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Sample records for potentials epic okinawa

  1. Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The southern half of the island of Okinawa, Japan (26.5N, 128.0E) can be seen in this nearly cloud free view. Okinawa is part of the Ryuku Islands which extend from Taiwan northeastward to Kyushu, southernmost of the Japanese Home Islands. The large military base at Kadena, with large runways, is visible near the center of the scene. Kadena is one of several emergency landing sites around the world for the space shuttle.

  2. Potential substitution of mineral P fertilizer by manure: EPIC development and implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azevedo, Ligia B.; Vadas, Peter A.; Balkovič, Juraj; Skalský, Rastislav; Folberth, Christian; van der Velde, Marijn; Obersteiner, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Sources of mineral phosphorus (P) fertilizers are non-renewable. Although the longevity of P mines and the risk of future P depletion are highly debated P scarcity may be detrimental to agriculture in various ways. Some of these impacts include increasing food insecurity and nitrogen (N) and P imbalances, serious fluctuations in the global fertilizer and crop market prices, and contribution in geopolitical conflicts. P-rich waste produced from livestock production activities (i.e. manure) are an alternative to mineral P fertilizer. The substitution of mineral fertilizer with manure (1) delays the depletion of phosphate rock stocks, (2) reduces the vulnerability of P fertilizer importing countries to sudden changes in the fertilizer market, (3) reduces the chances of geopolitical conflicts arising from P exploitation pressures, (4) avoids the need for environmental protection policies in livestock systems, (5) is an opportunity for the boosting of crop yields in low nutrient input agricultural systems, and (6) contributes to the inflow of not only P but also other essential nutrients to agricultural soils. The Environmental Policy Integrated Climate model (EPIC) is a widely used process-based, crop model integrating various environmental flows relevant to crop production as well as environmental quality assessments. We simulate crop yields using a powerful computer cluster infra-structure (known as EPIC-IIASA) in combination with spatially-explicit EPIC input data on climate, management, soils, and landscape. EPIC-IIASA contains over 131,000 simulation units and it has 5 arc-min resolution. In this work, we implement two process-based models of manure biogeochemistry into EPIC-IIASA, i.e. SurPhos (for P) and Manure DNDC (for N and carbon) and a fate model model describing nutrient outflows from fertilizer via runoff. For EGU, we will use EPIC-IIASA to quantify the potential of mineral P fertilizer substitution with manure. Specifically, we will estimate the relative

  3. Transformer Efficiency Assessment - Okinawa, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas L. Baldwin; Robert J. Turk; Kurt S. Myers; Jake P. Gentle; Jason W. Bush

    2012-05-01

    The US Army Engineering & Support Center, Huntsville (USAESCH), and the US Marine Corps Base (MCB), Okinawa, Japan retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a Transformer Efficiency Assessment of “key” transformers located at multiple military bases in Okinawa, Japan. The purpose of this assessment is to support the Marine Corps Base, Okinawa in evaluating medium voltage distribution transformers for potential efficiency upgrades. The original scope of work included the MCB providing actual transformer nameplate data, manufacturer’s factory test sheets, electrical system data (kWh), demand data (kWd), power factor data, and electricity cost data. Unfortunately, the MCB’s actual data is not available and therefore making it necessary to de-scope the original assessment. Note: Any similar nameplate data, photos of similar transformer nameplates, and basic electrical details from one-line drawings (provided by MCB) are not a replacement for actual load loss test data. It is recommended that load measurements are performed on the high and low sides of transformers to better quantify actual load losses, demand data, and power factor data. We also recommend that actual data, when available, be inserted by MCB Okinawa where assumptions have been made and then the LCC analysis updated. This report covers a generalized assessment of modern U.S. transformers in a three level efficiency category, Low-Level efficiency, Medium-Level efficiency, and High-Level efficiency.

  4. Transformer Efficiency Assessment - Okinawa, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas L. Baldwin; Robert J. Turk; Kurt S. Myers; Jake P. Gentle; Jason W. Bush

    2012-08-01

    The US Army Engineering & Support Center, Huntsville (USAESCH), and the US Marine Corps Base (MCB), Okinawa, Japan retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a Transformer Efficiency Assessment of “key” transformers located at multiple military bases in Okinawa, Japan. The purpose of this assessment is to support the Marine Corps Base, Okinawa in evaluating medium voltage distribution transformers for potential efficiency upgrades. The original scope of work included the MCB providing actual transformer nameplate data, manufacturer’s factory test sheets, electrical system data (kWh), demand data (kWd), power factor data, and electricity cost data. Unfortunately, the MCB’s actual data is not available and therefore making it necessary to de-scope the original assessment. Note: Any similar nameplate data, photos of similar transformer nameplates, and basic electrical details from one-line drawings (provided by MCB) are not a replacement for actual load loss test data. It is recommended that load measurements are performed on the high and low sides of transformers to better quantify actual load losses, demand data, and power factor data. We also recommend that actual data, when available, be inserted by MCB Okinawa where assumptions have been made and then the LCC analysis updated. This report covers a generalized assessment of modern U.S. transformers in a three level efficiency category, Low-Level efficiency, Medium-Level efficiency, and High-Level efficiency.

  5. EPICS overview

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    This overview describes basic attributes, hardware, IOC software platforms, database access and scanning, record support, database monitors, channel access, client services, search server, connection management, OPI tools, and core software of the EPICS system.

  6. Photochemical Formation of Hydroxyl Radical in Red-Soil-Polluted Seawater in Okinawa, Japan -Potential Impacts on Marine Organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arakaki, T.; Hamdun, A. M.; Okada, K.; Kuroki, Y.; Ikota, H.; Fujimura, H.; Oomori, T.

    2004-12-01

    Development of pineapple farmlands and construction of recreational facilities caused runoff of red soil into coastal ocean (locally termed as red-soil-pollution) in the north of Okinawa Island, Japan. In an attempt to understand the impacts of red soil on oxidizing power of the seawater, we studied formation of hydroxyl radical (OH radical), the most potent oxidant in the environment, in red-soil-polluted seawaters, using 313 nm monochromatic light. Photo-formation rates of OH radical showed a good correlation with dissolved iron concentrations (R = 0.98). The major source of OH radical was found to be the Fenton reaction (a reaction between Fe(II) and HOOH). The un-filtered red-soil-polluted seawater samples exhibited faster OH radical formation rates than the filtered samples, suggesting that iron-bearing red soil particles enhanced formation of OH radical.

  7. Island of Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The island of Okinawa, (26.5N, 128.0E) largest of the Ryukyu Islands, Japan. The Ryukyu island group lies south of the main home islands of Japan in an arc towards the Chinese island Republic of Taiwan. As is typical throughout the Japanese home islands, intense urban development can be observed all over the island in this near vertical view.

  8. Okinawa, Japan: Geologic Battleground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waymack, S. W.; Carrington, M. P.; Harpp, K. S.

    2005-12-01

    One of our main goals as instructors, particularly in introductory courses, is to impart students with an appreciation of how geology has influenced the course of human events. Despite the apparent accessibility of such topics, communicating this in a lively, relevant, and effective way often proves difficult. We use a series of historical events, the Pacific island hopping campaign of WWII, to engage students in an active, guided inquiry exercise to explore how terrain and the underlying geology of an area can shape historical events. Teams of students are assigned the role of planning either the defense or occupation of Okinawa Island, in the Ryukyu arc, in a theoretical version of the 1945 conflict. Students are given a package of information, including geologic and topographic maps, a list of military resources available to them at the time, and some historical background. Students also have access to "reconnaissance" images, 360o digital panoramas of the landscape of Okinawa, keyed to their maps. Each team has a week to plan their strategies and carry out additional research, which they subsequently bring to the table in the form of a written battle plan. With an instructor as arbiter, teams alternate drawing their maneuvers on a map of the island, to which the other team then responds. This continues one move at a time, until the instructor declares a victor. Throughout the exercise, the instructor guides students through analysis of each strategic decision in light of the island's structure and topography, with an emphasis on the appropriate interpretation of the maps. Students soon realize that an understanding of the island's terrain literally meant the difference between life and death for civilians and military participants alike in 1945. The karst landscape of Okinawa posed unique obstacles to both the Japanese and the American forces, including difficult landing sites, networks of natural caves, and sequences of hills aligned perpendicular to the

  9. Potential Predictors of Plasma Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 Concentrations: Cross-Sectional Analysis in the EPIC-Germany Study

    PubMed Central

    di Giuseppe, Romina; Kühn, Tilman; Hirche, Frank; Buijsse, Brian; Dierkes, Jutta; Fritsche, Andreas; Kaaks, Rudolf; Boeing, Heiner; Stangl, Gabriele I.; Weikert, Cornelia

