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Sample records for potential therapeutic option

  1. The potential for emerging therapeutic options for Clostridium difficile infection

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Harsh; Rea, Mary C; Cotter, Paul D; Ross, R Paul; Hill, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is mainly a nosocomial pathogen and is a significant cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. It is also implicated in the majority of cases of pseudomembranous colitis. Recently, advancements in next generation sequencing technology (NGS) have highlighted the extent of damage to the gut microbiota caused by broad-spectrum antibiotics, often resulting in C. difficile infection (CDI). Currently the treatment of choice for CDI involves the use of metronidazole and vancomycin. However, recurrence and relapse of CDI, even after rounds of metronidazole/vancomycin administration is a problem that must be addressed. The efficacy of alternative antibiotics such as fidaxomicin, rifaximin, nitazoxanide, ramoplanin and tigecycline, as well as faecal microbiota transplantation has been assessed and some have yielded positive outcomes against C. difficile. Some bacteriocins have also shown promising effects against C. difficile in recent years. In light of this, the potential for emerging treatment options and efficacy of anti-C. difficile vaccines are discussed in this review. PMID:25564777

  2. Osteoporosis: Therapeutic Options.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Stefka; Vasileva, Liliya; Ivanova, Stanislava; Peikova, Lily; Obreshkova, Danka

    2016-01-01

    The definition of osteoporosis was originally formulated at a conference of the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1993 as 'a systemic skeletal disease characterized by decreased bone mass and altered micro-architecture of bone tissue, leading to enhanced bone fragility and risk of fractures'. Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mineral density (BMD) and loss of the structural and bio-mechanical properties that are required to maintain bone homeostasis. This review aims to address the currently available options in prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Management of osteoporosis includes non-pharmacological treatment - diet rich of calcium and vitamin D, healthy lifestyle, proper exercise plan, and pharmacological therapy. Combination of non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatment options have to be considered for prevention of osteoporosis and minimization of the risk of fractures. Given the heterogeneity of osteoporosis syndrome and lack of significant number of comparative studies, the choice of a pharmacological agents should be individualized. PMID:27180344

  3. Unmet treatment needs in schizophrenia patients: is asenapine a potential therapeutic option?

    PubMed

    Pompili, Maurizio; Serafini, Gianluca; Innamorati, Marco; Ambrosi, Elisa; Telesforo, Ludovica; Venturini, Paola; Giordano, Gloria; Battuello, Michele; Lester, David; Girardi, Paolo

    2011-07-01

    Adverse metabolic events, such as increased adiposity, hyperglycemia, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia, have been associated with treatment using atypical antipsychotic medications. However, the complexity of some of the reports on this problem and marketing efforts in this area may make it difficult for psychiatrists to remain fully and accurately informed about the metabolic complications of atypical antipsychotic therapy. Little is currently known about how psychiatrists view what they have read or heard, how they perceive the available information and how this affects their management of patients with schizophrenia. A number of studies have demonstrated that nonadherence to the medication regimen in schizophrenia is associated with poor symptomatic outcome, increased risk of relapse, more frequent use of compulsory treatment and increased risk of suicide and severe self-harm. Suicide is a major cause of death among schizophrenic patients, and their attitude toward medication can make the difference between a proper therapeutic regimen that protects patients from suicide risk versus discontinuation of treatments that are associated with disabling symptoms, some of which are risk factors for suicide. We review the characteristics of a new drug, asenapine, that may improve adherence in patients as a result of a distinctive receptor profile that may be associated with fewer side effects than other second-generation antipsychotic drugs. PMID:21721916

  4. The Emerging Role of Leptin Antagonist as Potential Therapeutic Option for Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Udai P.; Singh, Narendra P.; Guan, Hongbing; Busbee, Brandon; Price, Robert L.; Taub, Dennis D.; Mishra, Manoj K.; Fayad, Raja; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Nagarkatti, Prakash S.

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic relapsing immune-mediated inflammatory disorder that affects millions of people around the world. Leptin is a satiety hormone produced primarily by adipose tissue and acts both centrally and peripherally. Leptin has been shown to play a major role in regulating metabolism, which increases during IBD progression. Leptin mediates several physiological functions including elevated blood pressure, tumorogenesis, cardiovascular pathologies and enhanced immune response in many autoimmune diseases. Recent development of a leptin mutant antagonist that blocks leptin activity raises great hope and opens up new possibilities for therapy in many autoimmune diseases including IBD. To this end, preliminary data from an ongoing study in our laboratory on pegylated leptin antagonist mutant L39A/D40A/F41A (PEG-MLA) treatment shows an inhibition of chronic colitis in IL-10−/− mice. PEG-MLA effectively attenuates the overall clinical scores, reverses colitis-associated pathogenesis including a decrease in body weight, and decreases systemic leptin level. PEG-MLA induces both central and peripheral leptin deficiency by mediating the cellular immune response. In summary, after blocking leptin activity, the correlative outcome between leptin-mediated cellular immune response, systemic leptin levels, and amount of adipose tissue together may provide new strategies for therapeutic intervention in autoimmune diseases, especially for intestinal inflammation. PMID:23841494

  5. Ulinastatin - a newer potential therapeutic option for multiple organ dysfunction syndrome.

    PubMed

    Atal, Sarjana S; Atal, Shubham

    2016-03-01

    Despite significant improvements in medical and surgical management, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) or multiple organ failure following conditions such as acute pancreatitis, severe sepsis, and traumatic, hemorrhagic, and endotoxin shocks is still accompanied with a high mortality rate. In light of the crucial role of immunologic derangement recently conceptualized in these conditions, ulinastatin, a urinary trypsin inhibitor, is considered as a potentially beneficial immunomodulator drug for MODS. Mechanisms involving protections against tissue organs and endothelial cell and anti-inflammatory effects by ulinastatin are dependent on the inhibition of polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN)-derived elastase, tumor necrosis factor α, and other pro-inflammatory cytokines and interleukins (IL-1, IL-6, and IL-8). Ulinastatin also suppresses the activation of PMN cells, macrophages, and platelets. Derived from these properties, ulinastatin has been investigated as a potential clinical therapy for indications including shock and pancreatitis and approved in Japan and China with ongoing clinical trials around the globe. Off-label potential uses of ulinastatin have been reported in preterm labor and hematological, hepatic, renal, and cardiovascular diseases including vasculitis syndromes such as Kawasaki disease. PMID:26565549

  6. [Hepatocellular Carcinoma: therapeutic options 2015].

    PubMed

    Schultheiß, Michael; Bettinger, Dominik; Neeff, Hannes P; Brunner, Thomas B; Thimme, Robert

    2015-07-01

    The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a common neoplasm, is rising and the prognosis is poor. Many factors have to be taken into account when deciding on the best mode of therapy, like tumor size and number, liver function, sequelae of portal hypertension or other comorbidities. These factors are reflected in the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) classification. Resection, radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and liver transplantation can be seen as curative therapies for the early and localized HCC. For the intermediate state of the HCC, there are other therapeutic modalities in therapy available: transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT, rarer occasions), off label: stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). At the moment, Sorafenib is the only option in treating advanced stages of HCC. Alternative treatment strategies, like e.g. immunological therapies, are being investigated. PMID:26182255

  7. Hydrothermally modified slow release corn starch: a potential new therapeutic option for treating hypoglycemia in autoimmune hypoglycemia (Hirata's disease).

    PubMed

    Lechner, K; Aulinger, B; Brand, S; Waldmann, E; Parhofer, K G

    2015-12-01

    We report the successful treatment of autoimmune hypoglycemia in an 82-year-old non-diabetic Caucasian male with hydrothermally modified slow release corn starch, a product which is used in other conditions associated with hypoglycemia, most typically glycogen storage disease type I. An 82-year-old-Caucasian male presented with recurrent spontaneous hypoglycemia as low as 30 mg/dl following in-patient treatment for community acquired pneumonia. During a fasting-test, symptomatic hypoglycemia occurred. Plasma concentrations of c-peptide and insulin were considerably elevated. Autoimmune hypoglycemia was confirmed by the presence of insulin autoantibodies. While dietary restriction alone did not result in sufficient glucose control in this patient with autoimmune hypoglycemia, treatment with hydrothermally modified slow release corn starch led to stable euglycemia. This easy, well tolerated and non-invasive treatment may constitute a new therapeutic option for hypoglycemia in patients with autoimmune hypoglycemia who do not achieve sufficient control of hypoglycemia by dietary restriction alone. PMID:26373963

  8. [Therapeutic options for brain metastases].

    PubMed

    Preusser, M; Winkler, F

    2015-06-01

    Brain metastases are common in cancer patients, especially in lung cancer, breast cancer and melanoma and represent a therapeutic challenge. Established local therapeutic procedures include neurosurgical resection, stereotactic irradiation and whole brain radiotherapy; however, for selected patients novel targeted therapies with documented activity against brain metastases are emerging. These include v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B (BRAF) inhibitors, the anticytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTL4A) antibodies ipilimumab in melanoma, HER2 antagonists in breast cancer and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitors in non-small cell lung cancer. Therefore, the modern management of patients with brain metastases should be performed in an interdisciplinary setting and under consideration of relevant molecular markers to facilitate optimal patient outcome. PMID:25989738

  9. Alteration of the intestinal microbiota as a cause of and a potential therapeutic option in irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Knig, J; Brummer, R J

    2014-09-01

    The intestinal microbiota forms a complex ecosystem that is in close contact with its host and has an important impact on health. An increasing number of disorders are associated with disturbances in this ecosystem. Also patients suffering from irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) show an altered composition of their gut microbiota. IBS is a multifactorial chronic disorder characterised by various abdominal complaints and a worldwide prevalence of 10-20%. Even though its aetiology and pathophysiology are complex and not well understood, it is widely accepted that aberrations along the microbe-gut-brain axis are involved. In this review, it will be discussed how exogenous factors, e.g. antibiotics, can cause disbalance in the intestinal microbiota and thereby contribute to the development of IBS. In addition, several new IBS treatment options that aim at re-establishing a healthy, beneficial ecosystem will be described. These include antibiotics, probiotics, prebiotics and faecal transplantation. PMID:24583610

  10. Postperfusion lung syndrome: physiopathology and therapeutic options

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Shi-Min

    2014-01-01

    Postperfusion lung syndrome is rare but can be lethal. The underlying mechanism remains uncertain but triggering inflammatory cascades have become an accepted etiology. A better understanding of the pathophysiology and the roles of inflammatory mediators in the development of the syndrome is imperative in the determination of therapeutic options and promotion of patients' prognosis and survival. Postperfusion lung syndrome is similar to adult respiratory distress syndrome in clinical features, diagnostic approaches and management strategies. However, the etiologies and predisposing risk factors may differ between each other. The prognosis of the postperfusion lung syndrome can be poorer in comparison to acute respiratory distress syndrome due to the secondary multiple organ failure and triple acid-base imbalance. Current management strategies are focusing on attenuating inflammatory responses and preventing from pulmonary ischemia-reperfusion injury. Choices of cardiopulmonary bypass circuit and apparatus, innovative cardiopulmonary bypass techniques, modified surgical maneuvers and several pharmaceutical agents can be potential preventive strategies for acute lung injury during cardiopulmonary bypass. PMID:25372917

  11. [Giant infantile hepatic hemangioma: which therapeutic options?].

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Cristina; Lobo, Luisa; Anjos, Rui; Salgueiro, Carlos; Lopes, Ana Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Infantile hepatic hemangioma is the third most frequent liver tumor in children and the most common below 6 months of age. Therapeutic options depend on clinical manifestations and should be tailored on an individual patient basis. We present the case of a 4 year old boy with neonatal diagnosis of large vascularized liver tumor with imagiological criteria of infantile hepatic hemangioma. We highlight the occurrence of heart failure and Kasabach-Merrit syndrome (thrombocytopenia, anemia) that have spontaneously regressed. During follow up, sequential imaging (ultrasound with Doppler, magnetic resonance imaging, dynamic contrast enhancement computed tomography) confirmed the hypothesis of IHH, allowing vascular mapping of the lesion. From the first year on, we observed a favorable course with progressive tumor regression. In the present case, a conservative approach has been maintained, but the best therapeutic option remains unclear. We highlight the specific features of this case, discussing the most cost-effective approach. PMID:24388264

  12. Peak load management: Potential options

    SciTech Connect

    Englin, J.E.; De Steese, J.G.; Schultz, R.W.; Kellogg, M.A.

    1989-10-01

    This report reviews options that may be alternatives to transmission construction (ATT) applicable both generally and at specific locations in the service area of the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). Some of these options have potential as specific alternatives to the Shelton-Fairmount 230-kV Reinforcement Project, which is the focus of this study. A listing of 31 peak load management (PLM) options is included. Estimated costs and normalized hourly load shapes, corresponding to the respective base load and controlled load cases, are considered for 15 of the above options. A summary page is presented for each of these options, grouped with respect to its applicability in the residential, commercial, industrial, and agricultural sectors. The report contains comments on PLM measures for which load shape management characteristics are not yet available. These comments address the potential relevance of the options and the possible difficulty that may be encountered in characterizing their value should be of interest in this investigation. The report also identifies options that could improve the efficiency of the three customer utility distribution systems supplied by the Shelton-Fairmount Reinforcement Project. Potential cogeneration options in the Olympic Peninsula are also discussed. These discussions focus on the options that appear to be most promising on the Olympic Peninsula. Finally, a short list of options is recommended for investigation in the next phase of this study. 9 refs., 24 tabs.

  13. Therapeutic options for management of endometrial hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Endometrial hyperplasia (EH) comprises a spectrum of changes in the endometrium ranging from a slightly disordered pattern that exaggerates the alterations seen in the late proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle to irregular, hyperchromatic lesions that are similar to endometrioid adenocarcinoma. Generally, EH is caused by continuous exposure of estrogen unopposed by progesterone, polycystic ovary syndrome, tamoxifen, or hormone replacement therapy. Since it can progress, or often occur coincidentally with endometrial carcinoma, EH is of clinical importance, and the reversion of hyperplasia to normal endometrium represents the key conservative treatment for prevention of the development of adenocarcinoma. Presently, cyclic progestin or hysterectomy constitutes the major treatment option for EH without or with atypia, respectively. However, clinical trials of hormonal therapies and definitive standard treatments remain to be established for the management of EH. Moreover, therapeutic options for EH patients who wish to preserve fertility are challenging and require nonsurgical management. Therefore, future studies should focus on evaluation of new treatment strategies and novel compounds that could simultaneously target pathways involved in the pathogenesis of estradiol-induced EH. Novel therapeutic agents precisely targeting the inhibition of estrogen receptor, growth factor receptors, and signal transduction pathways are likely to constitute an optimal approach for treatment of EH. PMID:26463434

  14. Therapeutic options for management of endometrial hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Vishal; Kim, Jong Joo; Benbrook, Doris Mangiaracina; Dwivedi, Anila; Rai, Rajani

    2016-01-01

    Endometrial hyperplasia (EH) comprises a spectrum of changes in the endometrium ranging from a slightly disordered pattern that exaggerates the alterations seen in the late proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle to irregular, hyperchromatic lesions that are similar to endometrioid adenocarcinoma. Generally, EH is caused by continuous exposure of estrogen unopposed by progesterone, polycystic ovary syndrome, tamoxifen, or hormone replacement therapy. Since it can progress, or often occur coincidentally with endometrial carcinoma, EH is of clinical importance, and the reversion of hyperplasia to normal endometrium represents the key conservative treatment for prevention of the development of adenocarcinoma. Presently, cyclic progestin or hysterectomy constitutes the major treatment option for EH without or with atypia, respectively. However, clinical trials of hormonal therapies and definitive standard treatments remain to be established for the management of EH. Moreover, therapeutic options for EH patients who wish to preserve fertility are challenging and require nonsurgical management. Therefore, future studies should focus on evaluation of new treatment strategies and novel compounds that could simultaneously target pathways involved in the pathogenesis of estradiol-induced EH. Novel therapeutic agents precisely targeting the inhibition of estrogen receptor, growth factor receptors, and signal transduction pathways are likely to constitute an optimal approach for treatment of EH. PMID:26463434

  15. Therapeutic options for obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Baby, Benesa S; Aronow, Wilbert S; Chandy, Dipak

    2013-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea is a common, chronic disorder characterized by the cessation or reduction in airflow due to periodic mechanical obstruction of the upper airway passage during sleep. Symptoms and signs of sleep apnea include daytime sleepiness, fatigue, poor concentration, snoring, resuscitative snorts, and related occupational accidents. Sleep apnea is classified into 3 types based on its severity and management varies accordingly. The first step in treatment is to identify correctible causes and educate patients on lifestyle modifications. Positive airway pressure is the preferred treatment modality and can be delivered via 3 different modes. Oral appliances are of 3 types and are generally indicated in mild to moderate obstructive sleep apnea. Surgery is a final therapeutic option that focuses on the removal of excessive tissue from different sites of the pharyngeal airway. PMID:21642831

  16. [Nystagmus : Clinical characteristics and therapeutic options].

    PubMed

    Käsmann-Kellner, B

    2016-03-01

    This article presents an overview of the pathophysiology of nystagmus and the differential diagnostics of congenital and acquired nystagmus. In addition, the principles of conservative, surgical and pharmacotherapy treatment options are described. The pathophysiological basis of nystagmus deepens the understanding of the etiology of the individual forms of nystagmus. The therapeutic approach to calming of nystagmus aims at an extension of the foveation time, which has the most significant impact on visual acuity. In congenital nystagmus this can be carried out by optimization of the retinal image, prisms or by bilateral surgical muscle repositioning to use the phenomenon of a null or neutral zone. In acquired nystagmus the off-label use of centrally acting medications can sometimes be helpful to calm the nystagmus and the associated oscillopsia. PMID:26936363

  17. Lagophthalmos after facial palsy: current therapeutic options.

    PubMed

    Vásquez, Luz María; Medel, Ramón

    2014-01-01

    As the facial nerve carries sensory, motor and parasympathetic fibres involved in facial muscle innervation, facial palsy results in functional and cosmetic impairment. It can result from a wide variety of causes like infectious processes, trauma, neoplasms, autoimmune diseases, and most commonly Bell's palsy, but it can also be of iatrogenic origin. The main ophthalmic sequel is lagophthalmos. The increased surface exposure increases the risk of keratitis, corneal ulceration, and potentially loss of vision. Treatment options are wide; some are temporary, some permanent. In addition to gold standard and traditional therapies and procedures, new options are being proposed aiming to improve not only lagophthalmos but also the quality of life of these patients. PMID:25342248

  18. Sarcopenia, Cachexia and Aging: Diagnosis, Mechanisms and Therapeutic Options

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Sumbul; Garcia, Jose M

    2014-01-01

    By the year 2050, individuals over the age of 65 will comprise 20% of the US population. Loss of muscle mass and strength is common in this age group and it is associated with increased dependence, frailty and mortality. Sarcopenia defined as the loss of muscle mass and function associated with aging, and cachexia defined as weight loss due to an underlying illness, are muscle wasting disorders of particular relevance in the aging population but they go largely unrecognized. In this review we highlight the common pathophysiological mechanisms underlying muscle loss in sarcopenia and cachexia, the factors unique to each condition and means to diagnose and differentiate them clinically. Therapeutic options including exercise, nutritional therapy, androgens, growth hormone and their practical limitations are discussed. We also shed light on newer agents being developed as potential therapeutic options for wasting diseases. PMID:24731978

  19. Coronaviruses - drug discovery and therapeutic options.

    PubMed

    Zumla, Alimuddin; Chan, Jasper F W; Azhar, Esam I; Hui, David S C; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2016-05-01

    In humans, infections with the human coronavirus (HCoV) strains HCoV-229E, HCoV-OC43, HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-HKU1 usually result in mild, self-limiting upper respiratory tract infections, such as the common cold. By contrast, the CoVs responsible for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), which were discovered in Hong Kong, China, in 2003, and in Saudi Arabia in 2012, respectively, have received global attention over the past 12 years owing to their ability to cause community and health-care-associated outbreaks of severe infections in human populations. These two viruses pose major challenges to clinical management because there are no specific antiviral drugs available. In this Review, we summarize the epidemiology, virology, clinical features and current treatment strategies of SARS and MERS, and discuss the discovery and development of new virus-based and host-based therapeutic options for CoV infections. PMID:26868298

  20. Antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and alternative therapeutic options.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Maitrayee; Anju, C P; Biswas, Lalitha; Anil Kumar, V; Gopi Mohan, C; Biswas, Raja

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a leading cause of nosocomial infections and is responsible for ∼10% of all hospital-acquired infections worldwide. It continues to pose a therapeutic challenge because of the high rate of morbidity and mortality associated with it and the possibility of development of drug resistance during therapy. Standard antibiotic regimes against P. aeruginosa are increasingly becoming ineffective due to the rise in drug resistance. With the scope for developing new antibiotics being limited, alternative treatment options are gaining more and more attention. A number of recent studies reported complementary and alternative treatment options to combat P. aeruginosa infections. Quorum sensing inhibitors, phages, probiotics, anti-microbial peptides, vaccine antigens and antimicrobial nanoparticles have the potential to act against drug resistant strains. Unfortunately, most studies considering alternative treatment options are still confined in the pre-clinical stages, although some of these findings have tremendous potential to be turned into valuable therapeutics. This review is intended to raise awareness of several novel approaches that can be considered further for combating drug resistant P. aeruginosa infections. PMID:26687205

  1. Anti-IL-31 receptor antibody is shown to be a potential therapeutic option for treating itch and dermatitis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kasutani, K; Fujii, E; Ohyama, S; Adachi, H; Hasegawa, M; Kitamura, H; Yamashita, N

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose IL-31, which is described as a pruritogenic cytokine, is linked to the itching that is associated with allergic and non-allergic eczema, but the precise pruritogenic mechanism of IL-31 and its potential as a therapeutic target for atopic dermatitis (AD) have not been determined. Experimental Approach We investigated the effects of existing drugs on the scratching behaviour induced by an i.v. injection of IL-31 to clarify whether IL-31 induced pruritus indirectly. In addition, we studied the effects of an anti-IL-31 receptor α subunit (anti-IL-31 receptor α) neutralizing antibody on chronic pruritus-inducing dermatitis in an AD-like model to determine whether IL-31 not only induces scratching behaviour, but is also the causative factor in an AD phenotype. Key Results The scratching behaviour induced by an i.v. injection of IL-31 was inhibited by pretreatment with an anti-IL-31 receptor α-neutralizing antibody. In contrast, it was not inhibited significantly by a non-sedative antihistamine (terfenadine), immunosuppressants (dexamethasone and tacrolimus), or a μ-opioid receptor antagonist (naloxone). The anti-IL-31 receptor α-neutralizing antibody reduced the ear swelling and dermatitis score in a chronic pruritus-inducing AD-like model. Moreover, treatment with the anti-IL-31 receptor α-neutralizing antibody showed therapeutic effects on the dermatitis even if it was injected after the disease had developed. Conclusions and Implications Anti-IL-31 receptor α is a potential novel therapeutic approach for escaping from the itch–scratch cycle and also a treatment for dermatitis in AD. PMID:24946165

  2. Graves' disease. Manifestations and therapeutic options.

    PubMed

    McFarland, K F; Saleeby, G

    1988-03-01

    Graves' disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism. Clinical features include thyroid enlargement, eye signs, tachycardia, heat intolerance, emotional lability, weight loss, and hyperkinesis. Three modes of therapy are available. The preferences of the patient and physician are usually prime considerations in devising the therapeutic plan. Radioactive iodine is the most frequently used and safest method of treatment for adults. Antithyroid drugs are preferred for children and pregnant women. Surgery is usually reserved for patients in whom the other forms of treatment are not acceptable. Considerable patient education during the decision-making process enhances the success of the therapeutic plan. PMID:2451239

  3. Graves' disease. Manifestations and therapeutic options

    SciTech Connect

    McFarland, K.F.; Saleeby, G.

    1988-03-01

    Graves' disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism. Clinical features include thyroid enlargement, eye signs, tachycardia, heat intolerance, emotional lability, weight loss, and hyperkinesis. Three modes of therapy are available. The preferences of the patient and physician are usually prime considerations in devising the therapeutic plan. Radioactive iodine is the most frequently used and safest method of treatment for adults. Antithyroid drugs are preferred for children and pregnant women. Surgery is usually reserved for patients in whom the other forms of treatment are not acceptable. Considerable patient education during the decision-making process enhances the success of the therapeutic plan.

  4. Update on therapeutic options for multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    McCoyd, Matthew

    2013-08-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is one of the most common neurologic disorders that affects young people. The disorder has long been associated with clinical relapses and a disabling course. However, there has been a rapid expansion in the available treatment options for MS, and new insights into existing therapies, as decades of research has begun to produce tangible treatment results leading to newly approved an emerging therapies. PMID:23896508

  5. Recurrent pericarditis: new and emerging therapeutic options.

    PubMed

    Imazio, Massimo; Lazaros, George; Brucato, Antonio; Gaita, Fiorenzo

    2016-02-01

    Recurrent pericarditis is one of the most common and troublesome complications after an episode of pericarditis, and affects 20-50% of patients treated for pericarditis. In most of these patients, the pericarditis remains idiopathic, although an immune-mediated (either autoimmune or autoinflammatory) pathogenesis is often presumed. The mainstay of therapy for recurrences is aspirin or NSAIDs, with the adjunct of colchicine. Corticosteroids are a second-line option to be considered for specific indications, such as connective tissue disease or pregnancy; contraindications or intolerance to aspirin, NSAIDs, and/or colchicine; or insufficient response to these medications. Furthermore, corticosteroids can be added to NSAIDs and colchicine in patients with persistent symptoms. In patients who do not respond adequately to any of these conventional therapies, alternative treatment options include azathioprine, intravenous human immunoglobulins, and anakinra. An improved understanding of how recurrent pericarditis develops after an initiating event is critical to prevent this complication, and further research is needed into the pathogenesis of recurrences. We discuss the aetiology and diagnosis of recurrent pericarditis, and extensively review the treatment options for this condition. PMID:26259934

  6. Therapeutic Options for the Management of the Cardiorenal Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Koniari, Katerina; Nikolaou, Marinos; Paraskevaidis, Ioannis; Parissis, John

    2011-01-01

    Patients with heart failure often present with impaired renal function, which is a predictor of poor outcome. The cardiorenal syndrome is the worsening of renal function, which is accelerated by worsening of heart failure or acute decompensated heart failure. Although it is a frequent clinical entity due to the improved survival of heart failure patients, still its pathophysiology is not well understood, and thus its therapeutic approach remains controversial and sometimes ineffective. Established therapeutic strategies, such as diuretics and inotropes, are often associated with resistance and limited clinical success. That leads to an increasing concern about novel options, such as the use of vasopressin antagonists, adenosine A1 receptor antagonists, and renal-protective dopamine. Initial clinical trials have shown quite encouraging results in some heart failure subpopulations but have failed to demonstrate a clear beneficial role of these agents. On the other hand, ultrafiltration appears to be a more promising therapeutic procedure that will improve volume regulation, while preserving renal and cardiac function. Further clinical studies are required in order to determine their net effect on renal function and potential cardiovascular outcomes. Until then, management of the cardiorenal syndrome remains quite empirical. PMID:21197109

  7. Phytotherapy: emerging therapeutic option in urologic disease

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Phytotherapy belongs to the area of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and the definition of phytotherapy is the use of plants or plant extracts for medicinal uses. Interest in phytotherapy is growing in both Asian and western countries for its use in the prevention and management of disease, improvement of general health and anti-aging. And also, there are several studies about the efficacy of phytotherapy in urologic diseases like benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), erectile dysfunction (ED), late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) and infertility in males. Phytotherapy for BPH including saw palmetto, pygeum, and nettles, is under vigorous research for the therapeutic effect. No solid evidence showing better effective treatment modality for ED than placebo has been found yet for phytotherapy. Recently, a potent NO donor, L-arginine is under research with promising results. Phytotherapy is used by a number of patients with urological disease, and urologists need to have accurate knowledge about phytotherapy as well as keep a cautious approach. The possible effects and side effects should be defined and related to urologic patients by urologists. PMID:26816707

  8. Emerging Therapeutic Options for Celiac Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bakshi, Anita; Stephen, Sindu; Borum, Marie L.

    2012-01-01

    Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder of the small intestine that is more common than was previously thought. This disease is caused by an inappropriate immune response to wheat gluten, barley, and rye. Three main pathways cause celiac disease: the environmental trigger (gluten), genetic susceptibility, and unusual gut permeability. The only treatment currently available is a strict gluten-free diet. Unfortunately, a majority of patients have difficulty complying with this diet, and the response to therapy is poor. Therefore, alternative treatments are being developed, and new insights into the pathophysiology of celiac disease have led to research into novel therapies. New treatments include engineering gluten-free grains, decreasing intestinal permeability by blockage of the epithelial zonulin receptor, inducing oral tolerance to gluten with a therapeutic vaccine, and degrading immunodominant gliadin peptides using probiotics with endopeptidases or transglutaminase inhibitors. These nondiet-based therapies provide hope for enhanced, lifelong celiac disease management with improved patient compliance and better quality of life. PMID:23483819

  9. Therapeutic options in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, Jaspreet S

    2009-01-01

    Current theraputic options for the treatment of symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) are reviewed. Therapeutic options for mild lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), as defined by the American Urological Association, are generally treated medically. Moderate to severe LUTS can be treated medically or with surgical therapy. Current medical and surgical treatments for LUTS secondary to BPH are reviewed and evolving treatments are explored. PMID:19936164

  10. Therapeutic options for the management of pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Maria L; Rehman, Azeem A; Gondi, Christopher S

    2014-01-01

    Since its initial characterization, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma has remained one of the most devastating and difficult cancers to treat. Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of death in the United States, resulting in an estimated 38460 deaths annually. With few screening tools available to detect this disease at an early stage, 94% of patients will die within five years of diagnosis. Despite decades of research that have led to a better understanding of the molecular and cellular signaling pathways in pancreatic cancer cells, few effective therapies have been developed to target these pathways. Other treatment options have included more sophisticated pancreatic cancer surgeries and combination therapies. While outcomes have improved modestly for these patients, more effective treatments are desperately needed. One of the greatest challenges in the future of treating this malignancy will be to develop therapies that target the tumor microenvironment and surrounding pancreatic cancer stem cells in addition to pancreatic cancer cells. Recent advances in targeting pancreatic stellate cells and the stroma have encouraged researchers to shift their focus to the role of desmoplasia in pancreatic cancer pathobiology in the hopes of developing newer-generation therapies. By combining novel agents with current cytotoxic chemotherapies and radiation therapy and personalizing them to each patient based on specific biomarkers, the goal of prolonging a patient’s life could be achieved. Here we review the most effective therapies that have been used for the treatment of pancreatic cancer and discuss the future potential of therapeutic options. PMID:25170201

  11. Current Therapeutic Options in Sturge-Weber Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Comi, Anne

    2015-12-01

    Sturge-Weber syndrome is a vascular malformation syndrome consisting of a facial port-wine birthmark associated with malformed leptomeningeal blood vessels and a choroid "angioma" of the eye. It is a rare neurocutaneous disorder that occurs sporadically, is not inherited, and is caused by a somatic mosaic mutation in GNAQ. In patients with Sturge-Weber syndrome, brain involvement typically presents in infancy with seizures, strokes, and stroke-like episodes, and a range of neurologic impairments. Standard treatment includes laser therapy for the birthmark, control of glaucoma through eyedrops or surgery, and the use of anticonvulsants. Increasingly low-dose aspirin is offered. Treatment with propranolol has been tried generally without the dramatic results seen in hemangiomas. Treatment with an anticonvulsant or low-dose aspirin or both before the onset of seizures is an option. Surgical resection may be offered to those whose seizures are medically refractory. Endocrine, medical rehabilitation and cognitive comorbidities are important to manage. In the future, new therapeutic options are likely to be offered stemming from preclinical studies and small pilot clinical trials currently ongoing. Discovery of the causative somatic mosaic mutation suggests new insights into the pathophysiology of this vascular malformation disorder, and potential novel treatment strategies for future study. The mutation results in constitutive overactivation of the Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK and the HIPPO-YAP pathways and inhibitors of these pathways may in the future prove useful in the treatment of Sturge-Weber syndrome. PMID:26706016

  12. Stem cells as promising therapeutic options for neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jongman; Kim, Han-Soo; Hwang, Dong-Youn

    2013-04-01

    Due to the limitations of pharmacological and other current therapeutic strategies, stem cell therapies have emerged as promising options for treating many incurable neurologic diseases. A variety of stem cells including pluripotent stem cells (i.e., embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells) and multipotent adult stem cells (i.e., fetal brain tissue, neural stem cells, and mesenchymal stem cells from various sources) have been explored as therapeutic options for treating many neurologic diseases, and it is becoming obvious that each type of stem cell has pros and cons as a source for cell therapy. Wise selection of stem cells with regard to the nature and status of neurologic dysfunctions is required to achieve optimal therapeutic efficacy. To this aim, the stem cell-mediated therapeutic efforts on four major neurological diseases, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and stroke, will be introduced, and current problems and future directions will be discussed. PMID:23097262

  13. Prehypertension: Underlying pathology and therapeutic options

    PubMed Central

    Albarwani, Sulayma; Al-Siyabi, Sultan; Tanira, Musbah O

    2014-01-01

    Prehypertension (PHTN) is a global major health risk that subjects individuals to double the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) independent of progression to overt hypertension. Its prevalence rate varies considerably from country to country ranging between 21.9% and 52%. Many hypotheses are proposed to explain the underlying pathophysiology of PHTN. The most notable of these implicate the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and vascular endothelium. However, other processes that involve reactive oxygen species, the inflammatory cytokines, prostglandins and C-reactive protein as well as the autonomic and central nervous systems are also suggested. Drugs affecting RAS have been shown to produce beneficial effects in prehypertensives though such was not unequivocal. On the other hand, drugs such as β-adrenoceptor blocking agents were not shown to be useful. Leading clinical guidelines suggest using dietary and lifestyle modifications as a first line interventional strategy to curb the progress of PHTN; however, other clinically respected views call for using drugs. This review provides an overview of the potential pathophysiological processes associated with PHTN, abridges current intervention strategies and suggests investigating the value of using the “Polypill” in prehypertensive subjects to ascertain its potential in delaying (or preventing) CVD associated with raised blood pressure in the presence of other risk factors. PMID:25228952

  14. Therapeutic options in peripheral T cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaping; Xu, Wei; Liu, Hong; Li, Jianyong

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral T cell lymphoma (PTCL) is a rare and heterogeneous group of non-Hodgkin lymphomas with a very poor prognosis. The standard first-line treatments have resulted in unsatisfactory patient outcomes. With the exception of low-risk anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL), the majority of patients relapse rapidly; the current 5-year overall survival rates are only 10-30 %. Novel targeted therapies and combination chemotherapies are required for the treatment of patients with PTCL. In recent years, some retrospective and prospective studies have been performed concerning PTCL. Consequently, a number of novel agents and their relevant combination therapies have been identified, including histone deacetylase inhibitors, immunoconjugates, antifolates, monoclonal antibodies, immunomodulatory agents, nucleoside analogs, proteasome inhibitors, kinase inhibitors, bendamustine, L-asparaginase, and other targeted agents. It is hoped that these innovative approaches will finally improve outcomes in patients with PTCL. This review summarizes the currently available approaches for the treatment of PTCL with an emphasis on potential new agents, including the role of stem cell transplantation. PMID:27071634

  15. Targeting inflammation in diabetes: Newer therapeutic options

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Neeraj Kumar; Kant, Saket

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation has been recognised to both decrease beta cell insulin secretion and increase insulin resistance. Circulating cytokines can affect beta cell function directly leading to secretory dysfunction and increased apoptosis. These cytokines can also indirectly affect beta cell function by increasing adipocyte inflammation.The resulting glucotoxicity and lipotoxicity further enhance the inflammatory process resulting in a vicious cycle. Weight reduction and drugs such as metformin have been shown to decrease the levels of C-Reactive Protein by 31% and 13%, respectively. Pioglitazone, insulin and statins have anti-inflammatory effects. Interleukin 1 and tumor necrosis factor-α antagonists are in trials and NSAIDs such as salsalate have shown an improvement in insulin sensitivity. Inhibition of 12-lipo-oxygenase, histone de-acetylases, and activation of sirtuin-1 are upcoming molecular targets to reduce inflammation. These therapies have also been shown to decrease the conversion of pre-diabetes state to diabetes. Drugs like glicazide, troglitazone, N-acetylcysteine and selective COX-2 inhibitors have shown benefit in diabetic neuropathy by decreasing inflammatory markers. Retinopathy drugs are used to target vascular endothelial growth factor, angiopoietin-2, various proteinases and chemokines. Drugs targeting the proteinases and various chemokines are pentoxifylline, inhibitors of nuclear factor-kappa B and mammalian target of rapamycin and are in clinical trials for diabetic nephropathy. Commonly used drugs such as insulin, metformin, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, glucagon like peptide-1 agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors also decrease inflammation. Anti-inflammatory therapies represent a potential approach for the therapy of diabetes and its complications. PMID:25317247

  16. Targeting inflammation in diabetes: Newer therapeutic options.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Neeraj Kumar; Kant, Saket

    2014-10-15

    Inflammation has been recognised to both decrease beta cell insulin secretion and increase insulin resistance. Circulating cytokines can affect beta cell function directly leading to secretory dysfunction and increased apoptosis. These cytokines can also indirectly affect beta cell function by increasing adipocyte inflammation.The resulting glucotoxicity and lipotoxicity further enhance the inflammatory process resulting in a vicious cycle. Weight reduction and drugs such as metformin have been shown to decrease the levels of C-Reactive Protein by 31% and 13%, respectively. Pioglitazone, insulin and statins have anti-inflammatory effects. Interleukin 1 and tumor necrosis factor-α antagonists are in trials and NSAIDs such as salsalate have shown an improvement in insulin sensitivity. Inhibition of 12-lipo-oxygenase, histone de-acetylases, and activation of sirtuin-1 are upcoming molecular targets to reduce inflammation. These therapies have also been shown to decrease the conversion of pre-diabetes state to diabetes. Drugs like glicazide, troglitazone, N-acetylcysteine and selective COX-2 inhibitors have shown benefit in diabetic neuropathy by decreasing inflammatory markers. Retinopathy drugs are used to target vascular endothelial growth factor, angiopoietin-2, various proteinases and chemokines. Drugs targeting the proteinases and various chemokines are pentoxifylline, inhibitors of nuclear factor-kappa B and mammalian target of rapamycin and are in clinical trials for diabetic nephropathy. Commonly used drugs such as insulin, metformin, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, glucagon like peptide-1 agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors also decrease inflammation. Anti-inflammatory therapies represent a potential approach for the therapy of diabetes and its complications. PMID:25317247

  17. Gallbladder carcinoma: Prognostic factors and therapeutic options

    PubMed Central

    Goetze, Thorsten Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The outcome of gallbladder carcinoma is poor, and the overall 5-year survival rate is less than 5%. In early-stage disease, a 5-year survival rate up to 75% can be achieved if stage-adjusted therapy is performed. There is wide geographic variability in the frequency of gallbladder carcinoma, which can only be explained by an interaction between genetic factors and their alteration. Gallstones and chronic cholecystitis are important risk factors in the formation of gallbladder malignancies. Factors such as chronic bacterial infection, primary sclerosing cholangitis, an anomalous junction of the pancreaticobiliary duct, and several types of gallbladder polyps are associated with a higher risk of gallbladder cancer. There is also an interesting correlation between risk factors and the histological type of cancer. However, despite theoretical risk factors, only a third of gallbladder carcinomas are recognized preoperatively. In most patients, the tumor is diagnosed by the pathologist after a routine cholecystectomy for a benign disease and is termed ‘‘incidental or occult gallbladder carcinoma’’ (IGBC). A cholecystectomy is performed frequently due to the minimal invasiveness of the laparoscopic technique. Therefore, the postoperative diagnosis of potentially curable early-stage disease is more frequent. A second radical re-resection to complete a radical cholecystectomy is required for several IGBCs. However, the literature and guidelines used in different countries differ regarding the radicality or T-stage criteria for performing a radical cholecystectomy. The NCCN guidelines and data from the German registry (GR), which records the largest number of incidental gallbladder carcinomas in Europe, indicate that carcinomas infiltrating the muscularis propria or beyond require radical surgery. According to GR data and current literature, a wedge resection with a combined dissection of the lymph nodes of the hepatoduodenal ligament is adequate for T1b and T2 carcinomas. The reason for a radical cholecystectomy after simple CE in a formally R0 situation is either occult invasion or hepatic spread with unknown lymphogenic dissemination. Unfortunately, there are diverse interpretations and practices regarding stage-adjusted therapy for gallbladder carcinoma. The current data suggest that more radical therapy is warranted. PMID:26604631

  18. Novel therapeutic strategies for acute lung injury induced by lung damaging agents: the potential role of growth factors as treatment options.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Christopher D

    2011-07-01

    The increasing threat from terrorism has brought attention to the possible use of toxic industrial compounds (TICs) and other lung-damaging agents as weapons against civilian populations. The way in which these agents could be used favours the development of generic countermeasures. Improved medical countermeasures would increase survivability and improve the quality of recovery of lung damaged casualties. It is evident that there is a dearth of therapeutic regimes available to treat those forms of lung damage that currently require intensive care management. It is quite possible that mass casualties from a terrorist incident or major industrial accident involving the release of large quantities of inhaled TICs would place a severe burden on already scarce intensive care facilities. The development of effective pharmacological approaches to assist the recovery of casualties suffering from acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) may improve the prognosis of such patients (which is currently poor) and would ideally be used as a means of preventing subjects from developing the pulmonary oedema characteristic of ALI/ARDS. Many promising candidate pharmacological treatments have been evaluated for the treatment of ALI/ARDS, but their clinical value is often debatable. Thus, despite improvements in ventilation strategies, pharmacological intervention for ALI/ARDS remains problematical. A new approach is clearly required for the treatment of patients with severely compromised lungs. Whilst the pathology of ALI/ARDS associated with exposure to a variety of agents is complex, numerous experimental studies suggest that generic therapeutic intervention directed at approaches that aim to upregulate repair of the damaged alveolar blood/air barrier of the lung may be of value, particularly with respect to chemical-induced injury. To this end, keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), epithelial growth factor (EGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) are emerging as the most important candidates. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) does not have epithelial specificity for lung tissue. However, the enhanced effects of combinations of growth factors, such as the synergistic effect of HGF upon vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-mediated endothelial cell activity, and the combined effect of HGF and KGF in tissue repair should be investigated, particularly as the latter pair of growth factors are frequently implicated in processes associated with the repair of lung damage. Synergistic interactions also occur between trefoil factor family (TFF) peptides and growth factors such as EGF. TFF peptides are most likely to be of value as a short term therapeutic intervention strategy in stimulating epithelial spreading activities which allow damaged mucosal surfaces to be rapidly covered by epithelial cells. PMID:20621953

  19. Electrical Storms in Brugada Syndrome: Review of Pharmacologic and Ablative Therapeutic Options

    PubMed Central

    P, Maury; M, Hocini; M, Haïssaguerre

    2005-01-01

    Electrical storm occurring in a patient with the Brugada syndrome is an exceptional but malignant and potentially lethal event. Efficient therapeutic solutions should be known and urgently applied because of the inability of usual antiarrhythmic means in preventing multiple recurrences of ventricular arrhythmias. Isoproterenol should be immediately infused while oral quinidine should be further administrated when isoproterenol is not effective. In case of failure of these therapeutic options, ablation of the triggering ventricular ectopies should be attempted. PMID:16943940

  20. Microparticles in angiogenesis: therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Martinez, M Carmen; Andriantsitohaina, Ramaroson

    2011-06-24

    Considered during the past decades as cell dust, microparticles are now deemed true biomarkers and vectors of biological information between cells. Depending on their origin, the composition of microparticles varies and the subsequent message transported by them, such as proteins, mRNA, or miRNA, can differ. Recent studies have described microparticles as "cargos" of deleterious information in blood vessel wall under pathological situations such as hypertension, myocardial infarction, and metabolic syndrome. In addition, it has been reported that depending on their origin, microparticles also possess a therapeutic potential regarding angiogenesis. Microparticles can act directly through the interaction ligand/receptor or indirectly on angiogenesis by modulating soluble factor production involved in endothelial cell differentiation, proliferation, migration, and adhesion; by reprogramming endothelial mature cells; and by inducing changes in levels, phenotype, and function of endothelial progenitor cells. This results in an increase in formation of in vitro capillary-like tubes and the generation of new vessels in vivo under ischemic conditions, for instance. Taking into consideration these properties of microparticles, recent evidence provides new basis to expand the possibility that microparticles might be used as therapeutic tools in pathologies associated with an alteration of angiogenesis. PMID:21700952

  1. Therapeutic potential of Acalypha fruticosa.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, V; Guha, Gunjan; Kumar, R Ashok

    2010-06-01

    Prevention of various diseases using natural compounds has been of interest for many decades. Floral diversity has been widely investigated for possible protective and preventive properties, and various plant-based medicines have been introduced in the recent times. Antioxidant potential, cytotoxicity and DNA cleavage protective properties of methanolic and aqueous extracts of Acalypha fruticosa Forssk were evaluated in this study. The amount of total phenolics was determined by a spectrophotometric method. Ferric reducing antioxidant property (FRAP) assay, radical scavenging assays (DPPH() and ()OH) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) assay for testing inhibition of lipid peroxidation were employed to determine antioxidant property of the extracts. Furthermore, cytotoxicity of both extracts was tested by XTT assay in MDA-MB-435S (human breast carcinoma cell line) and Hep3B (human hepatocellular carcinoma). DNA protective efficiency of the extracts was also studied using UV-photolysed H(2)O(2)-driven oxidative damage to pBR322. Both extracts exhibited promising antioxidant potentials and marginal cytotoxicity to the tested cell lines. Simultaneously, the extracts showed considerably high DNA-protection against photolysed H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative damage in pBR322. The study concluded that A. fruticosa holds colossal and diverse therapeutic potentials which might be useful in development of drugs or their precursors, thereby holding immense clinical prospect. PMID:20380863

  2. Therapeutic potential of cannabinoids in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Kucerova, Jana; Tabiova, Katarina; Drago, Filippo; Micale, Vincenzo

    2014-04-01

    Increasing evidence suggests a close relationship between the endocannabinoid system and schizophrenia. The endocannabinoid system comprises of two G protein-coupled receptors (the cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2 [CB1 and CB2] for marijuana's psychoactive principle Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol), their endogenous small lipid ligands (namely anandamide [AEA] and 2-arachidonoylglycerol [2-AG], also known as endocannabinoids), and proteins for endocannabinoid biosynthesis and degradation. It has been suggested to be a pro-homeostatic and pleiotropic signalling system activated in a time- and tissue-specific manner during pathophysiological conditions. In the brain, activation of this system impacts the release of numerous neurotransmitters in various systems and cytokines from glial cells. Hence, the endocannabinoid system is strongly involved in neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia. Therefore, adolescence use of Cannabis may alter the endocannabinoid signalling and pose a potential environmental risk to develop psychosis. Consistently, preclinical and clinical studies have found a dysregulation in the endocannabinoid system such as changed expression of CB1 and CB2 receptors or altered levels of AEA and 2-AG . Thus, due to the partial efficacy of actual antipsychotics, compounds which modulate this system may provide a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of schizophrenia. The present article reviews current available knowledge on herbal, synthetic and endogenous cannabinoids with respect to the modulation of schizophrenic symptomatology. Furthermore, this review will be highlighting the therapeutic potential of cannabinoid-related compounds and presenting some promising patents targeting potential treatment options for schizophrenia. PMID:24605939

  3. Therapeutic potential of cannabinoid medicines.

    PubMed

    Robson, P J

    2014-01-01

    Cannabis was extensively used as a medicine throughout the developed world in the nineteenth century but went into decline early in the twentieth century ahead of its emergence as the most widely used illicit recreational drug later that century. Recent advances in cannabinoid pharmacology alongside the discovery of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) have re-ignited interest in cannabis-based medicines. The ECS has emerged as an important physiological system and plausible target for new medicines. Its receptors and endogenous ligands play a vital modulatory role in diverse functions including immune response, food intake, cognition, emotion, perception, behavioural reinforcement, motor co-ordination, body temperature, wake/sleep cycle, bone formation and resorption, and various aspects of hormonal control. In disease it may act as part of the physiological response or as a component of the underlying pathology. In the forefront of clinical research are the cannabinoids delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol, and their contrasting pharmacology will be briefly outlined. The therapeutic potential and possible risks of drugs that inhibit the ECS will also be considered. This paper will then go on to review clinical research exploring the potential of cannabinoid medicines in the following indications: symptomatic relief in multiple sclerosis, chronic neuropathic pain, intractable nausea and vomiting, loss of appetite and weight in the context of cancer or AIDS, psychosis, epilepsy, addiction, and metabolic disorders. PMID:24006213

  4. Therapeutic Options in Idiopathic Burning Mouth Syndrome: Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Miziara, Ivan; Chagury, Azis; Vargas, Camila; Freitas, Ludmila; Mahmoud, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is characterized by a burning sensation in the tongue, palate, lips, or gums of no well-defined etiology. The diagnosis and treatment for primary BMS are controversial. No specific laboratory tests or diagnostic criteria are well established, and the diagnosis is made by excluding all other possible disorders. Objective To review the literature on the main treatment options in idiopathic BMS and compare the best results of the main studies in 15 years. Data Synthesis We conducted a literature review on PubMed/MEDLINE, SciELO, and Cochrane-BIREME of work in the past 15 years, and only selected studies comparing different therapeutic options in idiopathic BMS, with preference for randomized and double-blind controlled studies. Final Comments Topical clonazepam showed good short-term results for the relief of pain, although this was not presented as a definitive cure. Similarly, α-lipoic acid showed good results, but there are few randomized controlled studies that showed the long-term results and complete remission of symptoms. On the other hand, cognitive therapy is reported as a good and lasting therapeutic option with the advantage of not having side effects, and it can be combined with pharmacologic therapy. PMID:25992157

  5. Pediatric lymphatic malformations: evolving understanding and therapeutic options.

    PubMed

    Defnet, Ann M; Bagrodia, Naina; Hernandez, Sonia L; Gwilliam, Natalie; Kandel, Jessica J

    2016-05-01

    Multimodal treatment of lymphatic malformations continues to expand as new information about the biology and genetics of these lesions is discovered, along with knowledge gained from clinical practice. A patient-centered approach, ideally provided by a multidisciplinary medical and surgical team, should guide timing and modality of treatment. Current treatment options include observation, surgery, sclerotherapy, radiofrequency ablation, and laser therapy. New medical and surgical therapies are emerging, and include sildenafil, propranolol, sirolimus, and vascularized lymph node transfer. The primary focus of management is to support and optimize these patients' quality of life. Researchers continue to study lymphatic malformations with the goal of increasing therapeutic options and developing effective clinical pathways for these complicated lesions. PMID:26815877

  6. HIV Neurotoxicity: Potential Therapeutic Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, David R.

    2006-01-01

    Individuals suffering from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection suffer from a wide range of neurological deficits. The most pronounced are the motor and cognitive deficits observed in many patients in the latter stages of HIV infection. Gross postmortem inspection shows cortical atrophy and widespread neuronal loss. One of the more debilitating of the HIV-related syndromes is AIDS-related dementia, or HAD. Complete understanding of HIV neurotoxicity has been elusive. Both direct and indirect toxic mechanisms have been implicated in the neurotoxicity of the HIV proteins, Tat and gp120. The glutamatergic system, nitric oxide, calcium, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and microglia have all been implicated in the pathogenesis of HIV-related neuronal degeneration. The aim of this review is to summarize the most recent work and provide an overview to the current theories of HIV-related neurotoxicity and potential avenues of therapeutic interventions to prevent the neuronal loss and motor/cognitive deficits previously described. PMID:17047310

  7. Thymoquinone and its therapeutic potentials.

    PubMed

    Darakhshan, Sara; Bidmeshki Pour, Ali; Hosseinzadeh Colagar, Abasalt; Sisakhtnezhad, Sajjad

    2015-01-01

    Herbal medicine has attracted great attention in the recent years and is increasingly used as alternatives to chemical drugs. Several lines of evidence support the positive impact of medicinal plants in the prevention and cure of a wide range of diseases. Thymoquinone (TQ) is the most abundant constituent of the volatile oil of Nigella sativa seeds and most properties of N sativa are mainly attributed to TQ. A number of pharmacological actions of TQ have been investigated including anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, anti-histaminic, anti-microbial and anti-tumor effects. It has also gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective and neuroprotective activities. In addition, positive effects of TQ in cardiovascular disorders, diabetes, reproductive disorders and respiratory ailments, as well as in the treatment of bone complications as well as fibrosis have been shown. In addition, a large body of data shows that TQ has very low adverse effects and no serious toxicity. More recently, a great deal of attention has been given to this dietary phytochemical with an increasing interest to investigate it in pre-clinical and clinical researches for assessing its health benefits. Here we report on and analyze numerous properties of the active ingredient of N. sativa seeds, TQ, in the context of its therapeutic potentials for a wide range of illnesses. We also summarize the drug's possible mechanisms of action. The evidence reported sugests that TQ should be developed as a novel drug in clinical trials. PMID:25829334

  8. Therapeutic potential of atmospheric neutrons

    PubMed Central

    Voyant, Cyril; Roustit, Rudy; Tatje, Jennifer; Biffi, Katia; Leschi, Delphine; Briançon, Jérome; Marcovici, Céline Lantieri

    2010-01-01

    Background Glioblastoma multiform (GBM) is the most common and most aggressive type of primary brain tumour in humans. It has a very poor prognosis despite multi-modality treatments consisting of open craniotomy with surgical resection, followed by chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. Recently, a new treatment has been proposed – Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) – which exploits the interaction between Boron-10 atoms (introduced by vector molecules) and low energy neutrons produced by giant accelerators or nuclear reactors. Methods The objective of the present study is to compute the deposited dose using a natural source of neutrons (atmospheric neutrons). For this purpose, Monte Carlo computer simulations were carried out to estimate the dosimetric effects of a natural source of neutrons in the matter, to establish if atmospheric neutrons interact with vector molecules containing Boron-10. Results The doses produced (an average of 1 μGy in a 1 g tumour) are not sufficient for therapeutic treatment of in situ tumours. However, the non-localised yet specific dosimetric properties of 10B vector molecules could prove interesting for the treatment of micro-metastases or as (neo)adjuvant treatment. On a cellular scale, the deposited dose is approximately 0.5 Gy/neutron impact. Conclusion It has been shown that BNCT may be used with a natural source of neutrons, and may potentially be useful for the treatment of micro-metastases. The atmospheric neutron flux is much lower than that utilized during standard NBCT. However the purpose of the proposed study is not to replace the ordinary NBCT but to test if naturally occurring atmospheric neutrons, considered to be an ionizing pollution at the Earth's surface, can be used in the treatment of a disease such as cancer. To finalize this study, it is necessary to quantify the biological effects of the physically deposited dose, taking into account the characteristics of the incident particles (alpha particle and Lithium atom) and radio-induced effects (by-stander and low dose effect). One of the aims of the presented paper is to propose to experimental teams (which would be interested in studying the phenomena) a simple way to calculate the dose deposition (allometric fit of free path, transmission factor of brain). PMID:24669300

  9. Inner ear symptoms and disease: Pathophysiological understanding and therapeutic options

    PubMed Central

    Ciuman, Raphael R.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, huge advances have taken place in understanding of inner ear pathophysiology causing sensorineural hearing loss, tinnitus, and vertigo. Advances in understanding comprise biochemical and physiological research of stimulus perception and conduction, inner ear homeostasis, and hereditary diseases with underlying genetics. This review describes and tabulates the various causes of inner ear disease and defines inner ear and non-inner ear causes of hearing loss, tinnitus, and vertigo. The aim of this review was to comprehensively breakdown this field of otorhinolaryngology for specialists and non-specialists and to discuss current therapeutic options in distinct diseases and promising research for future therapies, especially pharmaceutic, genetic, or stem cell therapy. PMID:24362017

  10. gp130 receptor ligands as potential therapeutic targets for obesity

    PubMed Central

    Febbraio, Mark A.

    2007-01-01

    Obesity and its related cluster of pathophysiologic conditions including insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension are recognized as growing threats to world health. It is now estimated that 10% of the worlds population is overweight or obese. As a result, new therapeutic options for the treatment of obesity are clearly warranted. Recent research has focused on the role that gp130 receptor ligands may play as potential therapeutic targets in obesity. One cytokine in particular, ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), acts both centrally and peripherally and mimics the biologic actions of the appetite control hormone leptin, but unlike leptin, CNTF appears to be effective in obesity and as such may have therapeutic potential. In addition, CNTF suppresses inflammatory signaling cascades associated with lipid accumulation in liver and skeletal muscle. This review examines the potential role of gp130 receptor ligands as part of a therapeutic strategy to treat obesity. PMID:17404609

  11. Skewed Epigenetics: An Alternative Therapeutic Option for Diabetes Complications

    PubMed Central

    Togliatto, Gabriele; Dentelli, Patrizia; Brizzi, Maria Felice

    2015-01-01

    Vascular complications are major causes of morbidity and mortality in type 2 diabetes patients. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and a lack of efficient antioxidant machinery, a result of hyperglycaemia, mainly contribute to this problem. Although advances in therapy have significantly reduced both morbidity and mortality in diabetic individuals, diabetes-associated vascular complications are still one of the most challenging health problems worldwide. New healing options are urgently needed as current therapeutics are failing to improve long-term outcomes. Particular effort has recently been devoted to understanding the functional relationship between chromatin structure regulation and the persistent change in gene expression which is driven by hyperglycaemia and which accounts for long-lasting diabetic complications. A detailed investigation into epigenetic chromatin modifications in type 2 diabetes is underway. This will be particularly useful in the design of mechanism-based therapeutics which interfere with long-lasting activating epigenetics and improve patient outcomes. We herein provide an overview of the most relevant mechanisms that account for hyperglycaemia-induced changes in chromatin structure; the most relevant mechanism is called “metabolic memory.” PMID:26064979

  12. Transcriptome Sequencing of Tumor Subpopulations Reveals a Spectrum of Therapeutic Options for Squamous Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Christian L.; Schwab, Richard B.; Jung, HyunChul; Crain, Brian; Goff, Daniel J.; Jamieson, Catriona H. M.; Thistlethwaite, Patricia A.; Harismendy, Olivier; Carson, Dennis A.; Frazer, Kelly A.

    2013-01-01

    Background The only therapeutic options that exist for squamous cell lung carcinoma (SCC) are standard radiation and cytotoxic chemotherapy. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are hypothesized to account for therapeutic resistance, suggesting that CSCs must be specifically targeted. Here, we analyze the transcriptome of CSC and non-CSC subpopulations by RNA-seq to identify new potential therapeutic strategies for SCC. Methods We sorted a SCC into CD133− and CD133+ subpopulations and then examined both by copy number analysis (CNA) and whole genome and transcriptome sequencing. We analyzed The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) transcriptome data of 221 SCCs to determine the generality of our observations. Results Both subpopulations highly expressed numerous mRNA isoforms whose protein products are active drug targets for other cancers; 31 (25%) correspond to 18 genes under active investigation as mAb targets and an additional 4 (3%) are of therapeutic interest. Moreover, we found evidence that both subpopulations were proliferatively driven by very high levels of c-Myc and the TRAIL long isoform (TRAILL) and that normal apoptotic responses to high expression of these genes was prevented through high levels of Mcl-1L and Bcl-xL and c-FlipL—isoforms for which drugs are now in clinical development. SCC RNA-seq data (n = 221) from TCGA supported our findings. Our analysis is inconsistent with the CSC concept that most cells in a cancer have lost their proliferative potential. Furthermore, our study suggests how to target both the CSC and non-CSC subpopulations with one treatment strategy. Conclusions Our study is relevant to SCC in particular for it presents numerous potential options to standard therapy that target the entire tumor. In so doing, it demonstrates how transcriptome sequencing provides insights into the molecular underpinnings of cancer propagating cells that, importantly, can be leveraged to identify new potential therapeutic options for cancers beyond what is possible with DNA sequencing. PMID:23527012

  13. Therapeutic options and results following fixed atlantoaxial rotatory dislocations.

    PubMed

    Weisskopf, Markus; Naeve, Detlef; Ruf, Michael; Harms, Jürgen; Jeszenszky, Dezsö

    2005-02-01

    Atlantoaxial rotatory dislocation (AARD) represents a rare pathological condition of the upper cervical spine that is frequently misdiagnosed, leading to a delay in therapy. In a long-term assessment of clinical and radiological results, three different therapeutic options with regard to the length of the dislocation-therapy interval (DTI) were evaluated. Twenty-six patients were treated for AARD from December 1988 until April 2000. Proper diagnosis was established after an average interval of 15 months. Three different therapeutical protocols were followed in order to reduce the dislocation: (1) closed transoral reposition under general anesthesia; (2) temporary transoral fixation utilizing the Harms T-plate; (3) definitive transoral fusion. The eight patients treated by closed reduction had the best pain relief. The average visual analogue scale (VAS) score was 96.6 points, while the rotatory motion of the upper cervical spine, as assessed by dynamic MRI, was 25.3 degrees to each side. The length of the dislocation-therapy-interval (DTI) averaged 1.4 months. A mean VAS Score of 92.3 points was recorded in the ten patients treated with a temporary fixation of C1/C2. In this subgroup the DTI had an average length of 5.3 months. The mean rotation to each side was 13.9 degrees . In the eight patients who underwent definitive fusion the mean VAS score was 60.6 points, while the average length of the DTI was 40.5 months. In conclusion, the clinical outcome and the subjective well-being following AARD deteriorates with increasing length of the dislocation-therapy interval. PMID:15258837

  14. Rational Therapeutic Options for Patients with Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    Patients with advanced forms of primary myelofibrosis (PMF) have an average survival of 4 to 5 years. At present, the standard of care for these patients is largely palliative, including supportive measures and the use of a variety of therapeutic agents, each of which's directed toward reducing transfusion requirements or decreasing the degree of splenomegaly. Currently, allogeneic stem-cell transplantation remains the only potentially curative approach for PMF. Although the administration of Janus Kinase 2 (JAK2) inhibitors to patients with PMF often dramatically reduces the degree of splenomegaly and improves in systemic symptoms, these drugs do not correct the cytopenias associated with PMF, nor do they reverse abnormalities of BM architecture or substantially influence the JAK2V617F allele burden. Furthermore, the effects of such small-molecule therapy on the natural history of PMF and the rate of its evolution to acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remain uncertain. Recently, additional genetic alterations that precede or accompany JAK2V617F in PMF have been documented. These findings indicate that therapies directed against a single genetic lesion such as JAK2V617F are unlikely to be curative of PMF. These observations have led us to consider alternative therapeutic targets for drug development. The dysregulation of the hematopoietic microenvironment in PMF provides an attractive therapeutic target. Novel agents capable of correcting the abnormalities seen in PMF would probably be used in combination with the currently available therapeutic armamentarium, including the JAK2 inhibitors, to treat patients with PMF, which would represent a paradigm shift in the management of such patients. PMID:21686205

  15. Rectal cancer and Fournier's gangrene - current knowledge and therapeutic options.

    PubMed

    Bruketa, Tomislav; Majerovic, Matea; Augustin, Goran

    2015-08-14

    Fournier's gangrene (FG) is a rapid progressive bacterial infection that involves the subcutaneous fascia and part of the deep fascia but spares the muscle in the scrotal, perianal and perineal region. The incidence has increased dramatically, while the reported incidence of rectal cancer-induced FG is unknown but is extremely low. Pathophysiology and clinical presentation of rectal cancer-induced FG per se does not differ from the other causes. Only rectal cancer-specific symptoms before presentation can lead to the diagnosis. The diagnosis of rectal cancer-induced FG should be excluded in every patient with blood on digital rectal examination, when urogenital and dermatological causes are excluded and when fever or sepsis of unknown origin is present with perianal symptomatology. Therapeutic options are more complex than for other forms of FG. First, the causative rectal tumor should be removed. The survival of patients with rectal cancer resection is reported as 100%, while with colostomy it is 80%. The preferred method of rectal resection has not been defined. Second, oncological treatment should be administered but the timing should be adjusted to the resolution of the FG and sometimes for the healing of plastic reconstructive procedures that are commonly needed for the reconstruction of large perineal, scrotal and lower abdominal wall defects. PMID:26290629

  16. Non-obstructive azoospermia and clinical varicocele: therapeutic options.

    PubMed

    Elzanaty, Saad

    2013-06-01

    Ten to fifteen percent of infertile men are azoospermic, and sixty percent of these men have been classified as having non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA). NOA results from testicular failure, and one of the causes of this is the presence of varicocele. Varicocele is observed in 5-10 % of men with NOA. This review discusses the impact of varicocele repair on semen quality and pregnancy rate among men with NOA. Based on the best available evidence, varicocele repair of men with NOA is associated with an improvement in semen quality and pregnancy rate. Thus, it appears to be an effective therapeutic option for this group of men, particularly for those with a female partner who is younger than 35 years of age, before an assisted reproductive technique (ART) is initiated. Semen cryopreservation is recommended once the patient has spermatozoa in the ejaculate. In addition, varicocele repair seems to improve the rate of spermatozoa recovery in testicular sperm extraction for those who requested ART. PMID:23604704

  17. Minocycline: therapeutic potential in psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Dean, Olivia M; Data-Franco, João; Giorlando, Francesco; Berk, Michael

    2012-05-01

    Pharmacological interventions to treat psychiatric illness have previously focused on modifying dysfunctional neurotransmitter systems to improve symptoms. However, imperfect understanding of the aetiology of these heterogeneous syndromes has been associated with poor treatment outcomes for many individuals. Growing evidence suggests that oxidative stress, inflammation, changes in glutamatergic pathways and neurotrophins play important roles in many psychiatric illnesses including mood disorders, schizophrenia and addiction. These novel insights into pathophysiology allow new treatment targets to be explored. Minocycline is an antibiotic that can modulate glutamate-induced excitotoxicity, and has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. Given that these mechanisms overlap with the newly understood pathophysiological pathways, minocycline has potential as an adjunctive treatment in psychiatry. To date there have been promising clinical indications that minocycline may be a useful treatment in psychiatry, albeit from small trials most of which were not placebo controlled. Case reports of individuals with schizophrenia, psychotic symptoms and bipolar depression have shown serendipitous benefits of minocycline treatment on psychiatric symptoms. Minocycline has been trialled in open-label or small randomized controlled trials in psychiatry. Results vary, with findings supporting use in schizophrenia, but showing less benefit for nicotine dependence and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Given the limited data from rigorous clinical trials, further research is required. However, taken together, the current evidence suggests minocycline may be a promising novel therapy in psychiatry. PMID:22486246

  18. Therapeutic Options for Controlling Fluids in the Visual System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curry, Kristina M.; Wotring, Virginia E.

    2014-01-01

    Visual Impairment/Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) is a newly recognized risk at NASA. The VIIP project examines the effect of long-term exposure to microgravity on vision of crewmembers before and after they return to Earth. Diamox (acetazolamide) is a medication which is used to decrease intraocular pressure; however, it carries a 3% risk of kidney stones. Astronauts are at a higher risk of kidney stones during spaceflight and the use Diamox would only increase the risk; therefore alternative therapies were investigated. Histamine 2 (H2) antagonist acid blockers such as cimetidine, ranitidine, famotidine and nizatidine are typically used to relieve the symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). H2 receptors have been found in the human visual system, which has led to research on the use of H2 antagonist blockers to control fluid production in the human eye. Another potential therapeutic strategy is targeted at aquaporins, which are water channels that help maintain fluid homeostasis. Aquaporin antagonists are also known to affect intracranial pressure which can in turn alter intraocular pressure. Studies on aquaporin antagonists suggest high potential for effective treatment. The primary objective of this investigation is to review existing research on alternate medications or therapy to significantly reduce intracranial and intraocular pressure. A literature review was conducted. Even though we do not have all the answers quite yet, a considerable amount of information was discovered, and findings were narrowed, which should allow for more conclusive answers to be found in the near future.

  19. Current and emerging therapeutic options for the treatment of chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Muratore, Claudio A; Baranchuk, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    Chagas’ disease is an endemic disease in Latin America caused by a unicellular parasite (Trypanosoma cruzi) that affects almost 18 million people. This condition involves the heart, causing heart failure, arrhythmias, heart block, thromboembolism, stroke, and sudden death. In this article, we review the current and emerging treatment of Chagas’ cardiomyopathy focusing mostly on management of heart failure and arrhythmias. Heart failure therapeutical options including drugs, stem cells and heart transplantation are revised. Antiarrhythmic drugs, catheter ablation, and intracardiac devices are discussed as well. Finally, the evidence for a potential role of specific antiparasitic treatment for the prevention of cardiovascular disease is reviewed. PMID:20730015

  20. Therapeutic potential of curcumin in gastrointestinal diseases.

    PubMed

    Rajasekaran, Sigrid A

    2011-02-15

    Curcumin, also known as diferuloylmethane, is derived from the plant Curcuma longa and is the active ingredient of the spice turmeric. The therapeutic activities of curcumin for a wide variety of diseases such as diabetes, allergies, arthritis and other chronic and inflammatory diseases have been known for a long time. More recently, curcumin's therapeutic potential for preventing and treating various cancers is being recognized. As curcumin's therapeutic promise is being explored more systematically in various diseases, it has become clear that, due to its increased bioavailability in the gastrointestinal tract, curcumin may be particularly suited to be developed to treat gastrointestinal diseases. This review summarizes some of the current literature of curcumin's anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-cancer potential in inflammatory bowel diseases, hepatic fibrosis and gastrointestinal cancers. PMID:21607160

  1. Conotoxins: Structure, Therapeutic Potential and Pharmacological Applications.

    PubMed

    Mir, Rafia; Karim, Sajjad; Kamal, Mohammad Amjad; Wilson, Cornelia M; Mirza, Zeenat

    2016-01-01

    Cone snails, also known as marine gastropods, from Conus genus produce in their venom a diverse range of small pharmacologically active structured peptides called conotoxins. The cone snail venoms are widely unexplored arsenal of toxins with therapeutic and pharmacological potential, making them a treasure trove of ligands and peptidic drug leads. Conotoxins are small disulfide bonded peptides, which act as remarkable selective inhibitors and modulators of ion channels (calcium, sodium, potassium), nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, noradrenaline transporters, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, and neurotensin receptors. They are highly potent and specific against several neuronal targets making them valuable as research tools, drug leads and even therapeutics. In this review, we discuss their gene superfamily classification, nomenclature, post-translational modification, structural framework, pharmacology and medical applications of the active conopeptides. We aim to give an overview of their structure and therapeutic potential. Understanding these aspects of conopeptides will help in designing more specific peptidic analogues. PMID:26601961

  2. Therapeutic potential of curcumin in gastrointestinal diseases

    PubMed Central

    Rajasekaran, Sigrid A

    2011-01-01

    Curcumin, also known as diferuloylmethane, is derived from the plant Curcuma longa and is the active ingredient of the spice turmeric. The therapeutic activities of curcumin for a wide variety of diseases such as diabetes, allergies, arthritis and other chronic and inflammatory diseases have been known for a long time. More recently, curcumin’s therapeutic potential for preventing and treating various cancers is being recognized. As curcumin’s therapeutic promise is being explored more systematically in various diseases, it has become clear that, due to its increased bioavailability in the gastrointestinal tract, curcumin may be particularly suited to be developed to treat gastrointestinal diseases. This review summarizes some of the current literature of curcumin’s anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-cancer potential in inflammatory bowel diseases, hepatic fibrosis and gastrointestinal cancers. PMID:21607160

  3. Therapeutic options in pediatric non alcoholic fatty liver disease: current status and future directions

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The epidemics of overweight and obesity has resulted in a significant increase of non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a potentially progressive condition. Currently, obesity related hepatopathy represents therefore the main cause of pediatric chronic liver disease. The first choice treatment at all ages is weight loss and/or lifestyle changes, however compliance is very poor and a pharmacological approach has become necessary. In the present article we present a systematic literature review focusing on established pediatric NALFD drugs (ursodeoxycholic acid, insulin sensitizers, and antioxidants) and on innovative therapeutic options as well. Regarding the former ones, a pediatric pilot study highlighted that ursodeoxycholic acid is not efficient on transaminases levels and bright liver. Similarly, a recent large scale, multicenter randomized clinical trial (TONIC study) showed that also insulin sensitizers and antioxidant vitamin E have scarce effects on serum transaminase levels. Among a large series of novel therapeutic approaches acting on recently proposed different pathomechanisms, probiotics seem hitherto the most interesting and reasonable option for their safety and tolerability. Toll-like receptors modifiers, Pentoxifylline, and Farnesoid X receptors agonists have been still poorly investigated, and will need further studies before becoming possible promising innovative therapeutic strategies. PMID:23075296

  4. Tumour vasculature--a potential therapeutic target.

    PubMed Central

    Baillie, C. T.; Winslet, M. C.; Bradley, N. J.

