles funestus and Anopheles coustani were predominant in the rural stratum while C. quinquefasciatus was mostly found in urban and peri-urban strata. However, using PSC and CDC light trap collection techniques, A. aegypti was only found in urban strata. In the three strata, mosquitoes were mainly found in high numbers during the wet season. Further, A. gambiae, C. quinquefasciatus, and A. aegypti mosquitoes were found occurring together inside the houses. This in turn exposes the inhabitants to an array of mosquito-borne diseases including malaria, bancroftian filariasis, and arboviruses (dengue fever, Yellow fever, Rift Valley fever, Chikungunya fever, and West Nile Virus). In conclusion, our findings provide useful information for the design of integrated mosquito and disease control programs in East African environments. PMID:21626425

  9. Quantitative prediction of respiratory tidal volume based on the external torso volume change: a potential volumetric surrogate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guang; Arora, Naveen C.; Xie, Huchen; Ning, Holly; Lu, Wei; Low, Daniel; Citrin, Deborah; Kaushal, Aradhana; Zach, Leor; Camphausen, Kevin; Miller, Robert W.

    2009-04-01

    An external respiratory surrogate that not only highly correlates with but also quantitatively predicts internal tidal volume should be useful in guiding four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT), as well as 4D radiation therapy (4DRT). A volumetric surrogate should have advantages over external fiducial point(s) for monitoring respiration-induced motion of the torso, which deforms in synchronization with a patient-specific breathing pattern. This study establishes a linear relationship between the external torso volume change (TVC) and lung air volume change (AVC) by validating a proposed volume conservation hypothesis (TVC = AVC) throughout the respiratory cycle using 4DCT and spirometry. Fourteen patients' torso 4DCT images and corresponding spirometric tidal volumes were acquired to examine this hypothesis. The 4DCT images were acquired using dual surrogates in ciné mode and amplitude-based binning in 12 respiratory stages, minimizing residual motion artifacts. Torso and lung volumes were calculated using threshold-based segmentation algorithms and volume changes were calculated relative to the full-exhalation stage. The TVC and AVC, as functions of respiratory stages, were compared, showing a high correlation (r = 0.992 ± 0.005, p < 0.0001) as well as a linear relationship (slope = 1.027 ± 0.061, R2 = 0.980) without phase shift. The AVC was also compared to the spirometric tidal volumes, showing a similar linearity (slope = 1.030 ± 0.092, R2 = 0.947). In contrast, the thoracic and abdominal heights measured from 4DCT showed relatively low correlation (0.28 ± 0.44 and 0.82 ± 0.30, respectively) and location-dependent phase shifts. This novel approach establishes the foundation for developing an external volumetric respiratory surrogate.

  10. Effectiveness of serum megakaryocyte potentiating factor in evaluating the effects of chrysotile and its heated products on respiratory organs

    SciTech Connect

    Takata, Ayako; Yamauchi, Hiroshi; Toya, Tadao; Miyamoto-Kohno, Sayako; Iwatatsu, Yuka; Teranaka, Iroha; Aminaka, Masahito; Yamashita, Kiyotsugu; Kohyama, Norihiko