    2015-01-01

    Background Increased fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), a bone-derived hormone involved in the regulation of phosphate and vitamin D metabolism, has been related to the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in chronic kidney disease patients and in the general population. However, what determines higher FGF23 levels is still unclear. Also, little is known about the influence of diet on FGF23. The aim of this study was therefore to identify demographic, clinical and dietary correlates of high FGF23 concentrations in the general population. Methods We performed a cross-sectional analysis within a randomly selected subcohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Germany comprising 2134 middle-aged men and women. The Human FGF23 (C-Terminal) ELISA kit was used to measure FGF23 in citrate plasma. Dietary data were obtained at baseline via validated food frequency questionnaires including up to 148 food items. Results Multivariable adjusted logistic regression showed that men had a 66% lower and smokers a 64% higher probability of having higher FGF23 (≥ 90 RU/mL) levels compared, respectively, with women and nonsmokers. Each doubling in parathyroid hormone, creatinine, and C-reactive protein was related to higher FGF23. Among the dietary factors, each doubling in calcium and total energy intake was related, respectively, to a 1.75 and to a 4.41 fold increased probability of having higher FGF23. Finally, each doubling in the intake of iron was related to an 82% lower probability of having higher FGF23 levels. Results did not substantially change after exclusion of participants with lower kidney function. Conclusions In middle-aged men and women traditional and non-traditional CVD risk factors were related to higher FGF23 concentrations. These findings may contribute to the understanding of the potential mechanisms linking increased FGF23 to increased CVD risk. PMID:26193703

  10. Teaching the Epic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Margaret, Ed.

    Assembled to aid high school literature teachers in exploring the epic with their students, materials in this book approach the epic as a product of a specific culture which presents vivid pictures of earlier societies. Following the introduction and the opening essay, "The Role of the Supernatural in the Epic," chapters are grouped under the…

  11. EPICS performance evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Botlo, M.; Jagielski, M.; Romero, A.

    1993-09-01

    The authors report on the software architecture, some CPU and memory issues, and the performance of the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). Specifically, they subject each EPICS software layer to a series of tests and extract quantitative results that should be useful to system architects planning to use EPICS for control applications.

  12. Overview of EPIC2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raymond, D. J.

    2002-12-01

    The tropical eastern Pacific is a region in which coupled ocean-atmosphere climate models do a particularly poor job. In particular, the seasonal cycle is inadequately simulated in most cases. This is probably because certain physical processes are not properly represented in such models. The purpose of EPIC2001 is to develop a better understanding of key physical processes in this region with an eye to improving the associated model parameterizations. In this overview the aspects of the east Pacific which potentially can give climate models problems are outlined in the context of idealized theories of the behavior of the ocean-atmosphere system in the region. These aspects have been identified to be \\begin{itemize} the factors controlling the location and variability of east Pacific deep atmospheric convection; airmass transformations in the low-level cross-equatorial flow driven by the latitudinal sea surface temperature gradient; the effect of air-sea coupling on ocean mixed layer dynamics and SST in the east Pacific warm pool; the processes in the upper ocean that affect the structure and evolution of the shallow thermocline in this region; and dynamical, radiative, and microphysical factors affecting the energy balance in the widespread region of stratus-covered ocean south of the equator. This talk will give an overview of how the various aspects of the EPIC2001 field program are designed to address these problems and will serve as background for subsequent more specialized talks.

  13. EPIC Computer Upgrade

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 30 Commander Dan Burbank and Flight Engineer Don Pettit work on installing hardware for the Enhanced Processor and Integrated Communications (EPIC) upgrade of the International Space Sta...

  14. Potential Scientific Output from the Visible Channels of EPIC Spectroradiometer as Part of the DSCOVR L1 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshak, Alexander; Herman, Jay

    2011-01-01

    In addition to 4 UV channels, the EPIC spectroradiometer will provide measurements at 6 visible (and near IR) channels (443,551,680,687.75, 764 and 779.9 nm) at roughly 10 km spatial resolution. The scattering angles are near backscattering and vary between 165 and 176 degree. Two pairs {680 and 687.75 nm} and {764 and 779.9 nm} represent 02 B- and A-bands (and their references) channels; they will be used for cloud height measurements over land and ocean. The B-band channel will contribute to the more absorbing A-band measurements over bright vegetation. A pair {680 and 779.9 nm} will be used for retrieving vegetation properties. Due to the special EPIC geometry, the illuminated part of the leaves will be always observed. As a result, in additional to the traditional Leaf Area Index (LAI), these observations for the first time will provide the sunlit fraction of LAI. Since the sunlit and shaded leaves exhibit different photosynthetic response to incident radiation, these measurements will help to improve global ecological and biogeochemistry models. Finally, a pair {443 and 551 nm} will be used for atmospheric correction. As a by-product of the atmospheric correction algorithm, we also expect to get aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and surface bidirectional reflection function (BRF). The presentation will briefly overview the proposed science algorithms.

  15. Potential scientific output from the visible channels of EPIC spectroradiometer as part of the DSCOVR L1 mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshak, A.; Herman, J. R.

    2011-12-01

    In addition to 4 UV channels, the EPIC spectroradiometer will provide measurements at 6 visible (and near IR) channels (443, 551, 680, 687.75, 764 and 779.9 nm) at roughly 10 km spatial resolution. The scattering angles are near backscattering and vary between 165 and 176 degree. Two pairs {680 and 687.75 nm} and {764 and 779.9 nm} represent O2 B- and A-bands (and their reference) channels; they will be used for cloud height measurements over land and ocean. The B-band channel will contribute to the more absorbing A-band measurements over bright vegetation. A pair {680 and 779.9 nm} will be used for retrieving vegetation properties. Due to the special EPIC geometry, the illuminated part of the leaves will be always observed. As a result, in additional to the traditional Leaf Area Index (LAI), these observations for the first time will provide the sunlit fraction of LAI. Since the sunlit and shaded leaves exhibit different photosynthetic response to incident photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), these measurements will help to improve global ecological and biogeochemistry models. Finally, a pair {443 and 551 nm} will be used for atmospheric correction. As a by-product of the atmospheric correction algorithm, we also expect to get aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and surface bidirectional reflection function (BRF). The presentation will briefly overview the proposed science algorithms.

  16. Hawaii-Okinawa Building Evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Metzger, I.; Salasovich, J.

    2013-05-01

    NREL conducted energy evaluations at the Itoman City Hall building in Itoman, Okinawa Prefecture, Japan, and the Hawaii State Capitol building in Honolulu, Hawaii. This report summarizes the findings from the evaluations, including the best practices identified at each site and opportunities for improving energy efficiency and renewable energy. The findings from this evaluation are intended to inform energy efficient building design, energy efficiency technology, and management protocols for buildings in subtropical climates.

  17. American Epic: Then and Now.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazer, Nathan

    1998-01-01

    Argues that the epic of America as frontier and vast land of freedom has been replaced by an epic that emphasizes racial and ethnic diversity in America, whether in an optimistic or pessimistic mood. The old epic was connected with an available frontier, but the new epic is city-centered in the stories of minorities. (SLD)

  18. EPIC/JANUS user's guide

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-07-30

    EPIC/JANUS, the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Publication and Interactive Composition System, is a software system the allows text, tables, halftones, and graphics to be combined interactively in a single document. In essence, it automates the entire process of composition and production of camera-ready copy. EPIC is a machine-independent document management and translation system developed by EIA. JANUS is an interactive document composition system which formats and typesets a document. This User's Guide provides complete information on how to use the EPIC/JANUS system. Included in the discussion are sections on getting started, the EPIC system and EIA Standard Text Codes, EPIC interactive commands, graphics in EPIC/JANUS, tables in EPIC/JANUS, EPIC Error messages, MVS and VM listings from EPIC/JANUS, using JANUS interactively, mathematical formula, and producing EPIC/JANUS publications through a displaywriter. Appendices contain a quick reference guide to text codes and text code examples. (DWL)

  19. EPICS system: an overview

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, J.F.; Bobbitt, J.S.; Kramper, B.J.; Lahey, T.E.; MacKinnon, B.A.; West, R.E.

    1984-02-01

    This paper presents an overview of the EPICS control system at FERMILAB. EPICS is a distributed, multi-user, interactive system for the control and monitoring of particle beamlines at a high-energy experimental physics laboratory. The overview discusses the operating environment of the control system, the requirements which determined the design decisions, the hardware and software configurations, and plans for the future growth and enhancement of the present system. This paper is the first of three related papers on the EPICS system. The other two cover (1) the system structure and user interface and (2) RSX implementation issues.

  20. Perspectives on Epic Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.

    1999-07-14

    An electron-proton/ion polarized beam collider (EPIC) with high luminosity and center of mass energy square root s = 25 GeV would be a valuable facility for fundamental studies of proton and nuclear structure and tests of quantum chromodynamics, I review a sample of prospective EPIC topics, particularly semi-exclusive reactions, studies of the proton fragmentation region, heavy quark electroproduction, and a new probe of odderon/pomeron interference.

  1. EPIC: A Framework for Using Video Games in Ethics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrier, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Ethics education can potentially be supplemented through the use of video games. This article proposes a novel framework (Ethics Practice and Implementation Categorization [EPIC] Framework), which helps educators choose games to be used for ethics education purposes. The EPIC Framework is derived from a number of classic moral development,…

  2. EPICS-DDS

    SciTech Connect

    Malitsky,N.; Shah, J.; Hasabnis, N.