    1995-01-01

    The tumour vasculature is vital for the establishment, growth and metastasis of solid tumours. Its physiological properties limit the effectiveness of conventional anti-cancer strategies. Therapeutic approaches directed at the tumour vasculature are reviewed, suggesting the potential of anti-angiogenesis and the targeting of vascular proliferation antigens as cancer treatments. PMID:7543770

  5. Nanoceria: a Potential Therapeutic for Dry AMD.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xue; McGinnis, James F

    2016-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blinding diseases. The "dry" form of AMD is the most common form of AMD. In contrast to the treatable neovascular (wet) AMD, no effective treatment is available for dry AMD. In this review, we summarize the animal models and therapeutic strategies for dry AMD. The novel candidates as potential treatment targets and the potential effectiveness of nanoceria as a treatment of dry AMD are also discussed. PMID:26427401

  6. Cancer chemopreventive and therapeutic potential of guggulsterone.

    PubMed

    Almazari, Inas; Surh, Young-Joon

    2013-01-01

    Guggulsterone (GS) is a phytosterol derived from the gum resin of guggul plants that have been used traditionally to treat various disorders such as burns, wounds, gastric ulcer, cough, gum diseases, urinary complaints, diarrhea, stomach cramps, fascioliasis, and intestinal worms. It has anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties and has recently attracted substantial attention due to its cancer chemopreventive and therapeutic potential exemplified by its antiproliferative, antimetastatic, and proapoptotic properties in many cancer cell lines and animal models. This review highlights some of the cancer chemopreventive/therapeutic targets of GS and the underlying molecular mechanisms. PMID:22851157

  7. Cutaneous lupus erythematosus: update of therapeutic options part II.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Annegret; Ruland, Vincent; Bonsmann, Gisela

    2011-12-01

    In the first part of the review, topical agents and first-line systemic treatment options for cutaneous lupus erythematosus were discussed whereas in the second part, recent information on efficacy, dosage, and side effects for further systemic treatment options are described in detail. In contrast to other immunosuppressive agents, such as azathioprine, cyclophosphamide, and cyclosporine, methotrexate has recently received more attention in the treatment of the disease. Further second-line treatment includes retinoids, dapsone, and mycophenolate mofetil. Because of severe side effects or high costs, other agents, such as thalidomide or high-dose intravenous immunoglobulins, are reserved for severe recalcitrant CLE. Biologics, ie, rituximab, have been used to treat systemic lupus erythematosus; however, in CLE, most biologics have only been applied in single cases. In addition to successful treatment, induction of CLE subtypes by biologics has been reported. In conclusion, many treatment options exist for CLE, but not many are supported by evidence from randomized controlled trials. PMID:20800319

  8. Emerging therapeutic options for sporadic inclusion body myositis

    PubMed Central

    Alfano, Lindsay N; Lowes, Linda P

    2015-01-01

    Sporadic inclusion body myositis is the most common inflammatory muscle disorder preferentially affecting males over the age of 40 years. Progressive muscle weakness of the finger flexors and quadriceps muscles results in loss of independence with activities of daily living and eventual wheelchair dependence. Initial signs of disease are often overlooked and can lead to mis- or delayed diagnosis. The underlying cause of disease is unknown, and disease progression appears refractory to available treatment options. This review discusses the clinical presentation of inclusion body myositis and the current efforts in diagnosis, and focuses on the current state of research for both nonpharmacological and pharmacological treatment options for this patient group. PMID:26445546

  9. Brown adipose tissue and its therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Lidell, M E; Betz, M J; Enerbck, S

    2014-10-01

    Obesity and related diseases are a major cause of human morbidity and mortality and constitute a substantial economic burden for society. Effective treatment regimens are scarce, and new therapeutic targets are needed. Brown adipose tissue, an energy-expending tissue that produces heat, represents a potential therapeutic target. Its presence is associated with low body mass index, low total adipose tissue content and a lower risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Knowledge about the development and function of thermogenic adipocytes in brown adipose tissue has increased substantially in the last decade. Important transcriptional regulators have been identified, and hormones able to modulate the thermogenic capacity of the tissue have been recognized. Intriguingly, it is now clear that humans, like rodents, possess two types of thermogenic adipocytes: the classical brown adipocytes found in the interscapular brown adipose organ and the so-called beige adipocytes primarily found in subcutaneous white adipose tissue after adrenergic stimulation. The presence of two distinct types of energy-expending adipocytes in humans is conceptually important because these cells might be stimulated and recruited by different signals, raising the possibility that they might be separate potential targets for therapeutic intervention. In this review, we will discuss important features of the energy-expending brown adipose tissue and highlight those that may serve as potential targets for pharmacological intervention aimed at expanding the tissue and/or enhancing its function to counteract obesity. PMID:24717051

  10. Endometriosis: Survey of Current Diagnostic and Therapeutic Options and Latest Research Work

    PubMed Central

    Juhasz-Böss, I.; Laschke, M. W.; Müller, F.; Rosenbaum, P.; Baum, S.; Solomayer, E. F.; Ulrich, U.

    2014-01-01

    Endometriosis is one of the most frequent benign diseases in women of child-bearing age. The main symptoms are chronic upper abdominal pain and infertility. However, the aetiology and pathogenesis of endometriosis are as yet insufficiently clarified. Thus, therapy is mainly symptomatic with laparoscopic surgery being the gold standard. The aim of drug therapy is to achieve a hypo-oestrogenic condition. In cases of severe endometriosis and a desire to have children there is often an indication for assisted reproduction. The present article illustrates almost all current aspects on the diagnosis of and therapy of endometriosis. From the clinical viewpoint, emphasis is placed on the rare cases of deeply infiltrating endometriosis that are, however, accompanied with a high morbidity. Current therapeutic options in cases of infertility are also presented in more detail. Furthermore, special attention is paid to the latest research results from both clinical and basic research fields in order to demonstrate our current knowledge on the pathogenesis and, where possible, potentially related therapeutic options. PMID:25221341

  11. Therapeutic potential of cannabis-related drugs.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Stephen P H

    2016-01-01

    In this review, I will consider the dual nature of Cannabis and cannabinoids. The duality arises from the potential and actuality of cannabinoids in the laboratory and clinic and the 'abuse' of Cannabis outside the clinic. The therapeutic areas currently best associated with exploitation of Cannabis-related medicines include pain, epilepsy, feeding disorders, multiple sclerosis and glaucoma. As with every other medicinal drug of course, the 'trick' will be to maximise the benefit and minimise the cost. After millennia of proximity and exploitation of the Cannabis plant, we are still playing catch up with an understanding of its potential influence for medicinal benefit. PMID:26216862

  12. New Therapeutic Options for Breast Cancer during Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Loibl, Sibylle

    2008-01-01

    Summary National and international guidelines for pregnant breast cancer patients recommend to treat pregnant patients as closely as possible to the standards for non-pregnant patients. Therefore, new treatment options like sentinel lymph node biopsy or taxane-based chemotherapy have to be carefully checked for their possible implementation even for pregnant patients. These patients need to be treated in a breast cancer center where a multidisciplinary team is ready to support the patient and her family and to serve her with the best up-to-date treatment for mother and child. PMID:20824035

  13. [Female androgenetic alopecia, a survey of causes and therapeutic options].

    PubMed

    Duchková, Hana; Hašková, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Mesotherapy is one of the options for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia. Testing 24 women with androgenetic alopecia has demonstrated a positive effect of mesotherapy on the hair growth, hair thickness, with only insignificant increase of hair density. It is known that androgenetic alopecia represents a localized aging of hair follicles. We therefore decided to examine the different effects of mesotherapy on hair density in younger and in elderly women. In younger women mesotherapy significantly increased hair density compared with older women. For mesotherapy we used a combination of micronutrients and antioxidants. Mesotherapy achievements were evident for 6-12 months. Treatment requires a long-term care. PMID:25994911

  14. Natural Nuclear Factor Kappa Beta Inhibitors: Safe Therapeutic Options for Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Tambuwala, Murtaza M

    2016-03-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic and debilitating condition classified as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. IBD usually happens as result of immune dysfunction in the intestinal mucosa resulting in epithelial barrier dysfunction, which leads to exposure of the mucosal immune system to luminal antigenic material. This results in activation of inflammation, which is our bodies natural defense system; however, chronic inflammation leads to barrier dysfunction, which triggers a cycle of inflammation and further barrier dysfunction. This barrier breakdown results in the uncontrolled progression of IBD throughout the intestine. Despite the therapeutic advances made over the last decade, the current first line of treatment of IBD is limited to immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory drugs, which need to be taken regularly and have significant side effects to the patients. Prolonged inflammation may increase the risk of intestinal malignancy. The role of nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-κβ) has been established in the regulation of innate immunity and inflammation. NF-κβ has also shown to be involved in critical events linking inflammation and cancer development. Recent investigations suggest that the NF-κβ signaling cascade may be the central mediator of gastrointestinal inflammation in IBD and malignancies including esophageal, gastric, and colorectal cancers. In this review, the therapeutic potential of natural NF-κβ inhibitors as safe therapeutic options for the treatment of IBD will be discussed. PMID:26717321

  15. Biopharmaceutics and Therapeutic Potential of Engineered Nanomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Xing-Jie; Chen, Chunying; Zhao, Yuliang; Jia, Lee; Wang, Paul C.

    2009-01-01

    Engineered nanomaterials are at the leading edge of the rapidly developing nanosciences and are founding an important class of new materials with specific physicochemical properties different from bulk materials with the same compositions. The potential for nanomaterials is rapidly expanding with novel applications constantly being explored in different areas. The unique size-dependent properties of nanomaterials make them very attractive for pharmaceutical applications. Investigations of physical, chemical and biological properties of engineered nanomaterials have yielded valuable information. Cytotoxic effects of certain engineered nanomaterials towards malignant cells form the basis for one aspect of nanomedicine. It is inferred that size, three dimensional shape, hydrophobicity and electronic configurations make them an appealing subject in medicinal chemistry. Their unique structure coupled with immense scope for derivatization forms a base for exciting developments in therapeutics. This review article addresses the fate of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) of engineered nanoparticles in vitro and in vivo. It updates the distinctive methodology used for studying the biopharmaceutics of nanoparticles. This review addresses the future potential and safety concerns and genotoxicity of nanoparticle formulations in general. It particularly emphasizes the effects of nanoparticles on metabolic enzymes as well as the parenteral or inhalation administration routes of nanoparticle formulations. This paper illustrates the potential of nanomedicine by discussing biopharmaceutics of fullerene derivatives and their suitability for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Future direction is discussed as well. PMID:18855608

  16. Natural toxins and their therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, V K

    2010-03-01

    Plants have been extensively investigated for exploring their therapeutic potentials, but there are comparatively scanty reports on drugs derived from animal kingdom, except for hormones. During last decade, the toxins that are used for defense by the animals, have been isolated and found useful tools for physiological and pharmacological studies, besides giving valuable leads to drug development. Toxins with interesting results have been isolated from the venoms of snakes, scorpions, spiders, snails, lizards, frogs and fish. The present review describe about some toxins as drugs and their biological activities. Some fungal, bacterial and marine toxins have also been covered in this article. PMID:21046975

  17. Radiofrequency ablation for treatment of hypersplenism: A feasible therapeutic option

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Guilherme Lopes P; Bernardes, Joao Paulo G; Rovella, Marcello S; Andrade, Raphael G; Viana, Publio Cesar C; Herman, Paulo; Cerri, Giovanni Guido; Menezes, Marcos Roberto

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of a patient with hypersplenism secondary to portal hypertension due to hepato-splenic schistosomiasis, which was accompanied by severe and refractory thrombocytopenia. We performed spleen ablation and measured the total spleen and ablated volumes with contrast-enhanced computed tomography and volumetry. No major complications occurred, thrombocytopenia was resolved, and platelet levels remained stable, which allowed for early treatment of the patient’s underlying disease. Previous work has shown that splenic radiofrequency ablation is an attractive alternative treatment for hypersplenism induced by liver cirrhosis. We aimed to contribute to the currently sparse literature evaluating the role of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in the management of hypersplenism. We conclude that splenic RFA appears to be a viable and promising option for the treatment of hypersplenism. PMID:26034376

  18. [Anemia and iron deficiency in the elderly. Prevalence, diagnostics and new therapeutic options].

    PubMed

    Röhrig, G; Doehner, W; Schaefer, R M; Schulz, R J

    2012-04-01

    The prevalence of anemia in geriatric patients is high. With some variation in different patient cohorts, prevalence of anemia can reach 40%. Anemia is not an age-related disease on its own, but is a symptom with multifactorial genesis and high risk potential. It directly influences mortality, morbidity, and the rate of hospitalization, particularly in older patients suffering from chronic heart failure or chronic kidney disease. The high prevalence of anemia in chronic kidney disease is explained by a combination of erythropoietin and iron deficiency. This review summarizes the recommendations of the iron symposium at the 2010 German Geriatric Society Meeting in Potsdam, Germany. It intends to provide current information on prevalence, diagnostic work-up, and therapeutic options for anemia in the rapidly growing group of elderly patients. PMID:22454095

  19. [Recurrent parotiditis in adults: review and new therapeutic options].

    PubMed

    Molina Mira, A; Palmero, J; Martnez-Rodrigo, J; Lonjedo, E

    1996-01-01

    Our experience in the management of 20 patients with recurrent parotitis (RP) as an isolated symptom is reported. The clinical manifestations in all patients were pain, infection and swelling of the parotid gland on at least three separate occasions. The presence of obvious tumor or specific inflammation were exclusion criteria. Three patients benefited from radiological interventional treatment: two stones were removed from the main duct with a Dormia basket and one parotid duct stricture was dilated with a balloon catheter. The role of conventional or digital sialography and interventional radiology procedures in the diagnosis and management of RP is discussed. We proposed this approach as a therapeutic alternative to surgery, which is more aggressive and carries a risk of facial nerve damage. PMID:8991408

  20. Current and Novel Therapeutic Options for Irritable Bowel Syndrome Management

    PubMed Central

    Camilleri, Michael; Andresen, Viola

    2009-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal disorder affecting up to 3-15% of the general population in western countries. It is characterized by unexplained abdominal pain, discomfort, and bloating in association with altered bowel habits. The pathophysiology of IBS is multifactorial involving disturbances of the brain-gut-axis. The pathophysiology provides the rationale for pharmacotherapy: abnormal gastrointestinal motor functions, visceral hypersensitivity, psychosocial factors, autonomic dysfunction, and mucosal immune activation. Understanding the mechanisms, and their mediators or modulators including neurotransmitters and receptors have led to several therapeutic approaches including agents acting on the serotonin receptor or serotonin transporter system, antidepressants, novel selective anticholinergics, α-adrenergic agonists, opioid agents, cholecystokinin-antagonists, neurokinin-antagonists, somatostatin receptor agonists, corticotropin releasing factor antagonists, chloride-channel activators, guanylate-cyclase-c agonists, melatonin, atypical benzodiazepines, antibiotics, immune modulators and probiotics. The mechanisms and current evidence regarding efficacy of these agents are reviewed. PMID:19665953

  1. Therapeutic Potential of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Modulators

    PubMed Central

    Hovelsø, N; Sotty, F; Montezinho, L.P; Pinheiro, P.S; Herrik, K.F; Mørk, A

    2012-01-01

    Glutamate is the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS) and is a major player in complex brain functions. Glutamatergic transmission is primarily mediated by ionotropic glutamate receptors, which include NMDA, AMPA and kainate receptors. However, glutamate exerts modulatory actions through a family of metabotropic G-protein-coupled glutamate receptors (mGluRs). Dysfunctions of glutamatergic neurotransmission have been implicated in the etiology of several diseases. Therefore, pharmacological modulation of ionotropic glutamate receptors has been widely investigated as a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of several disorders associated with glutamatergic dysfunction. However, blockade of ionotropic glutamate receptors might be accompanied by severe side effects due to their vital role in many important physiological functions. A different strategy aimed at pharmacologically interfering with mGluR function has recently gained interest. Many subtype selective agonists and antagonists have been identified and widely used in preclinical studies as an attempt to elucidate the role of specific mGluRs subtypes in glutamatergic transmission. These studies have allowed linkage between specific subtypes and various physiological functions and more importantly to pathological states. This article reviews the currently available knowledge regarding the therapeutic potential of targeting mGluRs in the treatment of several CNS disorders, including schizophrenia, addiction, major depressive disorder and anxiety, Fragile X Syndrome, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease and pain. PMID:22942876

  2. Therapeutic potential of cannabinoids in CNS disease.

    PubMed

    Croxford, J Ludovic

    2003-01-01

    The major psychoactive constituent of Cannabis sativa, delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta(9)-THC), and endogenous cannabinoid ligands, such as anandamide, signal through G-protein-coupled cannabinoid receptors localised to regions of the brain associated with important neurological processes. Signalling is mostly inhibitory and suggests a role for cannabinoids as therapeutic agents in CNS disease where inhibition of neurotransmitter release would be beneficial. Anecdotal evidence suggests that patients with disorders such as multiple sclerosis smoke cannabis to relieve disease-related symptoms. Cannabinoids can alleviate tremor and spasticity in animal models of multiple sclerosis, and clinical trials of the use of these compounds for these symptoms are in progress. The cannabinoid nabilone is currently licensed for use as an antiemetic agent in chemotherapy-induced emesis. Evidence suggests that cannabinoids may prove useful in Parkinson's disease by inhibiting the excitotoxic neurotransmitter glutamate and counteracting oxidative damage to dopaminergic neurons. The inhibitory effect of cannabinoids on reactive oxygen species, glutamate and tumour necrosis factor suggests that they may be potent neuroprotective agents. Dexanabinol (HU-211), a synthetic cannabinoid, is currently being assessed in clinical trials for traumatic brain injury and stroke. Animal models of mechanical, thermal and noxious pain suggest that cannabinoids may be effective analgesics. Indeed, in clinical trials of postoperative and cancer pain and pain associated with spinal cord injury, cannabinoids have proven more effective than placebo but may be less effective than existing therapies. Dronabinol, a commercially available form of delta(9)-THC, has been used successfully for increasing appetite in patients with HIV wasting disease, and cannabinoid receptor antagonists may reduce obesity. Acute adverse effects following cannabis usage include sedation and anxiety. These effects are usually transient and may be less severe than those that occur with existing therapeutic agents. The use of nonpsychoactive cannabinoids such as cannabidiol and dexanabinol may allow the dissociation of unwanted psychoactive effects from potential therapeutic benefits. The existence of other cannabinoid receptors may provide novel therapeutic targets that are independent of CB(1) receptors (at which most currently available cannabinoids act) and the development of compounds that are not associated with CB(1) receptor-mediated adverse effects. Further understanding of the most appropriate route of delivery and the pharmacokinetics of agents that act via the endocannabinoid system may also reduce adverse effects and increase the efficacy of cannabinoid treatment. This review highlights recent advances in understanding of the endocannabinoid system and indicates CNS disorders that may benefit from the therapeutic effects of cannabinoid treatment. Where applicable, reference is made to ongoing clinical trials of cannabinoids to alleviate symptoms of these disorders. PMID:12617697

  3. Papaya Extract to Treat Dengue: A Novel Therapeutic Option?

    PubMed Central

    Sarala, N; Paknikar, SS

    2014-01-01

    Dengue is a viral disease that today affects a vast number of people in over 125 countries and is responsible for a sizable number of deaths. In the absence of an effective antiviral drug to treat the disease, various treatments are being investigated. Studies have indicated that the juice of the leaves of the Carica papaya plant from the family Caricaceae could help to increase the platelet levels in these patients. This review describes some of the published studies on this topic. The search was done independently by the two authors using PubMed, Google and the library database and included relevant articles of the last 10 years. A total of 7 studies were included in this review, which were one animal study, one case report, three case series and two randomized controlled trials. Although many of the studies and case reports published in literature lack adequate information, some of the studies do raise the possibility that this treatment could be an important option in the future. Further large-scale studies could establish the usefulness or ineffectiveness of this natural product in the treatment of dengue. PMID:24971201

  4. Papaya extract to treat dengue: a novel therapeutic option?

    PubMed

    Sarala, N; Paknikar, Ss

    2014-05-01

    Dengue is a viral disease that today affects a vast number of people in over 125 countries and is responsible for a sizable number of deaths. In the absence of an effective antiviral drug to treat the disease, various treatments are being investigated. Studies have indicated that the juice of the leaves of the Carica papaya plant from the family Caricaceae could help to increase the platelet levels in these patients. This review describes some of the published studies on this topic. The search was done independently by the two authors using PubMed, Google and the library database and included relevant articles of the last 10 years. A total of 7 studies were included in this review, which were one animal study, one case report, three case series and two randomized controlled trials. Although many of the studies and case reports published in literature lack adequate information, some of the studies do raise the possibility that this treatment could be an important option in the future. Further large-scale studies could establish the usefulness or ineffectiveness of this natural product in the treatment of dengue. PMID:24971201

  5. [Classical and laparoscopic therapeutic options in surgery for hepatic abscess].

    PubMed

    Ungureanu, F D; Ungurianu, L; Ioachimescu, M; Debreţin, M; Hodrea, R; Pricop, M; Drăgoescu, D; Moldovan, A C

    2005-01-01

    Although lots of modern surgical and imaging techniques have been developed and last generation antibiotics are in use, the difficulties in the diagnosis and treatment of hepatic abscesses are still a rather sombre reality. Our research concerning 14 patients submitted to surgery within the last ten years can be thought of as a record, considering the poor number of cases in the last decades. So, our study also includes the possible clinical or imaging errors, the technical details of the surgery, the attitude towards the abscess cavity and the still obscure etiology in most of the cases. The correlation between the surgical risk and the rest of the hepatic volume, evaluated by computed scanning technique, represents another objective of this paper. In the large or in the multiple disseminated abscesses, the small area of the remaining functional hepatic tissue, was correlated to the postoperative slow or even bad evolution in two cases. The radiological, ultrasound and scanner control showing the reducing or disappearing of the abscess cavity after drainage in all the cases, represent an argument of the correct therapeutic approach. PMID:15957457

  6. Therapeutic Potential of Targeting PAK Signaling.

    PubMed

    Senapedis, William; Crochiere, Marsha; Baloglu, Erkan; Landesman, Yosef

    2015-01-01

    The therapeutic potential of targeting p21-Activated Kinases (PAK1 - 6) for the treatment of cancer has recently gained traction in the biotech industry. Many pharmaceutically-viable ATP competitive inhibitors have been through different stages of pre-clinical development with only a single compound evaluated in human trails (PF-3758309). The best studied functional roles of PAK proteins are control of cell adhesion and migration. PAK proteins are known downstream effectors of Ras signaling with PAK expression elevated in cancer (pancreatic, colon, breast, lung and other solid tumors). In addition altered PAK expression is a confirmed driver of this disease, especially in tumors harboring oncogenic Ras. However, there are very few examples of gain-of-function PAK mutations, as a majority of the cancer types have elevated PAK expression due to gene amplification or transcriptional modifications. There is a substantial number of known substrates affected by this aberrant PAK activity. One particular substrate, β-catenin, has garnered interest given its importance in both normal and cancer cell development. These data place PAK proteins between two major signaling pathways in cancer (Ras and β -catenin), making therapeutic targeting of PAKs an intriguing approach for the treatment of a broad array of oncological malignancies. PMID:26081410

  7. Neurosteroids, stress and depression: Potential therapeutic opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Zorumski, Charles F.; Paul, Steven M.; Izumi, Yukitoshi; Covey, Douglas F.; Mennerick, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Neurosteroids are potent and effective neuromodulators that are synthesized from cholesterol in the brain. These agents and their synthetic derivatives influence the function of multiple signaling pathways including receptors for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate, the major inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmitters in the central nervous system (CNS). Increasing evidence indicates that dysregulation of neurosteroid production plays a role in the pathophysiology of stress and stress-related psychiatric disorders, including mood and anxiety disorders. In this paper, we review the mechanisms of neurosteroid action in brain with an emphasis on those neurosteroids that potently modulate the function of GABAA receptors. We then discuss evidence indicating a role for GABA and neurosteroids in stress and depression, and focus on potential strategies that can be used to manipulate CNS neurosteroid synthesis and function for therapeutic purposes. PMID:23085210

  8. Garlic: a review of potential therapeutic effects

    PubMed Central

    Bayan, Leyla; Koulivand, Peir Hossain; Gorji, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Throughout history, many different cultures have recognized the potential use of garlic for prevention and treatment of different diseases. Recent studies support the effects of garlic and its extracts in a wide range of applications. These studies raised the possibility of revival of garlic therapeutic values in different diseases. Different compounds in garlic are thought to reduce the risk for cardiovascular diseases, have anti-tumor and anti-microbial effects, and show benefit on high blood glucose concentration. However, the exact mechanism of all ingredients and their long-term effects are not fully understood. Further studies are needed to elucidate the pathophysiological mechanisms of action of garlic as well as its efficacy and safety in treatment of various diseases. PMID:25050296

  9. Lactoferrin: Antimicrobial activity and therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Embleton, Nicholas D; Berrington, Janet E; McGuire, William; Stewart, Chris J; Cummings, Stephen P

    2013-03-15

    Lactoferrin is a highly conserved protein from an evolutionary perspective, with a wide range of roles related to protection from infection and promotion of nutritional status. Infection, malnutrition and intestinal pathologies are key inter-related problems, represent important threats to survival and are associated with adverse long-term health outcomes after preterm birth. Lactoferrin is available as a commercial extract from bovine milk and offers potential as a therapeutic intervention for preterm infants modulating infections and intestinal pathologies. In this review we explore the structure, direct antimicrobial effects, modification of host immune function and gastrointestinal effects of lactoferrin. Current trial data are reviewed, and research priorities and challenges identified and discussed. PMID:23507150

  10. Evolving concepts of liver fibrogenesis provide new diagnostic and therapeutic options

    PubMed Central

    Gressner, Olav A; Weiskirchen, Ralf; Gressner, Axel M

    2007-01-01

    Despite intensive studies, the clinical opportunities for patients with fibrosing liver diseases have not improved. This will be changed by increasing knowledge of new pathogenetic mechanisms, which complement the "canonical principle" of fibrogenesis. The latter is based on the activation of hepatic stellate cells and their transdifferentiation to myofibroblasts induced by hepatocellular injury and consecutive inflammatory mediators such as TGF-β. Stellate cells express a broad spectrum of matrix components. New mechanisms indicate that the heterogeneous pool of (myo-)fibroblasts can be supplemented by epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) from cholangiocytes and potentially also from hepatocytes to fibroblasts, by influx of bone marrow-derived fibrocytes in the damaged liver tissue and by differentiation of a subgroup of monocytes to fibroblasts after homing in the damaged tissue. These processes are regulated by the cytokines TGF-β and BMP-7, chemokines, colony-stimulating factors, metalloproteinases and numerous trapping proteins. They offer innovative diagnostic and therapeutic options. As an example, modulation of TGF-β/BMP-7 ratio changes the rate of EMT, and so the simultaneous determination of these parameters and of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in serum might provide information on fibrogenic activity. The extension of pathogenetic concepts of fibrosis will provide new therapeutic possibilities of interference with the fibrogenic mechanism in liver and other organs. PMID:17663771

  11. Targeting folate metabolism for therapeutic option: A bioinformatics approach.

    PubMed

    Hande, Sneha; Goswami, Kalyan; Sharma, Richa; Bhoj, Priyanka; Jena, Lingaraj; Reddy, Maryada Venkata Rami

    2015-11-01

    Lymphatic filariasis, commonly called elephantiasis, poses a burden of estimated level of 5.09 million disability adjusted life year. Limitations of its sole drug, diethylcarbamazine (DEC) drive exploration of effective filarial target. A few plant extracts having polyphenolic ingredients and some synthetic compounds possess potential dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) inhibitory effect. Here, we postulated a plausible link between folates and polyphenolics based on their common precursor in shikimate metabolism. Considering its implication in structural resemblance based antagonism, we have attempted to validate parasitic DHFR protein as a target. The bioinformatics approach, in the absence of crystal structure of the proposed target, used to authenticate and for virtual docking with suitable tested compounds, showed remarkably lower thermodynamic parameters as opposed to the positive control. A comparative docking analysis between human and Brugia malayi DHFR also showed effective binding parameters with lower inhibition constants of these ligands with parasitic target, but not with human counterpart highlighting safety and efficacy. This study suggests that DHFR could be a valid drug target for lymphatic filariasis, and further reveal that bioinformatics may be an effective tool in reverse pharmacological approach for drug design. PMID:26669020

  12. Neurosteroids and potential therapeutics: Focus on pregnenolone.

    PubMed

    Vallée, Monique

    2016-06-01

    Considerable evidence from preclinical and clinical studies shows that steroids and in particular neurosteroids are important endogenous modulators of several brain-related functions. In this context, it remains to be elucidated whether neurosteroids may serve as biomarkers in the diagnosis of disorders and might have therapeutic potential for the treatment of these disorders. Pregnenolone (PREG) is the main steroid synthesized from cholesterol in mammals and invertebrates. PREG has three main sources of synthesis, the gonads, adrenal glands and brain and is submitted to various metabolizing pathways which are modulated depending on various factors including species, steroidogenic tissues and steroidogenic enzymes. Looking at the whole picture of steroids, PREG is often known as the precursor to other steroids and not as an active steroid per se. Actually, physiological and brain functions have been studied mainly for steroids that are very active either binding to specific intracellular receptors, or modulating with high affinity the abundant membrane receptors, GABAA or NMDA receptors. However, when high sensitive and specific methodological approaches were available to analyze low concentrations of steroids and then match endogenous levels of different steroid metabolomes, several studies have reported more significant alterations in PREG than in other steroids in extraphysiological or pathological conditions, suggesting that PREG could play a functional role as well. Additionally, several molecular targets of PREG were revealed in the mammalian brain and beneficial effects of PREG have been demonstrated in preclinical and clinical studies. On this basis, this review will be divided into three parts. The first provides a brief overview of the molecular targets of PREG and the pharmacological effects observed in animal and human studies. The second will focus on the possible functional role of PREG with an outline of the modulation of PREG levels in animal and in human research. Finally, the review will highlight the possible therapeutic uses of PREG that point towards the development of pregnenolone-like molecules. PMID:26433186

  13. Cyclic depsipeptides as potential cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Kitagaki, Jirouta; Shi, Genbin; Miyauchi, Shizuka; Murakami, Shinya; Yang, Yili

    2015-03-01

    Cyclic depsipeptides are polypeptides in which one or more amino acid is replaced by a hydroxy acid, resulting in the formation of at least one ester bond in the core ring structure. Many natural cyclic depsipeptides possessing intriguing structural and biological properties, including antitumor, antifungal, antiviral, antibacterial, anthelmintic, and anti-inflammatory activities, have been identified from fungi, plants, and marine organisms. In particular, the potent effects of cyclic depsipeptides on tumor cells have led to a number of clinical trials evaluating their potential as chemotherapeutic agents. Although many of the trials have not achieved the desired results, romidepsin (FK228), a bicyclic depsipeptide that inhibits histone deacetylase, has been shown to have clinical efficacy in patients with refractory cutaneous T-cell lymphoma and has received Food and Drug Administration approval for use in treatment. In this review, we discuss antitumor cyclic depsipeptides that have undergone clinical trials and focus on their structural features, mechanisms, potential applications in chemotherapy, and pharmacokinetic and toxicity data. The results of this study indicate that cyclic depsipeptides could be a rich source of new cancer therapeutics. PMID:25419631

  14. Cannabinoids and Schizophrenia: Risks and Therapeutic Potential.

    PubMed

    Manseau, Marc W; Goff, Donald C

    2015-10-01

    A convergence of evidence shows that use of Cannabis sativa is associated with increased risk of developing psychotic disorders, including schizophrenia, and earlier age at which psychotic symptoms first manifest. Cannabis exposure during adolescence is most strongly associated with the onset of psychosis amongst those who are particularly vulnerable, such as those who have been exposed to child abuse and those with family histories of schizophrenia. Schizophrenia that develops after cannabis use may have a unique clinical phenotype, and several genetic polymorphisms may modulate the relationship between cannabis use and psychosis. The endocannabinoid system has been implicated in psychosis both related and unrelated to cannabis exposure, and studying this system holds potential to increase understanding of the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Anandamide signaling in the central nervous system may be particularly important. Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol in cannabis can cause symptoms of schizophrenia when acutely administered, and cannabidiol (CBD), another compound in cannabis, can counter many of these effects. CBD may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of psychosis following cannabis use, as well as schizophrenia, possibly with better tolerability than current antipsychotic treatments. CBD may also have anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties. Establishing the role of CBD and other CBD-based compounds in treating psychotic disorders will require further human research. PMID:26311150

  15. Therapeutic potential of biofilm-dispersing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Jeffrey B

    2009-09-01

    Surface-attached colonies of bacteria known as biofilms play a major role in the pathogenesis of medical device infections. Biofilm colonies are notorious for their resistance to antibiotics and host defenses, which makes most device infections difficult or impossible to eradicate. Bacterial cells in a biofilm are held together by an extracellular polymeric matrix that is synthesized by the bacteria themselves. Enzymes that degrade biofilm matrix polymers have been shown to inhibit biofilm formation, detach established biofilm colonies, and render biofilm cells sensitive to killing by antimicrobial agents. This review discusses the potential use of biofilm matrix-degrading enzymes as anti-biofilm agents for the treatment and prevention of device infections. Two enzymes, deoxyribonuclease I and the glycoside hydrolase dispersin B, will be reviewed in detail. In vitro and in vivo studies demonstrating the anti-biofilm activities of these two enzymes will be summarized, and the therapeutic potential and possible drawbacks of using these enzymes as clinical agents will be discussed. PMID:19851978

  16. Therapeutic potential of biofilm-dispersing enzymes.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Kaplan JB

    2009-09-01

    Surface-attached colonies of bacteria known as biofilms play a major role in the pathogenesis of medical device infections. Biofilm colonies are notorious for their resistance to antibiotics and host defenses, which makes most device infections difficult or impossible to eradicate. Bacterial cells in a biofilm are held together by an extracellular polymeric matrix that is synthesized by the bacteria themselves. Enzymes that degrade biofilm matrix polymers have been shown to inhibit biofilm formation, detach established biofilm colonies, and render biofilm cells sensitive to killing by antimicrobial agents. This review discusses the potential use of biofilm matrix-degrading enzymes as anti-biofilm agents for the treatment and prevention of device infections. Two enzymes, deoxyribonuclease I and the glycoside hydrolase dispersin B, will be reviewed in detail. In vitro and in vivo studies demonstrating the anti-biofilm activities of these two enzymes will be summarized, and the therapeutic potential and possible drawbacks of using these enzymes as clinical agents will be discussed.

  17. The role and therapeutic potential of prohibitin in disease.

    PubMed

    Theiss, Arianne L; Sitaraman, Shanthi V

    2011-06-01

    Prohibitin 1 (PHB1), a pleiotropic protein in the cell, has been implicated in the regulation of proliferation, apoptosis, transcription, mitochondrial protein folding, and as a cell-surface receptor. This diverse array of functions of PHB1 is attributed to the cell type studied and its subcellular localization. This review discusses recent data that indicate a diverse role of PHB1 in disease pathogenesis and suggest that targeting PHB1 may be a potential therapeutic option for treatment of diseases including cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, insulin resistance/type 2 diabetes, and obesity. These diseases are associated with increased oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction and therefore, the role of PHB1 in both responses will also be discussed. PMID:21296110

  18. Therapeutic potential of chalcones as cardiovascular agents.

    PubMed

    Mahapatra, Debarshi Kar; Bharti, Sanjay Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death affecting 17.3 million people across the globe and are estimated to affect 23.3 million people by year 2030. In recent years, about 7.3 million people died due to coronary heart disease, 9.4 million deaths due to high blood pressure and 6.2 million due to stroke, where obesity and atherosclerotic progression remain the chief pathological factors. The search for newer and better cardiovascular agents is the foremost need to manage cardiac patient population across the world. Several natural and (semi) synthetic chalcones deserve the credit of being potential candidates to inhibit various cardiovascular, hematological and anti-obesity targets like angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT), acyl-coenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT), pancreatic lipase (PL), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), calcium (Ca(2+))/potassium (K(+)) channel, COX-1, TXA2 and TXB2. In this review, a comprehensive study of chalcones, their therapeutic targets, structure activity relationships (SARs), mechanisms of actions (MOAs) have been discussed. Chemically diverse chalcone scaffolds, their derivatives including structural manipulation of both aryl rings, replacement with heteroaryl scaffold(s) and hybridization through conjugation with other pharmacologically active scaffold have been highlighted. Chalcones which showed promising activity and have a well-defined MOAs, SARs must be considered as prototype for the design and development of potential anti-hypertensive, anti-anginal, anti-arrhythmic and cardioprotective agents. With the knowledge of these molecular targets, structural insights and SARs, this review may be helpful for (medicinal) chemists to design more potent, safe, selective and cost effective chalcone derivatives as potential cardiovascular agents. PMID:26876916

  19. Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester and Therapeutic Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Karim, Sabiha; Akram, Muhammad Rouf; Khan, Shujaat Ali; Azhar, Saira; Mumtaz, Amara; Bin Asad, Muhammad Hassham Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) is a bioactive compound of propolis extract. The literature search elaborates that CAPE possesses antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and cytotoxic properties. The principal objective of this review article is to sum up and critically assess the existing data about therapeutic effects of CAPE in different disorders. The findings elaborate that CAPE is a versatile therapeutically active polyphenol and an effective adjuvant of chemotherapy for enhancing therapeutic efficacy and diminishing chemotherapy-induced toxicities. PMID:24971312

  20. Anticancer therapeutic potential of soy isoflavone, genistein.

    PubMed

    Ravindranath, Mepur H; Muthugounder, Sakunthala; Presser, Naftali; Viswanathan, Subramanian

    2004-01-01

    Genistein (4'5, 7-trihydroxyisoflavone) occurs as a glycoside (genistin) in the plant family Leguminosae, which includes the soybean (Glycine max). A significant correlation between the serum/plasma level of genistein and the incidence of gender-based cancers in Asian, European and American populations suggests that genistein may reduce the risk of tumor formation. Other evidence includes the mechanism of action of genistein in normal and cancer cells. Genistein inhibits protein tyrosine kinase (PTK), which is involved in phosphorylation of tyrosyl residues of membrane-bound receptors leading to signal transduction, and it inhibits topoisomerase II, which participates in DNA replication, transcription and repair. By blocking the activities of PTK, topoisomerase II and matrix metalloprotein (MMP9) and by down-regulating the expression of about 11 genes, including that of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), genistein can arrest cell growth and proliferation, cell cycle at G2/M, invasion and angiogenesis. Furthermore, genistein can alter the expression of gangliosides and other carbohydrate antigens to facilitate their immune recognition. Genistein acts synergistically with drugs such as tamoxifen, cisplatin, 1,3-bis 2-chloroethyl-1-nitrosourea (BCNU), dexamethasone, daunorubicin and tiazofurin, and with bioflavonoid food supplements such as quercetin, green-tea catechins and black-tea thearubigins. Genistein can augment the efficacy of radiation for breast and prostate carcinomas. Because it increases melanin production and tyrosinase activity, genistein can protect melanocytes of the skin of Caucasians from UV-B radiation-induced melanoma. Genistein-induced antigenic alteration has the potential for improving active specific immunotherapy of melanoma and carcinomas. When conjugated to B43 monoclonal antibody, genistein becomes a tool for passive immunotherapy to target B-lineage leukemias that overexpress the target antigen CD19. Genistein is also conjugated to recombinant EGF to target cancers overexpressing the EGF receptor. Although genistein has many potentially therapeutic actions against cancer, its biphasic bioactivity (inhibitory at high concentrations and activating at low concentrations) requires caution in determining therapeutic doses of genistein alone or in combination with chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and/or immunotherapies. Of the more than 4500 genistein studies in peer-reviewed primary publications, almost one fifth pertain to its antitumor capabilities and more than 400 describe its mechanism of action in normal and malignant human and animal cells, animal models, in vitro experiments, or phase I/II clinical trials. Several biotechnological firms in Japan, Australia and in the United States (e.g., Nutrilite) manufacture genistein as a natural supplement under quality controlled and assured conditions. PMID:15584372

  1. Therapeutic potential of midkine in cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Kadomatsu, Kenji; Bencsik, Péter; Görbe, Anikó; Csonka, Csaba; Sakamoto, Kazuma; Kishida, Satoshi; Ferdinandy, Péter

    2014-01-01

    Ischaemic heart disease, stroke and their pathological consequences are life-threatening conditions that account for about half of deaths in developed countries. Pathology of these diseases includes cell death due to ischaemia/reperfusion injury, vascular stenosis and cardiac remodelling. The growth factor midkine plays a pivotal role in these events. Midkine shows an acute cytoprotective effect in ischaemia/reperfusion injury at least in part via its anti-apoptotic effect. Moreover, while midkine promotes endothelial cell proliferation, it also recruits inflammatory cells to lesions. These activities eventually enhance angiogenesis, thereby preventing cardiac tissue remodelling. However, midkine's activity in recruiting inflammatory cells into the vascular wall also triggers neointima formation, and consequently, vascular stenosis. Moreover, midkine is induced in cancer tissues where it enhances angiogenesis. Therefore, midkine may promote tumour formation through its angiogenic and anti-apoptotic activity. This review focuses on the roles of midkine in ischaemic cardiovascular disease and their pathological consequences, that is angiogenesis, vascular stenosis, and cardiac remodelling, and discusses the possible therapeutic potential of modulation of midkine in these diseases. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Midkine. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-4 PMID:24286213

  2. Therapeutic potential of genes in cardiac repair.

    PubMed

    Pal, Shripad N; Kofidis, Theodoros

    2013-08-01

    Cardiovascular diseases remain the primary reason of premature death and contribute to a major percentage of global patient morbidity. Recent knowledge in the molecular mechanisms of myocardial complications have identified novel therapeutic targets along with the availability of vectors that offer the chance for designing gene therapy technique for protection and revival of the diseased heart functions. Gene transfer procedure into the myocardium is demonstrated through direct injection of plasmid DNA or through the coronary vasculature using the direct or indirect delivery of viral vectors. Direct DNA injection to the myocardium is reported to be of immense value in research studies that aims at understanding the activities of various elements in myocardium. It is also deemed vital for investigating the effect of the myocardial pathophysiology on expression of the foreign genes that are transferred. Gene therapies have been reported to heal cardiac pathologies such as myocardial ischemia, heart failure and inherited myopathies in several animal models. The results obtained from these animal studies have also encouraged a flurry of early clinical trials. This translational research has been triggered by an enhanced understanding of the biological mechanisms involved in tissue repair after ischemic injury. While safety concerns take utmost priority in these trials, several combinational therapies, various routes and dose of delivery are being tested before concrete optimization and complete potential of gene therapy is convincingly understood. PMID:23945013

  3. Recovery potential and conservation options for elasmobranchs.

    PubMed

    Ward-Paige, C A; Keith, D M; Worm, B; Lotze, H K

    2012-04-01

    Many elasmobranchs have experienced strong population declines, which have been largely attributed to the direct and indirect effects of exploitation. Recently, however, live elasmobranchs are being increasingly valued for their role in marine ecosystems, dive tourism and intrinsic worth. Thus, management plans have been implemented to slow and ultimately reverse negative trends, including shark-specific (e.g. anti-finning laws) to ecosystem-based (e.g. no-take marine reserves) strategies. Yet it is unclear how successful these measures are, or will be, given the degree of depletion and slow recovery potential of most elasmobranchs. Here, current understanding of elasmobranch population recoveries is reviewed. The potential and realized extent of population increases, including rates of increase, timelines and drivers are evaluated. Across 40 increasing populations, only 25% were attributed to decreased anthropogenic mortality, while the majority was attributed to predation release. It is also shown that even low exploitation rates (2-6% per year) can halt or reverse positive population trends in six populations currently managed under recovery plans. Management measures that help restore elasmobranch populations include enforcement or near-zero fishing mortality, protection of critical habitats, monitoring and education. These measures are highlighted in a case study from the south-eastern U.S.A., where some evidence of recovery is seen in Pristis pectinata, Galeocerdo cuvier and Sphyrna lewini populations. It is concluded that recovery of elasmobranchs is certainly possible but requires time and a combination of strong and dedicated management actions to be successful. PMID:22497409

  4. Bacterial lantibiotics: strategies to improve therapeutic potential.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Cotter PD; Hill C; Ross RP

    2005-02-01

    Lantibiotics are ribosomally-synthesised antimicrobial peptides produced by Gram-positive bacteria that are characterised by the presence of lanthionine and/or methyllanthionine residues. Other unusual post-translationally modified amino acids, most frequently dehydroalanine and dehydrobutyrine, can also be present. While it has been frequently suggested that these peptides have the potential to be utilised in a wide range of medical applications, to date no actual therapeutic applications have been convincingly described. More recently, however, they have been the focus of much attention as a consequence of improved biotechnological capabilities, an improved understanding of lantibiotic biosynthesis and mode of action, and their high specific activity against multi-drug resistant bacteria. This review concerns the fundamental analyses that have revealed the importance of individual amino acids in these peptides and has permitted the implementation of rational mutagenesis strategies ('intelligenetics') to alter individual residues with a view to ultimately widening the active pH range, improve stability, and enhance binding to cell wall targets with the ultimate aim of optimising their antimicrobial activity. It is hoped that as a consequence of this improved knowledge the most suitable application of individual lantibiotics will become apparent. It should also prove possible, in the near future, to generate tailor-made lantibiotics and utilise biosynthetic enzymes to incorporate modified amino acids into non-lantibiotic peptides. In the shorter term, the extensive characterisation of lantibiotics will be instrumental in reassuring drug industry regulators of their safety and facilitate the widespread application of these novel antimicrobial agents in medicine.

  5. Bacterial lantibiotics: strategies to improve therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Cotter, Paul D; Hill, Colin; Ross, R Paul

    2005-02-01

    Lantibiotics are ribosomally-synthesised antimicrobial peptides produced by Gram-positive bacteria that are characterised by the presence of lanthionine and/or methyllanthionine residues. Other unusual post-translationally modified amino acids, most frequently dehydroalanine and dehydrobutyrine, can also be present. While it has been frequently suggested that these peptides have the potential to be utilised in a wide range of medical applications, to date no actual therapeutic applications have been convincingly described. More recently, however, they have been the focus of much attention as a consequence of improved biotechnological capabilities, an improved understanding of lantibiotic biosynthesis and mode of action, and their high specific activity against multi-drug resistant bacteria. This review concerns the fundamental analyses that have revealed the importance of individual amino acids in these peptides and has permitted the implementation of rational mutagenesis strategies ('intelligenetics') to alter individual residues with a view to ultimately widening the active pH range, improve stability, and enhance binding to cell wall targets with the ultimate aim of optimising their antimicrobial activity. It is hoped that as a consequence of this improved knowledge the most suitable application of individual lantibiotics will become apparent. It should also prove possible, in the near future, to generate tailor-made lantibiotics and utilise biosynthetic enzymes to incorporate modified amino acids into non-lantibiotic peptides. In the shorter term, the extensive characterisation of lantibiotics will be instrumental in reassuring drug industry regulators of their safety and facilitate the widespread application of these novel antimicrobial agents in medicine. PMID:15638769

  6. Stem cells as potential therapeutic targets for inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Udai P.; Singh, Narendra P.; Singh, Balwan; Mishra, Manoj K.; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Nagarkatti, Prakash S.; Singh, Shree Ram

    2010-01-01

    The rates of incidence and prevalence of Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, the two major forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), are rising. Estimates indicate >1 million new cases of IBD in the United States annually. The conventional therapies available for IBD range from anti-inflammatory drugs to immunosuppressive agents, but these therapies generally fail to achieve satisfactory results due to their side effects. Interest in a new therapeutic option, that is, biological therapy, has gained much momentum recently due to its focus on different stages of the inflammatory process. Stem cell (SC) research has become a new direction for IBD therapy due to our recent understanding of cell populations involved in the pathogenic process. To this end, hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cells are receiving more attention from IBD investigators. The intestinal environment, with its crypts and niches, supports incoming embryonic and hematopoietic stem cells and allows them to engraft and differentiate. The above findings suggest that, in the future, SC-based therapy will be a promising alternative to conventional therapy for IBD. In this review, we discuss SCs as potential therapeutic targets for future treatment of IBD. PMID:20515838

  7. Melanocyte Stem Cells as Potential Therapeutics in Skin Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ju Hee; Fisher, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Melanocytes produce pigment granules that color both skin and hair. In the hair follicles melanocytes are derived from stem cells (MelSC) that are present in hair bulges or sub-bulge regions and function as melanocyte reservoirs. Quiescence, maintenance, activation, and proliferation of MelSC are controlled by specific activities in the microenvironment that can influence the differentiation and regeneration of melanocytes. Therefore, understanding MelSC and their niche may lead to use of MelSC in new treatments for various pigmentation disorders. Areas covered We describe here pathophysiological mechanisms by which melanocyte defects lead to skin pigmentation disorders such as vitiligo and hair graying. The development, migration, and proliferation of melanocytes and factors involved in the survival, maintenance, and regeneration of MelSC are reviewed with regard to the biological roles and potential therapeutic applications in skin pigmentation diseases. Expert Opinion MelSC biology and niche factors have been studied mainly in murine experimental models. Human MelSC markers or methods to isolate them are much less well understood. Identification, isolation and culturing of human MelSC would represent a major step toward new biological therapeutic options for patients with recalcitrant pigmentary disorders or hair graying. By modulating the niche factors for MelSC it may one day be possible to control skin pigmentary disorders and prevent or reverse hair graying. PMID:25104310

  8. An Experience with Managing Cancer Patients Reportedly Previously Informed of the Absence of Additional Available Antineoplastic Therapeutic Options

    PubMed Central

    River, George; Moore, Stephanie; Tucker, Jennifer; Markman, Maurie

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 5 years, a small group of cancer patients who stated their physicians had determined there were no additional available antineoplastic therapeutic options (including potential investigational strategies) were seen for a second opinion in a cancer hospital-based oncology program and subsequently experienced what can reasonably be characterized as having achieved meaningful clinical benefit (functioning at a fairly high level for a minimum 1 year in the work, home, and/or family environments) following the further delivery of a variety of treatment approaches. While recognized to be limited (or even simply anecdotal), this experience emphasizes several clinically relevant conclusions, including the overall utility of a second-opinion strategy and the potential that the reported statement of an individual practitioner or cancer program that all rational options have been attempted may be inaccurate. PMID:25408656

  9. Influenza virus pathogenicity regulated by host cellular proteases, cytokines and metabolites, and its therapeutic options

    PubMed Central

    KIDO, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Influenza A virus (IAV) causes significant morbidity and mortality. The knowledge gained within the last decade on the pandemic IAV(H1N1)2009 improved our understanding not only of the viral pathogenicity but also the host cellular factors involved in the pathogenicity of multiorgan failure (MOF), such as cellular trypsin-type hemagglutinin (HA0) processing proteases for viral multiplication, cytokine storm, metabolic disorders and energy crisis. The HA processing proteases in the airway and organs for all IAV known to date have been identified. Recently, a new concept on the pathogenicity of MOF, the “influenza virus–cytokine–trypsin” cycle, has been proposed involving up-regulation of trypsin through pro-inflammatory cytokines, and potentiation of viral multiplication in various organs. Furthermore, the relationship between causative factors has been summarized as the “influenza virus–cytokine–trypsin” cycle interconnected with the “metabolic disorders–cytokine” cycle. These cycles provide new treatment concepts for ATP crisis and MOF. This review discusses IAV pathogenicity on cellular proteases, cytokines, metabolites and therapeutic options. PMID:26460316

  10. Addressing Therapeutic Options for Ebola Virus Infection in Current and Future Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Hober, Didier; Blondiaux, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus can cause severe hemorrhagic disease with high fatality rates. Currently, no specific therapeutic agent or vaccine has been approved for treatment and prevention of Ebola virus infection of humans. Although the number of Ebola cases has fallen in the last few weeks, multiple outbreaks of Ebola virus infection and the likelihood of future exposure highlight the need for development and rapid evaluation of pre- and postexposure treatments. Here, we briefly review the existing and future options for anti-Ebola therapy, based on the data coming from rare clinical reports, studies on animals, and results from in vitro models. We also project the mechanistic hypotheses of several potential drugs against Ebola virus, including small-molecule-based drugs, which are under development and being tested in animal models or in vitro using various cell types. Our paper discusses strategies toward identifying and testing anti-Ebola virus properties of known and medically approved drugs, especially those that can limit the pathological inflammatory response in Ebola patients and thereby provide protection from mortality. We underline the importance of developing combinational therapy for better treatment outcomes for Ebola patients. PMID:26248374

  11. Therapeutic aptamers: developmental potential as anticancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Won; Kim, Hyun Jung; Heo, Kyun

    2015-04-01

    Aptamers, composed of single-stranded DNA or RNA oligonucleotides that interact with target molecules through a specific three-dimensional structure, are selected from pools of combinatorial oligonucleotide libraries. With their high specificity and affinity for target proteins, ease of synthesis and modification, and low immunogenicity and toxicity, aptamers are considered to be attractive molecules for development as anticancer therapeutics. Two aptamers - one targeting nucleolin and a second targeting CXCL12 - are currently undergoing clinical trials for treating cancer patients, and many more are under study. In this mini-review, we present the current clinical status of aptamers and aptamer-based cancer therapeutics. We also discuss advantages, limitations, and prospects for aptamers as cancer therapeutics. PMID:25560701

  12. Therapeutic aptamers: developmental potential as anticancer drugs

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Won; Kim, Hyun Jung; Heo, Kyun

    2015-01-01

    Aptamers, composed of single-stranded DNA or RNA oligonucleotides that interact with target molecules through a specific three-dimensional structure, are selected from pools of combinatorial oligonucleotide libraries. With their high specificity and affinity for target proteins, ease of synthesis and modification, and low immunogenicity and toxicity, aptamers are considered to be attractive molecules for development as anticancer therapeutics. Two aptamers - one targeting nucleolin and a second targeting CXCL12 - are currently undergoing clinical trials for treating cancer patients, and many more are under study. In this mini-review, we present the current clinical status of aptamers and aptamer-based cancer therapeutics. We also discuss advantages, limitations, and prospects for aptamers as cancer therapeutics. [BMB Reports 2015; 48(4): 234-237] PMID:25560701

  13. Terpenoids as potential chemopreventive and therapeutic agents in liver cancer

    PubMed Central

    Thoppil, Roslin J; Bishayee, Anupam

    2011-01-01

    Despite significant advances in medicine, liver cancer, predominantly hepatocellular carcinoma remains a major cause of death in the United States as well as the rest of the world. As limited treatment options are currently available to patients with liver cancer, novel preventive control and effective therapeutic approaches are considered to be reasonable and decisive measures to combat this disease. Several naturally occurring dietary and non-dietary phytochemicals have shown enormous potential in the prevention and treatment of several cancers, especially those of the gastrointestinal tract. Terpenoids, the largest group of phytochemicals, traditionally used for medicinal purposes in India and China, are currently being explored as anticancer agents in clinical trials. Terpenoids (also called “isoprenoids”) are secondary metabolites occurring in most organisms, particularly plants. More than 40 000 individual terpenoids are known to exist in nature with new compounds being discovered every year. A large number of terpenoids exhibit cytotoxicity against a variety of tumor cells and cancer preventive as well as anticancer efficacy in preclinical animal models. This review critically examines the potential role of naturally occurring terpenoids, from diverse origins, in the chemoprevention and treatment of liver tumors. Both in vitro and in vivo effects of these agents and related cellular and molecular mechanisms are highlighted. Potential challenges and future directions involved in the advancement of these promising natural compounds in the chemoprevention and therapy of human liver cancer are also discussed. PMID:21969877

  14. Therapeutic Success of the Ketogenic Diet as a Treatment Option for Epilepsy: a Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hai-feng; Zou, Yan; Ding, Gangqiang

    2013-01-01

    Objective To systematically evaluate therapeutic success of the ketogenic diet (KD) as a treatment option for epilepsy. Methods Using MEDLINE and Google Scholar search, we searched for studies investigating the therapeutic success of ketogenic diet for epilepsy. We estimated therapeutic success rate for ketogenic diet as a treatment option for epilepsy and its 95% CIs using generic inverse variance method. Findings A total of 38 studies met the inclusion criteria. In retrospective studies, the weighted success rate of the patients who take the KD as a treatment option for epilepsy was 58.4% (95% confidence interval (95%CI)=48.7% – 69.9%) at 3 months (n=336); 42.8% (95%CI =36.3% – 50.3%) at 6 months (n=492), and 30.1% (95%CI =24.3% – 37.2%) at 12 months (n=387); in prospective studies, weighted success rate was 53.9% (95%CI 45.5% – 63.8%) at 3 months (n=474); 53.2% (95%CI =44.0% – 64.2%) at 6 months (n=321), and 55.0% (95%CI =45.9% – 65.9%) at 12 months (n=347). Conclusion This meta-analysis provides formal statistical support for the efficacy of the ketogenic diet in the treatment of epileptic patients. PMID:24910737

  15. The potential therapeutic effects of THC on Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Cao, Chuanhai; Li, Yaqiong; Liu, Hui; Bai, Ge; Mayl, Jonathan; Lin, Xiaoyang; Sutherland, Kyle; Nabar, Neel; Cai, Jianfeng

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential therapeutic qualities of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) with respect to slowing or halting the hallmark characteristics of Alzheimer's disease. N2a-variant amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP) cells were incubated with THC and assayed for amyloid-β (Aβ) levels at the 6-, 24-, and 48-hour time marks. THC was also tested for synergy with caffeine, in respect to the reduction of the Aβ level in N2a/AβPPswe cells. THC was also tested to determine if multiple treatments were beneficial. The MTT assay was performed to test the toxicity of THC. Thioflavin T assays and western blots were performed to test the direct anti-Aβ aggregation significance of THC. Lastly, THC was tested to determine its effects on glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) and related signaling pathways. From the results, we have discovered THC to be effective at lowering Aβ levels in N2a/AβPPswe cells at extremely low concentrations in a dose-dependent manner. However, no additive effect was found by combining caffeine and THC together. We did discover that THC directly interacts with Aβ peptide, thereby inhibiting aggregation. Furthermore, THC was effective at lowering both total GSK-3β levels and phosphorylated GSK-3β in a dose-dependent manner at low concentrations. At the treatment concentrations, no toxicity was observed and the CB1 receptor was not significantly upregulated. Additionally, low doses of THC can enhance mitochondria function and does not inhibit melatonin's enhancement of mitochondria function. These sets of data strongly suggest that THC could be a potential therapeutic treatment option for Alzheimer's disease through multiple functions and pathways. PMID:25024327

  16. SRC inhibition represents a potential therapeutic strategy in liposarcoma.

    PubMed

    Sievers, Elisabeth; Trautmann, Marcel; Kindler, Dagmar; Huss, Sebastian; Gruenewald, Inga; Dirksen, Uta; Renner, Marcus; Mechtersheimer, Gunhild; Pedeutour, Florence; Åman, Pierre; Nishio, Jun; Schildhaus, Hans-Ulrich; Kirfel, Jutta; Schirmacher, Peter; Wardelmann, Eva; Buettner, Reinhard; Hartmann, Wolfgang

    2015-12-01

    Liposarcomas (LS) are the most common malignant mesenchymal tumors, with an overall long-term mortality rate of 60%. LS comprise three major subtypes, i.e., well-differentiated/dedifferentiated liposarcoma (WDLS/DDLS), myxoid/round cell liposarcoma (MLS) and pleomorphic liposarcoma (PLS). Aiming at the preclinical identification of novel therapeutic options, we here investigate the functional significance of SRC in primary human LS and in LS-derived cell lines. Immunohistochemical and Western blot analyses reveal relevant levels of activated p-(Tyr416)-SRC in LS of the different subtypes with particular activation in MLS and PLS. Dysregulation of the SRC modifiers CSK and PTP1B was excluded as major reason for the activation of the kinase. Consistent siRNA-mediated knockdown of SRC or inhibition by the SRC inhibitor Dasatinib led to decreased proliferation of LS cell lines of the different subtypes, with MLS cells reacting particularly sensitive in MTT assays. Flow cytometric analyses revealed that this effect was due to a significant decrease in mitotic activity and an induction of apoptosis. SRC inhibition by Dasatinib resulted in dephosphorylation of SRC itself, its interacting partners FAK and IGF-IR as well as its downstream target AKT. Consistent with a particular role of SRC in cell motility, Dasatinib reduced the migratory and invasive potential of MLS cells in Boyden chamber and Matrigel chamber assays. In summary, we provide evidence that SRC activation plays an important role in LS biology and therefore represents a potential therapeutic target, particularly in MLS and PLS. PMID:26084847

  17. Functional foods as potential therapeutic options for metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Brown, L; Poudyal, H; Panchal, S K

    2015-11-01

    Obesity as part of metabolic syndrome is a major lifestyle disorder throughout the world. Current drug treatments for obesity produce small and usually unsustainable decreases in body weight with the risk of major adverse effects. Surgery has been the only treatment producing successful long-term weight loss. As a different but complementary approach, lifestyle modification including the use of functional foods could produce a reliable decrease in obesity with decreased comorbidities. Functional foods may include fruits such as berries, vegetables, fibre-enriched grains and beverages such as tea and coffee. Although health improvements continue to be reported for these functional foods in rodent studies, further evidence showing the translation of these results into humans is required. Thus, the concept that these fruits and vegetables will act as functional foods in humans to reduce obesity and thereby improve health remains intuitive and possible rather than proven. PMID:26345360

  18. Stem cell therapeutic possibilities: future therapeutic options for male-factor and female-factor infertility?

    PubMed Central

    Easley, Charles A.; Simerly, Calvin R.; Schatten, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in assisted reproduction treatment have enabled some couples with severe infertility issues to conceive, but the methods are not successful in all cases. Notwithstanding the significant financial burden of assisted reproduction treatment, the emotional scars from an inability to conceive a child enacts a greater toll on affected couples. While methods have circumvented some root causes for male and female infertility, often the underlying causes cannot be treated, thus true cures for restoring a patient’s fertility are limited. Furthermore, the procedures are only available if the affected patients are able to produce gametes. Patients rendered sterile by medical interventions, exposure to toxicants or genetic causes are unable to utilize assisted reproduction to conceive a child – and often resort to donors, where permitted. Stem cells represent a future potential avenue for allowing these sterile patients to produce offspring. Advances in stem cell biology indicate that stem cell replacement therapies or in-vitro differentiation may be on the horizon to treat and could cure male and female infertility, although significant challenges need to be met before this technology can reach clinical practice. This article discusses these advances and describes the impact that these advances may have on treating infertility. PMID:23664220

  19. [Potential therapeutic usefulness of cannabis and cannabinoids].

    PubMed

    Lorenzo Fernández, P

    2000-01-01

    Diseases in which Cannabis and cannabinoids have demonstrated some medicinal putative properties are: nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy, muscle spasticity (multiple sclerosis, movement disorders), pain, anorexia, epilepsy, glaucoma, bronchial asthma, neuroegenerative diseases, cancer, etc. Although some of the current data comes from clinical controlled essays, the majority are based on anecdotic reports. Basic pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies and more extensive controlled clinical essays with higher number of patients and long term studies are necessary to consider these compounds useful since a therapeutical point of view. PMID:11205042

  20. Prion degradation pathways: Potential for therapeutic intervention

    PubMed Central

    Goold, Rob; McKinnon, Chris; Tabrizi, Sarah J.

    2015-01-01

    Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative disorders. Pathology is closely linked to the misfolding of native cellular PrPC into the disease-associated form PrPSc that accumulates in the brain as disease progresses. Although treatments have yet to be developed, strategies aimed at stimulating the degradation of PrPSc have shown efficacy in experimental models of prion disease. Here, we describe the cellular pathways that mediate PrPSc degradation and review possible targets for therapeutic intervention. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled ‘Neuronal Protein’. PMID:25584786

  1. Lipoic acid - biological activity and therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Gorąca, Anna; Huk-Kolega, Halina; Piechota, Aleksandra; Kleniewska, Paulina; Ciejka, Elżbieta; Skibska, Beata

    2011-01-01

    α-Lipoic acid (LA; 5-(1,2-dithiolan-3-yl)pentanoic acid) was originally isolated from bovine liver by Reed et al. in 1951. LA was once considered a vitamin. Subsequently, it was found that LA is not a vitamin and is synthesized by plants and animals. LA is covalently bound to the ε-amino group of lysine residues and functions as a cofactor for mitochondrial enzymes by catalyzing the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate, α-ketoglutarate and branched-chain α-keto acids. LA and its reduced form - dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA), meet all the criteria for an ideal antioxidant because they can easily quench radicals, can chelate metals, have an amphiphlic character and they do not exhibit any serious side effects. They interact with other antioxidants and can regenerate them. For this reason, LA is called an antioxidant of antioxidants. LA has an influence on the second messenger nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and attenuates the release of free radicals and cytotoxic cytokines. The therapeutic action of LA is based on its antioxidant properties. Current studies support its use in the ancillary treatment of many diseases, such as diabetes, cardiovascular, neurodegenerative, autoimmune diseases, cancer and AIDS. This review was undertaken to gather the most recent information regarding the therapeutic properties of LA and its possible utility in disease treatment. PMID:22001972

  2. Therapeutic potential of curcumin in digestive diseases

    PubMed Central

    Dulbecco, Pietro; Savarino, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    Curcumin is a low-molecular-weight hydrophobic polyphenol that is extracted from turmeric, which possesses a wide range of biological properties including anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-proliferative and anti-microbial activities. Despite its diverse targets and substantial safety, clinical applications of this molecule for digestive disorders have been largely limited to case series or small clinical trials. The poor bioavailability of curcumin is likely the major hurdle for its more widespread use in humans. However, complexation of curcumin into phytosomes has recently helped to bypass this problem, as it has been demonstrated that this new lecithin formulation enables increased absorption to a level 29-fold higher than that of traditional curcuminoid products. This allows us to achieve much greater tissue substance delivery using significantly lower doses of curcumin than have been used in past clinical studies. As curcumin has already been shown to provide good therapeutic results in some small studies of both inflammatory and neoplastic bowel disorders, it is reasonable to anticipate an even greater efficacy with the advent of this new technology, which remarkably improves its bioavailability. These features are very promising and may represent a novel and effective therapeutic approach to both functional and organic digestive diseases. PMID:24409053

  3. Therapeutic potential of curcumin in digestive diseases.

    PubMed

    Dulbecco, Pietro; Savarino, Vincenzo

    2013-12-28

    Curcumin is a low-molecular-weight hydrophobic polyphenol that is extracted from turmeric, which possesses a wide range of biological properties including anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-proliferative and anti-microbial activities. Despite its diverse targets and substantial safety, clinical applications of this molecule for digestive disorders have been largely limited to case series or small clinical trials. The poor bioavailability of curcumin is likely the major hurdle for its more widespread use in humans. However, complexation of curcumin into phytosomes has recently helped to bypass this problem, as it has been demonstrated that this new lecithin formulation enables increased absorption to a level 29-fold higher than that of traditional curcuminoid products. This allows us to achieve much greater tissue substance delivery using significantly lower doses of curcumin than have been used in past clinical studies. As curcumin has already been shown to provide good therapeutic results in some small studies of both inflammatory and neoplastic bowel disorders, it is reasonable to anticipate an even greater efficacy with the advent of this new technology, which remarkably improves its bioavailability. These features are very promising and may represent a novel and effective therapeutic approach to both functional and organic digestive diseases. PMID:24409053

  4. Molecular profiling of gliomas: potential therapeutic implications.

    PubMed

    Alentorn, Agusti; Duran-Pea, Alberto; Pingle, Sandeep C; Piccioni, David E; Idbaih, Ahmed; Kesari, Santosh

    2015-08-01

    Gliomas are the most common primary malignant brain tumor. Over the last decade, significant advances have been made in the molecular characterization of this tumor group, identifying predictive biomarkers or molecular actionable targets, and paving the way to molecular-based targeted therapies. This personalized therapeutic approach is effective and illustrated in the present review. Among many molecular abnormalities, BRAF mutation and mTOR activation in pilocytic astrocytomas and subependymal giant cell astrocytomas are actionable targets sensitive to vemurafenib and everolimus, respectively. Chromosome arms 1p/19q co-deletion and IDH mutational status are pivotal in driving delivery of early procarbazine, lomustine and vincristine chemotherapy in anaplastic oligodendroglial tumors. Although consensus to assess MGMT promoter methylation is not reached yet, it may be useful in predicting resistance to temozolomide in elderly patients. PMID:26118895

  5. POTENTIAL THERAPEUTIC IMPLICATIONS OF INTRACRINE ANGIOGENESIS

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Julia L.

    2008-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a requirement for tumor growth beyond a diameter of a few millimeters and is, therefore, a major target for cancer therapy. The intracellular actions of certain extracellular signaling proteins (intracrines) have been reported, and it is clear that intracrines such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), angiogenin, angiotensin, and endothelin, among others, are involved in angiogenesis. We have proposed that intracrine networks play an important role in angiogenesis, and have suggested that very similar intracrine networks exist in some tumor cells. These notions have implications for the development of anti-angiogenesis therapies because they suggest that the inhibition of intracellular intracrine trafficking pathways may be an effective therapeutic target. Here the participation and regulation of intracrines in angiogenesis is explored, as are the actions of various anti-angiogenic factors. PMID:17320306

  6. Ocular Manifestations and Therapeutic Options in Patients with Familial Amyloid Polyneuropathy: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Martins, A. C.; Rosa, A. M.; Costa, E.; Tavares, C.; Quadrado, M. J.; Murta, J. N.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. This paper aims to review the morphological and functional characteristics of patients affected by familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP), with greater focus on type I and its progression after liver transplantation. We also analyse therapeutic options for the ophthalmic manifestations. Methods. The literature from 2002 through 2015 was reviewed, with a total of 45 articles studied, using the key terms related to amyloidosis and its therapeutic approaches. Information was collated, evaluated, critically assessed, and then summarised in its present form. Pathophysiology and Treatment. FAP results from mutation of the transthyretin gene, with Val30Met being the most frequent substitution. The symptoms are those typical of a sensorimotor autonomic neuropathy and can be halted with liver transplantation. Nowadays there are new medical therapies that delay the progression of the systemic neuropathy. However, there are still no options to avoid ocular disease. Conclusion. The main ocular manifestations in patients with FAP type I are amyloid deposition in the vitreous, dry eye, and secondary glaucoma. Despite liver transplantation, eye synthesis of amyloid persists and is associated with progressive ocular manifestations, which require continued ophthalmologic follow-up. New therapeutic strategies are therefore needed, particularly to target the ocular synthesis of the abnormal protein. PMID:26558262

  7. Johann Christian August Heinroth on sleep deprivation as a therapeutic option for depressive disorders.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Holger; Hegerl, Ulrich

    2014-09-01

    Partial or total therapeutic sleep deprivation leads to an immediate and far-reaching release of depressive symptoms in about 60% of patients with depressive disturbances. It is for that reason that this therapeutic option is offered and studied in many psychiatric clinics. Several papers have acclaimed the German psychiatrist Johann Christian August Heinroth (1773-1843) - the first university professor of psychiatry--as a pioneer of this therapeutic approach. However, no reference has been made specifying where in his comprehensive oeuvre he promoted this notion, nor has any analysis of the texts or passages in question been delivered. This study demonstrates that Heinroth indeed understood the existence of numerous close bidirectional relationships between mental disorders and sleep, above all, disorders of the latter. Consequently, he explicitly recommended sleep deprivation as a therapy for "melancholia," the contemporary name for depressive disorders. This finding is of apparent relevance to the history of psychiatry and sleep medicine. One should nonetheless bear in mind that the passages summarized below are scattered throughout Heinroth's famous Textbook of Psychiatry of 1818 and other works, and that Heinroth never elaborated on this issue systematically. Moreover, his statements promote the impression that they were the result of vague impressions and thoughts, and that Heinroth did not benefit from extensive experience. Yet what is important to note is that he regarded sleep deprivation as a feasible treatment option only for patients whose depression had recently been diagnosed. PMID:24994565

  8. [Therapeutic options for mineral metabolism disorders in dialysis patients: a case report].