    2011-04-15

    Chrysotile (CH), the most common form of asbestos, is rendered less toxic by heating it at 1000 {sup o}C and converting it to forsterite (FO-1000). However, further safety tests are needed to evaluate human health risk of these materials. It has been reported that serum concentrations of megakaryocyte potentiating factor N-ERC/mesothelin become elevated in patients with mesotheliomas caused by asbestos exposure. In this study, a single 2 mg dose of CH or FO-1000 was intratracheally administered to rats. Within 180 days after the administrations, serum N-ERC/mesothelin concentrations, levels of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in lung tissues and pathological changes in respiratory organs were determined. In the CH group, a significant increase in serum N-ERC/mesothelin concentrations was observed immediately after intratracheal administration, and the elevation lasted for 30 days. In lung tissues, positive staining for 8-OHdG in bronchioles, alveolar epithelium, inflammatory cells, and granulomas was evidence of a marked DNA oxidative damage. Furthermore, measurements of 8-OHdG in lung tissues based on the HPLC-ECD method suggested that serum N-ERC/mesothelin concentrations tended to increase when there are significant DNA damages in lung tissues. In contrast, in the FO-1000 group, a marked rise in serum N-ERC/mesothelin concentrations occurred only in the early phase (1-7 days) after intratracheal administration. Similarly, FO-1000 induced elevation of 8-OHdG in lung tissues was transient and modest compared with those of the CH-treated animals. In both the CH and FO-1000 groups, we observed significant correlations between serum N-ERC/mesothelin concentrations and lung 8-OHdG concentrations (r = 0.559, p = 0.001 for the CH group; r = 0.516, p = 0.01 for the FO-1000 group). In summary, we demonstrated the possibility of using serum N-ERC/mesothelin concentrations as a useful biomarker for early phase exposure to either CH or FO-1000.

  11. Effect of autonomic blocking agents on the respiratory-related oscillations of ventricular action potential duration in humans

    PubMed Central

    van Duijvenboden, Stefan; Hanson, Ben; Child, Nick; Orini, Michele; Rinaldi, Christopher A.; Gill, Jaswinder S.

    2015-01-01

    Ventricular action potential duration (APD) is an important component of many physiological functions including arrhythmogenesis. APD oscillations have recently been reported in humans at the respiratory frequency. This study investigates the contribution of the autonomic nervous system to these oscillations. In 10 patients undergoing treatment for supraventricular arrhythmias, activation recovery intervals (ARI; a conventional surrogate for APD) were measured from multiple left and right ventricular (RV) endocardial sites, together with femoral artery pressure. Respiration was voluntarily regulated and heart rate clamped by RV pacing. Sympathetic and parasympathetic blockade was achieved using intravenous metoprolol and atropine, respectively. Metroprolol reduced the rate of pressure development (maximal change in pressure over time): 1,271 (± 646) vs. 930 (± 433) mmHg/s; P < 0.01. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) showed a trend to decrease after metoprolol, 133 (± 21) vs. 128 (± 25) mmHg; P = 0.06, and atropine infusion, 122 (± 26) mmHg; P < 0.05. ARI and SBP exhibited significant cyclical variations (P < 0.05) with respiration in all subjects with peak-to-peak amplitudes ranging between 0.7 and 17.0 mmHg and 1 and 16 ms, respectively. Infusion of metoprolol reduced the mean peak-to-peak amplitude [ARI, 6.2 (± 1.4) vs. 4.4 (± 1.0) ms, P = 0.008; SBP, 8.4 (± 1.6) vs. 6.2 (± 2.0) mmHg, P = 0.002]. The addition of atropine had no significant effect. ARI, SBP, and respiration showed significant coupling (P < 0.05) at the breathing frequency in all subjects. Directed coherence from respiration to ARI was high and reduced after metoprolol infusion [0.70 (± 0.17) vs. 0.50 (± 0.23); P < 0.05]. These results suggest a role of respiration in modulating the electrophysiology of ventricular myocardium in humans, which is partly, but not totally, mediated by β-adrenergic mechanisms. PMID:26475587

  12. Detection of seasonal weight loss and a serologic survey of potential pathogens in wild Pallas' cats (Felis [Otocolobus] manul) of the Daurian Steppe, Russia.