    2009-05-04

    This paper presents a new extension to EPICS, approaching the Data Distributed Service (DDS) interface based on the Channel Access protocol. DDS is the next generation of middleware industrial standards, bringing a data-centric publish-subscribe paradigm to distributed control systems. In comparison with existing middleware technologies, the data-centric approach is able to provide a consistent consolidated model supporting difference data dissemination scenarios and integrating many important issues, such as quality of service, user-specific data structures, and others. The paper considers different features of the EPICS-DDS layer in the context of the high-level accelerator environment.

  3. EPIC'S PRODUCTS AND SERVICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPIC completes approximately 150 site characterizations annually using current and historical aerial photographs. This work is done in support of EPA Regional and Program
    offices. Site characterization provides detailed information about a site and its history, often going ba...

  4. Comments on dietary restriction, Okinawa diet and longevity.

    PubMed

    Gavrilova, Natalia S; Gavrilov, Leonid A

    2012-01-01

    Longevity in Okinawa is considered to be a result of traditional low calorie diet. Le Bourg suggests that Okinawa is an example of severe malnutrition, which is harmful for later generations. We believe that current loss of longevity advantage in Okinawa is a result of diet westernization and that the dietary restriction is a valid way of life extension in humans. PMID:21893946

  5. Tectonic evolution and volcanism of Okinawa Trough

    SciTech Connect

    Sibuet, J.C.; Letouzey, J.; Marsset, B.; Davagnier, M.; Foucher, J.P.; Bougault, H.; Dosso, L.; Maury, R.; Joron, J.L.

    1986-07-01

    The Okinawa Trough is a back-arc basin formed by extension of the east China continental lithosphere behind the Ryukyu Trench system. The age of marine deposits drilled in the northern Okinawa Trough indicates a Miocene age for the splitting of the volcanic arc and the first tensional movements. The POP 1 cruise of the R/V Jean-Charcot (September-October 1984) provided new evidence concerning the two main periods of extension as recognized by Kimura (Marine and Petroleum Geology, 1985). Tilted fault blocks in the northern Okinawa Trough trend north 40/sup 0/-60/sup 0/ and belong to the early Pleistocene phase (2-0.5 Ma). The present-day phase is characterized over the entire basin by normal faults oriented 80/sup 0/N in the north and 90/sup 0/N in the south. In the southern Okinawa Trough, most of the deformation occurs along linear, subparallel, en echelon depressions intruded by volcanic ridges associated with positive magnetic anomalies. The system of volcanic ridges ends northeast of Okinawa Island in a series of parallel volcanic ridges named the VAMP (Volcanic arc-rift migration processes) area, which merges into an active volcanic chain extending north to Japan. Chemical analyses of the vesicular basalts dredged on the back-arc basin display flat to enriched rare-earth patterns. The niobium-tantalum negative anomalies reflect a subduction signature. A good positive correlation between strontium isotopic compositions and concentrations suggests a contamination effect.

  6. The Owens Valley Epics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahr, Donald

    2007-01-01

    One of the best-studied, least-discussed texts of Native American oral literature is a long Mojave "epic" taken down from a man named Inyo-kutavere by Alfred Kroeber in 1902 and published in 1951. The text was published in twenty-nine pages along with forty-eight pages of commentary and twenty-five pages of notes. In 1999, Arthur Hatto, an…

  7. EPICS system: RSX implementation issues

    SciTech Connect

    Lahey, T.E.; Bartlett, J.F.; Bobbitt, J.S.; Kramper, B.J.; MacKinnon, B.A.; West, R.E.

    1984-02-01

    This paper presents implementation details of the Experimental Physics Interactive Control System (EPICS). EPICS is used to control accelerated particle beams for high-energy physics experiments at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The topics discussed are: interprocessor communication, support of beamline terminals and devices, resource management, mapping, various problems, some solutions to the problems, performance measurement, and modifications and extensions to RSX-11M. This paper is the third of three related papers on the EPICS system. The other two cover (1) the system overview and (2) the system structure and user interface.

  8. Microbial Communities of the Okinawa Backarc Basin Subvent Biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, L. D.; House, C. H.

    2014-12-01

    IODP Expedition 331 to the Okinawa backarc basin provided an opportunity to study the microbial stratigraphy within the sediments surrounding a hydrothermal vent. The Okinawa backarc basin is a sedimented region of the seafloor located on a continental margin, and also hosts a hydrothermal network within the subsurface. Site C0014 within the Iheya North hydrothermal field is located 450 m east of the active vent and has a surface temperature of 5°C with no evidence of hydrothermal alteration within the top 10 m. Temperature increases with depth at an estimated rate of 3°C/m and transitions from non-hydrothermal margin sediments to a hydrothermally altered regime below 10 m. Site C0014 is a unique location to study changes in microbial communities with depth, as the hydrothermal system generates a thermally and geochemically restrictive subvent biosphere. In this study, we utilized deep 16S rRNA sequencing of DNA from IODP Expedition 331 Site C0014 sediment horizons in order to assess diversity throughout the sediment column as well as determine the potential limits of the biosphere. Analysis of the amplicon data suggests that Archaea represent a significant proportion of the indigenous community throughout the top 15 m of sediment, where Archaea then abruptly disappear. Furthermore, a deeper classification of Archaeal sequences suggests a transition from a mesophilic community to a potentially thermophilic one, where there is an increasingly stronger signal of Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotic Group (MCG) followed by Terrestrial Hot Spring Crenarchaeotic Group (THSCG). Additionally, there are several horizons in which methanotrophy is likely supported, indicated by peaks in anaerobic methanotrophic Archaea. The cessation of Archaea as well as Chloroflexi, a common marine subsurface bacterial phylum, at approximately 15 meters below seafloor (mbsf) is suggestive of a potential boundary within Site C0014 in which the environmental conditions have become too restrictive

  9. DSCOVR_EPIC_L1A

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-09-29

    DSCOVR_EPIC_L1A Full sun-light Earth images calibrated with ... 680NM 688NM 551NM LAGRANGE L1B IMAGERY EPIC DSCOVR 325NM Order Data:  ASDC Order Tool: Order Data Readme Files:  EPIC Data Format Control Book Read Software Files :  ...

  10. EPICS system: system structure and user interface

    SciTech Connect

    West, R.E.; Bartlett, J.F.; Bobbitt, J.S.; Lahey, T.E.; Kramper, B.J.; MacKinnon, B.A.

    1984-02-01

    This paper present the user's view of and the general organization of the EPICS control system at Fermilab. Various subsystems of the EPICS control system are discussed. These include the user command language, software protection, the device database, remote computer interfaces, and several application utilities. This paper is related to two other papers on EPICS: an overview paper and a detailed implementation paper.

  11. Extrasolar Planetary Imaging Coronagraph (EPIC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clampin, Mark

    2009-01-01

    EPIC is a NASA mission being studied to detect and characterize Jovian and superEarth planets, and, the dust/debris disks surrounding the parent star. It will be launched into a heliocentric Earth trailing orbit and operate for 5 years. EPIC would operate over the wavelength range of 480 - 960 nm with spectral resolutions of R < 50 and employs a visible nulling coronagraph (VNC) to suppress the starlight, yielding contrast ratios of greater than 9 orders of magnitude. We will discuss the science mission, and its role in the search for habitable planets.

  12. Industrial partnerships yield EPIC results

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, T.

    1996-08-01

    With a new era of competition approaching in the electricity supply industry, utilities are getting closer than ever to their industrial customers, in many cases making direct alliances as partners to help customers become more efficient, productive, and competitive. The EPRI Partnership for Industrial Competitiveness (EPIC) program aims to help industrial customers address critical priorities in environmental impact, efficiency, and productivity with the ultimate goals of long-term profitability and job retention. By offering in-plant consultant evaluations of systems and processes, EPIC helps industrial customers develop strategic insights into their operations and leverage technology and productivity solutions for competitive business advantage.

  13. The EPIC Brief: A Description of the EPIC Evaluation Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EPIC Evaluation Center, Tucson, AZ.