    PubMed

    Cozzolino, M; Pasho, S; Missaglia, E; Crovetto, C; Fallabrino, G; Brancaccio, D

    2008-01-01

    Mineral metabolism disorders are well-recognized complications in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Furthermore, hyperphosphatemia and secondary hyperparathyroidism are associated with both renal osteodystrophy and cardiovascular disease. During the last 5 years, new therapeutic options have become available to treat these conditions in CKD. We describe the case of a 70-year-old lady with a dialysis history of 5 years and a number of cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and obesity). Unfortunately, the patient was poorly compliant with any pharmaceutical treatment. After 2 years, a pharmacological approach with a low dosage of calcium salts and sevelamer HCl, subsequently changed to lanthanum carbonate, intravenous paricalcitol, and cinacalcet HCl reached the goals suggested by the current guidelines. Every nephrologist should look at the pathogenesis and treatment of hyperphosphatemia and secondary hyperparathyroidism. New options are now available and may help the clinician to obtain satisfactory short- and long-term outcomes in the treatment of this disease. PMID:18350504

  9. Protein tyrosine phosphatases as potential therapeutic targets.

    PubMed

    He, Rong-Jun; Yu, Zhi-Hong; Zhang, Ruo-Yu; Zhang, Zhong-Yin

    2014-10-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphorylation is a key regulatory process in virtually all aspects of cellular functions. Dysregulation of protein tyrosine phosphorylation is a major cause of human diseases, such as cancers, diabetes, autoimmune disorders, and neurological diseases. Indeed, protein tyrosine phosphorylation-mediated signaling events offer ample therapeutic targets, and drug discovery efforts to date have brought over two dozen kinase inhibitors to the clinic. Accordingly, protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) are considered next-generation drug targets. For instance, PTP1B is a well-known targets of type 2 diabetes and obesity, and recent studies indicate that it is also a promising target for breast cancer. SHP2 is a bona-fide oncoprotein, mutations of which cause juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, and solid tumors. In addition, LYP is strongly associated with type 1 diabetes and many other autoimmune diseases. This review summarizes recent findings on several highly recognized PTP family drug targets, including PTP1B, Src homology phosphotyrosyl phosphatase 2(SHP2), lymphoid-specific tyrosine phosphatase (LYP), CD45, Fas associated phosphatase-1 (FAP-1), striatal enriched tyrosine phosphatases (STEP), mitogen-activated protein kinase/dual-specificity phosphatase 1 (MKP-1), phosphatases of regenerating liver-1 (PRL), low molecular weight PTPs (LMWPTP), and CDC25. Given that there are over 100 family members, we hope this review will serve as a road map for innovative drug discovery targeting PTPs. PMID:25220640

  10. Antibody conjugate therapeutics: challenges and potential.

    PubMed

    Teicher, Beverly A; Chari, Ravi V J

    2011-10-15

    Antibody conjugates are a diverse class of therapeutics consisting of a cytotoxic agent linked covalently to an antibody or antibody fragment directed toward a specific cell surface target expressed by tumor cells. The notion that antibodies directed toward targets on the surface of malignant cells could be used for drug delivery is not new. The history of antibody conjugates is marked by hurdles that have been identified and overcome. Early conjugates used mouse antibodies; cytotoxic agents that were immunogenic (proteins), too toxic, or not sufficiently potent; and linkers that were not sufficiently stable in circulation. Investigators have explored 4 main avenues using antibodies to target cytotoxic agents to malignant cells: antibody-protein toxin (or antibody fragment-protein toxin fusion) conjugates, antibody-chelated radionuclide conjugates, antibody-small-molecule drug conjugates, and antibody-enzyme conjugates administered along with small-molecule prodrugs that require metabolism by the conjugated enzyme to release the activated species. Only antibody-radionuclide conjugates and antibody-drug conjugates have reached the regulatory approval stage, and nearly 20 antibody conjugates are currently in clinical trials. The time may have come for this technology to become a major contributor to improving treatment for cancer patients. PMID:22003066

  11. Therapeutic Potential of ?7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, Daniel; Lee, Chih-Hung L; Flood, Dorothy; Marger, Fabrice; Donnelly-Roberts, Diana

    2015-10-01

    Progress in the fields of neuroscience and molecular biology has identified the forebrain cholinergic system as being important in many higher order brain functions. Further analysis of the genes encoding the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) has highlighted, in particular, the role of ?7 nAChRs in these higher order brain functions as evidenced by their peculiar physiologic and pharmacological properties. As this receptor has gained the attention of scientists from academia and industry, our knowledge of its roles in various brain and bodily functions has increased immensely. We have also seen the development of small molecules that have further refined our understanding of the roles of ?7 nAChRs, and these molecules have begun to be tested in clinical trials for several indications. Although a large body of data has confirmed a role of ?7 nAChRs in cognition, the translation of small molecules affecting ?7 nAChRs into therapeutics has to date only progressed to the stage of testing in clinical trials. Notably, however, most recent human genetic and biochemical studies are further underscoring the crucial role of ?7 nAChRs and associated genes in multiple organ systems and disease states. The aim of this review is to discuss our current knowledge of ?7 nAChRs and their relevance as a target in specific functional systems and disease states. PMID:26419447

  12. Protein tyrosine phosphatases as potential therapeutic targets

    PubMed Central

    He, Rong-jun; Yu, Zhi-hong; Zhang, Ruo-yu; Zhang, Zhong-yin

    2014-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphorylation is a key regulatory process in virtually all aspects of cellular functions. Dysregulation of protein tyrosine phosphorylation is a major cause of human diseases, such as cancers, diabetes, autoimmune disorders, and neurological diseases. Indeed, protein tyrosine phosphorylation-mediated signaling events offer ample therapeutic targets, and drug discovery efforts to date have brought over two dozen kinase inhibitors to the clinic. Accordingly, protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) are considered next-generation drug targets. For instance, PTP1B is a well-known targets of type 2 diabetes and obesity, and recent studies indicate that it is also a promising target for breast cancer. SHP2 is a bona-fide oncoprotein, mutations of which cause juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, and solid tumors. In addition, LYP is strongly associated with type 1 diabetes and many other autoimmune diseases. This review summarizes recent findings on several highly recognized PTP family drug targets, including PTP1B, Src homology phosphotyrosyl phosphatase 2(SHP2), lymphoid-specific tyrosine phosphatase (LYP), CD45, Fas associated phosphatase-1 (FAP-1), striatal enriched tyrosine phosphatases (STEP), mitogen-activated protein kinase/dual-specificity phosphatase 1 (MKP-1), phosphatases of regenerating liver-1 (PRL), low molecular weight PTPs (LMWPTP), and CDC25. Given that there are over 100 family members, we hope this review will serve as a road map for innovative drug discovery targeting PTPs. PMID:25220640

  13. HAMLET: functional properties and therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Ho C S, James; Rydström, Anna; Trulsson, Maria; Bålfors, Johannes; Storm, Petter; Puthia, Manoj; Nadeem, Aftab; Svanborg, Catharina

    2012-10-01

    Human α-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells (HAMLET) is the first member in a new family of protein-lipid complexes that kills tumor cells with high selectivity. The protein component of HAMLET is α-lactalbumin, which in its native state acts as a substrate specifier in the lactose synthase complex, thereby defining a function essential for the survival of lactating mammals. In addition, α-lactalbumin acquires tumoricidal activity after partial unfolding and binding to oleic acid. The lipid cofactor serves the dual role as a stabilizer of the altered fold of the protein and a coactivator of specific steps in tumor cell death. HAMLET is broadly tumoricidal, suggesting that the complex identifies conserved death pathways suitable for targeting by novel therapies. Sensitivity to HAMLET is defined by oncogene expression including Ras and c-Myc and by glycolytic enzymes. Cellular targets are located in the cytoplasmic membrane, cytoskeleton, mitochondria, proteasomes, lysosomes and nuclei, and specific signaling pathways are rapidly activated, first by interactions of HAMLET with the cell membrane and subsequently after HAMLET internalization. Therapeutic effects of HAMLET have been demonstrated in human skin papillomas and bladder cancers, and HAMLET limits the progression of human glioblastomas, with no evidence of toxicity for normal brain or bladder tissue. These findings open up new avenues for cancer therapy and the understanding of conserved death responses in tumor cells. PMID:23130929

  14. Conclusions of the expert panel: importance of erlotinib as a second-line therapeutic option

    PubMed Central

    Castagnari, Aldo

    2008-01-01

    During the Experts Meeting on Lung Cancer, participants emphasized the usefulness of erlotinib as second-line therapy for lung cancer. They noted that, although there are no comparative studies, erlotinib could be as effective as docetaxel and pemetrexed in second-line therapy. Regarding the toxicity profile of each of these drugs – one of the key issues considered in the meeting – specialists pointed out how important it is to clearly identify existing differences in this issue. Each drug has different degrees of toxicity, and this information is crucial at the time of choosing the therapeutic regimen. Erlotinib treatment could be an effective option for second-line therapy. PMID:18831720

  15. Therapeutic potential of resveratrol in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Vingtdeux, Valérie; Dreses-Werringloer, Ute; Zhao, Haitian; Davies, Peter; Marambaud, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    Several epidemiological studies indicate that moderate consumption of red wine is associated with a lower incidence of dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Red wine is enriched in antioxidant polyphenols with potential neuroprotective activities. Despite scepticism concerning the bioavailability of these polyphenols, in vivo data have clearly demonstrated the neuroprotective properties of the naturally occurring polyphenol resveratrol in rodent models for stress and diseases. Furthermore, recent work in cell cultures and animal models has shed light on the molecular mechanisms potentially involved in the beneficial effects of resveratrol intake against the neurodegenerative process in Alzheimer's disease. PMID:19090994

  16. The Therapeutic Potential of Medicinal Foods

    PubMed Central

    Ramalingum, Nelvana; Mahomoodally, M. Fawzi

    2014-01-01

    Pharmaceutical and nutritional sciences have recently witnessed a bloom in the scientific literature geared towards the use of food plants for their diversified health benefits and potential clinical applications. Health professionals now recognize that a synergism of drug therapy and nutrition might confer optimum outcomes in the fight against diseases. The prophylactic benefits of food plants are being investigated for potential use as novel medicinal remedies due to the presence of pharmacologically active compounds. Although the availability of scientific data is rapidly growing, there is still a paucity of updated compilation of data and concerns about the rationale of these health-foods still persist in the literature. This paper attempts to congregate the nutritional value, phytochemical composition, traditional uses, in vitro and in vivo studies of 10 common medicinal food plants used against chronic noncommunicable and infectious diseases. Food plants included were based on the criteria that they are consumed as a common food in a typical diet as either fruit or vegetable for their nutritive value but have also other parts which are in common use in folk medicine. The potential challenges of incorporating these medicinal foods in the diet which offers prospective opportunities for future drug development are also discussed. PMID:24822061

  17. The therapeutic potential of stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Watt, Fiona M.; Driskell, Ryan R.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an explosion of interest in stem cells, not just within the scientific and medical communities but also among politicians, religious groups and ethicists. Here, we summarize the different types of stem cells that have been described: their origins in embryonic and adult tissues and their differentiation potential in vivo and in culture. We review some current clinical applications of stem cells, highlighting the problems encountered when going from proof-of-principle in the laboratory to widespread clinical practice. While some of the key genetic and epigenetic factors that determine stem cell properties have been identified, there is still much to be learned about how these factors interact. There is a growing realization of the importance of environmental factors in regulating stem cell behaviour and this is being explored by imaging stem cells in vivo and recreating artificial niches in vitro. New therapies, based on stem cell transplantation or endogenous stem cells, are emerging areas, as is drug discovery based on patient-specific pluripotent cells and cancer stem cells. What makes stem cell research so exciting is its tremendous potential to benefit human health and the opportunities for interdisciplinary research that it presents. PMID:20008393

  18. Potential Therapeutic Targets in Uterine Sarcomas

    PubMed Central

    Cuppens, Tine; Tuyaerts, Sandra; Amant, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Uterine sarcomas are rare tumors accounting for 3,4% of all uterine cancers. Even after radical hysterectomy, most patients relapse or present with distant metastases. The very limited clinical benefit of adjuvant cytotoxic treatments is reflected by high mortality rates, emphasizing the need for new treatment strategies. This review summarizes rising potential targets in four distinct subtypes of uterine sarcomas: leiomyosarcoma, low-grade and high-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma, and undifferentiated uterine sarcoma. Based on clinical reports, promising approaches for uterine leiomyosarcoma patients include inhibition of VEGF and mTOR signaling, preferably in combination with other targeted or cytotoxic compounds. Currently, the only targeted therapy approved in leiomyosarcoma patients is pazopanib, a multitargeted inhibitor blocking VEGFR, PDGFR, FGFR, and c-KIT. Additionally, preclinical evidence suggests effect of the inhibition of histone deacetylases, tyrosine kinase receptors, and the mitotic checkpoint protein aurora kinase A. In low-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas, antihormonal therapies including aromatase inhibitors and progestins have proven activity. Other potential targets are PDGFR, VEGFR, and histone deacetylases. In high-grade ESS that carry the YWHAE/FAM22A/B fusion gene, the generated 14-3-3 oncoprotein is a putative target, next to c-KIT and the Wnt pathway. The observation of heterogeneity within uterine sarcoma subtypes warrants a personalized treatment approach. PMID:26576131

  19. Action and therapeutic potential of oxyntomodulin☆

    PubMed Central

    Pocai, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Oxyntomodulin (OXM) is a peptide hormone released from the gut in post-prandial state that activates both the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP1R) and the glucagon receptor (GCGR) resulting in superior body weight lowering to selective GLP1R agonists. OXM reduces food intake and increases energy expenditure in humans. While activation of the GCGR increases glucose production posing a hyperglycemic risk, the simultaneous activation of the GLP1R counteracts this effect. Acute OXM infusion improves glucose tolerance in T2DM patients making dual agonists of the GCGR and GLP1R new promising treatments for diabetes and obesity with the potential for weight loss and glucose lowering superior to that of GLP1R agonists. PMID:24749050

  20. Therapeutic potential of amniotic fluid stem cells.

    PubMed

    Abdulrazzak, Hassan; De Coppi, Paolo; Guillot, Pascale V

    2013-03-01

    Human amniotic fluid cells have been used traditionally as a diagnostic tool for genetic anomalies. More recently it has been recognized that amniotic fluid contains populations of stem cells. Mesenchymal stem cells (AFMSC) were first to be described. These cells are able to differentiate towards mesodermal lineages. More recently cells with broader potential, defined as amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSC), were also isolated. They have intermediate characteristics between embryonic and adult stem cells and are able to differentiate into lineages representative of all three germ layers but unlike ES cells they do not form tumours in vivo. Furthermore, AFSC have been reverted to functional pluripotency in a transgene-free approach using an epigenetics modifier. These characteristics, together with absence of ethical issues concerning their employment, have made stem cells from amniotic fluid a promising candidate for cell therapy and tissue engineering. PMID:23157178

  1. Tumor Lymphangiogenesis as a Potential Therapeutic Target

    PubMed Central

    Duong, Tam; Koopman, Peter; Francois, Mathias

    2012-01-01

    Metastasis the spread of cancer cells to distant organs, is the main cause of death for cancer patients. Metastasis is often mediated by lymphatic vessels that invade the primary tumor, and an early sign of metastasis is the presence of cancer cells in the regional lymph node (the first lymph node colonized by metastasizing cancer cells from a primary tumor). Understanding the interplay between tumorigenesis and lymphangiogenesis (the formation of lymphatic vessels associated with tumor growth) will provide us with new insights into mechanisms that modulate metastatic spread. In the long term, these insights will help to define new molecular targets that could be used to block lymphatic vessel-mediated metastasis and increase patient survival. Here, we review the molecular mechanisms of embryonic lymphangiogenesis and those that are recapitulated in tumor lymphangiogenesis, with a view to identifying potential targets for therapies designed to suppress tumor lymphangiogenesis and hence metastasis. PMID:22481918

  2. Coronary Sinus Reducer system™: A new therapeutic option in refractory angina patients unsuitable for revascularization.

    PubMed

    Ielasi, Alfonso; Todaro, Maria Chiara; Grigis, Giulietta; Tespili, Maurizio

    2016-04-15

    A challenge of modern cardiovascular medicine is to find new, effective treatments for patients with refractory angina pectoris (RAP), a clinical condition characterized by severe angina despite optimal medical therapy and "no option" for a surgical or percutaneous revascularization. Although the relevant advance of both pharmaceutical and interventional treatments for patients affected by symptomatic coronary artery disease has greatly contributed to prolong survival, the increasing number of patients experimenting persistent and invalidating angina symptoms, highlights that quality of life of these patients has not been equally improved. Clinical limitations of the efficiency of conventional and relatively new approaches justify the search for new therapeutic options. In this review, we will focus on the epidemiology of RAP, and we will provide a brief update on the different options actually available to these patients with particular interest to an innovative device that narrow the coronary sinus: the Reducer system (Neovasc Inc., Richmond B.C., Canada). The efforts of present and future clinical studies will ultimately answer the question of whether this intriguing therapy is a suitable strategy for treatment of patients with RAP. PMID:26889595

  3. Drug delivery to the nail: therapeutic options and challenges for onychomycosis.

    PubMed

    Barot, Bhavesh S; Parejiya, Punit B; Patel, Hetal K; Mehta, Dharmik M; Shelat, Pragna K

    2014-01-01

    Onychomycosis is one of the most common nail disorders. It affects 10-30% of the world population and is caused by dermatophytes, non-dermatophytes, molds, and yeasts. Present treatment methods of onychomycosis include oral therapy, topical therapy, and a combination of both; they have mild-to-moderate efficacy, with a relapse and reinfection rate of 20-25%. For oral therapy, newer antifungal compounds (azole class and allylamine class) are being investigated to increase efficacy and minimize side effects. Oral therapy with antifungal agents have severe side effects, with lesser bioavailability and longer duration of treatment. By contrast, topical therapy of onychomycosis is associated with greater patient compliance and fewer systemic side effects and drug interactions. Current topical treatment options of onychomycosis are nail lacquers, ointments, lotions, solutions, and gels, but these formulations have been unsuccessful due to poor penetration and distribution of drugs at the infected site. Therefore, novel therapeutic options are constantly being researched to improve the efficacy of onychomycosis treatment by enhancing the permeation of the drug across the nail to reach the infected site. Various physical and chemical enhancement methods have been studied to increase the permeation of drugs across the nail plate to the nail bed. Device-based therapeutic options have also been investigated to increase the antifungal drug concentration and its effects in the onychomycotic nail. Randomized clinical trials of these novel therapies have demonstrated better efficacy. The present review discusses the anatomy of the human nail, onychomycosis and its types, onycholysis, and conventional and novel therapies. We also review patents granted as well as design challenges facing optimal drug formulation for onychomycosis treatment. PMID:25271773

  4. Therapeutic Potential of Dietary Phenolic Acids

    PubMed Central

    Saibabu, Venkata; Fatima, Zeeshan; Khan, Luqman Ahmad; Hameed, Saif

    2015-01-01

    Although modern lifestyle has eased the quality of human life, this lifestyle's related patterns have imparted negative effects on health to acquire multiple diseases. Many synthetic drugs are invented during the last millennium but most if not all of them possess several side effects and proved to be costly. Convincing evidences have established the premise that the phytotherapeutic potential of natural compounds and need of search for novel drugs from natural sources are of high priority. Phenolic acids (PAs) are a class of secondary metabolites spread throughout the plant kingdom and generally involved in plethora of cellular processes involved in plant growth and reproduction and also produced as defense mechanism to sustain various environmental stresses. Extensive research on PAs strongly suggests that consumption of these compounds hold promise to offer protection against various ailments in humans. This paper focuses on the naturally derived PAs and summarizes the action mechanisms of these compounds during disease conditions. Based on the available information in the literature, it is suggested that use of PAs as drugs is very promising; however more research and clinical trials are necessary before these bioactive molecules can be made for treatment. Finally this review provides greater awareness of the promise that natural PAs hold for use in the disease prevention and therapy. PMID:26442119

  5. Phytochemicals as potential therapeutics for thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Manasa, K; Soumya, R; Vani, R

    2016-04-01

    Medical knowledge has always relied on plants as the main sources of important beneficial compounds. Many species have been recognized to have medicinal properties and beneficial impact on health, e.g. antioxidant activity, digestive stimulation action, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, hypolipidemic, antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic potential. This review focuses on the promising role of plants and their products in attenuating thrombocytopenia, a common and complex bleeding disorder. When the platelet count decreases below 150,000/µl, it causes thrombocytopenia. This bleeding disorder is observed in 2.5 % of the normal population. The risk of spontaneous muco-cutaneous bleeding and life threatening intracranial haemorrhage or gastrointestinal bleeding increases rapidly when the platelet count decreases below 10,000/µl. The inability to provide supportive treatment to increase the platelet counts often proves fatal to patients. Currently, treatment for thrombocytopenia includes use of drugs or splenectomy or platelet transfusions, in severe cases. Recently, studies have shown platelet augmenting activity of various plant extracts. The effectiveness, toxicity and side effects of the phytochemicals have to be critically evaluated in clinical trials. An in depth understanding of the role and mechanism of these phytochemicals would lead to their successful implementation in treatment and management of thrombocytopenia and other related bleeding disorders. PMID:26253706

  6. Endovascular Therapeutic Options for Isolated Iliac Aneurysms with a Working Classification

    SciTech Connect

    Fahrni, Markus; Lachat, Mario M; Wildermuth, Simon; Pfammatter, Thomas

    2003-09-15

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate a variety of stent-grafting and embolization techniques and describe a new classification for endovascular treatment of isolated iliac artery aneurysms. A total of 19 patients were treated for isolated iliac aneurysms. Depending on the proximal iliac neck and the uni-/bilaterality of common iliac artery aneurysms (CIAA's) the patient may be treated by a tube (Type Ia) or a bifurcated stent-graft (Type Ib) in addition to internal iliac artery embolization. Neck anatomy is also critical in determining therapeutical options for internal iliac artery aneurysms (IIAA's). These are tube stent-grafting plus internal iliac branch embolization (Type IIa), coiling of afferent and efferent internal iliac vessels (Type IIb) and IIAA packing (Type IIc). The average length of stay for these procedures was 3.8 days. During the mean follow-up of 20.9 months, aneurysm size remained unchanged in all but 4 patients. Reinterventions were necessary in option Type Ib (3/8 pat.) and Type Ia (1/7 pat.) due to extender stent-graft migration (n = 2) or reperfusion leaks (n 2). We conclude that Iliac artery aneurysms may be successfully and safely treated by a tailored approach using embolization or a combination of embolization and stent-grafting. Long-term CT imaging follow-up is necessary, particularly in patients treated with bifurcated stent-grafts (Type Ib)

  7. Study of therapeutic potential of the experimental pseudomonas bacteriophage preparation.

    PubMed

    Dzuliashvili, M; Gabitashvili, K; Golidjashvili, A; Hoyle, N; Gachechiladze, K

    2007-06-01

    Wide expansion of the infections caused by multi-antibiotic resistant strains of P. aeruginosa revived the idea of phage therapy with pseudomonas phage preparations for treatment and prevention of the bacterial infection diseases. The purpose of this study was examination of an experimental series of the therapeutic-prophylactic pseudomonas bacteriophage preparation, with wide spectra of lytical activity and high therapeutic potential. Newly isolated phage clones of P. aeruginosa were studied by the basic tests (such as host range, lysis stability, physiological and immunogenic properties of the phages, host dependent restriction/modification phenomena and automatic reproduction ability of the phages on the UV inactivated strains) determining their virulent nature. An experimental series of the therapeutic-prophylactic pseudomonas phage preparation were developed from the genuine virulent phage clones CF1/1; CF1/7; P.a.N1, P.a.N2 and P.a.N4. The phage preparation successfully passed in vitro (efficacy, sterility, stability) and in vivo (safety, definition of therapeutic potential) controls on experimental animals (white mice). The host range of the experimental pseudomonas phage preparation equals 99.5% of 206 strains of P. aeruginosa. Preclinical testing of the experimental pseudomonas phage preparation on white mice revealed that the therapeutic efficacy of the phage preparation was higher (80-100%) than that of the antibiotic-ciprinol (50-80%). Noteworthy, 100% therapeutic efficacy was observed after combined application of the antibiotic and the phage preparation. PMID:17660609

  8. Assessment of therapeutic options for reducing alkali burn-induced corneal neovascularization and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Bakunowicz-Łazarczyk, Alina; Urban, Beata

    2016-03-01

    This article aims to review and provide the current knowledge of the possibilities of topical treatment of corneal neovascularization due to alkali burns, evidenced by laboratory experiments, in vitro studies, and clinical trials published in the specialized literature. Authors present clinically relevant treatment of corneal neovascularization used in clinical practice, potential antiangiogenic topical therapeutics against corneal neovascularization, which are under investigation, and anti-angiogenic gene-therapy. PMID:26651127

  9. RAC1: An Emerging Therapeutic Option for Targeting Cancer Angiogenesis and Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Bid, Hemant Kumar; Roberts, Ryan David; Manchanda, Parmeet Kaur; Houghton, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Angiogenesis and metastasis are well recognized as processes fundamental to the development of malignancy. Both processes involve the coordination of multiple cellular and chemical activities through myriad signaling networks, providing a mass of potential targets for therapeutic intervention. This review will focus on one master regulator of cell motility, RAC1, and the existing data with regard to its role in cell motility, including particular roles for tumor angiogenesis and invasion/metastasis. We also emphasize the pre-clinical investigations carried out with RAC1 inhibitors to evaluate the therapeutic potential of this target. Herein we explore potential future directions as well as the challenges of targeting RAC1 in the treatment of cancer. Recent insights at the molecular and cellular levels are paving the way for a more directed and detailed approach to target mechanisms of RAC1 regulating angiogenesis and metastasis. Understanding these mechanisms may provide insight into RAC1 signaling components as alternative therapeutic targets for tumor angiogenesis and metastasis. PMID:24072884

  10. Delivery of therapeutic radioisotopes using nanoparticle platforms: potential benefit in systemic radiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Longjiang; Chen, Hongwei; Wang, Liya; Liu, Tian; Yeh, Julie; Lu, Guangming; Yang, Lily; Mao, Hui

    2010-01-01

    Radiation therapy is an effective cancer treatment option in conjunction with chemotherapy and surgery. Emerging individualized internal and systemic radiation treatment promises significant improvement in efficacy and reduction of normal tissue damage; however, it requires cancer cell targeting platforms for efficient delivery of radiation sources. With recent advances in nanoscience and nanotechnology, there is great interest in developing nanomaterials as multifunctional carriers to deliver therapeutic radioisotopes for tumor targeted radiation therapy, to monitor their delivery and tumor response to the treatment. This paper provides an overview on developing nanoparticles for carrying and delivering therapeutic radioisotopes for systemic radiation treatment. Topics discussed in the review include: selecting nanoparticles and radiotherapy isotopes, strategies for targeting nanoparticles to cancers, together with challenges and potential solutions for the in vivo delivery of nanoparticles. Some examples of using nanoparticle platforms for the delivery of therapeutic radioisotopes in preclinical studies of cancer treatment are also presented. PMID:24198480

  11. Molecular Mechanisms of Diabetic Retinopathy: Potential Therapeutic Targets

    PubMed Central

    Coucha, Maha; Elshaer, Sally L.; Eldahshan, Wael S.; Mysona, Barbara A.; El-Remessy, Azza B.

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of blindness in working-age adults in United States. Research indicates an association between oxidative stress and the development of diabetes complications. However, clinical trials with general antioxidants have failed to prove effective in diabetic patients. Mounting evidence from experimental studies that continue to elucidate the damaging effects of oxidative stress and inflammation in both vascular and neural retina suggest its critical role in the pathogenesis of DR. This review will outline the current management of DR as well as present potential experimental therapeutic interventions, focusing on molecules that link oxidative stress to inflammation to provide potential therapeutic targets for treatment or prevention of DR. Understanding the biochemical changes and the molecular events under diabetic conditions could provide new effective therapeutic tools to combat the disease. PMID:25949069

  12. Repurposing antipsychotics as glioblastoma therapeutics: Potentials and challenges

    PubMed Central

    LEE, JIN-KU; NAM, DO-HYUN; LEE, JEONGWU

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and most lethal primary brain tumor, with tragically little therapeutic progress over the last 30 years. Surgery provides a modest benefit, and GBM cells are resistant to radiation and chemotherapy. Despite significant development of the molecularly targeting strategies, the clinical outcome of GBM patients remains dismal. The challenges inherent in developing effective GBM treatments have become increasingly clear, and include resistance to standard treatments, the blood-brain barrier, resistance of GBM stem-like cells, and the genetic complexity and molecular adaptability of GBM. Recent studies have collectively suggested that certain antipsychotics harbor antitumor effects and have potential utilities as anti-GBM therapeutics. In the present review, the anti-tumorigenic effects and putative mechanisms of antipsychotics, and the challenges for the potential use of antipsychotic drugs as anti-GBM therapeutics are reviewed. PMID:26893731

  13. Potential GHG mitigation options for agriculture in China

    SciTech Connect

    Erda, Lin; Yue, Li; Hongmin, Dong

    1996-12-31

    Agriculture contributes more or less to anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O). China`s agriculture accounts for about 5-15% of total emissions for these gases. Land-use changes related to agriculture are not major contributors in China. Mitigation options are available that could result in significant decrease in CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emissions from agricultural systems. If implemented, they are likely to increase crop and animal productivity. Implementation has the potential to decrease CH{sub 4} emissions from rice, ruminants, and animal waste by 4-40%. The key to decreasing N{sub 2}O emissions is improving the efficiency of plant utilization of fertilizer N. This could decrease N{sub 2}O emissions from agriculture by almost 20%. Using animal waste to produce CH{sub 4} for energy and digested manure for fertilizer may at some time be cost effective. Economic analyses of options proposed should show positive economic as well as environmental benefits.

  14. Survey of potentially hazardous object threat negation campaign options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McVey, John P.; Melamed, Nahum

    2013-09-01

    Deflecting a potentially hazardous object (PHO) away from Earth is dependent on the amount of advance warning time, object material composition, trajectory, and the perturbing method. There are many proposed concepts that provide solutions to either deflect or fragment a PHO over a given amount of time. Each concept has its own advantages and disadvantages. Once a threat is established, an end-to-end PHO mitigation campaign design might include the use of various techniques and multiple phases. The purpose of this survey is to provide useful information to decision makers about the overall effort required to mitigate a threatening object with high reliability. Campaign and mission timelines, launch vehicle(s) and spacecraft, deflection option(s), and resource and technology requirements are some of the considerations that are addressed. A uniform rating scale is established and applied to a number of proposed deflection concepts. Several representative threat scenarios are defined and used to rank proposed deflection concepts based on a set of criteria, such as warning time and technology readiness. Multiple independent deflection attempts are considered as means to increase campaign effectiveness.

  15. RADIOACTIVE WASTE STREAMS FROM VARIOUS POTENTIAL NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE OPTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Nick Soelberg; Steve Piet

    2010-11-01

    Five fuel cycle options, about which little is known compared to more commonly known options, have been studied in the past year for the United States Department of Energy. These fuel cycle options, and their features relative to uranium-fueled light water reactor (LWR)-based fuel cycles, include: • Advanced once-through reactor concepts (Advanced Once-Through, or AOT) – intended for high uranium utilization and long reactor operating life, use depleted uranium in some cases, and avoid or minimize used fuel reprocessing • Fission-fusion hybrid (FFH) reactor concepts – potential variations are intended for high uranium or thorium utilization, produce fissile material for use in power generating reactors, or transmute transuranic (TRU) and some radioactive fission product (FP) isotopes • High temperature gas reactor (HTGR) concepts - intended for high uranium utilization, high reactor thermal efficiencies; they have unique fuel designs • Molten salt reactor (MSR) concepts – can breed fissile U-233 from Th fuel and avoid or minimize U fuel enrichment, use on-line reprocessing of the used fuel, produce lesser amounts of long-lived, highly radiotoxic TRU elements, and avoid fuel assembly fabrication • Thorium/U-233 fueled LWR (Th/U-233) concepts – can breed fissile U-233 from Th fuel and avoid or minimize U fuel enrichment, and produce lesser amounts of long-lived, highly radiotoxic TRU elements. These fuel cycle options could result in widely different types and amounts of used or spent fuels, spent reactor core materials, and waste streams from used fuel reprocessing, such as: • Highly radioactive, high-burnup used metal, oxide, or inert matrix U and/or Th fuels, clad in Zr, steel, or composite non-metal cladding or coatings • Spent radioactive-contaminated graphite, SiC, carbon-carbon-composite, metal, and Be reactor core materials • Li-Be-F salts containing U, TRU, Th, and fission products • Ranges of separated or un-separated activation products, fission products, and actinides. Waste forms now used or studied for used LWR fuels can be used for some of these waste streams – but some waste forms may need to be developed for unique waste streams.

  16. Used oil: Disposal options, management practices and potential liability

    SciTech Connect

    Nolan, J.T.

    1988-01-01

    Of more than everyday concern, are the enormous risks of liability and litigation that are generated when used oil is not disposed of properly. This book can help businesses of all sizes minimize the risks, regardless of the quantity of used oil they generate, by providing guidance on how to manage used oils so that it enters the used oil management system properly and is recycled in accordance with EPA regulations. The authors provide coverage of the precautions generators should take, and the recommended used oil management practice; the federal law and policies; the necessary steps to assure regulatory compliance (including underground storage tank requirements); the disposal options of recycling and re-refining; how and why you should investigate your recycler; what your contact with your recycler must cover, your potential liability under Superfund and the crucial insurance coverage issues - and much more.

  17. Platelet derived growth factor inhibitors: A potential therapeutic approach for ocular neovascularization

    PubMed Central

    Sadiq, Mohammad Ali; Hanout, Mostafa; Sarwar, Salman; Hassan, Muhammad; Do, Diana V.; Nguyen, Quan Dong; Sepah, Yasir Jamal

    2015-01-01

    Retinochoroidal vascular diseases are the leading causes of blindness in the developed world. They include diabetic retinopathy (DR), retinal vein occlusion, retinopathy of prematurity, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and pathological myopia, among many others. Several different therapies are currently under consideration for the aforementioned disorders. In the following section, agents targeting platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) are discussed as a potential therapeutic option for retinochoroidal vascular diseases. PDGF plays an important role in the angiogenesis cascade that is activated in retinochoroidal vascular diseases. The mechanism of action, side effects, efficacy, and the potential synergistic role of these agents in combination with other treatment options is discussed. The future of treatment of retinochoroidal vascular diseases, particularly AMD, has become more exciting due to agents such as PDGF antagonists. PMID:26586980

  18. Autophagy: a potential therapeutic target in lung diseases

    PubMed Central

    Nakahira, Kiichi

    2013-01-01

    Macroautophagy (hereafter referred to as autophagy) is an evolutionally conserved intracellular process to maintain cellular homeostasis by facilitating the turnover of protein aggregates, cellular debris, and damaged organelles. During autophagy, cytosolic constituents are engulfed into double-membrane-bound vesicles called “autophagosomes,” which are subsequently delivered to the lysosome for degradation. Accumulated evidence suggests that autophagy is critically involved not only in the basal physiological states but also in the pathogenesis of various human diseases. Interestingly, a diverse variety of clinically approved drugs modulate autophagy to varying extents, although they are not currently utilized for the therapeutic purpose of manipulating autophagy. In this review, we highlight the functional roles of autophagy in lung diseases with focus on the recent progress of the potential therapeutic use of autophagy-modifying drugs in clinical medicine. The purpose of this review is to discuss the merits, and the pitfalls, of modulating autophagy as a therapeutic strategy in lung diseases. PMID:23709618

  19. Aptamer Oligonucleotides: Novel Potential Therapeutic Agents in Autoimmune Disease.

    PubMed

    Li, Weibin; Lan, Xiaopeng

    2015-08-01

    Aptamers are single-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid or ribonucleic acid oligonucleotides generated in vitro based on affinity for certain target molecules by a process known as Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment. Aptamers can bind their target molecules with high specificity and selectivity by means of structure compatibility, stacking of aromatic rings, electrostatic and van der Waals interactions, and hydrogen bonding. With several advantages over monoclonal antibodies and other conventional small-molecule therapeutics, such as high specificity and affinity, negligible batch to batch variation, flexible modification and stability, lack of toxicity and low immunogenicity, aptamers are becoming promising novel diagnostic and therapeutic agents. This review focuses on the development of aptamers as potential therapeutics for autoimmune diseases, including diabetes mellitus, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, myasthenia gravis, and systemic lupus erythematosus. PMID:25993618

  20. Is the medical use of cannabis a therapeutic option for children?

    PubMed

    Rieder, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis is a psychoactive compound with a long history of recreational and therapeutic use. Current considerations regarding cannabis use for medical purposes in children have been stimulated by recent case reports describing its beneficial effect with refractory epilepsy. Overall, there are insufficient data to support either the efficacy or safety of cannabis use for any indications in children, and an increasing body of data suggests possible harm, most importantly in specific conditions. The potential for cannabis as a therapeutic agent must be evaluated carefully for both efficacy and safety in treating specific paediatric health conditions. Smoking is not an acceptable mode of drug delivery for children. The use of cannabis for medical purposes in specific cases should not be construed as a justification for recreational cannabis use by adolescents. Recommendations for therapeutic use in exceptional paediatric cases are offered, always providing that this treatment course is carefully evaluated in individuals and in ongoing, well-designed research studies to determine safety and efficacy. PMID:26941559

  1. Extracellular vesicles derived from mesenchymal stromal cells: a therapeutic option in respiratory diseases?

    PubMed

    Abreu, Soraia C; Weiss, Daniel J; Rocco, Patricia R M

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are plasma membrane-bound fragments released from several cell types, including mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), constitutively or under stimulation. EVs derived from MSCs and other cell types transfer molecules (such as DNA, proteins/peptides, mRNA, microRNA, and lipids) and/or organelles with reparative and anti-inflammatory properties to recipient cells. The paracrine anti-inflammatory effects promoted by MSC-derived EVs have attracted significant interest in the regenerative medicine field, including for potential use in lung injuries. In the present review, we describe the characteristics, biological activities, and mechanisms of action of MSC-derived EVs. We also review the therapeutic potential of EVs as reported in relevant preclinical models of acute and chronic respiratory diseases, such as pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, asthma, and pulmonary arterial hypertension. Finally, we discuss possible approaches for potentiating the therapeutic effects of MSC-derived EVs so as to enable use of this therapy in clinical practice. PMID:27075363

  2. Beyond first-line chemotherapy for advanced pancreatic cancer: An expanding array of therapeutic options?

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Evan J; Ko, Andrew H

    2014-01-01

    While an increasing number of therapeutic options are now available for the first-line treatment of locally advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer, the optimal choice for treatment in the second-line setting and beyond is less well defined. A variety of cytotoxic agents, either alone or in combination, have been evaluated, although primarily in the context of small single-arm or retrospective studies. Most regimens have been associated with median progression-free survival rates in the range of 2-4 mo and overall survival rates between 4-8 mo, highlighting the very poor prognosis of patients who are candidates for such treatment. Targeted therapies studied in this chemotherapy-refractory setting, meanwhile, have produced even worse efficacy results. In the current article, we review the clinical evidence for treatment of refractory disease, primarily in patients who have progressed on front-line gemcitabine-based chemotherapy. In the process, we highlight the limitations of the available data to date as well as some of the challenges in designing appropriate clinical trials in this salvage setting, including how to select an appropriate control arm given the absence of a well-established reference standard, and the importance of incorporating predictive biomarkers and quality of life measures whenever possible into study design. PMID:24605022

  3. Rectal cancer and Fournier’s gangrene - current knowledge and therapeutic options

    PubMed Central

    Bruketa, Tomislav; Majerovic, Matea; Augustin, Goran

    2015-01-01

    Fournier’s gangrene (FG) is a rapid progressive bacterial infection that involves the subcutaneous fascia and part of the deep fascia but spares the muscle in the scrotal, perianal and perineal region. The incidence has increased dramatically, while the reported incidence of rectal cancer-induced FG is unknown but is extremely low. Pathophysiology and clinical presentation of rectal cancer-induced FG per se does not differ from the other causes. Only rectal cancer-specific symptoms before presentation can lead to the diagnosis. The diagnosis of rectal cancer-induced FG should be excluded in every patient with blood on digital rectal examination, when urogenital and dermatological causes are excluded and when fever or sepsis of unknown origin is present with perianal symptomatology. Therapeutic options are more complex than for other forms of FG. First, the causative rectal tumor should be removed. The survival of patients with rectal cancer resection is reported as 100%, while with colostomy it is 80%. The preferred method of rectal resection has not been defined. Second, oncological treatment should be administered but the timing should be adjusted to the resolution of the FG and sometimes for the healing of plastic reconstructive procedures that are commonly needed for the reconstruction of large perineal, scrotal and lower abdominal wall defects. PMID:26290629

  4. Treatment options for diabetes: potential role of stem cells.

    PubMed

    Stanekzai, Jamil; Isenovic, Esma R; Mousa, Shaker A

    2012-12-01

    There are diseases and injuries in which a patient's cells or tissues are destroyed that can only be adequately corrected by tissue or organ transplants. Stem cells may be able to generate new tissue and even cure diseases for which there is no adequate therapy. Type 1 diabetes (T1DM), an insulin-dependent diabetes, is a chronic disease affecting genetically predisposed individuals, in which insulin-secreting beta (β)-cells within pancreatic islets of Langerhans are selectively and irreversibly destroyed by autoimmune assault. Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is characterized by a gradual decrease in insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissues and the liver (insulin resistance), followed by a gradual decline in β-cell function and insulin secretion. Successful replacing of damaged β-cells has shown considerable potential in treating T1DM, but lack of adequate donors is a barrier. The literature suggests that embryonic and adult stem cells are promising alternatives in long-term treatment of diabetes. However, any successful strategy should address both the need for β-cell replacement and controlling the autoimmune response to cells that express insulin. This review summarizes the current knowledge of options and the potential of stem cell transplantation in diabetes treatment. PMID:23020931

  5. The therapeutic potential of cannabinoids for movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Kluger, Benzi; Triolo, Piera; Jones, Wallace; Jankovic, Joseph

    2015-03-01

    There is growing interest in the therapeutic potential of marijuana (cannabis) and cannabinoid-based chemicals within the medical community and, particularly, for neurological conditions. This interest is driven both by changes in the legal status of cannabis in many areas and increasing research into the roles of endocannabinoids within the central nervous system and their potential as symptomatic and/or neuroprotective therapies. We review basic science as well as preclinical and clinical studies on the therapeutic potential of cannabinoids specifically as it relates to movement disorders. The pharmacology of cannabis is complex, with over 60 neuroactive chemicals identified to date. The endocannabinoid system modulates neurotransmission involved in motor function, particularly within the basal ganglia. Preclinical research in animal models of several movement disorders have shown variable evidence for symptomatic benefits, but more consistently suggest potential neuroprotective effects in several animal models of Parkinson's (PD) and Huntington's disease (HD). Clinical observations and clinical trials of cannabinoid-based therapies suggests a possible benefit of cannabinoids for tics and probably no benefit for tremor in multiple sclerosis or dyskinesias or motor symptoms in PD. Data are insufficient to draw conclusions regarding HD, dystonia, or ataxia and nonexistent for myoclonus or RLS. Despite the widespread publicity about the medical benefits of cannabinoids, further preclinical and clinical research is needed to better characterize the pharmacological, physiological, and therapeutic effects of this class of drugs in movement disorders. PMID:25649017

  6. The Therapeutic Potential of Cannabinoids for Movement Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kluger, Benzi; Triolo, Piera; Jones, Wallace; Jankovic, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Background There is growing interest in the therapeutic potential of marijuana (cannabis) and cannabinoid-based chemicals within the medical community and particularly for neurologic conditions. This interest is driven both by changes in the legal status of cannabis in many areas and increasing research into the roles of endocannabinoids within the central nervous system and their potential as symptomatic and/or neuroprotective therapies. We review basic science, preclinical and clinical studies on the therapeutic potential of cannabinoids specifically as it relates to movement disorders. Results The pharmacology of cannabis is complex with over 60 neuroactive chemicals identified to date. The endocannabinoid system modulates neurotransmission involved in motor function, particularly within the basal ganglia. Preclinical research in animal models of several movement disorders have shown variable evidence for symptomatic benefits but more consistently suggest potential neuroprotective effects in several animal models of Parkinson’s (PD) and Huntington’s disease (HD). Clinical observations and clinical trials of cannabinoid-based therapies suggests a possible benefit of cannabinoids for tics and probably no benefit for tremor in multiple sclerosis or dyskinesias or motor symptoms in PD. Data are insufficient to draw conclusions regarding HD, dystonia or ataxia and nonexistent for myoclonus or restless legs syndrome. Conclusions Despite the widespread publicity about the medical benefits of cannabinoids, further preclinical and clinical research is needed to better characterize the pharmacological, physiological and therapeutic effects of this class of drugs in movement disorders. PMID:25649017

  7. Therapeutic potential of turmeric in Alzheimer's disease: curcumin or curcuminoids?

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Touqeer; Gilani, Anwarul-Hassan

    2014-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia. There is limited choice in modern therapeutics, and drugs available have limited success with multiple side effects in addition to high cost. Hence, newer and alternate treatment options are being explored for effective and safer therapeutic targets to address AD. Turmeric possesses multiple medicinal uses including treatment for AD. Curcuminoids, a mixture of curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin, are vital constituents of turmeric. It is generally believed that curcumin is the most important constituent of the curcuminoid mixture that contributes to the pharmacological profile of parent curcuminoid mixture or turmeric. A careful literature study reveals that the other two constituents of the curcuminoid mixture also contribute significantly to the effectiveness of curcuminoids in AD. Therefore, it is emphasized in this review that each component of the curcuminoid mixture plays a distinct role in making curcuminoid mixture useful in AD, and hence, the curcuminoid mixture represents turmeric in its medicinal value better than curcumin alone. The progress in understanding the disease etiology demands a multiple-site-targeted therapy, and the curcuminoid mixture of all components, each with different merits, makes this mixture more promising in combating the challenging disease. PMID:23873854

  8. Rho Kinase (ROCK) Inhibitors and Their Therapeutic Potential.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yangbo; LoGrasso, Philip V; Defert, Olivier; Li, Rongshi

    2016-03-24

    Rho kinases (ROCKs) belong to the serine-threonine family, the inhibition of which affects the function of many downstream substrates. As such, ROCK inhibitors have potential therapeutic applicability in a wide variety of pathological conditions including asthma, cancer, erectile dysfunction, glaucoma, insulin resistance, kidney failure, neuronal degeneration, and osteoporosis. To date, two ROCK inhibitors have been approved for clinical use in Japan (fasudil and ripasudil) and one in China (fasudil). In 1995 fasudil was approved for the treatment of cerebral vasospasm, and more recently, ripasudil was approved for the treatment of glaucoma in 2014. In this Perspective, we present a comprehensive review of the physiological and biological functions for ROCK, the properties and development of over 170 ROCK inhibitors as well as their therapeutic potential, the current status, and future considerations. PMID:26486225

  9. The pharmacology and therapeutic potential of (−)-huperzine A

    PubMed Central

    Tun, Maung Kyaw Moe; Herzon, Seth B

    2012-01-01

    (−)-Huperzine A (1) is an alkaloid isolated from a Chinese club moss. Due to its potent neuroprotective activities, it has been investigated as a candidate for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease. In this review, we will discuss the pharmacology and therapeutic potential of (−)-huperzine A (1). Synthetic studies of (−)-huperzine A (1) aimed at enabling its development as a pharmaceutical will be described.

  10. Aquaporin 1, a potential therapeutic target for migraine with aura

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The pathophysiology of migraine remains largely unknown. However, evidence regarding the molecules participating in the pathophysiology of migraine has been accumulating. Water channel proteins, known as aquaporins (AQPs), notably AQP-1 and AQP-4, appears to be involved in the pathophysiology of several neurological diseases. This review outlines newly emerging evidence indicating that AQP-1 plays an important role in pain signal transduction and migraine and could therefore serve as a potential therapeutic target for these diseases. PMID:20969805

  11. TRAIL as biomarker and potential therapeutic tool for cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Stella; Milani, Daniela; Fabris, Bruno; Secchiero, Paola; Zauli, Giorgio

    2012-08-01

    This review focuses on TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), also called Apo2 ligand, a protein belonging to the TNF superfamily. TRAIL can be found either in its transmembrane or circulating form, and its mostly studied peripheral effect is the induction of cellular apoptosis. Here, we discuss the evidences supporting the use of TRAIL as biomarker of cardiovascular diseases as well as the evidences showing the potential beneficial therapeutic effects of TRAIL on cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. PMID:22676911

  12. Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate: a new therapeutic option for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Steer C; Froelich J; Soutullo CA; Johnson M; Shaw M

    2012-08-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with substantial functional, clinical and economic burdens. It is among the most common psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents, and often persists into adulthood. Both medication and psychosocial interventions are recommended for the treatment of ADHD. However, ADHD treatment practices vary considerably, depending on medication availability, reimbursement and the evolution of clinical practice in each country. In Europe, stimulants and atomoxetine are widely available medications for the treatment of ADHD, whereas in the US approved treatment options also include extended-release formulations of clonidine and guanfacine. Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (lisdexamfetamine) is a long-acting, prodrug formulation of dexamfetamine. It is currently licensed in the US, Canada and Brazil, and is undergoing phase III studies in Europe. We performed a PubMed/MEDLINE search looking for recent (2005-2012) scientific papers regarding the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, efficacy and safety of lisdexamfetamine. The lisdexamfetamine molecule is therapeutically inactive and is enzymatically hydrolysed, primarily in the blood, to the active dexamfetamine. This conversion is unaffected by gastrointestinal pH and variations in normal transit times. Lisdexamfetamine was developed with the goal of providing an extended duration of effect that is consistent throughout the day. Clinical trials have demonstrated robust clinical efficacy of lisdexamfetamine in the treatment of children, adolescents and adults with ADHD with dose-dependent improvements in the core symptoms of ADHD. Studies have further shown that the duration of action of lisdexamfetamine continues for 13 hours post-dosing in children and for 14 hours in adults. The tolerability profile of lisdexamfetamine is consistent with those of other stimulant medications, with decreased appetite, insomnia, abdominal pain and irritability among the more frequent treatment-emergent adverse events, most of which are mild to moderate in intensity and transient in nature. There are currently no parallel-group, head-to-head trial data comparing the efficacy and safety of lisdexamfetamine with other medications for ADHD. However, the available data, including a large effect size and consistent plasma concentrations throughout the day, suggest that lisdexamfetamine is a useful treatment option for patients with ADHD.

  13. Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate: a new therapeutic option for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Steer, Christopher; Froelich, Jan; Soutullo, César A; Johnson, Mats; Shaw, Monica

    2012-08-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with substantial functional, clinical and economic burdens. It is among the most common psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents, and often persists into adulthood. Both medication and psychosocial interventions are recommended for the treatment of ADHD. However, ADHD treatment practices vary considerably, depending on medication availability, reimbursement and the evolution of clinical practice in each country. In Europe, stimulants and atomoxetine are widely available medications for the treatment of ADHD, whereas in the US approved treatment options also include extended-release formulations of clonidine and guanfacine. Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (lisdexamfetamine) is a long-acting, prodrug formulation of dexamfetamine. It is currently licensed in the US, Canada and Brazil, and is undergoing phase III studies in Europe. We performed a PubMed/MEDLINE search looking for recent (2005-2012) scientific papers regarding the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, efficacy and safety of lisdexamfetamine. The lisdexamfetamine molecule is therapeutically inactive and is enzymatically hydrolysed, primarily in the blood, to the active dexamfetamine. This conversion is unaffected by gastrointestinal pH and variations in normal transit times. Lisdexamfetamine was developed with the goal of providing an extended duration of effect that is consistent throughout the day. Clinical trials have demonstrated robust clinical efficacy of lisdexamfetamine in the treatment of children, adolescents and adults with ADHD with dose-dependent improvements in the core symptoms of ADHD. Studies have further shown that the duration of action of lisdexamfetamine continues for 13 hours post-dosing in children and for 14 hours in adults. The tolerability profile of lisdexamfetamine is consistent with those of other stimulant medications, with decreased appetite, insomnia, abdominal pain and irritability among the more frequent treatment-emergent adverse events, most of which are mild to moderate in intensity and transient in nature. There are currently no parallel-group, head-to-head trial data comparing the efficacy and safety of lisdexamfetamine with other medications for ADHD. However, the available data, including a large effect size and consistent plasma concentrations throughout the day, suggest that lisdexamfetamine is a useful treatment option for patients with ADHD. PMID:22762726

  14. Inhibition of STAT5: A therapeutic option in BCR-ABL1-driven leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Angelika; Sexl, Veronika; Valent, Peter; Moriggl, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The two transcription factors STAT5A and STAT5B are central signaling molecules in leukemias driven by Abelson fusion tyrosine kinases and they fulfill all criteria of drug targets. STAT5A and STAT5B display unique nuclear shuttling mechanisms and they have a key role in resistance of leukemic cells against treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI). Moreover, STAT5A and STAT5B promote survival of leukemic stem cells. We here discuss the possibility of targeting up-stream kinases with TKI, direct STAT5 inhibition via SH2 domain obstruction and blocking nuclear translocation of STAT5. All discussed options will result in a stop of STAT5 transport to the nucleus to block STAT5-mediated transcriptional activity. In summary, recently described shuttling functions of STAT5 are discussed as potentially druggable pathways in leukemias. PMID:25333255

  15. Hypoxic ischemic brain injury: Potential therapeutic interventions for the future

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Aaron J.; Marks, Jeremy D.

    2014-01-01

    Perinatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury is a common problem with potentially devastating impact on neurodevelopmental outcomes. While therapeutic hypothermia, the first available treatment for this disease, reduces the risk of death or major neurodevelopmental disability, the risk of major neurologic morbidity following HI remains significant. Basic research has identified cellular mechanisms that mediate neuronal death. This article reviews the cellular processes induced that lead to brain injury following HI, and identify treatments currently under investigation for potential translation to clinical trials. PMID:25177211

  16. The Natural Flavonoid Pinocembrin: Molecular Targets and Potential Therapeutic Applications.

    PubMed

    Lan, Xi; Wang, Wenzhu; Li, Qiang; Wang, Jian

    2016-04-01

    Pinocembrin is a natural flavonoid compound extracted from honey, propolis, ginger roots, wild marjoram, and other plants. In preclinical studies, it has shown anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects as well as the ability to reduce reactive oxygen species, protect the blood-brain barrier, modulate mitochondrial function, and regulate apoptosis. Considering these pharmaceutical characteristics, pinocembrin has potential as a drug to treat ischemic stroke and other clinical conditions. In this review, we summarize its pharmacologic characteristics and discuss its mechanisms of action and potential therapeutic applications. PMID:25744566

  17. Development Potentials and Policy Options of Biomass in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Lei; Liu, Litao; Yao, Zhijun; Liu, Gang; Lucas, Mario

    2010-10-01

    Biomass, one of the most important renewable energies, is playing and will continue to play an important role in the future energy structure of the world. This article aims to analyze the position and role, assess the resource availability, discuss the geographic distribution, market scale and industry development, and present the policy options of biomass in China. The resource availability and geographical distribution of biomass byproducts are assessed in terms of crop residues, manure, forest and wood biomass byproducts, municipal waste and wastewater. The position of biomass use for power generation is just next to hydropower among types of renewable energy in China. The potential quantity of all biomass byproducts energy in 2004 is 3511 Mtce (Mtce is the abbreviation of million tons of coal equivalents and 1 Mtce is equal to106 tce.), while the acquirable quantity is 460 Mtce. Biomass energy plays a critical role in rural regions of China. The geographical distribution and quantity of biomass byproducts resources depends mainly on the relationship between ecological zones and climate conditions. Our estimation shows that the total quantity of crop residues, manure, forest and wood biomass byproducts, municipal waste and wastewater resources are 728, 3926, 2175, 155 and 48240 Mt (million tons), respectively. Crop residues come mainly from the provinces of Henan, Shandong, Heilongjiang, Jilin and Sichuan. All manure is mainly located in the provinces of Henan, Shandong, Sichuan, Hebei and Hunan. Forest and wood biomass byproducts are mainly produced in the provinces or autonomous regions of Tibet, Sichuan, Yunnan, Heilongjiang and Inner Mongolia, while most of municipal waste mainly comes from Guangdong, Shandong, Heilongjiang, Hubei and Jiangsu. Most of wastewater is largely discharged from advanced provinces like Guangdong, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Shandong and Henan. Biomass byproducts’ energy distribution also varies from province to province in China. Based on the analysis of the market scale and industry development, the article argues that China’s biomass energy industry is still at a very early stage of development and that Feed-in Tariffs (FIT) might be the best policy option for China to promote its development of biomass energy. A successful enforcement of FIT in China needs some policy combination of special capital subsidies, R&D funding, tax incentives and pricing.

  18. B-cell development and functions and therapeutic options in adenosine deaminase–deficient patients

    PubMed Central

    Brigida, Immacolata; Sauer, Aisha V.; Ferrua, Francesca; Giannelli, Stefania; Scaramuzza, Samantha; Pistoia, Valentina; Castiello, Maria Carmina; Barendregt, Barbara H.; Cicalese, Maria Pia; Casiraghi, Miriam; Brombin, Chiara; Puck, Jennifer; Müller, Klaus; Notarangelo, Lucia Dora; Montin, Davide; van Montfrans, Joris M.; Roncarolo, Maria Grazia; Traggiai, Elisabetta; van Dongen, Jacques J. M.; van der Burg, Mirjam; Aiuti, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Background Adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency causes severe cellular and humoral immune defects and dysregulation because of metabolic toxicity. Alterations in B-cell development and function have been poorly studied. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) and hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) gene therapy (GT) are therapeutic options for patients lacking a suitable bone marrow (BM) transplant donor. Objective We sought to study alterations in B-cell development in ADA-deficient patients and investigate the ability of ERT and HSC-GT to restore normal B-cell differentiation and function. Methods Flow cytometry was used to characterize B-cell development in BM and the periphery. The percentage of gene-corrected B cells was measured by using quantitative PCR. B cells were assessed for their capacity to proliferate and release IgM after stimulation. Results Despite the severe peripheral B-cell lymphopenia, patients with ADA-deficient severe combined immunodeficiency showed a partial block in central BM development. Treatment with ERT or HSC-GT reverted most BM alterations, but ERT led to immature B-cell expansion. In the periphery transitional B cells accumulated under ERT, and the defect in maturation persisted long-term. HSC-GT led to a progressive improvement in B-cell numbers and development, along with increased levels of gene correction. The strongest selective advantage for ADA-transduced cells occurred at the transition from immature to naive cells. B-cell proliferative responses and differentiation to immunoglobulin secreting IgM after B-cell receptor and Toll-like receptor triggering were severely impaired after ERT and improved significantly after HSC-GT. Conclusions ADA-deficient patients show specific defects in B-cell development and functions that are differently corrected after ERT and HSC-GT. PMID:24506932

  19. Establishing therapeutic relationships with vulnerable and potentially stigmatized clients.

    PubMed

    Porr, Caroline; Drummond, Jane; Olson, Karin

    2012-03-01

    Grounded theory was employed to elucidate how public health nurses (PHNs) develop therapeutic relationships with vulnerable and potentially stigmatized clients, specifically, single mothers living in low-income situations. We named the emerging theoretical model Targeting Essence: Pragmatic Variation of the Therapeutic Relationship, after discovering that although PHNs strove to achieve relational goals, their attention was primarily focused on the goal of ascertaining concerns foremost on the hearts and minds of mothers, and that PHNs had to accomplish these goals within short practice timeframes. The study's focused context elicited a nuanced explanation of the dynamic relationship-building process derived from subjective relationship experiences of PHNs and single mothers living in low-income situations. We believe Targeting Essence will serve as an effectual relationship-building model, enabling PHNs to know essentially what mothers want and need, and enabling mothers to know essentially that their PHN can be trusted not to render judgment. PMID:21890718

  20. Potential therapeutic applications of hyaluronan in the lung.

    PubMed

    Cantor, Jerome O

    2007-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA), a long-chain polysaccharide, is currently being evaluated as a potential therapeutic agent for a number of inflammatory disorders. The effect of HA on inflammation appears to be related to its molecular size, with larger polysaccharide chains having anti-inflammatory activity and smaller ones having proinflammatory properties. This dichotomous behavior is particularly relevant to the work of our laboratory on an aerosolized preparation of HA to treat pulmonary emphysema. The breakdown of inhaled HA into smaller fragments could possibly induce an inflammatory reaction in the lung that counteracts any beneficial effect. Consequently, the proposed therapeutic use of HA will require development of treatment strategies aimed at minimizing its proinflammatory activity. PMID:18229566

  1. Understanding the Mechanism of Hepatic Fibrosis and Potential Therapeutic Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Areeba; Ahmad, Riaz

    2012-01-01

    Hepatic fibrosis (HF) is a progressive condition with serious clinical complications arising from abnormal proliferation and amassing of tough fibrous scar tissue. This defiance of collagen fibers becomes fatal due to ultimate failure of liver functions. Participation of various cell types, interlinked cellular events, and large number of mediator molecules make the fibrotic process enormously complex and dynamic. However, with better appreciation of underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms of fibrosis, the assumption that HF cannot be cured is gradually changing. Recent findings have underlined the therapeutic potential of a number of synthetic compounds as well as plant derivatives for cessation or even the reversal of the processes that transforms the liver into fibrotic tissue. It is expected that future inputs will provide a conceptual framework to develop more specific strategies that would facilitate the assessment of risk factors, shortlist early diagnosis biomarkers, and eventually guide development of effective therapeutic alternatives. PMID:22626794

  2. Amplification of TRIM44: Pairing a Prognostic Target With Potential Therapeutic Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Chin-Ann Johnny; Shannon, Nicholas B.; Ross-Innes, Caryn S.; ODonovan, Maria; Rueda, Oscar M.; Hu, De-en; Kettunen, Mikko I.; Walker, Christina Elaine; Noorani, Ayesha; Hardwick, Richard H.; Caldas, Carlos; Brindle, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Background Many prognostic biomarkers have been proposed recently. However, there is a lack of therapeutic strategies exploiting novel prognostic biomarkers. We aimed to propose therapeutic options in patients with overexpression of TRIM44, a recently identified prognostic gene. Methods Genomic and transcriptomic data of epithelial cancers (n = 1932), breast cancers (BCs; n = 1980) and esophago-gastric cancers (EGCs; n = 163) were used to identify genomic aberrations driving TRIM44 overexpression. The driver gene status of TRIM44 was determined using a small interfering RNA (siRNA) screen of the 11p13 amplicon. Integrative analysis was applied across multiple datasets to identify pathway activation and potential therapeutic strategies. Validation of the in silico findings were performed using in vitro assays, xenografts, and patient samples (n = 160). Results TRIM44 overexpression results from genomic amplification in 16.1% of epithelial cancers, including 8.1% of EGCs and 6.1% of BCs. This was confirmed using fluorescent in situ hybridization. The siRNA screen confirmed TRIM44 to be a driver of the amplicon. In silico analysis revealed an association between TRIM44 and mTOR signalling, supported by a decrease in mTOR signalling after siRNA knockdown of TRIM44 in cell lines and colocalization of TRIM44 and p-mTOR in patient samples. In vitro inhibition studies using an mTOR inhibitor (everolimus) decreased cell viability in two TRIM44-amplified cells lines by 88% and 70% compared with 35% in the control cell line. These findings were recapitulated in xenograft models. Conclusions Genomic amplification drives TRIM44 overexpression in EGCs and BCs. Targeting the mTOR pathway provides a potential therapeutic option for TRIM44-amplified tumors. PMID:24777112

  3. Evolving Therapeutic Options for Polycythemia Vera: Perspectives of the Canadian Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Group.

    PubMed

    Sirhan, Shireen; Busque, Lambert; Foltz, Lynda; Grewal, Kuljit; Hamm, Caroline; Laferriere, Nicole; Laneuville, Pierre; Leber, Brian; Liew, Elena; Olney, Harold J; Prchal, Jaroslav; Porwit, Anna; Gupta, Vikas

    2015-12-01

    Polycythemia vera (PV) is a clonal stem cell disorder characterized by erythrocytosis and associated with burdensome symptoms, reduced quality of life, risk of thrombohemorrhagic complications, and risk of transformation to myelofibrosis and acute myeloid leukemia. The discovery of the JAK2 V617 mutation marked a significant milestone in understanding the pathophysiology of the disease and subsequently the diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. The current diagnostic criteria for PV are based on hemoglobin level and presence of the JAK2 V617 mutation. The treatment is geared toward prevention of thrombotic events, normalization of blood counts, control of disease-related symptoms, and potential prolongation of survival. Cytoreductive therapy is indicated in patients at increased risk of thrombosis. Hydroxyurea (HU) remains the most commonly used first-line cytoreductive therapy and is superior to phlebotomy in reducing risk of arterial and venous thrombosis. Interferon (IFN) is used either at failure of HU or in selected patients as first-line therapy. The results of pegylated IFN in phase 2 studies appear encouraging, with molecular responses occurring in some patients. Ongoing phase 3 studies of HU versus pegylated IFN will define the optimal first-line cytoreductive therapy for PV. A recent phase 3 trial has shown the superiority of the JAK1/2 inhibitor ruxolitinib in comparison to best available treatment in HU-intolerant or -resistant patients. The therapeutic landscape of PV is likely to change in the near future. In this report, we assess the potential impact of the changing landscape of PV management on daily practice. PMID:26433906

  4. Therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stem cells for pulmonary complications associated with preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Laube, Mandy; Stolzing, Alexandra; Thome, Ulrich H; Fabian, Claire

    2016-05-01

    Preterm infants frequently suffer from pulmonary complications resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. Physiological and structural lung immaturity impairs perinatal lung transition to air breathing resulting in respiratory distress. Mechanical ventilation and oxygen supplementation ensure sufficient oxygen supply but enhance inflammatory processes which might lead to the establishment of a chronic lung disease called bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Current therapeutic options to prevent or treat BPD are limited and have salient side effects, highlighting the need for new therapeutic approaches. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have demonstrated therapeutic potential in animal models of BPD. This review focuses on MSC-based therapeutic approaches to treat pulmonary complications and critically compares results obtained in BPD models. Thereby bottlenecks in the translational systems are identified that are preventing progress in combating BPD. Notably, current animal models closely resemble the so-called "old" BPD with profound inflammation and injury, whereas clinical improvements shifted disease pathology towards a "new" BPD in which arrest of lung maturation predominates. Future studies need to evaluate the utility of MSC-based therapies in animal models resembling the "new" BPD though promising in vitro evidence suggests that MSCs do possess the potential to stimulate lung maturation. Furthermore, we address the mode-of-action of MSC-based therapies with regard to lung development and inflammation/fibrosis. Their therapeutic efficacy is mainly attributed to an enhancement of regeneration and immunomodulation due to paracrine effects. In addition, we discuss current improvement strategies by genetic modifications or precondition of MSCs to enhance their therapeutic efficacy which could also prove beneficial for BPD therapies. PMID:26928452

  5. Current and Potential Therapeutic Strategies for Hemodynamic Cardiorenal Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Obi, Yoshitsugu; Kim, Taehee; Kovesdy, Csaba P.; Amin, Alpesh N.; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) encompasses conditions in which cardiac and renal disorders co-exist and are pathophysiologically related. The newest classification of CRS into seven etiologically and clinically distinct types for direct patient management purposes includes hemodynamic, uremic, vascular, neurohumoral, anemia- and/or iron metabolism-related, mineral metabolism-related and protein-energy wasting-related CRS. This classification also emphasizes the pathophysiologic pathways. The leading CRS category remains hemodynamic CRS, which is the most commonly encountered type in patient care settings and in which acute or chronic heart failure leads to renal impairment. Summary This review focuses on selected therapeutic strategies for the clinical management of hemodynamic CRS. This is often characterized by an exceptionally high ratio of serum urea to creatinine concentrations. Loop diuretics, positive inotropic agents including dopamine and dobutamine, vasopressin antagonists including vasopressin receptor antagonists such as tolvaptan, nesiritide and angiotensin-neprilysin inhibitors are among the pharmacologic agents used. Additional therapies include ultrafiltration (UF) via hemofiltration or dialysis. The beneficial versus unfavorable effects of these therapies on cardiac decongestion versus renal blood flow may act in opposite directions. Some of the most interesting options for the outpatient setting that deserve revisiting include portable continuous dobutamine infusion, peritoneal dialysis and outpatient UF via hemodialysis or hemofiltration. Key Messages The new clinically oriented CRS classification system is helpful in identifying therapeutic targets and offers a systematic approach to an optimal management algorithm with better understanding of etiologies. Most interventions including UF have not shown a favorable impact on outcomes. Outpatient portable dobutamine infusion is underutilized and not well studied. Revisiting traditional and novel strategies for outpatient management of CRS warrants clinical trials. PMID:26989394

  6. Genes and primary headaches: discovering new potential therapeutic targets

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Genetic studies have clearly shown that primary headaches (migraine, tension-type headache and cluster headache) are multifactorial disorders characterized by a complex interaction between different genes and environmental factors. Genetic association studies have highlighted a potential role in the etiopathogenesis of these disorders for several genes related to vascular, neuronal and neuroendocrine functions. A potential role as a therapeutic target is now emerging for some of these genes. The main purpose of this review is to describe new advances in our knowledge regarding the role of MTHFR, KCNK18, TRPV1, TRPV3 and HCRTR genes in primary headache disorders. Involvement of these genes in primary headaches, as well as their potential role in the therapy of these disorders, will be discussed. PMID:23848401

  7. Hsp90 as a Potential Therapeutic Target in Retinal Disease.

    PubMed

    Aguilà, Mònica; Cheetham, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    The molecular chaperone heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a pivotal cellular regulator involved in the folding, activation and assembly of a wide range of proteins. Hsp90 has multiple roles in the retina and the use of different Hsp90 inhibitors has been shown to prevent retinal degeneration in models of retinitis pigmentosa and age-related macular degeneration. Hsp90 is also a potential target in uveal melanoma. Mechanistically, Hsp90 inhibition can evoke a dual response in the retina; stimulating a stress response with molecular chaperone expression. Thereby leading to an improvement in visual function and photoreceptor survival; however, prolonged inhibition can also stimulate the degradation of Hsp90 client proteins potentially deleteriously affect vision. Here, we review the multiple roles of Hsp90 in the retina and the therapeutic potential of Hsp90 as a target. PMID:26427407

  8. Cardiovascular gene therapy: current status and therapeutic potential

    PubMed Central

    Gaffney, M M; Hynes, S O; Barry, F; O'Brien, T

    2007-01-01

    Gene therapy is emerging as a potential treatment option in patients suffering from a wide spectrum of cardiovascular diseases including coronary artery disease, peripheral vascular disease, vein graft failure and in-stent restenosis. Thus far preclinical studies have shown promise for a wide variety of genes, in particular the delivery of genes encoding growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) to treat ischaemic vascular disease both peripherally and in coronary artery disease. VEGF as well as other genes such as TIMPs have been used to target the development of neointimal hyperplasia to successfully prevent vein graft failure and in-stent restenosis in animal models. Subsequent phase I trials to examine safety of these therapies have been successful with low levels of serious adverse effects, and albeit in the absence of a placebo group some suggestion of efficacy. Phase 2 studies, which have incorporated a placebo group, have not confirmed this early promise of efficacy. In the next generation of clinical gene therapy trials for cardiovascular disease, many parameters will need to be adjusted in the search for an effective therapy, including the identification of a suitable vector, appropriate gene or genes and an effective vector delivery system for a specific disease target. Here we review the current status of cardiovascular gene therapy and the potential for this approach to become a viable treatment option. PMID:17558439

  9. Alveolar bone loss: mechanisms, potential therapeutic targets, and interventions.

    PubMed

    Intini, G; Katsuragi, Y; Kirkwood, K L; Yang, S

    2014-05-01

    This article reviews recent research into mechanisms underlying bone resorption and highlights avenues of investigation that may generate new therapies to combat alveolar bone loss in periodontitis. Several proteins, signaling pathways, stem cells, and dietary supplements are discussed as they relate to periodontal bone loss and regeneration. RGS12 is a crucial protein that mediates osteoclastogenesis and bone destruction, and a potential therapeutic target. RGS12 likely regulates osteoclast differentiation through regulating calcium influx to control the calcium oscillation-NFATc1 pathway. A working model for RGS10 and RGS12 in the regulation of Ca(2+) oscillations during osteoclast differentiation is proposed. Initiation of inflammation depends on host cell-microbe interactions, including the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. Oral p38 inhibitors reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced bone destruction in a rat periodontitis model but showed unsatisfactory safety profiles. The p38 substrate MK2 is a more specific therapeutic target with potentially superior tolerability. Furthermore, MKP-1 shows anti-inflammatory activity, reducing inflammatory cytokine biosynthesis and bone resorption. Multipotent skeletal stem cell (SSC) populations exist within the bone marrow and periosteum of long bones. These bone-marrow-derived SSCs and periosteum-derived SSCs have shown therapeutic potential in several applications, including bone and periodontal regeneration. The existence of craniofacial bone-specific SSCs is suggested based on existing studies. The effects of calcium, vitamin D, and soy isoflavone supplementation on alveolar and skeletal bone loss in post-menopausal women were investigated. Supplementation resulted in stabilization of forearm bone mass density and a reduced rate of alveolar bone loss over 1 yr, compared with placebo. Periodontal attachment levels were also well-maintained and alveolar bone loss suppressed during 24 wk of supplementation. PMID:24736703

  10. Therapeutic Potential of Small Molecules and Engineered Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Gurevich, Vsevolod V.

    2015-01-01

    Virtually all currently used therapeutic agents are small molecules, largely because the development and delivery of small molecule drugs is relatively straightforward. Small molecules have serious limitations: drugs of this type can be fairly good enzyme inhibitors, receptor ligands, or allosteric modulators. However, most cellular functions are mediated by protein interactions with other proteins, and targeting protein–protein interactions by small molecules presents challenges that are unlikely to be overcome with these compounds as the only tools. Recent advances in gene delivery techniques and characterization of cell type-specific promoters open the prospect of using reengineered signaling-biased proteins as next-generation therapeutics. The first steps in targeted engineering of proteins with desired functional characteristics look very promising. As quintessential scaffolds that act strictly via interactions with other proteins in the cell, arrestins represent a perfect model for the development of these novel therapeutic agents with enormous potential: custom-designed signaling proteins will allow us to tell the cell what to do and when to do it in a way it cannot disobey. PMID:24292822

  11. Commercially available interactive video games in burn rehabilitation: therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Parry, Ingrid S; Bagley, Anita; Kawada, Jason; Sen, Soman; Greenhalgh, David G; Palmieri, Tina L

    2012-06-01

    Commercially available interactive video games (IVG) like the Nintendo Wii™ (NW) and PlayStation™II Eye Toy (PE) are increasingly used in the rehabilitation of patients with burn. Such games have gained popularity in burn rehabilitation because they encourage range of motion (ROM) while distracting from pain. However, IVGs were not originally designed for rehabilitation purposes but rather for entertainment and may lack specificity for achieving rehabilitative goals. Objectively evaluating the specific demands of IVGs in relation to common burn therapy goals will determine their true therapeutic benefit and guide their use in burn rehabilitation. Upper extremity (UE) motion of 24 normal children was measured using 3D motion analysis during play with the two types of IVGs most commonly described for use after burn: NW and PE. Data was analyzed using t-tests and One-way Analysis of Variance. Active range of motion for shoulder flexion and abduction during play with both PE and NW was within functional range, thus supporting the idea that IVGs offer activities with therapeutic potential to improve ROM. PE resulted in higher demands and longer duration of UE motion than NW, and therefore may be the preferred tool when UE ROM or muscular endurance are the goals of rehabilitation. When choosing a suitable IVG for application in rehabilitation, the user's impairment together with the therapeutic attributes of the IVG should be considered to optimize outcome. PMID:22385641

  12. Exosomes and Their Therapeutic Potentials of Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Han, Chao; Sun, Xuan; Liu, Ling; Jiang, Haiyang; Shen, Yan; Xu, Xiaoyun; Li, Jie; Zhang, Guoxin; Huang, Jinsha; Lin, Zhicheng; Xiong, Nian; Wang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Exosomes, a group of vesicles originating from the multivesicular bodies (MVBs), are released into the extracellular space when MVBs fuse with the plasma membrane. Numerous studies indicate that exosomes play important roles in cell-to-cell communication, and exosomes from specific cell types and conditions display multiple functions such as exerting positive effects on regeneration in many tissues. It is widely accepted that the therapeutic potential of stem cells may be mediated largely by the paracrine factors, so harnessing the paracrine effects of stem and progenitor cells without affecting these living, replicating, and potentially pluripotent cell populations is an advantage in terms of safety and complexity. Ascending evidence indicated that exosomes might be the main components of paracrine factors; thus, understanding the role of exosomes in each subtype of stem cells is far-reaching. In this review, we discuss the functions of exosomes from different types of stem cells and emphasize the therapeutic potentials of exosomes, providing an alternative way of developing strategies to cure diseases. PMID:26770213

  13. Fatty acids and their therapeutic potential in neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    Lei, Enie; Vacy, Kristina; Boon, Wah Chin

    2016-05-01

    There is little doubt that we are what we eat. Fatty acid supplementation and diets rich in fatty acids are being promoted as ways to a healthier brain. Short chain fatty acids are a product of intestinal microbiota metabolism of dietary fibre; and their derivatives are used as an anti-convulstant. They demonstrated therapeutic potential in neurodegenerative conditions as HDAC inhibitors; and while the mechanism is not well understood, have been shown to lower amyloid β in Alzheimer's Disease in preclinical studies. Medium chain fatty acids consumed as a mixture in dietary oils can induce ketogenesis without the need for a ketogentic diet. Hence, this has the potential to provide an alternative energy source to prevent neuronal cell death due to lack of glucose. Long chain fatty acids are commonly found in the diet as omega fatty acids. They act as an anti-oxidant protecting neuronal cell membranes from oxidative damage and as an anti-inflammatory mediator in the brain. We review which agents, from each fatty acid class, have the most therapeutic potential for neurological disorders (primarily Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Autism Spectrum Disorder as well as possible applications to traumatic brain injury), by discussing what is known about their biological mechanisms from preclinical studies. PMID:26939763

  14. Exosomes and Their Therapeutic Potentials of Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Han, Chao; Sun, Xuan; Liu, Ling; Jiang, Haiyang; Shen, Yan; Xu, Xiaoyun; Li, Jie; Zhang, Guoxin; Huang, Jinsha; Lin, Zhicheng; Xiong, Nian; Wang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Exosomes, a group of vesicles originating from the multivesicular bodies (MVBs), are released into the extracellular space when MVBs fuse with the plasma membrane. Numerous studies indicate that exosomes play important roles in cell-to-cell communication, and exosomes from specific cell types and conditions display multiple functions such as exerting positive effects on regeneration in many tissues. It is widely accepted that the therapeutic potential of stem cells may be mediated largely by the paracrine factors, so harnessing the paracrine effects of stem and progenitor cells without affecting these living, replicating, and potentially pluripotent cell populations is an advantage in terms of safety and complexity. Ascending evidence indicated that exosomes might be the main components of paracrine factors; thus, understanding the role of exosomes in each subtype of stem cells is far-reaching. In this review, we discuss the functions of exosomes from different types of stem cells and emphasize the therapeutic potentials of exosomes, providing an alternative way of developing strategies to cure diseases. PMID:26770213

  15. Leveraging biodiversity knowledge for potential phyto-therapeutic applications

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vivekanand; Sarkar, Indra Neil

    2013-01-01

    Objective To identify and highlight the feasibility, challenges, and advantages of providing a cross-domain pipeline that can link relevant biodiversity information for phyto-therapeutic assessment. Materials and methods A public repository of clinical trials information (ClinicalTrials.gov) was explored to determine the state of plant-based interventions under investigation. Results The results showed that ∼15% of drug interventions in ClinicalTrials.gov were potentially plant related, with about 60% of them clustered within 10 taxonomic families. Further analysis of these plant-based interventions identified ∼3.7% of associated plant species as endangered as determined from the International Union for the Conservation of Nature Red List. Discussion The diversity of the plant kingdom has provided human civilization with life-sustaining food and medicine for centuries. There has been renewed interest in the investigation of botanicals as sources of new drugs, building on traditional knowledge about plant-based medicines. However, data about the plant-based biodiversity potential for therapeutics (eg, based on genetic or chemical information) are generally scattered across a range of sources and isolated from contemporary pharmacological resources. This study explored the potential to bridge biodiversity and biomedical knowledge sources. Conclusions The findings from this feasibility study suggest that there is an opportunity for developing plant-based drugs and further highlight taxonomic relationships between plants that may be rich sources for bioprospecting. PMID:23518859

  16. Potential therapeutic uses of BDNF in neurological and psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Nagahara, Alan H; Tuszynski, Mark H

    2011-03-01

    The growth factor brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor tropomyosin-related kinase receptor type B (TRKB) are actively produced and trafficked in multiple regions in the adult brain, where they influence neuronal activity, function and survival throughout life. The diverse presence and activity of BDNF suggests a potential role for this molecule in the pathogenesis and treatment of both neurological and psychiatric disorders. This article reviews the current understanding and future directions in BDNF-related research in the central nervous system, with an emphasis on the possible therapeutic application of BDNF in modifying fundamental processes underlying neural disease. PMID:21358740

  17. Antimicrobial Peptides and Their Analogs: Searching for New Potential Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Midura-Nowaczek, Krystyna; Markowska, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are an essential part of innate immunity. These compounds have been considered as potential therapeutics because of their broad-spectrum activities and proven ability to avoid antimicrobial resistance, but their clinical and commercial developments have some limitations, such as susceptibility to proteases and a high cost of peptide production. To overcome these problems, many researchers have tried to develop short active peptides, their modifications and mimics with better properties while retaining their basic features of natural AMPs such as cationic charge and the amphipathic structure. PMID:25374459

  18. Codonopsis lanceolata: A Review of Its Therapeutic Potentials.

    PubMed

    Hossen, Muhammad Jahangir; Kim, Mi-Yeon; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Cho, Jae Youl

    2016-03-01

    Codonopsis lanceolata (Campanulaceae) is dicotyledonous herbaceous perennial plant, predominantly found in Central, East, and South Asia. This plant has been widely used in traditional medicine and is considered to have medicinal properties to treat diseases and symptoms such as bronchitis, coughs, spasm, psychoneurosis, cancer, obesity, hyperlipidemia, edema, hepatitis, colitis, and lung injury. C. lanceolata contains many biologically active compounds, including polyphenols, saponins, tannins, triterpene, alkaloids, and steroids, which contribute to its numerous pharmacological activities. Through systematic studies, the pharmacological actions of these compounds have been revealed. Therapeutic potentialities of C. lanceolata and its previously reported molecular mechanisms are described in this review. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26931614

  19. Inflammation and hypertension: new understandings and potential therapeutic targets

    PubMed Central

    Miguel, Carmen De; Rudemiller, Nathan P.; Abais, Justine M.; Mattson, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Research studying the role of inflammation in hypertension and cardiovascular disease has flourished in recent years; however, the exact mechanisms by which the activated immune cells lead to the development and maintenance of hypertension remain to be elucidated. The objective of this brief review is to summarize and discuss the most recent findings in the field, with special emphasis on potential therapeutics to treat or prevent hypertension. This review will cover novel immune cell subtypes recently associated to the disease including the novel role of cytokines, toll-like receptors and inflammasomes in hypertension. PMID:25432899

  20. [Novel therapeutic options in the treatment of BCR/ABL-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms].