    PubMed

    Naidenko, Sergey V; Pavlova, Ekaterina V; Kirilyuk, Vadim E

    2014-04-01

    We measured seasonal changes in body mass and pathogen exposure in wild Pallas' cats (Felis [Otocolobus] manul) in the Daurian Steppe of Russia in 2010-11. Pallas' cats lost about 30% of body mass over winter. Tests for antibodies to 15 potential pathogens showed that Pallas' cats were exposed to four pathogens. Two of 16 cats had antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii. Two had antibodies to Mycoplasma sp., and one each had antibodies to Influenza A virus and Feline leukemia virus. The percentage of antibody-positive wild Pallas' cats was lower than results reported for other wild felids in the Russian Far East. PMID:24484481

  13. Comparison of Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli Strains from Human and Avian Sources Reveals a Mixed Subset Representing Potential Zoonotic Pathogens▿

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Timothy J.; Wannemuehler, Yvonne; Johnson, Sara J.; Stell, Adam L.; Doetkott, Curt; Johnson, James R.; Kim, Kwang S.; Spanjaard, Lodewijk; Nolan, Lisa K.

    2008-01-01

    Since extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) strains from human and avian hosts encounter similar challenges in establishing infection in extraintestinal locations, they may share similar contents of virulence genes and capacities to cause disease. In the present study, 1,074 ExPEC isolates were classified by phylogenetic group and possession of 67 other traits, including virulence-associated genes and plasmid replicon types. These ExPEC isolates included 452 avian pathogenic E. coli strains from avian colibacillosis, 91 neonatal meningitis E. coli (NMEC) strains causing human neonatal meningitis, and 531 uropathogenic E. coli strains from human urinary tract infections. Cluster analysis of the data revealed that most members of each subpathotype represent a genetically distinct group and have distinguishing characteristics. However, a genotyping cluster containing 108 ExPEC isolates was identified, heavily mixed with regard to subpathotype, in which there was substantial trait overlap. Many of the isolates within this cluster belonged to the O1, O2, or O18 serogroup. Also, 58% belonged to the ST95 multilocus sequence typing group, and over 90% of them were assigned to the B2 phylogenetic group typical of human ExPEC strains. This cluster contained strains with a high number of both chromosome- and plasmid-associated ExPEC genes. Further characterization of this ExPEC subset with zoonotic potential urges future studies exploring the potential for the transmission of certain ExPEC strains between humans and animals. Also, the widespread occurrence of plasmids among NMEC strains and members of the mixed cluster suggests that plasmid-mediated virulence in these pathotypes warrants further attention. PMID:18820066

  14. Vitek MS matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry for identifying respiratory bacterial pathogens: a fast and efficient method.

    PubMed

    López-Fabal, Ma Fátima; Gómez-Garcés, José Luís; López-Hontangas, José Luís; Sanz, Nuria; Muñoz, Carmen; Regodón, Marta

    2015-10-01

    Mass spectrometry has become a reference resource for identifying microorganisms in clinical microbiology services. One hundred and fifty one clinical isolates were selected from respiratory specimens routinely identified as Streptococcus pneumoniae (43), Haemophilus influenzae (64) and Moraxella catarrhalis (44). These identifications were compared with other phenotypical methods and mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS Vitek). Result discrepancies were assessed by 16S rRNA sequencing. Thirty-eight of the 43 strains of S. pneumoniae (86%) were identified as such using phenotypical methods and spectrometry. In 5 cases, MALDI-TOF identified 4 of them as Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae and 1 as S. mitis/oralis. Forty-eight of the 64 strains were identified as H. influenzae (75%) using biochemical identification systems and automated identification systems, whereas MALDI-TOF-MS Vitek identified 51 strains (79%) as such. Conventional methods and spectrometry identified all the 40 strains tested (100%) as M. catarrhalis. All strains with discrepant results were sequenced, and in all cases, the identification obtained by spectrometry was confirmed. The results obtained in this study show that mass spectrometry provides identification of these bacteria faster and in a more reliable way than those based on conventional phenotypical methods. PMID:26437754