    This initial issue describes the development, organization, staff, and facilities of the EPIC (Evaluative Programs for Innovative Curriculums) Evaluation Center, a cooperative effort of the U.S. Office of Education (under Title III of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act), the University of Arizona (College of Education), and the public and…

  14. [Three Cases of Tsutsugamushi Disease in Miyakojima Island, Okinawa, Japan].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kei; Shinzato, Takashi

    2015-03-01

    Tsutsugamushi disease (Scrub thyphus) has been reported from all over Japan except the Hokkaido area. In Okinawa, only one patient was reported in 2001, who was infected outside Okinawa Prefecture. The first case infected in Okinawa was reported at Miyakojima Island in 2008. We report herein on the second case diagnosed in 2010, and the third and fourth in 2011, and all three patients were suspected to have been infected at Ikemajima Island adjacent to the island of Miyakojima. The patients recovered without any severe complications after antibiotic therapy with tetracyclines. We should take Tsutsugamushi disease into consideration in the differential diagnosis for a patient with fever, skin rash, and/or eschar even in the Okinawa area. Implementation of appropriate information and education about the disease should be carried out for local residents and tourists. PMID:26552125

  15. Can we improve breast cancer mortality in Okinawa? Consensus of the 7th Okinawa Breast Oncology Meeting.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, Kentaro; Tamaki, Nobumitsu; Kamada, Yoshihiko; Uehara, Kano; Zaha, Hisamitsu; Onomura, Mai; Ueda, Makoto; Kurashita, Kaname; Miyazato, Keiko; Higa, Junko; Miyara, Kyuichiro; Shiraishi, Makiko; Murayama, Shigemi; Ishida, Takanori

    2015-01-01

    The rate of breast cancer mortality in Okinawa has gradually been increasing up to 2010. Now Okinawa has the second worst mortality rate in Japan, in part due to the enormous dietary changes resulting from the post-World War II US military occupation, high incidence of obesity, high non-optimal treatment rate, and low breast-cancer screening rate. To reduce breast cancer mortality in Okinawa, we established the Okinawa Breast Oncology Meeting (OBOM) in 2012. At the 7th OBOM held on January 10th, 2014, we discussed the breast cancer mortality in Okinawa focusing on lifestyle, breast cancer screening and optimal treatments. The Okinawan women who were overweight and/or obese during premenopausal and postmenopausal ages had a statistically significant higher risk of breast cancer development compared to those with non-overweight and/or obese women. The traditional diet of Okinawa consists of foods low in calories but rich in nutritional value. Therefore, we recommend Okinawan people not to forget the Okinawan traditional lifestyle, and to reduce their bodyweight to prevent breast cancer. One of the main goals of the OBOM is to raise breast cancer screening attendance rates to 50% (29.2% in 2010). We should standardize the quality control for breast cancer screening in Okinawa. It is important to continue enlightening the Okinawan population to receive optimal treatment. In addition, we are striving to establish systematic medical cooperation between the hospitals specializing in breast cancer treatment with rural hospitals. The OBOM group endeavors to contribute to the improvement of breast cancer mortality in Okinawa. PMID:25749491

  16. Industrial partnerships yield EPIC results

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, T.

    1996-01-01

    With a new era of competition approaching in the electricity supply industry, utilities are getting closer than ever to their industrial customers, in many cases making direct alliances as partners to help customers become more efficient, productive, and competitive. The EPRI Partnership for Industrial Competitiveness-EPIC-program aims to help industrial customers address critical priorities in environmental impact, efficiency and productivity with the ultimate goals of long-term profitability and job retention. By offering in-plant consultant evaluations of systems and processes, EPIC helps industrial customers develop strategic insights into their operations and leverage technology and productivity solutions for competitive business advantage. This paper describes these strategies, areas of focus, investments and benefits.

  17. Extrasolar Planetary Imaging Coronagraph (EPIC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clampin, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The Extrasolar Planetary Imaging Coronagraph (EPIC) is a proposed NASA Exoplanet Probe mission to image and characterize extrasolar giant planets. EPIC will provide insights into the physical nature and architecture of a variety of planets in other solar systems. Initially, it will detect and characterize the atmospheres of planets identified by radial velocity surveys, determine orbital inclinations and masses and characterize the atmospheres around A and F type stars which cannot be found with RV techniques. It will also observe the inner spatial structure of exozodiacal disks. EPIC has a heliocentric Earth trailing drift-away orbit, with a 5 year mission lifetime. The robust mission design is simple and flexible ensuring mission success while minimizing cost and risk. The science payload consists of a heritage optical telescope assembly (OTA), and visible nulling coronagraph (VNC) instrument. The instrument achieves a contrast ratio of 10^9 over a 5 arcsecond field-of-view with an unprecedented inner working angle of 0.13 arcseconds over the spectral range of 440-880 nm. The telescope is a 1.65 meter off-axis Cassegrain with an OTA wavefront error of lambda/9, which when coupled to the VNC greatly reduces the requirements on the large scale optics.

  18. EPICS release 3.11 specific documentation -- EPICS release notes for 3.11

    SciTech Connect

    1994-01-19

    EPICS release 3.11 is now ready for user testing. A person who wants to set up a simplified application environment to boot an IOC and create databases using R3.11 should follow the directions in Appendix B, page 27, of the EPICS Source/Release Control Manual, Sept. 20, 1993. The R3.11 EPICS path at ANL/APS is /net/phebos/epics/R3.11 so the command to get the new release is /net/phebos/epics/R3.11/Unix/share/bin/getrel /net/phebos/epics/R3.11. An existing R3.8 short form report can be copied to this new directory and used to create a database. ANL/APS is currently testing an Application Developers Source/Release control system. It is not yet ready for general distribution. Attached are the EPICS R3.11 release notes.

  19. EPIC: E-field Parallel Imaging Correlator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thyagarajan, Nithyanandan; Beardsley, Adam P.; Bowman, Judd D.; Morales, Miguel F.

    2015-11-01

    E-field Parallel Imaging Correlator (EPIC), a highly parallelized Object Oriented Python package, implements the Modular Optimal Frequency Fourier (MOFF) imaging technique. It also includes visibility-based imaging using the software holography technique and a simulator for generating electric fields from a sky model. EPIC can accept dual-polarization inputs and produce images of all four instrumental cross-polarizations.

  20. Extrasolar Planetary Imaging Coronagraph (EPIC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clampin, Mark; Melnick, Gary; Lyon, Richard; Kenyon, Scott; Sasselov, Dimitar; Tolls, Volker; Ford, Holland; Golimowski, David; Petro, Larry; Hartig, George; Sparks, William; Illingworth, Garth; Lin, Doug; Seager, Sara; Weinberger, Alycia; Harwit, Martin; Marley, Mark; Schneider, Jean; Shao, Michael; Levine, Marty; Ge, Jian; Woodruff, Robert

    2006-06-01

    The Extrasolar Planetary Imaging Coronagraph (EPIC) is a proposed NASA Discovery mission to image and characterize extrasolar giant planets in orbits with semi-major axes between 2 and 10 AU. EPIC will provide insights into the physical nature of a variety of planets in other solar systems complimenting radial velocity (RV) and astrometric planet searches. It will detect and characterize the atmospheres of planets identified by radial velocity surveys, determine orbital inclinations and masses, characterize the atmospheres around A and F type stars which cannot be found with RV techniques, and observe the inner spatial structure and colors of debris disks. EPIC has a proposed launch date of 2012 to heliocentric Earth trailing drift-away orbit, with a 3 year mission lifetime (5 year goal), and will revisit planets at least three times at intervals of 9 months. The robust mission design is simple and flexible ensuring mission success while minimizing cost and risk. The science payload consists of a heritage optical telescope assembly (OTA), and visible nulling coronagraph (VNC) instrument. The instrument achieves a contrast ratio of 109 over a 4.84 arcsecond field-of-view with an unprecedented inner working angle of 0.14 arcseconds over the spectral range of 440-880 nm, with spectral resolutions from 10 - 150. The telescope is a 1.5 meter offaxis Cassegrain with an OTA wavefront error of λ/9, which when coupled to the VNC greatly reduces the requirements on the large scale optics, compressing them to stability requirements within the relatively compact VNC optical chain. The VNC features two integrated modular nullers, a spatial filter array (SFA), and an E2V-L3 photon counting CCD. Direct null control is accomplished from the science focal mitigating against complex wavefront and amplitude sensing and control strategies.

  1. Dengue virus presence and surveillance in Okinawa (Review).

    PubMed

    Sakudo, Akikazu; Onodera, Takashi; Shintani, Hideharu; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Recent reports have shown that the dengue virus (DENV) is a serious concern worldwide, especially in subtropical areas such as South-East Asia. With the development of transportation systems, the risk of DENV infection spreading is increasing. Since mosquitoes transmit DENV to humans, surveillance of DENV-infected mosquito vectors is the most effective approach for preventing DENV. Okinawa is the only prefecture located in a subtropical region in Japan and historically shows continuous importation of DENV-related mosquito vectors. In this review, we describe the current and historical status of DENV in Okinawa. PMID:22969837

  2. The challenge to reduce breast cancer mortality in Okinawa: consensus of the first Okinawa breast oncology meeting.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, Kentaro; Tamaki, Nobumitsu; Kamada, Yoshihiko; Uehara, Kano; Zaha, Hisamitsu; Onomura, Mai; Gushimiyagi, Masanori; Kurashita, Kaname; Miyazato, Keiko; Tengan, Hiromu; Miyara, Kyuichiro; Ishida, Takanori