    PubMed

    Dhner, K; Stegelmann, F; Schlenk, R F; Griesshammer, M

    2012-10-01

    Since the discovery of the JAK2V617F mutation in essential thrombocythemia (ET), polycythemia vera (PV) and myelofibrosis (MF) in 2005, the field of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) experiences a significant gain of knowledge. Based on the novel insights in the molecular pathomechanisms of MPN many innovative drugs have been developed that are currently under investigation in clinical trials. Most data are available on the JAK inhibitors, the so called "ATP mimetics" for the treatment of MF. Recent data from two large phase-III studies showed that the JAK1?/2 inhibitor Ruxolitinib is very effective in the reduction of spleen size and the improvement of quality of life in MF patients. Beside JAK inhibitors, immunomodulatory drugs (IMiD) are currently under investigation. Here, pomalidomide showed significant activity in several phase-II studies in MF patients. In addition, other kinase inhibitors as well as histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors and inhibitors of the mTOR signalling pathway are currently evaluated in clinical trials. Based on their potential synergistic action combination therapy of these substances represents another option for MPN therapy.In this review the most recently published studies using innovative treatment strategies in MPN patients are reported, and some future aspects for MPN treatment are adressed. PMID:23055361

  1. Emerging novel and antimicrobial-resistant respiratory tract infections: new drug development and therapeutic options.

    PubMed

    Zumla, Alimuddin; Memish, Ziad A; Maeurer, Markus; Bates, Matthew; Mwaba, Peter; Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A; Denning, David W; Hayden, Frederick G; Hui, David S

    2014-11-01

    The emergence and spread of antimicrobial-resistant bacterial, viral, and fungal pathogens for which diminishing treatment options are available is of major global concern. New viral respiratory tract infections with epidemic potential, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome, swine-origin influenza A H1N1, and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection, require development of new antiviral agents. The substantial rise in the global numbers of patients with respiratory tract infections caused by pan-antibiotic-resistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and multiazole-resistant fungi has focused attention on investments into development of new drugs and treatment regimens. Successful treatment outcomes for patients with respiratory tract infections across all health-care settings will necessitate rapid, precise diagnosis and more effective and pathogen-specific therapies. This Series paper describes the development and use of new antimicrobial agents and immune-based and host-directed therapies for a range of conventional and emerging viral, bacterial, and fungal causes of respiratory tract infections. PMID:25189352

  2. Dock GEFs and their therapeutic potential: neuroprotection and axon regeneration.

    PubMed

    Namekata, Kazuhiko; Kimura, Atsuko; Kawamura, Kazuto; Harada, Chikako; Harada, Takayuki

    2014-11-01

    The dedicator of cytokinesis (Dock) family is composed of atypical guanine exchange factors (GEFs) that activate the Rho GTPases Rac1 and Cdc42. Rho GTPases are best documented for their roles in actin polymerization and they regulate important cellular functions, including morphogenesis, migration, neuronal development, and cell division and adhesion. To date, 11 Dock family members have been identified and their roles have been reported in diverse contexts. There has been increasing interest in elucidating the roles of Dock proteins in recent years and studies have revealed that they are potential therapeutic targets for various diseases, including glaucoma, Alzheimer's disease, cancer, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and combined immunodeficiency. Among the Dock proteins, Dock3 is predominantly expressed in the central nervous system and recent studies have revealed that Dock3 plays a role in protecting retinal ganglion cells from neurotoxicity and oxidative stress as well as in promoting optic nerve regeneration. In this review, we discuss the current understanding of the 11 Dock GEFs and their therapeutic potential, with a particular focus on Dock3 as a novel target for the treatment of glaucoma and other neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25016980

  3. Review on Molecular and Therapeutic Potential of Thymoquinone in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Sanjeev; Padhye, Subhash; Azmi, Asfar; Wang, Zhiwei; Philip, Philip A.; Kucuk, Omer; Sarkar, Fazlul H.; Mohammad, Ramzi M.

    2014-01-01

    Thymoquinone (TQ) is the predominant bioactive constituent present in black seed oil (Nigella sativa) and has been tested for its efficacy against cancer. Here, we summarize the literature about TQs molecular mechanism of action and its ability to induce apoptosis and inhibit tumor growth in preclinical models. TQ has anti-inflammatory effects, and it inhibits tumor cell proliferation through modulation of apoptosis signaling, inhibition of angiogenesis, and cell cycle arrest. Chemosensitization by TQ is mostly limited to in vitro studies, and it has potential in therapeutic strategy for cancer. The results favor efficacy and enhancement of therapeutic benefit against tumor cells resistant to therapy based on cellular targets that are molecular determinants for cancer cell survival and progression. There have been attempts to synthesize novel analogs of TQ directed toward superior effects in killing tumor cells with more enhanced chemosensitizing potential than parent TQ compound. Based on published reports, we believe that further in-depth studies are warranted including investigation of its bioavailability and Phase I toxicity profiling in human subjects. The results from such studies will be instrumental in advancing this field in support of initiating clinical trials for testing the effects of this ancient agent in cancer therapy. PMID:20924969

  4. Leptin, ghrelin, and endocannabinoids: potential therapeutic targets in anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Støving, René Klinkby; Andries, Alin; Brixen, Kim; Flyvbjerg, Allan; Hørder, Kirsten; Frystyk, Jan

    2009-04-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) has the highest mortality rate between psychiatric disorders, and evidence for managing it is still very limited. So far, pharmacological treatment has focused on a narrow range of drugs and only a few controlled studies have been performed. Furthermore, the studies have been of short duration and included a limited number of subjects, often heterogenic with regard to stage and acute nutritive status. Thus, novel approaches are urgently needed. Body weight homeostasis is tightly regulated throughout life. With the discovery of orexigenic and anorectic signals, an array of new molecular targets to control eating behavior has emerged. This review focuses on recent advances in three important signal systems: leptin, ghrelin, and endocannabinoids toward the identification of potential therapeutical breakthroughs in AN. Our review of the current literature shows that leptin may have therapeutic potentials in promoting restoration of menstrual cycles in weight restored patients, reducing motor restlessness in severely hyperactive patients, and preventing osteoporosis in chronic patients. Ghrelin and endocannabinoids exert orexigenic effects which may facilitate nutritional restoration. Leptin and endocannabinoids may exert antidepressive and anxiolytic effects. Finally, monitoring serum concentration of leptin may be useful in order to prevent refeeding syndrome. PMID:18926548

  5. Macrophages associated with tumors as potential targets and therapeutic intermediates

    PubMed Central

    Vinogradov, Serguei; Warren, Galya; Wei, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) form approximately 50% of tumor mass. TAMs were shown to promote tumor growth by suppressing immunocompetent cells, inducing neovascularization and supporting cancer stem cells. TAMs retain mobility in tumor mass, which can potentially be employed for better intratumoral biodistribution of nanocarriers and effective tumor growth inhibition. Due to the importance of TAMs, they are increasingly becoming principal targets of novel therapeutic approaches. In this review, we compare features of macrophages and TAMs that are essential for TAM-directed therapies, and illustrate the advantages of nanomedicine that are related to the preferential capture of nanocarriers by Mφ in the process of drug delivery. We discuss recent efforts in reprogramming or inhibiting tumor-protecting properties of TAMs, and potential strategies to increase efficacy of conventional chemotherapy by combining with macrophage-associated delivery of nanodrugs. PMID:24827844

  6. Therapeutic Potential of 5-HT6 Receptor Agonists.

    PubMed

    Karila, Delphine; Freret, Thomas; Bouet, Valentine; Boulouard, Michel; Dallemagne, Patrick; Rochais, Christophe

    2015-10-22

    Given its predominant expression in the central nervous system (CNS), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT: serotonin) subtype 6 receptor (5-HT6R) has been considered as a valuable target for the development of CNS drugs with limited side effects. After 2 decades of intense research, numerous selective ligands have been developed to target this receptor; this holds potential interest for the treatment of neuropathological disorders. In fact, some agents (mainly antagonists) are currently undergoing clinical trial. More recently, a series of potent and selective agonists have been developed, and preclinical studies have been conducted that suggest the therapeutic interest of 5-HT6R agonists. This review details the medicinal chemistry of these agonists, highlights their activities, and discusses their potential for treating cognitive issues associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD), depression, or obesity. Surprisingly, some studies have shown that both 5-HT6R agonists and antagonists exert similar procognitive activities. This article summarizes the hypotheses that could explain this paradox. PMID:26099069

  7. Aptamer nanomedicine for cancer therapeutics: barriers and potential for translation.

    PubMed

    Lao, Yeh-Hsing; Phua, Kyle K L; Leong, Kam W

    2015-03-24

    Aptamer nanomedicine, including therapeutic aptamers and aptamer nanocomplexes, is beginning to fulfill its potential in both clinical trials and preclinical studies. Especially in oncology, aptamer nanomedicine may perform better than conventional or antibody-based chemotherapeutics due to specificity compared to the former and stability compared to the latter. Many proof-of-concept studies on applying aptamers to drug delivery, gene therapy, and cancer imaging have shown promising efficacy and impressive safety in vivo toward translation. Yet, there remains ample room for improvement and critical barriers to be addressed. In this review, we will first introduce the recent progress in clinical trials of aptamer nanomedicine, followed by a discussion of the barriers at the design and in vivo application stages. We will then highlight recent advances and engineering strategies proposed to tackle these barriers. Aptamer cancer nanomedicine has the potential to address one of the most important healthcare issues of the society. PMID:25731717

  8. Therapeutic potential and health benefits of Sargassum species

    PubMed Central

    Yende, Subhash R.; Harle, Uday N.; Chaugule, Bhupal B.

    2014-01-01

    Sargassum species are tropical and sub-tropical brown macroalgae (seaweed) of shallow marine meadow. These are nutritious and rich source of bioactive compounds such as vitamins, carotenoids, dietary fibers, proteins, and minerals. Also, many biologically active compounds like terpenoids, flavonoids, sterols, sulfated polysaccharides, polyphenols, sargaquinoic acids, sargachromenol, pheophytine were isolated from different Sargassum species. These isolated compounds exhibit diverse biological activities like analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, neuroprotective, anti-microbial, anti-tumor, fibrinolytic, immune-modulatory, anti-coagulant, hepatoprotective, anti-viral activity etc., Hence, Sargassum species have great potential to be used in pharmaceutical and neutralceutical areas. This review paper explores the current knowledge of phytochemical, therapeutic potential, and health benefits of different species of genus Sargassum. PMID:24600190

  9. The challenge of Clostridium difficile infection: Overview of clinical manifestations, diagnostic tools and therapeutic options.

    PubMed

    Postma, Nynke; Kiers, Dorien; Pickkers, Peter

    2015-12-01

    The most important infectious cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea and colitis is Clostridium difficile, which is a Gram-positive, anaerobic, spore-forming, toxin-producing bacillus. In this overview we will discuss the diagnostic and therapeutic management of patients presenting with suspected or proven C. difficile infection (CDI). The clinical spectrum varies from asymptomatic C. difficile carriers to fulminant colitis with multi-organ failure. The onset of symptoms is usually within 2 weeks after initiation of antibiotic treatment. Diagnosis is based on the combination of clinical symptoms and either a positive stool test for C. difficile toxins or endoscopic or histological findings of pseudomembranous colitis. There is no indication for treatment of asymptomatic carriers, but patients with proven CDI should be treated. Treatment consists of cessation of the provoking antibiotic treatment, secondary prevention by infection control strategies, and treatment with metronidazole or vancomycin. Treatment of recurring CDI, severe infection, the need for surgery, and novel alternative potential treatment strategies will be discussed. The concurrent increase in multiresistant colonisation and increasing numbers of asymptomatic carriers of C. difficile will lead to an increase of the situation in which patients with severe infections, treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics, will develop concurrent severe CDI. We will discuss possible therapy strategies for these patients. PMID:26612229

  10. Therapeutic options to minimize allogeneic blood transfusions and their adverse effects in cardiac surgery: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Antônio Alceu; da Silva, José Pedro; da Silva, Luciana da Fonseca; de Sousa, Alexandre Gonçalves; Piotto, Raquel Ferrari; Baumgratz, José Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Introdution Allogeneic blood is an exhaustible therapeutic resource. New evidence indicates that blood consumption is excessive and that donations have decreased, resulting in reduced blood supplies worldwide. Blood transfusions are associated with increased morbidity and mortality, as well as higher hospital costs. This makes it necessary to seek out new treatment options. Such options exist but are still virtually unknown and are rarely utilized. Objective To gather and describe in a systematic, objective, and practical way all clinical and surgical strategies as effective therapeutic options to minimize or avoid allogeneic blood transfusions and their adverse effects in surgical cardiac patients. Methods A bibliographic search was conducted using the MeSH term “Blood Transfusion” and the terms “Cardiac Surgery” and “Blood Management.” Studies with titles not directly related to this research or that did not contain information related to it in their abstracts as well as older studies reporting on the same strategies were not included. Results Treating anemia and thrombocytopenia, suspending anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents, reducing routine phlebotomies, utilizing less traumatic surgical techniques with moderate hypothermia and hypotension, meticulous hemostasis, use of topical and systemic hemostatic agents, acute normovolemic hemodilution, cell salvage, anemia tolerance (supplementary oxygen and normothermia), as well as various other therapeutic options have proved to be effective strategies for reducing allogeneic blood transfusions. Conclusion There are a number of clinical and surgical strategies that can be used to optimize erythrocyte mass and coagulation status, minimize blood loss, and improve anemia tolerance. In order to decrease the consumption of blood components, diminish morbidity and mortality, and reduce hospital costs, these treatment strategies should be incorporated into medical practice worldwide. PMID:25714216

  11. Superoxide Dismutase Mimics: Chemistry, Pharmacology, and Therapeutic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Rebouças, Júlio S.; Spasojević, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Oxidative stress has become widely viewed as an underlying condition in a number of diseases, such as ischemia–reperfusion disorders, central nervous system disorders, cardiovascular conditions, cancer, and diabetes. Thus, natural and synthetic antioxidants have been actively sought. Superoxide dismutase is a first line of defense against oxidative stress under physiological and pathological conditions. Therefore, the development of therapeutics aimed at mimicking superoxide dismutase was a natural maneuver. Metalloporphyrins, as well as Mn cyclic polyamines, Mn salen derivatives and nitroxides were all originally developed as SOD mimics. The same thermodynamic and electrostatic properties that make them potent SOD mimics may allow them to reduce other reactive species such as peroxynitrite, peroxynitrite-derived CO3·−, peroxyl radical, and less efficiently H2O2. By doing so SOD mimics can decrease both primary and secondary oxidative events, the latter arising from the inhibition of cellular transcriptional activity. To better judge the therapeutic potential and the advantage of one over the other type of compound, comparative studies of different classes of drugs in the same cellular and/or animal models are needed. We here provide a comprehensive overview of the chemical properties and some in vivo effects observed with various classes of compounds with a special emphasis on porphyrin-based compounds. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 13, 877–918. PMID:20095865

  12. The potential of heparanase as a therapeutic target in cancer.

    PubMed

    Pisano, Claudio; Vlodavsky, Israel; Ilan, Neta; Zunino, Franco

    2014-05-01

    Heparanase has generated substantial interest as therapeutic target for antitumor therapy, because its activity is implicated in malignant behavior of cancer cells and in tumor progression. Increased heparanase expression was found in numerous tumor types and correlates with poor prognosis. Heparanase, an endoglucuronidase responsible for heparan sulfate cleavage, regulates the structure and function of heparan sulfate proteoglycans, leading to disassembly of the extracellular matrix. The action of heparanase is involved in multiple regulatory events related, among other effects, to augmented bioavailability of growth factors and cytokines. Inhibitors of heparanase suppress tumor growth, angiogenesis and metastasis by modulating growth factor-mediated signaling, ECM barrier function and cell interactions in the tumor microenvironment. Therefore, targeting heparanase has potential implications for anti-tumor, anti-angiogenic and anti-inflammatory therapies. Current approaches for heparanase inhibition include development of chemically modified heparins, small molecule inhibitors and neutralizing antibodies. The available evidence supports the emerging utility of heparanase inhibition as a promising antitumor strategy, specifically in rational combination with other agents. The recent studies with compounds designed to block heparanase (e.g., modified heparins) provide a rational basis for their therapeutic application and optimization. PMID:24565907

  13. MicroRNAs in Neurodegenerative Diseases and Their Therapeutic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Junn, Eunsung; Mouradian, M. Maral

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are abundant, endogenous, short, noncoding RNAs that act as important post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression by base-pairing with their target mRNA. During the last decade, substantial knowledge has accumulated regarding the biogenesis of miRNAs, their molecular mechanisms and functional roles in a variety of cellular contexts. Altered expression of certain miRNA molecules in the brains of patients with neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer and Parkinson suggests that miRNAs could have a crucial regulatory role in these disorders. Polymorphisms in miRNA target sites may also constitute an important determinant of disease risk. Additionally, emerging evidence points to specific miRNAs targeting and regulating the expression of particular proteins that are key to disease pathogenesis. Considering that the amount of these proteins in susceptible neuronal populations appears to be critical to neurodegeneration, miRNA-mediated regulation represents a new target of significant therapeutic prospects. In this review, the implications of miRNAs in several neurodegenerative disorders and their potential as therapeutic interventions are discussed. PMID:22008259

  14. Molecular basis of organ fibrosis: potential therapeutic approaches.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Asish K; Quaggin, Susan E; Vaughan, Douglas E

    2013-05-01

    Fibrosis, a non-physiological wound healing in multiple organs, is associated with end-stage pathological symptoms of a wide variety of vascular injury and inflammation related diseases. In response to chemical, immunological and physical insults, the body's defense system and matrix synthetic machinery respond to healing the wound and maintain tissue homeostasis. However, uncontrolled wound healing leads to scarring or fibrosis, a pathological condition characterized by excessive synthesis and accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins, loss of tissue homeostasis and organ failure. Understanding the actual cause of pathological wound healing and identification of igniter(s) of fibrogenesis would be helpful to design novel therapeutic approaches to control pathological wound healing and to prevent fibrosis related morbidity and mortality. In this article, we review the significance of a few key cytokines (TGF-β, IFN-γ, IL-10) transcriptional activators (Sp1, Egr-1, Smad3), repressors (Smad7, Fli-1, PPAR-γ, p53, Klotho) and epigenetic modulators (acetyltransferase, methyltransferases, deacetylases, microRNAs) involved in major matrix protein collagen synthesis under pathological stage of wound healing, and the potentiality of these regulators as therapeutic targets for fibrosis treatment. The significance of endothelial to mesenchymal transition (EndMT) and senescence, two newly emerged fields in fibrosis research, has also been discussed. PMID:23856899

  15. Selection, design, and characterization of a new potentially therapeutic ribozyme.

    PubMed Central

    Zinnen, Shawn P; Domenico, Kristal; Wilson, Mike; Dickinson, Brent A; Beaudry, Amber; Mokler, Victor; Daniher, Andrew T; Burgin, Alex; Beigelman, Leonid

    2002-01-01

    An in vitro selection was designed to identify RNA-cleaving ribozymes predisposed for function as a drug. The selection scheme required the catalyst to be trans-acting with phosphodiesterase activity targeting a fragment of the Kras mRNA under simulated physiological conditions. To increase stabilization against nucleases and to offer the potential for improved functionality, modified sequence space was sampled by transcribing with the following NTPs: 2'-F-ATP, 2'-F-UTP, or 2'-F-5-[(N-imidazole-4-acetyl) propylamine]-UTP, 2'-NH2-CTP, and GTP. Active motifs were identified and assessed for their modified NMP and divalent metal dependence. The minimization of the ribozyme's size and the ability to substitute 2'-OMe for 2'-F and 2'-NH2 moieties yielded the motif from these selections most suited for both nuclease stability and therapeutic development. This motif requires only two 2'-NH2-Cs and functions as a 36-mer. Its substrate sequence requirements were determined to be 5'-Y-G-H-3'. Its half-life in human serum is >100 h. In physiologically relevant magnesium concentrations [approximately 1 mM] its kcat = 0.07 min(-1), Km = 70 nM. This report presents a novel nuclease stable ribozyme, designated Zinzyme, possessing optimal activity in simulated physiological conditions and ready for testing in a therapeutic setting. PMID:11911367

  16. Heparin in inflammation: potential therapeutic applications beyond anticoagulation.

    PubMed

    Tyrrell, D J; Horne, A P; Holme, K R; Preuss, J M; Page, C P

    1999-01-01

    In this chapter we have described anti-inflammatory functions of heparin distinct from its traditional anticoagulant activity. We have presented in vivo data showing heparin's beneficial effects in various preclinical models of inflammatory disease as well as discussed some clinical studies showing that the anti-inflammatory activities of heparin may translate into therapeutic uses. In vivo models that use low-anticoagulant heparins indicate that the anticoagulant activity can be distinguished from heparin's anti-inflammatory properties. In certain cases such as hypovolemic shock, the efficacy of a low-anticoagulant heparin derivative (GM1892) exceeds heparin. Data also suggest that nonconventional delivery of heparin, specifically via inhalation, has therapeutic potential in improving drug pharmacokinetics (as determined by measuring blood coagulation parameters) and in reducing the persistent concerns of systemic hemorrhagic complications. Results from larger clinical trials with heparin and LMW heparins are eagerly anticipated and will allow us to assess our predictions on the effectiveness of this drug class to treat a variety of human inflammatory diseases. PMID:10332503

  17. Potential Therapeutic Benefits of Strategies Directed to Mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Lesnefsky, Edward J.; Stowe, David F.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The mitochondrion is the most important organelle in determining continued cell survival and cell death. Mitochondrial dysfunction leads to many human maladies, including cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative disease, and cancer. These mitochondria-related pathologies range from early infancy to senescence. The central premise of this review is that if mitochondrial abnormalities contribute to the pathological state, alleviating the mitochondrial dysfunction would contribute to attenuating the severity or progression of the disease. Therefore, this review will examine the role of mitochondria in the etiology and progression of several diseases and explore potential therapeutic benefits of targeting mitochondria in mitigating the disease processes. Indeed, recent advances in mitochondrial biology have led to selective targeting of drugs designed to modulate and manipulate mitochondrial function and genomics for therapeutic benefit. These approaches to treat mitochondrial dysfunction rationally could lead to selective protection of cells in different tissues and various disease states. However, most of these approaches are in their infancy. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 13, 279–347. PMID:20001744

  18. Therapeutic potential of natural products in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Mythri, Rajeswara B; Harish, Gangadharappa; Bharath, M M

    2012-09-01

    The central objective in treating patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) is two-fold (i) to increase the striatal dopamine content and (ii) to prevent further degeneration of the surviving dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra region of the ventral midbrain. Most of the current PD drugs contribute to the former and provide symptomatic relief. Although compounds such as Levodopa (L-DOPA) improve the striatal dopamine content, their long-term usage is associated with progressive decrease in drug response, motor fluctuations, dyskinesias and drug-induced toxicity. In addition, these drugs fail to prevent the progression of the degenerative process. This has shifted the focus onto alternative therapeutic approaches involving natural products that could provide independent therapy or offer neuroprotective support to the existing drugs. The current review describes the neuroprotective and therapeutic utility of such natural products including herbal extracts, phytochemicals and bioactive ingredients from other natural sources either in isolation or in combination, with potential application in PD, highlighting the relevant patents. PMID:22827714

  19. Maximizing the Therapeutic Potential of HSP90 Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Butler, Lisa M; Ferraldeschi, Roberta; Armstrong, Heather K; Centenera, Margaret M; Workman, Paul

    2015-11-01

    HSP90 is required for maintaining the stability and activity of a diverse group of client proteins, including protein kinases, transcription factors, and steroid hormone receptors involved in cell signaling, proliferation, survival, oncogenesis, and cancer progression. Inhibition of HSP90 alters the HSP90-client protein complex, leading to reduced activity, misfolding, ubiquitination, and, ultimately, proteasomal degradation of client proteins. HSP90 inhibitors have demonstrated significant antitumor activity in a wide variety of preclinical models, with evidence of selectivity for cancer versus normal cells. In the clinic, however, the efficacy of this class of therapeutic agents has been relatively limited to date, with promising responses mainly observed in breast and lung cancer, but no major activity seen in other tumor types. In addition, adverse events and some significant toxicities have been documented. Key to improving these clinical outcomes is a better understanding of the cellular consequences of inhibiting HSP90 that may underlie treatment response or resistance. This review considers the recent progress that has been made in the study of HSP90 and its inhibitors and highlights new opportunities to maximize their therapeutic potential. PMID:26219697

  20. Survey of Advanced Booster Options for Potential Shuttle Derivative Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sackheim, Robert L.; Ryan, Richard; Threet, Ed; Kennedy, James W. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A never-ending major goal for the Space Shuttle program is to continually improve flight safety, as long as this launch system remains in operational service. One of the options to improve system safety and to enhance vehicle performance as well, that has been seriously studied over the past several decades, is to replace the existing strap-on four segment solid rocket boosters (SRB's) with more capable units. A number of booster upgrade options have been studied in some detail, ranging from five segment solids through hybrids and a wide variety of liquid strap-ons (both pressure and pump fed with various propellants); all the way to a completely reusable liquid fly back booster (complete with air breathing engines for controlled landing and return). All of these possibilities appear to offer improvements in varying degrees; and each has their strengths and weaknesses from both programmatic and technical points of view. The most beneficial booster upgrade/design, if the shuttle program were to continue long enough to justify the required investment, would be an approach that greatly increased both vehicle and crew safety. This would be accomplished by increasing the minimum range/minimum altitude envelope that would readily allow abort to orbit (ATO), possibly even to zero/zero, and possibly reduce or eliminate the Return to Launch Site (RTLS) and even the Trans Atlantic Landing (TAL) abort mode requirements. This paper will briefly survey and discuss all of the various booster'upgrade options studied previously, and compare their relative attributes. The survey will explicitly discuss, in summary comparative form, options that include: five segment solids; several hybrid possibilities; pressure and/or pump-fed liquids using either LO2/kerosene, H2O/kerosene and LO2/J2, any of which could be either fully expendable, partly or fully reusable; and finally a fully reusable liquid fly back booster system, with a number of propellant and propulsion system options. Performance and configuration comparison illustrations and tables will be included to provide a comprehensive survey for the paper.

  1. Vitamin D: Implications for Ocular Disease and Therapeutic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Reins, Rose Y.; McDermott, Alison M.

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D is a multifunctional hormone that is now known to play a significant role in a variety of biological functions in addition to its traditional role in regulating calcium homeostasis. There are a large number of studies demonstrating that adequate vitamin D levels are important in maintaining health and show that vitamin D is able to be utilized at local tissue sites. In the eye, we have increasing evidence of the association between disease and vitamin D. In this narrative review, we summarize recent findings on vitamin D and its relationship to various ocular pathologies and the therapeutic potential for some of these, as well as examine the basic science studies that demonstrate that vitamin D is biologically relevant in the eye. PMID:25724179

  2. Therapeutic potential of HMGB1-targeting agents in sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haichao; Zhu, Shu; Zhou, Rongrong; Li, Wei; Sama, Andrew E.

    2008-01-01

    Sepsis refers to a systemic inflammatory response syndrome resulting from a microbial infection. The inflammatory response is partly mediated by innate immune cells (such as macrophages, monocytes and neutrophils), which not only ingest and eliminate invading pathogens but also initiate an inflammatory response upon recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). The prevailing theories of sepsis as a dysregulated inflammatory response, as manifested by excessive release of inflammatory mediators such as tumour necrosis factor and high-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), are supported by extensive studies employing animal models of sepsis. Here we review emerging evidence that support extracellular HMGB1 as a late mediator of experimental sepsis, and discuss the therapeutic potential of several HMGB1-targeting agents (including neutralising antibodies and steroid-like tanshinones) in experimental sepsis. PMID:18980707

  3. Targeting nuclear transporters in cancer: Diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Stelma, Tamara; Chi, Alicia; van der Watt, Pauline J; Verrico, Annalisa; Lavia, Patrizia; Leaner, Virna D

    2016-04-01

    The Karyopherin superfamily is a major class of soluble transport receptors consisting of both import and export proteins. The trafficking of proteins involved in transcription, cell signalling and cell cycle regulation among other functions across the nuclear membrane is essential for normal cellular functioning. However, in cancer cells, the altered expression or localization of nuclear transporters as well as the disruption of endogenous nuclear transport inhibitors are some ways in which the Karyopherin proteins are dysregulated. The value of nuclear transporters in the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of cancer is currently being elucidated with recent studies highlighting their potential as biomarkers and therapeutic targets. © 2016 IUBMB Life, 68(4):268-280, 2016. PMID:26970212

  4. Revisiting Metal Toxicity in Neurodegenerative Diseases and Stroke: Therapeutic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Joy; Vasquez, Velmarini; Hegde, Pavana M; Boldogh, Istvan; Mitra, Sankar; Kent, Thomas A; Rao, Kosagi S; Hegde, Muralidhar L

    2015-01-01

    Excessive accumulation of pro-oxidant metals, observed in affected brain regions, has consistently been implicated as a contributor to the brain pathology including neurodegenerative diseases and acute injuries such as stroke. Furthermore, the potential interactions between metal toxicity and other commonly associated etiological factors, such as misfolding/aggregation of amyloidogenic proteins or genomic damage, are poorly understood. Decades of research provide compelling evidence implicating metal overload in neurological diseases and stroke. However, the utility of metal toxicity as a therapeutic target is controversial, possibly due to a lack of comprehensive understanding of metal dyshomeostasis-mediated neuronal pathology. In this article, we discuss the current understanding of metal toxicity and the challenges associated with metal-targeted therapies. PMID:25717476

  5. Histone deacetylase: a potential therapeutic target for fibrotic disorders.

    PubMed

    Pang, Maoyin; Zhuang, Shougang

    2010-11-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are enzymes that balance the acetylation activities of histone acetyltransferases on chromatin remodeling and play essential roles in regulating gene transcription. In the past several years, the role of HDACs in cancer initiation and progression, as well as the therapeutic effects of HDAC inhibitors in various types of cancer, has been well studied. Recent studies indicated that HDAC activity is also associated with the development and progression of some chronic diseases characterized by fibrosis, including chronic kidney disease, cardiac hypertrophy, and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Here, we review what is known about HDACs in the progression of tissue fibrosis and the potential applications of HDAC inhibitors in the treatment of disorders associated with fibroblast activation and proliferation. PMID:20719940

  6. Therapeutic potential of Aegle marmelos (L.)-An overview

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Shahedur; Parvin, Rashida

    2014-01-01

    Medicinal plants are used in herbalism. They form the easily available source for healthcare purposes in rural and tribal areas. In the present review, an attempt has been made to congregate the phytochemical and pharmacological studies done on an important medicinal plant Aegle marmelos. Extensive experimental and clinical studies prove that Aegle marmelos possesses antidiarrhoeal, antimicrobial, antiviral, radioprotective, anticancer, chemopreventive, antipyretic, ulcer healing, antigenotoxic, diuretic, antifertility and anti-inflammatory properties, which help it to play role in prevention and treatment of many disease. Therefore, it is worthwhile to review its therapeutic properties to give an overview of its status to scientist both modern and ancient. This review also encompasses on the potential application of the above plant in the pharmaceutical field due to its wide pharmacological activities.

  7. Cathelicidin a potential therapeutic peptide for gastrointestinal inflammation and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Jimmy Yip Chuen; Li, Zhi Jie; Wu, William Ka Kei; Cho, Chi Hin

    2013-01-01

    Cathelicidins, are host defense peptides synthesized and stored in circulating leukocytes and numerous types of epithelial tissues in particular the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and skin. They have been known for their antimicrobial activities against a variety of microbes. Recently it was discovered that they have other significant biological functions and produce appealing pharmacological actions against inflammation and cancer in the GI tract through defined mechanisms. Experimental evidence shows that these actions could be tissue and disease specific and concentration dependent. This article reviews some of the physiological functions of cathelicidins and also their therapeutic potential in the treatment of inflammation and cancer and also the delivery system for this peptide as targeted therapy for various disorders in the GI tract both in animals and humans. PMID:23687409

  8. Functions of astrocytes and their potential as therapeutic targets

    PubMed Central

    Kimelberg, Harold K.; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2010-01-01

    Astrocytes are often referred to, and historically have been regarded as, support cells of the mammalian CNS. Work over the last decade suggests otherwise, that astrocytes may in fact play a more active role in higher neural processing than previously recognized. Because astrocytes can potentially serve as novel therapeutic targets, it is critical to understand how astrocytes execute their diverse supportive tasks while maintaining neuronal health. To that end, this review will focus on the supportive roles of astrocytes, a line of study relevant to essentially all acute and chronic neurological diseases. Furthermore, this review will critically re-evaluate our concepts of the functional properties of astrocytes and relate these tasks to their intricate morphology. PMID:20880499

  9. Therapeutic potential of endothelin receptor antagonism in kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Czopek, Alicja; Moorhouse, Rebecca; Webb, David J; Dhaun, Neeraj

    2016-03-01

    Our growing understanding of the role of the endothelin (ET) system in renal physiology and pathophysiology is from emerging studies of renal disease in animal models and humans. ET receptor antagonists reduce blood pressure and proteinuria in chronic kidney disease and cause regression of renal injury in animals. However, the therapeutic potential of ET receptor antagonism has not been fully explored and clinical studies have been largely limited to patients with diabetic nephropathy. There remains a need for more work in nondiabetic chronic kidney disease, end-stage renal disease (patients requiring maintenance dialysis and those with a functioning kidney transplant), ischemia reperfusion injury, and sickle cell disease. The current review summarizes the most recent advances in both preclinical and clinical studies of ET receptor antagonists in the field of kidney disease. PMID:26702154

  10. Targeting autophagy as a potential therapeutic approach for melanoma therapy.

    PubMed

    Liu, He; He, Zhaoyue; Simon, Hans-Uwe

    2013-10-01

    Melanoma, occurring as a rapidly progressive skin cancer, is resistant to current chemo- and radiotherapy, especially after metastases to distant organs has taken place. Most chemotherapeutic drugs exert their cytotoxic effect by inducing apoptosis, which, however, is often deficient in cancer cells. Thus, it is appropriate to attempt the targeting of alternative pathways, which regulate cellular viability. Recent studies of autophagy, a well-conserved cellular catabolic process, promise to improve the therapeutic outcome in melanoma patients. Although a dual role for autophagy in cancer therapy has been reported, both protecting against and promoting cell death, the potential for using autophagy in cancer therapy seems to be promising. Here, we review the recent literature on the role of autophagy in melanoma with respect to the expression of autophagic markers, the involvement of autophagy in chemo- and immunotherapy, as well as the role of autophagy in hypoxia and altered metabolic pathways employed for melanoma therapy. PMID:23831275

  11. Periprosthetic osteolysis: genetics, mechanisms and potential therapeutic interventions.

    PubMed

    Noordin, Shahryar; Masri, Bassam

    2012-12-01

    Aseptic loosening and periprosthetic osteolysis occur as a result of the biological response to particulate wear debris and are one of the leading causes of arthroplasty failure. Periprosthetic osteolysis originates from chronic inflammatory responses triggered by implant-derived particulate debris, which cause recruitment of cells, including macrophages, fibroblasts, lymphocytes and osteoclasts. These cells secrete proinflammatory and osteoclastogenic cytokines, exacerbating the inflammatory response. In addition to their direct activation by phagocytosis, there are contributing autocrine and paracrine effects that create a complex milieu within the periprosthetic space, which ultimately governs the development of osteolysis. Chronic cell activation may upset the delicate balance between bone formation and bone resorption leading to periprosthetic osteolysis. This article summarizes the genetic mechanisms underlying periprosthetic loosening and identifies potential therapeutic agents. PMID:22992398

  12. The human gut microbiota and virome: Potential therapeutic implications.

    PubMed

    Scarpellini, Emidio; Ianiro, Gianluca; Attili, Fabia; Bassanelli, Chiara; De Santis, Adriano; Gasbarrini, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    Human gut microbiota is a complex ecosystem with several functions integrated in the host organism (metabolic, immune, nutrients absorption, etc.). Human microbiota is composed by bacteria, yeasts, fungi and, last but not least, viruses, whose composition has not been completely described. According to previous evidence on pathogenic viruses, the human gut harbours plant-derived viruses, giant viruses and, only recently, abundant bacteriophages. New metagenomic methods have allowed to reconstitute entire viral genomes from the genetic material spread in the human gut, opening new perspectives on the understanding of the gut virome composition, the importance of gut microbiome, and potential clinical applications. This review reports the latest evidence on human gut "virome" composition and its function, possible future therapeutic applications in human health in the context of the gut microbiota, and attempts to clarify the role of the gut "virome" in the larger microbial ecosystem. PMID:26257129

  13. Mitochondrial metals as a potential therapeutic target in neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Grubman, A; White, A R; Liddell, J R

    2014-01-01

    Transition metals are critical for enzyme function and protein folding, but in excess can mediate neurotoxic oxidative processes. As mitochondria are particularly vulnerable to oxidative damage due to radicals generated during ATP production, mitochondrial biometal homeostasis must therefore be tightly controlled to safely harness the redox potential of metal enzyme cofactors. Dysregulation of metal functions is evident in numerous neurological disorders including Alzheimer's disease, stroke, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Friedrich's ataxia. This review describes the mitochondrial metal defects in these disorders and highlights novel metal-based therapeutic approaches that target mitochondrial metal homeostasis in neurological disorders. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed issue on Mitochondrial Pharmacology: Energy, Injury & Beyond. To view the other articles in this issue visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-8 PMID:24206195

  14. Human-derived natural antibodies: biomarkers and potential therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaohua; Ng, Sher May; Hassouna, Eamonn; Warrington, Arthur; Oh, Sang-Hyun; Rodriguez, Moses

    2015-01-01

    The immune system generates antibodies and antigen-specific T-cells as basic elements of the immune networks that differentiate self from non-self in a finely tuned manner. The antigen-specific nature of immune responses ensures that normal immune activation contains non-self when tolerating self. Here we review the B-1 subset of lymphocytes which produce self-reactive antibodies. By analyzing the IgM class of natural antibodies that recognize antigens from the nervous system, we emphasize that natural antibodies are biomarkers of how the immune system monitors the host. The immune response activated against self can be detrimental when triggered in an autoimmune genetic background. In contrast, tuning immune activity with natural antibodies is a potential therapeutic strategy. PMID:25678860

  15. High therapeutic potential of Spilanthes acmella: A review

    PubMed Central

    Prachayasittikul, Veda; Prachayasittikul, Supaluk; Ruchirawat, Somsak; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

    2013-01-01

    Spilanthes acmella, a well known antitoothache plant with high medicinal usages, has been recognized as an important medicinal plant and has an increasingly high demand worldwide. From its traditional uses in health care and food, extensive phytochemical studies have been reported. This review provides an overview and general description of the plant species, bioactive metabolites and important pharmacological activities including the preparation, purification and in vitro large-scale production. Structure-activity relationships of the bioactive compounds have been discussed. Considering data from the literature, it could be demonstrated that S. acmella possesses diverse bioactive properties and immense utilization in medicine, health care, cosmetics and as health supplements. As a health food, it is enriched with high therapeutic value with high potential for further development. PMID:27092032

  16. Lipoprotein(a) Metabolism: Potential Sites for Therapeutic Targets

    PubMed Central

    Hoover-Plow, Jane; Huang, Menggui

    2012-01-01

    Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] resembles low-density lipoprotein (LDL), with an LDL lipid core and apolipoprotein B (apoB), but contains a unique apolipoprotein, apo(a). Elevated Lp(a) is an independent risk factor for coronary and peripheral vascular diseases. The size and concentration of plasma Lp(a) is related to the synthetic rate, not the catabolic rate, and is highly variable with small isoforms associated with high concentrations and pathogenic risk. Apo(a) is synthesized in the liver, although assembly of apo(a) and LDL may occur in the hepatocytes or plasma. While the uptake and clearance site of Lp(a) is poorly delineated, the kidney is the site of apo(a) fragment excretion. The structure of apo(a) has high homology to plasminogen, the zymogen for plasmin and the primary clot lysis enzyme. Apo(a) interferes with plasminogen binding to C-terminal lysines of cell surface and extracellular matrix proteins. Lp(a) and apo(a) inhibit fibrinolysis and accumulate in the vascular wall in atherosclerotic lesions. The pathogenic role of Lp(a) is not known. Small isoforms and high concentrations of Lp(a) are found in healthy octogenarians that suggest Lp(a) may also have a physiological role. Studies of Lp(a) function have been limited since it is not found in commonly studied small mammals. An important aspect of Lp(a) metabolism is the modification of circulating Lp(a), which has the potential to alter the functions of Lp(a). There are no therapeutic drugs that selectively target elevated Lp(a), but a number of possible agents are being considered. Recently, new modifiers of apo(a) synthesis have been identified. This review reports the regulation of Lp(a) metabolism and potential sites for therapeutic targets. PMID:23040268

  17. Therapeutic potential of intermittent hypoxia: a matter of dose

    PubMed Central

    Navarrete-Opazo, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Intermittent hypoxia (IH) has been the subject of considerable research in recent years, and triggers a bewildering array of both detrimental and beneficial effects in multiple physiological systems. Here, we review the extensive literature concerning IH and its impact on the respiratory, cardiovascular, immune, metabolic, bone, and nervous systems. One major goal is to define relevant IH characteristics leading to safe, protective, and/or therapeutic effects vs. pathogenesis. To understand the impact of IH, it is essential to define critical characteristics of the IH protocol under investigation, including potentially the severity of hypoxia within episodes, the duration of hypoxic episodes, the number of hypoxic episodes per day, the pattern of presentation across time (e.g., within vs. consecutive vs. alternating days), and the cumulative time of exposure. Not surprisingly, severe/chronic IH protocols tend to be pathogenic, whereas any beneficial effects are more likely to arise from modest/acute IH exposures. Features of the IH protocol most highly associated with beneficial vs. pathogenic outcomes include the level of hypoxemia within episodes and the number of episodes per day. Modest hypoxia (9–16% inspired O2) and low cycle numbers (3–15 episodes per day) most often lead to beneficial effects without pathology, whereas severe hypoxia (2–8% inspired O2) and more episodes per day (48–2,400 episodes/day) elicit progressively greater pathology. Accumulating evidence suggests that “low dose” IH (modest hypoxia, few episodes) may be a simple, safe, and effective treatment with considerable therapeutic potential for multiple clinical disorders. PMID:25231353

  18. Therapeutic and Prophylactic Potential of Morama (Tylosema esculentum): A Review.

    PubMed

    Chingwaru, Walter; Vidmar, Jerneja; Kapewangolo, Petrina T; Mazimba, Ofentse; Jackson, Jose

    2015-10-01

    Tylosema esculentum (morama) is a highly valued traditional food and source of medicine for the San and other indigenous populations that inhabit the arid to semi-arid parts of Southern Africa. Morama beans are a rich source of phenolic acids, flavonoids, certain fatty acids, non-essential amino acids, certain phytosterols, tannins and minerals. The plant's tuber contains griffonilide, behenic acid and starch. Concoctions of extracts from morama bean, tuber and other local plants are frequently used to treat diarrhoea and digestive disorders by the San and other indigenous populations. Information on composition and bioactivity of phytochemical components of T. esculentum suggests that the polyphenol-rich extracts of the bean testae and cotyledons have great potential as sources of chemicals that inhibit infectious microorganisms (viral, bacterial and fungal, including drug-resistant strains), offer protection against certain non-communicable diseases and promote wound healing and gut health. The potential antinutritional properties of a few morama components are also highlighted. More research is necessary to reveal the full prophylactic and therapeutic potential of the plant against diseases of the current century. Research on domestication and conservation of the plant offers new hope for sustainable utilisation of the plant. PMID:26206567

  19. The therapeutic potential of genome editing for β-thalassemia

    PubMed Central

    Glaser, Astrid; McColl, Bradley; Vadolas, Jim

    2015-01-01

    The rapid advances in the field of genome editing using targeted endonucleases have called considerable attention to the potential of this technology for human gene therapy. Targeted correction of disease-causing mutations could ensure lifelong, tissue-specific expression of the relevant gene, thereby alleviating or resolving a specific disease phenotype. In this review, we aim to explore the potential of this technology for the therapy of β-thalassemia. This blood disorder is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the β-globin chain of hemoglobin, leading to severe anemia in affected patients. Curative allogeneic bone marrow transplantation is available only to a small subset of patients, leaving the majority of patients dependent on regular blood transfusions and iron chelation therapy. The transfer of gene-corrected autologous hematopoietic stem cells could provide a therapeutic alternative, as recent results from gene therapy trials using a lentiviral gene addition approach have demonstrated. Genome editing has the potential to further advance this approach as it eliminates the need for semi-randomly integrating viral vectors and their associated risk of insertional mutagenesis. In the following pages we will highlight the advantages and risks of genome editing compared to standard therapy for β-thalassemia and elaborate on lessons learned from recent gene therapy trials. PMID:26918126

  20. Endovascular Therapeutic Occlusion of the Posterior Cerebral Artery: An Option for Ruptured Giant Aneurysm in a Child.

    PubMed

    Demartini, Zeferino; Matos, Luiz Afonso Dias; Dos Santos, Marcio Luis Tostes; Cardoso-Demartini, Adriane de Andre

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of intracranial aneurysms in the pediatric population is low, and surgical clipping remains a good long-term treatment option. However, posterior circulation aneurysms are even more complex to manage in children than in adults. We report a case of a giant aneurysm of the posterior cerebral artery in a 10-year-old boy presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Endovascular treatment with platinum coils was performed with total occlusion of the aneurysm and the affected arterial segment without complications. The patient achieved good recovery, and a late control angiogram confirmed exclusion of the aneurysm. Occurrence of special features of cerebral aneurysm in children, in comparison to adults, is also described. Parent artery sacrifice is an effective therapeutic option, but long-term follow-up is necessary to avoid recurrence and rebleeding. PMID:26974558

  1. Therapeutic potential of mipomersen in the management of familial hypercholesterolaemia.

    PubMed

    Gelsinger, Carmen; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Kassner, Ursula

    2012-07-30

    High levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] are associated with early morbidity and mortality caused by cardiovascular disease (CVD). There are hints that a reduction of LDL-C levels beyond currently advocated targets, and the use of drugs that also have Lp(a)-lowering potential, could provide further clinical benefit. Today, LDL apheresis is the only available treatment option to achieve further lowering of apolipoprotein-B (apo-B)-containing lipoproteins, especially Lp(a). Mipomersen is currently being studied in patients with mild to severe hypercholesterolaemia as add-on therapy to other lipid-lowering therapy, as monotherapy in patients who are intolerant of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) and who are at high risk for CVD. Patients affected by homozygous or heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH), which are inherited autosomal co-dominant disorders characterized by a marked elevation of serum LDL-C concentration, remain a clinical challenge, especially when their CVD risk is aggravated by additionally elevated Lp(a) levels. Mipomersen is a 20-mer oligonucleotide [2'-O-(2-methoxy) ethyl-modified oligonucleotide], a second-generation antisense oligonucleotide (AOS), complementary to the coding region for human-specific apo-B-100 messenger RNA (mRNA). Mipomersen inhibits apo-B-100 synthesis and is consequently a new treatment strategy to lower apo-B-containing lipoproteins like LDL-C and Lp(a) in patients at high risk for CVD not on target or intolerant to statins. This article focuses on mipomersen and gives an overview of the current status of mipomersen as a promising treatment option. Recent studies have shown a decrease in LDL-C levels of 22-42.2% and in Lp(a) of 19.6-31.1% from baseline, depending on study design. Dose-dependent reductions of very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) and triglyceride levels have also been observed. Although the short-term efficacy and safety of mipomersen have been proven, side effects like injection-site reactions (up to 90-100%), increased liver enzymes, cephalgias, nasopharyngitis, myalgia, nausea and fatigue must be mentioned and critically discussed. Furthermore, we need more data on the long-term side effects, especially regarding the long-term potential for hepatic steatosis. Data on cardiovascular outcomes with mipomersen are also not yet available. PMID:22799743

  2. GABA(B) receptors as potential therapeutic targets.

    PubMed

    Vacher, Claire-Marie; Bettler, Bernhard

    2003-08-01

    gamma-Aminobutyric acid-B (GABA(B)) receptors are broadly expressed in the nervous system and have been implicated in a wide variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders. To date the only GABA(B) drug on the market is the agonist baclofen (Lioresal((R))) that is used to treat severe spasticity of cerebral and spinal origin. In addition baclofen is effective in animal models for many central and peripheral disorders, but side-effects and the development of tolerance prohibited a more widespread use of this drug in man. Similarly GABA(B) antagonists show great therapeutic promise but their shortcomings, e.g. the lack of brain penetration or some proconvulsive potential, prevented clinical development. The cloning of GABA(B) receptors in 1997 revived interest in these receptors as drug targets. The long-awaited availability of the tools that were necessary to develop more selective and safer drugs stimulated an impressive activity in the field. The demonstration that GABA(B) receptors needed to heteromerize for function provided new insights into the structure of G-protein coupled receptors in general and enabled to identify allosteric GABA(B) drugs. Gene knockout mice revealed neuronal systems that are under tonic GABA(B) control and therefore best suited for therapeutic intervention. Significant advances were made in clarifying the relationship between GABA(B) receptors and the receptors for gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), a drug of abuse. Here we provide and update on the molecular composition, the physiology and the pharmacology of GABA(B) receptors and discuss to what extent our current knowledge influences ongoing and future drug discovery efforts. PMID:12871035

  3. Identification of potential glucocorticoid receptor therapeutic targets in multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Alexandra L.; Coarfa, Cristian; Qian, Jun; Wilkerson, Joseph J.; Rajapakshe, Kimal; Krett, Nancy L.; Gunaratne, Preethi H.; Rosen, Steven T.

    2015-01-01

    Glucocorticoids (GC) are a cornerstone of combination therapies for multiple myeloma. However, patients ultimately develop resistance to GCs frequently based on decreased glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression. An understanding of the direct targets of GC actions, which induce cell death, is expected to culminate in potential therapeutic strategies for inducing cell death by regulating downstream targets in the absence of a functional GR. The specific goal of our research is to identify primary GR targets that contribute to GC-induced cell death, with the ultimate goal of developing novel therapeutics around these targets that can be used to overcome resistance to GCs in the absence of GR. Using the MM.1S glucocorticoid-sensitive human myeloma cell line, we began with the broad platform of gene expression profiling to identify glucocorticoid-regulated genes further refined by combination treatment with phosphatidylinositol-3’-kinase inhibition (PI3Ki). To further refine the search to distinguish direct and indirect targets of GR that respond to the combination GC and PI3Ki treatment of MM.1S cells, we integrated 1) gene expression profiles of combination GC treatment with PI3Ki, which induces synergistic cell death; 2) negative correlation between genes inhibited by combination treatment in MM.1S cells and genes over-expressed in myeloma patients to establish clinical relevance and 3) GR chromatin immunoprecipitation with massively parallel sequencing (ChIP-Seq) in myeloma cells to identify global chromatin binding for the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Using established bioinformatics platforms, we have integrated these data sets to identify a subset of candidate genes that may form the basis for a comprehensive picture of glucocorticoid actions in multiple myeloma. As a proof of principle, we have verified two targets, namely RRM2 and BCL2L1, as primary functional targets of GR involved in GC-induced cell death. PMID:26715915

  4. Neuropilin 1: function and therapeutic potential in cancer.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Belal; Khaled, Yazan S; Ammori, Basil J; Elkord, Eyad

    2014-02-01

    Neuropilin 1 (NRP1) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that acts as a co-receptor for a number of extracellular ligands including class III/IV semaphorins, certain isoforms of vascular endothelial growth factor and transforming growth factor beta. An exact understanding of the role of NRP1 in the immune system has been obscured by the differences in NRP1 expression observed between mice and humans. In mice, NRP1 is selectively expressed on thymic-derived Tregs and greatly enhances immunosuppressive function. In humans, NRP1 is expressed on plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) where it aids in priming immune responses and on a subset of T regulatory cells (Tregs) isolated from secondary lymph nodes. Preliminary studies that show NRP1 expression on T cells confers enhanced immunosuppressive activity. However, the mechanism by which this activity is mediated remains unclear. NRP1 expression has also been identified on activated T cells and Tregs isolated from inflammatory microenvironments, suggesting NRP1 might represent a novel T cell activation marker. Of clinical interest, NRP1 may enhance Treg tumour infiltration and a decrease in NRP1+ Tregs correlates with successful chemotherapy, suggesting a specific role for NRP1 in cancer pathology. As a therapeutic target, NRP1 allows simultaneous targeting of NRP1-expressing tumour vasculature, NRP1+ Tregs and pDCs. With the development of anti-NRP1 monoclonal antibodies and cell-penetrating peptides, NRP1 represents a promising new target for cancer therapies. This paper reviews current knowledge on the role and function of NRP1 in Tregs and pDCs, both in physiological and cancer settings, as well as its potential as a therapeutic target in cancer. PMID:24263240

  5. Therapeutic Potential of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Regenerative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Devang M.; Shah, Jainy; Srivastava, Anand S.

    2013-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are stromal cells that have the ability to self-renew and also exhibit multilineage differentiation into both mesenchymal and nonmesenchymal lineages. The intrinsic properties of these cells make them an attractive candidate for clinical applications. MSCs are of keen interest because they can be isolated from a small aspirate of bone marrow or adipose tissues and can be easily expanded in vitro. Moreover, their ability to modulate immune responses makes them an even more attractive candidate for regenerative medicine as allogeneic transplant of these cells is feasible without a substantial risk of immune rejection. MSCs secrete various immunomodulatory molecules which provide a regenerative microenvironment for a variety of injured tissues or organ to limit the damage and to increase self-regulated tissue regeneration. Autologous/allogeneic MSCs delivered via the bloodstream augment the titers of MSCs that are drawn to sites of tissue injury and can accelerate the tissue repair process. MSCs are currently being tested for their potential use in cell and gene therapy for a number of human debilitating diseases and genetic disorders. This paper summarizes the current clinical and nonclinical data for the use of MSCs in tissue repair and potential therapeutic role in various diseases. PMID:23577036

  6. Harnessing the Therapeutic Potential of Th17 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bystrom, Jonas; Taher, Taher E.; Muhyaddin, M. Sherwan; Clanchy, Felix I.; Mangat, Pamela; Jawad, Ali S.; Williams, Richard O.; Mageed, Rizgar A.

    2015-01-01

    Th17 cells provide protective immunity to infections by fungi and extracellular bacteria as well as cancer but are also involved in chronic inflammation. The cells were first identified by their ability to produce interleukin 17A (IL-17A) and, subsequently, associated with chronic inflammation and autoimmunity. Th17 cells have some gene profile similarity with stem cells and can remain dormant in mucosal tissues for long periods. Indeed, recent studies suggest that functionally distinct subsets of pro- and anti-inflammatory Th17 cells can interchange phenotype and functions. For development, Th17 cells require activation of the transcription factors STAT3 and RORγt while RUNX1, c-Maf, and Aiolos are involved in changes of phenotype/functions. Attempts to harness Th17 cells against pathogens and cancer using vaccination strategies are being explored. The cells gain protective abilities when induced to produce interferon γ (IFNγ). In addition, treatment with antibodies to IL-17 is effective in treating patients with psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and refectory rheumatoid arthritis. Moreover, since RORγt is a nuclear receptor, it is likely to be a potential future drug target for modulating Th17 functions. This review explores pathways through which Th17 subsets are induced, the molecular basis of their plasticity, and potential therapeutic strategies for their modulation in diseases. PMID:26101460

  7. New therapeutic potentials of milk thistle (Silybum marianum).

    PubMed

    Milić, Natasa; Milosević, Natasa; Suvajdzić, Ljiljana; Zarkov, Marija; Abenavoli, Ludovico

    2013-12-01

    Silymarin is a bioflavonoid complex extract derived from dry seeds of Milk thistle [(Silybum marianum(L.) Gaemrnt. (Fam. Asteraceae/Compositaceae)] whose hepatoprotective effect has clinically been proved. Low toxicity, favorable pharmacokinetics, powerful antioxidant, detoxifying, preventive, protective and regenerative effects and side effects similar to placebo make silymarin extremely attractive and safe for therapeutic use. The medicinal properties of silymarin and its main component silibinin have been studied in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, sepsis, burns, osteoporosis, diabetes, cholestasis and hypercholesterolemia. Owing to its apoptotic effect, without cytotoxic effects, silymarin possesses potential applications in the treatment of various cancers. Silymarin is being examined as a neuro-, nephro- and cardio-protective in the damage of different etiologies due to its strong antioxidant potentials. Furthermore, it has fetoprotective (against the influence of alcohol) and prolactin effects and is safe to be used during pregnancy and lactation. Finally, the cosmetics industry is examining the antioxidant and UV-protective effects of silymarin. Further clinical studies and scientific evidence that silymarin and silibinin are effective in the therapy of various pathologies are indispensable in order to confirm their different flavonolignan pharmacological effects. PMID:24555302

  8. Evaluating the Cancer Therapeutic Potential of Cardiac Glycosides

    PubMed Central

    Calderón-Montaño, José Manuel; Burgos-Morón, Estefanía; Orta, Manuel Luis; Maldonado-Navas, Dolores; García-Domínguez, Irene; López-Lázaro, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac glycosides, also known as cardiotonic steroids, are a group of natural products that share a steroid-like structure with an unsaturated lactone ring and the ability to induce cardiotonic effects mediated by a selective inhibition of the Na+/K+-ATPase. Cardiac glycosides have been used for many years in the treatment of cardiac congestion and some types of cardiac arrhythmias. Recent data suggest that cardiac glycosides may also be useful in the treatment of cancer. These compounds typically inhibit cancer cell proliferation at nanomolar concentrations, and recent high-throughput screenings of drug libraries have therefore identified cardiac glycosides as potent inhibitors of cancer cell growth. Cardiac glycosides can also block tumor growth in rodent models, which further supports the idea that they have potential for cancer therapy. Evidence also suggests, however, that cardiac glycosides may not inhibit cancer cell proliferation selectively and the potent inhibition of tumor growth induced by cardiac glycosides in mice xenografted with human cancer cells is probably an experimental artifact caused by their ability to selectively kill human cells versus rodent cells. This paper reviews such evidence and discusses experimental approaches that could be used to reveal the cancer therapeutic potential of cardiac glycosides in preclinical studies. PMID:24895612

  9. 5-Hydroxytryptamine Receptor Subtypes and their Modulators with Therapeutic Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Pithadia, Anand B.; Jain, Sunita M.

    2009-01-01

    5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) has become one of the most investigated and complex biogenic amines. The main receptors and their subtypes, e.g., 5-HTI (5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HTID, 5-HTIE and 5-HT1F), 5-HT2 (5-HT2A, 5-HT2B and 5-HT2C), 5-HT3, 5-HT4, 5-HT5 (5-HT5A, 5-HT5B), 5-HT6 and 5-HT7 have been identified. Specific drugs which are capable of either selectively stimulating or inhibiting these receptor subtypes are being designed. This has generated therapeutic potentials of 5-HT receptor modulators in a variety of disease conditions. Conditions where 5-HT receptor modulators have established their use with distinct efficacy and advantages include migraine, anxiety, psychosis, obesity and cancer therapy-induced vomiting by cytotoxic drugs and radiation. Discovery of 5-HT, its biosynthesis, metabolism, physiological role and the potential of 5-HT receptor modulators in various nervous, cardiovascular and gastrointestinal tract disorders, bone growth and micturition have been discussed in this article. Keywords 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptors; Modulators; Biogenic amines PMID:22505971

  10. Therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stromal cells for acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Matthay, Michael A

    2015-03-01

    Based on preclinical data, cell-based therapy with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem (stromal) cells (MSCs) is a potentially attractive new therapeutic option for treating patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome. Small and large animal models of acute lung injury from endotoxin, live bacteria, and sepsis have shown that MSCs can decrease lung injury and increase survival. The mechanisms for benefit are mediated in part by paracrine release of several antiinflammatory cytokines, keratinocyte growth factor, angiopoietin-1, as well as the release of antimicrobial peptides. There is also evidence that MSCs can transfer mitochondria and restore normal bioenergetics to injured alveolar epithelium. Some of the beneficial effects are mediated by microvesicles. A phase 1 safety and dose-escalation trial was completed and a randomized, double-blind clinical trial is currently underway. PMID:25830837

  11. The Therapeutic Potential of Brown Adipocytes in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Craig; Chondronikola, Maria; Sidossis, Labros S.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and its metabolic consequences represent a significant clinical problem. From a thermodynamic standpoint, obesity results from a discord in energy intake and expenditure. To date, lifestyle interventions based on reducing energy intake and/or increasing energy expenditure have proved ineffective in the prevention and/or treatment of obesity, owing to poor long-term adherence to such interventions. Thus, an effective strategy to prevent or correct obesity is currently lacking. As the combustion engines of our cells, mitochondria play a critical role in energy expenditure. At a whole-body level, approximately 80% of mitochondrial membrane potential generated by fuel oxidation is used to produce ATP, and the remaining 20% is lost through heat-producing uncoupling reactions. The coupling of mitochondrial respiration to ATP production represents an important component in whole-body energy expenditure. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is densely populated with mitochondria containing the inner mitochondrial proton carrier uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). UCP1 uncouples oxidative phosphorylation, meaning that mitochondrial membrane potential is dissipated as heat. The recent rediscovery of BAT depots in adult humans has rekindled scientific interest in the manipulation of mitochondrial uncoupling reactions as a means to increase metabolic rate, thereby counteracting obesity and its associated metabolic phenotype. In this article, we discuss the evidence for the role BAT plays in metabolic rate and glucose and lipid metabolism in humans and the potential for UCP1 recruitment in the white adipose tissue of humans. While the future holds much promise for a therapeutic role of UCP1 expressing adipocytes in human energy metabolism, particularly in the context of obesity, tissue-specific strategies that activate or recruit UCP1 in human adipocytes represent an obligatory translational step for this early promise to be realized. PMID:26528238

  12. The Therapeutic Potential of Brown Adipocytes in Humans.

    PubMed

    Porter, Craig; Chondronikola, Maria; Sidossis, Labros S

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and its metabolic consequences represent a significant clinical problem. From a thermodynamic standpoint, obesity results from a discord in energy intake and expenditure. To date, lifestyle interventions based on reducing energy intake and/or increasing energy expenditure have proved ineffective in the prevention and/or treatment of obesity, owing to poor long-term adherence to such interventions. Thus, an effective strategy to prevent or correct obesity is currently lacking. As the combustion engines of our cells, mitochondria play a critical role in energy expenditure. At a whole-body level, approximately 80% of mitochondrial membrane potential generated by fuel oxidation is used to produce ATP, and the remaining 20% is lost through heat-producing uncoupling reactions. The coupling of mitochondrial respiration to ATP production represents an important component in whole-body energy expenditure. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is densely populated with mitochondria containing the inner mitochondrial proton carrier uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). UCP1 uncouples oxidative phosphorylation, meaning that mitochondrial membrane potential is dissipated as heat. The recent rediscovery of BAT depots in adult humans has rekindled scientific interest in the manipulation of mitochondrial uncoupling reactions as a means to increase metabolic rate, thereby counteracting obesity and its associated metabolic phenotype. In this article, we discuss the evidence for the role BAT plays in metabolic rate and glucose and lipid metabolism in humans and the potential for UCP1 recruitment in the white adipose tissue of humans. While the future holds much promise for a therapeutic role of UCP1 expressing adipocytes in human energy metabolism, particularly in the context of obesity, tissue-specific strategies that activate or recruit UCP1 in human adipocytes represent an obligatory translational step for this early promise to be realized. PMID:26528238

  13. Expression Profiling Identifies Bezafibrate as Potential Therapeutic Drug for Lung Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xinyan; Yang, Xiaoqin; Chen, Xinmei; Zhang, Yantao; Pan, Xuebin; Wang, Guiping; Ye, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Drug-induced gene expression patterns that invert disease profiles have recently been illustrated to be a new strategy for drug-repositioning. In the present study, we validated this approach and focused on prediction of novel drugs for lung adenocarcinoma (AC), for which there is a pressing need to find novel therapeutic compounds. Firstly, connectivity map (CMap) analysis computationally predicted bezafibrate as a putative compound against lung AC. Then this hypothesis was verified by in vitro assays of anti-proliferation and cell cycle arrest. In silico docking evidence indicated that bezafibrate could target cyclin dependent kinase 2(CDK2), which regulates progression through the cell cycle. Furthermore, we found that bezafibrate can significantly down-regulate the expression of CDK2 mRNA and p-CDK2. Using a nude mice xenograft model, we also found that bezafibrate could inhibit tumor growth of lung AC in vivo. In conclusion, this study proposed bezafibrate as a potential therapeutic option for lung AC patients, illustrating the potential of in silico drug screening. PMID:26535062

  14. Cytoplasmic RNA viruses as potential vehicles for the delivery of therapeutic small RNAs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Viral vectors have become the best option for the delivery of therapeutic genes in conventional and RNA interference-based gene therapies. The current viral vectors for the delivery of small regulatory RNAs are based on DNA viruses and retroviruses/lentiviruses. Cytoplasmic RNA viruses have been excluded as viral vectors for RNAi therapy because of the nuclear localization of the microprocessor complex and the potential degradation of the viral RNA genome during the excision of any virus-encoded pre-microRNAs. However, in the last few years, the presence of several species of small RNAs (e.g., virus-derived small interfering RNAs, virus-derived short RNAs, and unusually small RNAs) in animals and cell cultures that are infected with cytoplasmic RNA viruses has suggested the existence of a non-canonical mechanism of microRNA biogenesis. Several studies have been conducted on the tick-borne encephalitis virus and on the Sindbis virus in which microRNA precursors were artificially incorporated and demonstrated the production of mature microRNAs. The ability of these viruses to recruit Drosha to the cytoplasm during infection resulted in the efficient processing of virus-encoded microRNA without the viral genome entering the nucleus. In this review, we discuss the relevance of these findings with an emphasis on the potential use of cytoplasmic RNA viruses as vehicles for the efficient delivery of therapeutic small RNAs. PMID:23759022

  15. A Prodrug Approach to the Use of Coumarins as Potential Therapeutics for Superficial Mycoses

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, Derry K.; Robertson, Jennifer; Wright, Kristine; Miller, Lorna; Smith, Shane; Stewart, Colin S.; O′Neil, Deborah A.

    2013-01-01

    Superficial mycoses are fungal infections of the outer layers of the skin, hair and nails that affect 20–25% of the world's population, with increasing incidence. Treatment of superficial mycoses, predominantly caused by dermatophytes, is by topical and/or oral regimens. New therapeutic options with improved efficacy and/or safety profiles are desirable. There is renewed interest in natural product-based antimicrobials as alternatives to conventional treatments, including the treatment of superficial mycoses. We investigated the potential of coumarins as dermatophyte-specific antifungal agents and describe for the first time their potential utility as topical antifungals for superficial mycoses using a prodrug approach. Here we demonstrate that an inactive coumarin glycone, esculin, is hydrolysed to the antifungal coumarin aglycone, esculetin by dermatophytes. Esculin is hydrolysed to esculetin β-glucosidases. We demonstrate that β-glucosidases are produced by dermatophytes as well as members of the dermal microbiota, and that this activity is sufficient to hydrolyse esculin to esculetin with concomitant antifungal activity. A β-glucosidase inhibitor (conduritol B epoxide), inhibited antifungal activity by preventing esculin hydrolysis. Esculin demonstrates good aqueous solubility (<6 g/l) and could be readily formulated and delivered topically as an inactive prodrug in a water-based gel or cream. This work demonstrates proof-of-principle for a therapeutic application of glycosylated coumarins as inactive prodrugs that could be converted to an active antifungal in situ. It is anticipated that this approach will be applicable to other coumarin glycones. PMID:24260474

  16. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 positive (HER2+) metastatic breast cancer: how the latest results are improving therapeutic options

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hanfang; Rugo, Hope S.

    2015-01-01

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 positive (HER2+) metastatic breast cancer (MBC) remains an incurable disease, and approximately 25% of patients with HER2+ early breast cancer still relapse after adjuvant trastuzumab-based treatment. HER2 is a validated therapeutic target that remains relevant throughout the disease process. Recently, a number of novel HER2 targeted agents have become available, including lapatinib (a small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor of both HER2 and the epidermal growth factor receptor), pertuzumab (a new anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody) and ado-trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1, a novel antibodydrug conjugate), which provide additional treatment options for patients with HER2+ MBC. The latest clinical trials have demonstrated improved outcome with treatment including pertuzumab or T-DM1 compared with standard HER2 targeted therapy. Here we review the clinical development of approved and investigational targeted agents for the treatment of HER2+ MBC, summarize the latest results of important clinical trials supporting use of these agents in the treatment of HER2+ MBC, and discuss how these results impact therapeutic options in clinical practice. PMID:26557900

  17. Reactive astrocytes and therapeutic potential in focal ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Gourav Roy; Ding, Shinghua

    2016-01-01

    Astrocytes are specialized and the most abundant cell type in the central nervous system (CNS). They play important roles in the physiology of the brain. Astrocytes are also critically involved in many CNS disorders including focal ischemic stroke, the leading cause of brain injury and death in patients. One of the prominent pathological features of a focal ischemic stroke is reactive astrogliosis and glial scar formation. Reactive astrogliosis is accompanied with changes in morphology, proliferation, and gene expression in the reactive astrocytes. This study provides an overview of the most recent advances in astrocytic Ca(2+) signaling, spatial, and temporal dynamics of the morphology and proliferation of reactive astrocytes as well as signaling pathways involved in the reactive astrogliosis after ischemic stroke based on results from experimental studies performed in various animal models. This review also discusses the therapeutic potential of reactive astrocytes in focal ischemic stroke. As reactive astrocytes exhibit high plasticity, we suggest that modulation of local reactive astrocytes is a promising strategy for cell-based stroke therapy. PMID:25982835

  18. Olfactory ensheathing cells: historical perspective and therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Boyd, J G; Skihar, V; Kawaja, M; Doucette, R

    2003-03-01

    Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) are the glial cells that ensheath the axons of the first cranial nerve. They are attracting increasing attention from neuroscientists as potential therapeutic agents for use in the repair of spinal cord injury and as a source of myelinating glia for use in remyelinating axons in demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis. This review mainly addresses the cell biological aspects of OECs pertinent to addressing two questions. Namely, where do OECs fit into the groupings of central nervous system (CNS)/peripheral nervous system (PNS) glial cells and should OECs be viewed as a clinically relevant alternative to Schwann cells in the treatment of spinal cord injury? The evidence indicates that OECs are indeed a clinically relevant alternative to Schwann cells. However, much more work needs to be done before we can even come close to answering the first question as to the lineage and functional relationship of OECs to the other types of CNS and PNS glial cells. PMID:12619086

  19. Chelating polymeric beads as potential therapeutics for Wilson's disease.

    PubMed

    Mattová, Jana; Poučková, Pavla; Kučka, Jan; Skodová, Michaela; Vetrík, Miroslav; Stěpánek, Petr; Urbánek, Petr; Petřík, Miloš; Nový, Zbyněk; Hrubý, Martin

    2014-10-01

    Wilson's disease is a genetic disorder caused by a malfunction of ATPase 7B that leads to high accumulation of copper in the organism and consequent toxic effects. We propose a gentle therapy to eliminate the excessive copper content with oral administration of insoluble non-resorbable polymer sorbents containing selective chelating groups for copper(II). Polymeric beads with the chelating agents triethylenetetramine, N,N-di(2-pyridylmethyl)amine, and 8-hydroxyquinoline (8HQB) were investigated. In a preliminary copper uptake experiment, we found that 8HQB significantly reduced copper uptake (using copper-64 as a radiotracer) after oral administration in Wistar rats. Furthermore, we measured organ radioactivity in rats to demonstrate that 8HQB radiolabelled with iodine-125 is not absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract after oral administration. Non-resorbability and the blockade of copper uptake were also confirmed with small animal imaging (PET/CT) in mice. In a long-term experiment with Wistar rats fed a diet containing the polymers, we have found that there were no signs of polymer toxicity and the addition of polymers to the diet led to a significant reduction in the copper contents in the kidneys, brains, and livers of the rats. We have shown that polymers containing specific ligands could potentially be novel therapeutics for Wilson's disease. PMID:24815561

  20. New vitamin D analogs as potential therapeutics in melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Szyszka, Paulina; Zmijewski, Michal A; Slominski, Andrzej T

    2012-01-01

    Extensive evidence shows that the active form of vitamin D3 – 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 – plays an important role in cancer prevention, has tumorostatic activity and may potentially be used in therapy for melanoma. Vitamin D3 and its analogs (secosteroids) exert multiple effects on cancer cells, including inhibition of cell growth and induction of differentiation. Activity of secosteroids depends on multiple cellular factors, including expression of the vitamin D receptor. Despite its endogenous origin, the key drawback for the use of pharmacologically effective doses of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 is its hypercalcemic effect leading to profound toxicity. The solution may lie in properties of vitamin D3 analogs with modified side chains, which demonstrate low calcemic activity but conserve the anti-tumor properties. Noncalcemic vitamin D compounds were found to be potent in multiple studies that mandate further clinical testing. Finally, recent studies revealed alternative metabolic pathways for secosteroids and new targets in the cells, which opens up new therapeutic possibilities. PMID:22594894

  1. Astaxanthin: A Potential Therapeutic Agent in Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Fassett, Robert G.; Coombes, Jeff S.