  15. The Membrane Protein of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Functions as a Novel Cytosolic Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern To Promote Beta Interferon Induction via a Toll-Like-Receptor-Related TRAF3-Independent Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Most of the intracellular pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) reside in either the endolysosome or the cytoplasm to sense pathogen-derived RNAs, DNAs, or synthetic analogs of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), such as poly(I:C). However, it remains elusive whether or not a pathogen-derived protein can function as a cytosolic pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP). In this study, we demonstrate that delivering the membrane gene of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) into HEK293T, HEK293ET, and immobilized murine bone marrow-derived macrophage (J2-Mφ) cells significantly upregulates beta interferon (IFN-β) production. Both NF-κB and TBK1-IRF3 signaling cascades are activated by M gene products. M protein rather than M mRNA is responsible for M-mediated IFN-β induction that is preferentially associated with the activation of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) adaptor proteins MyD88, TIRAP, and TICAM2 but not the RIG-I signaling cascade. Blocking the secretion of M protein by brefeldin A (BFA) failed to reverse the M-mediated IFN-β induction. The antagonist of both TLR2 and TLR4 did not impede M-mediated IFN-β induction, indicating that the driving force for the activation of IFN-β production was generated from inside the cells. Inhibition of TRAF3 expression by specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) did not prevent M-mediated IFN-β induction. SARS-CoV pseudovirus could induce IFN-β production in an M rather than M(V68A) dependent manner, since the valine-to-alanine alteration at residue 68 in M protein markedly inhibited IFN-β production. Overall, our study indicates for the first time that a pathogen-derived protein is able to function as a cytosolic PAMP to stimulate type I interferon production by activating a noncanonical TLR signaling cascade in a TRAF3-independent manner. PMID:26861016

  16. Protective immunity against H7N3 highly pathogenic avian influenza induced following inoculation of chickens with H7 low pathogenic avian influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the poultry industry, live virus vaccines are used to induce immunity against numerous respiratory pathogens. These are typically lower virulent forms of virus which are limited in replication and pathology, but induce mucosal, humoral, and cellular immunity. Because of the potential for revers...

  17. Effects of Norspermidine and Spermidine on Biofilm Formation by Potentially Pathogenic Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica Wild-Type Strains

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Kristin; Vestby, Lene K.

    2015-01-01

    Polyamines are present in all living cells. In bacteria, polyamines are involved in a variety of functions, including biofilm formation, thus indicating that polyamines may have potential in the control of unwanted biofilm. In the present study, the effects of the polyamines norspermidine and spermidine on biofilms of 10 potentially pathogenic wild-type strains of Escherichia coli serotype O103:H2, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium, and S. enterica serovar Agona were investigated. We found that exogenously supplied norspermidine and spermidine did not mediate disassembly of preformed biofilm of any of the E. coli and S. enterica strains. However, the polyamines did affect biofilm production. Interestingly, the two species reacted differently to the polyamines. Both polyamines reduced the amount of biofilm formed by E. coli but tended to increase biofilm formation by S. enterica. Whether the effects observed were due to the polyamines specifically targeting biofilm formation, being toxic for the cells, or maybe a combination of the two, is not known. However, there were no indications that the effect was mediated through binding to exopolysaccharides, as earlier suggested for E. coli. Our results indicate that norspermidine and spermidine do not have potential as inhibitors of S. enterica biofilm. Furthermore, we found that the commercial polyamines used contributed to the higher pH of the test medium. Failure to acknowledge and control this important phenomenon may lead to misinterpretation of the results. PMID:25595767

  18. Potential Pathogens in the Environment: Klebsiella pneumoniae, a Taxonomic and Ecological Enigma1

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Carol; Seidler, Ramon J.

    1973-01-01

    A nitrogen-deficient medium and m-Endo agar were employed in the isolation of members of the tribe Klebsielleae from surfaces of vegetables and seeds. With m-Endo agar at an incubation temperature of 37 C, nearly 50% of the vegetables and seven out of seven seed samples yielded organisms which biochemically and serologically were identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae, Viable counts were generally in the range of 103 cells per g of vegetable peel or seed. Organisms classified as K. pneumoniae exhibited seven different IMViC patterns, with the --++, ++++, and -+++ patterns most common.