    2013-02-01

    Breast cancer mortality is gradually increasing in Okinawa. The 1st Okinawa Breast Oncology Meeting was held on 6 July 2012 and discussions on how to curb the rising trend were focused on breast cancer screening, adjuvant treatment, socioeconomic and geographic issues, and the problem of complementary and alternative medicine. The consensus of the 1st Okinawa Breast Oncology Meeting was that ultrasonography screening is an acceptable screening system for Okinawan women because of the geographic disadvantage of having many small islands and rural areas. Educational and economic support is needed for women in rural areas to get correct information, for access to urban areas and to be treated by evidence-based optimal therapy for breast cancer. In addition, new approaches are needed for Okinawan people to successfully educate patients to correctly interpret evidence-based information. PMID:23288933

  3. Cloud Detection with the Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Kerry; Marshak, Alexander; Lyapustin, Alexei; Torres, Omar; Wang, Yugie

    2011-01-01

    The Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) on board the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) would provide a unique opportunity for Earth and atmospheric research due not only to its Lagrange point sun-synchronous orbit, but also to the potential for synergistic use of spectral channels in both the UV and visible spectrum. As a prerequisite for most applications, the ability to detect the presence of clouds in a given field of view, known as cloud masking, is of utmost importance. It serves to determine both the potential for cloud contamination in clear-sky applications (e.g., land surface products and aerosol retrievals) and clear-sky contamination in cloud applications (e.g., cloud height and property retrievals). To this end, a preliminary cloud mask algorithm has been developed for EPIC that applies thresholds to reflected UV and visible radiances, as well as to reflected radiance ratios. This algorithm has been tested with simulated EPIC radiances over both land and ocean scenes, with satisfactory results. These test results, as well as algorithm sensitivity to potential instrument uncertainties, will be presented.

  4. Experience using EPICS on PC platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, J.O.; Kasemire, K.U.

    1998-03-01

    The Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) has been widely adopted in the accelerator community. Although EPICS is available on many platforms, the majority of implementations have used UNIX workstations as clients, and VME- or VXI-based processors for distributed input output controllers. Recently, a significant portion of EPICS has been ported to personal computer (PC) hardware platforms running Microsoft`s operating systems, and also Wind River System`s real time vxWorks operating system. This development should significantly reduce the cost of deploying EPICS systems, and the prospect of using EPICS together with the many high quality commercial components available for PC platforms is also encouraging. A hybrid system using both PC and traditional platforms is currently being implemented at LANL for LEDA, the low energy demonstration accelerator under construction as part of the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) project. To illustrate these developments the authors compare their recent experience deploying a PC-based EPICS system with experience deploying similar systems based on traditional (UNIX-hosted) EPICS hardware and software platforms.

  5. Integrating commercial and legacy systems with EPICS

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, J.O.; Kasemir, K.U.; Kowalkowski, J.B.

    1997-09-01

    The Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) is a software toolkit, developed by a worldwide collaboration, which significantly reduces the level of effort required to implement a new control system. Recent developments now also significantly reduce the level of effort required to integrate commercial, legacy and/or site-authored control systems with EPICS. This paper will illustrate with an example both the level and type of effort required to use EPICS with other control system components as well as the benefits that may arise.

  6. Skin cancer screening in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Nagano, T; Ueda, M; Suzuki, T; Naruse, K; Nakamura, T; Taguchi, M; Araki, K; Nakagawa, K; Nagai, H; Hayashi, K; Watanabe, S; Ichihashi, M

    1999-04-01

    Depletion of the ozone layer has been observed on a global scale. Ozone depletion increases the amount of biologically harmful solar ultraviolet radiation (UV) that reaches the surface of the Earth, leading to an increased incidence of skin cancer. We previously reported the prevalence and incidence of actinic keratosis (AK) in Kasai City, which is located almost at the center of Japan. To evaluate the effects of different ambient annual UV doses on the prevalence and incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer and AK in Japan, we screened for skin cancer on Ie Island in Okinawa at the southern end of Japan, where the annual cumulative dose of UV is assumed to be the highest in Japan. The island had a population of 5562 in 1993. A prospective 4-year population-based study on the prevalence and incidence of cutaneous neoplasms was conducted by examining the sun-exposed skin of people over 40 years of age living on Ie Island. In 1993 1996, 86 cases of AK, nine of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), and two of squamous cell carcinoma were identified. The annual prevalence of AK on Ie Island was 1159.4 in 1993, 572.8 in 1994, 1014.3 in 1995 and 988.9 per 100000 Japanese in 1996. These values were significantly higher than those in Kasai City. The annual age-adjusted odds ratios for AK of Ie Island to Kasai City were 2.79, 1.38, 2.45 and 2.39, respectively. The incidences of AK on Ie Island per 100,000 were 637.0 in 1995 and 625.5 in 1996, which were also significantly higher than those in Kasai City (223.6 in 1993 and 171.2 in 1994). The prevalence of BCC was 123.6 and the incidence was 26.1. Together with our previous reports, the present results show a possible inverse relationship between the prevalence and incidence of AK and latitude among Japanese people. PMID:10215187

  7. Next generation epics interface to abstract data.

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, J. O.; Lange, R.

    2001-01-01

    The set of externally visible properties associated with process variables in the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) is predefined in the EPICS base distribution and is therefore not extensible by plug-compatible applications. We believe that this approach, while practical for early versions of the system with a smaller user base, is now severely limiting expansion of the high-level application tool set for EPICS. To eliminate existing barriers, we propose a new C++ based interface to abstract containerized data. This paper describes the new interface, its application to message passing in distributed systems, its application to direct communication between tightly coupled programs co-resident in an address space, and its paramount position in an emerging role for EPICS -- the integration of dissimilar systems.

  8. The Experimental Projectile Impact Chamber (EPIC), Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ormö, J.; Melero-Asensio, I.; Housen, K.; Wünnemann, K.; Elbeshausen, D.; Collins, G.

    2015-09-01

    We show that EPIC dry sand experiments are consistent with previous experimental work within the pi-group scaling framework, and use the craters as ground truth for the validation of numerical impact models, before moving forward with wet targets.

  9. EPIC View of Moon Transiting the Earth

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation features actual satellite images of the far side of the moon, illuminated by the sun, as it crosses between the DSCOVR spacecraft's Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) and tele...

  10. The Electric Propulsion Interactions Code (EPIC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikellides, I. G.; Mandell, M. J.; Kuharski, R. A.; Davis, V. A.; Gardner, B. M.; Minor, J.

    2004-01-01

    Science Applications International Corporation is currently developing the Electric Propulsion Interactions Code, EPIC, as part of a project sponsored by the Space Environments and Effects Program at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. Now in its second year of development, EPIC is an interactive computer tool that allows the construction of a 3-D spacecraft model, and the assessment of a variety of interactions between its subsystems and the plume from an electric thruster. These interactions may include erosion of surfaces due to sputtering and re-deposition of sputtered materials, surface heating, torque on the spacecraft, and changes in surface properties due to erosion and deposition. This paper describes the overall capability of EPIC and provides an outline of the physics and algorithms that comprise many of its computational modules.

  11. Epic Flooding in Georgia, 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gotvald, Anthony J.; McCallum, Brian E.

    2010-01-01

    Metropolitan Atlanta-September 2009 Floods * The epic floods experienced in the Atlanta area in September 2009 were extremely rare. Eighteen streamgages in the Metropolitan Atlanta area had flood magnitudes much greater than the estimated 0.2-percent (500-year) annual exceedance probability. * The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) reported that 23 counties in Georgia were declared disaster areas due to this flood and that 16,981 homes and 3,482 businesses were affected by floodwaters. Ten lives were lost in the flood. The total estimated damages exceed $193 million (H.E. Longenecker, Federal Emergency Management Agency, written commun., November 2009). * On Sweetwater Creek near Austell, Ga., just north of Interstate 20, the peak stage was more than 6 feet higher than the estimated peak stage of the 0.2-percent (500-year) flood. Flood magnitudes in Cobb County on Sweetwater, Butler, and Powder Springs Creeks greatly exceeded the estimated 0.2-percent (500-year) floods for these streams. * In Douglas County, the Dog River at Ga. Highway 5 near Fairplay had a peak stage nearly 20 feet higher than the estimated peak stage of the 0.2-percent (500-year) flood. * On the Chattahoochee River, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) gage at Vinings reached the highest level recorded in the past 81 years. Gwinnett, De Kalb, Fulton, and Rockdale Counties also had record flooding. South Georgia March and April 2009 Floods * The March and April 2009 floods in South Georgia were smaller in magnitude than the September floods but still caused significant damage. * No lives were lost in this flood. Approximately $60 million in public infrastructure damage occurred to roads, culverts, bridges and a water treatment facility (Joseph T. McKinney, Federal Emergency Management Agency, written commun., July 2009). * Flow at the Satilla River near Waycross, exceeded the 0.5-percent (200-year) flood. Flows at seven other stations in South Georgia exceeded the 1-percent (100-year) flood.

  12. Collaborative development of the EPICS Qt framework Phase I Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Mayssat, Robert E.