    2011-01-01

    Astaxanthin is a xanthophyll carotenoid present in microalgae, fungi, complex plants, seafood, flamingos and quail. It is an antioxidant with anti-inflammatory properties and as such has potential as a therapeutic agent in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Synthetic forms of astaxanthin have been manufactured. The safety, bioavailability and effects of astaxanthin on oxidative stress and inflammation that have relevance to the pathophysiology of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, have been assessed in a small number of clinical studies. No adverse events have been reported and there is evidence of a reduction in biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation with astaxanthin administration. Experimental studies in several species using an ischaemia-reperfusion myocardial model demonstrated that astaxanthin protects the myocardium when administered both orally or intravenously prior to the induction of the ischaemic event. At this stage we do not know whether astaxanthin is of benefit when administered after a cardiovascular event and no clinical cardiovascular studies in humans have been completed and/or reported. Cardiovascular clinical trials are warranted based on the physicochemical and antioxidant properties, the safety profile and preliminary experimental cardiovascular studies of astaxanthin. PMID:21556169

  2. Viewpoint: mechanisms of action and therapeutic potential of neurohormetic phytochemicals.

    PubMed

    Mattson, Mark P; Son, Tae Gen; Camandola, Simonetta

    2007-01-01

    The nervous system is of fundamental importance in the adaptive (hormesis) responses of organisms to all types of stress, including environmental "toxins". Phytochemicals present in vegetables and fruits are believed to reduce the risk of several major diseases including cardiovascular disease, cancers and neurodegenerative disorders. Although antioxidant properties have been suggested as the basis of health benefits of phytochemicals, emerging findings suggest a quite different mechanism of action. Many phytochemicals normally function as toxins that protect the plants against insects and other damaging organisms. However, at the relatively low doses consumed by humans and other mammals these same "toxic" phytochemicals activate adaptive cellular stress response pathways that can protect the cells against a variety of adverse conditions. Recent findings have elucidated hormetic mechanisms of action of phytochemicals (e.g., resveratrol, curcumin, sulforaphanes and catechins) using cell culture and animal models of neurological disorders. Examples of hormesis pathways activated by phytochemicals include the transcription factor Nrf-2 which activates genes controlled by the antioxidant response element, and histone deacetylases of the sirtuin family and FOXO transcription factors. Such hormetic pathways stimulate the production of antioxidant enzymes, protein chaperones and neurotrophic factors. In several cases neurohormetic phytochemicals have been shown to suppress the disease process in animal models relevant to neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, and can also improve outcome following a stroke. We are currently screening a panel of biopesticides in order to establish hormetic doses, neuroprotective efficacy, mechanisms of action and therapeutic potential as dietary supplements. PMID:18648607

  3. Innate inflammatory responses in stroke: mechanisms and potential therapeutic targets

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong Youl; Kawabori, Masahito; Yenari, Midori A.

    2014-01-01

    Stroke is a frequent cause of long-term disability and death worldwide. Ischemic stroke is more commonly encountered compared to hemorrhagic stroke, and leads to tissue death by ischemia due to occlusion of a cerebral artery. Inflammation is known to result as a result of ischemic injury, long thought to be involved in initiating the recovery and repair process. However, work over the past few decades indicates that aspects of this inflammatory response may in fact be detrimental to stroke outcome. Acutely, inflammation appears to have a detrimental effect, and anti-inflammatory treatments have been been studied as a potential therapeutic target. Chronically, reports suggest that post-ischemic inflammation is also essential for the tissue repairing and remodeling. The majority of the work in this area has centered around innate immune mechanisms, which will be the focus of this review. This review describes the different key players in neuroinflammation and their possible detrimental and protective effects in stroke. A better understanding of the roles of the different immune cells and their temporal profile of damage versus repair will help to clarify more effective modulation of inflammation post stroke. Introduction Stroke refers to conditions caused by occlusion and/or rupture of blood vessels in the brain, and is a leading cause of death and disability in the industrialized world. PMID:24372209

  4. The Therapeutic Potential of Milk Thistle in Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kazazis, Christos E.; Evangelopoulos, Angelos A.; Kollas, Aris; Vallianou, Natalia G.

    2014-01-01

    Milk thistle has been known for more than 2.000 years as a herbal remedy for a variety of disorders. It has mainly been used to treat liver and gallbladder diseases. Silibum marianum, the Latin term for the plant, and its seeds contain a whole family of natural compounds, called flavonolignans. Silimarin is a dry mixture of these compounds; it is extracted after processing with ethanol, methanol, and acetone. Silimarin contains mainly silibin A, silibin B, taxifolin, isosilibin A, isosilibin B, silichristin A, silidianin, and other compounds in smaller concentrations. Apart from its use in liver and gallbladder disorders, milk thistle has recently gained attention due to its hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic properties. Recently, a substance from milk thistle has been shown to possess peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) agonist properties. PPARγ is the molecular target of thiazolidinediones, which are used clinically as insulin sensitizers to lower blood glucose levels in diabetes type 2 patients. The thiazolidinedione type of PPARγ ligands is an agonist with a very high binding affinity. However, this ligand type demonstrates a range of undesirable side effects, thus necessitating the search for new effective PPARγ agonists. Interestingly, studies indicate that partial agonism of PPARγ induces promising activity patterns by retaining the positive effects attributed to the full agonists, with reduced side effects. In this review, the therapeutic potential of milk thistle in the management of diabetes and its complications are discussed. PMID:25396404

  5. Novel endogenous angiogenesis inhibitors and their therapeutic potential

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Nithya; Lee, Yu Fei; Ge, Ruowen

    2015-01-01

    Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels from the pre-existing vasculature is essential for embryonic development and tissue homeostasis. It also plays critical roles in diseases such as cancer and retinopathy. A delicate balance between pro- and anti-angiogenic factors ensures normal physiological homeostasis. Endogenous angiogenesis inhibitors are proteins or protein fragments that are formed in the body and have the ability to limit angiogenesis. Many endogenous angiogenesis inhibitors have been discovered, and the list continues to grow. Endogenous protein/peptide inhibitors are relatively less toxic, better tolerated and have a lower risk of drug resistance, which makes them attractive as drug candidates. In this review, we highlight ten novel endogenous protein angiogenesis inhibitors discovered within the last five years, including ISM1, FKBPL, CHIP, ARHGAP18, MMRN2, SOCS3, TAp73, ZNF24, GPR56 and JWA. Although some of these proteins have been well characterized for other biological functions, we focus on their new and specific roles in angiogenesis inhibition and discuss their potential for therapeutic application. PMID:26364800

  6. Estrogens as potential therapeutic agents in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Niino, Masaaki; Hirotani, Makoto; Fukazawa, Toshiyuki; Kikuchi, Seiji; Sasaki, Hidenao

    2009-06-01

    The disease activity of multiple sclerosis (MS) is known to be ameliorated during pregnancy, and pregnancy is also found to be protective in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS. Estrogen levels increase during pregnancy and basic researches have shown that estrogens have immunomodulatory effects on immune cells. The importance of estrogen in pathogenic autoimmune diseases has also been demonstrated in EAE by altering hormone levels. Mice treated with estrogen experienced significantly decreased EAE severity and delayed onset of disease as a result of neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects. Brain atrophy has been detected at the early stages of MS by using MRI; thus, as a neuroprotective agent, estrogen might be effective against brain atrophy. Estrogen's effects are primarily mediated by the nuclear estrogen receptor (ER), and recent studies have shown the presence of nuclear ERs on the cells involved in the immune response. There have been some reports on genetic polymorphisms of ERs in MS. In this review paper, we discuss increasing evidence that points to a link between estrogen and MS. We also analyze the therapeutic potential of estrogens in MS and review current genetic studies on ER. PMID:20021342

  7. Silk polymer-based adenosine release: therapeutic potential for epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Wilz, Andrew; Pritchard, Eleanor M; Li, Tianfu; Lan, Jing-Quan; Kaplan, David L; Boison, Detlev

    2008-09-01

    Adenosine augmentation therapies (AAT) make rational use of the brain's own adenosine-based seizure control system and hold promise for the therapy of refractory epilepsy. In an effort to develop an AAT compatible with future clinical application, we developed a novel silk protein-based release system for adenosine. Adenosine releasing brain implants with target release doses of 0, 40, 200, and 1000ng adenosine per day were prepared by embedding adenosine containing microspheres into nanofilm-coated silk fibroin scaffolds. In vitro, the respective polymers released 0, 33.4, 170.5, and 819.0ng adenosine per day over 14 days. The therapeutic potential of the implants was validated in a dose-response study in the rat model of kindling epileptogenesis. Four days prior to the onset of kindling, adenosine releasing polymers were implanted into the infrahippocampal cleft and progressive acquisition of kindled seizures was monitored over a total of 48 stimulations. We document a dose-dependent retardation of seizure acquisition. In recipients of polymers releasing 819ng adenosine per day, kindling epileptogenesis was delayed by one week corresponding to 18 kindling stimulations. Histological analysis of brain samples confirmed the correct location of implants and electrodes. We conclude that silk-based delivery of around 1000ng adenosine per day is a safe and efficient strategy to suppress seizures. PMID:18514814

  8. Potential prognostic, diagnostic and therapeutic markers for human gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ming-Ming; Wang, Chia-Siu; Tsai, Chung-Ying; Chi, Hsiang-Cheng; Tseng, Yi-Hsin; Lin, Kwang-Huei

    2014-10-14

    The high incidence of gastric cancer (GC) and its consequent mortality rate severely threaten human health. GC is frequently not diagnosed until a relatively advanced stage. Surgery is the only potentially curative treatment. Thus, early screening and diagnosis are critical for improving prognoses in patients with GC. Gastroscopy with biopsy is an appropriate method capable of aiding the diagnosis of specific early GC tumor types; however, the stress caused by this method together with it being excessively expensive makes it difficult to use it as a routine method for screening for GC on a population basis. The currently used tumor marker assays for detecting GC are simple and rapid, but their use is limited by their low sensitivity and specificity. In recent years, several markers have been identified and tested for their clinical relevance in the management of GC. Here, we review the serum-based tumor markers for GC and their clinical significance, focusing on discoveries from microarray/proteomics research. We also review tissue-based GC tumor markers and their clinical application, focusing on discoveries from immunohistochemical research. This review provides a brief description of various tumor markers for the purposes of diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutics, and we include markers already in clinical practice and various forthcoming biomarkers. PMID:25320517

  9. Viewpoint: Mechanisms of Action and Therapeutic Potential of Neurohormetic Phytochemicals

    PubMed Central

    Mattson, Mark P.; Son, Tae Gen; Camandola, Simonetta

    2007-01-01

    The nervous system is of fundamental importance in the adaptive (hormesis) responses of organisms to all types of stress, including environmental “toxins”. Phytochemicals present in vegetables and fruits are believed to reduce the risk of several major diseases including cardiovascular disease, cancers and neurodegenerative disorders. Although antioxidant properties have been suggested as the basis of health benefits of phytochemicals, emerging findings suggest a quite different mechanism of action. Many phytochemicals normally function as toxins that protect the plants against insects and other damaging organisms. However, at the relatively low doses consumed by humans and other mammals these same “toxic” phytochemicals activate adaptive cellular stress response pathways that can protect the cells against a variety of adverse conditions. Recent findings have elucidated hormetic mechanisms of action of phytochemicals (e.g., resveratrol, curcumin, sulforaphanes and catechins) using cell culture and animal models of neurological disorders. Examples of hormesis pathways activated by phytochemicals include the transcription factor Nrf-2 which activates genes controlled by the antioxidant response element, and histone deacetylases of the sirtuin family and FOXO transcription factors. Such hormetic pathways stimulate the production of antioxidant enzymes, protein chaperones and neurotrophic factors. In several cases neurohormetic phytochemicals have been shown to suppress the disease process in animal models relevant to neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, and can also improve outcome following a stroke. We are currently screening a panel of biopesticides in order to establish hormetic doses, neuroprotective efficacy, mechanisms of action and therapeutic potential as dietary supplements. PMID:18648607

  10. Investigation of Stilbenoids as Potential Therapeutic Agents for Rotavirus Gastroenteritis

    PubMed Central

    Ball, Judith M.; Medina-Bolivar, Fabricio; Defrates, Katelyn; Hambleton, Emily; Hurlburt, Megan E.; Fang, Lingling; Yang, Tianhong; Nopo-Olazabal, Luis; Atwill, Richard L.; Ghai, Pooja; Parr, Rebecca D.

    2015-01-01

    Rotavirus (RV) infections cause severe diarrhea in infants and young children worldwide. Vaccines are available but cost prohibitive for many countries and only reduce severe symptoms. Vaccinated infants continue to shed infectious particles, and studies show decreased efficacy of the RV vaccines in tropical and subtropical countries where they are needed most. Continuing surveillance for new RV strains, assessment of vaccine efficacy, and development of cost effective antiviral drugs remain an important aspect of RV studies. This study was to determine the efficacy of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory stilbenoids to inhibit RV replication. Peanut (A. hypogaea) hairy root cultures were induced to produce stilbenoids, which were purified by high performance countercurrent chromatography (HPCCC) and analyzed by HPLC. HT29.f8 cells were infected with RV in the presence stilbenoids. Cell viability counts showed no cytotoxic effects on HT29.f8 cells. Viral infectivity titers were calculated and comparatively assessed to determine the effects of stilbenoid treatments. Two stilbenoids, trans-arachidin-1 and trans-arachidin-3, show a significant decrease in RV infectivity titers. Western blot analyses performed on the infected cell lysates complemented the infectivity titrations and indicated a significant decrease in viral replication. These studies show the therapeutic potential of the stilbenoids against RV replication. PMID:26379708

  11. Epigenetic targeting of histone deacetylase: therapeutic potential in Parkinson's disease?

    PubMed

    Harrison, Ian F; Dexter, David T

    2013-10-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common movement disorder affecting more than 4million people worldwide. The primary motor symptoms of the disease are due to degeneration of dopaminergic nigrostriatal neurons. Dopamine replacement therapies have therefore revolutionised disease management by partially controlling these symptoms. However these drugs can produce debilitating side effects when used long term and do not protect degenerating neurons against death. Recent evidence has highlighted a pathological imbalance in PD between the acetylation and deacetylation of the histone proteins around which deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is coiled, in favour of excessive histone deacetylation. This mechanism of adding/removing acetyl groups to histone lysine residues is one of many epigenetic regulatory processes which control the expression of genes, many of which will be essential for neuronal survival. Hence, such epigenetic modifications may have a pathogenic role in PD. It has therefore been hypothesised that if this pathological imbalance can be corrected with the use of histone deacetylase inhibiting agents then neurodegeneration observed in PD can be ameliorated. This article will review the current literature with regard to epigenetic changes in PD and the use of histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) in PD: examining the evidence of the neuroprotective effects of numerous HDACIs in cellular and animal models of Parkinsonian cell death. Ultimately answering the question: does epigenetic targeting of histone deacetylases hold therapeutic potential in PD? PMID:23711791

  12. Astaxanthin: a potential therapeutic agent in cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Fassett, Robert G; Coombes, Jeff S

    2011-01-01

    Astaxanthin is a xanthophyll carotenoid present in microalgae, fungi, complex plants, seafood, flamingos and quail. It is an antioxidant with anti-inflammatory properties and as such has potential as a therapeutic agent in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Synthetic forms of astaxanthin have been manufactured. The safety, bioavailability and effects of astaxanthin on oxidative stress and inflammation that have relevance to the pathophysiology of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, have been assessed in a small number of clinical studies. No adverse events have been reported and there is evidence of a reduction in biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation with astaxanthin administration. Experimental studies in several species using an ischaemia-reperfusion myocardial model demonstrated that astaxanthin protects the myocardium when administered both orally or intravenously prior to the induction of the ischaemic event. At this stage we do not know whether astaxanthin is of benefit when administered after a cardiovascular event and no clinical cardiovascular studies in humans have been completed and/or reported. Cardiovascular clinical trials are warranted based on the physicochemical and antioxidant properties, the safety profile and preliminary experimental cardiovascular studies of astaxanthin. PMID:21556169

  13. Potential prognostic, diagnostic and therapeutic markers for human gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Ming-Ming; Wang, Chia-Siu; Tsai, Chung-Ying; Chi, Hsiang-Cheng; Tseng, Yi-Hsin; Lin, Kwang-Huei

    2014-01-01

    The high incidence of gastric cancer (GC) and its consequent mortality rate severely threaten human health. GC is frequently not diagnosed until a relatively advanced stage. Surgery is the only potentially curative treatment. Thus, early screening and diagnosis are critical for improving prognoses in patients with GC. Gastroscopy with biopsy is an appropriate method capable of aiding the diagnosis of specific early GC tumor types; however, the stress caused by this method together with it being excessively expensive makes it difficult to use it as a routine method for screening for GC on a population basis. The currently used tumor marker assays for detecting GC are simple and rapid, but their use is limited by their low sensitivity and specificity. In recent years, several markers have been identified and tested for their clinical relevance in the management of GC. Here, we review the serum-based tumor markers for GC and their clinical significance, focusing on discoveries from microarray/proteomics research. We also review tissue-based GC tumor markers and their clinical application, focusing on discoveries from immunohistochemical research. This review provides a brief description of various tumor markers for the purposes of diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutics, and we include markers already in clinical practice and various forthcoming biomarkers. PMID:25320517

  14. Recurrent Rearrangements in Prostate Cancer: Causes and Therapeutic Potential

    PubMed Central

    White, Nicole M.; Feng, Felix Y; Maher, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    DNA damage and genetic rearrangements are hallmarks of cancer. However, gene fusions as driver mutations in cancer have classically been a distinction in leukemia and other rare instances until recently with the discovery of gene fusion events occurring in 50 to 75% of prostate cancer patients. The discovery of the TMPRSS2-ERG fusion sparked an onslaught of discovery and innovation resulting in a delineation of prostate cancer via a molecular signature of gene fusion events. The increased commonality of high-throughput sequencing data coupled with improved bioinformatics approaches not only elucidated the molecular underpinnings of prostate cancer progression, but the mechanisms of gene fusion biogenesis. Interestingly, the androgen receptor (AR), already known to play a significant role in prostate cancer tumorigenesis, has recently been implicated in the processes resulting in gene fusions by inducing the spatial proximity of genes involved in rearrangements, promoting the formation of double-strand DNA breaks (DSB), and facilitating the recruitment of proteins for non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). Our increased understanding of the mechanisms inducing genomic instability may lead to improved diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. To date, the majority of prostate cancer patients can be molecularly stratified based on their gene fusion status thereby increasing the potential for tailoring more specific and effective therapies. PMID:23410129

  15. Recent advance in brown adipose physiology and its therapeutic potential

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yun-Hee; Jung, Young-Suk; Choi, Dalwoong

    2014-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a specialized thermoregulatory organ that has a critical role in the regulation of energy metabolism. Specifically, energy expenditure can be enhanced by the activation of BAT function and the induction of a BAT-like catabolic phenotype in white adipose tissue (WAT). Since the recent recognition of metabolically active BAT in adult humans, BAT has been extensively studied as one of the most promising targets identified for treating obesity and its related disorders. In this review, we summarize information on the developmental origin of BAT and the progenitors of brown adipocytes in WAT. We explore the transcriptional control of brown adipocyte differentiation during classical BAT development and in WAT browning. We also discuss the neuronal control of BAT activity and summarize the recently identified non-canonical stimulators of BAT that can act independently of β-adrenergic stimulation. Finally, we review new findings on the beneficial effects of BAT activation and development with respect to improving metabolic profiles. We highlight the therapeutic potential of BAT and its future prospects, including pharmacological intervention and cell-based therapies designed to enhance BAT activity and development. PMID:24556827

  16. Addressing the stimulant treatment gap: A call to investigate the therapeutic benefits potential of cannabinoids for crack-cocaine use.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Benedikt; Kuganesan, Sharan; Gallassi, Andrea; Malcher-Lopes, Renato; van den Brink, Wim; Wood, Evan

    2015-12-01

    Crack-cocaine use is prevalent in numerous countries, yet concentrated primarily - largely within urban contexts - in the Northern and Southern regions of the Americas. It is associated with a variety of behavioral, physical and mental health and social problems which gravely affect users and their environments. Few evidence-based treatments for crack-cocaine use exist and are available to users in the reality of street drug use. Numerous pharmacological treatments have been investigated but with largely disappointing results. An important therapeutic potential for crack-cocaine use may rest in cannabinoids, which have recently seen a general resurgence for varied possible therapeutic usages for different neurological diseases. Distinct potential therapeutic benefits for crack-cocaine use and common related adverse symptoms may come specifically from cannabidiol (CBD) - one of the numerous cannabinoid components found in cannabis - with its demonstrated anxiolytic, anti-psychotic, anti-convulsant effects and potential benefits for sleep and appetite problems. The possible therapeutic prospects of cannabinoids are corroborated by observational studies from different contexts documenting crack-cocaine users' 'self-medication' efforts towards coping with crack-cocaine-related problems, including withdrawal and craving, impulsivity and paranoia. Cannabinoid therapeutics offer further benefits of being available in multiple formulations, are low in adverse risk potential, and may easily be offered in community-based settings which may add to their feasibility as interventions for - predominantly marginalized - crack-cocaine user populations. Supported by the dearth of current therapeutic options for crack-cocaine use, we are advocating for the implementation of a rigorous research program investigating the potential therapeutic benefits of cannabinoids for crack-cocaine use. Given the high prevalence of this grave substance use problem in the Americas, opportunities for such research should urgently be created and facilitated there. PMID:26500166

  17. Therapeutic options to treat sulfur mustard poisoning--the road ahead.

    PubMed

    Smith, William J

    2009-09-01

    For the past 15 years the international research community has conducted a basic and applied research program aimed at identifying a medical countermeasure against chemical threat vesicant, or blistering, agents. The primary emphasis of this program has been the development of therapeutic protection against sulfur mustard and its cutaneous pathology-blister formation. In addition to the work on a medical countermeasures, significant research has been conducted on the development of topical skin protectants and medical strategies for wound healing. This review will focus on the pharmacological strategies investigated, novel therapeutic targets currently under investigation and therapeutic approaches being considered for transition to advanced development. Additionally, we will review the expansion of our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of mustard injury that has come from this research. While great strides have been made through these investigations, the complexity of the mustard insult demands that further studies extend the inroads made and point the way toward better understanding of cellular and tissue disruptions caused by sulfur mustard. PMID:18852011

  18. Therapeutic Options for Unscheduled Bleeding Associated with Long-Acting Reversible Contraception.

    PubMed

    Friedlander, EmmaKate; Kaneshiro, Bliss

    2015-12-01

    Long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) is the most effective form of reversible contraception. Although most women are satisfied with LARC methods, unscheduled bleeding and spotting are common reasons for method dissatisfaction and discontinuation. This systematic analysis of the current literature delineates treatment options for unscheduled bleeding related to LARC use. Although consistent results are lacking, all devices seem to have the best response to nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs for 5 to 7 days or the antifibrinolytic agent tranexamic acid. Additional studies are necessary to identify improved treatment interventions for unscheduled bleeding with LARC use. PMID:26598302

  19. Sildenafil as a therapeutic option for digital ischemic ulceration: case report.

    PubMed

    Krähenbühl, Swenn Maxence; Depairon, Michele; Faure, Marguerite; Vietti Violi, Naik; Applegate, Lee Ann; Raffoul, Wassim

    2015-05-01

    We report the case of a 37-year-old woman who developed critical upper limb ischemia caused by a cervical rib. Because the malformation was initially undiagnosed, a vascular bypass was performed, and failure occurred. Following a 6-month therapy with sildenafil, revascularization of the arm was successful and amputation was avoided. A 6-year follow-up shows a rich collateral network at the compression site and normal values of digital plethysmography. Because hand surgeons often see patients with digital ulcerations and other manifestations of peripheral vascular pathology, therapy of ischemia with sildenafil could be an effective treatment option in patients not responding to classic drugs. PMID:25817752

  20. Current state of evidence on 'off-label' therapeutic options for systemic lupus erythematosus, including biological immunosuppressive agents, in Germany, Austria and Switzerland--a consensus report.

    PubMed

    Aringer, M; Burkhardt, H; Burmester, G R; Fischer-Betz, R; Fleck, M; Graninger, W; Hiepe, F; Jacobi, A M; Kötter, I; Lakomek, H J; Lorenz, H M; Manger, B; Schett, G; Schmidt, R E; Schneider, M; Schulze-Koops, H; Smolen, J S; Specker, C; Stoll, T; Strangfeld, A; Tony, H P; Villiger, P M; Voll, R; Witte, T; Dörner, T

    2012-04-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) can be a severe and potentially life-threatening disease that often represents a therapeutic challenge because of its heterogeneous organ manifestations. Only glucocorticoids, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, azathioprine, cyclophosphamide and very recently belimumab have been approved for SLE therapy in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. Dependence on glucocorticoids and resistance to the approved therapeutic agents, as well as substantial toxicity, are frequent. Therefore, treatment considerations will include 'off-label' use of medication approved for other indications. In this consensus approach, an effort has been undertaken to delineate the limits of the current evidence on therapeutic options for SLE organ disease, and to agree on common practice. This has been based on the best available evidence obtained by a rigorous literature review and the authors' own experience with available drugs derived under very similar health care conditions. Preparation of this consensus document included an initial meeting to agree upon the core agenda, a systematic literature review with subsequent formulation of a consensus and determination of the evidence level followed by collecting the level of agreement from the panel members. In addition to overarching principles, the panel have focused on the treatment of major SLE organ manifestations (lupus nephritis, arthritis, lung disease, neuropsychiatric and haematological manifestations, antiphospholipid syndrome and serositis). This consensus report is intended to support clinicians involved in the care of patients with difficult courses of SLE not responding to standard therapies by providing up-to-date information on the best available evidence. PMID:22072024

  1. [Mast cell activation disease: a concise practical guide for diagnostic workup and therapeutic options].

    PubMed

    Molderings, G J; Homann, J; Brettner, S; Raithel, M; Frieling, T

    2014-07-01

    In the present paper clinical phenotypes, pathogenetic relationships, and diagnostic algorithms as well as therapeutic concepts of/for systemic mast cell activation disease are reviewed. The reader should be able to recognize and diagnose a systemic mast cell activation disease, as well as to counsel a personalized drug therapy. In the case of chronic multisystem polymorbidity systemic mast cell activation disease should be considered as a differential diagnosis at an early stage. In most cases, specific, little invasive investigations allow diagnosing the disease and, hence, an appropriate therapy can be initiated. PMID:24801454

  2. [The specific enzyme inhibitors for potential therapeutic use].

    PubMed

    Bretner, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Therapy for hepatitis C virus (HCV) initially consisted on administering ribavirin - having a broad spectrum of action - and pegylated interferon, and was only effective in 40-50% of patients. Appropriate was to find effective inhibitors of viral replication e.g. by inhibition of a viral enzyme, NTPase/helicase required in the process of translation and RNA replication of the HCV. We developed methods of synthesis of many compounds belonging to different groups - derivatives of nucleosides, benzotriazole, benzimidazole, tropolone and epirubicine. Some of the derivatives inhibit HCV helicase activity at low concentrations and reduces replication of the viral RNA in subgenomic replicon system. In the process of HCV replication casein kinase CK2 plays an important role. It regulates the level of phosphorylation of HCV protein NS5A, which affects the production of infectious virions of HCV. Effective and selective inhibitors of kinase CK2 could be of use in the treatment of HCV in combination with other drugs. CK2 kinase phosphorylates approximately 300 proteins that affect the growth, differentiation, proliferation or apoptosis. Elevated CK2 kinase activity has been observed in several types of cancer and other diseases, therefore, inhibitors of this enzyme are potential therapeutic importance, particularly for anti-cancer treatment. Research carried out in collaboration with prof. Shugar led to the synthesis of one of the most selective inhibitors of this enzyme which is 4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-1H-benzotriazole, used for the study of the role of kinase CK2 in a number of metabolic processes in tumor cells. PMID:26677576

  3. Llama Nanoantibodies with Therapeutic Potential against Human Norovirus Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Garaicoechea, Lorena; Aguilar, Andrea; Parra, Gabriel I.; Bok, Marina; Sosnovtsev, Stanislav V.; Canziani, Gabriela; Green, Kim Y.; Bok, Karin; Parreño, Viviana

    2015-01-01

    Noroviruses are a major cause of acute gastroenteritis, but no vaccines or therapeutic drugs are available. Llama-derived single chain antibody fragments (also called VHH) are small, recombinant monoclonal antibodies of 15 kDa with several advantages over conventional antibodies. The aim of this study was to generate recombinant monoclonal VHH specific for the two major norovirus (NoV) genogroups (GI and GII) in order to investigate their potential as immunotherapy for the treatment of NoV diarrhea. To accomplish this objective, two llamas were immunized with either GI.1 (Norwalk-1968) or GII.4 (MD2004) VLPs. After immunization, peripheral blood lymphocytes were collected and used to generate two VHH libraries. Using phage display technology, 10 VHH clones specific for GI.1, and 8 specific for GII.4 were selected for further characterization. All VHH recognized conformational epitopes in the P domain of the immunizing VP1 capsid protein, with the exception of one GII.4 VHH that recognized a linear P domain epitope. The GI.1 VHHs were highly specific for the immunizing GI.1 genotype, with only one VHH cross-reacting with GI.3 genotype. The GII.4 VHHs reacted with the immunizing GII.4 strain and showed a varying reactivity profile among different GII genotypes. One VHH specific for GI.1 and three specific for GII.4 could block the binding of homologous VLPs to synthetic HBGA carbohydrates, saliva, and pig gastric mucin, and in addition, could inhibit the hemagglutination of red blood cells by homologous VLPs. The ability of Nov-specific VHHs to perform well in these surrogate neutralization assays supports their further development as immunotherapy for NoV treatment and immunoprophylaxis. PMID:26267898

  4. Adrenomedullin: A potential therapeutic target for retinochoroidal disease.

    PubMed

    Iesato, Yasuhiro; Yuda, Kentaro; Chong, Kelvin Teo Yi; Tan, Xue; Murata, Toshinori; Shindo, Takayuki; Yanagi, Yasuo

    2016-05-01

    Adrenomedullin (AM) is a 52-amino acid peptide with anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and anti-oxidative properties discovered in a human pheochromocytoma. It is a member of the calcitonin peptide superfamily, and its signal is mediated by calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR). CLR interacts with receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs), among which RAMP-2 and RAMP-3 carry CLR from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cellular membrane to confer high affinity for AM. In addition to being implicated in a variety of systemic diseases, AM is a critical contributor to the pathogenesis of retinochoroidal disease. It is robustly upregulated in retinochoroidal disease models of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) and laser-induced choroidal neovascularisation (CNV) as well as in human patients with retinochoroidal diseases. In this review, we discuss the most salient recent findings that strongly illustrate the role of AM in retinochoroidal disease. In the OIR model, AM was identified as a key angiogenic mediator of retinal vascularisation, and AM inhibition suppressed only pathological angiogenesis, not physiological angiogenesis. On the contrary, lesion size was larger in AM(+/-) CNV model mice, presumably due to the anti-inflammatory function of AM. Despite the success of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents for the treatment of retinochoroidal disease, therapeutic shortcomings remain. Finding ways to modulate AM activity will provide new treatment avenues. Potential treatment strategies modulating the action of AM and its signaling pathway have been studied extensively. AM and its signaling molecules are intriguing future treatment targets for retinochoroidal disease. PMID:26791747

  5. Human rhabdomyosarcoma cells express functional erythropoietin receptor: Potential therapeutic implications

    PubMed Central

    PONIEWIERSKA-BARAN, AGATA; SUSZYNSKA, MALWINA; SUN, WENYUE; ABDELBASET-ISMAIL, AHMED; SCHNEIDER, GABRIELA; BARR, FREDERIC G.; RATAJCZAK, MARIUSZ Z.

    2015-01-01

    The erythropoietin receptor (EpoR) is expressed by cells from the erythroid lineage; however, evidence has accumulated that it is also expressed by some solid tumors. This is an important observation, because recombinant erythropoietin (EPO) is employed in cancer patients to treat anemia related to chemo/radiotherapy. In our studies we employed eight rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) cell lines (three alveolar-type RMS cell lines and five embrional-type RMS cell lines), and mRNA samples obtained from positive, PAX7-FOXO1-positive, and fusion-negative RMS patient samples. Expression of EpoR was evaluated by RT-PCR, gene array and FACS. The functionality of EpoR in RMS cell lines was evaluated by chemotaxis, adhesion, and direct cell proliferation assays. In some of the experiments, RMS cells were exposed to vincristine (VCR) in the presence or absence of EPO to test whether EPO may impair the therapeutic effect of VCR. We report for a first time that functional EpoR is expressed in human RMS cell lines as well as by primary tumors from RMS patients. Furthermore, EpoR is detectably expressed in both embryonal and alveolar RMS subtypes. At the functional level, several human RMS cell lines responded to EPO stimulation by enhanced proliferation, chemotaxis, cell adhesion, and phosphorylation of MAPKp42/44 and AKT. Moreover, RMS cells became more resistant to VCR treatment in the presence of EPO. Our findings have important potential clinical implications, indicating that EPO supplementation in RMS patients may have the unwanted side effect of tumor progression. PMID:26412593

  6. Therapeutic potential of thalidomide for gemcitabine-resistant bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yen Ta; Cheng, Chuan Chu; Chiu, Ted H; Lai, Pei Chun

    2015-11-01

    Controversial effects of thalidomide for solid malignancies have been reported. In the present study, we evaluate the effects of thalidomide for transitional cell carcinoma (TCC), the most common type of bladder cancer. Thalidomide precipitates were observed when its DMSO solution was added to the culture medium. No precipitation was found when thalidomide was dissolved in 45% γ-cyclodextrin, and this concentration of γ-cyclodextrin elicited slight cytotoxicity on TCC BFTC905 and primary human urothelial cells. Thalidomide-γ-cyclodextrin complex exerted a concentration-dependent cytotoxicity in TCC cells, but was relatively less cytotoxic (with IC50 of 200 µM) in BFTC905 cells than the other 3 TCC cell lines, possibly due to upregulation of Bcl-xL and HIF-1α mediated carbonic anhydrase IX, and promotion of quiescence. Gemcitabine-resistant BFTC905 cells were chosen for additional experiments. Thalidomide induced apoptosis through downregulation of survivin and securin. The secretion of VEGF and TNF-α was ameliorated by thalidomide, but they did not affect cell proliferation. Immune-modulating lenalidomide and pomalidomide did not elicit cytotoxicity. In addition, cereblon did not play a role in the thalidomide effect. Oxidative DNA damage was triggered by thalidomide, and anti-oxidants reversed the effect. Thalidomide also inhibited TNF-α induced invasion through inhibition of NF-κB, and downregulation of effectors, ICAM-1 and MMP-9. Thalidomide inhibited the growth of BFTC905 xenograft tumors in SCID mice via induction of DNA damage and suppression of angiogenesis. Higher average body weight, indicating less chachexia, was observed in thalidomide treated group. Sedative effect was observed within one-week of treatment. These pre-clinical results suggest therapeutic potential of thalidomide for gemcitabine-resistant bladder cancer. PMID:26398114

  7. Systemic minocycline as a therapeutic option in predominantly oral mucous membrane pemphigoid: a cautionary report.

    PubMed

    Carrozzo, M; Arduino, P; Bertolusso, G; Cozzani, E; Parodi, A

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic benefit of minocycline in mucous membrane pemphigoid (MMP) predominantly involving the oral cavity. A descriptive, open clinical study with no control group, including 9 patients, was developed. The diagnosis was confirmed by histopathological examination and direct and salt-split-skin indirect immunofluorescence analysis. Target antigens were sought by immunoblotting. Patients received minocycline (200mg/day) for a variable period. All patients were followed up for at least 2 years after initial diagnosis. Therapeutic response was assessed by clinical improvement in three categories: major response, minor response and no response. A major response was observed in 3 patients (33%), a minor response in 4 (44%) and 2 (22%) patients showed no improvement. Two of the 3 patients with a major response showed no immunoblot reactivity; 80% of patients with circulating autoantibodies (autoAb) against BP180 had a minor or no response. Permanent remission of signs with no relapse was only obtained in one patient. 5 patients (55%) stopped the drug because of adverse effects, such as vertigo and gastralgia. The results revealed temporary clinical benefits in MMP predominantly involving the oral cavity with minocycline, although frequently side effects led to drug withdrawal. PMID:19628373

  8. Therapeutic options for chronic myeloid leukemia: focus on imatinib (Glivec®, Gleevec™)

    PubMed Central

    Henkes, Martin; van der Kuip, Heiko; Aulitzky, Walter E

    2008-01-01

    Treatment options for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) have changed dramatically during the last decades. Interferon-α treatment and stem cell transplantation (SCT) clearly improved survival over conventional chemotherapy and offered the possibility of complete and durable responses. With the advent of the small molecule inhibitor imatinib mesylate (Glivec®, Gleevec™) targeting the causative Bcr-Abl oncoprotein, the era of molecular cancer therapy began with remarkable success especially in chronic phase patients. Today, imatinib is the first-line treatment for CML. However, imatinib does not appear to be capable to eliminate all leukemia cells in the patients and pre-existing as well as acquired resistance to the drug has been increasingly recognized. To overcome these problems, several strategies involving dose escalation, combinations with other agents, and novel Bcr-Abl inhibitors have been developed. PMID:18728706

  9. Genome Integrity in Aging: Human Syndromes, Mouse Models, and Therapeutic Options.

    PubMed

    Vermeij, Wilbert P; Hoeijmakers, Jan H J; Pothof, Joris

    2016-01-01

    Human syndromes and mouse mutants that exhibit accelerated but bona fide aging in multiple organs and tissues have been invaluable for the identification of nine denominators of aging: telomere attrition, genome instability, epigenetic alterations, mitochondrial dysfunction, deregulated nutrient sensing, altered intercellular communication, loss of proteostasis, cellular senescence and adult stem cell exhaustion. However, whether and how these instigators of aging interrelate or whether they have one root cause is currently largely unknown. Rare human progeroid syndromes and corresponding mouse mutants with resolved genetic defects highlight the dominant importance of genome maintenance for aging. A second class of aging-related disorders reveals a cross connection with metabolism. As genome maintenance and metabolism are closely interconnected, they may constitute the main underlying biology of aging. This review focuses on the role of genome stability in aging, its crosstalk with metabolism, and options for nutritional and/or pharmaceutical interventions that delay age-related pathology. PMID:26514200

  10. Therapeutic options for patients with polycythemia vera and essential thrombocythemia refractory/resistant to hydroxyurea

    PubMed Central

    Sever, Matjaz; Newberry, Kate J.; Verstovsek, Srdan

    2016-01-01

    Hydroxyurea (HU) has traditionally been the first-line treatment for patients with PV or ET at high-risk for vascular complications. However, approximately 20-25% of patients develop resistance or intolerance to HU and must be treated with second-line therapies. Resistance is associated with disease transformation and reduced survival. However, given the dearth of large-scale controlled clinical trials in this patient population, there is no clear consensus on how to best treat patients who develop resistance or intolerance to HU. Herein, we review current literature on treatment options for patients with HU-refractory/resistant PV or ET and provide recommendations for treating these patients. PMID:24524340

  11. SGLT2 inhibitors provide an effective therapeutic option for diabetes complicated with insulin antibodies.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Akinori; Takano, Koji; Kawai, Sayuki; Shichiri, Masayoshi

    2016-02-29

    Diabetes mellitus complicated with insulin antibodies is rare in clinical practice but usually difficult to control. A high amount of insulin antibodies, especially with low affinity and high binding capacity, leads to unstable glycemic control characterized by hyperglycemia unresponsive to large volume of insulin and unanticipated hypoglycemia. There are several treatment options, such as changing insulin preparation, immunosupression with glucocorticoids, and plasmapheresis, most of which are of limited efficacy. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a novel class of drug which decrease renal glucose reabsorption and lowers plasma glucose level independent of insulin action. We report here a case with diabetes complicated with insulin antibodies who was effectively controlled by an SGLT2 inhibitor. A 47-year-old man with type 2 diabetes treated with insulin had very poor glycemic control characterized by postprandial hyperglycemia unresponsive to insulin therapy and repetitive hypoglycemia due to insulin antibodies. Treatment with ipragliflozin, an SGLT2 inhibitor, improved HbA1c from 8.4% to 6.0% and glycated albumin from 29.4% to 17.9%. Continuous glucose monitoring revealed improvement of glycemic profile (average glucose level from 212 mg/dL to 99 mg/dL and glycemic standard deviation from 92 mg/dL to 14 mg/dL) with disappearance of hypoglycemic events. This treatment further ameliorated the characteristics of insulin antibodies and resulted in reduced insulin requirement. SGLT2 inhibitors may offer an effective treatment option for managing the poor glycemic control in diabetes complicated with insulin antibodies. PMID:26549210

  12. Therapeutic options for acute cough due to upper respiratory infections in children.

    PubMed

    Paul, Ian M

    2012-02-01

    Cough due to upper respiratory tract infections (URIs) is one of the most frequent complaints encountered by pediatric health-care providers, and one of the most disruptive symptoms for children and families. Despite the frequency of URIs, there is limited evidence to support the few therapeutic agents currently available in the United States (US) to treat acute cough due to URI. Published, well-designed, contemporary research supporting the efficacy of narcotics (codeine, hydrocodone) and US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved over-the-counter (OTC) oral antitussives and expectorants (dextromethorphan, diphenhydramine, chlophedianol, and guaifenesin) is absent for URI-associated pediatric cough. Alternatively, honey and topically applied vapor rubs may be effective antitussives. PMID:21892785

  13. Induction of histone deacetylases (HDACs) in human abdominal aortic aneurysm: therapeutic potential of HDAC inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Galán, María; Varona, Saray; Orriols, Mar; Rodríguez, José Antonio; Aguiló, Silvia; Dilmé, Jaume; Camacho, Mercedes; Martínez-González, José; Rodriguez, Cristina

    2016-05-01

    Clinical management of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is currently limited to elective surgical repair because an effective pharmacotherapy is still awaited. Inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity could be a promising therapeutic option in cardiovascular diseases. We aimed to characterise HDAC expression in human AAA and to evaluate the therapeutic potential of class I and IIa HDAC inhibitors in the AAA model of angiotensin II (Ang II)-infused apolipoprotein-E-deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mice. Real-time PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry evidenced an increased expression of HDACs 1, 2 (both class I), 4 and 7 (both class IIa) in abdominal aorta samples from patients undergoing AAA open repair (n=22) compared with those from donors (n=14). Aortic aneurysms from Ang-II-infused ApoE(-/-) mice exhibited a similar HDAC expression profile. In these animals, treatment with a class I HDAC inhibitor (MS-275) or a class IIa inhibitor (MC-1568) improved survival, reduced the incidence and severity of AAA and limited aneurysmal expansion evaluated by Doppler ultrasonography. These beneficial effects were more potent in MC-1568-treated mice. The disorganisation of elastin and collagen fibres and lymphocyte and macrophage infiltration were effectively reduced by both inhibitors. Additionally, HDAC inhibition attenuated the exacerbated expression of pro-inflammatory markers and the increase in metalloproteinase-2 and -9 activity induced by Ang II in this model. Therefore, our data evidence that HDAC expression is deregulated in human AAA and that class-selective HDAC inhibitors limit aneurysm expansion in an AAA mouse model. New-generation HDAC inhibitors represent a promising therapeutic approach to overcome human aneurysm progression. PMID:26989193

  14. New Therapeutic Option for Drop Foot with the ActiGait Peroneal Nerve Stimulator--a Technical Note.

    PubMed

    Martin, K Daniel; Polanski, Witold; Schackert, Gabriele; Sobottka, Stephan B

    2015-12-01

    A drop foot occurs in up to 20% of stroke patients and leads to an increased risk of falls. Until recently, only a foot orthosis or surface stimulation was able to improve the gait of these patients. Recent studies have shown that direct peroneal nerve stimulation with an implantable 4-channel peroneal nerve stimulator (ActiGait) allows independent electrode adjustment and leads to better functional results and an improved quality of life. The application of this therapeutic option is restricted to patients with a drop foot attributable to a lesion of the first motor neuron caused by stroke, multiple sclerosis, or tumors. In this paper, we present the first technical note with possible pitfalls of the surgical procedure and the perioperative care after implantation of ActiGait drop foot stimulators in 50 patients. PMID:26164191

  15. Mediterranean diet and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: new therapeutic option around the corner?

    PubMed

    Sofi, Francesco; Casini, Alessandro

    2014-06-21

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents the most common chronic liver disease in Western countries, being considered as the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome. NAFLD has a common pathogenic background to that of metabolic syndrome, and shares many risk factors such as obesity, hypertension, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Although there is no currently available evidence-based established treatment for NAFLD, all the recommendations from the medical associations indicate that the most effective treatment is to reduce weight through lifestyle modifications. Diet, indeed, plays a key role in the management of NAFLD patients, as both the quantity and quality of the diet have been reported to have a beneficial role in the onset and severity of the liver disease. Among all the diets that have been proposed, a Mediterranean diet was the most effective dietary option for inducing weight loss together with beneficial effects on all the risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome and NAFLD. Over the last few years, research has demonstrated a beneficial effect of a Mediterranean diet in NAFLD. In this review, we will examine all the available data on the association between diet, nutrients and the Mediterranean diet in association with onset and severity of NAFLD. PMID:24966604

  16. Therapeutic potential of chemokine signal inhibition for metastatic breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kitamura, Takanori; Pollard, Jeffrey W.

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic breast cancer is incurable by current therapies including chemotherapy and immunotherapy. Accumulating evidence indicates that tumor-infiltrating macrophages promote establishment of the lethal metastatic foci and contribute to therapeutic resistance. Recent studies suggest that the accumulation of these macrophages is regulated by a chemokine network established in the tumor microenvironment. In this perspective paper, we elaborate on the chemokine signals that can attract monocytes/macrophages to the site of metastasis, and discuss whether inhibition of these chemokine signals can represent a new therapeutic strategy for metastatic breast cancer. PMID:26275794

  17. [Advanced luminal breast cancer (hormone receptor-positive, HER2 negative): New therapeutic options in 2015].

    PubMed

    Vanacker, Hlne; Bally, Olivia; Kassem, Loay; Tredan, Olivier; Heudel, Pierre; Bachelot, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    Despite improvements in early detection, surgery and systemic therapy, metastatic breast cancer remains a major cause of death. Luminal type breast cancers expressing hormone estrogen receptor (ER) or progesterone (PR) and without HER2 overexpression are generally sensitive to endocrine therapy, but raise the issue of the occurrence of resistance to treatment, particularly at metastatic stage. A better understanding of hormone resistance may guide the development of new therapeutics. New strategies aim at enhancing and prolonging of endocrine sensitivity, by optimizing existing schemes, or by combining an endocrine therapy with a targeted therapies specific to hormone resistance pathways: ER signaling, PI3K/AKT/mTOR and Cyclin Dependent Kinase (CDK). Key corners of 2014 include confirmation of benefit of high dose fulvestrant, and commercialization of everolimus as the first mTOR inhibitor in this indication. Other strategies are being tested dealing with new endocrine therapies or new molecular targets such as PI3K inhibitors, insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-R) and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors. Coming years may be fruitful and might radically change our way to treat these patients. PMID:26118876

  18. Oxidative stress and neurodegenerative diseases: a review of upstream and downstream antioxidant therapeutic options.

    PubMed

    Uttara, Bayani; Singh, Ajay V; Zamboni, Paolo; Mahajan, R T

    2009-03-01

    Free radicals are common outcome of normal aerobic cellular metabolism. In-built antioxidant system of body plays its decisive role in prevention of any loss due to free radicals. However, imbalanced defense mechanism of antioxidants, overproduction or incorporation of free radicals from environment to living system leads to serious penalty leading to neuro-degeneration. Neural cells suffer functional or sensory loss in neurodegenerative diseases. Apart from several other environmental or genetic factors, oxidative stress (OS) leading to free radical attack on neural cells contributes calamitous role to neuro-degeneration. Though, oxygen is imperative for life, imbalanced metabolism and excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation end into a range of disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, aging and many other neural disorders. Toxicity of free radicals contributes to proteins and DNA injury, inflammation, tissue damage and subsequent cellular apoptosis. Antioxidants are now being looked upon as persuasive therapeutic against solemn neuronal loss, as they have capability to combat by neutralizing free radicals. Diet is major source of antioxidants, as well as medicinal herbs are catching attention to be commercial source of antioxidants at present. Recognition of upstream and downstream antioxidant therapy to oxidative stress has been proved an effective tool in alteration of any neuronal damage as well as free radical scavenging. Antioxidants have a wide scope to sequester metal ions involved in neuronal plaque formation to prevent oxidative stress. In addition, antioxidant therapy is vital in scavenging free radicals and ROS preventing neuronal degeneration in post-oxidative stress scenario. PMID:19721819

  19. [Treatment of hypertension in diabetes: threshold of intervention and therapeutic options].

    PubMed

    Plouin, P F; Lebrun, P; Azizi, M; Day, M

    1992-01-01

    Early screening for hypertension in diabetic patients and for glycoregulation abnormalities in hypertensives is justified by the additive cardiovascular risks when hypertension and diabetes co-exist and by the accelerated development of diabetic nephropathy and retinopathy if hypertension co-exists. In insulin-dependent diabetes, hypertension is generally preceded by microalbuminuria, known to be reduced by angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. The requirement for nephropathy prevention and the hemodynamic and/or tissular effects of this therapeutic class could justify their use at a blood pressure level less than that conventionally considered hypertensive. This strategy must be confirmed by prospective trials, already underway, evaluating the nephroprotective efficacy of this therapy. In non-insulin-dependent diabetes, hypertension is often present before the diabetes is diagnosed and antihypertensive therapy, especially thiazide diuretics, could play a demasking or favorizing role. The optimal blood pressure level to which these patients at high renal and coronary risk should be lowered still has to be determined. A prospective study, comparing the effects of strict (treated diastolic blood pressure less than 80 mmHg) and less strict (treated diastolic blood pressure between 90 and 100 mmHg) hypertensive control on coronary event prevention in essential hypertension, is in progress and will have important implications for hypertension treatment in diabetics. Appropriate treatment of other risk factors, such as hyperlipidaemia and smoking, contributes to coronary and renal prevention in all diabetic hypertensives. PMID:1639206

  20. Hepatitis delta virus: From biological and medical aspects to current and investigational therapeutic options.

    PubMed

    Alfaiate, Dulce; Dény, Paul; Durantel, David

    2015-10-01

    An estimated 15-20 million individuals are co-infected by hepatitis B and hepatitis D virus worldwide and are at high risk of developing end-stage liver disease, including hepatocellular carcinoma. While HBV viremia can now be controlled in the vast majority of individuals by nucleoside analogs, leading to a delay of disease progression, HDV treatment has for long relied on the relatively inefficient and not well-tolerated interferon-alpha. While the epidemiology and pathogenesis of the disease remain to be precisely determined, using adequate diagnostic tools and well-designed cohort studies, basic research efforts have led to interesting progress in the understanding of HDV biology, which is not yet sufficient to identify specific antiviral targets. More resources now need to be devoted to the HDV field to achieve therapeutic breakthroughs. In this manuscript, we carefully review the literature regarding the biology of hepatitis D virus, the disease, its prevention, current treatments and investigational strategies. This article forms part of a symposium in Antiviral Research on "An unfinished story: from the discovery of the Australia antigen to the development of new curative therapies for chronic hepatitis B." PMID:26275800

  1. Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells: A New Therapeutic Option for Tooth Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuanwei; Yu, Yongchun; Chen, Lin; Ye, Lanfeng; Cui, Junhui; Sun, Quan; Li, Kaide; Li, Zhiyong; Liu, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Tooth regeneration is considered to be an optimistic approach to replace current treatments for tooth loss. It is important to determine the most suitable seed cells for tooth regeneration. Recently, human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) have been regarded as a promising candidate for tissue regeneration. However, it has not been reported whether hUCMSCs can be employed in tooth regeneration. Here, we report that hUCMSCs can be induced into odontoblast-like cells in vitro and in vivo. Induced hUCMSCs expressed dentin-related proteins including dentin sialoprotein (DSP) and dentin matrix protein-1 (DMP-1), and their gene expression levels were similar to those in native pulp tissue cells. Moreover, DSP- and DMP-1-positive calcifications were observed after implantation of hUCMSCs in vivo. These findings reveal that hUCMSCs have an odontogenic differentiation potency to differentiate to odontoblast-like cells with characteristic deposition of dentin-like matrix in vivo. This study clearly demonstrates hUCMSCs as an alternative therapeutic cell source for tooth regeneration. PMID:26136785

  2. Lipoprotein(a)--An independent causal risk factor for cardiovascular disease and current therapeutic options.

    PubMed

    Kassner, Ursula; Schlabs, Thomas; Rosada, Adrian; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth

    2015-05-01

    It is widely accepted that elevated levels of lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) are associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. Several studies have identified Lp(a) as independent cardiovascular risk factor. Consequently, therapeutic concepts are targeting at lowering Lp(a) serum levels. To date, in Europe no pharmaceutical treatment to lower levels of Lp(a) is available. Current developments of pharmaceutical agents like the apolipoprotein-(B-100)-antisense mipomersen, inhibitors of PCSK9 and apolipoprotein-(a)-antisense have shown promising results in lowering Lp(a). Presently, the only available therapy to effectively reduce levels of Lp(a) is regular extracorporeal lipoprotein apheresis. Different apheresis methods show a similar lowering effect of about 60-70 % by a single session. Apart from one small-scale study there has been no randomized, controlled study which could prove that lowering Lp(a) will result in a risk reduction for cardiovascular disease. This review looks into the current scientific evidence of. PMID:25936335

  3. Extended ultrastructural characterization of chordoma cells: the link to new therapeutic options.

    PubMed

    Kolb, Dagmar; Pritz, Elisabeth; Steinecker-Frohnwieser, Bibiane; Lohberger, Birgit; Deutsch, Alexander; Kroneis, Thomas; El-Heliebi, Amin; Dohr, Gottfried; Meditz, Katharina; Wagner, Karin; Koefeler, Harald; Leitinger, Gerd; Leithner, Andreas; Liegl-Atzwanger, Bernadette; Zweytick, Dagmar; Rinner, Beate

    2014-01-01

    Chordomas are rare bone tumors, developed from the notochord and largely resistant to chemotherapy. A special feature of this tumor is the heterogeneity of its cells. By combining high pressure freezing (HPF) with electron tomography we were able to illustrate the connections within the cells, the cell-cell interface, and the mitochondria-associated endoplasmic reticulum membrane complex that appears to play a special role among the characteristics of chordoma. These lipid raft-like regions are responsible for lipid syntheses and for calcium signaling. Compared to other tumor cells, chordoma cells show a close connection of rough endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, which may influence the sphingolipid metabolism and calcium release. We quantified levels of ceramide and glycosylceramide species by the methyl tert-butyl ether extraction method and we assessed the intracellular calcium concentration with the ratiometric fluorescent dye Fura-2AM. Measurements of the changes in the intracellular calcium concentration revealed an increase in calcium due to the application of acetylcholine. With regard to lipid synthesis, glucosylceramide levels in the chordoma cell line were significantly higher than those in normal healthy cells. The accumulation of glycosylceramide in drug resistant cancer cells has been confirmed in many types of cancer and may also account for drug resistance in chordoma. This study aimed to provide a deep morphological description of chordoma cells, it demonstrated that HPF analysis is useful in elucidating detailed structural information. Furthermore we demonstrate how an accumulation of glycosylceramide in chordoma provides links to drug resistance and opens up the field for new research options. PMID:25479055

  4. Extended Ultrastructural Characterization of Chordoma Cells: The Link to New Therapeutic Options

    PubMed Central

    Kolb, Dagmar; Pritz, Elisabeth; Steinecker-Frohnwieser, Bibiane; Lohberger, Birgit; Deutsch, Alexander; Kroneis, Thomas; El-Heliebi, Amin; Dohr, Gottfried; Meditz, Katharina; Wagner, Karin; Koefeler, Harald; Leitinger, Gerd; Leithner, Andreas; Liegl-Atzwanger, Bernadette; Zweytick, Dagmar; Rinner, Beate

    2014-01-01

    Chordomas are rare bone tumors, developed from the notochord and largely resistant to chemotherapy. A special feature of this tumor is the heterogeneity of its cells. By combining high pressure freezing (HPF) with electron tomography we were able to illustrate the connections within the cells, the cell-cell interface, and the mitochondria-associated endoplasmic reticulum membrane complex that appears to play a special role among the characteristics of chordoma. These lipid raft-like regions are responsible for lipid syntheses and for calcium signaling. Compared to other tumor cells, chordoma cells show a close connection of rough endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, which may influence the sphingolipid metabolism and calcium release. We quantified levels of ceramide and glycosylceramide species by the methyl tert-butyl ether extraction method and we assessed the intracellular calcium concentration with the ratiometric fluorescent dye Fura-2AM. Measurements of the changes in the intracellular calcium concentration revealed an increase in calcium due to the application of acetylcholine. With regard to lipid synthesis, glucosylceramide levels in the chordoma cell line were significantly higher than those in normal healthy cells. The accumulation of glycosylceramide in drug resistant cancer cells has been confirmed in many types of cancer and may also account for drug resistance in chordoma. This study aimed to provide a deep morphological description of chordoma cells, it demonstrated that HPF analysis is useful in elucidating detailed structural information. Furthermore we demonstrate how an accumulation of glycosylceramide in chordoma provides links to drug resistance and opens up the field for new research options. PMID:25479055

  5. [Nasal Highflow (NHF): A New Therapeutic Option for the Treatment of Respiratory Failure].

    PubMed

    Bräunlich, J; Nilius, G

    2016-01-01

    The therapy of choice in hypoxemic respiratory failure (type 1) is the application of supplemental oxygen at flow rates of 1 to 15 l/min via nasal prongs or mask. Non-invasive or invasive positive pressure ventilation will be initiated when the oxygen therapy effects are not sufficient or if hypercapnic respiratory failure (type 2) is the underlying problem. Recently, an alternative therapy option is available, from the pathophysiology it can be classified between oxygen therapy and positive pressure ventilation. The therapy called Nasal High Flow (NHF) is based on the nasal application of a heated and humidified air oxygen mixture with a flow range of up to 60 l/min. The precise pathophysiological principles of NHF are only partly understood, yet various aspects are well studied already: it is possible to deliver high oxygen concentrations, airway dryness can be avoided, dead space ventilation reduced and clearance of nasal dead space is achieved. Additionally, an end expiratory positive pressure is built up, which helps to prevent airway collapse, thus resulting in an improvement of respiratory efficiency and reduction of breathing work. Current studies demonstrate improvement in gas exchange and reduction of reintubation rate when applying the NHF treatment in acute respiratory failure. Thus the NHF therapy attracts attention in intensive care medicine. The application in other fields like chronic respiratory insufficiency is less well clarified. The objectives of this review are to present the pathophysiological effects and mechanisms of NHF, as far as understood, and to give an overview over the current state of relevant studies. PMID:26789432

  6. [Lower urinary tract obstruction (LUTO)--clinical picture, prenatal diagnostics and therapeutic options].

    PubMed

    Bildau, J; Enzensberger, C; Degenhardt, J; Kawecki, A; Tenzer, A; Kohl, T; Stressig, R; Ritgen, J; Utsch, B; Axt-Fliedner, R

    2014-02-01

    The aetiology of urinary tract obstructions (LUTO) is heterogeneous. The most common entities are isolated posterior urethral valves or urethral atresia in male foetuses. In female foetuses LUTO is frequently a part of complex malformations. The natural history of LUTO is characterised by high morbidity and mortality due to the development of severe pulmonary hypoplasia caused by oligo- or anhydramnios affecting the cannalicular phase (16-24 weeks of gestation) of pulmonary development. The degree of renal damage is variable and ranges from mild renal impairment in infancy to end-stage renal insufficiency, necessitating dialysis and transplantation. Foetal interventions in order to bypass the obstruction are biologically plausible and technically feasible. Vesico-amniotic shunting as well as (currently less frequent) foetoscopic cystoscopy and laser ablation of posterior urethral valves are minimally invasive treatment options. Previous reports indicate that prenatal therapy is suitable to reduce perinatal mortality but does not improve postnatal renal function. Selection of foetuses who may profit from prenatal intervention is aggravated by the lack of reliable prognostic criteria for the prediction of postnatal renal function in both ultrasound and foetal urine analysis. Furthermore, there is no randomised trial available at the time of writing. Because of a relevant complication rate and still no clear evidence for foetal benefit, interventions should be performed in specialised centres. Further studies are necessary to improve case selection of affected foetuses and to evaluate the impact of interventions in earlier gestational weeks. The data from the PLUTO trial (percutaneous shunting in lower urinary tract obstruction) conducted by the University of Birmingham may help to answer these questions. In the meantime selection of foetuses for prenatal intervention puts high requirements on interdisciplinary counselling in every case. A general treatment algorithm for foetal therapy is not available at the moment. PMID:24595911

  7. [Cell-based therapies - an innovative therapeutic option in ophthalmology: Treating corneal diseases with stem cells].

    PubMed

    Bakker, Ann-Christin; Langer, Barbara

    2015-11-01

    Pathological changes and disorders of the cornea are a major cause of severe visual impairment and blindness. Replacement of a pathologically altered cornea with healthy corneal tissue from the eye of a suitable donor is among the most common and successful transplantation procedures in medicine. In Germany, approximately 5000-6000 corneal transplantations are performed each year, but the total demand per year is estimated to be twice as high. With a success rate of 90%, the outcome of cornea transplantation is very favourable. However, long-term maintenance and regeneration of a healthy new cornea requires tissue-specific corneal stem cells residing at the basal layer of the limbus, which is the annular transition zone between the cornea and sclera. When this important limbal stem cell population is destroyed or dysfunctional, a pathological condition known as limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) manifests. Limbal stem cell deficiency describes conditions associated with impaired corneal wound healing and regeneration. In this situation, transplantation of healthy limbal stem cells is the only curative treatment approach for restoration of an intact and functional ocular surface. To date, treatment of LSCD presents a great challenge for ophthalmologists. However, innovative, cell-therapeutic approaches may open new, promising treatment perspectives. In February 2015, the European Commission granted marketing authorization to the first stem cell-based treatment in the European Union. The product named Holoclar® is an advanced therapy medicinal product (ATMP) for the treatment of moderate to severe LSCD due to physical and chemical burns in adults. Further cell-based treatment approaches are in clinical development. PMID:26459569

  8. Mycoplasma genitalium infection: current treatment options, therapeutic failure, and resistance-associated mutations

    PubMed Central

    Couldwell, Deborah L; Lewis, David A

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium is an important cause of non-gonococcal urethritis, cervicitis, and related upper genital tract infections. The efficacy of doxycycline, used extensively to treat non-gonococcal urethritis in the past, is relatively poor for M. genitalium infection; azithromycin has been the preferred treatment for several years. Research on the efficacy of azithromycin has primarily focused on the 1 g single-dose regimen, but some studies have also evaluated higher doses and longer courses, particularly the extended 1.5 g regimen. This extended regimen is thought to be more efficacious than the 1 g single-dose regimen, although the regimens have not been directly compared in clinical trials. Azithromycin treatment failure was first reported in Australia and has subsequently been documented in several continents. Recent reports indicate an upward trend in the prevalence of macrolide-resistant M. genitalium infections (transmitted resistance), and cases of induced resistance following azithromycin therapy have also been documented. Emergence of antimicrobial-resistant M. genitalium, driven by suboptimal macrolide dosage, now threatens the continued provision of effective and convenient treatments. Advances in techniques to detect resistance mutations in DNA extracts have facilitated correlation of clinical outcomes with genotypic resistance. A strong and consistent association exists between presence of 23S rRNA gene mutations and azithromycin treatment failure. Fluoroquinolones such as moxifloxacin, gatifloxacin, and sitafloxacin remain highly active against most macrolide-resistant M. genitalium. However, the first clinical cases of moxifloxacin treatment failure, due to bacteria with coexistent macrolide-associated and fluoroquinolone-associated resistance mutations, were recently published by Australian investigators. Pristinamycin and solithromycin may be of clinical benefit for such multidrug-resistant infections. Further clinical studies are required to determine the optimal therapeutic dosing schedules for both agents to effect clinical cure and minimize the risk of emergent antimicrobial resistance. Continual inappropriate M. genitalium treatments will likely lead to untreatable infections in the future. PMID:26060411

  9. MET receptor is a potential therapeutic target in high grade cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Miekus, Katarzyna; Pawlowska, Marta; Seku?a, Ma?gorzata; Drabik, Grazyna; Madeja, Zbigniew; Adamek, Dariusz; Majka, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of death among women suffering from tumors. Current treatment options are insufficient. Here, we investigated the MET receptor as a potential molecular target in advanced cervical cancer. Downregulation of MET receptor expression via RNA interference in different cervical carcinoma cell lines dramatically decreased tumor growth and forced tumor differentiation in vivo. MET receptor silencing also led to a dramatic decrease in cell size and a decrease in proliferation rate under normal and stress conditions. MET receptor downregulation also resulted in decreased cyclin D1 and c-myc levels but did not increase apoptosis. Subsequent experiments showed that downregulation of the MET receptor decreased the expression of a key regulator of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, SLUG. and increased the expression of E-cadherin, a hallmark of the epithelial phenotype. Moreover, MET downregulation impairs expression and signaling of CXCR4 receptor, responsible for invasive phenotype. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that the MET receptor influences the oncogenic properties of cervical carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo. These findings highlight a unique role of the MET receptor in cervical carcinoma cells and indicate the MET receptor as a potential therapeutic target for advanced cervical carcinoma. PMID:25888626

  10. Therapeutic Potential of Non-Psychotropic Cannabidiol in Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Hayakawa, Kazuhide; Mishima, Kenichi; Fujiwara, Michihiro

    2010-01-01

    Cannabis contains the psychoactive component delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta9-THC), and the non-psychoactive components cannabidiol (CBD), cannabinol, and cannabigerol. It is well-known that delta9-THC and other cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonists are neuroprotective during global and focal ischemic injury. Additionally, delta9-THC also mediates psychological effects through the activation of the CB1 receptor in the central nervous system. In addition to the CB1 receptor agonists, cannabis also contains therapeutically active components which are CB1 receptor independent. Of the CB1 receptor-independent cannabis, the most important is CBD. In the past five years, an increasing number of publications have focused on the discovery of the anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and neuroprotective effects of CBD. In particular, CBD exerts positive pharmacological effects in ischemic stroke and other chronic diseases, including Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, and rheumatoid arthritis. The cerebroprotective action of CBD is CB1 receptor-independent, long-lasting, and has potent anti-oxidant activity. Importantly, CBD use does not lead to tolerance. In this review, we will discuss the therapeutic possibility of CBD as a cerebroprotective agent, highlighting recent pharmacological advances, novel mechanisms, and therapeutic time window of CBD in ischemic stroke.

  11. Expanding Flp-RMCE options: the potential of Recombinase Mediated Twin-Site Targeting (RMTT).

    PubMed

    Turan, Soeren; Qiao, Junhua; Madden, Sally; Benham, Craig; Kotz, Marina; Schambach, Axel; Bode, Juergen

    2014-08-10

    Where possible, developments enabling the establishment of cell lines with predictable, long-term stable expression capacity are based on single-copy integrations at safe genomic loci with predictable properties. Robust performance could be assigned to lentiviral transduction systems anchoring single LV-units at sites with adequate transcription potential. In the case of gene therapeutic vectors it is essential that the expression interval can be safely terminated following individual requirements, which has mostly been achieved by lox-mediated excision ("floxing"). To extend the spectrum of possible applications we replaced the common, phage-derived Cre/loxP-setup by modules derived from the yeast "Flp/FRT" site-specific recombination system. This change enables a variety of additional options, for instance by "multiplexing" strategies, which rely on a variety of heterospecific FRT-site variants (F'). If we provide lentiviral LTRs with a "twin-site", here an FF3 fusion, the presence of Flp-recombinase will effectively excise the expression cassette, leaving behind a single neutral, genomically anchored FF3 unit. This tag serves to identify the integration locus and to apply sequence- and structural (SIDD-) analyses to predict its functions. Candidate loci are then used to accommodate, at the given site, other genes of interest by "Recombinase-Mediated Twin Site Targeting" (RMTT), a contemporary extension of existing cassette exchange (RMCE-) routines. Supported by the fact that FF3 twins remain accessible within the host genome, RMTT provides access to certified cell lines as it complies with recently defined stringent genomic safe harbor criteria. Our discussion- and outlook-sections will cover lentiviral targeting strategies and current possibilities to enable their fine-tuning. PMID:24905650

  12. Esophageal stent placement as a therapeutic option for iatrogenic esophageal perforation in children

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Alsafadi; Wong Kee Song, Louis M.; Absah, Imad

    2016-01-01

    Iatrogenic esophageal perforation (IEP) is a potentially serious adverse event of interventional endoscopy. The approach to IEP varies from surgical repair for large perforations to conservative treatment for small contained perforations. We report a case of an 18-month-old girl with congenital esophageal stenosis suffering a large esophageal perforation after a trial of stricture dilatation, which was successfully managed by the placement of fully covered stent. Hence, in selected cases, esophageal stent placement is a feasible alternative to invasive surgery in managing IEP.

  13. New and emerging therapeutic options for malignant pleural mesothelioma: review of early clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Kotova, Svetlana; Wong, Raymond M; Cameron, Robert B

    2015-01-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare tumor that is challenging to control. Despite some benefit from using the multimodality-approach (surgery, combination chemotherapy and radiation), survival remains poor. However, current research produced a list of potential therapies. Here, we summarize significant new preclinical and early clinical developments in treatment of MPM, which include mesothelin specific antibody and toxin therapies, interleukin-4 (IL-4) receptor toxins, dendritic cell vaccines, immune checkpoint inhibitors, and gene-based therapies. In addition, several local modalities such as photodynamic therapy, postoperative lavage using betadine, and cryotherapy for local recurrence, have also shown to be effective for local control of disease. PMID:25670913

  14. Advances in Therapeutic Options for Gait and Balance in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Bohnen, Nicolaas I; Albin, Roger L; Müller, Martijn L T M; Chou, Kelvin

    2011-11-01

    There is a need to explore non-dopaminergic approaches to treating balance and gait problems in PD. There is emerging evidence on the role of cholinergic denervation of the PPN-thalamus system and falls in PD. Preliminary clinical trial data suggest that the subgroup of PD patients with frequent falls may be suitable candidates for future cholinergic augmentation clinical trials. Recent controlled clinical trials using methylphenidate have been unable to confirm earlier reports of improved gait in PD. Although progressive deterioration of axial motor symptoms occur with DBS of the STN or GPi, new preliminary research suggests that other surgical stimulation sites, such as the PPN, may have a potential benefit on gait and balance impairments in PD. Ongoing vigorous exercise and physical fitness should be highly encouraged to patients with PD who are at risk of physical deconditioning and fear of falling but effective anti-fall physical therapy interventions remain an unmet clinical need. PMID:24348751

  15. Ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate: could it be a new therapeutic option for sarcopenia?

    PubMed

    Walrand, S

    2010-08-01

    Our current knowledge on the causes of sarcopenia is still fragmentary. One of the most evident candidates to explain muscle loss in elderly includes imbalance in protein turnover, i.e. decreased muscle protein synthesis rate, notably in the post-prandial state. Nutritional strategies such as leucine supplementation, use of fast digested proteins or a pulse protein intake have been show to enhance the synthesis rate of muscle proteins in older individuals. Ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate (OKG) is a precursor of amino acids such as glutamine, arginine and proline, and increases the secretion of anabolic hormones, i.e. insulin and growth hormone. A beneficial anabolic action of OKG has been demonstrate in several pathological conditions associated with muscle loss. Therefore, OKG may be of a potential interest to modulate muscle protein metabolism and to maintain muscle mass during aging. PMID:20818473

  16. Mast cell activation disease: a concise practical guide for diagnostic workup and therapeutic options

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Mast cell activation disease comprises disorders characterized by accumulation of genetically altered mast cells and/or abnormal release of these cells' mediators, affecting functions in potentially every organ system, often without causing abnormalities in routine laboratory or radiologic testing. In most cases of mast cell activation disease, diagnosis is possible by relatively non-invasive investigation. Effective therapy often consists simply of antihistamines and mast cell membrane-stabilising compounds supplemented with medications targeted at specific symptoms and complications. Mast cell activation disease is now appreciated to likely be considerably prevalent and thus should be considered routinely in the differential diagnosis of patients with chronic multisystem polymorbidity or patients in whom a definitively diagnosed major illness does not well account for the entirety of the patient's presentation. PMID:21418662

  17. Treatment and secondary prevention of venous thromboembolism in cancer patients. Current strategies and new therapeutic options.