    2015-01-15

    At Lyncean, a private company spun-off from technology developed at the SLAC National Lab, we have been using EPICS for over a decade. EPICS is ubiquitous on our flagship product – the Compact Light Source. EPICS is not only used to control our laser and accelerator systems, but also to control our x-ray beamlines. The goal of this SBIR is for Lyncean Technologies to spearhead a worldwide collaborative effort for the development of control system tools for EPICS using the Qt framework, a C++-based coding environment that could serve as a competitive alternative to the Java-based Control System Studio (CSS). This grant's Phase I, not unlike a feasibility study, is designed for planning and scoping the preparatory work needed for Phase II or other funding opportunities. The three main objectives of this Phase I are (1) to become better acquainted with the existing EPICS Qt software and Qt framework in order to evaluate the best options for ongoing development, (2) to demonstrate that our engineers can lead the EPICS community and jump-start the Qt collaboration, and (3) to identify a scope for our future work with solicited feedback from the EPICS community. This Phase I report includes key technical findings. It clarifies the differences between the two apparently-competing EPICS Qt implementations, caQtDM and the QE Framework; it explains how to create python-bindings, and compares Qt graphical libraries. But this report is also a personal story that narrates the birth of a collaboration. Starting a collaboration is not the work of a single individual, but the work of many. Therefore this report is also an attempt to publicly give credit to many who supported the effort. The main take-away from this grant is the successful birth of an EPICS Qt collaboration, seeded with existing software from the PSI and the Australian Synchrotron. But a lot more needs to be done for the collaboration founders' vision to be realized, and for the collaboration to reach its full

  13. International Collaboration and the Management of Linguistic Resources at a Diaspora Festival in Okinawa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrucci, Peter R.; Miyahira, Katsuyuki

    2009-01-01

    This article uses Jernudd and Neustupny's (1987) theory of language management to address the planning, management and distribution of linguistic resources at the 4th Worldwide Uchinaanchu Festival (WUF), a diaspora festival held in Okinawa, Japan. WUF organizers--from Okinawa and diaspora communities abroad--were concerned with both international…

  14. The EPICS process variable gateway -- Version 2.

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, K.; Accelerator Systems Division

    2005-01-01

    The EPICS Process Variable Gateway is both a Channel Access Server and Channel Access Client that provides a means for many clients, typically on different subnets, to access a process variable while making only one connection to the server that owns the process variable. It also provides additional access security beyond that implemented on the server. It thus protects critical servers while providing suitably restricted access to needed process variables. The original version of the Gateway worked with EPICS Base 3.13 but required a special version, since the changes necessary for its operation were never incorporated into EPICS Base. Version 2 works with any standard EPICS Base 3.14.6 or later and has many improvements in both performance and features over the older version. The Gateway is now used at many institutions and has become a stable, high-performance application. It is capable of handling tens of thousands of process variables with hundreds of thousands of events per second. It has run for over three months in a production environment without having to be restarted. It has many internal process variables that can be used to monitor its state using standard EPICS client tools, such as MEDM and StripTool. Other internal process variables can be used to stop the Gateway, make several kinds of reports, or change the access security without stopping the Gateway. It can even be started on remote workstations from MEDM by using a Secure Shell script. This paper will describe the new Gateway and how it is used. The Gateway is both a server (like an EPICS Input/Output Controller (IOC)) and a client (like the EPICS Motif Editor and Display Manager (MEDM), StripTool, and others). Clients connect to the server side, and the client side connects to IOCs and other servers, possibly other Gateways. See Fig. 1. There are perhaps three principal reasons for using the Gateway: (1) it allows many clients to access a process variable while making only one connection to

  15. Centrally managed name resolution schemes for EPICS

    SciTech Connect

    Jun, D.; Bryan, D.; Watson, W.

    1997-12-01

    The Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) uses a broadcast method to locate resources and controls distributed across control servers. There are many advantages offered by using a centrally managed name resolution method, in which resources are located using a repository. The suitability of DCE Directory Service as a name resolution method is explored, and results from a study involving DCE are discussed. An alternative nameserver method developed and in use at the Thomas Jefferson national Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) is described and results of integrating this new method with existing EPICS utilities presented. The various methods discussed in the paper are compared.

  16. Investigating the effect of hydrothermal conditions on the subvent biosphere of the Okinawa backarc basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, L. D.; House, C. H.; Nunoura, T.; Yanagawa, K.

    2013-12-01

    IODP Expedition 331 to the Okinawa backarc basin provided an opportunity to study an interesting subset of the ocean floor -- the subsurface environment surrounding an active hydrothermal vent. The subsurface sediments of the Iheya North Field within the mid-Okinawa trough are affected by high temperature fluids. In addition, the Okinawa backarc basin is situated on a continental margin. This particular environment has a unique set of conditions for investigating the vertical variability in microbial communities with depth as conditions become increasingly restrictive. IODP Expedition 331 Site C0014, located 450 m east of the active vent, has a surface temperature of 5°C and has no evidence of hydrothermal alteration. Temperature increases with depth at an estimated rate of 3°C/m. Below a depth of ~10 mbsf, the sedimentary sequence is hydrothermally altered to a pale, gray clay with alteration products illite and montmorillonite. Thus, Site C0014 represents an ideal location to characterize whether 1) the microbial community structure shifts from non-hydrothermal margin microorganisms toward a more temperature-adapted group of microorganisms, or 2) repeating clades represented throughout the sediment column are seemingly adapting to the increasingly extreme conditions. DNA from sediments (0-44 mbsf) was extracted using a modified protocol from the MoBio PowerSoil DNA Isolation kit. Primers were designed to amplify the V6-V9 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Select samples were sequenced with the Roche 454 FLX sequencer at The Pennsylvania State University. The amplicon data suggest that the subvent biosphere resides in the top 12-14 meters below seafloor (mbsf). The archaeal sequences abruptly disappear beyond the 14 mbsf horizon. The phylum Euryarchaeota, dominated by Deep Sea Hydrothermal Vent Group 6 (DHVEG-6) and ANME-1, are present throughout the top 14 meters. However, there is an increasingly stronger signal of non-Euryarchaeota clades Marine Crenarchaeotic

  17. EPIC: Building a Structured Learning Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westhead, Martin D.

    This paper outlines work in progress at the University of Edinburgh on the construction of a small World Wide Web-based interactive learning environment (EPIC) developed for the teaching of high performance computing. The paper begins by outlining work done in cognitive science on how people make use of structure in physical environments. Within…

  18. Reflections on the Epic Challenge, 1989

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meiers, Marion

    2013-01-01

    In this article, Marion Meiers reflects on the often-cited address "Literacy: The Epic Challenge Beyond Progressivism" by Garth Boomer at the 1989 joint National Conference of the Australian Reading Association (now the Australian Literacy Educator's Association) and the Australian Association for the Teaching of English at Darin…

  19. Education for Change: Epic Charter School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EDUCAUSE, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The student-centered school model of Epic Charter School in Oakland, California, framed around a hero's journey empowers middle school students with sense of unity and purpose in life, where they can feel part of a culture with a shared experience and with more opportunities to experiences growth and accomplishment. Design and engineering is front…

  20. ET: EPICS TCL/TK interface

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, B.

    1995-02-01

    This document describes the tc1 command and command types which are used to communicate with EPICS database servers. The application libraries upon which et is built include tc1, tk, tc1-dp, and blt. The reader of this document is assumed to be familiar with tc1/tk.

  1. Uncertainties in cloud phase and optical thickness retrievals from the Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Kerry; Yang, Yuekui; Platnick, Steven

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents an investigation of the expected uncertainties of a single-channel cloud optical thickness (COT) retrieval technique, as well as a simple cloud-temperature-threshold-based thermodynamic phase approach, in support of the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) mission. DSCOVR cloud products will be derived from Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) observations in the ultraviolet and visible spectra. Since EPIC is not equipped with a spectral channel in the shortwave or mid-wave infrared that is sensitive to cloud effective radius (CER), COT will be inferred from a single visible channel with the assumption of appropriate CER values for liquid and ice phase clouds. One month of Aqua MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) daytime granules from April 2005 is selected for investigating cloud phase sensitivity, and a subset of these granules that has similar EPIC Sun-view geometry is selected for investigating COT uncertainties. EPIC COT retrievals are simulated with the same algorithm as the operational MODIS cloud products (MOD06), except using fixed phase-dependent CER values. Uncertainty estimates are derived by comparing the single-channel COT retrievals with the baseline bi-spectral MODIS retrievals. Results show that a single-channel COT retrieval is feasible for EPIC. For ice clouds, single-channel retrieval errors are minimal (< 2 %) due to the particle size insensitivity of the assumed ice crystal (i.e., severely roughened aggregate of hexagonal columns) scattering properties at visible wavelengths, while for liquid clouds the error is mostly limited to within 10 %, although for thin clouds (COT < 2) the error can be higher. Potential uncertainties in EPIC cloud masking and cloud temperature retrievals are not considered in this study.

  2. High-resolution MIRU-VNTRs typing reveals the unique nature of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing genotype in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Millet, Julie; Miyagi-Shiohira, Chika; Yamane, Nobuhisa; Mokrousov, Igor; Rastogi, Nalin

    2012-06-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing lineage is highly prevalent in Japan. The aim of the present study was to describe the population structure of the Beijing lineage in this country based on 12-, 15-, and 21-loci MIRU-VNTR genotyping schemes. The MIRU-VNTR patterns of Beijing strains from Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands were compared to those recently published from the Osaka-Kobe megalopolis of the main island of Japan, Honshu (Wada et al., 2009). We also compared proportions of "modern/typical" vs. "ancient/atypical" Beijing strains as defined by structure of the NTF locus. Contrarily to the 12-loci Minimum Spanning Tree (MST), the 15- and 21-loci trees allowed the distinction of two groups of strains in Okinawa. A 12-loci MIRU-VNTR pattern (223325173533) corresponding to MIRU international type MIT17 was identified as the most prevalent Beijing genotype in Japan. In the SITVIT2 database, this pattern was found to be disseminated worldwide and corresponded to the most widely distributed Beijing profile in East Asia and former USSR countries. A comparison of 15- and 21-loci MIRU-VNTR patterns showed that two loci (QUB-4156 and Mtub21) were most polymorphic in our study, and could be potential candidates to distinguish between NTF locus based subclassification of Beijing strains. High-resolution VNTR typing using 15- and 21-loci underlined an evolutionarily distinct "ancient/atypical" subpopulation of the Beijing genotype in Okinawa as well as a subgroup of strains closely related to "modern/typical" Beijing strains observed in Osaka/Kobe. PMID:21723420

  3. The success and the future of EPICS

    SciTech Connect

    M.E. Thuot; M. Clausen; L.R. Dalesio; T. Katoh; M.R. Kraimer; R. Mueller; H. Shoaee; W.A. Watson

    1996-08-01

    During the past five years, the control system software toolkit called EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System), has developed from a comparatively small code co-development effort between Los Alamos National Laboratory and Argonne National Laboratory into an international collaboration on real-time distributed control systems. The wide application of this set of tools is the result of a combination of high performance, scaleable distributed control and well defined open interfaces between system layers that encourage users to add extensions. These extensions can subsequently be reused by others, adding to the utility of the tools. This paper will describe the architectural features that have supported these extensions, some of the new extensions produced by the 58 projects currently using EPICS and some of the new functions and interfaces we are planning to add to this control system toolkit.

  4. The success and the future of EPICS

    SciTech Connect

    Thuot, M.E., Dalesio, L.R.; Clausen, M.; Katoh, T.

    1996-09-01

    During the past 5 years, the control system software toolkit EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System) has developed from a small code co-development effort between LANL and ANL into an international collaboration on real-time distributed control system (for an accelerator facility, etc.). The wide application of this set of tools is the result of a combination of high performance, scaleable distributed control, and well defined open interfaces between system layers that encourage users to add extensions. These extensions can subsequently be reused by others, adding to the utility of the tools. This paper describes the architectural features that have supported these extensions, some of the new extensions produced by the 58 projects currently using EPICS and some of the new functions and interfaces being planned to be added to this control system toolkit.

  5. EPICS Version 4 - Implementing Complex Data Types

    SciTech Connect

    Marty Kraimer,; John dalesio

    2012-11-27

    Through phase 1 and phase 2 SBIR grants, s fully functional I/O Controller and communication protocol for version 4 of EPICS is completed. This new software architecture provides a flexible and extendible architecture. Version 4 is implemented fully in Java. The performance metrics look promising. The final portion of phase 2 is to optimize the communication mechanisms. Subsequent work on different aspects of this are required to provide a viable solutions in various areas. Version 3 of EPICS is able to provide a platform for implementing channel based control, because the channel and attributes for time stamping, alarm, display and control were narrow, well defined, and complete. To extend EPICS functionality beyond this, it is necessary to define attributes needed for archive data, array, image data, and directory services. The proper handling of several array types enables the development of middle layer servers such as orbit and bump control in accelerators. Phase 1 should produce a well defined, reviewed, and agreed upon definition of the metadata required for these services. A Phase 2 grant would provide tools that implemented archiving, general array, imaging, and directory applications.

  6. EPICS: Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epics Development Team

    2013-02-01

    EPICS is a set of software tools and applications developed collaboratively and used to create distributed soft real-time control systems for scientific instruments such as particle accelerators and telescopes. Such distributed control systems typically comprise tens or even hundreds of computers, networked together to allow communication between them and to provide control and feedback of the various parts of the device from a central control room, or even remotely over the internet. EPICS uses Client/Server and Publish/Subscribe techniques to communicate between the various computers. A Channel Access Gateway allows engineers and physicists elsewhere in the building to examine the current state of the IOCs, but prevents them from making unauthorized adjustments to the running system. In many cases the engineers can make a secure internet connection from home to diagnose and fix faults without having to travel to the site. EPICS is used by many facilities worldwide, including the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory, Fermilab, Keck Observatory, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Brazilian Synchrotron Light Source, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Australian Synchrotron, and Stanford Linear Accellerator Center.

  7. Detection and phylogenetic analysis of hepatitis E viruses from mongooses in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Nidaira, Minoru; Takahashi, Kazuaki; Ogura, Go; Taira, Katsuya; Okano, Shou; Kudaka, Jun; Itokazu, Kiyomasa; Mishiro, Shunji; Nakamura, Masaji

    2012-12-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection has previously been reported in wild mongooses on Okinawa Island; to date however, only one HEV RNA sequence has been identified in a mongoose. Hence, this study was performed to detect HEV RNA in 209 wild mongooses on Okinawa Island. Six (2.9%) samples tested positive for HEV RNA. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that 6 HEV RNAs belonged to genotype 3 and were classified into groups A and B. In group B, mongoose-derived HEV sequences were very similar to mongoose HEV previously detected on Okinawa Island, as well as to those of a pig. This investigation emphasized the possibility that the mongoose is a reservoir animal for HEV on Okinawa Island. PMID:22850461

  8. Association between Helicobacter pylori virulence factors and gastroduodenal diseases in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Matsunari, Osamu; Shiota, Seiji; Suzuki, Rumiko; Watada, Masahide; Kinjo, Nagisa; Murakami, Kazunari; Fujioka, Toshio; Kinjo, Fukunori; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2012-03-01

    The incidence of gastric cancer in Okinawa is lowest in Japan. Some previous reports using small number of strains suggested that the high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori with Western-type cagA in Okinawa compared to other areas in Japan might contribute to the low incidence of gastric cancer. It has still not been confirmed why the prevalence of Western-type cagA strains is high in Okinawa. We examined the association between the virulence factors of H. pylori and gastroduodenal diseases in Okinawa. The genotypes of cagA and vacA of 337 H. pylori strains were determined by PCR and gene sequencing. The genealogy of these Western-type cagA strains in Okinawa was analyzed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Overall, 86.4% of the strains possessed cagA: 70.3% were East-Asian type and 16.0% were Western type. After adjustment by age and sex, the presence of East-Asian-type cagA/vacA s1m1 genotypes was significantly associated with gastric cancer compared to gastritis (odds ratio = 6.68, 95% confidence interval = 1.73 to 25.8). The structure of Western-type CagA in Okinawa was different from that of typical Western-type CagA found in Western countries. Intriguingly, MLST analysis revealed that the majority of Western-type cagA strains formed individual clusters but not hpEurope. Overall, low prevalence of gastric cancer in Okinawa may result from the high prevalence of non-East-Asian-type cagA strains. The origin of Western-type cagA strains in Okinawa may be different from those of Western countries. PMID:22189111

  9. Typhoon damage on a shallow mesophotic reef in Okinawa, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Ohara, Taku; Fujii, Takuma; Kawamura, Iori; Mizuyama, Masaru; Montenegro, Javier; Shikiba, Haruka; Naruse, Tohru; McClelland, TY; Denis, Vianney; Reimer, James D.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about effects of large storm systems on mesophotic reefs. This study reports on how Typhoon 17 (Jelawat) affected Ryugu Reef on Okinawa-jima, Japan in September 2012. Benthic communities were surveyed before and after the typhoon using line intercept transect method. Comparison of the benthic assemblages showed highly significant differences in coral coverage at depths of 25–32 m before and after Typhoon 17. A large deep stand of Pachyseris foliosa was apparently less resistant to the storm than the shallower high diversity area of this reef. Contradictory to common perception, this research shows that large foliose corals at deeper depths are just as susceptible to typhoon damage as shallower branching corals. However, descriptive functional group analyses resulted in only minor changes after the disturbance, suggesting the high likelihood of recovery and the high resilience capacity of this mesophotic reef. PMID:24032094

  10. Descriptive analysis of the prevalence and the molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium avium complex-infected pigs that were slaughtered on the main island of Okinawa.