    PubMed

    Ay, C; Pabinger, I

    2012-01-01

    Cancer is a major and independent risk factor of venous thromboembolism (VTE). In clinical practice, a high number of VTE events occurs in patients with cancer, and treatment of cancer-associated VTE differs in several aspects from treatment of VTE in the general population. However, treatment in cancer patients remains a major challenge, as the risk of recurrence of VTE as well as the risk of major bleeding during anticoagulation is substantially higher in patients with cancer than in those without cancer. In several clinical trials, different anticoagulants and regimens have been investigated for treatment of acute VTE and secondary prophylaxis in cancer patients to prevent recurrence. Based on the results of these trials, anticoagulant therapy with low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWH) has become the treatment of choice in cancer patients with acute VTE in the initial period and for extended and long-term anticoagulation for 3-6 months. New oral anticoagulants directly inhibiting thrombin or factor Xa, have been developed in the past decade and studied in large phase III clinical trials. Results from currently completed trials are promising and indicate their potential use for treatment of VTE also in cancer patients. However, the role of the new oral thrombin and factor Xa inhibitors for VTE treatment in cancer patients still has to be clarified in further studies specifically focusing on cancer-associated VTE. This brief review will summarize the current strategies of initial and long-term VTE treatment in patients with cancer and discuss the potential use of the new oral anticoagulants. PMID:21822525

  18. Autophagy modulation as a potential therapeutic target for diverse diseases

    PubMed Central

    Rubinsztein, David C.; Codogno, Patrice; Levine, Beth

    2012-01-01

    Autophagy is an essential, conserved lysosomal degradation pathway that controls the quality of the cytoplasm by eliminating protein aggregates and damaged organelles. It begins when double-membraned autophagosomes engulf portions of the cytoplasm, which is followed by fusion of these vesicles with lysosomes and degradation of the autophagic contents. In addition to its vital homeostatic role, this degradation pathway is involved in various human disorders, including metabolic conditions, neurodegenerative diseases, cancers and infectious diseases. This article provides an overview of the mechanisms and regulation of autophagy, the role of this pathway in disease and strategies for therapeutic modulation. PMID:22935804

  19. Glucose regulated proteins in cancer: molecular mechanisms and therapeutic potential

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Amy S.

    2014-01-01

    Preface The glucose regulated proteins (GRPs) are stress inducible chaperones majorly residing in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the mitochondria. Recent advances reveal that the GRPs serve distinct functions from the related heat shock proteins (HSPs), and they can be actively translocated to other cellular locations and assume novel functions controlling signaling, proliferation, invasion, apoptosis, inflammation and immunity. Mouse models further identified their specific roles in development, tumorigenesis, metastasis and angiogenesis. This Review describes their discovery, regulation and their biological functions in cancer. Promising agents using or targeting the GRPs are being developed, and their efficacy as anti-cancer therapeutics is also discussed. PMID:24658275

  20. Nilotinib: a novel encouraging therapeutic option for chronic myeloid leukemia patients with imatinib resistance or intolerance.

    PubMed

    Martinelli, Giovanni; Iacobucci, Ilaria; Soverini, Simona; Palandri, Francesca; Castagnetti, Fausto; Rosti, Gianantonio; Baccarani, Michele

    2007-06-01

    Although high rates of complete hematologic and cytogenetic remission have been observed in patients with chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) treated with imatinib, a short duration of response with eventual emergence of imatinib resistance has also been reported in a subset of CML patients. The most frequent clinically relevant mechanisms that change imatinib sensitivity in BCR-ABL-transformed cells are mutations within the Abl kinase domain, affecting several of its properties. Crystal structure analysis of the Abl-imatinib complex has proven helpful in identifying potential critical residues that hinder interactions of imatinib with mutated Abl. This has led to the development of a second generation of targeted therapies such as nilotinib and dasatinib, already in phase II clinical trials or SKI-606 and MK-0457 in phase I trials. In this review, we discuss the activity of nilotinib, developed by Novartis using a rational drug design strategy in which imatinib served as the lead compound. Preliminary studies demonstrated that nilotinib has more efficacy than imatinib in inhibiting proliferation of BCR-ABL-dependent cells, a relatively safety profile and clinical efficacy in all phases of CML. PMID:19707322

  1. The role of human papillomavirus in common skin conditions: current viewpoints and therapeutic options.

    PubMed

    Lebwohl, Mark G; Rosen, Ted; Stockfleth, Eggert

    2010-11-01

    A direct causal relationship between human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cervical neoplasia is well-accepted, but the specific role of HPV in the pathogenesis of other cutaneous disorders is less clear. This article explores the role of HPV in 2 common disorders associated with considerable morbidity: external genital and perianal warts (EGWs) and actinic keratosis (AK). Because the potential role of HPV in the pathogenesis of EGW and AK may have implications that influence management, the available topical pharmacotherapy for each disorder also is reviewed. External genital and perianal warts represent a possible phenotypic expression of HPV infection and results from hyperkeratosis and hyperplasia of keratinocytes. The cell cycle disruption caused by low-risk anogenital HPV subtypes (eg, HPV-6, HPV-11) is similar to high-risk HPV subtypes, except low-risk HPV E6 and E7 proteins likely bind regulatory proteins with less affinity. Although UV light clearly has a primary causal role in the development of AK, new data suggest that HPV infection, particularly with 3-HPV subtypes, may serve as a cocarcinogen. By impairing normal DNA repair and apoptotic mechanisms, HPV may set the stage for later UV-induced transformation. It also has been suggested that HPV may increase the severity of AK lesions and contribute to their recurrence following therapy. PMID:21214125

  2. Vitamin D Receptor Agonists: Suitable Candidates as Novel Therapeutic Options in Autoimmune Inflammatory Myopathy

    PubMed Central

    Crescioli, Clara

    2014-01-01

    The primary aim in the treatment of autoimmune inflammatory myopathies (IMs) is to recover muscle function. The presence of immune/inflammatory cell infiltrates within muscle tissues represents the common feature of different IM subtypes, albeit a correlation between muscular damage extent and inflammation degree is often lacking. Treatments for IMs are based on life-long immunosuppressive therapy, with the well known adverse effects; recovery is incomplete for many patients. More effective therapies, with reduced side-effects, are highly desirable. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) agonists emerge to retain pleiotropic anti-inflammatory properties, since they regulate innate and adaptive immunity by switching the immune response from proinflammatory T helper 1 (Th1) type to tolerogenic T helper 2 (Th2) type dominance. In skeletal muscle cells less hypercalcemic VDR ligands target powerful mediators of inflammation, such as TNFα and TNFα driven paths, without affecting immune or muscle cells viability, retaining the potentiality to counteract Th1 driven overreactivity established by the self-enhancing inflammatory loop between immune and skeletal muscle cells. This review summarizes those features of VDR agonists as candidates in future treatment of IM. PMID:24895631

  3. Recent Advances in NSAIDs-Induced Enteropathy Therapeutics: New Options, New Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Yun Jeong; Chun, Hoon Jai

    2013-01-01

    The injurious effects of NSAIDs on the small intestine were not fully appreciated until the widespread use of capsule endoscopy. It is estimated that over two-thirds of regular NSAID users develop injury in the small intestinal injuries and that these injuries are more common than gastroduodenal mucosal injuries. Recently, chronic low-dose aspirin consumption was found to be associated with injury to the lower gut and to be a significant contributing factor in small bowel ulceration, hemorrhage, and strictures. The ability of aspirin and NSAIDs to inhibit the activities of cyclooxygenase (COX) contributes to the cytotoxicity of these drugs in the gastrointestinal tract. However, many studies found that, in the small intestine, COX-independent mechanisms are the main contributors to NSAID cytotoxicity. Bile and Gram-negative bacteria are important factors in the pathogenesis of NSAID enteropathy. Here, we focus on a promising strategy to prevent NSAID-induced small intestine injury. Selective COX-2 inhibitors, prostaglandin derivatives, mucoprotective drugs, phosphatidylcholine-NSAIDs, and probiotics have potential protective effects on NSAID enteropathy. PMID:24159330

  4. Therapeutic options in relapsed or refractory peripheral T-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Coiffier, Bertrand; Federico, Massimo; Caballero, Dolores; Dearden, Claire; Morschhauser, Franck; Jäger, Ulrich; Trümper, Lorenz; Zucca, Emanuele; Gomes da Silva, Maria; Pettengell, Ruth; Weidmann, Eckhart; d'Amore, Francesco; Tilly, Hervé; Zinzani, Pier Luigi

    2014-10-01

    Peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) represents a relatively rare group of heterogeneous non-Hodgkin lymphomas with a very poor prognosis. Current therapies, based on historical regimens for aggressive B-cell lymphomas, have resulted in insufficient patient outcomes. The majority of patients relapse rapidly, and current 5-year overall survival rates are only 10-30%. It is evident that new approaches to treat patients with PTCL are required. In recent years, prospective studies in PTCL have been initiated, mainly in patients with relapsed/refractory disease. In some of these, selected histologic subtypes have been evaluated in detail. As a consequence, numerous new therapies have been developed and shown activity in PTCL, including: agents targeting the immune system (e.g. brentuximab vedotin, alemtuzumab, lenalidomide); histone deacetylase inhibitors (romidepsin, belinostat); antifolates (pralatrexate); fusion proteins (denileukin diftitox); nucleoside analogs (pentostatin, gemcitabine); and other agents (e.g. alisertib, plitidepsin, bendamustine, bortezomib). A variety of interesting novel combinations is also emerging. It is hoped that these innovative approaches, coupled with a greater understanding of the clinicopathologic features, pathogenesis, molecular biology, and natural history of PTCL will advance the field and improve outcomes in this challenging group of diseases. This review summarizes the currently available clinical evidence on the various approaches to treating relapsed/refractory PTCL, including the role of stem cell transplantation, with an emphasis on potential new drug therapies. PMID:25199959

  5. Vitamin D receptor agonists: suitable candidates as novel therapeutic options in autoimmune inflammatory myopathy.

    PubMed

    Crescioli, Clara

    2014-01-01

    The primary aim in the treatment of autoimmune inflammatory myopathies (IMs) is to recover muscle function. The presence of immune/inflammatory cell infiltrates within muscle tissues represents the common feature of different IM subtypes, albeit a correlation between muscular damage extent and inflammation degree is often lacking. Treatments for IMs are based on life-long immunosuppressive therapy, with the well known adverse effects; recovery is incomplete for many patients. More effective therapies, with reduced side-effects, are highly desirable. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) agonists emerge to retain pleiotropic anti-inflammatory properties, since they regulate innate and adaptive immunity by switching the immune response from proinflammatory T helper 1 (Th1) type to tolerogenic T helper 2 (Th2) type dominance. In skeletal muscle cells less hypercalcemic VDR ligands target powerful mediators of inflammation, such as TNF α and TNF α driven paths, without affecting immune or muscle cells viability, retaining the potentiality to counteract Th1 driven overreactivity established by the self-enhancing inflammatory loop between immune and skeletal muscle cells. This review summarizes those features of VDR agonists as candidates in future treatment of IM. PMID:24895631

  6. Potential therapeutic targets in ARID1A-mutated cancers.

    PubMed

    Bitler, Benjamin G; Fatkhutdinov, Nail; Zhang, Rugang

    2015-01-01

    ARID1A is a subunit of the Switch/Sucrose Non-Fermentable (SWI/SNF) chromatin-remodeling complex that regulates gene expression by controlling gene accessibility. ARID1A shows one of the highest mutation rates across different human cancer types. For example, ARID1A is mutated in ∼ 50% of ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC). There is considerable interest in developing cancer therapeutics that correlate with ARID1A mutational status. A recent study demonstrated a synthetic lethality by targeting EZH2 histone methyltransferase activity in ARID1A-mutated OCCC using a clinically applicable small-molecule inhibitor. The observed synthetic lethality correlated with inhibition of PI3K/AKT signaling. In addition, there is evidence indicating that ARID1A-mutated cancer may also be subjected to therapeutic intervention by targeting residual SWI/SNF activity, the PI3K/AKT pathway, the DNA damage response, the tumor immunological microenvironment and stabilizing wild-type p53. In summary, we propose EZH2 inhibitor-based combinatorial strategies for targeting ARID1A-mutated cancers. PMID:26125128

  7. Impaired oligodendrocyte maturation in preterm infants: Potential therapeutic targets.

    PubMed

    van Tilborg, Erik; Heijnen, Cobi J; Benders, Manon J; van Bel, Frank; Fleiss, Bobbi; Gressens, Pierre; Nijboer, Cora H

    2016-01-01

    Preterm birth is an evolving challenge in neonatal health care. Despite declining mortality rates among extremely premature neonates, morbidity rates remain very high. Currently, perinatal diffuse white matter injury (WMI) is the most commonly observed type of brain injury in preterm infants and has become an important research area. Diffuse WMI is associated with impaired cognitive, sensory and psychological functioning and is increasingly being recognized as a risk factor for autism-spectrum disorders, ADHD, and other psychological disturbances. No treatment options are currently available for diffuse WMI and the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are far from being completely understood. Preterm birth is associated with maternal inflammation, perinatal infections and disrupted oxygen supply which can affect the cerebral microenvironment by causing activation of microglia, astrogliosis, excitotoxicity, and oxidative stress. This intricate interplay of events negatively influences oligodendrocyte development, causing arrested oligodendrocyte maturation or oligodendrocyte cell death, which ultimately results in myelination failure in the developing white matter. This review discusses the current state in perinatal WMI research, ranging from a clinical perspective to basic molecular pathophysiology. The complex regulation of oligodendrocyte development in healthy and pathological conditions is described, with a specific focus on signaling cascades that may play a role in WMI. Furthermore, emerging concepts in the field of WMI and issues regarding currently available animal models are put forward. Novel insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying impeded oligodendrocyte maturation in diffuse WMI may aid the development of novel treatment options which are desperately needed to improve the quality-of-life of preterm neonates. PMID:26655283

  8. Mucosal permeability and immune activation as potential therapeutic targets of probiotics in irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Barbara, Giovanni; Zecchi, Lisa; Barbaro, Raffaella; Cremon, Cesare; Bellacosa, Lara; Marcellini, Marco; De Giorgio, Roberto; Corinaldesi, Roberto; Stanghellini, Vincenzo

    2012-10-01

    There is increasingly convincing evidence supporting the participation of the gut microenvironment in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Studies particularly suggest an interplay between luminal factors (eg, foods and bacteria residing in the intestine), the epithelial barrier, and the mucosal immune system. Decreased expression and structural rearrangement of tight junction proteins in the small bowel and colon leading to increased intestinal permeability have been observed, particularly in postinfectious IBS and in IBS with diarrhea. These abnormalities are thought to contribute to the outflow of antigens through the leaky epithelium, causing overstimulation of the mucosal immune system. Accordingly, subsets of patients with IBS show higher numbers and an increased activation of mucosal immunocytes, particularly mast cells. Immune factors, released by these cells, including proteases, histamine, and prostanoids, participate in the perpetuation of the permeability dysfunction and contribute to the activation of abnormal neural responses involved in abdominal pain perception and changes in bowel habits. All these mechanisms represent new targets for therapeutic approaches in IBS. Probiotics are an attractive therapeutic option in IBS given their recognized safety and by virtue of positive biological effects they can exert on the host. Of importance for the IBS pathophysiology is that preclinical studies have shown that selective probiotic strains exhibit potentially useful properties including anti-inflammatory effects, improvement of mucosal barrier homeostasis, beneficial effects on intestinal microbiota, and a reduction of visceral hypersensitivity. The effect of probiotics on IBS is positive in most randomized, controlled studies, although the gain over the placebo is small. Identifying tailored probiotic approaches for subgroups of IBS patients represents a challenge for the future. PMID:22955358

  9. [Mitochondrial dynamics: a potential new therapeutic target for heart failure].

    PubMed

    Kuzmicic, Jovan; Del Campo, Andrea; López-Crisosto, Camila; Morales, Pablo E; Pennanen, Christian; Bravo-Sagua, Roberto; Hechenleitner, Jonathan; Zepeda, Ramiro; Castro, Pablo F; Verdejo, Hugo E; Parra, Valentina; Chiong, Mario; Lavandero, Sergio

    2011-10-01

    Mitochondria are dynamic organelles able to vary their morphology between elongated interconnected mitochondrial networks and fragmented disconnected arrays, through events of mitochondrial fusion and fission, respectively. These events allow the transmission of signaling messengers and exchange of metabolites within the cell. They have also been implicated in a variety of biological processes including embryonic development, metabolism, apoptosis, and autophagy. Although the majority of these studies have been confined to noncardiac cells, emerging evidence suggests that changes in mitochondrial morphology could participate in cardiac development, the response to ischemia-reperfusion injury, heart failure, and diabetes mellitus. In this article, we review how the mitochondrial dynamics are altered in different cardiac pathologies, with special emphasis on heart failure, and how this knowledge may provide new therapeutic targets for treating cardiovascular diseases. PMID:21820793

  10. FOXP1: a potential therapeutic target in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Koon, Henry B; Ippolito, Gregory C; Banham, Alison H; Tucker, Philip W

    2014-01-01

    Forkhead Box P1 (FOXP1) is a member of the FOX family of transcription factors which have a broad range of functions. Foxp1 is widely expressed and has been shown to have a role in cardiac, lung and lymphocyte development. FOXP1 is targeted by recurrent chromosome translocations and its overexpression confers a poor prognosis in a number of types of lymphomas, suggesting it may function as an oncogene. In contrast, FOXP1 localises to a tumour suppressor locus at 3p14.1 and loss of FOXP1 expression in breast cancer is associated with a worse outcome, suggesting FOXP1 may function as a tumour suppressor in other tissue types. These data suggest that FOXP1 may not only be useful in prognosis but also may be used to develop FOXP1-directed therapeutic strategies. PMID:17614763

  11. Manipulating the apoptotic pathway: potential therapeutics for cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Darcy J P; Lewis, Lionel D

    2013-01-01

    This review summarizes the current state of scientific understanding of the apoptosis pathway, with a focus on the proteins involved in the pathway, their interactions and functions. This forms the rationale for detailing the preclinical and clinical pharmacology of drugs that modulate the pivotal proteins in this pathway, with emphasis on drugs that are furthest advanced in clinical development as anticancer agents. There is a focus on describing drugs that modulate three of the most promising targets in the apoptosis pathway, namely antibodies that bind and activate the death receptors, small molecules that inhibit the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins, and small molecules and antisense oligonucleotides that inactivate the inhibitors of apoptosis, all of which drive the equilibrium of the apoptotic pathway towards apoptosis. These structurally different yet functionally related groups of drugs represent a promising novel approach to anticancer therapeutics whether used as monotherapy or in combination with either classical cytotoxic or other molecularly targeted anticancer agents. PMID:23782006

  12. Molecular and Therapeutic Potential and Toxicity of Valproic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Chateauvieux, Sébastien; Morceau, Franck; Dicato, Mario; Diederich, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Valproic acid (VPA), a branched short-chain fatty acid, is widely used as an antiepileptic drug and a mood stabilizer. Antiepileptic properties have been attributed to inhibition of Gamma Amino Butyrate (GABA) transaminobutyrate and of ion channels. VPA was recently classified among the Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors, acting directly at the level of gene transcription by inhibiting histone deacetylation and making transcription sites more accessible. VPA is a widely used drug, particularly for children suffering from epilepsy. Due to the increasing number of clinical trials involving VPA, and interesting results obtained, this molecule will be implicated in an increasing number of therapies. However side effects of VPA are substantially described in the literature whereas they are poorly discussed in articles focusing on its therapeutic use. This paper aims to give an overview of the different clinical-trials involving VPA and its side effects encountered during treatment as well as its molecular properties. PMID:20798865

  13. Asthma microbiome studies and the potential for new therapeutic strategies.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yvonne J

    2013-10-01

    Recent applications of culture-independent tools for microbiome profiling have revealed significant relationships between asthma and microbiota associated with the environment, gut, or airways. Studies of the airway microbiome in particular represent a new frontier in pulmonary research. Although these studies are relatively new, current evidence suggests the possibility of new therapeutic strategies for the treatment or prevention of asthma. In this article, recent literature on microbiota and asthma are critically reviewed, with a particular focus on studies of the airway microbiome. Perspectives are presented on how growing knowledge of relationships between the microbiome and asthma is likely to translate into improved understanding of asthma pathogenesis, its heterogeneity, and opportunities for novel treatment approaches. PMID:23709178

  14. Yoga school of thought and psychiatry: Therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Rao, Naren P; Varambally, Shivarama; Gangadhar, Bangalore N

    2013-01-01

    Yoga is a traditional life-style practice used for spiritual reasons. However, the physical components like the asanas and pranayaamas have demonstrated physiological and therapeutic effects. There is evidence for Yoga as being a potent antidepressant that matches with drugs. In depressive disorder, yoga 'corrects' an underlying cognitive physiology. In schizophrenia patients, yoga has benefits as an add-on intervention in pharmacologically stabilized subjects. The effects are particularly notable on negative symptoms. Yoga also helps to correct social cognition. Yoga can be introduced early in the treatment of psychosis with some benefits. Elevation of oxytocin may be a mechanism of yoga effects in schizophrenia. Certain components of yoga have demonstrated neurobiological effects similar to those of vagal stimulation, indicating this (indirect or autogenous vagal stimulation) as a possible mechanism of its action. It is time, psychiatrists exploited the benefits if yoga for a comprehensive care in their patients. PMID:23858245

  15. Biological Relevance and Therapeutic Potential of the Hypusine Modification System.

    PubMed

    Pällmann, Nora; Braig, Melanie; Sievert, Henning; Preukschas, Michael; Hermans-Borgmeyer, Irm; Schweizer, Michaela; Nagel, Claus Henning; Neumann, Melanie; Wild, Peter; Haralambieva, Eugenia; Hagel, Christian; Bokemeyer, Carsten; Hauber, Joachim; Balabanov, Stefan

    2015-07-24

    Hypusine modification of the eukaryotic initiation factor 5A (eIF-5A) is emerging as a crucial regulator in cancer, infections, and inflammation. Although its contribution in translational regulation of proline repeat-rich proteins has been sufficiently demonstrated, its biological role in higher eukaryotes remains poorly understood. To establish the hypusine modification system as a novel platform for therapeutic strategies, we aimed to investigate its functional relevance in mammals by generating and using a range of new knock-out mouse models for the hypusine-modifying enzymes deoxyhypusine synthase and deoxyhypusine hydroxylase as well as for the cancer-related isoform eIF-5A2. We discovered that homozygous depletion of deoxyhypusine synthase and/or deoxyhypusine hydroxylase causes lethality in adult mice with different penetrance compared with haploinsufficiency. Network-based bioinformatic analysis of proline repeat-rich proteins, which are putative eIF-5A targets, revealed that these proteins are organized in highly connected protein-protein interaction networks. Hypusine-dependent translational control of essential proteins (hubs) and protein complexes inside these networks might explain the lethal phenotype observed after deletion of hypusine-modifying enzymes. Remarkably, our results also demonstrate that the cancer-associated isoform eIF-5A2 is dispensable for normal development and viability. Together, our results provide the first genetic evidence that the hypusine modification in eIF-5A is crucial for homeostasis in mammals. Moreover, these findings highlight functional diversity of the hypusine system compared with lower eukaryotes and indicate eIF-5A2 as a valuable and safe target for therapeutic intervention in cancer. PMID:26037925

  16. Chemokines in Wound Healing and as Potential Therapeutic Targets for Reducing Cutaneous Scarring

    PubMed Central

    Rees, Peter Adam; Greaves, Nicholas Stuart; Baguneid, Mohamed; Bayat, Ardeshir

    2015-01-01

    Significance: Cutaneous scarring is an almost inevitable end point of adult human wound healing. It is associated with significant morbidity, both physical and psychological. Pathological scarring, including hypertrophic and keloid scars, can be particularly debilitating. Manipulation of the chemokine system may lead to effective therapies for problematic lesions. Recent Advances: Rapid advancement in the understanding of chemokines and their receptors has led to exciting developments in the world of therapeutics. Modulation of their function has led to clinically effective treatments for conditions as diverse as human immunodeficiency virus and inflammatory bowel disease. Potential methods of targeting chemokines include monoclonal antibodies, small-molecule antagonists, interference with glycosaminoglycan binding and the use of synthetic truncated chemokines. Early work has shown promising results on scar development and appearance when the chemokine system is manipulated. Critical Issues: Chemokines are implicated in all stages of wound healing leading to the development of a cutaneous scar. An understanding of entirely regenerative wound healing in the developing fetus and how the expression of chemokines and their receptors change during the transition to the adult phenotype is central to addressing pathological scarring in adults. Future Directions: As our understanding of chemokine/receptor interactions and scar formation evolves it has become apparent that effective therapies will need to mirror the complexities in these diverse biological processes. It is likely that sophisticated treatments that sequentially influence multiple ligand/receptor interactions throughout all stages of wound healing will be required to deliver viable treatment options. PMID:26543682

  17. Function, therapeutic potential and cell biology of BACE proteases: current status and future prospects

    PubMed Central

    Vassar, Robert; Kuhn, Peer-Hendrik; Haass, Christian; Kennedy, Matthew E.; Rajendran, Lawrence; Wong, Philip C.; Lichtenthaler, Stefan F.

    2014-01-01

    The β-site APP cleaving enzymes 1 and 2 (BACE1 and BACE2) were initially identified as transmembrane aspartyl proteases cleaving the amyloid precursor protein (APP). BACE1 is a major drug target for Alzheimer’s disease because BACE1-mediated cleavage of APP is the first step in the generation of the pathogenic amyloid-β peptides. BACE1, which is highly expressed in the nervous system, is also required for myelination by cleaving neuregulin 1. Several recent proteomic and in vivo studies usingBACE1-andBACE2-deficient mice demonstrate a much wider range of physiological substrates and functions for both proteases within and outside of the nervous system. For BACE1 this includes axon guidance, neurogenesis, muscle spindle formation, and neuronal network functions, whereas BACE2 was shown to be involved in pigmentation and pancreatic β-cell function. This review highlights the recent progress in understanding cell biology, substrates, and functions of BACE proteases and discusses the therapeutic options and potential mechanism-based liabilities, in particular for BACE inhibitors in Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:24646365

  18. Pegylated arginase I: a potential therapeutic approach in T-ALL

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Claudia P.; Morrow, Kevin; Lopez-Barcons, Lluis A.; Zabaleta, Jovanny; Sierra, Rosa; Velasco, Cruz; Cole, John

    2010-01-01

    Adult patients with acute lymphoblastic T cell leukemia (T-ALL) have a very poor prognosis and few effective therapeutic options. Therefore, novel therapies that increase the efficacy of the treatments and that prolong T-ALL patient survival are needed. Malignant T cells require high concentrations of nutrients to sustain their increased rate of proliferation. In this study, we determined whether L-Arginine depletion by the pegylated form of the L-Arginine-metabolizing enzyme arginase I (peg-Arg I) impairs the proliferation of malignant T cells. Our results show that peg-Arg I depleted L-Arginine levels in vitro and in vivo. In addition, treatment of malignant T-cell lines with peg-Arg I significantly impaired their proliferation, which correlated with a decreased progression into the cell cycle, followed by the induction of apoptosis. Furthermore, peg-Arg I impaired the expression of cyclin D3, a fundamental protein in T-ALL proliferation, through a global arrest in protein synthesis. Injection of peg-Arg I plus chemotherapy agent Cytarabine prolonged survival in mice bearing T-ALL tumors. This antitumoral effect correlated with an inhibition of T-ALL proliferation in vivo, a decreased expression of cyclin D3, and T-ALL apoptosis. The results suggest the potential benefit of L-Arginine depletion by peg-Arg I in the treatment of T-cell malignancies. PMID:20407034

  19. Identification of anaplastic lymphoma kinase as a potential therapeutic target in Basal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Claire Q.F.; Surez-Farias, Mayte; Gonzalez, Juana; Shah, Kejal R.; Chen, Jie; Coats, Israel; Felsen, Diane; Carucci, John A.; Krueger, James G.

    2013-01-01

    The pathogenesis of BCC is associated with sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling. Vismodegib, a smoothened inhibitor that targets this pathway, is now in clinical use for advanced BCC patients, but its efficacy is limited. Therefore, new therapeutic options for this cancer are required. We studied gene expression profiling of BCC tumour tissues coupled with laser capture microdissection to identify tumour specific receptor tyrosine kinase expression that can be targeted by small molecule inhibitors. We found a >250 fold increase (FDR<10?4) of the oncogene, anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) as well as its ligands, pleiotrophin and midkine in BCC compared to microdissected normal epidermis. qRT-PCR confirmed increased expression of ALK (p<0.05). Stronger expression of phosphorylated ALK in BCC tumour nests than normal skin was observed by immunohistochemistry. Crizotinib, an FDA-approved ALK inhibitor, reduced keratinocyte proliferation in culture, whereas a c-Met inhibitor did not. Crizotinib significantly reduced the expression of GLI1 and CCND2 (members of SHH-pathway) mRNA by approximately 60% and 20%, respectively (p<0.01). Our data suggest that ALK may increase GLI1 expression in parallel with the conventional SHH-pathway and promote keratinocyte proliferation. Hence, an ALK inhibitor alone or in combination with targeting SHH-pathway molecules may be a potential treatment for BCC patients. PMID:24163262

  20. Identification of anaplastic lymphoma kinase as a potential therapeutic target in Basal Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ning, Hanna; Mitsui, Hiroshi; Wang, Claire Q F; Surez-Farias, Mayte; Gonzalez, Juana; Shah, Kejal R; Chen, Jie; Coats, Israel; Felsen, Diane; Carucci, John A; Krueger, James G

    2013-12-01

    The pathogenesis of BCC is associated with sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling. Vismodegib, a smoothened inhibitor that targets this pathway, is now in clinical use for advanced BCC patients, but its efficacy is limited. Therefore, new therapeutic options for this cancer are required. We studied gene expression profiling of BCC tumour tissues coupled with laser capture microdissection to identify tumour specific receptor tyrosine kinase expression that can be targeted by small molecule inhibitors. We found a >250 fold increase (FDR<10-4) of the oncogene, anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) as well as its ligands, pleiotrophin and midkine in BCC compared to microdissected normal epidermis. qRT-PCR confirmed increased expression of ALK (p<0.05). Stronger expression of phosphorylated ALK in BCC tumour nests than normal skin was observed by immunohistochemistry. Crizotinib, an FDA-approved ALK inhibitor, reduced keratinocyte proliferation in culture, whereas a c-Met inhibitor did not. Crizotinib significantly reduced the expression of GLI1 and CCND2 (members of SHH-pathway) mRNA by approximately 60% and 20%, respectively (p<0.01). Our data suggest that ALK may increase GLI1 expression in parallel with the conventional SHH-pathway and promote keratinocyte proliferation. Hence, an ALK inhibitor alone or in combination with targeting SHH-pathway molecules may be a potential treatment for BCC patients. PMID:24163262

  1. Gaining Options: A Mathematics Program for Potentially Talented At-Risk Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Pamela Trotman; Roberts, Sally K.

    2006-01-01

    In response to indicators that a decline in interest in mathematics occurs among girls--particularly those from low-income and minority groups--during middle school, the GO-GIRL (Gaining Options: Girls Investigate Real Life) program was designed to help potentially talented at-risk girls. The program aimed to build mathematical confidence, skills,…

  2. COGNITION AS A THERAPEUTIC TARGET IN LATE-LIFE DEPRESSION: POTENTIAL FOR NICOTINIC THERAPEUTICS

    PubMed Central

    Zurkovsky, Lilia; Taylor, Warren D.; Newhouse, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Depression is associated with impairments to cognition and brain function at any age, but such impairments in the elderly are particularly problematic because of the additional burden of normal cognitive aging and in some cases, structural brain pathology. Individuals with late-life depression exhibit impairments in cognition and brain structural integrity, alongside mood dysfunction. Antidepressant treatment improves symptoms in some but not all patients, and those who benefit may not return to the cognitive and functional level of nondepressed elderly. Thus, for comprehensive treatment of late-life depression, it may be necessary to address both the affective and cognitive deficits. In this review, we propose a model for the treatment of late-life depression in which nicotinic stimulation is used to improve cognitive performance and improve the efficacy of an antidepressant treatment of the syndrome of late-life depression. The cholinergic system is well-established as important to cognition. Although muscarinic stimulation may exacerbate depressive symptoms, nicotinic stimulation may improve cognition and neural functioning without a detriment to mood. While some studies of nicotinic subtype specific receptor agonists have shown promise in improving cognitive performance, less is known regarding how nicotinic receptor stimulation affects cognition in depressed elderly patients. Late-life depression thus represents a new therapeutic target for the development of nicotinic agonist drugs and parallel treatment of cognitive dysfunction along with medical and psychological approaches to treating mood dysfunction may be necessary to ensure full resolution of depressive illness in aging. PMID:23933385

  3. Evaluation of Current Pharmacological Treatment Options in the Management of Rett Syndrome: From the Present to Future Therapeutic Alternatives

    PubMed Central

    Chapleau, Christopher A.; Lane, Jane; Pozzo-Miller, Lucas; Percy, Alan K.

    2012-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental disorders are a large family of conditions of genetic or environmental origin that are characterized by deficiencies in cognitive and behavioral functions. The therapeutic management of individuals with these disorders is typically complex and is limited to the treatment of specific symptoms that characterize each disorder. The neurodevelopmental disorder Rett syndrome (RTT) is the leading cause of severe intellectual disability in females. Mutations in the gene encoding the transcriptional regulator methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2), located on the X chromosome, have been confirmed in more than 95% of individuals meeting diagnostic criteria for classical RTT. RTT is characterized by an uneventful early infancy followed by stagnation and regression of growth, motor, language, and social skills later in development. This review will discuss the genetics, pathology, and symptoms that distinguish RTT from other neurodevelopmental disorders associated with intellectual disability. Because great progress has been made in the basic and clinical science of RTT, the goal of this review is to provide a thorough assessment of current pharmacotherapeutic options to treat the symptoms associated with this disorder. Furthermore, we will highlight recent discoveries made with novel pharmacological interventions in experimental preclinical phases, and which have reversed pathological phenotypes in mouse and cell culture models of RTT and may result in clinical trials. PMID:24050745

  4. Adult mesenchymal stem cells: differentiation potential and therapeutic applications.

    PubMed

    Jackson, L; Jones, D R; Scotting, P; Sottile, V

    2007-01-01

    Adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a population of multipotent cells found primarily in the bone marrow. They have long been known to be capable of osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic differentiation and are currently the subject of a number of trials to assess their potential use in the clinic. Recently, the plasticity of these cells has come under close scrutiny as it has been suggested that they may have a differentiation potential beyond the mesenchymal lineage. Myogenic and in particular cardiomyogenic potential has been shown in vitro. MSCs have also been shown to have the ability to form neural cells both in vitro and in vivo, although the molecular mechanisms underlying these apparent transdifferentiation events are yet to be elucidated. We describe here the cellular characteristics and differentiation potential of MSCs, which represent a promising stem cell population for future applications in regenerative medicine. PMID:17495381

  5. CD74 expression and its therapeutic potential in thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shih-Ping; Liu, Chien-Liang; Chen, Ming-Jen; Chien, Ming-Nan; Leung, Ching-Hsiang; Lin, Chi-Hsin; Hsu, Yi-Chiung; Lee, Jie-Jen

    2015-04-01

    CD74, the invariant chain of major histocompatibility complex class II, is also a receptor for macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF). CD74 and MIF have been associated with tumor progression and metastasis in hematologic and solid tumors. In this study, we found that 60 and 65% of papillary thyroid cancers were positive for CD74 and MIF immunohistochemical staining respectively. Anaplastic thyroid cancer was negative for MIF, but mostly positive for CD74 expression. Normal thyroid tissue and follicular adenomas were negative for CD74 expression. CD74 expression in papillary thyroid cancer was associated with larger tumor size (P=0.043), extrathyroidal invasion (P=0.021), advanced TNM stage (P=0.006), and higher MACIS score (P=0.026). No clinicopathological parameter was associated with MIF expression. Treatment with anti-CD74 antibody in thyroid cancer cells inhibited cell growth, colony formation, cell migration and invasion, and vascular endothelial growth factor secretion. In contrast, treatment with recombinant MIF induced an increase in cell invasion. Anti-CD74 treatment reduced AKT phosphorylation and stimulated AMPK activation. Our findings suggest that CD74 overexpression in thyroid cancer is associated with advanced tumor stage and may serve as a therapeutic target. PMID:25600560

  6. MPHOSPH1: a potential therapeutic target for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinran; Zhou, Yafan; Liu, Xinyuan; Peng, Anlin; Gong, Hao; Huang, Lizi; Ji, Kaige; Petersen, Robert B; Zheng, Ling; Huang, Kun

    2014-11-15

    MPHOSPH1 is a critical kinesin protein that functions in cytokinesis. Here, we show that MPHOSPH1 is overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, where it is essential for proliferation. Attenuating MPHOSPH1 expression with a tumor-selective shRNA-expressing adenovirus (Ad-shMPP1) was sufficient to arrest HCC cell proliferation in a manner associated with an accumulation of multinucleated polyploid cells, induction of postmitotic apoptosis, and increased sensitivity to taxol cytotoxicity. Mechanistic investigations showed that attenuation of MPHOSPH1 stabilized p53, blocked STAT3 phosphorylation, and prolonged mitotic arrest. In a mouse subcutaneous xenograft model of HCC, tumoral injection of Ad-shMPP1 inhibited MPHOSPH1 expression and tumor growth in a manner correlated with induction of apoptosis. Combining Ad-shMPP1 injection with taxol administration enhanced antitumor efficacy relative to taxol alone. Furthermore, Ad-shMPP1 tail vein injection suppressed formation of orthotopic liver nodules and prevented hepatic dysfunction. Taken together, our results identify MPHOSPH1 as an oncogenic driver and candidate therapeutic target in HCC. PMID:25269478

  7. Therapeutic Potential of the Modulation of Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Receptors.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Antonio; Martínez-Cartro, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    It is accepted that sphingolipids (SL) are not only structural lipids in cellular membranes, but also key regulators of different cell process. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a member of this family involved, inter alia, in cell migration, angiogenesis and cell proliferation processes, being able to play different intracellular and extracellular roles. When S1P is transported out of the cell, it binds S1P specific G protein-coupled receptors, which are mainly involved in the regulation of the immune, vascular and nervous systems. These effects account for the vast diversity of functions that arise from the activation of S1P receptors. Deregulation of S1P levels is correlated with several pathologies, such as autoimmune disorders and cancer. Consequently, the correct modulation of these receptors represents a valuable approach for the development of new therapeutic strategies. Along this line, the non-selective S1P receptor agonist fingolimod (FTY720) has been commercialized recently for the treatment of multiple sclerosis and several related S1P receptor modulators are ongoing clinical trials. However, despite the progress in this field, the biological functions of S1P receptors are not still well elucidated. For this reason, several studies are being developed in order to better understand the functions of these receptors, making use of new selective S1P receptor agonists and antagonists as pharmacological tools. PMID:26639095

  8. Cardiovascular disorders in anorexia nervosa and potential therapeutic targets.

    PubMed

    Di Cola, Giovanni; Jacoangeli, Francesca; Jacoangeli, Fabrizio; Lombardo, Mauro; Iellamo, Ferdinando

    2014-10-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is an eating disorder in which a distorted self-perception of body image and an excessive fear of gaining weight result in extreme restrictions in eating habits. AN may be divided into two types: a "binge-eating/purging type" during which the individual regularly engages in overeating and then purging behavior, and a "restricting type", in which she does not. AN is a serious medical problem in young people in Western societies. It is widely reported that patients with AN exhibit an enhanced mortality rate as compared with age-matched healthy subjects, which has been mainly ascribed to cardiac complications. At least one-third of all deaths in patients with anorexia nervosa are estimated to be due to cardiac causes, mainly sudden death. Cardiovascular complications of AN can be present in up to 80% of cases, and among them alterations in cardiac electrical activity, structure and hemodynamics have been reported as causes of morbidity and mortality. The objective of this brief review is to summarize current knowledge on the main cardiovascular complications of AN, their underlying mechanisms and the possible therapeutic approaches. PMID:25056404

  9. Therapeutic Potential of Traditional Chinese Medicine on Inflammatory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Wen-Hsin; Yang, Chih-Ching; Li, Ping-Chia; Chen, Wang-Chuan; Chien, Chiang-Ting

    2013-01-01

    Increased oxidative stress induces inflammation to several tissues/organs leading to cell death and long-term injury. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and autophagic regulatory functions has been widely used as preventive or therapeutic strategy in modern medicine. Oxidative stress and inflammation have been widely reported to contribute to cigarette smoke-induced lung inflammation, hepatotoxicity, or sympathetic activation-induced liver inflammation, lipopolysaccharide-induced renal inflammation, and substance P-mediated neurogenic hyperactive bladder based on clinical findings. In this review, we introduce several evidences for TCM treatment including Monascus adlay (MA) produced by inoculating adlay (Cois lachrymal-jobi L. var. ma-yuen Stapf) with Monascus purpureus on lung injury, Amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn. of Euphorbiaceae family) on hepatotoxin-induced liver inflammation, Virgate Wormwood Decoction (Yīn Chén Hāo tāng) and its active component genipin on sympathetic activation–induced liver inflammation, and green tea extract and its active components, catechins, or a modified TCM formula Five Stranguries Powder (Wǔ Lén Sǎn) plus Crataegi Fructus (Shān Zhā) on hyperactive bladder. The pathophysiologic and molecular mechanisms of TCM on ameliorating inflammatory diseases are discussed in the review. PMID:24716170

  10. Natural products with therapeutic potential in melanoma metastasis.

    PubMed

    AlQathama, A; Prieto, J M

    2015-08-01

    Malignant melanoma is the most aggressive form of skin cancer and accounts for about 3% of all cases of malignant tumour. Its incidence is increasing worldwide and it is becoming resistant to current therapeutic agents. Natural products continue to provide lead cytotoxic compounds for cancer treatment but less attention has been given to antimigratory compounds. This paper systematically and critically surveys all natural products with direct in vitro and in vivo pharmacological effects on migration and/or metastasis of melanoma cells and maps the mechanisms of action for these underexploited properties. As a result, over 30 natural active principles are described acting mainly through their antagonistic effects upon the TNF-α and EP2 receptors or the suppression of several protein kinases involved in metastatic pathways such as RAS, PI3K, ERK and FAK. Also, some were able to reduce the level of mesenchymal biomarkers such as N-cadherin and/or elevate the expression of other molecules such as E-cadherin. Consequently, downstream transcription factors namely NF-kB, AP-1, ATF-2, CREB, and HIF were inactivated leading to diminished production of MMPs, IL-1, IL-6, COX-2, VEGF and GM-CSF. This review also discusses the opportunity of combination therapies based on natural products and approved drugs, such as the combination of EGCG and dacarbazine, or the combination of two natural compounds such as quercetin and sulforaphane. PMID:26018751

  11. Centipede venoms and their components: resources for potential therapeutic applications.

    PubMed

    Hakim, Md Abdul; Yang, Shilong; Lai, Ren

    2015-11-01

    Venomous animals have evolved with sophisticated bio-chemical strategies to arrest prey and defend themselves from natural predators. In recent years, peptide toxins from venomous animals have drawn considerable attention from researchers due to their surprising chemical, biochemical, and pharmacological diversity. Similar to other venomous animals, centipedes are one of the crucial venomous arthropods that have been used in traditional medicine for hundreds of years in China. Despite signifying pharmacological importance, very little is known about the active components of centipede venoms. More than 500 peptide sequences have been reported in centipede venomous glands by transcriptome analysis, but only a small number of peptide toxins from centipede has been functionally described. Like other venomous animals such as snakes, scorpions, and spiders, the venom of centipedes could be an excellent source of peptides for developing drugs for treatments as well as bio-insecticides for agrochemical applications. Although centipede venoms are yet to be adequately studied, the venom of centipedes as well as their components described to date, should be compiled to help further research. Therefore, based on previous reports, this review focusses on findings and possible therapeutic applications of centipede venoms as well as their components. PMID:26593947

  12. Centipede Venoms and Their Components: Resources for Potential Therapeutic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Hakim, Md Abdul; Yang, Shilong; Lai, Ren

    2015-01-01

    Venomous animals have evolved with sophisticated bio-chemical strategies to arrest prey and defend themselves from natural predators. In recent years, peptide toxins from venomous animals have drawn considerable attention from researchers due to their surprising chemical, biochemical, and pharmacological diversity. Similar to other venomous animals, centipedes are one of the crucial venomous arthropods that have been used in traditional medicine for hundreds of years in China. Despite signifying pharmacological importance, very little is known about the active components of centipede venoms. More than 500 peptide sequences have been reported in centipede venomous glands by transcriptome analysis, but only a small number of peptide toxins from centipede has been functionally described. Like other venomous animals such as snakes, scorpions, and spiders, the venom of centipedes could be an excellent source of peptides for developing drugs for treatments as well as bio-insecticides for agrochemical applications. Although centipede venoms are yet to be adequately studied, the venom of centipedes as well as their components described to date, should be compiled to help further research. Therefore, based on previous reports, this review focusses on findings and possible therapeutic applications of centipede venoms as well as their components. PMID:26593947

  13. Purinergic receptors as potential therapeutic targets in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Woods, Lucas T; Ajit, Deepa; Camden, Jean M; Erb, Laurie; Weisman, Gary A

    2016-05-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a progressive loss of memory and cognitive ability and is a serious cause of mortality. Many of the pathological characteristics associated with AD are revealed post-mortem, including amyloid-β plaque deposition, neurofibrillary tangles containing hyperphosphorylated tau proteins and neuronal loss in the hippocampus and cortex. Although several genetic mutations and risk factors have been associated with the disease, the causes remain poorly understood. Study of disease-initiating mechanisms and AD progression in humans is inherently difficult as most available tissue specimens are from late-stages of disease. Therefore, AD researchers rely on in vitro studies and the use of AD animal models where neuroinflammation has been shown to be a major characteristic of AD. Purinergic receptors are a diverse family of proteins consisting of P1 adenosine receptors and P2 nucleotide receptors for ATP, UTP and their metabolites. This family of receptors has been shown to regulate a wide range of physiological and pathophysiological processes, including neuroinflammation, and may contribute to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis and AD. Experimental evidence from human AD tissue has suggested that purinergic receptors may play a role in AD progression and studies using selective purinergic receptor agonists and antagonists in vitro and in AD animal models have demonstrated that purinergic receptors represent novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of AD. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Purines in Neurodegeneration and Neuroregeneration'. PMID:26519903

  14. Synthetic and natural iron chelators: therapeutic potential and clinical use

    PubMed Central

    Hatcher, Heather C; Singh, Ravi N; Torti, Frank M; Torti, Suzy V

    2013-01-01

    Iron-chelation therapy has its origins in the treatment of iron-overload syndromes. For many years, the standard for this purpose has been deferoxamine. Recently, considerable progress has been made in identifying synthetic chelators with improved pharmacologic properties relative to deferoxamine. Most notable are deferasirox (Exjade®) and deferiprone (Ferriprox®), which are now available clinically. In addition to treatment of iron overload, there is an emerging role for iron chelators in the treatment of diseases characterized by oxidative stress, including cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. While iron is not regarded as the underlying cause of these diseases, it does play an important role in disease progression, either through promotion of cellular growth and proliferation or through participation in redox reactions that catalyze the formation of reactive oxygen species and increase oxidative stress. Thus, iron chelators may be of therapeutic benefit in many of these conditions. Phytochemicals, many of which bind iron, may also owe some of their beneficial properties to iron chelation. This review will focus on the advances in iron-chelation therapy for the treatment of iron-overload disease and cancer, as well as neurodegenerative and chronic inflammatory diseases. Established and novel iron chelators will be discussed, as well as the emerging role of dietary plant polyphenols that effectively modulate iron biochemistry. PMID:21425984

  15. Anti-Transcription Factor RNA Aptamers as Potential Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Mondragón, Estefanía

    2016-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) are DNA-binding proteins that play critical roles in regulating gene expression. These proteins control all major cellular processes, including growth, development, and homeostasis. Because of their pivotal role, cells depend on proper TF function. It is, therefore, not surprising that TF deregulation is linked to disease. The therapeutic drug targeting of TFs has been proposed as a frontier in medicine. RNA aptamers make interesting candidates for TF modulation because of their unique characteristics. The products of in vitro selection, aptamers are short nucleic acids (DNA or RNA) that bind their targets with high affinity and specificity. Aptamers can be expressed on demand from transgenes and are intrinsically amenable to recognition by nucleic acid-binding proteins such as TFs. In this study, we review several natural prokaryotic and eukaryotic examples of RNAs that modulate the activity of TFs. These examples include 5S RNA, 6S RNA, 7SK, hepatitis delta virus-RNA (HDV-RNA), neuron restrictive silencer element (NRSE)-RNA, growth arrest-specific 5 (Gas5), steroid receptor RNA activator (SRA), trophoblast STAT utron (TSU), the 3′ untranslated region of caudal mRNA, and heat shock RNA-1 (HSR1). We then review examples of unnatural RNA aptamers selected to inhibit TFs nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB), TATA-binding protein (TBP), heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), and runt-related transcription factor 1 (RUNX1). The field of RNA aptamers for DNA-binding proteins continues to show promise. PMID:26509637

  16. The therapeutic potential of the cerebellum in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Krystal L.; Narayanan, Nandakumar S.; Andreasen, Nancy C.

    2014-01-01

    The cognitive role of the cerebellum is critically tied to its distributed connections throughout the brain. Accumulating evidence from anatomical, structural and functional imaging, and lesion studies advocate a cognitive network involving indirect connections between the cerebellum and non-motor areas in the prefrontal cortex. Cerebellar stimulation dynamically influences activity in several regions of the frontal cortex and effectively improves cognition in schizophrenia. In this manuscript, we summarize current literature on the cingulocerebellar circuit and we introduce a method to interrogate this circuit combining opotogenetics, neuropharmacology, and electrophysiology in awake-behaving animals while minimizing incidental stimulation of neighboring cerebellar nuclei. We propose the novel hypothesis that optogenetic cerebellar stimulation can restore aberrant frontal activity and rescue impaired cognition in schizophrenia. We focus on how a known cognitive region in the frontal cortex, the anterior cingulate, is influenced by the cerebellum. This circuit is of particular interest because it has been confirmed using tracing studies, neuroimaging reveals its role in cognitive tasks, it is conserved from rodents to humans, and diseases such as schizophrenia and autism appear in its aberrancy. Novel tract tracing results presented here provide support for how these two areas communicate. The primary pathway involves a disynaptic connection between the cerebellar dentate nuclei (DN) and the anterior cingulate cortex. Secondarily, the pathway from cerebellar fastigial nuclei (FN) to the ventral tegmental area, which supplies dopamine to the prefrontal cortex, may play a role as schizophrenia characteristically involves dopamine deficiencies. We hope that the hypothesis described here will inspire new therapeutic strategies targeting currently untreatable cognitive impairments in schizophrenia. PMID:25309350

  17. Anti-Transcription Factor RNA Aptamers as Potential Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Mondragón, Estefanía; Maher, Louis James

    2016-02-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) are DNA-binding proteins that play critical roles in regulating gene expression. These proteins control all major cellular processes, including growth, development, and homeostasis. Because of their pivotal role, cells depend on proper TF function. It is, therefore, not surprising that TF deregulation is linked to disease. The therapeutic drug targeting of TFs has been proposed as a frontier in medicine. RNA aptamers make interesting candidates for TF modulation because of their unique characteristics. The products of in vitro selection, aptamers are short nucleic acids (DNA or RNA) that bind their targets with high affinity and specificity. Aptamers can be expressed on demand from transgenes and are intrinsically amenable to recognition by nucleic acid-binding proteins such as TFs. In this study, we review several natural prokaryotic and eukaryotic examples of RNAs that modulate the activity of TFs. These examples include 5S RNA, 6S RNA, 7SK, hepatitis delta virus-RNA (HDV-RNA), neuron restrictive silencer element (NRSE)-RNA, growth arrest-specific 5 (Gas5), steroid receptor RNA activator (SRA), trophoblast STAT utron (TSU), the 3' untranslated region of caudal mRNA, and heat shock RNA-1 (HSR1). We then review examples of unnatural RNA aptamers selected to inhibit TFs nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB), TATA-binding protein (TBP), heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), and runt-related transcription factor 1 (RUNX1). The field of RNA aptamers for DNA-binding proteins continues to show promise. PMID:26509637

  18. Prophylaxis and therapeutic potential of ozone in buiatrics: Current knowledge.

    PubMed

    Đuričić, Dražen; Valpotić, Hrvoje; Samardžija, Marko

    2015-08-01

    Ozone therapy has been in use since 1896 in the USA. As a highly reactive molecule, ozone may inactivate bacteria, viruses, fungi, yeasts and protozoans, stimulate the oxygen metabolism of tissue, treat diseases, activate the immune system, and exhibit strong analgesic activity. More recently, ozone has been used in veterinary medicine, particularly in buiatrics, but still insufficiently. Medical ozone therapy has shown effectiveness as an alternative to the use of antibiotics, which are restricted to clinical use and have been withdrawn from non-clinical use as in-feed growth promoters in animal production. This review is an overview of current knowledge regarding the preventive and therapeutic effects of ozone in ruminants for the treatment of puerperal diseases and improvement in their fertility. In particular, ozone preparations have been tested in the treatment of reproductive tract lesions, urovagina and pneumomovagina, metritis, endometritis, fetal membrane retention and mastitis, as well as in the functional restoration of endometrium in dairy cows and goats. In addition, the preventive use of the intrauterine application of ozone has been assessed in order to evaluate its effectiveness in improving reproductive efficiency in dairy cows. No adverse effects were observed in cows and goats treated with ozone preparations. Moreover, there is a lot of evidence indicating the advantages of ozone preparation therapy in comparison to the application of antibiotics. However, there are certain limitations on ozone use in veterinary medicine and buiatrics, such as inactivity against intracellular microbes and selective activity against the same bacterial species, as well as the induction of tissue inflammation through inappropriate application of the preparation. PMID:26059777

  19. Microtubule-Stabilizing Agents as Potential Therapeutics for Neurodegenerative Disease

    PubMed Central

    Brunden, Kurt R.; Trojanowski, John Q.; Smith, Amos B.; Lee, Virginia M.-Y.; Ballatore, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Microtubules (MTs)1, cytoskeletal elements found in all mammalian cells, play a significant role in cell structure and in cell division. They are especially critical in the proper functioning of post-mitotic central nervous system neurons, where MTs serve as the structures on which key cellular constituents are trafficked in axonal projections. MTs are stabilized in axons by the MT-associated protein tau, and in several neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease, frontotemporal lobar degeneration, and Parkinson’s disease, tau function appears to be compromised due to the protein dissociating from MTs and depositing into insoluble inclusions referred to as neurofibrillary tangles. This loss of tau function is believed to result in alterations of MT structure and function, resulting in aberrant axonal transport that likely contributes to the neurodegenerative process. There is also evidence of axonal transport deficiencies in other neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Huntington’s disease, which may result, at least in part, from MT alterations. Accordingly, a possible therapeutic strategy for such neurodegenerative conditions is to treat with MT-stabilizing agents, such as those that have been used in the treatment of cancer. Here, we review evidence of axonal transport and MT deficiencies in a number of neurodegenerative diseases, and summarize the various classes of known MT-stabilizing agents. Finally, we highlight the growing evidence that small molecule MT-stabilizing agents provide benefit in animal models of neurodegenerative disease and discuss the desired features of such molecules for the treatment of these central nervous system disorders. PMID:24433963

  20. Thalidomide: chemistry, therapeutic potential and oxidative stress induced teratogenicity.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Neeraj; Sharma, Upendra; Singh, Chitra; Singh, Bikram

    2012-01-01

    Thalidomide and its one analogue, lenalidomide (CC5103 or revlimid) are recently approved for the treatment of multiple myeloma. Multiple myeloma is characterized by an overproduction of malignant plasma cells in the bone marrow. The journey of thalidomide was started in 1956 when it was marketed as a non-barbiturate sedative agent. It was considered as a "wonder drug" that provided safe and sound sleep and hence, used to cure morning sickness in pregnant women. Later, in 1961, it was withdrawn from the world market due to its serious side effects, i.e., teratogenic activity. However, the recent decade has witnessed a true renaissance in interest in its broad biological activity. In particular, thalidomide was reevaluated and attracted significant attention due to its selective inhibitory activity of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), which is a clinically important activity against serious diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease, leprosy, AIDS, and various cancers. The comeback of thalidomide to the legitimate status of a marketed drug came in 1998 when it received FDA approval for the treatment of erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL). Recently, the drug has got FDA approval for the treatment of multiple myeloma. In the last few years, number of thalidomide analogues have been synthesized and are in clinical development as a class of immunomodulatory drugs. Among these, lenalidomide is more potent than thalidomide, and is also non-neurotoxic. It was shown in vitro studies to induce apoptosis or arrest growth even in resistant multiple myeloma cell lines, decrease binding of the cells to bone marrow stromal cells, and stimulate host natural killer cell immunity. It also inhibits tumour growth and decreases angiogenesis. Earlier reviews have described the pharmacological aspects of thalidomide and a review has focused only on synthetic aspect of thalidomide. However, review focusing on chemistry and metabolism and mechanism of biological activity is still lacking. In this review, we will concisely describe the therapeutic aspects, metabolism and synthesis of thalidomide. PMID:22650376

  1. Therapeutic potential of snake venom in cancer therapy: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Vyas, Vivek Kumar; Brahmbhatt, Keyur; Bhatt, Hardik; Parmar, Utsav

    2013-01-01

    Many active secretions produced by animals have been employed in the development of new drugs to treat diseases such as hypertension and cancer. Snake venom toxins contributed significantly to the treatment of many medical conditions. There are many published studies describing and elucidating the anti-cancer potential of snake venom. Cancer therapy is one of the main areas for the use of protein peptides and enzymes originating from animals of different species. Some of these proteins or peptides and enzymes from snake venom when isolated and evaluated may bind specifically to cancer cell membranes, affecting the migration and proliferation of these cells. Some of substances found in the snake venom present a great potential as anti-tumor agent. In this review, we presented the main results of recent years of research involving the active compounds of snake venom that have anticancer activity. PMID:23593597

  2. Therapeutic potential of PDE modulation in treating heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Walter; Yan, Chen

    2014-01-01

    Altered cyclic nucleotide-mediated signaling plays a critical role in the development of cardiovascular pathology. By degrading cAMP/cGMP, the action of cyclic nucleotide PDEs is essential for controlling cyclic nucleotide-mediated signaling intensity, duration, and specificity. Altered expression, localization and action of PDEs have all been implicated in causing changes in cyclic nucleotide signaling in cardiovascular disease. Accordingly, pharmacological inhibition of PDEs has gained interest as a treatment strategy and as an area of drug development. While targeting of certain PDEs has the potential to ameliorate cardiovascular disease, inhibition of others might actually worsen it. This review will highlight recent research on the physiopathological role of cyclic nucleotide signaling, especially with regard to PDEs. While the physiological roles and biochemical properties of cardiovascular PDEs will be summarized, the primary emphasis will be pathological. Research into the potential benefits and hazards of PDE inhibition will also be discussed. PMID:24047267

  3. Therapeutic potential of snake venom in cancer therapy: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Vivek Kumar; Brahmbhatt, Keyur; Bhatt, Hardik; Parmar, Utsav

    2013-02-01

    Many active secretions produced by animals have been employed in the development of new drugs to treat diseases such as hypertension and cancer. Snake venom toxins contributed significantly to the treatment of many medical conditions. There are many published studies describing and elucidating the anti-cancer potential of snake venom. Cancer therapy is one of the main areas for the use of protein peptides and enzymes originating from animals of different species. Some of these proteins or peptides and enzymes from snake venom when isolated and evaluated may bind specifically to cancer cell membranes, affecting the migration and proliferation of these cells. Some of substances found in the snake venom present a great potential as anti-tumor agent. In this review, we presented the main results of recent years of research involving the active compounds of snake venom that have anticancer activity. PMID:23593597

  4. A Therapeutic Potential for Marine Skeletal Proteins in Bone Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Green, David W.; Padula, Matthew P.; Santos, Jerran; Chou, Joshua; Milthorpe, Bruce; Ben-Nissan, Besim

    2013-01-01

    A vital ingredient for engineering bone tissue, in the culture dish, is the use of recombinant matrix and growth proteins to help accelerate the growth of cultivated tissues into clinically acceptable quantities. The skeletal organic matrices of calcifying marine invertebrates are an untouched potential source of such growth inducing proteins. They have the advantage of being ready-made and retain the native state of the original protein. Striking evidence shows that skeleton building bone morphogenic protein-2/4 (BMP) and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) exist within various marine invertebrates such as, corals. Best practice mariculture and the latest innovations in long-term marine invertebrate cell cultivation can be implemented to ensure that these proteins are produced sustainably and supplied continuously. This also guarantees that coral reef habitats are not damaged during the collection of specimens. Potential proteins for bone repair, either extracted from the skeleton or derived from cultivated tissues, can be identified, evaluated and retrieved using chromatography, cell assays and proteomic methods. Due to the current evidence for bone matrix protein analogues in marine invertebrates, together with the methods established for their production and retrieval there is a genuine prospect that they can be used to regenerate living bone for potential clinical use. PMID:23574983

  5. Novel drugs that target the estrogen-related receptor alpha: their therapeutic potential in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    May, Felicity EB

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of breast cancer continues to rise: 1.7 million women were diagnosed with and 521,000 women died from breast cancer in 2012. This review considers first current treatment options: surgery; radiotherapy; and systemic endocrine, anti-biological, and cytotoxic therapies. Clinical management includes prevention, early detection by screening, treatment with curative intent, management of chronic disease, and palliative control of advanced breast cancer. Next, the potential of novel drugs that target DNA repair, growth factor dependence, intracellular and intercellular signal transduction, and cell cycle are considered. Estrogen-related receptor alpha has attracted attention as a therapeutic target in triple-negative breast cancers with de novo resistance to, and in breast cancers with acquired resistance to, endocrine therapies such as antiestrogens and aromatase inhibitors. Estrogen-related receptor alpha is an orphan receptor and transcription factor. Its activity is regulated by coregulator proteins and posttranslational modification. It is an energy sensor that controls adaptation to energy demand and may facilitate glycolytic metabolism and mitochondrial oxidative respiration in breast cancer cells. Estrogen-related receptor alpha increases breast cancer cell migration, proliferation, and tumor development. It is expressed at high levels in estrogen receptor-negative tumors, and is proposed to activate estrogen-responsive genes in endocrine-resistant tumors. The structures and functions of the ligand-binding domains of estrogen receptor alpha and estrogen-related receptor alpha, their ability to bind estrogens, phytoestrogens, and synthetic ligands, and the effects of ligand agonists, antagonists, and inverse agonists on biological activity, are evaluated. Synthetic ligands of estrogen-related receptor alpha have activity in preclinical models of metabolic disorders, diabetes, osteoporosis, and oncology. The clinical settings in which these novel drugs might have utility in the management of advanced breast cancer, and biomarkers for stratification of patients likely to benefit, are discussed. Finally, the potential side effects of the novel drugs on metabolism, osteoporosis, osteo-metastasis, and cachexia are considered. PMID:24904222

  6. Potential therapeutic use of herbal extracts in trypanosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Thaise L; Teixeira, Samuel Cota; da Silva, Claudio Vieira; de Souza, Maria A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of crude extracts from Handroanthus impetiginosa, Ageratum conyzoides, and Ruta graveolens on Leishmania amazonensis and Trypanosoma cruzi infection in vitro. The results showed that the extracts caused significant toxicity in promastigotes and trypomastigotes. A significant decrease in the rate of cell invasion by pretreated trypomastigotes and promastigotes was also observed. The extracts caused a significant reduction of the multiplication of intracellular amastigotes of both parasites. Therefore, these herbal extracts may be potential candidates for the development of drugs for the treatment of leishmaniasis and Chagas disease. PMID:24548158

  7. Monoclonal Antibody Shows Promise as Potential Therapeutic for MERS | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    A monoclonal antibody has proven effective in preventing Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) in lab animals, suggesting further development as a potential intervention for the deadly disease in humans, according to new research. MERS is a newly emerged coronavirus first detected in humans in 2012. Most cases have occurred in the Middle East, but the disease has appeared elsewhere. In all, MERS has infected more than 1,700 individuals and killed more than 600, according to the World Health Organization. No vaccines or antiviral therapies currently exist. Several candidate vaccines are being developed, and some have been tested in animal models, a prerequisite to human clinical trials.

  8. G-quadruplexes in viruses: function and potential therapeutic applications

    PubMed Central

    Métifiot, Mathieu; Amrane, Samir; Litvak, Simon; Andreola, Marie-Line

    2014-01-01

    G-rich nucleic acids can form non-canonical G-quadruplex structures (G4s) in which four guanines fold in a planar arrangement through Hoogsteen hydrogen bonds. Although many biochemical and structural studies have focused on DNA sequences containing successive, adjacent guanines that spontaneously fold into G4s, evidence for their in vivo relevance has recently begun to accumulate. Complete sequencing of the human genome highlighted the presence of ∼300 000 sequences that can potentially form G4s. Likewise, the presence of putative G4-sequences has been reported in various viruses genomes [e.g., Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1), Epstein–Barr virus (EBV), papillomavirus (HPV)]. Many studies have focused on telomeric G4s and how their dynamics are regulated to enable telomere synthesis. Moreover, a role for G4s has been proposed in cellular and viral replication, recombination and gene expression control. In parallel, DNA aptamers that form G4s have been described as inhibitors and diagnostic tools to detect viruses [e.g., hepatitis A virus (HAV), EBV, cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV), severe acute respiratory syndrome virus (SARS), simian virus 40 (SV40)]. Here, special emphasis will be given to the possible role of these structures in a virus life cycle as well as the use of G4-forming oligonucleotides as potential antiviral agents and innovative tools. PMID:25332402

  9. New mechanisms and therapeutic potential of curcumin for colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Villegas, Isabel; Sánchez-Fidalgo, Susana; Alarcón de la Lastra, Catalina

    2008-09-01

    Curcumin is a polyphenol derived from Curcuma longa. Over the last few years, a number of studies have provided evidence of its main pharmacological properties including chemosensitizing, radiosensitizing, wound healing activities, antimicrobial, antiviral, antifungical, immunomodulatory, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory. More recent data provide interesting insights into the effect of this compound on cancer chemoprevention and chemotherapy. In fact, preclinical studies have shown its ability to inhibit carcinogenesis in various types of cancer including colorectal cancer (CRC). Curcumin has the capacity of interact with multiple molecular targets affecting the multistep process of carcinogenesis. Also, curcumin is able to arrest the cell cycle, to inhibit the inflammatory response and the oxidative stress and to induce apoptosis in cancer cells. Likewise, it has been shown to possess marked antiangiogenic properties. Furthermore, curcumin potentiates the growth inhibitory effect of cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitors and traditional chemotherapy agents implicating another promising therapy regimen in the future treatment of CRC. However, its clinical advance has been hindered by its short biological half-life and low bioavailability after oral administration. This review is intended to provide the reader an update of the bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of curcumin and describes the recently identified molecular pathways responsible of its anticancer potential in CRC. PMID:18655004

  10. Therapeutic Potential of Pterocarpus santalinus L.: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Bulle, Saradamma; Reddyvari, Hymavathi; Nallanchakravarthula, Varadacharyulu; Vaddi, Damodara Reddy

    2016-01-01

    Recently there has been increasing interest in plants and plant-derived compounds as raw food and medicinal agents. In Ayurveda, an Indian system of traditional medicine, a wide spectrum of medicinal properties of Pterocarpus santalinus is described. Many important bioactive phytocompounds have been extracted and identified from the heartwood of P. santalinus. Bioactive compounds typically occur in small amounts and have more subtle effects than nutrients. These bioactive compounds influence cellular activities that modify the risk of disease rather than prevent deficiency diseases. A wide array of biological activities and potential health benefits of P. santalinus have been reported, including antioxidative, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory properties, and protective effects on the liver, gastric mucosa, and nervous system. All these protective effects were attributed to bioactive compounds present in P. santalinus. The major bioactive compounds present in the heartwood of P. santalinus are santalin A and B, savinin, calocedrin, pterolinus K and L, and pterostilbenes. The bioactive compounds have potentially important health benefits: These compounds can act as antioxidants, enzyme inhibitors and inducers, inhibitors of receptor activities, and inducers and inhibitors of gene expression, among other actions. The present review aims to understand the pharmacological effects of P. santalinus on health and disease with “up-to-date” discussion. PMID:27041873

  11. Fatty acid synthase as a potential therapeutic target in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Flavin, Richard; Peluso, Stephane; Nguyen, Paul L; Loda, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Fatty acid synthase (FASN) is a key enzyme involved in neoplastic lipogenesis. Overexpression of FASN is common in many cancers, and accumulating evidence suggests that it is a metabolic oncogene with an important role in tumor growth and survival, making it an attractive target for cancer therapy. Early small-molecule FASN inhibitors such as cerulenin, C75 and orlistat have been shown to induce apoptosis in several cancer cell lines and to induce tumor growth delay in several cancer xenograft models but their mechanism is still not well understood. These molecules suffer from pharmacological limitations and weight loss as a side effect that prevent their development as systemic drugs. Several potent inhibitors have recently been reported that may help to unravel and exploit the full potential of FASN as a target for cancer therapy in the near future. Furthermore, novel sources of FASN inhibitors, such as green tea and dietary soy, make both dietary manipulation and chemoprevention potential alternative modes of therapy in the future. PMID:20373869

  12. Therapeutic Potential of Pterocarpus santalinus L.: An Update.

    PubMed

    Bulle, Saradamma; Reddyvari, Hymavathi; Nallanchakravarthula, Varadacharyulu; Vaddi, Damodara Reddy

    2016-01-01

    Recently there has been increasing interest in plants and plant-derived compounds as raw food and medicinal agents. In Ayurveda, an Indian system of traditional medicine, a wide spectrum of medicinal properties of Pterocarpus santalinus is described. Many important bioactive phytocompounds have been extracted and identified from the heartwood of P. santalinus. Bioactive compounds typically occur in small amounts and have more subtle effects than nutrients. These bioactive compounds influence cellular activities that modify the risk of disease rather than prevent deficiency diseases. A wide array of biological activities and potential health benefits of P. santalinus have been reported, including antioxidative, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory properties, and protective effects on the liver, gastric mucosa, and nervous system. All these protective effects were attributed to bioactive compounds present in P. santalinus. The major bioactive compounds present in the heartwood of P. santalinus are santalin A and B, savinin, calocedrin, pterolinus K and L, and pterostilbenes. The bioactive compounds have potentially important health benefits: These compounds can act as antioxidants, enzyme inhibitors and inducers, inhibitors of receptor activities, and inducers and inhibitors of gene expression, among other actions. The present review aims to understand the pharmacological effects of P. santalinus on health and disease with "up-to-date" discussion. PMID:27041873

  13. HDL and glucose metabolism: current evidence and therapeutic potential

    PubMed Central

    Siebel, Andrew L.; Heywood, Sarah Elizabeth; Kingwell, Bronwyn A.

    2015-01-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) and its principal apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) have now been convincingly shown to influence glucose metabolism through multiple mechanisms. The key clinically relevant observations are that both acute HDL elevation via short-term reconstituted HDL (rHDL) infusion and chronically raising HDL via a cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitor reduce blood glucose in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). HDL may mediate effects on glucose metabolism through actions in multiple organs (e.g., pancreas, skeletal muscle, heart, adipose, liver, brain) by three distinct mechanisms: (i) Insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells, (ii) Insulin-independent glucose uptake, (iii) Insulin sensitivity. The molecular mechanisms appear to involve both direct HDL signaling actions as well as effects secondary to lipid removal from cells. The implications of glucoregulatory mechanisms linked to HDL extend from glycemic control to potential anti-ischemic actions via increased tissue glucose uptake and utilization. Such effects not only have implications for the prevention and management of diabetes, but also for ischemic vascular diseases including angina pectoris, intermittent claudication, cerebral ischemia and even some forms of dementia. This review will discuss the growing evidence for a role of HDL in glucose metabolism and outline related potential for HDL therapies. PMID:26582989

  14. Therapeutic potential of autologous stem cell transplantation for cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Purandare, Chaitanya; Shitole, D G; Belle, Vaijayantee; Kedari, Aarti; Bora, Neeta; Joshi, Meghnad

    2012-01-01

    Background. Cerebral palsy (CP) is a severe disabling disease with worldwide incidence being 2 to 3 per 1000 live births. CP was considered as a noncurable, nonreparative disorder, but stem cell therapy offers a potential treatment for CP. Objective. The present study evaluates the safety and efficacy of autologous bone-marrow-derived mononuclear cell (BMMNCs) transplantation in CP patient. Material and Methods. In the present study, five infusions of autologous stem cells were injected intrathecally. Changes in neurological deficits and improvements in function were assessed using Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS-E&R) scale. Results. Significant motor, sensory, cognitive, and speech improvements were observed. Bowel and bladder control has been achieved. On the GMFCS-E&R level, the patient was promoted from grade III to I. Conclusion. In this study, we report that intrathecal infusion of autologous BMMNCs seems to be feasible, effective, and safe with encouraging functional outcome improvements in CP patient. PMID:23259143

  15. Therapeutic Potential of Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation for Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Purandare, Chaitanya; Shitole, D. G.; Belle, Vaijayantee; Kedari, Aarti; Bora, Neeta; Joshi, Meghnad

    2012-01-01

    Background. Cerebral palsy (CP) is a severe disabling disease with worldwide incidence being 2 to 3 per 1000 live births. CP was considered as a noncurable, nonreparative disorder, but stem cell therapy offers a potential treatment for CP. Objective. The present study evaluates the safety and efficacy of autologous bone-marrow-derived mononuclear cell (BMMNCs) transplantation in CP patient. Material and Methods. In the present study, five infusions of autologous stem cells were injected intrathecally. Changes in neurological deficits and improvements in function were assessed using Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS-E&R) scale. Results. Significant motor, sensory, cognitive, and speech improvements were observed. Bowel and bladder control has been achieved. On the GMFCS-E&R level, the patient was promoted from grade III to I. Conclusion. In this study, we report that intrathecal infusion of autologous BMMNCs seems to be feasible, effective, and safe with encouraging functional outcome improvements in CP patient. PMID:23259143

  16. Nutraceuticals as potential therapeutic agents for colon cancer: a review

    PubMed Central

    Kuppusamy, Palaniselvam; Yusoff, Mashitah M.; Maniam, Gaanty Pragas; Ichwan, Solachuddin Jauhari Arief; Soundharrajan, Ilavenil; Govindan, Natanamurugaraj

    2014-01-01

    Colon cancer is a world-wide health problem and the second-most dangerous type of cancer, affecting both men and women. The modern diet and lifestyles, with high meat consumption and excessive alcohol use, along with limited physical activity has led to an increasing mortality rate for colon cancer worldwide. As a result, there is a need to develop novel and environmentally benign drug therapies for colon cancer. Currently, nutraceuticals play an increasingly important role in the treatment of various chronic diseases such as colon cancer, diabetes and Alzheimer׳s disease. Nutraceuticals are derived from various natural sources such as medicinal plants, marine organisms, vegetables and fruits. Nutraceuticals have shown the potential to reduce the risk of colon cancer and slow its progression. These dietary substances target different molecular aspects of colon cancer development. Accordingly, this review briefly discusses the medicinal importance of nutraceuticals and their ability to reduce the risk of colorectal carcinogenesis. PMID:26579381

  17. Phytochemical profile and therapeutic potential of Viscum album L.

    PubMed

    Nazaruk, Jolanta; Orlikowski, Przemysław

    2016-02-01

    Viscum album L., the European mistletoe, is a common species from the Viscaceae family. This evergreen hemiparasitic shrub grows on various trees and contains diverse, biologically active substances. Its chemical composition may vary depending on the time of harvest, species of the host tree and the manufacturing process. Among well-described and most active phytochemicals identified in V. album are lectins and viscotoxins, which play substantial role in cancer treatment because of their apoptotic and cytotoxic effects. Another group of compounds found in mistletoe are phenolic acids, phenylpropanoids and flavonoids with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, which decrease blood pressure. Other mistletoe components include, among others, triterpenes with cytotoxic and apoptotic properties, and phytosterols, oligo- and polysaccharides. Extracts from the plant, especially aqueous, are applied in traditional and official medicine, among others in treating hypertension or arthritis. Potentially, it can also be used as a hepatoprotective or a sedative drug. PMID:25813519

  18. Nutraceuticals as potential therapeutic agents for colon cancer: a review.

    PubMed

    Kuppusamy, Palaniselvam; Yusoff, Mashitah M; Maniam, Gaanty Pragas; Ichwan, Solachuddin Jauhari Arief; Soundharrajan, Ilavenil; Govindan, Natanamurugaraj

    2014-06-01

    Colon cancer is a world-wide health problem and the second-most dangerous type of cancer, affecting both men and women. The modern diet and lifestyles, with high meat consumption and excessive alcohol use, along with limited physical activity has led to an increasing mortality rate for colon cancer worldwide. As a result, there is a need to develop novel and environmentally benign drug therapies for colon cancer. Currently, nutraceuticals play an increasingly important role in the treatment of various chronic diseases such as colon cancer, diabetes and Alzheimer׳s disease. Nutraceuticals are derived from various natural sources such as medicinal plants, marine organisms, vegetables and fruits. Nutraceuticals have shown the potential to reduce the risk of colon cancer and slow its progression. These dietary substances target different molecular aspects of colon cancer development. Accordingly, this review briefly discusses the medicinal importance of nutraceuticals and their ability to reduce the risk of colorectal carcinogenesis. PMID:26579381

  19. Is memantine a potential therapeutic for Rett syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Bello, Olivia; Blair, Kelsey; Chapleau, Christopher; Larimore, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    Memantine is a low-affinity, voltage-dependent, non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist. It is classified as a neuroprotective aminoadamantane. It does not cure or reverse Alzheimer's but it does effectively treat symptoms, slows the progression of the disease and allows many patients to perform daily cognitive activities with clear thoughts. Based on it's success in patients with Alzheimer's, memantine has been tested in other neurological disorders with impaired learning and memory. In this review, we will discuss the success and failures of memantine in Downs Syndrome and Fragile X research and from those results, assess the potential benefit of memantine in Rett Syndrome (RTT). PMID:24381538

  20. Anticancer therapeutic potential of Mn porphyrin/ascorbate system.

    PubMed

    Tovmasyan, Artak; Sampaio, Romulo S; Boss, Mary-Keara; Bueno-Janice, Jacqueline C; Bader, Bader H; Thomas, Milini; Reboucas, Julio S; Orr, Michael; Chandler, Joshua D; Go, Young-Mi; Jones, Dean P; Venkatraman, Talaignair N; Haberle, Sinisa; Kyui, Natalia; Lascola, Christopher D; Dewhirst, Mark W; Spasojevic, Ivan; Benov, Ludmil; Batinic-Haberle, Ines

    2015-12-01

    Ascorbate (Asc) as a single agent suppressed growth of several tumor cell lines in a mouse model. It has been tested in a Phase I Clinical Trial on pancreatic cancer patients where it exhibited no toxicity to normal tissue yet was of only marginal efficacy. The mechanism of its anticancer effect was attributed to the production of tumoricidal hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) during ascorbate oxidation catalyzed by endogenous metalloproteins. The amount of H2O2 could be maximized with exogenous catalyst that has optimized properties for such function and is localized within tumor. Herein we studied 14 Mn porphyrins (MnPs) which differ vastly with regards to their redox properties, charge, size/bulkiness and lipophilicity. Such properties affect the in vitro and in vivo ability of MnPs (i) to catalyze ascorbate oxidation resulting in the production of H2O2; (ii) to subsequently employ H2O2 in the catalysis of signaling proteins oxidations affecting cellular survival pathways; and (iii) to accumulate at site(s) of interest. The metal-centered reduction potential of MnPs studied, E1/2 of Mn(III)P/Mn(II)P redox couple, ranged from -200 to +350 mV vs NHE. Anionic and cationic, hydrophilic and lipophilic as well as short- and long-chained and bulky compounds were explored. Their ability to catalyze ascorbate oxidation, and in turn cytotoxic H2O2 production, was explored via spectrophotometric and electrochemical means. Bell-shape structure-activity relationship (SAR) was found between the initial rate for the catalysis of ascorbate oxidation, vo(Asc)ox and E1/2, identifying cationic Mn(III) N-substituted pyridylporphyrins with E1/2>0 mV vs NHE as efficient catalysts for ascorbate oxidation. The anticancer potential of MnPs/Asc system was subsequently tested in cellular (human MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and mouse 4T1) and animal models of breast cancer. At the concentrations where ascorbate (1mM) and MnPs (1 or 5 µM) alone did not trigger any alteration in cell viability, combined treatment suppressed cell viability up to 95%. No toxicity was observed with normal human breast epithelial HBL-100 cells. Bell-shape relationship, essentially identical to vo(Asc)oxvs E1/2, was also demonstrated between MnP/Asc-controlled cytotoxicity and E1/2-controlled vo(Asc)ox. Magnetic resonance imaging studies were conducted to explore the impact of ascorbate on T1-relaxivity. The impact of MnP/Asc on intracellular thiols and on GSH/GSSG and Cys/CySS ratios in 4T1 cells was assessed and cellular reduction potentials were calculated. The data indicate a significant increase in cellular oxidative stress induced by MnP/Asc. Based on vo(Asc)oxvs E1/2 relationships and cellular toxicity, MnTE-2-PyP(5+) was identified as the best catalyst among MnPs studied. Asc and MnTE-2-PyP(5+) were thus tested in a 4T1 mammary mouse flank tumor model. The combination of ascorbate (4 g/kg) and MnTE-2-PyP(5+) (0.2mg/kg) showed significant suppression of tumor growth relative to either MnTE-2-PyP(5+) or ascorbate alone. About 7-fold higher accumulation of MnTE-2-PyP(5+) in tumor vs normal tissue was found to contribute largely to the anticancer effect. PMID:26496207

  1. Silibinin as a potential therapeutic for sulfur mustard injuries.

    PubMed

    Balszuweit, Frank; John, Harald; Schmidt, Annette; Kehe, Kai; Thiermann, Horst; Steinritz, Dirk

    2013-12-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a vesicating chemical warfare agent causing skin blistering, ulceration, impaired wound healing, prolonged hospitalization and permanent lesions. Silibinin, the lead compound from Silybum marianum, has also been discussed as a potential antidote to SM poisoning. However, its efficacy has been demonstrated only with regard to nitrogen mustards. Moreover, there are no data on the efficacy of the water-soluble prodrug silibinin-bis-succinat (silibinin-BS). We investigated the effect of SIL-BS treatment against SM toxicity in HaCaT cells with regard to potential reduction of necrosis, apoptosis and inflammation including dose-dependency of any protective effects. We also demonstrated the biotransformation of the prodrug into free silibinin. HaCaT cells were exposed to SM (30, 100, and 300μM) for 30min and treated thereafter with SIL-BS (10, 50, and 100μM) for 24h. Necrosis and apoptosis were quantified using the ToxiLight BioAssay and the nucleosome ELISA (CDDE). Pro-inflammatory interleukins-6 and -8 were determined by ELISA. HaCaT cells, incubated with silibinin-BS were lysed and investigated by LC-ESI MS/MS. LC-ESI MS/MS results suggest that SIL-BS is absorbed by HaCaT cells and biotransformed into free silibinin. SIL-BS dose-dependently reduced SM cytotoxicity, even after 300μM exposure. Doses of 50-100μM silibinin-BS were required for significant protection. Apoptosis and interleukin production remained largely unchanged by 10-50μM silibinin-BS but increased after 100μM treatment. Observed reductions of SM cytotoxicity by post-exposure treatment with SIL-BS suggest this as a promising approach for treatment of SM injuries. While 100μM SIL-BS is most effective to reduce necrosis, 50μM may be safer to avoid pro-inflammatory effects. Pro-apoptotic effects after high doses of SIL-BS are in agreement with findings in literature and might even be useful to eliminate cells irreversibly damaged by SM. Further investigations will focus on the protective mechanism of silibinin and its prodrug and should establish an optimum concentration for treatment. PMID:23810508

  2. Anaplerotic diet therapy in inherited metabolic disease: therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Roe, Charles R; Mochel, Fanny

    2006-01-01

    Beginning with phenylketonuria, dietary therapy for inborn errors has focused primarily on the restriction of the precursor to an affected catabolic pathway in an attempt to limit the production of potential toxins. Anaplerotic therapy is based on the concept that there may exist an energy deficit in these diseases that might be improved by providing alternative substrate for both the citric acid cycle (CAC) and the electron transport chain for enhanced ATP production. This article focuses on this basic problem, as it may relate to most catabolic disorders, and provides our current experience involving inherited diseases of mitochondrial fat oxidation, glycogen storage, and pyruvate metabolism using the anaplerotic compound triheptanoin. The observations have led to a realization that 'inter-organ' signalling and 'nutrient sensors' such as adenylate monophosphate mediated-protein kinase (AMPK) and mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) appear to play a significant role in the intermediary metabolism of these diseases. Activated AMPK turns on catabolic pathways to augment ATP production while turning off synthetic pathways that consume ATP. Information is provided regarding the inter-organ requirements for more normal metabolic function during crisis and how anaplerotic therapy using triheptanoin, as a direct source of substrate to the CAC for energy production, appears to be a more successful approach to an improved quality of life for these patients. PMID:16763896

  3. Therapeutic Potential of Hyporesponsive CD4+ T Cells in Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Maggi, Jaxaira; Schafer, Carolina; Ubilla-Olguín, Gabriela; Catalán, Diego; Schinnerling, Katina; Aguillón, Juan C.

    2015-01-01

    The interaction between dendritic cells (DCs) and T cells is crucial on immunity or tolerance induction. In an immature or semi-mature state, DCs induce tolerance through T-cell deletion, generation of regulatory T cells, and/or induction of T-cell anergy. Anergy is defined as an unresponsive state that retains T cells in an “off” mode under conditions in which immune activation is undesirable. This mechanism is crucial for the control of T-cell responses against self-antigens, thereby preventing autoimmunity. Tolerogenic DCs (tDCs), generated in vitro from peripheral blood monocytes of healthy donors or patients with autoimmune pathologies, were shown to modulate immune responses by inducing T-cell hyporesponsiveness. Animal models of autoimmune diseases confirmed the impact of T-cell anergy on disease development and progression in vivo. Thus, the induction of T-cell hyporesponsiveness by tDCs has become a promising immunotherapeutic strategy for the treatment of T-cell-mediated autoimmune disorders. Here, we review recent findings in the area and discuss the potential of anergy induction for clinical purposes. PMID:26441992

  4. Myocardial Fibroblast-Matrix Interactions and Potential Therapeutic Targets

    PubMed Central

    Goldsmith, Edie C; Bradshaw, Amy D.; Zile, Michael R.; Spinale, Francis G.

    2014-01-01

    The cardiac extracellular matrix (ECM) is a dynamic structure, adapting to physiological and pathological stresses placed on the myocardium. Deposition and organization of the matrix falls under the purview of cardiac fibroblasts. While often overlooked compared to myocytes, fibroblasts play a critical role in maintaining ECM homeostasis under normal conditions and in response to pathological stimuli assume an activated, myofibroblast phenotype associated with excessive collagen accumulation contributing to impaired cardiac function. Complete appreciation of fibroblast function is hampered by the lack of fibroblast-specific reagents and the heterogeneity of fibroblast precursors. This is further complicated by our ability to dissect the role of myofibroblasts versus fibroblasts in myocardial in remodeling. This review highlights critical points in the regulation of collagen deposition by fibroblasts, the current panel of molecular tools used to identify fibroblasts and the role of fibroblast-matrix interactions in fibroblast function and differentiation into the myofibroblast phenotype. The clinical potential of exploiting differences between fibroblasts and myofibroblasts and using them to target specific fibroblast populations is also discussed. PMID:24472826

  5. Established and potential therapeutic applications of cannabinoids in oncology.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Declan; Nelson, Kristine A; Mahmoud, Fade Aziz

    2003-03-01

    Cannabis occurs naturally in the dried flowering or fruiting tops of the Cannabis sativa plant. Cannabis is most often consumed by smoking marihuana. Cannabinoids are the active compounds extracted from cannabis. Recently, there has been renewed interest in cannabinoids for medicinal purposes. The two proven indications for the use of the synthetic cannabinoid (dronabinol) are chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting and AIDS-related anorexia. Other possible effects that may prove beneficial in the oncology population include analgesia, antitumor effect, mood elevation, muscle relaxation, and relief of insomnia. Two types of cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2, have been detected. CB1 receptors are expressed mainly in the central and peripheral nervous system. CB2 receptors are found in certain nonneuronal tissues, particularly in the immune cells. Recent discovery of both the cannabinoid receptors and endocannabinoids has opened a new era in research on the pharmaceutical applications of cannabinoids. The use of cannabinoids should be continued in the areas indicated, and further studies are needed to evaluate other potential uses in clinical oncology. PMID:12618922

  6. Ion Channels in Obesity: Pathophysiology and Potential Therapeutic Targets.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Luiz H C; Souza, Iara L L; Pinheiro, Lílian S; Silva, Bagnólia A

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a multifactorial disease related to metabolic disorders and associated with genetic determinants. Currently, ion channels activity has been linked to many of these disorders, in addition to the central regulation of food intake, energetic balance, hormone release and response, as well as the adipocyte cell proliferation. Therefore, the objective of this work is to review the current knowledge about the influence of ion channels in obesity development. This review used different sources of literature (Google Scholar, PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science) to assess the role of ion channels in the pathophysiology of obesity. Ion channels present diverse key functions, such as the maintenance of physiological homeostasis and cell proliferation. Cell biology and pharmacological experimental evidences demonstrate that proliferating cells exhibit ion channel expression, conductance, and electrical properties different from the resting cells. Thereby, a large variety of ion channels has been identified in the pathogenesis of obesity such as potassium, sodium, calcium and chloride channels, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and transient receptor potential channels. The fundamental involvement of these channels on the generation of obesity leads to the progress in the knowledge about the mechanisms responsible for the obesity pathophysiology, consequently emerging as new targets for pharmacological modulation. PMID:27065858

  7. Vernonia kotschyana roots: therapeutic potential via antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Vasincu, Alexandru; Paulsen, Berit S; Diallo, Drissa; Vasincu, Ioana; Aprotosoaie, Ana C; Bild, Veronica; Charalambous, Christiana; Constantinou, Andreas I; Miron, Anca; Gavrilescu, Cristina M

    2014-01-01

    The roots of Vernonia kotschyana Sch. Bip. ex Walp. (Asteraceae) are used in Malian traditional medicine in the treatment of gastroduodenal ulcers and gastritis. Since oxidative stress is involved in gastric ulceration, the aim of this study was to screen the root extracts for their in vitro antioxidant activity and phenolic content. The roots were extracted successively with chloroform, ethyl acetate, ethanol and water. The antioxidant activity of root extracts was evaluated in both cell-free and cell-based assays. Their chemical characterization was performed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) whereas the total phenolic content was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The ethyl acetate extract displayed the highest phenolic content and was found to be the most active in the free radical scavenging and lipid peroxidation inhibition assays; it also showed a high antioxidant activity in MCF-12F cells. This study suggests a potential use of the ethyl acetate extract of Vernonia kotschyana not only as an antioxidant agent in gastroduodenal ulcers and gastritis, but also in other disorders characterized by high levels of oxidative stress. PMID:25415475

  8. Hydrogen Sulfide as a Potential Therapeutic Target in Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shufang; Pan, Chuli; Zhou, Feifei; Yuan, Zhi; Wang, Huiying; Cui, Wei; Zhang, Gensheng

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), produced endogenously by the activation of two major H2S-generating enzymes (cystathionine β-synthase and cystathionine γ-lyase), plays important regulatory roles in different physiologic and pathologic conditions. The abnormal metabolism of H2S is associated with fibrosis pathogenesis, causing damage in structure and function of different organs. A number of in vivo and in vitro studies have shown that both endogenous H2S level and the expressions of H2S-generating enzymes in plasma and tissues are significantly downregulated during fibrosis. Supplement with exogenous H2S mitigates the severity of fibrosis in various experimental animal models. The protective role of H2S in the development of fibrosis is primarily attributed to its antioxidation, antiapoptosis, anti-inflammation, proangiogenesis, and inhibition of fibroblasts activities. Future studies might focus on the potential to intervene fibrosis by targeting the pathway of endogenous H2S-producing enzymes and H2S itself. PMID:26078809

  9. A Small Peptide with Therapeutic Potential for Inflammatory Acne Vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Zilei; Wang, Fengyu; Wei, Lin; Rong, Mingqiang; Lai, Ren

    2013-01-01

    A designed peptide named LZ1 with 15 amino acid residues containing strong antimicrobial activity against bacteria pathogens of acne vulgaris including Propionibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus epidermidis and S. aureus. Especially, it exerted strong anti-P. acnes ability. The minimal inhibitory concentration against three strains of P. acnes was only 0.6 µg/ml, which is 4 times lower than that of clindamycin. In experimental mice skin colonization model, LZ1 significantly reduced the number of P. acnes colonized on the ear, P. acnes-induced ear swelling, and inflammatory cell infiltration. It ameliorated inflammation induced by P. acnes by inhibiting the secretion of inflammatory factors including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-1β. LZ1 showed little cytotoxicity on human keratinocyte and hemolytic activity on human blood red cells. Furthermore, LZ1 was very stable in human plasma. Combined with its potential bactericidal and anti-inflammatory properties, simple structure and high stability, LZ1 might be an ideal candidate for the treatment of acne. PMID:24013774

  10. Biflavonoids as Potential Small Molecule Therapeutics for Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Thapa, Arjun; Chi, Eva Y

    2015-01-01

    Flavonoids are naturally occurring phytochemicals found in a variety of fruits and vegetables and offer color, flavor, aroma, nutritional and health benefits. Flavonoids have been found to play a neuroprotective role by inhibiting and/or modifying the self-assembly of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide into oligomers and fibrils, which are linked to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. The neuroprotective efficacy of flavonoids has been found to strongly depend on their structure and functional groups. Flavonoids may exist in monomeric, as well as di-, tri-, tetra- or polymeric form through C-C or C-O-C linkages. It has been shown that flavonoids containing two or more units, e.g., biflavonoids, exert greater biological activity than their respective monoflavonoids. For instance, biflavonoids have the ability to distinctly alter Aβ aggregation and more effectively reduce the toxicity of Aβ oligomers compared to the monoflavonoid moieties. Although the molecular mechanisms remain to be elucidated, flavonoids have been shown to alter the Aβ aggregation pathway to yield non-toxic, unstructured Aβ aggregates, as well as directly exerting a neuroprotective effect to cells. In this chapter, we review biflavonoid-mediated Aβ aggregation and toxicity, and highlight the beneficial roles biflavonoids can potentially play in the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:26092626

  11. Ion Channels in Obesity: Pathophysiology and Potential Therapeutic Targets

    PubMed Central

    Vasconcelos, Luiz H. C.; Souza, Iara L. L.; Pinheiro, Lílian S.; Silva, Bagnólia A.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a multifactorial disease related to metabolic disorders and associated with genetic determinants. Currently, ion channels activity has been linked to many of these disorders, in addition to the central regulation of food intake, energetic balance, hormone release and response, as well as the adipocyte cell proliferation. Therefore, the objective of this work is to review the current knowledge about the influence of ion channels in obesity development. This review used different sources of literature (Google Scholar, PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science) to assess the role of ion channels in the pathophysiology of obesity. Ion channels present diverse key functions, such as the maintenance of physiological homeostasis and cell proliferation. Cell biology and pharmacological experimental evidences demonstrate that proliferating cells exhibit ion channel expression, conductance, and electrical properties different from the resting cells. Thereby, a large variety of ion channels has been identified in the pathogenesis of obesity such as potassium, sodium, calcium and chloride channels, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and transient receptor potential channels. The fundamental involvement of these channels on the generation of obesity leads to the progress in the knowledge about the mechanisms responsible for the obesity pathophysiology, consequently emerging as new targets for pharmacological modulation. PMID:27065858

  12. Therapeutic Potential of Tea Tree Oil for Scabies.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Jackson; Carson, Christine F; Peterson, Greg M; Walton, Shelley F; Hammer, Kate A; Naunton, Mark; Davey, Rachel C; Spelman, Tim; Dettwiller, Pascale; Kyle, Greg; Cooper, Gabrielle M; Baby, Kavya E

    2016-02-01

    Globally, scabies affects more than 130 million people at any time. In the developed world, outbreaks in health institutions and vulnerable communities result in a significant economic burden. A review of the literature demonstrates the emergence of resistance toward classical scabicidal treatments and the lack of effectiveness of currently available scabicides in reducing the inflammatory skin reactions and pyodermal progression that occurs in predisposed patient cohorts. Tea tree oil (TTO) has demonstrated promising acaricidal effects against scabies mites in vitro and has also been successfully used as an adjuvant topical medication for the treatment of crusted scabies, including cases that did not respond to standard treatments. Emerging acaricide resistance threatens the future usefulness of currently used gold standard treatments (oral ivermectin and topical permethrin) for scabies. The imminent development of new chemical entities is doubtful. The cumulative acaricidal, antibacterial, antipruritic, anti-inflammatory, and wound healing effects of TTO may have the potential to successfully reduce the burden of scabies infection and the associated bacterial complications. This review summarizes current knowledge on the use of TTO for the treatment of scabies. On the strength of existing data for TTO, larger scale, randomized controlled clinical trials are warranted. PMID:26787146

  13. Therapeutic Potential of Tea Tree Oil for Scabies

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Jackson; Carson, Christine F.; Peterson, Greg M.; Walton, Shelley F.; Hammer, Kate A.; Naunton, Mark; Davey, Rachel C.; Spelman, Tim; Dettwiller, Pascale; Kyle, Greg; Cooper, Gabrielle M.; Baby, Kavya E.

    2016-01-01

    Globally, scabies affects more than 130 million people at any time. In the developed world, outbreaks in health institutions and vulnerable communities result in a significant economic burden. A review of the literature demonstrates the emergence of resistance toward classical scabicidal treatments and the lack of effectiveness of currently available scabicides in reducing the inflammatory skin reactions and pyodermal progression that occurs in predisposed patient cohorts. Tea tree oil (TTO) has demonstrated promising acaricidal effects against scabies mites in vitro and has also been successfully used as an adjuvant topical medication for the treatment of crusted scabies, including cases that did not respond to standard treatments. Emerging acaricide resistance threatens the future usefulness of currently used gold standard treatments (oral ivermectin and topical permethrin) for scabies. The imminent development of new chemical entities is doubtful. The cumulative acaricidal, antibacterial, antipruritic, anti-inflammatory, and wound healing effects of TTO may have the potential to successfully reduce the burden of scabies infection and the associated bacterial complications. This review summarizes current knowledge on the use of TTO for the treatment of scabies. On the strength of existing data for TTO, larger scale, randomized controlled clinical trials are warranted. PMID:26787146

  14. Honey: A Potential Therapeutic Agent for Managing Diabetic Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Md. Asiful; Gan, Siew Hua; Khalil, Md. Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic wounds are unlike typical wounds in that they are slower to heal, making treatment with conventional topical medications an uphill process. Among several different alternative therapies, honey is an effective choice because it provides comparatively rapid wound healing. Although honey has been used as an alternative medicine for wound healing since ancient times, the application of honey to diabetic wounds has only recently been revived. Because honey has some unique natural features as a wound healer, it works even more effectively on diabetic wounds than on normal wounds. In addition, honey is known as an “all in one” remedy for diabetic wound healing because it can combat many microorganisms that are involved in the wound process and because it possesses antioxidant activity and controls inflammation. In this review, the potential role of honey's antibacterial activity on diabetic wound-related microorganisms and honey's clinical effectiveness in treating diabetic wounds based on the most recent studies is described. Additionally, ways in which honey can be used as a safer, faster, and effective healing agent for diabetic wounds in comparison with other synthetic medications in terms of microbial resistance and treatment costs are also described to support its traditional claims. PMID:25386217

  15. Targeting PARP-1 allosteric regulation offers therapeutic potential against cancer.

    PubMed

    Steffen, Jamin D; Tholey, Renee M; Langelier, Marie-France; Planck, Jamie L; Schiewer, Matthew J; Lal, Shruti; Bildzukewicz, Nikolai A; Yeo, Charles J; Knudsen, Karen E; Brody, Jonathan R; Pascal, John M

    2014-01-01

    PARP-1 is a nuclear protein that has important roles in maintenance of genomic integrity. During genotoxic stress, PARP-1 recruits to sites of DNA damage where PARP-1 domain architecture initiates catalytic activation and subsequent poly(ADP-ribose)-dependent DNA repair. PARP-1 inhibition is a promising new way to selectively target cancers harboring DNA repair deficiencies. However, current inhibitors target other PARPs, raising important questions about long-term off-target effects. Here, we propose a new strategy that targets PARP-1 allosteric regulation as a selective way of inhibiting PARP-1. We found that disruption of PARP-1 domain-domain contacts through mutagenesis held no cellular consequences on recruitment to DNA damage or a model system of transcriptional regulation, but prevented DNA-damage-dependent catalytic activation. Furthermore, PARP-1 mutant overexpression in a pancreatic cancer cell line (MIA PaCa-2) increased sensitivity to platinum-based anticancer agents. These results not only highlight the potential of a synergistic drug combination of allosteric PARP inhibitors with DNA-damaging agents in genomically unstable cancer cells (regardless of homologous recombination status), but also signify important applications of selective PARP-1 inhibition. Finally, the development of a high-throughput PARP-1 assay is described as a tool to promote discovery of novel PARP-1 selective inhibitors. PMID:24189460

  16. Therapeutic Potential of Targeting the Oncogenic SHP2 Phosphatase

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The Src homology 2 domain containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-2 (SHP2) is an oncogenic phosphatase associated with various kinds of leukemia and solid tumors. Thus, there is substantial interest in developing SHP2 inhibitors as potential anticancer and antileukemia agents. Using a structure-guided and fragment-based library approach, we identified a novel hydroxyindole carboxylic acid-based SHP2 inhibitor 11a-1, with an IC50 value of 200 nM and greater than 5-fold selectivity against 20 mammalian PTPs. Structural and modeling studies reveal that the hydroxyindole carboxylic acid anchors the inhibitor to the SHP2 active site, while interactions of the oxalamide linker and the phenylthiophene tail with residues in the β5–β6 loop contribute to 11a-1’s binding potency and selectivity. Evidence suggests that 11a-1 specifically attenuates the SHP2-dependent signaling inside the cell. Moreover, 11a-1 blocks growth factor mediated Erk1/2 and Akt activation and exhibits excellent antiproliferative activity in lung cancer and breast cancer as well as leukemia cell lines. PMID:25003231

  17. Metabotropic glutamate receptor ligands as potential therapeutics for addiction

    PubMed Central

    Olive, M. F.

    2009-01-01

    There is now compelling evidence that the excitatory amino acid neurotransmitter glutamate plays a pivotal role in drug addiction and alcoholism. As a result, there has been increasing interest in developing glutamate-based therapies for the treatment of addictive disorders. Receptors for glutamate are primarily divided into two classes: ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) that mediate fast excitatory glutamate transmission, and metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs), which are G-protein coupled receptors that mediate slower, modulatory glutamate transmission. Most iGluR antagonists, while showing some efficacy in animal models of addiction, exhibit serious side effects when tested in humans. mGluR ligands, on the other hand, which have been advanced to testing in clinical trials for various medical conditions, have demonstrated the ability to reduce drug reward, reinforcement, and relapse-like behaviors in animal studies. mGluR ligands that have been shown to be primarily effective are Group I (mGluR1 and mGluR5) negative allosteric modulators and Group II (mGluR2 and mGluR3) orthosteric presynaptic autoreceptor agonists. In this review, we will summarize findings from animal studies suggesting that these mGluR ligands may be of potential benefit in reducing on-going drug self-administration and may aid in the prevention of relapse. The neuroanatomical distribution of mGluR1, mGluR2/3, and mGluR5 receptors and the pharmacological properties of Group I negative allosteric modulators and Group II agonists will also be overviewed. Finally, we will discuss the current status of mGluR ligands in human clinical trials. PMID:19630739

  18. Potential treatment options and future research to increase hepatitis C virus treatment response rate

    PubMed Central

    TenCate, Veronica; Sainz, Bruno; Cotler, Scott J; Uprichard, Susan L

    2010-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a liver-tropic blood-borne pathogen that affects more than 170 million people worldwide. Although acute infections are usually asymptomatic, up to 90% of HCV infections persist with the possibility of long-term consequences such as liver fibrosis, cirrhosis, steatosis, insulin resistance, or hepatocellular carcinoma. As such, HCV-associated liver disease is a major public health concern. Although the currently available standard of care therapy of pegylated interferon α plus ribavirin successfully treats infection in a subset of patients, the development of more effective, less toxic HCV antivirals is a health care imperative. This review not only discusses the limitations of the current HCV standard of care but also evaluates upcoming HCV treatment options and how current research elucidating the viral life cycle is facilitating the development of HCV-specific therapeutics that promise to greatly improve treatment response rates both before and after liver transplantation. PMID:21331152

  19. An immunomodulating dipeptide, SCV-07, is a potential therapeutic for recurrent genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2).

    PubMed

    Rose, William A; Tuthill, Cynthia; Pyles, Richard B

    2008-09-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infections produce a recurrent disease state associated with susceptibility to other pathogens, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and cannot be cured by current therapeutic treatments. The HSV-2 epidemic must therefore be addressed by therapeutic strategies that reduce recurrent lesions and ideally lack the possibility for development of drug resistance. To this end, the therapeutic potential of SCV-07 (gamma-D-glutamyl-L-tryptophan), a synthetic dipeptide with potent immunomodulatory and antimicrobial activity, was studied in the guinea pig model of recurrent genital HSV-2. Initial evaluations showed that when delivered orally, but not subcutaneously, SCV-07 significantly reduced recurrent lesions. Oral dose ranging studies indicated that, of the tested amounts, 5microg/kg was optimal when delivered after an overnight fast. Interestingly, fasting induced a significant increase in recurrent lesions in vehicle-treated guinea pigs relative to non-fasted animals. Despite this increase, SCV-07 significantly reduced lesion formation in treated animals but showed no durability following cessation of treatment. In fact, this regimen of SCV-07 treatment produced statistically indistinguishable outcomes compared with those provided by topical aciclovir. These data illustrate that SCV-07 may provide an easily administered alternative or supplemental treatment option for genital HSV-2 recurrent disease. PMID:18619817

  20. Potential Therapeutic Targets for Oral Cancer: ADM, TP53, EGFR, LYN, CTLA4, SKIL, CTGF, CD70

    PubMed Central

    Bundela, Saurabh; Sharma, Anjana; Bisen, Prakash S.

    2014-01-01

    In India, oral cancer has consistently ranked among top three causes of cancer-related deaths, and it has emerged as a top cause for the cancer-related deaths among men. Lack of effective therapeutic options is one of the main challenges in clinical management of oral cancer patients. We interrogated large pool of samples from oral cancer gene expression studies to identify potential therapeutic targets that are involved in multiple cancer hallmark events. Therapeutic strategies directed towards such targets can be expected to effectively control cancer cells. Datasets from different gene expression studies were integrated by removing batch-effects and was used for downstream analyses, including differential expression analysis. Dependency network analysis was done to identify genes that undergo marked topological changes in oral cancer samples when compared with control samples. Causal reasoning analysis was carried out to identify significant hypotheses, which can explain gene expression profiles observed in oral cancer samples. Text-mining based approach was used to detect cancer hallmarks associated with genes significantly expressed in oral cancer. In all, 2365 genes were detected to be differentially expressed genes, which includes some of the highly differentially expressed genes like matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-1/3/10/13), chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligands (IL8, CXCL-10/-11), PTHLH, SERPINE1, NELL2, S100A7A, MAL, CRNN, TGM3, CLCA4, keratins (KRT-3/4/13/76/78), SERPINB11 and serine peptidase inhibitors (SPINK-5/7). XIST, TCEAL2, NRAS and FGFR2 are some of the important genes detected by dependency and causal network analysis. Literature mining analysis annotated 1014 genes, out of which 841 genes were statistically significantly annotated. The integration of output of various analyses, resulted in the list of potential therapeutic targets for oral cancer, which included targets such as ADM, TP53, EGFR, LYN, CTLA4, SKIL, CTGF and CD70. PMID:25029526

  1. New insights into pathogenesis and potential therapeutic options for Graves orbitopathy.

    PubMed

    Warwar, R E

    1999-10-01

    Graves disease is an autoimmune disorder that affects the seemingly heterogeneous tissues of the thyroid and orbit. Evidence suggests that these tissues share a common antigen: the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor protein. It is speculated that this antigen (which is present in orbital tissue in both normal patients and patients with Graves disease), together with the humoral factors present in the serum of patients with Graves disease, forms the basis for the immunologic attack seen in Graves ophthalmopathy. Once the immune response has been activated, a series of pro-inflammatory cytokines propagate inflammation, leading to the clinical findings typical of Graves ophthalmopathy. Knowledge of the specific inflammatory mediators involved may someday lead to the development of specific, clinically available immunomodulatory therapies for Graves eye disease. PMID:10621552

  2. Update on the pathogenic potential and treatment options for Blastocystis sp.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Tamalee; Stark, Damien; Harkness, John; Ellis, John

    2014-01-01

    Although Blastocystis is one of the most common enteric parasites, there is still much controversy surrounding the pathogenicity and potential treatment options for this parasite. In this review we look at the evidence supporting Blastocystis as an intestinal pathogen as shown by numerous case studies and several in vivo studies and the evidence against. We describe the chronic nature of some infections and show the role of Blastocystis in immunocompromised patients and the relationship between irritable bowel syndrome and Blastocystis infection. There have been several studies that have suggested that pathogenicity may be subtype related. Metronidazole is the most widely accepted treatment for Blastocystis but several cases of treatment failure and resistance have been described. Other treatment options which have been suggested include paromomycin and trimethroprim- sulfamethoxazole. PMID:24883113

  3. Update on the pathogenic potential and treatment options for Blastocystis sp

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Although Blastocystis is one of the most common enteric parasites, there is still much controversy surrounding the pathogenicity and potential treatment options for this parasite. In this review we look at the evidence supporting Blastocystis as an intestinal pathogen as shown by numerous case studies and several in vivo studies and the evidence against. We describe the chronic nature of some infections and show the role of Blastocystis in immunocompromised patients and the relationship between irritable bowel syndrome and Blastocystis infection. There have been several studies that have suggested that pathogenicity may be subtype related. Metronidazole is the most widely accepted treatment for Blastocystis but several cases of treatment failure and resistance have been described. Other treatment options which have been suggested include paromomycin and trimethroprim- sulfamethoxazole. PMID:24883113

  4. Microencapsulation technology by nature: Cell derived extracellular vesicles with therapeutic potential

    PubMed Central

    Falus, A.; Buzs, E.

    2013-01-01

    Cell derived extracellular vesicles are submicron structures surrounded by phospholipid bilayer and released by both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. The sizes of these vesicles roughly fall into the size ranges of microbes, and they represent efficient delivery platforms targeting complex molecular information to professional antigen presenting cells. Critical roles of these naturally formulated units of information have been described in many physiological and pathological processes. Extracellular vesicles are not only potential biomarkers and possible pathogenic factors in numerous diseases, but they are also considered as emerging therapeutic targets and therapeutic vehicles. Strikingly, current drug delivery systems, designed to convey therapeutic proteins and peptides (such as liposomes), show many similarities to extracellular vesicles. Here we review some aspects of therapeutic implementation of natural, cell-derived extracellular vesicles in human diseases. Exploration of molecular and functional details of extracellular vesicle release and action may provide important lessons for the design of future drug delivery systems. PMID:24265924

  5. Therapeutic potential of host defense peptides in antibiotic-resistant infections.

    PubMed

    Afacan, Nicole J; Yeung, Amy T Y; Pena, Olga M; Hancock, Robert E W

    2012-01-01

    The emergence of infections caused by multi-drug resistant (MDR) pathogens pose a major burden to modern healthcare. Exacerbating this issue is the substantial decline in development of new classes of antibiotics by pharmaceutical companies. This has led to renewed interest in the therapeutic potential of natural anti-infective agents such as host defense peptides (HDPs). The broad antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activities of HDPs and their synthetic derivatives, coupled with the fact that they do not readily induce microbial resistance, makes them extremely valuable leads in the development of new treatment strategies for MDR infections. This review examines our knowledge of the mechanisms behind multi-drug resistance as well as the properties of HDPs and their therapeutic potential, especially in the case of MDR infections. Challenges to their development as new therapeutics are also discussed. PMID:22236127

  6. Adenosine potentiates the therapeutic effects of neural stem cells expressing cytosine deaminase against metastatic brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Kang, Wonyoung; Seol, Ho Jun; Seong, Dong-Ho; Kim, Jandi; Kim, Yonghyun; Kim, Seung U; Nam, Do-Hyun; Joo, Kyeung Min

    2013-09-01

    Tumor-tropic properties of neural stem cells (NSCs) provide a novel approach with which to deliver targeting therapeutic genes to brain tumors. Previously, we developed a therapeutic strategy against metastatic brain tumors using a human NSC line (F3) expressing cytosine deaminase (F3.CD). F3.CD converts systemically administered 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC), a blood-brain barrier permeable nontoxic prodrug, into the anticancer agent 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). In this study, we potentiated a therapeutic strategy of treatment with nucleosides in order to chemically facilitate the endogenous conversion of 5-FU to its toxic metabolite 5-FU ribonucleoside (5-FUR). In vitro, 5-FUR showed superior cytotoxic activity against MDA-MB-435 cancer cells when compared to 5-FU. Although adenosine had little cytotoxic activity, the addition of adenosine significantly potentiated the in vitro cytotoxicity of 5-FU. When MDA-MB‑435 cells were co-cultured with F3.CD cells, F3.CD cells and 5-FC inhibited the growth of MDA-MB-435 cells more significantly in the presence of adenosine. Facilitated 5-FUR production by F3.CD was confirmed by an HPLC analysis of the conditioned media derived from F3.CD cells treated with 5-FC and adenosine. In vivo systemic adenosine treatment also significantly potentiated the therapeutic effects of F3.CD cells and 5-FC in an MDA-MB-435 metastatic brain tumor model. Simple adenosine addition improved the antitumor activity of the NSCs carrying the therapeutic gene. Our results demonstrated an increased therapeutic potential, and thereby, clinical applicability of NSC-based gene therapy. PMID:23828015

  7. Intracellular delivery of potential therapeutic genes: prospects in cancer gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Bakhtiar, Athirah; Sayyad, Mustak; Rosli, Rozita; Maruyama, Atsushi; Chowdhury, Ezharul H

    2014-01-01

    Conventional therapies for malignant cancer such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy are associated with poor survival rates owing to the development of cellular resistance to cancer drugs and the lack of targetability, resulting in unwanted adverse effects on healthy cells and necessitating the lowering of therapeutic dose with consequential lower efficacy of the treatment. Gene therapy employing different types of viral and non-viral carriers to transport gene(s) of interest and facilitating production of the desirable therapeutic protein(s) has tremendous prospects in cancer treatments due to the high-level of specificity in therapeutic action of the expressed protein(s) with diminished off-target effects, although cancer cell-specific delivery of transgene(s) still poses some challenges to be addressed. Depending on the potential therapeutic target genes, cancer gene therapy could be categorized into tumor suppressor gene replacement therapy, immune gene therapy and enzyme- or prodrug-based therapy. This review would shed light on the current progress of delivery of potentially therapeutic genes into various cancer cells in vitro and animal models utilizing a variety of viral and non-viral vectors. PMID:25039616

  8. New treatment options in the management of hypertension: appraising the potential role of azilsartan medoxomil.

    PubMed

    Volpe, Massimo; Savoia, Carmine

    2012-01-01

    Renin-angiotensin-system (RAS) activation plays a key role in the development of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Drugs that antagonize the RAS (angiotensin-converting enzyme [ACE] inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers [ARBs]) have proven clinical efficacy in reducing blood pressure values and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. ACE inhibitors partially inhibit plasma ACE, and angiotensin II generation. Thus, ARBs, which block selectively type 1 angiotensin II receptor (AT(1)R), have been developed and used in the clinical management of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Experimental and clinical trials with ARBs indicate that this class of drug represents an effective, safe and well tolerated therapeutic option for the prevention and care of hypertension, even though there is no proven superiority as compared to ACE inhibitors except for the better tolerability. Most ARBs may not completely inhibit the AT(1)R at the approved clinical doses. Azilsartan medoxomil is a newly approved ARB for the management of hypertension. This ARB induces a potent and long-lasting antihypertensive effect and may have cardioprotective properties. This article reviews the current evidence on the clinical effectiveness of azilsartan in hypertension. PMID:22457601

  9. New treatment options in the management of hypertension: appraising the potential role of azilsartan medoxomil

    PubMed Central

    Volpe, Massimo; Savoia, Carmine

    2012-01-01

    Renin–angiotensin–system (RAS) activation plays a key role in the development of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Drugs that antagonize the RAS (angiotensin-converting enzyme [ACE] inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers [ARBs]) have proven clinical efficacy in reducing blood pressure values and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. ACE inhibitors partially inhibit plasma ACE, and angiotensin II generation. Thus, ARBs, which block selectively type 1 angiotensin II receptor (AT1R), have been developed and used in the clinical management of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Experimental and clinical trials with ARBs indicate that this class of drug represents an effective, safe and well tolerated therapeutic option for the prevention and care of hypertension, even though there is no proven superiority as compared to ACE inhibitors except for the better tolerability. Most ARBs may not completely inhibit the AT1R at the approved clinical doses. Azilsartan medoxomil is a newly approved ARB for the management of hypertension. This ARB induces a potent and long-lasting antihypertensive effect and may have cardioprotective properties. This article reviews the current evidence on the clinical effectiveness of azilsartan in hypertension. PMID:22457601

  10. Jak2 Tyrosine Kinase: A Potential Therapeutic Target for AT1 Receptor Mediated Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kirabo, Annet; Sayeski, Peter P.

    2010-01-01

    Patients with hypertension often manifest a dysregulated renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). Most of the available treatment approaches for hypertension are targeted towards the RAAS including direct renin inhibition, ACE inhibition, angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1-R) blockade, and aldosterone receptor antagonism. The Jak2 signaling pathway is intricately coupled to the AT1-R signaling processes involved in hypertension. Here, we review the involvement of Jak2 in the pathogenesis of hypertension, and its potential as a therapeutic target for treatment of AT1-R mediated cardiovascular disease. Jak2 may provide a rational therapeutic approach for patients whose blood pressure is not controlled by standard therapies.

  11. Family physicians’ continuing professional development activities: current practices and potential for new options

    PubMed Central

    Lindsay, Elizabeth; Wooltorton, Eric; Hendry, Paul; Williams, Kathryn; Wells, George

    2016-01-01

    Background As part of needs assessment processes, our Faculty of Medicine (FOM) continuing professional development office investigated the differences between physicians who do and those who do not frequently participate in planned group learning to gain insight into their interest in new forms of continuing professional development (CPD). Method We sent a 19 item questionnaire to 485 randomly selected physicians of the 1050 family physicians in Eastern Ontario. The questionnaire examined present participation and satisfaction with CPD activities and perceptions regarding the potential impact of those; and appetite for new opportunities to meet their learning needs. Results Of the 151 (31%) physicians responding, 61% reported attending at least one FOM group learning program in the past 18 months (attenders) and 39% had not (non-attenders). Non-attenders indicated less satisfaction (p = 0.04) with present opportunities and requested development in newer approaches such as support for self-learning, on-line opportunities, and simulation. Conclusions Although there are high levels of satisfaction with the present CPD system that predominantly offers large group learning options, a substantial number of physicians expressed interest in accessing new options such as personal study and on-line resources. PMID:27103951

  12. Energy saving potential of residential HVAC options at Fort Irwin, California

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, D.L.; Stucky, D.J.

    1995-03-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) evaluated heating and cooling system options for existing family housing at Fort Irwin, California. The purpose of this work was to quantify the energy conservation potential of alternative system types and to identify the most cost-effective technology available. The conventional residential heating/cooling systems at Fort Irwin are separate propane forced-air furnaces and central air conditioners. The options examined included air- and ground-source heat pumps, a natural gas furnace with central air conditioning, and a natural-gas-fired heat pump. The most cost-effective technology applicable to Fort Irwin was found to be the high-efficiency ground-source heat pumps. If all conventional units were replaced immediately, the net energy savings would be 76,660 MBtu (80.9 TJ) per year and a reduction in electrical demand of approximately 15,000 kW-month. The initial investment for implementing this technology would be approximately $7.1 million, with a savings-to-investment ratio of 1.74.

  13. Guaranteed Student Loans: Potential Default and Cost Reduction Options. Briefing Report to Congressional Requesters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of Human Resources.

    Thirty options for reducing guaranteed student loan defaults and related federal costs are provided by the General Accounting Office (GAO). The options are presented by groups of program participants: students, schools, lenders, guaranty agencies, and the Department of Education. These options include: adopt GAO's past recommendation to increase…

  14. The therapeutic potential of manipulating gut microbiota in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Kootte, R S; Vrieze, A; Holleman, F; Dallinga-Thie, G M; Zoetendal, E G; de Vos, W M; Groen, A K; Hoekstra, J B L; Stroes, E S; Nieuwdorp, M

    2012-02-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are attributed to a combination of genetic susceptibility and lifestyle factors. Their increasing prevalence necessitates further studies on modifiable causative factors and novel treatment options. The gut microbiota has emerged as an important contributor to the obesity--and T2DM--epidemic proposed to act by increasing energy harvest from the diet. Although obesity is associated with substantial changes in the composition and metabolic function of the gut microbiota, the pathophysiological processes remain only partly understood. In this review we will describe the development of the adult human microbiome and discuss how the composition of the gut microbiota changes in response to modulating factors. The influence of short-chain fatty acids, bile acids, prebiotics, probiotics, antibiotics and microbial transplantation is discussed from studies using animal and human models. Ultimately, we aim to translate these findings into therapeutic pathways for obesity and T2DM in humans. PMID:21812894

  15. Potential External (non-DOE) Constraints on U.S. Fuel Cycle Options

    SciTech Connect

    Steven J. Piet

    2012-07-01

    The DOE Fuel Cycle Technologies (FCT) Program will be conducting a screening of fuel cycle options in FY2013 to help focus fuel cycle R&D activities. As part of this screening, performance criteria and go/no-go criteria are being identified. To help ensure that these criteria are consistent with current policy, an effort was initiated to identify the status and basis of potentially relevant regulations, laws, and policies that have been established external to DOE. As such regulations, laws, and policies may be beyond DOE’s control to change, they may constrain the screening criteria and internally-developed policy. This report contains a historical survey and analysis of publically available domestic documents that could pertain to external constraints on advanced nuclear fuel cycles. “External” is defined as public documents outside DOE. This effort did not include survey and analysis of constraints established internal to DOE.

  16. Identification of Potential Therapeutic Targets for Burkholderia cenocepacia by Comparative Transcriptomics

    PubMed Central

    Yoder-Himes, Deborah R.; Konstantinidis, Konstantinos T.; Tiedje, James M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Burkholderia cenocepacia is an endemic soil dweller and emerging opportunistic pathogen in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). The identification of virulence factors and potential therapeutic targets has been hampered by the genomic diversity within the species as many factors are not shared among the pathogenic members of the species. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, global identification of putative virulence factors was performed by analyzing the transcriptome of two related strains of B. cenocepacia (one clinical, one environmental) under conditions mimicking cystic fibrosis sputum versus soil. Soil is a natural reservoir for this species; hence, genes induced under CF conditions relative to soil may represent adaptations that have occurred in clinical strains. Under CF conditions, several genes encoding proteins thought to be involved in virulence were induced and many new ones were identified. Our analysis, in combination with previous studies, reveals 458 strain-specific genes, 126 clinical-isolate-specific, and at least four species-specific genes that are induced under CF conditions. The chromosomal distribution of the induced genes was disproportionate to the size of the chromosome as genes expressed under soil conditions by both strains were more frequent on the second chromosome and those differentially regulated between strains were more frequent on the third chromosome. Conservation of these induced genes was established using the 11 available Bcc genome sequences to indicate whether potential therapeutic targets would be species-wide. Conclusions/Significance Comparative transcriptomics is a useful way to identify new potential virulence factors and therapeutic targets for pathogenic bacteria. We identified eight genes induced under CF conditions that were also conserved in the Bcc and may constitute particularly attractive therapeutic targets due to their signal sequence, predicted cellular location, and homology to known therapeutic targets. PMID:20090946

  17. Comparison of potential health and safety impacts of different disposal options for defense high-level wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Kocher, D.C.; Smith, E.D.; Witherspoon, J.P.

    1984-12-31

    A comparative assessment has been performed of the potential long- and short-term health and safety impacts of different disposal options for defense high-level wastes. Conservative models and assumptions were used. The assessment suggests that considerations of health and safety will not be significant in choosing among disposal options, primarily because of the need to meet stringent standards in all cases. Rather, the ease and cost of assuring compliance of a particular disposal option with health and safety standards may be a more important factor. 11 references.

  18. Immunohistochemical detection of a potential molecular therapeutic target for canine hemangiosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    ADACHI, Mami; HOSHINO, Yuki; IZUMI, Yusuke; TAKAGI, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Canine hemangiosarcoma (HSA) is a progressive malignant neoplasm of dogs for which there is currently no effective treatment. A recent study suggested that receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), the PI3K/Akt/m-TOR and MAPK pathways are all activated in canine and human HSA. The aim of the present study was to investigate the overexpression of these proteins by immunohistochemistry in canine splenic HSA to identify potential molecular therapeutic targets. A total of 10 splenic HSAs and two normal splenic samples surgically resected from dogs were sectioned and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histological diagnosis or analyzed using immunohistochemistry. The expression of RTKs, c-kit, VEGFR-2 and PDGFR-2, as well as PI3K/Akt/m-TOR and MEK was higher in canine splenic HSAs compared to normal spleens. These proteins may therefore be potential therapeutic targets in canine splenic HSA. PMID:26685984

  19. Life on the line: the therapeutic potentials of computer-mediated conversation.

    PubMed

    Miller, J K; Gergen, K J

    1998-04-01

    In what ways are computer networking practices comparable to face-to-face therapy? With the exponential increase in computer-mediated communication and the increasing numbers of people joining topically based computer networks, the potential for grass-roots therapeutic (or antitherapeutic) interchange is greatly augmented. Here we report the results of research into exchanges on an electronic bulletin board devoted to the topic of suicide. Over an 11-month period participants offered each other valuable resources in terms of validation of experience, sympathy, acceptance, and encouragement. They also asked provocative questions and furnished broad-ranging advice. Hostile entries were rare. However, there were few communiques that parallel the change-inducing practices more frequent within many therapeutic settings. In effect, on-line dialogues seemed more sustaining than transforming. Further limits and potentials of on-line communication are explored. PMID:9583058

  20. Therapeutic potential of KCa3.1 blockers: an overview of recent advances, and promising trends

    PubMed Central

    Wulff, Heike; Castle, Neil A.

    2012-01-01

    The calcium-activated potassium channel KCa3.1 regulates membrane potential and calcium signaling in erythrocytes, activated T and B cells, macrophages, microglia, vascular endothelium, epithelia, and proliferating vascular smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts. KCa3.1 has therefore been suggested as a potential therapeutic target for diseases such as sickle cell anemia, asthma, coronary restenosis after angioplasty, atherosclerosis, kidney fibrosis and autoimmunity, where activation and excessive proliferation of one or more of these cell types is involved in the pathology. This article will review KCa3.1’s physiology and pharmacology and critically examine the available preclinical and clinical data validating KCa3.1 as a therapeutic target. PMID:22111618

  1. Immunohistochemical detection of a potential molecular therapeutic target for canine hemangiosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Mami; Hoshino, Yuki; Izumi, Yusuke; Takagi, Satoshi

    2016-05-01

    Canine hemangiosarcoma (HSA) is a progressive malignant neoplasm of dogs for which there is currently no effective treatment. A recent study suggested that receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), the PI3K/Akt/m-TOR and MAPK pathways are all activated in canine and human HSA. The aim of the present study was to investigate the overexpression of these proteins by immunohistochemistry in canine splenic HSA to identify potential molecular therapeutic targets. A total of 10 splenic HSAs and two normal splenic samples surgically resected from dogs were sectioned and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histological diagnosis or analyzed using immunohistochemistry. The expression of RTKs, c-kit, VEGFR-2 and PDGFR-2, as well as PI3K/Akt/m-TOR and MEK was higher in canine splenic HSAs compared to normal spleens. These proteins may therefore be potential therapeutic targets in canine splenic HSA. PMID:26685984

  2. Multi-therapeutic potential of autoantibodies induced by immune complexes trapped on follicular dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    El Shikh, Mohey Eldin; Kmieciak, Maciej; Manjili, Masoud H; Szakal, Andras K; Pitzalis, Costantino; Tew, John G

    2013-01-01

    Induction of autoantibodies (autoAbs) targeting disease drivers / mediators is emerging as a potential immunotherapeutic strategy. Auto-immune complex (IC)-retaining follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) critically regulate pathogenic autoAb production in autoreactive germinal centers (GCs); however, their ability to induce potentially therapeutic autoAbs has not been explored. We hypothesized that deliberate display of clinically targeted antigens (Ags) in the form of ICs on FDC membranes induces target-specific autoreactive GCs and autoAbs that may be exploited therapeutically. To test our hypothesis, three therapeutically relevant Ags: TNF-α, HER2/neu and IgE, were investigated. Our results indicated that TNF-α-, HER2/neu- and IgE-specific autoAbs associated with strong GC reactions were induced by TNF-α-, HER2/neu- and IgE-IC retention on FDCs. Moreover, the induced anti-TNF-α autoAbs neutralized mouse and human TNF-α with half maximal Inhibitory Concentration (IC50) of 7.1 and 1.6 nM respectively. In addition, we demonstrated that FDC-induced Ab production could be non-specifically inhibited by the IgG-specific Endo-S that accessed the light zones of GCs and interfered with FDC-IC retention. In conclusion, the ability of FDCs to productively present autoAgs raises the potential for a novel immunotherapeutic platform targeting mediators of autoimmune disorders, allergic diseases, and Ab responsive cancers. PMID:23836278

  3. Kinase inhibitors as potential therapeutics for acute and chronic neurodegenerative conditions.

    PubMed

    Cuny, G D

    2009-01-01

    Kinases, which number > 500 in humans, are a class of enzymes that participate in an array of important functions within normal cellular physiology and during various pathological conditions. Due to the key role of kinases in the regulation of all aspects of cellular signaling and the well established contribution of kinase dysregulation to the etiology of many human pathologies, the development of kinase inhibitors has emerged as a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of human disease, including most notably oncology. Difficulties generating selective inhibitors have hampered their use in other therapeutic areas with less tolerance for off-target effects. However, with an increasing understanding of kinase structures and with the advent of newer inhibitor design strategies more highly selective inhibitors are beginning to emerge. This has prompted interest in utilizing kinase inhibitors in therapeutic areas beyond oncology, including acute and chronic neurodegenerative conditions for which disease modify therapies are lacking. This review provides a background in acute (i.e. brain ischemia and traumatic brain injury) and chronic (i.e. Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and multiple sclerosis) neurodegenerative conditions. Then, the role of several kinase (i.e. JNK3, p38 MAPK, ERK, PKC, ROCKII, GSK3, Cdk5, MLK, EphB3 kinase, RIP1 kinase, LRRK2, TTBK1, ASK1, CK, DAPK, and PKN1) that could serve as potential therapeutic targets for these maladies are reviewed. PMID:19751204

  4. A Review of Thorium Utilization as an option for Advanced Fuel Cycle--Potential Option for Brazil in the Future

    SciTech Connect

    Maiorino, J.R.; Carluccio, T.

    2004-10-03

    Since the beginning of Nuclear Energy Development, Thorium was considered as a potential fuel, mainly due to the potential to produce fissile uranium 233. Several Th/U fuel cycles, using thermal and fast reactors were proposed, such as the Radkwoski once through fuel cycle for PWR and VVER, the thorium fuel cycles for CANDU Reactors, the utilization in Molten Salt Reactors, the utilization of thorium in thermal (AHWR), and fast reactors (FBTR) in India, and more recently in innovative reactors, mainly Accelerator Driven System, in a double strata fuel cycle. All these concepts besides the increase in natural nuclear resources are justified by non proliferation issues (plutonium constrain) and the waste radiological toxicity reduction. The paper intended to summarize these developments, with an emphasis in the Th/U double strata fuel cycle using ADS. Brazil has one of the biggest natural reserves of thorium, estimated in 1.2 millions of tons of ThO{sub 2}, as will be reviewed in this paper, and therefore R&D programs would be of strategically national interest. In fact, in the past there was some projects to utilize Thorium in Reactors, as the ''Instinto/Toruna'' Project, in cooperation with France, to utilize Thorium in Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor, in the mid of sixties to mid of seventies, and the thorium utilization in PWR, in cooperation with German, from 1979-1988. The paper will review these initiatives in Brazil, and will propose to continue in Brazil activities related with Th/U fuel cycle.

  5. The wonderous chaperones: A highlight on therapeutics of cancer and potentially malignant disorders

    PubMed Central

    Tyagi, Nutan; Tyagi, Rishi

    2015-01-01

    Diverse environmental and physiological factors are known to induce the transcription of a set of genes encoding special protective molecules known as “molecular chaperones” within our cells. Literature abounds in evidence regarding the varied roles; these “guides” can effectively perform in our system. Highly conserved through evolution, from the prokaryotes to the eukaryotes, these make perfect study tools for verifying their role in both the pathogenesis as well as the therapeutics of varied neurodegenerative, autoimmune and potentially malignant disorders and varied cancer states. We present a concise review of this ever dynamic molecule, highlighting the probable role in a potentially malignant disorder, oral lichen planus. PMID:26604499

  6. Anti-Heparanase Aptamers as Potential Diagnostic and Therapeutic Agents for Oral Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Dilson; Cortez, Celia M.; McKenzie, Edward A.; Bitu, Carolina C.; Salo, Sirpa; Nurmenniemi, Sini; Nyberg, Pia; Risteli, Juha; deAlmeida, Carlos E. B.; Brenchley, Paul E. C.; Salo, Tuula; Missailidis, Sotiris

    2014-01-01

    Heparanase is an endoglycosidase enzyme present in activated leucocytes, mast cells, placental tissue, neutrophils and macrophages, and is involved in tumour metastasis and tissue invasion. It presents a potential target for cancer therapies and various molecules have been developed in an attempt to inhibit the enzymatic action of heparanase. In an attempt to develop a novel therapeutic with an associated diagnostic assay, we have previously described high affinity aptamers selected against heparanase. In this work, we demonstrated that these anti-heparanase aptamers are capable of inhibiting tissue invasion of tumour cells associated with oral cancer and verified that such inhibition is due to inhibition of the enzyme and not due to other potentially cytotoxic effects of the aptamers. Furthermore, we have identified a short 30 bases aptamer as a potential candidate for further studies, as this showed a higher ability to inhibit tissue invasion than its longer counterpart, as well as a reduced potential for complex formation with other non-specific serum proteins. Finally, the aptamer was found to be stable and therefore suitable for use in human models, as it showed no degradation in the presence of human serum, making it a potential candidate for both diagnostic and therapeutic use. PMID:25295847

  7. Development of Optically Active Nanostructures for Potential Applications in Sensing, Therapeutics and Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Padmanabh

    Materials at nanoscale are finding manifold applications in the various fields like sensing, plasmonics, therapeutics, to mention a few. Large amount of development has taken place regarding synthesis and exploring the novel applications of the various types of nanomaterials like organic, inorganic and hybrid of both. Yet, it is believed that the full potential of different nanomaterials is yet to be fully established stimulating researchers to explore more in the field of nanotechnology. Building on the same premise, in the following studies we have developed the nanomaterials in the class of optically active nanoparticles. First part of the study we have successfully designed, synthesized, and characterized Ag-Fe3O4 nanocomposite substrate for potential applications in quantitative Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) measurements. Quantitative SERS-based detection of dopamine was performed successfully. In subsequent study, facile, single-step synthesis of polyethyleneimine (PEI) coated lanthanide based NaYF4 (Yb, Er) nanoparticles was developed and their application as potential photodynamic therapy agent was studied using excitations by light in near infra-red and visible region. In the following and last study, synthesis and characterization of the conjugated polymer nanoparticles was attempted successfully. Functionalization of the conjugated nanoparticles, which is a bottleneck for their potential applications, was successfully performed by encapsulating them in the silica nanoparticles, surface of which was then functionalized by amine group. Three types of optically active nanoparticles were developed for potential applications in sensing, therapeutics and imaging.

  8. Is radical nephrectomy a legitimate therapeutic option in patients with renal masses amenable to nephron-sparing surgery?

    PubMed

    Tomaszewski, Jeffrey J; Smaldone, Marc C; Uzzo, Robert G; Kutikov, Alexander

    2015-03-01

    The decision to perform a radical nephrectomy (RN) or a partial nephrectomy (PN), not unlike most decisions in clinical practice, ultimately hinges on the balance of risk. Do the higher risks of a more complex surgery (PN) justify the theoretical benefits of kidney tissue preservation? Data suggest that for patients with an anatomically complex renal mass and a normal contralateral kidney, for whom additional surgical intensity may be risky, such as the elderly and comorbid, RN presents a robust treatment option. Nevertheless, PN, especially for small and anatomically simple renal masses in young patients without comorbidities should remain the surgical reference standard, as preservation of renal tissue can serve as an 'insurance policy' not only against future renal functional decline, but also against the possibility of tumour development in the contralateral kidney. In the present review, we outline the ongoing debate between the role of RN and PN in treatment of the enhancing renal mass. PMID:25195528

  9. Metabolic actions of natriuretic peptides and therapeutic potential in the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Schlueter, Nina; de Sterke, Anita; Willmes, Diana M; Spranger, Joachim; Jordan, Jens; Birkenfeld, Andreas L

    2014-10-01

    Natriuretic peptides (NPs) are a group of peptide-hormones mainly secreted from the heart, signaling via c-GMP coupled receptors. NP are well known for their renal and cardiovascular actions, reducing arterial blood pressure as well as sodium reabsorption. Novel physiological functions have been discovered in recent years, including activation of lipolysis, lipid oxidation, and mitochondrial respiration. Together, these responses promote white adipose tissue browning, increase muscular oxidative capacity, particularly during physical exercise, and protect against diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. Exaggerated NP release is a common finding in congestive heart failure. In contrast, NP deficiency is observed in obesity and in type-2 diabetes, pointing to an involvement of NP in the pathophysiology of metabolic disease. Based upon these findings, the NP system holds the potential to be amenable to therapeutical intervention against pandemic diseases such as obesity, insulin resistance, and arterial hypertension. Various therapeutic approaches are currently under development. This paper reviews the current knowledge on the metabolic effects of the NP system and discusses potential therapeutic applications. PMID:24780848

  10. Transcript Profiling and RNA Interference as Tools to Identify Small Molecule Mechanisms and Therapeutic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Palchaudhuri, Rahul; Hergenrother, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    Summary The identification of the mechanism-of-action and therapeutic potential of bioactive small molecules remain considerable challenges in the field of drug discovery and chemical biology. Apart from traditional target identification techniques, new tools have emerged that can significantly aid mechanism elucidation efforts. The development of pattern matching algorithms that compare transcription profile data to analogous data on compounds with known cellular targets allows for mechanistic insights without the need to synthesize chemically modified probes. In addition, such methods can be used to connect small molecules to particular disease states, thus aiding the rational identification of candidate therapeutics. Another method with considerable potential is whole-genome RNAi screening, a technique that can identify critical upstream proteins involved in a small molecules mechanism-of-action. Several proof-of-concept studies using compounds with known cellular targets suggest this tool will enable mechanistic characterization of bioactive small molecules with unknown mechanisms. This review highlights recent successes in using these pattern matching and chemical genetic tools, with the goal of uncovering small molecule mechanisms and identifying therapeutic candidates for disease treatment. PMID:21105689

  11. Significance of Antioxidant Potential of Plants and its Relevance to Therapeutic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Kasote, Deepak M.; Katyare, Surendra S.; Hegde, Mahabaleshwar V.; Bae, Hanhong

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been identified as the root cause of the development and progression of several diseases. Supplementation of exogenous antioxidants or boosting endogenous antioxidant defenses of the body is a promising way of combating the undesirable effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced oxidative damage. Plants have an innate ability to biosynthesize a wide range of non-enzymatic antioxidants capable of attenuating ROS- induced oxidative damage. Several in vitro methods have been used to screen plants for their antioxidant potential, and in most of these assays they revealed potent antioxidant activity. However, prior to confirming their in vivo therapeutic efficacy, plant antioxidants have to pass through several physiopharmacological processes. Consequently, the findings of in vitro and in vivo antioxidant potential assessment studies are not always the same. Nevertheless, the results of in vitro assays have been irrelevantly extrapolated to the therapeutic application of plant antioxidants without undertaking sufficient in vivo studies. Therefore, we have briefly reviewed the physiology and redox biology of both plants and humans to improve our understanding of plant antioxidants as therapeutic entities. The applications and limitations of antioxidant activity measurement assays were also highlighted to identify the precise path to be followed for future research in the area of plant antioxidants. PMID:26157352

  12. Potential therapeutic applications of plant toxin-ricin in cancer: challenges and advances.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Nikhil; Tyagi, Monika; Pachauri, Manendra; Ghosh, Prahlad C

    2015-11-01

    Cancer is one of the most common devastating disease affecting millions of people per year worldwide. To fight against cancer, a number of natural plant compounds have been exploited by researchers to discover novel anti-cancer therapeutics with minimum or no side effects and plants have proved their usefulness in anti-cancer therapy in past few years. Ricin, a cytotoxic plant protein isolated from castor bean seeds, is a ribosome-inactivating protein which destroys the cells by inhibiting proteins synthesis. Ricin presents great potential as anti-cancer agent and exerts its anti-cancer activity by inducing apoptosis in cancer cells. In this review, we summarize the current information on anti-cancer properties of plant toxin ricin, its potential applications in cancer therapy, challenges associated with its use as therapeutic agent and the recent advances made to overcome these challenges. Nanotechnology could open the doors for quick development of ricin-based anti-cancer therapeutics. Conceivably, ricin may serve as a chemotherapeutic agent against cancer by utilizing nanocarriers for its targeted delivery to cancer cells. PMID:26349746

  13. Focus on Extracellular Vesicles: Therapeutic Potential of Stem Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bin; Yeo, Ronne Wee Yeh; Tan, Kok Hian; Lim, Sai Kiang

    2016-01-01

    The intense research focus on stem and progenitor cells could be attributed to their differentiation potential to generate new cells to replace diseased or lost cells in many highly intractable degenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer disease, multiple sclerosis, and heart diseases. However, experimental and clinical studies have increasingly attributed the therapeutic efficacy of these cells to their secretion. While stem and progenitor cells secreted many therapeutic molecules, none of these molecules singly or in combination could recapitulate the functional effects of stem cell transplantations. Recently, it was reported that extracellular vesicles (EVs) could recapitulate the therapeutic effects of stem cell transplantation. Based on the observations reported thus far, the prevailing hypothesis is that stem cell EVs exert their therapeutic effects by transferring biologically active molecules such as proteins, lipids, mRNA, and microRNA from the stem cells to injured or diseased cells. In this respect, stem cell EVs are similar to EVs from other cell types. They are both primarily vehicles for intercellular communication. Therefore, the differentiating factor is likely due to the composition of their cargo. The cargo of EVs from different cell types are known to include a common set of proteins and also proteins that reflect the cell source of the EVs and the physiological or pathological state of the cell source. Hence, elucidation of the stem cell EV cargo would provide an insight into the multiple physiological or biochemical changes necessary to affect the many reported stem cell-based therapeutic outcomes in a variety of experimental models and clinical trials. PMID:26861305

  14. Focus on Extracellular Vesicles: Therapeutic Potential of Stem Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Yeo, Ronne Wee Yeh; Tan, Kok Hian; Lim, Sai Kiang

    2016-01-01

    The intense research focus on stem and progenitor cells could be attributed to their differentiation potential to generate new cells to replace diseased or lost cells in many highly intractable degenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer disease, multiple sclerosis, and heart diseases. However, experimental and clinical studies have increasingly attributed the therapeutic efficacy of these cells to their secretion. While stem and progenitor cells secreted many therapeutic molecules, none of these molecules singly or in combination could recapitulate the functional effects of stem cell transplantations. Recently, it was reported that extracellular vesicles (EVs) could recapitulate the therapeutic effects of stem cell transplantation. Based on the observations reported thus far, the prevailing hypothesis is that stem cell EVs exert their therapeutic effects by transferring biologically active molecules such as proteins, lipids, mRNA, and microRNA from the stem cells to injured or diseased cells. In this respect, stem cell EVs are similar to EVs from other cell types. They are both primarily vehicles for intercellular communication. Therefore, the differentiating factor is likely due to the composition of their cargo. The cargo of EVs from different cell types are known to include a common set of proteins and also proteins that reflect the cell source of the EVs and the physiological or pathological state of the cell source. Hence, elucidation of the stem cell EV cargo would provide an insight into the multiple physiological or biochemical changes necessary to affect the many reported stem cell-based therapeutic outcomes in a variety of experimental models and clinical trials. PMID:26861305

  15. The Physiology, Pathology, and Pharmacology of Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels and Their Future Therapeutic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Zamponi, Gerald W.; Striessnig, Joerg; Koschak, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Voltage-gated calcium channels are required for many key functions in the body. In this review, the different subtypes of voltage-gated calcium channels are described and their physiologic roles and pharmacology are outlined. We describe the current uses of drugs interacting with the different calcium channel subtypes and subunits, as well as specific areas in which there is strong potential for future drug development. Current therapeutic agents include drugs targeting L-type CaV1.2 calcium channels, particularly 1,4-dihydropyridines, which are widely used in the treatment of hypertension. T-type (CaV3) channels are a target of ethosuximide, widely used in absence epilepsy. The auxiliary subunit α2δ-1 is the therapeutic target of the gabapentinoid drugs, which are of value in certain epilepsies and chronic neuropathic pain. The limited use of intrathecal ziconotide, a peptide blocker of N-type (CaV2.2) calcium channels, as a treatment of intractable pain, gives an indication that these channels represent excellent drug targets for various pain conditions. We describe how selectivity for different subtypes of calcium channels (e.g., CaV1.2 and CaV1.3 L-type channels) may be achieved in the future by exploiting differences between channel isoforms in terms of sequence and biophysical properties, variation in splicing in different target tissues, and differences in the properties of the target tissues themselves in terms of membrane potential or firing frequency. Thus, use-dependent blockers of the different isoforms could selectively block calcium channels in particular pathologies, such as nociceptive neurons in pain states or in epileptic brain circuits. Of important future potential are selective CaV1.3 blockers for neuropsychiatric diseases, neuroprotection in Parkinson’s disease, and resistant hypertension. In addition, selective or nonselective T-type channel blockers are considered potential therapeutic targets in epilepsy, pain, obesity, sleep, and anxiety. Use-dependent N-type calcium channel blockers are likely to be of therapeutic use in chronic pain conditions. Thus, more selective calcium channel blockers hold promise for therapeutic intervention. PMID:26362469

  16. Molecular targeting of G? and G?? subunits: a potential approach for cancer therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Smrcka, Alan V.

    2013-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) signal through G protein ? and ?? subunit families to regulate a wide range of physiological and pathophysiological processes. As such, GPCRs are major targets for therapeutic drugs. Downstream targets of GPCRs have also gained interest as a therapeutic approach to complex pathologies involving multiple GPCRs. One such approach involves targeting of the G proteins themselves. Several small molecule G? and G?? modulators have been developed and been tested in various animal models of disease. Here we will discuss the requirements for targeting G? and G?? subunits, the mechanisms of action of currently identified inhibitors, and focus on the potential utility of G? and G?? inhibitors in the treatment of various cancers. PMID:23557963

  17. Prostate cancer progression and metastasis: potential regulatory pathways for therapeutic targeting

    PubMed Central

    Nandana, Srinivas; Chung, Leland WK

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal metastasis in advanced prostate cancer (PCa) patients remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Research utilizing animal models during the past decade has reached a consensus that PCa progression and distant metastasis can be tackled at the molecular level. Although there are a good number of models that have shown to facilitate the study of PCa initiation and progression at the primary site, models that mimic the distant dissemination of cancer cells, particularly bone metastasis, are scarce. Despite this limitation, the field has gleaned valuable knowledge on the underlying molecular mechanisms and pathways of PCa progression, including local invasion and distant metastasis, and has moved forward in developing the concepts of current therapeutic modalities. The purpose of this review is to put together recent work on pathways that are currently being targeted for therapy, as well as other prospective novel therapeutic targets to be developed in the future against metastatic and potentially lethal PCa in patients. PMID:25374910

  18. Animal models of diabetic retinopathy: doors to investigate pathogenesis and potential therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Effective and validated animal models are valuable to investigate the pathogenesis and potential therapeutics for human diseases. There is much concern for diabetic retinopathy (DR) in that it affects substantial number of working population all around the world, resulting in visual deterioration and social deprivation. In this review, we discuss animal models of DR based on different species of animals from zebrafish to monkeys and prerequisites for animal models. Despite criticisms on imprudent use of laboratory animals, we hope that animal models of DR will be appropriately utilized to deepen our understanding on the pathogenesis of DR and to support our struggle to find novel therapeutics against catastrophic visual loss from DR. PMID:23786217

  19. Aberrant RNA homeostasis in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: potential for new therapeutic targets?

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, Christopher J; Grima, Jonathan C; Sattler, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Summary Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive motor neuron degeneration. The disease pathogenesis is multifaceted in that multiple cellular and molecular pathways have been identified as contributors to the disease progression. Consequently, numerous therapeutic targets have been pursued for clinical development, unfortunately with little success. The recent discovery of mutations in RNA modulating genes such as TARDBP/TDP-43, FUS/TLS or C9ORF72 changed our understanding of neurodegenerative mechanisms in ALS and introduced the role of dysfunctional RNA processing as a significant contributor to disease pathogenesis. This article discusses the latest findings on such RNA toxicity pathways in ALS and potential novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:25531686

  20. Nitric oxide signaling in human ovarian cancer: A potential therapeutic target.

    PubMed

    El-Sehemy, Ahmed; Postovit, Lynne-Marie; Fu, YangXin

    2016-04-01

    Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death due to gynecologic malignancies worldwide. Current therapy regimens are ineffective to treat advanced ovarian cancers, presenting a need to develop novel therapeutic strategies. Nitric oxide (NO) is a multifunctional gaseous molecule that is generated by cancer, stromal and endothelial cells and plays a multifaceted role in cancer biology through multiple mechanisms. Accumulating evidence suggests that NO signaling is involved in multiple aspects of ovarian cancer, including growth, apoptosis, cancer-stromal cell interaction, angiogenesis and response to chemotherapy. This review will discuss the experimental and clinical evidence of the involvement of NO signaling in ovarian cancer and the therapeutic potential of targeting NO signaling in ovarian cancer. PMID:26891890

  1. Exploring the Potential of Monoclonal Antibody Therapeutics for HIV-1 Eradication

    PubMed Central

    Euler, Zelda

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The HIV field has seen an increased interest in novel cure strategies. In particular, new latency reversal agents are in development to reverse latency to flush the virus out of its hiding place. Combining these efforts with immunotherapeutic approaches may not only drive the virus out of latency, but allow for the rapid elimination of these infected cells in a “shock and kill” approach. Beyond cell-based approaches, growing interest lies in the potential use of functionally enhanced “killer” monoclonal therapeutics to purge the reservoir. Here we discuss prospects for a monoclonal therapeutic-based “shock and kill” strategy that may lead to the permanent elimination of replication-competent virus, making a functional cure a reality for all patients afflicted with HIV worldwide. PMID:25385703

  2. Clinical application: Restoration of immune homeostasis by autophagy as a potential therapeutic target in sepsis

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, LEMENG; AI, YUHANG; TSUNG, ALLAN

    2016-01-01

    Sepsis-induced lymphocyte and dendritic cell apoptosis contributes to immunosuppression, resulting in an inability to eradicate the primary infection and a propensity to acquire secondary infections. However, the inhibition of apoptosis may produce unexpected and undesirable consequences. Another cellular process, autophagy, is also activated in immune cells. There is increasing evidence to suggest that autophagy confers a protective effect in sepsis. The protective mechanisms underlying this effect include limiting apoptotic cell death and maintaining cellular homeostasis. Therefore, understanding the regulation of immune cell autophagy and apoptosis may provide insight into novel therapeutic strategies. The present review examined potential novel therapeutic strategies aimed at restoring immune homeostasis by inducing autophagy. The restoration of balance between apoptosis and autophagy may be a novel approach for improving sepsis-induced immunosuppression and decreasing susceptibility to sepsis. PMID:27073416

  3. Therapeutic potential of small interfering RNAs/micro interfering RNA in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Farra, Rossella; Grassi, Mario; Grassi, Gabriele; Dapas, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the predominant form of primary liver cancer and represents the third leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Current available therapeutic approaches are poorly effective, especially for the advanced forms of the disease. In the last year, short double stranded RNA molecules termed small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and micro interfering RNAs (miRNA), emerged as interesting molecules with potential therapeutic value for HCC. The practical use of these molecules is however limited by the identification of optimal molecular targets and especially by the lack of effective and targeted HCC delivery systems. Here we focus our discussion on the most recent advances in the identification of siRNAs/miRNAs molecular targets and on the development of suitable siRNA/miRNAs delivery systems. PMID:26290628

  4. Aberrant RNA homeostasis in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: potential for new therapeutic targets?

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Christopher J; Grima, Jonathan C; Sattler, Rita

    2014-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive motor neuron degeneration. The disease pathogenesis is multifaceted in that multiple cellular and molecular pathways have been identified as contributors to the disease progression. Consequently, numerous therapeutic targets have been pursued for clinical development, unfortunately with little success. The recent discovery of mutations in RNA modulating genes such as TARDBP/TDP-43, FUS/TLS or C9ORF72 changed our understanding of neurodegenerative mechanisms in ALS and introduced the role of dysfunctional RNA processing as a significant contributor to disease pathogenesis. This article discusses the latest findings on such RNA toxicity pathways in ALS and potential novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:25531686

  5. Therapeutic potential of the endocrine fibroblast growth factors FGF19, FGF21 and FGF23.

    PubMed

    Degirolamo, Chiara; Sabbà, Carlo; Moschetta, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The endocrine fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), FGF19, FGF21 and FGF23, are critical for maintaining whole-body homeostasis, with roles in bile acid, glucose and lipid metabolism, modulation of vitamin D and phosphate homeostasis and metabolic adaptation during fasting. Given these functions, the endocrine FGFs have therapeutic potential in a wide array of chronic human diseases, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, cancer, and kidney and cardiovascular disease. However, the safety and feasibility of chronic endocrine FGF administration has been challenged, and FGF analogues and mimetics are now being investigated. Here, we discuss current knowledge of the complex biology of the endocrine FGFs and assess how this may be harnessed therapeutically. PMID:26567701

  6. Evaluating the potential of IL-27 as a novel therapeutic agent in HIV-1 infection

    PubMed Central

    Swaminathan, Sanjay; Dai, Lue; Lane, H. Clifford; Imamichi, Tomozumi

    2013-01-01

    Interleukin 27 (IL-27) is an immunomodulatory cytokine with important roles in both the innate and adaptive immune systems. In the last five years, the addition of exogenous IL-27 to primary cell cultures has been demonstrated to decrease HIV-1 replication in a number of cell types including peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), CD4+ T cells, macrophages and dendritic cells. These in-vitro findings suggest that IL-27 may have therapeutic value in the setting of HIV-1 infection. In this review, we describe the current knowledge of the biology of IL-27, its effects primarily on HIV-1 replication but also in other viral infections and explore its potential role as a therapeutic cytokine for the treatment of patients with HIV-1 infection. PMID:23962745

  7. Pharmacogenetics, enzyme probes and therapeutic drug monitoring as potential tools for individualizing taxane therapy

    PubMed Central

    Krens, Stefanie D; McLeod, Howard L; Hertz, Daniel L

    2014-01-01

    The taxanes are a class of chemotherapeutic agents that are widely used in the treatment of various solid tumors. Although taxanes are highly effective in cancer treatment, their use is associated with serious complications attributable to large interindividual variability in pharmacokinetics and a narrow therapeutic window. Unpredictable toxicity occurrence necessitates close patient monitoring while on therapy and adverse effects frequently require decreasing, delaying or even discontinuing taxane treatment. Currently, taxane dosing is based primarily on body surface area, ignoring other factors that are known to dictate variability in pharmacokinetics or outcome. This article discusses three potential strategies for individualizing taxane treatment based on patient information that can be collected before or during care. The clinical implementation of pharmacogenetics, enzyme probes or therapeutic drug monitoring could enable clinicians to personalize taxane treatment to enhance efficacy and/or limit toxicity. PMID:23556452

  8. Potential Therapeutic Strategies for Alzheimer's Disease Targeting or Beyond β-Amyloid: Insights from Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Qiutian; Qing, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder with two hallmarks: β-amyloid plagues and neurofibrillary tangles. It is one of the most alarming illnesses to elderly people. No effective drugs and therapies have been developed, while mechanism-based explorations of therapeutic approaches have been intensively investigated. Outcomes of clinical trials suggested several pitfalls in the choice of biomarkers, development of drug candidates, and interaction of drug-targeted molecules; however, they also aroused concerns on the potential deficiency in our understanding of pathogenesis of AD, and ultimately stimulated the advent of novel drug targets tests. The anticipated increase of AD patients in next few decades makes development of better therapy an urgent issue. Here we attempt to summarize and compare putative therapeutic strategies that have completed clinical trials or are currently being tested from various perspectives to provide insights for treatments of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:25136630

  9. In-utero stem cell transplantation: clinical use and therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    De Santis, M; De Luca, C; Mappa, I; Cesari, E; Quattrocchi, T; Spagnuolo, T; Visconti, D; Noia, G; Caruso, A

    2011-08-01

    Early evidence suggests that in-utero stem cell transplantation represents a new therapeutic strategy for different congenital disease. Moreover, gene therapy constitutes one of the most promising new approach to treat a wide spectrum of genetic disorders. It was shown that the fetus could represent an ideal recipient because of his immunologic early naiveté in gestation that reduces the risk of immunoreactions. Clinical experience in human fetus was performed in order to treat immunodeficiency and metabolic disorders, hemoglobinopathies and some other genetic diseases. Use of alternative source (i.e., cord blood, placenta, membrane, amniotic fluid, fetal tissue) of stem cell transplanted has been only one of the several strategies to improve donor cell advantages on host stem cell. The present review focused on the clinical use and therapeutic potential of in-utero stem cell transplantation, reporting the outcome of human cases treated and the limits of this therapy and possible future applications. PMID:21747347

  10. RNA Inhibition Highlights Cyclin D1 as a Potential Therapeutic Target for Mantle Cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, Shiri; Emmanuel, Rafi; Jacobi, Ashley M.; Abraham, Avigdor; Behlke, Mark A.; Sprague, Andrew G.; Novobrantseva, Tatiana I.; Nagler, Arnon; Peer, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma is characterized by a genetic translocation results in aberrant overexpression of the CCND1 gene, which encodes cyclin D1. This protein functions as a regulator of the cell cycle progression, hence is considered to play an important role in the pathogenesis of the disease. In this study, we used RNA interference strategies to examine whether cyclin D1 might serve as a therapeutic target for mantle cell lymphoma. Knocking down cyclin D1 resulted in significant growth retardation, cell cycle arrest, and most importantly, induction of apoptosis. These results mark cyclin D1 as a target for mantle cell lymphoma and emphasize the therapeutic potential hidden in its silencing. PMID:22905260

  11. The Therapeutic Potentials of Ayahuasca: Possible Effects against Various Diseases of Civilization

    PubMed Central

    Frecska, Ede; Bokor, Petra; Winkelman, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Ayahuasca is an Amazonian psychoactive brew of two main components. Its active agents are β-carboline and tryptamine derivatives. As a sacrament, ayahuasca is still a central element of many healing ceremonies in the Amazon Basin and its ritual consumption has become common among the mestizo populations of South America. Ayahuasca use amongst the indigenous people of the Amazon is a form of traditional medicine and cultural psychiatry. During the last two decades, the substance has become increasingly known among both scientists and laymen, and currently its use is spreading all over in the Western world. In the present paper we describe the chief characteristics of ayahuasca, discuss important questions raised about its use, and provide an overview of the scientific research supporting its potential therapeutic benefits. A growing number of studies indicate that the psychotherapeutic potential of ayahuasca is based mostly on the strong serotonergic effects, whereas the sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) agonist effect of its active ingredient dimethyltryptamine raises the possibility that the ethnomedical observations on the diversity of treated conditions can be scientifically verified. Moreover, in the right therapeutic or ritual setting with proper preparation and mindset of the user, followed by subsequent integration of the experience, ayahuasca has proven effective in the treatment of substance dependence. This article has two important take-home messages: (1) the therapeutic effects of ayahuasca are best understood from a bio-psycho-socio-spiritual model, and (2) on the biological level ayahuasca may act against chronic low grade inflammation and oxidative stress via the Sig-1R which can explain its widespread therapeutic indications. PMID:26973523

  12. The Therapeutic Potentials of Ayahuasca: Possible Effects against Various Diseases of Civilization.

    PubMed

    Frecska, Ede; Bokor, Petra; Winkelman, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Ayahuasca is an Amazonian psychoactive brew of two main components. Its active agents are β-carboline and tryptamine derivatives. As a sacrament, ayahuasca is still a central element of many healing ceremonies in the Amazon Basin and its ritual consumption has become common among the mestizo populations of South America. Ayahuasca use amongst the indigenous people of the Amazon is a form of traditional medicine and cultural psychiatry. During the last two decades, the substance has become increasingly known among both scientists and laymen, and currently its use is spreading all over in the Western world. In the present paper we describe the chief characteristics of ayahuasca, discuss important questions raised about its use, and provide an overview of the scientific research supporting its potential therapeutic benefits. A growing number of studies indicate that the psychotherapeutic potential of ayahuasca is based mostly on the strong serotonergic effects, whereas the sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) agonist effect of its active ingredient dimethyltryptamine raises the possibility that the ethnomedical observations on the diversity of treated conditions can be scientifically verified. Moreover, in the right therapeutic or ritual setting with proper preparation and mindset of the user, followed by subsequent integration of the experience, ayahuasca has proven effective in the treatment of substance dependence. This article has two important take-home messages: (1) the therapeutic effects of ayahuasca are best understood from a bio-psycho-socio-spiritual model, and (2) on the biological level ayahuasca may act against chronic low grade inflammation and oxidative stress via the Sig-1R which can explain its widespread therapeutic indications. PMID:26973523

  13. Epstein-Barr virus-associated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: diagnosis, difficulties and therapeutic options.

    PubMed

    Battle-Lopez, Ana; Gonzalez de Villambrosia, Sonia; Nuñez, Javier; Cagigal, Maria-Luisa; Montes-Moreno, Santiago; Conde, Eulogio; Piris, Miguel A

    2016-04-01

    Epstein Barr Virus (EBV)-positive diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) most frequently affects elderly patients, without previous immunosuppression, with frequent extra-nodal involvement and whose disease runs an aggressive clinical course with high International Prognostic Index (IPI) scores. Various EBV-related transforming mechanisms, much favored by immunosenescence, have been described, including activation of the NFKB transcriptional program. Elderly patients show poor survival after treatment with conventional CHOP regimens, even after addition of Rituximab. Younger patients, however, have a better outcome with a similar prognosis to EBV-negative DLBCL cases. New therapeutic strategies, including treatments targeting EBV, new drugs directed against specific pathways constitutively activated in these lymphomas, and new specific conjugate antibodies against molecules usually expressed in the tumor cells, such as CD30, are described. PMID:26838128

  14. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors as molecular therapeutic targets in prostate cancer: Current options and emerging strategies.

    PubMed

    Limonta, Patrizia; Manea, Marilena

    2013-10-01

    Prostate cancer is androgen-dependent in its early stages and androgen deprivation therapy represents the most effective first-line therapeutic approach. However, after an initial remission, prostate cancer progresses towards the castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) stage, with increased malignancy and resistance to conventional chemotherapy. Pituitary gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors (GnRH-Rs) represent the most effective molecular target for the treatment of steroid-dependent prostate cancer. GnRH agonists (through GnRH-Rs desensitization) suppress the pituitary-testicular axis and, therefore, represent the treatment of choice for prostate cancer patients. GnRH-Rs are also expressed in prostate cancer, even when the tumor has reached the CRPC stage, and are endowed with antitumor activity, supporting the notion that they might represent a molecular target for GnRH analog-based therapeutic strategies. In addition to GnRH agonists and antagonists, GnRH-based bioconjugates (cytotoxic GnRH bioconjugates, GnRH-conjugated lytic peptides and GnRH-toxin bioconjugates) have been developed and are now undergoing intensive investigations; some of them (i.e., AN-152, Dox-[d-Lys(6)]-GnRH) have entered clinical trials. The advantage of these treatments is the specific delivery of cytotoxic agents to cancer cells. Interestingly, other isoforms of the peptide have been identified. One of them is GnRH-III, which was isolated from sea lamprey. GnRH-III specifically binds to GnRH-Rs in cancer cells and exerts antiproliferative effects; on the other hand, its endocrine effects at pituitary level are insignificant, supporting its selective antitumor activity. Based on these observations, different cytotoxic GnRH-III bioconjugates have recently been synthesized; preliminary in vitro studies suggest that these compounds might represent a new promising treatment strategy for prostate cancer. PMID:23290320

  15. Magnetic field management for overhead transmission lines: Potential options for low field designs. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    King, K.; Ferguson, J.

    1995-09-01

    Magnetic fields associated with electrical facilities are a consideration in their design, permitting, building, and operation. This handbook provides utility engineers with a basic understanding of how transmission line design determines magnetic field levels. Featured in the handbook is a detailed examination of magnetic field levels associated with various line designs along with techniques and strategies for reducing magnetic fields. Possible options include compaction, splitting of phases, transposition, and shielding with wire loops. Specifically addressed are the selection of candidate designs for lines ranging from 115--500 kV, the use of computer programs to estimate performance, and identification of potential problems and/or research needs. A method/performance matrix contained in the handbook will allow utility engineers to evaluate line configuration performance by examining the electrical and mechanical characteristics, construction and maintenance criteria, cost, configuration, aesthetics, and other parameters associated with a given field reduction technique. The matrix also serves as a basis for documenting and reporting field reduction methods as well as determining the research needed to make a concept viable.

  16. Cell phone recycling experiences in the United States and potential recycling options in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Geraldo T R; Chang, Shoou-Yuh

    2010-11-01

    This paper presents an overview of cell phone recycling programs currently available in the United States. At the same time, it also provides analyses of the current recycling situation and possible recycling alternatives for Brazil. Although there are several recycling options in the United States, collection rates are still only 10% of all potential devices because customers are not aware of these possibilities. The whole system is financially based on reselling refurbished cell phones and recycled materials to developing countries which represent an effective and strong market. Several recyclers offer funds to collection partners who are either charities or who work with charities while obtaining the materials that they need in order to run their operations. A mobile phone recycling system for Brazil considering the United States experience and the Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) principle is suggested. A deposit/refund/advance-recycling fee is proposed which might be implemented as a voluntary industrial initiative managed by PRO Brazil, a producer responsibility organization. One widespread public-private agreement will integrate all mobile phone stakeholders, and environmental education actions and promotional events will promote citizen's participation. PMID:20554440

  17. Therapeutic Potential of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells (ADSCs) from Cancer Patients: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    García-Contreras, Marta; Vera-Donoso, César David; Hernández-Andreu, José Miguel; García-Verdugo, José Manuel; Oltra, Elisa

    2014-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells from adipose tissue (ADSCs) are an important source of cells for regenerative medicine. The therapeutic effect of culture-expanded adipose derived stem cells has been shown; however, optimal xeno-free culture conditions remain to be determined. Cancer patients, specifically those undergoing invasive surgery, constitute a subgroup of patients who could benefit from autologous stem cell transplantation. Although regenerative potential of their ADSCs could be affected by the disease and/or treatment, we are not aware of any study that has evaluated the therapeutic potential of ADSCs isolated from cancer patients in reference to that of ADSCs derived from healthy subjects. Here we report that ADSCs isolated from subabdominal adipose tissue of patients with urological neoplasms yielded similar growth kinetics, presented equivalent mesenchymal surface markers and showed similar differentiation potential into distinct mesodermal cell lineages: adipocytes, chondroblasts and osteoblasts than ADSCs isolated from adipose tissue of age-matched non-oncogenic participants, all under xeno-free growth culture conditions. Molecular karyotyping of patient expanded ADSCs genomes showed no disease-related alterations indicating their safety. In addition, vesicles <100 nm identified as exosomes (EXOs) which may be at least partly responsible for the attributed therapeutic paracrine effects of the ADSCs were effectively isolated from ADSCs and showed equivalent miRNA content regardless they were derived from cancer patients or non-oncogenic participants indicating that the repair capabilities of xeno-free expanded ADSCs are not compromised by patient condition and therefore their xeno-free culture expanded ADSCs should be suitable for autologous stem cell transplantation in a clinical setting. PMID:25412325

  18. Endocannabinoid System and Psychiatry: In Search of a Neurobiological Basis for Detrimental and Potential Therapeutic Effects

    PubMed Central

    Marco, Eva M.; García-Gutiérrez, María S.; Bermúdez-Silva, Francisco-Javier; Moreira, Fabricio A.; Guimarães, Francisco; Manzanares, Jorge; Viveros, María-Paz

    2011-01-01

    Public concern on mental health has noticeably increased given the high prevalence of neuropsychiatric disorders. Cognition and emotionality are the most affected functions in neuropsychiatric disorders, i.e., anxiety disorders, depression, and schizophrenia. In this review, most relevant literature on the role of the endocannabinoid (eCB) system in neuropsychiatric disorders will be presented. Evidence from clinical and animal studies is provided for the participation of CB1 and CB2 receptors (CB1R and CB2R) in the above mentioned neuropsychiatric disorders. CBRs are crucial in some of the emotional and cognitive impairments reported, although more research is required to understand the specific role of the eCB system in neuropsychiatric disorders. Cannabidiol (CBD), the main non-psychotropic component of the Cannabis sativa plant, has shown therapeutic potential in several neuropsychiatric disorders. Although further studies are needed, recent studies indicate that CBD therapeutic effects may partially depend on facilitation of eCB-mediated neurotransmission. Last but not least, this review includes recent findings on the role of the eCB system in eating disorders. A deregulation of the eCB system has been proposed to be in the bases of several neuropsychiatric disorders, including eating disorders. Cannabis consumption has been related to the appearance of psychotic symptoms and schizophrenia. In contrast, the pharmacological manipulation of this eCB system has been proposed as a potential strategy for the treatment of anxiety disorders, depression, and anorexia nervosa. In conclusion, the eCB system plays a critical role in psychiatry; however, detrimental consequences of manipulating this endogenous system cannot be underestimated over the potential and promising perspectives of its therapeutic manipulation. PMID:22007164

  19. Endocannabinoid system and psychiatry: in search of a neurobiological basis for detrimental and potential therapeutic effects.

    PubMed

    Marco, Eva M; García-Gutiérrez, María S; Bermúdez-Silva, Francisco-Javier; Moreira, Fabricio A; Guimarães, Francisco; Manzanares, Jorge; Viveros, María-Paz

    2011-01-01

    Public concern on mental health has noticeably increased given the high prevalence of neuropsychiatric disorders. Cognition and emotionality are the most affected functions in neuropsychiatric disorders, i.e., anxiety disorders, depression, and schizophrenia. In this review, most relevant literature on the role of the endocannabinoid (eCB) system in neuropsychiatric disorders will be presented. Evidence from clinical and animal studies is provided for the participation of CB1 and CB2 receptors (CB1R and CB2R) in the above mentioned neuropsychiatric disorders. CBRs are crucial in some of the emotional and cognitive impairments reported, although more research is required to understand the specific role of the eCB system in neuropsychiatric disorders. Cannabidiol (CBD), the main non-psychotropic component of the Cannabis sativa plant, has shown therapeutic potential in several neuropsychiatric disorders. Although further studies are needed, recent studies indicate that CBD therapeutic effects may partially depend on facilitation of eCB-mediated neurotransmission. Last but not least, this review includes recent findings on the role of the eCB system in eating disorders. A deregulation of the eCB system has been proposed to be in the bases of several neuropsychiatric disorders, including eating disorders. Cannabis consumption has been related to the appearance of psychotic symptoms and schizophrenia. In contrast, the pharmacological manipulation of this eCB system has been proposed as a potential strategy for the treatment of anxiety disorders, depression, and anorexia nervosa. In conclusion, the eCB system plays a critical role in psychiatry; however, detrimental consequences of manipulating this endogenous system cannot be underestimated over the potential and promising perspectives of its therapeutic manipulation. PMID:22007164

  20. Cerebral ischemia-induced difference in sensitivity to depression and potential therapeutics in rats.

    PubMed

    Sun, Miao-Kun; Alkon, Daniel L

    2013-06-01

    The 'vascular depression' hypothesis has recently attracted significant research attention, although the causal relationship between vascular-related injuries and depression has not been established. Here, we show that one episode of cerebral ischemia was sufficient to greatly increase the sensitivity of rats to potentially depressogenic events, evaluated at below-threshold intensities in the open space swim test. The induced 'ischemic depression' was lasting and sensitive to an acute administration of brain-derived neurotrophic factor or bryostatin-1, a relatively selective activator of protein kinase C?, during the induction phase. Chronic treatment with bryostatin-1 (5 weeks) after the induction of depressive behavior reversed the depressive immobility and produced a lasting therapeutic effect, which remained effective 3 weeks after discontinuation of the treatment. Similar treatment with alaproclate, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, in contrast, produced temporary relief from the depressive symptoms, with the therapeutic effect disappearing soon after the end of the treatment. The results strongly suggest that cerebral ischemia has a direct role in shaping the sensitivity of an individual to depressogenic events and that bryostatin-1-like agents may be developed as therapeutics for treating ischemic depression in humans. PMID:23591125

  1. Latest advances in novel cannabinoid CB(2) ligands for drug abuse and their therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Yang, Peng; Wang, Lirong; Xie, Xiang-Qun

    2012-02-01

    The field of cannabinoid (CB) drug research is experiencing a challenge as the CB(1) antagonist Rimonabant, launched in 2006 as an anorectic/anti-obesity drug, was withdrawn from the European market due to the complications of suicide and depression as side effects. There is interest in developing CB(2) drugs without CB(1) psychotropic side effects for drug-abuse treatment and therapeutic medication. The CB(1) receptor was discovered predominantly in the brain, whereas the CB(2) is mainly expressed in peripheral cells and tissues, and is involved in immune signal transduction. Conversely, the CB(2) receptor was recently detected in the CNS, for example, in the microglial cells and the neurons. While the CB(2) neurons activity remains controversial, the CB(2) receptor is an attractive therapeutic target for neuropathic pain, immune system, cancer and osteoporosis without psychoactivity. This review addresses CB drug abuse and therapeutic potential with a focus on the most recent advances on new CB(2) ligands from the literature as well as patents. PMID:22300098

  2. Enzyme promiscuity in earthworm serine protease: substrate versatility and therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Verma, Mahendra Kumar; Pulicherla, K K

    2016-04-01

    Enzymes are the most versatile molecules in the biological world. These amazing molecules play an integral role in the regulation of various metabolic pathways and physiology subsequently. Promiscuity of an enzyme is the capacity to catalyze additional biochemical reactions besides their native one. Catalytic promiscuity has shown great impact in enzyme engineering for commercial enzyme and therapeutics with natural or engineered catalytic promiscuity. The earthworm serine protease (ESP) is a classic example of enzyme promiscuity and studied for its therapeutic potential over the last few decades. The ESP was reported for several therapeutic properties and fibrinolytic activity has been much explored. ESP, a complex enzyme exists as several isoforms of molecular weight ranging from 14 to 33 kDa. The fibrinolytic capacity of the enzyme has been studied in different species of earthworm and molecular mechanism is quite different from conventional thrombolytics. Cytotoxic and anti-tumor activities of ESP were evaluated using several cancer cell lines. Enzyme had shown tremendous scope in fighting against plant viruses and microbes. ESP is also reported for anti-inflammatory activity and anti-oxidant property. Apart from these, recently, ESP is reported for DNase activity. The daunting challenge for researchers is to understand the molecular mechanism for such diverse properties and possibility of enzyme promiscuity. This review emphasizes molecular mechanism of ESP governing various biochemical reactions. Further, the concept of enzyme promiscuity in ESP towards development of novel enzyme based drugs has been reviewed in this study. PMID:26739820

  3. RNAi: a potential new class of therapeutic for human genetic disease.

    PubMed

    Seyhan, Attila A

    2011-11-01

    Dominant negative genetic disorders, in which a mutant allele of a gene causes disease in the presence of a second, normal copy, have been challenging since there is no cure and treatments are only to alleviate the symptoms. Current therapies involving pharmacological and biological drugs are not suitable to target mutant genes selectively due to structural indifference of the normal variant of their targets from the disease-causing mutant ones. In instances when the target contains single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), whether it is an enzyme or structural or receptor protein are not ideal for treatment using conventional drugs due to their lack of selectivity. Therefore, there is a need to develop new approaches to accelerate targeting these previously inaccessible targets by classical therapeutics. Although there is a cooling trend by the pharmaceutical industry for the potential of RNA interference (RNAi), RNAi and other RNA targeting drugs (antisense, ribozyme, etc.) still hold their promise as the only drugs that provide an opportunity to target genes with SNP mutations found in dominant negative disorders, genes specific to pathogenic tumor cells, and genes that are critical for mediating the pathology of various other diseases. Because of its exquisite specificity and potency, RNAi has attracted a considerable interest as a new class of therapeutic for genetic diseases including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntington's disease (HD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), spinocerebellar ataxia, dominant muscular dystrophies, and cancer. In this review, progress and challenges in developing RNAi therapeutics for genetic diseases will be discussed. PMID:21537948

  4. MMP-9 and CXCL8/IL-8 Are Potential Therapeutic Targets in Epidermolysis Bullosa Simplex

    PubMed Central

    Lettner, Thomas; Lang, Roland; Klausegger, Alfred; Hainzl, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Epidermolysis bullosa refers to a group of genodermatoses that affects the integrity of epithelial layers, phenotypically resulting in severe skin blistering. Dowling-Meara, the major subtype of epidermolysis bullosa simplex, is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner and can be caused by mutations in either the keratin-5 (K5) or the keratin-14 (K14) gene. Currently, no therapeutic approach is known, and the main objective of this study was to identify novel therapeutic targets. We used microarray analysis, semi-quantitative real-time PCR, western blot and ELISA to identify differentially regulated genes in two K14 mutant cell lines carrying the mutations K14 R125P and K14 R125H, respectively. We found kallikrein-related peptidases and matrix metalloproteinases to be upregulated. We also found elevated expression of chemokines, and we observed deregulation of the Cdc42 pathway as well as aberrant expression of cytokeratins and junction proteins. We further demonstrated, that expression of these genes is dependent on interleukin-1 β signaling. To evaluate these data in vivo we analysed the blister fluids of epidermolysis bullosa simplex patients vs. healthy controls and identified matrix metalloproteinase-9 and the chemokine CXCL8/IL-8 as potential therapeutic targets. PMID:23894602

  5. Pan-Nematoda Transcriptomic Elucidation of Essential Intestinal Functions and Therapeutic Targets With Broad Potential

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qi; Rosa, Bruce A.; Jasmer, Douglas P.; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2015-01-01

    The nematode intestine is continuous with the outside environment, making it easily accessible to anthelmintics for parasite control, but the development of new therapeutics is impeded by limited knowledge of nematode intestinal cell biology. We established the most comprehensive nematode intestinal functional database to date by generating transcriptional data from the dissected intestines of three parasitic nematodes spanning the phylum, and integrating the results with the whole proteomes of 10 nematodes (including 9 pathogens of humans or animals) and 3 host species and 2 outgroup species. We resolved 10,772 predicted nematode intestinal protein families (IntFams), and studied their presence and absence within the different lineages (births and deaths) among nematodes. Conserved intestinal cell functions representing ancestral functions of evolutionary importance were delineated, and molecular features useful for selective therapeutic targeting were identified. Molecular patterns conserved among IntFam proteins demonstrated large potential as therapeutic targets to inhibit intestinal cell functions with broad applications towards treatment and control of parasitic nematodes. PMID:26501106

  6. Direct and Indirect Antimicrobial Activities of Neuropeptides and their Therapeutic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Augustyniak, Daria; Nowak, Judyta; Lundy, Fionnuala T

    2012-01-01

    As global resistance to conventional antibiotics rises we need to develop new strategies to develop future novel therapeutics. In our quest to design novel anti-infectives and antimicrobials it is of interest to investigate host-pathogen interactions and learn from the complexity of host defense strategies that have evolved over millennia. A myriad of host defense molecules are now known to play a role in protection against human infection. However, the interaction between host and pathogen is recognized to be a multifaceted one, involving countless host proteins, including several families of peptides. The regulation of infection and inflammation by multiple peptide families may represent an evolutionary failsafe in terms of functional degeneracy and emphasizes the significance of host defense in survival. One such family is the neuropeptides (NPs), which are conventionally defined as peptide neurotransmitters but have recently been shown to be pleiotropic molecules that are integral components of the nervous and immune systems. In this review we address the antimicrobial and anti-infective effects of NPs both in vitro and in vivo and discuss their potential therapeutic usefulness in overcoming infectious diseases. With improved understanding of the efficacy of NPs, these molecules could become an important part of our arsenal of weapons in the treatment of infection and inflammation. It is envisaged that targeted therapy approaches that selectively exploit the anti-infective, antimicrobial and immunomodulatory properties of NPs could become useful adjuncts to our current therapeutic modalities. PMID:23305360

  7. From here to eternity - the secret of Pharaohs: Therapeutic potential of black cumin seeds and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Padhye, Subhash; Banerjee, Sanjeev; Ahmad, Aamir; Mohammad, Ramzi; Sarkar, Fazlul H

    2008-01-01

    Summary Over many centuries humans have been mining the bounties of nature for discovering substances that have been used for the treatment of all human diseases; many such remedies are useful even today as modern day medicine. Emerging evidence also suggests that the search is still continuing for harnessing active compounds from nature in combating human illnesses although pharmaceutical industries are equally active for synthesizing small molecule compounds as novel therapeutics. The lesson learned over many centuries clearly suggests that further sophisticated search for finding compounds from natural resources together with robust characterization and chemical synthesis will lead to the discovery of novel drugs that may have high therapeutic efficacy against all human diseases including cancer. Black cumin seed (Nigella sativa) oil extracts have been used for many centuries for the treatment of many human illnesses, and more recently the active compound found in black seed oil, viz. thymoquinone (TQ) has been tested for its efficacy against several diseases including cancer. However, further research is needed in order to assess the full potential of TQ as a chemopreventive and/or therapeutic agent against cancers. Here, we have summarized what is known regarding the value of black seed oil and its active compound TQ, and how this knowledge will help us to advance further research in this field by creating awareness among scientists and health professionals in order to appreciate the medicinal value of TQ and beyond. PMID:19018291

  8. [Potential clinical benefit of therapeutic drug monitoring of imatinib in oncology].

    PubMed

    Turjap, M; Juřica, J; Demlová, R

    2015-01-01

    Imatinib mesylate is a competitive inhibitor of BCR/ ABL tyrosine kinase and inhibits also several receptor tyrosin kinases. Since its launch to the market, imatinib has proven to be very valuable in the treatment of Philadelphia chromosome (BCR/ ABL) -  positive (Ph+) chronic myeloid leukemia and Kit (CD117) positive gastrointestinal stromal tumors. The drug is metabolized by cytochrome P450, and there are many clinically important pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions described in the literature. Frequent polypharmacy in oncological patients increases probability of such interactions, and also adherence may play its role during longterm treatment. Fixed dosing therapeutic regimens fail to respect known interindividual variability in pharmacokinetics of the drug and thus, some patients may not achieve sufficient plasma concentrations. Based on current evidence, there seems to be a relationship between plasma concentration and clinical response to imatinib. Therefore, imatinib appears to be suitable candidate for therapeutic drug monitoring. Here, we present an overview of pharmacokinetics, drug-drug interactions and current knowledge and suggestions on therapeutic drug monitor-ing of imatinib, its potential benefits and limitations. PMID:25882020

  9. Identifying Potential Therapeutic Targets of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Through in Vivo Proteomic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Diep, Binh An; Phung, Qui; Date, Shailesh; Arnott, David; Bakalarski, Corey; Xu, Min; Nakamura, Gerald; Swem, Danielle L.; Alexander, Mary Kate; Le, Hoan N.; Mai, Thuy T.; Tan, Man-Wah; Brown, Eric J.; Nishiyama, Mireille

    2014-01-01

    Background. Detailed knowledge on protein repertoire of a pathogen during host infection is needed for both developing a better understanding of the pathogenesis and defining potential therapeutic targets. Such data, however, have been missing for Staphylococcus aureus, a major human pathogen. Methods. We determined the surface proteome of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) clone USA300 derived directly from murine systemic infection. Results. The majority of the in vivo-expressed surface-associated proteins were lipoproteins involved in nutrient acquisition, especially uptake of metal ions. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) of convalescent human serum samples revealed that proteins that were highly produced during murine experimental infection were also produced during natural human infection. We found that among the 7 highly abundant lipoproteins only MntC, which is the manganese-binding protein of the MntABC system, was essential for MRSA virulence during murine systemic infection. Moreover, we show that MntA and MntB are equally important for MRSA virulence. Conclusions. Besides providing experimental evidence that MntABC might be a potential therapeutic target for the development of antibiotics, our in vivo proteomics data will serve as a valuable basis for defining potential antigen combinations for multicomponent vaccines. PMID:24280367

  10. sFRP-mediated Wnt sequestration as a potential therapeutic target for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Warrier, Sudha; Marimuthu, Raja; Sekhar, Sreeja; Bhuvanalakshmi, G; Arfuso, Frank; Das, Anjan Kumar; Bhonde, Ramesh; Martins, Ralph; Dharmarajan, Arun

    2016-06-01

    The extracellular ligand, Wnt, and its receptors are involved in sign al transduction and play an important role in axis formation and neural development. In neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), a decrease of the intracellular Wnt effector, β-catenin, has been linked to amyloid-β-peptide-induced neurotoxicity. Despite this knowledge, targeting Wnt inhibitors as potential biomarkers has not been explored, and harnessing Wnt activators as therapeutic candidates remains largely not investigated. A wide acting family of Wnt mediators, secreted frizzled-related proteins (sFRPs), has not been probed so far as molecular indicators of disease occurrence and progression of Alzheimer's. Unlike the effect of the Dickkopf (DKK) family of Wnt antagonists on AD, the sFRP molecules have a more pleiotropic impact on the Wnt signaling cascade and probably have a far-reaching involvement in neurodegeneration. The role of sFRPs has been poorly described in AD, and in this review, we analyze the present status of the role of sFRPs on neurodegeneration, their likely involvement, and potential implications in treatment modalities of AD. This information would provide valuable clues for the development of potential therapeutic targets for aberrant neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:27063405

  11. Hedgehog signaling pathway: A novel target for cancer therapy: Vismodegib, a promising therapeutic option in treatment of basal cell carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Abidi, Afroz

    2014-01-01

    The Hedgehog signaling pathway is one of the major regulators of cell growth and differentiation during embryogenesis and early development. It is mostly quiescent in adults but inappropriate mutation or deregulation of the pathway is involved in the development of cancers. Therefore; recently it has been recognized as a novel therapeutic target in cancers. Basal cell carcinomas (BCC) and medulloblastomas are the two most common cancers identified with mutations in components of the hedgehog pathway. The discovery of targeted Hedgehog pathway inhibitors has shown promising results in clinical trials, several of which are still undergoing clinical evaluation. Vismodegib (GDC-0449), an oral hedgehog signaling pathway inhibitor has reached the farthest in clinical development. Initial clinical trials in basal cell carcinoma and medulloblastoma have shown good efficacy and safety and hence were approved by U.S. FDA for use in advanced basal cell carcinomas. This review highlights the molecular basis and the current knowledge of hedgehog pathway activation in different types of human cancers as well as the present and future prospects of the novel drug vismodegib. PMID:24550577

  12. Disease modeling and cell based therapy with iPSC: future therapeutic option with fast and safe application

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology has shown us great hope to treat various human diseases which have been known as untreatable and further endows personalized medicine for future therapy without ethical issues and immunological rejection which embryonic stem cell (hES) treatment has faced. It has been agreed that iPSCs knowledge can be harnessed from disease modeling which mimics human pathological development rather than trials utilizing conventional rodent and cell lines. Now, we can routinely generate iPSC from patient specific cell sources, such as skin fibroblast, hair follicle cells, patient blood samples and even urine containing small amount of epithelial cells. iPSC has both similarity and dissimilarity to hES. iPSC is similar enough to regenerate tissue and even full organism as ES does, however what we want for therapeutic advantage is limited to regenerated tissue and lineage specific differentiation. Depending on the lineage and type of cells, both tissue memory containing (DNA rearrangement/epigenetics) and non-containing iPSC can be generated. This makes iPSC even better choice to perform disease modeling as well as cell based therapy. Tissue memory containing iPSC from mature leukocytes would be beneficial for curing cancer and infectious disease. In this review, the benefit of iPSC for translational approaches will be presented. PMID:24724061

  13. Sarcomatoid mesothelioma: future advances in diagnosis, biomolecular assessment, and therapeutic options in a poor-outcome disease.

    PubMed

    Galetta, Domenico; Catino, Annamaria; Misino, Andrea; Logroscino, Antonio; Fico, Maria

    2016-04-18

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is the most frequent pleural neoplasm, with asbestos exposure as one of the recognized carcinogen agents, causative in 80% of cases. The prognosis is poor; median survival of untreated cases is 6-9 months, with fewer than 5% of patients surviving 5 years. Sarcomatoid mesothelioma (SM) represents the subtype with the worst outcome and median survival ranging from 3.5 to 8 months. In the last few years, an accurate differentiation between the subtypes of MPM has become a crucial issue, due to differences in chemosensitivity and clinical outcome, and several studies have evaluated different immunohistochemical markers to better define the diagnosis. The different and worse outcome of patients with SM and, in general, nonepithelioid subtypes makes it intriguing to select these cases to better study the biomolecular profile in order to find factors linked to prognosis and/or predictive of therapeutic response. Considering recent studies on miRNA and genetic mapping, further investigation of this rare subtype might represent a field for basic and clinical-translational research providing for more tailored therapies. PMID:26108245

  14. MicroRNAs Expressed during Viral Infection: Biomarker Potential and Therapeutic Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Louten, Jennifer; Beach, Michael; Palermino, Kristina; Weeks, Maria; Holenstein, Gabrielle

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short sequences of noncoding single-stranded RNAs that exhibit inhibitory effects on complementary target mRNAs. Recently, it has been discovered that certain viruses express their own miRNAs, while other viruses activate the transcription of cellular miRNAs for their own benefit. This review summarizes the viral and/or cellular miRNAs that are transcribed during infection, with a focus on the biomarker and therapeutic potential of miRNAs (or their antagomirs). Several human viruses of clinical importance are discussed, namely, herpesviruses, polyomaviruses, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, human papillomavirus, and human immunodeficiency virus. PMID:26819546

  15. Minocycline as a potential therapeutic agent in neurodegenerative disorders characterised by protein misfolding

    PubMed Central

    Garwood, Claire J; Hanger, Diane P

    2009-01-01

    Many neurodegenerative disorders share common features including the accumulation of aggregated misfolded proteins, neuroinflammation and the induction of apoptosis. While the contributions of each of these individual elements to neuronal death remain unclear, a commonly used antibiotic, minocycline, has been shown to reduce the progression and severity of disease in several models of neurodegeneration by variously downregulating these molecular pathways. Here we discuss the evidence for the potential of minocycline as a broad-specificity therapeutic agent for those neurodegenerative diseases that are characterized by the presence of misfolded proteins. PMID:19458490

  16. Therapeutic Potential of Modulating MicroRNA in Peripheral Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hamburg, Naomi M.; Leeper, Nicholas J.

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral artery disease (PAD) produces significant disability attributable to lower extremity ischemia. Limited treatment modalities exist to ameliorate clinical symptoms in patients with PAD. Growing evidence links microRNAs to key processes that govern disease expression in PAD including angiogenesis, endothelial function, inflammation, vascular regeneration, vascular smooth muscle cell function, restenosis, and mitochondrial function. MicroRNAs have been identified in circulation and may serve as novel biomarkers in PAD. This article reviews the potential contribution of microRNA to key pathways of disease development in PAD that may lead to microRNA-based diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. PMID:23713861

  17. The skin microbiome: potential for novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to cutaneous disease

    PubMed Central

    Grice, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    A vast diversity of microorganisms, including bacteria, fungi, viruses, and arthropods, colonize the human skin. Culture-independent genomic approaches for identifying and characterizing microbial communities have provided glimpses into the topographical, temporal, and interpersonal complexity that defines the skin microbiome. Identification of changes associated with cutaneous disease, including acne, atopic dermatitis, rosacea, and psoriasis, are being established. In this review, our current knowledge of the skin microbiome in health and disease is discussed, with particular attention to potential opportunities to leverage the skin microbiome as a diagnostic, prognostic, and/or therapeutic tool. PMID:25085669

  18. Combination therapy of potential gene to enhance oral cancer therapeutic effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Chia-Hsien; Hsu, Yih-Chih

    2015-03-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) over-regulation related to uncontrolled cell division and promotes progression in tumor. Over-expression of human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been detected in oral cancer cells. EGFR-targeting agents are potential therapeutic modalities for treating oral cancer based on our in vitro study. Liposome nanotechnology is used to encapsulate siRNA and were modified with target ligand to receptors on the surface of tumor cells. We used EGFR siRNA to treat oral cancer in vitro.

  19. Nutlin-3a: A Potential Therapeutic Opportunity for TP53 Wild-Type Ovarian Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Yvonne T. M.; Mullany, Lisa K.; Zu, Zhifei; Richards, JoAnne S.; Gershenson, David M.; Wong, Kwong-Kwok

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer is a diverse molecular and clinical disease, yet standard treatment is the same for all subtypes. TP53 mutations represent a node of divergence in epithelial ovarian cancer histologic subtypes and may represent a therapeutic opportunity in subtypes expressing wild type, including most low-grade ovarian serous carcinomas, ovarian clear cell carcinomas and ovarian endometrioid carcinomas, which represent approximately 25% of all epithelial ovarian cancer. We therefore sought to investigate Nutlin-3a—a therapeutic which inhibits MDM2, activates wild-type p53, and induces apoptosis—as a therapeutic compound for TP53 wild-type ovarian carcinomas. Fifteen epithelial ovarian cancer cell lines of varying histologic subtypes were treated with Nutlin-3a with determination of IC50 values. Western Blot (WB) and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analyses quantified MDM2, p53, and p21 expression after Nutlin-3a treatment. DNA from 15 cell lines was then sequenced for TP53 mutations in exons 2-11 including intron-exon boundaries. Responses to Nutlin-3a were dependent upon TP53 mutation status. By qRT-PCR and WB, levels of MDM2 and p21 were upregulated in wild-type TP53 sensitive cell lines, and p21 induction was reduced or absent in mutant cell lines. Annexin V assays demonstrated apoptosis in sensitive cell lines treated with Nutlin-3a. Thus, Nutlin-3a could be a potential therapeutic agent for ovarian carcinomas expressing wild-type TP53 and warrants further investigation. PMID:26248031

  20. Stem cell transplantation for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: therapeutic potential and perspectives on clinical translation.

    PubMed

    Faravelli, Irene; Riboldi, Giulietta; Nizzardo, Monica; Simone, Chiara; Zanetta, Chiara; Bresolin, Nereo; Comi, Giacomo P; Corti, Stefania

    2014-09-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurological disease characterized by degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons. There are currently no clinically impactful treatments for this disorder. Death occurs 3-5 years after diagnosis, usually due to respiratory failure. ALS pathogenesis seems to involve several pathological mechanisms (i.e., oxidative stress, inflammation, and loss of the glial neurotrophic support, glutamate toxicity) with different contributions from environmental and genetic factors. This multifaceted combination highlights the concept that an effective therapeutic approach should counteract simultaneously different aspects: stem cell therapies are able to maintain or rescue motor neuron function and modulate toxicity in the central nervous system (CNS) at the same time, eventually representing the most comprehensive therapeutic approach for ALS. To achieve an effective cell-mediated therapy suitable for clinical applications, several issues must be addressed, including the identification of the most performing cell source, a feasible administration protocol, and the definition of therapeutic mechanisms. The method of cell delivery represents a major issue in developing cell-mediated approaches since the cells, to be effective, need to be spread across the CNS, targeting both lower and upper motor neurons. On the other hand, there is the need to define a strategy that could provide a whole distribution without being too invasive or burdened by side effects. Here, we review the recent advances regarding the therapeutic potential of stem cells for ALS with a focus on the minimally invasive strategies that could facilitate an extensive translation to their clinical application. PMID:24699704

  1. Molecular features of hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma unravels potential novel therapeutic targets

    PubMed Central

    Travert, Marion; Huang, Yenlin; De Leval, Laurence; Martin-Garcia, Nadine; Delfau-Larue, Marie-Helene; Berger, Françoise; Bosq, Jacques; Brière, Josette; Soulier, Jean; Macintyre, Elizabeth; Marafioti, Teresa; de Reyniès, Aurélien; Gaulard, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma (HSTL) is a rare entity mostly derived from γδ T cells that shows a fatal outcome. Its pathogenesis remains largely unknown. HSTL samples (7γδ, 2αβ) and the DERL2 HSTL-cell line were subject to combined gene expression profiling and array-based comparative genomic hybridization. Compared to other T-cell lymphomas, HSTL disclosed a distinct molecular signature irrespective of TCR cell lineage. Compared to PTCL,NOS and normal γδ cells, HSTL overexpressed genes encoding NK-cell associated molecules, oncogenes (FOS, VAV3), the Sphingosine-1-phosphatase receptor 5 involved in cell trafficking and the tyrosine kinase SYK, whereas the tumor suppressor gene AIM1 was among the most downexpressed. Methylation analysis of DERL2 cells demonstrated highly methylated CpG islands of AIM1 and decitabine treatment induced significant increase in AIM1 transcripts. Notably, Syk was demonstrated in HSTL cells with its phosphorylated form present in DERL2 cells by Western blot, and in vitro DERL2 cells were sensitive to a Syk inhibitor. Genomic profiles confirmed recurrent isochromosome 7q (n=6/9) without alterations at 9q22 and 6q21 containing SYK and AIM1 genes, respectively. The current study identifies a distinct molecular signature for HSTL and highlights oncogenic pathways which offer rationale for exploring new therapeutic options such as Syk inhibitors and demethylating agents. PMID:22510872

  2. Molecular features of hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma unravels potential novel therapeutic targets.

    PubMed

    Travert, Marion; Huang, Yenlin; de Leval, Laurence; Martin-Garcia, Nadine; Delfau-Larue, Marie-Helene; Berger, Françoise; Bosq, Jacques; Brière, Josette; Soulier, Jean; Macintyre, Elizabeth; Marafioti, Teresa; de Reyniès, Aurélien; Gaulard, Philippe

    2012-06-14

    The pathogenesis of hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma (HSTL), a rare entity mostly derived from γδ T cells and usually with a fatal outcome, remains largely unknown. In this study, HSTL samples (7γδ and 2αβ) and the DERL2 HSTL cell line were subjected to combined gene-expression profiling and array-based comparative genomic hybridization. Compared with other T-cell lymphomas, HSTL had a distinct molecular signature irrespective of TCR cell lineage. Compared with peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified and normal γδ T cells, HSTL overexpressed genes encoding NK-cell-associated molecules, oncogenes (FOS and VAV3), the sphingosine-1-phosphatase receptor 5 involved in cell trafficking, and the tyrosine kinase SYK, whereas the tumor-suppressor gene AIM1 (absent in melanoma 1) was among the most down-expressed. We found highly methylated CpG islands of AIM1 in DERL2 cells, and decitabine treatment induced a significant increase in AIM1 transcripts. Syk was present in HSTL cells and DERL2 cells contained phosphorylated Syk and were sensitive to a Syk inhibitor in vitro. Genomic profiles confirmed recurrent isochromosome 7q (n = 6/9) without alterations at the SYK and AIM1 loci. Our results identify a distinct molecular signature for HSTL and highlight oncogenic pathways that offer rationale for exploring new therapeutic options such as Syk inhibitors and demethylating agents. PMID:22510872

  3. Perspective in chronic kidney disease: targeting hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) as potential therapeutic approach.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Aaishwarya B; Patel, Jayvadan K; Prajapati, Ashish R; Shah, Shreya

    2012-01-01

    Tissue hypoxia is a pathologic feature of many human diseases like cancer, myocardial infarction, stroke, and kidney disease. Convincing data from clinical studies in patients with chronic renal failure point to chronic hypoxia of kidneys as the end result of multiple processes and mechanisms. In acute as well as chronic diseases, tissue hypoxia not only implies a risk of energy deprivation but also induces regulatory mechanisms with profound influence on gene expression. Moreover, once established, accumulating evidence points to this chronic hypoxia as the central player along with final common pathway to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). An evolutionarily preserved oxygen-sensing mechanism enables cells to adapt and maintain homeostasis under hypoxic conditions by transcriptional activation of a host of genes mediating metabolic adaptation, angiogenesis, energy conservation, erythropoiesis, in addition to cell survival. The endogenous oxygen-sensing mechanism incorporates hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) that hub cellular response to hypoxia and comprises a family of oxygen-sensitive basic helix-loop-helix proteins that control the cellular transcriptional response to hypoxia. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is thus a significant mediator of physiological responses to acute and chronic hypoxia. Since HIF is activated to suboptimal levels in pathogenic renal states, therapeutic activation holds a promising novel and effective approach to the treatment of ESRD. Current insights into the regulation of HIF may augment the understanding of the role of hypoxia in renal failure progression and may unbolt new options to improve hypoxia tolerance and induce nephroprotection. PMID:22264075

  4. Improving Therapeutic Outcomes in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer not Suitable for Curative Intent Therapy - A Review of the Role of Radiation Therapy in an Era of Increasing Systemic Therapy Options.

    PubMed

    Lehman, M

    2016-05-01

    Lung cancer is the highest cause of mortality from cancer worldwide. Most patients present with disease not suitable for curative therapeutic options. In these patients, radiation therapy provides durable palliation of symptoms due to intrathoracic disease, whereas systemic chemotherapy improves survival compared with best supportive care. Over recent years the systemic therapeutic options available for the non-curative management of advanced lung cancer, particularly non-small cell lung cancer, have expanded to include molecularly targeted agents and immune modulating agents. The aim of this overview is to review the role and future of radiation therapy in this era of increasing systemic therapy options with particular emphasis on how radiation therapy can be used to improve therapeutic outcomes. PMID:26777130

  5. The Role of Topical Brimonidine Tartrate Gel as a Novel Therapeutic Option for Persistent Facial Erythema Associated with Rosacea.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Andrew William; Johnson, Sandra Marchese

    2015-09-01

    Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory skin condition that commonly presents with persistent facial erythema with or without the coincident presence of flushing, telangiectasias, inflammatory papules or pustules, phymatous changes, or ocular involvement. Patients often present with a constellation of various signs and symptoms of the disease, and an individualized treatment plan should be tailored to a patient's unique clinical presentation. Previously available medications for rosacea have all targeted the inflammatory erythematous papules and pustules frequently associated with the disease, leaving a therapeutic gap for the common manifestation of persistent facial erythema. Brimonidine tartrate 0.33% gel was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in August 2013 as the first medication available for the topical treatment of persistent facial erythema associated with rosacea. Brimonidine gel is a highly selective α2-adrenergic receptor agonist with potent vasoconstrictive effects, which leads to significant reduction of persistent facial erythema in the majority of patients when applied once daily. Based on large-scale clinical trials and post-marketing reports, brimonidine gel has maintained a good safety profile with a minority of patients experiencing adverse effects from its use, most of which are cutaneous in nature, mild-to-moderate in degree, occur early after initiation of treatment, often resolve spontaneously with continued use, and generally resolve after discontinuation of use. Among the reported adverse effects, two distinct manifestations of worsened erythema have been described. Brimonidine gel can be integrated into a treatment regimen along with concomitant therapies for facial papules and pustules with no increased risk of adverse events with combination therapy. Education about optimal application methods, setting reasonable expectations for treatment, and minimizing inflammation are important factors for the successful use of brimonidine gel as part of a patient's overall rosacea treatment regimen. PMID:26112098

  6. Curcumin as a potential therapeutic candidate for Helicobacter pylori associated diseases.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Avijit; De, Ronita; Mukhopadhyay, Asish K

    2016-03-01

    Curcumin, a yellow pigment and principal polyphenolic Curcuminoid obtained from the turmeric rhizome Curcuma longa, is commonly used as a food-coloring agent. Studies suggest that curcumin has a wide range of beneficial properties e.g., anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-cancer, anti-proliferative, anti-fungal and anti-microbial. These pleiotropic activities prompted several research groups to elucidate the role of curcumin in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. This is the first review with this heading where we discussed regarding the role of curcumin as an anti-H. pylori agent along with its potential in other gastrointestinal diseases. Based on several in vitro, early cell culture, animal research and few pre-clinical trials, curcumin projected as a potential therapeutic candidate against H. pylori mediated gastric pathogenesis. This review sheds light on the anti-H. pylori effects of curcumin in different models with meticulous emphasis on its anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic effects as well as some critical signaling and effecter molecules. Remarkably, non-toxic molecule curcumin fulfills the characteristics for an ideal chemopreventive agent against H. pylori mediated gastric carcinogenesis but the foremost challenge is to obtain the optimum therapeutic levels of curcumin, due to its low solubility and poor bioavailability. Further, we have discussed about the possibilities for improving its efficacy and bioavailability. Lastly, we concluded with the anticipation that in near future curcumin may be used to develop a therapeutic drug against H. pylori mediated gastric ailments through improved formulation or delivery systems, facilitating its enhanced absorption and cellular uptake. PMID:26973412

  7. MicroRNAs are potential therapeutic targets in fibrosing kidney disease: lessons from animal models

    PubMed Central

    Duffield, Jeremy S; Grafals, Monica; Portilla, Didier

    2012-01-01

    Chronic disease of the kidneys has reached epidemic proportions in industrialized nations. New therapies are urgently sought. Using a combination of animal models of kidney disease and human biopsy samples, a pattern of dysregulated microRNA expression has emerged which is common to chronic diseases. A number of these dysregulated microRNA have recently been shown to have functional consequences for the disease process and therefore may be potential therapeutic targets. We highlight microRNA-21, the most comprehensively studied microRNA in the kidney so far. MicroRNA-21 is expressed widely in healthy kidney but studies from knockout mice indicate it is largely inert. Although microRNA-21 is upregulated in many cell compartments including leukocytes, epithelial cells and myofibroblasts, the inert microRNA-21 also appears to become activated, by unclear mechanisms. Mice lacking microRNA-21 are protected from kidney injury and fibrosis in several distinct models of kidney disease, and systemically administered oligonucleotides that specifically bind to the active site in microRNA-21, inhibiting its function, recapitulate the genetic deletion of microRNA-21, suggesting inhibitory oligonucleotides may have therapeutic potential. Recent studies of microRNA-21 targets in kidney indicate that it normally functions to silence metabolic pathways including fatty acid metabolism and pathways that prevent Reactive Oxygen Species generation in peroxisomes and mitochondria in epithelial cells and myofibroblasts. Targeting specific pathogenic microRNAs in a specific manner is feasible in vivo and may be a new therapeutic target in disease of the kidney PMID:25018773

  8. Molecular actions and therapeutic potential of lithium in preclinical and clinical studies of CNS disorders

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Chi-Tso; Chuang, De-Maw

    2011-01-01

    Lithium has been used clinically to treat bipolar disorder for over half a century, and remains a fundamental pharmacological therapy for patients with this illness. Although lithium’s therapeutic mechanisms are not fully understood, substantial in vitro and in vivo evidence suggests that it has neuroprotective/neurotrophic properties against various insults, and considerable clinical potential for the treatment of several neurodegenerative conditions. Evidence from pharmacological and gene manipulation studies support the notion that glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibition and induction of brain-derived neurotrophic factor-mediated signaling are lithium’s main mechanisms of action, leading to enhanced cell survival pathways and alteration of a wide variety of downstream effectors. By inhibiting N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-mediated calcium influx, lithium also contributes to calcium homeostasis and suppresses calcium-dependent activation of pro-apoptotic signaling pathways. In addition, lithium decreases inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate by inhibiting phosphoinositol phosphatases, a process recently identified as a novel mechanism for inducing autophagy. Through these mechanisms, therapeutic doses of lithium have been demonstrated to defend neuronal cells against diverse forms of death insults and to improve behavioral as well as cognitive deficits in various animal models of neurodegenerative diseases, including stroke, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, fragile X syndrome, as well as Huntington’s, Alzheimer’s, and Parkinson’s diseases, among others. Several clinical trials are also underway to assess the therapeutic effects of lithium for treating these disorders. This article reviews the most recent findings regarding the potential targets involved in lithium’s neuroprotective effects, and the implication of these findings for the treatment of a variety of diseases. PMID:20705090

  9. Curcumin as a potential therapeutic candidate for Helicobacter pylori associated diseases

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Avijit; De, Ronita; Mukhopadhyay, Asish K

    2016-01-01

    Curcumin, a yellow pigment and principal polyphenolic Curcuminoid obtained from the turmeric rhizome Curcuma longa, is commonly used as a food-coloring agent. Studies suggest that curcumin has a wide range of beneficial properties e.g., anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-cancer, anti-proliferative, anti-fungal and anti-microbial. These pleiotropic activities prompted several research groups to elucidate the role of curcumin in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. This is the first review with this heading where we discussed regarding the role of curcumin as an anti-H. pylori agent along with its potential in other gastrointestinal diseases. Based on several in vitro, early cell culture, animal research and few pre-clinical trials, curcumin projected as a potential therapeutic candidate against H. pylori mediated gastric pathogenesis. This review sheds light on the anti-H. pylori effects of curcumin in different models with meticulous emphasis on its anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic effects as well as some critical signaling and effecter molecules. Remarkably, non-toxic molecule curcumin fulfills the characteristics for an ideal chemopreventive agent against H. pylori mediated gastric carcinogenesis but the foremost challenge is to obtain the optimum therapeutic levels of curcumin, due to its low solubility and poor bioavailability. Further, we have discussed about the possibilities for improving its efficacy and bioavailability. Lastly, we concluded with the anticipation that in near future curcumin may be used to develop a therapeutic drug against H. pylori mediated gastric ailments through improved formulation or delivery systems, facilitating its enhanced absorption and cellular uptake. PMID:26973412

  10. Therapeutic Potential of Mood Stabilizers Lithium and Valproic Acid: Beyond Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Chi-Tso; Wang, Zhifei; Hunsberger, Joshua G.

    2013-01-01

    The mood stabilizers lithium and valproic acid (VPA) are traditionally used to treat bipolar disorder (BD), a severe mental illness arising from complex interactions between genes and environment that drive deficits in cellular plasticity and resiliency. The therapeutic potential of these drugs in other central nervous system diseases is also gaining support. This article reviews the various mechanisms of action of lithium and VPA gleaned from cellular and animal models of neurologic, neurodegenerative, and neuropsychiatric disorders. Clinical evidence is included when available to provide a comprehensive perspective of the field and to acknowledge some of the limitations of these treatments. First, the review describes how action at these drugs’ primary targets—glycogen synthase kinase-3 for lithium and histone deacetylases for VPA—induces the transcription and expression of neurotrophic, angiogenic, and neuroprotective proteins. Cell survival signaling cascades, oxidative stress pathways, and protein quality control mechanisms may further underlie lithium and VPA’s beneficial actions. The ability of cotreatment to augment neuroprotection and enhance stem cell homing and migration is also discussed, as are microRNAs as new therapeutic targets. Finally, preclinical findings have shown that the neuroprotective benefits of these agents facilitate anti-inflammation, angiogenesis, neurogenesis, blood-brain barrier integrity, and disease-specific neuroprotection. These mechanisms can be compared with dysregulated disease mechanisms to suggest core cellular and molecular disturbances identifiable by specific risk biomarkers. Future clinical endeavors are warranted to determine the therapeutic potential of lithium and VPA across the spectrum of central nervous system diseases, with particular emphasis on a personalized medicine approach toward treating these disorders. PMID:23300133

  11. Virogenetic and Optogenetic Mechanisms to Define Potential Therapeutic Targets in Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ming-Hu; Friedman, Allyson K.

    2011-01-01

    A continuously increasing body of knowledge shows that the brain is an extremely complex neural network and single neurons possess their own complicated interactive signaling pathways. Such complexity of the nervous system makes it increasingly difficult to investigate the functions of specific neural components such as genes, proteins, transcription factors, neurons and nuclei in the brain. Technically, it has been even more of a significant challenge to identify the molecular and cellular adaptations that are both sufficient and necessary to underlie behavioral functions in health and disease states. Defining such neural adaptations is a critical step to identify the potential therapeutic targets within the complex neural network that are beneficial to treat psychiatric disorders. Recently, the newly development and extensive application of in vivo viral-mediated gene transfer (virogenetics) and optical manipulation of specific neurons or selective neural circuits in freely-moving animals (optogenetics) make it feasible, through loss- and gain-of-function approaches, to reliably define sufficient and necessary neuroadaptations in the behavioral models of psychiatric disorders, including drug addiction, depression, anxiety and bipolar disorders. In this article, we focus on recent studies that successfully employ these advanced virogenetic and optogenetic techniques as a powerful tool to identify potential targets in the brain, and to provide highly useful information in the development of novel therapeutic strategies for psychiatric disorders. PMID:21945288

  12. Androgen receptor is a new potential therapeutic target for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Wen-Lung; Hsu, Cheng-Lung; Wu, Ming-Heng; Wu, Chun-Te; Wu, Cheng-Chia; Lai, Jiann-Jyh; Jou, Yuh-Shan; Chen, Chun-Wei; Yeh, Shuyuan; Chang, Chawnshang

    2008-01-01

    Summary Background Androgen effects on the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain controversial and androgen ablation therapy to treat HCC also leads to inconsistent results. Here we examine androgen receptor (AR) roles in hepatocarcinogenesis using mice lacking AR in hepatocytes. Methods and Designs Using the Cre-Lox conditional knockout mice model injected with carcinogen, we examined the AR roles in hepatocarcinogenesis. We also tested the possible roles of AR in cellular oxidative stress and DNA damage sensing/repairing systems. Using AR degrading compound, ASC-J9, or AR-siRNA, we also examined the therapeutic potentials of targeting AR in HCC. Results We found AR expression was elevated in human HCC compared to normal livers. We also found mice lacking hepatic AR developed later and less HCC than their wild type littermates with comparable serum testosterone in both male and female mice. Addition of functional AR in human HCC cells also resulted in the promotion of cell growth in the absence or presence of 5α-dihydrotestosterone. Mechanistic dissection suggests that AR may promote hepatocarcinogenesis via increased cellular oxidative stress and DNA damage, as well as suppression of p53-mediated DNA damage sensing/repairing system and cell apoptosis. Targeting AR directly via either AR-siRNA or ASC-J9, resulted in suppression of HCC in both ex vivo cell lines and in vivo mice models. Conclusion Our data point to AR, but not androgens, as a potential new therapeutic target for the battle of HCC. PMID:18639551

  13. Aprotinin revisited: formulation, characterization, biodistribution and therapeutic potential of new aprotinin microemulsion in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Karasulu, H Yeşim; Oruç, Nevin; Üstündağ-Okur, Neslihan; İlem Özdemir, Derya; Ay Şenyiğit, Zeynep; Barbet Yılmaz, Funda; Aşıkoğlu, Makbule; Özkılıç, Hayal; Akçiçek, Eren; Güneri, Tamer; Özütemiz, Ömer

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop aprotinin-loaded microemulsion (MA) for intravenous administration and evaluate the biodistribution and therapeutic potential of developed formulation in acute pancreatitis models in rats. Phase diagrams were constructed to identify microemulsion region and the optimal microemulsion was evaluated for physicochemical properties and treatment effect in rats, and comparisons made with the solution of aprotinin (SA). To evaluate the biodistribution of the drug by gamma scintigraphy aprotinin was radiolabeled with (99m)Tc radionuclide. Mild and severe acute pancreatitis was induced in rats by subcutaneous injections of cerulein and introductal infusion of 3% sodium taurocholate into the bile-pancreatic duct, respectively. In addition, serum amylase and pancreatic tissue myeloperoxidase activities were measured to evaluate the pancreatic damage. According to gamma scintigraphy and biodistribution studies, accumulation times and distribution of (99m)Tc-MA and SA were different. While MA was highly uptake by reticuloendothelial system, SA was mostly excreted by kidneys and bladder. Compared with the mild acute pancreatitis group, treatment with MA significantly decreased the serum amylase activity and pancreas myeloperoxidase activity. Furthermore, the protease inhibitor molecule aprotinin has therapeutic potential in acute pancreatitis. Finally, MA may be suggested as a promising alternative for treatment of acute pancreatitis. PMID:25738992

  14. Identification of potential therapeutic targets for lung cancer by bioinformatics analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Quan; Zhao, Lan-Hua; Qiao, Yi-Ze

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify potential therapeutic targets for lung cancer and explore underlying molecular mechanisms of its development and progression. The gene expression profile datasets no. GSE3268 and GSE19804, which included five and 60 pairs of tumor and normal lung tissue specimens, respectively, were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between lung cancer and normal tissues were identified, and gene ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis of the DEGs was performed. Furthermore, protein‑protein interaction (PPI) networks and a transcription factor (TF) regulatory network were constructed and key target genes were screened. A total of 466 DEGs were identified, and the PPI network indicated that IL‑6 and MMP9 had key roles in lung cancer. A PPI module containing 34 nodes and 547 edges was obtained, including PTTG1. The TF regulatory network indicated that TFs of FOSB and LMO2 had a key role. Furthermore, MMP9 was indicated to be the target of FOSB, while PTTG1 was the target of LMO2. In conclusion, the bioinformatics analysis of the present study indicated that IL‑6, MMP9 and PTTG1 may have key roles in the progression and development of lung cancer and may potentially be used as biomarkers or specific therapeutic targets for lung cancer. PMID:26739332

  15. Therapeutic Potential and Challenges of Natural Killer Cells in Treatment of Solid Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Gras Navarro, Andrea; Björklund, Andreas T.; Chekenya, Martha

    2015-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are innate lymphoid cells that hold tremendous potential for effective immunotherapy for a broad range of cancers. Due to the mode of NK cell killing, requiring one-to-one target engagement and site-directed release of cytolytic granules, the therapeutic potential of NK cells has been most extensively explored in hematological malignancies. However, their ability to precisely kill antibody coated cells, cancer stem cells, and genotoxically altered cells, while maintaining tolerance to healthy cells makes them appealing therapeutic effectors for all cancer forms, including metastases. Due to their release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, NK cells may potently reverse the anti-inflammatory tumor microenvironment (TME) and augment adaptive immune responses by promoting differentiation, activation, and/or recruitment of accessory immune cells to sites of malignancy. Nevertheless, integrated and coordinated mechanisms of subversion of NK cell activity against the tumor and its microenvironment exist. Although our understanding of the receptor ligand interactions that regulate NK cell functionality has evolved remarkably, the diversity of ligands and receptors is complex, as is their mechanistic foundations in regulating NK cell function. In this article, we review the literature and highlight how the TME manipulates the NK cell phenotypes, genotypes, and tropism to evade tumor recognition and elimination. We discuss counter strategies that may be adopted to augment the efficacy of NK cell anti-tumor surveillance, the clinical trials that have been undertaken so far in solid malignancies, critically weighing the challenges and opportunities with this approach. PMID:25972872

  16. Therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stem cells to treat Achilles tendon injuries.

    PubMed

    Vieira, M H C; Oliveira, R J; Ea, L P M; Pereira, I S O; Hermeto, L C; Matuo, R; Fernandes, W S; Silva, R A; Antoniolli, A C M B

    2014-01-01

    Rupture of the Achilles tendon diminishes quality of life. The gold-standard therapy is a surgical suture, but this presents complications, including wound formation and inflammation. These complications spurred evaluation of the therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from adipose tissue. New Zealand rabbits were divided into 6 groups (three treatments with two time points each) evaluated at either 14 or 28 days after surgery: cross section of the Achilles tendon (CSAT); CSAT + Suture; and CSAT + MSC. A comparison between all groups at both time points showed a statistically significant increase in capillaries and in the structural organization of collagen in the healed tendon in the CSAT + Suture and CSAT + MSC groups at the 14-day assessment. Comparison between the two time points within the same group showed a statistically significant decrease in the inflammatory process and an increase in the structural organization of collagen in the CSAT and CSAT + MSC groups. A study of the genomic integrity of the cells suggested a linear correlation between an increase of injuries and culture time. Thus, MSC transplantation is a good alternative for treatment of Achilles tendon ruptures because it may be conducted without surgery and tendon suture and, therefore, has no risk of adverse effects resulting from the surgical wound or inflammation caused by nonabsorbable sutures. Furthermore, this alternative treatment exhibits a better capacity for wound healing and maintaining the original tendon architecture, depending on the arrangement of the collagen fibers, and has important therapeutic potential. PMID:25511027

  17. Soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products: from disease marker to potential therapeutic target.

    PubMed

    Geroldi, Diego; Falcone, Colomba; Emanuele, Enzo

    2006-01-01

    The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a cell-bound receptor of the immunoglobulin superfamily which may be activated by a variety of proinflammatory ligands including advanced glycoxidation end products, S100/calgranulins, high mobility group box 1, and amyloid beta-peptide. RAGE has a secretory splice isoform, soluble RAGE (sRAGE), that lacks the transmembrane domain and therefore circulates in plasma. By competing with cell-surface RAGE for ligand binding, sRAGE may contribute to the removal/neutralization of circulating ligands thus functioning as a decoy. Clinical studies have recently shown that higher plasma levels of sRAGE are associated with a reduced risk of coronary artery disease, hypertension, the metabolic syndrome, arthritis and Alzheimer's disease. Increasing the production of plasma sRAGE is therefore considered to be a promising therapeutic target that has the potential to prevent vascular damage and neurodegeneration. This review presents the state of the art in the use of sRAGE as a disease marker and discusses the therapeutic potential of targeting sRAGE for the treatment of inflammation-related diseases such as atherosclerosis, arthritis and Alzheimer's disease. PMID:16842191

  18. Streptococcal IdeS: therapeutic potential for Guillain–Barré syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Ryo; Yuki, Nobuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Plasma exchange and intravenous immunoglobulin are effective in treating Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS) probably because the former removes IgG autoantibodies and complement and the latter inhibits complement activation subsequent to the autoantibody binding to peripheral nerve antigens. IgG degrading enzyme of Streptococcus pyogenes (IdeS) can cleave the pathogenic autoantibodies into F(ab’)2 and Fc. The purpose of this study is to show whether IdeS has novel therapeutic potential for GBS. Sera with anti-ganglioside IgG antibodies from 15 patients with GBS or Miller Fisher syndrome were used. We tested whether IdeS cleaved the anti-ganglioside IgG antibodies and inhibited deposition of activated complement component on ELISA plates. IdeS efficiently cleaved IgG and blocked complement activation mediated by anti-GM1, anti-GD1a and anti-GQ1b IgG antibodies. IdeS has therapeutic potential for GBS and related conditions. PMID:26194472

  19. Identification of potential therapeutic targets for lung cancer by bioinformatics analysis

    PubMed Central

    WANG, LI-QUAN; ZHAO, LAN-HUA; QIAO, YI-ZE

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify potential therapeutic targets for lung cancer and explore underlying molecular mechanisms of its development and progression. The gene expression profile datasets no. GSE3268 and GSE19804, which included five and 60 pairs of tumor and normal lung tissue specimens, respectively, were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between lung cancer and normal tiss