    PubMed

    Hibiya, K; Kazumi, Y; Nishiuchi, Y; Sugawara, I; Miyagi, K; Oda, Y; Oda, E; Fujita, J

    2010-09-01

    Recent genetic studies have revealed that several epidemiological factors affect Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection in pig populations. However, mechanisms underlying the spread of MAC infection among hog farms have not been clarified. In consideration of this situation, we cross-sectionally investigated the mechanisms underlying the spread of MAC on the island of Okinawa. Pigs slaughtered (n=706,763) and 331 hog farms on Okinawa were surveyed during the years 2002-2004. Two outbreaks of MAC infection were occurred in several farms during survey period. Bacteria were isolated from randomly selected pigs and genotype of isolates was determined by using genetic finger printing methods with the insertion sequence (IS) 1245 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Most isolates had large numbers of IS1245 copies, while strains with low copy numbers of IS1245 and isolates without IS1245 were seen in few farms. MACs strains were repeatedly isolated from pigs of the affected farms during the survey period. Those farms with an identical pig rearing systems showed synchronic changes in the prevalence of MAC infection. An industrial farm without an outbreak had an independent pig flow, but maintained distinct MAC strains. Multivariate analysis did not reveal independent factors for the prevalence of the MAC infection. These findings suggest that there were three clusters distinguished genetically in the main island of Okinawa, which were potentially spread by common pig flow. However, the outbreaks occurred because of unspecified conditions on each farm environment. PMID:19443033

  11. Gravity Inversion with Geological Modeling Constraint and Its Application in the Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S.

    2014-12-01

    The satellite altimetry gravity data is used to recover the 3D distribution of oceanic lithosphere density in the Okinawa Trough and its neighbor region. It's difficult to use only gravity data to invert complex geological structure and density distribution by 3D gravity Inversion method. In order to improve the vertical resolution of the density inversion result, 3D geological modeling method is used to build structural model for the inversion, prior constraint conditions can be applied to solve the non-unique problem. In the Okinawa Trough, it is proved by earthquake data that the Philippine plate dives beneath the Okinawa Trough, which result in the upwelling of mantel material and decrease of the crust thickness. The Benioff zone clearly shows the plate's subduction parameter, such as direction, dip, transformation. Therefore, a structural subduction model is created by geological modeling method and works as the initial model and as constraint condition in gravity inversion. The 3D gravity inversion result and seismology CMT data are both used to explain the oceanic lithosphere structure in the Okinawa Trough. The inversion result illustrates high density anomaly under the Okinawa Trough. Affected by small scale mantle convections, the continental lithosphere is separated, which result in the spreading of back-arc basin and the formation of the Okinawa Trough.

  12. Simulating soil C dynamics with EPIC: Model description and testing against long-term data

    SciTech Connect

    Izaurralde, R Cesar C.; Williams, Jimmy R.; Mcgill, William B.; Rosenberg, Norman J.; Quiroga Jakas, Maria C.

    2006-01-01

    Soil carbon sequestration (SCS) has emerged as a technology with significant potential to help stabilize atmospheric CO2 concentrations and thus reduce the threat of global warming. Methods and models are needed to evaluate and recommend SCS practices based on their effects on carbon dynamics and environmental quality. EPIC (Environment Policy Integrated Climate) is a widely used and tested model for simulating many agroecosystem processes including plant growth, crop yield, tillage, wind and water erosion, runoff, soil density, and leaching. Here we describe new C and N modules developed in EPIC built on concepts from the Century model to connect the simulation of soil C dynamics to crop management, tillage methods, and erosion processes. The added C and N routines interact directly with soil moisture, temperature, erosion, tillage, soil density, leaching, and translocation functions in EPIC. Equations were also added to describe the effects of soil texture on soil C stabilization. Lignin concentration is modeled as a sigmoidal function of plant age. EPIC was tested against data from a Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) 6-yr experiment at five sites in three U.S. Great Plains states and a 61-y long-term agronomic experiment in Canada. Mean Square Deviations (MSD) calculated for CRP sites were less than 0.01 kg C2 m2, except for one site where it reached 0.025 kg2 C2 m. MSD values in the 61-y experiment ranged between 0.047 and 0.077 kg C2 m2. In conclusion, the version of the EPIC model presented and tested here contains the necessary algorithms to simulate SCS and improve understanding of the interactions among soil erosion, C dynamics, and tillage. A strength of the model as tested is its ability to explain the variability in crop production, C inputs and SOC and N cycling over a wised range soil, cropping and climatic conditions over periods from 6 to 61 years. For example, at the Breton site over 61 years, EPIC accounted for 69% of the variability in grain

  13. EPIC and APEX: Model use, calibration, and validation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) and Agricultural Policy/Environmental eXtender (APEX) models have been developed to assess a wide variety of agricultural water resource, water quality, and other environmental problems. The EPIC model is designed to be applied at a field-scale leve...

  14. Evaluation Report: The EPIC Leadership Development Model and Pilot Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Leaders (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    New Leaders created the Effective Practice Incentive Community (EPIC) initiative in 2006 to learn from educators driving achievement gains in high-need urban schools. EPIC identifies school leaders and teachers whose students are making significant achievement gains and financially rewards these educators in exchange for sharing and documenting…

  15. The EPIC Leadership Development Program Evaluation Report. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Leaders for New Schools (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    New Leaders for New Schools created the Effective Practice Incentive Community (EPIC) initiative in 2006 to learn from educators driving achievement gains in high-need urban schools. EPIC identifies school leaders and teachers whose students are making significant achievement gains and financially rewards these educators in exchange for sharing…

  16. AN OVERVIEW OF EPA ENVIRONMENTAL PHOTOGRAPHIC INTERPRETATION CENTER (EPIC)

    EPA Science Inventory



    The EPA Environmental Photographic Interpretation Center (EPIC) supports the EPA Regions and Program Offices with remote sensing based technical support and research and development products. Since 1972, EPIC has provided both imagery and imagery-derived products to the E...

  17. AN OVERVIEW OF THE EPA ENVIRONMENTAL PHOTOGRAPHIC INTERPRETATION CENTER (EPIC)

    EPA Science Inventory



    The EPA Environmental Photographic Interpretation Center (EPIC) supports the EPA Regions and Program Offices with remote sensing based technical support and research and development products. Since 1972, EPIC has provided both imagery and imagery-derived products to the E...

  18. Perfusion Electronic Record Documentation Using Epic Systems Software.

    PubMed

    Riley, Jeffrey B; Justison, George A

    2015-12-01

    The authors comment on Steffens and Gunser's article describing the University of Wisconsin adoption of the Epic anesthesia record to include perfusion information from the cardiopulmonary bypass patient experience. We highlight the current-day lessons and the valuable quality and safety principles the Wisconsin-Epic model anesthesia-perfusion record provides. PMID:26834289

  19. EPIC: Helping School Life and Family Support Each Other.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, David

    1992-01-01

    Born out of a 1981 murder, Buffalo (New York) Public Schools' EPIC (Effective Parenting Information for Children) program successfully combines parenting, effective teaching, and community programs to help family and school life support each other. Under EPIC, teachers are advised to help students acquire 23 skills involving self-esteem, rules,…

  20. Modular Curriculum: English. Comparative Literature: The Epic Tradition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Barbara; Wiley, Shirley

    This independent course of study is designed to be completed within a one-year period. The course centers on the epic tradition, analyzing several well-known epics and comparing them from a critic's point of view. It is emphasized that many aspects of the course involve questions for which there are no ready answers. The introductions following…

  1. Reweaving the Fabric of Rural Vermont: The EPIC Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Jean

    1998-01-01

    A Vermont project, the Environmental Programs/Partnerships in Communities (EPIC) project provides a transferable model for rural development. The program is sensitive to people and environmental needs, and emphasizes long-term functioning of the entire community system, not just specific outcomes. EPIC has supported leadership training, local…

  2. 77 FR 73655 - Epic Marketplace, Inc., and Epic Media Group, LLC; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ... site for a fee (``publishers'') and advertisers who wish to have their advertisements placed on Web sites. Epic purchases advertising space on publishers' Web sites and contracts with advertisers to place... advertising space as the Epic Marketplace Network, which includes over 45,000 publishers. The...

  3. Several herbal compounds in Okinawa plants directly inhibit the oncogenic/aging kinase PAK1.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Binh Cao Quan; Taira, Nozomi; Tawata, Shinkichi

    2014-12-01

    The p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) is emerging as a promising therapeutic target, and the search for blockers of this oncogenic/aging kinase would be potentially useful for the treatment of various diseases/disorders in the future. Here, we report for the first time the anti-PAK1 activity of compounds derived from three distinct Okinawa plants. 5,6-Dehydrokawain (DK) and dihydro-5,6-dehydrokawain (DDK) from alpinia inhibited directly PAK1 more strongly than mimosine and mimosinol from leucaena. Cucurbitacin I isolated from bitter gourd/melon also exhibited a moderate anti-PAK1 activity. Hispidin, a metabolite of DK, strongly inhibited PAK1 with the IC50 = 5.7 μM. The IC50 of three hispidin derivatives (H1-3) for PAK1 inhibition ranges from 1.2 to 2.0 μM, while mimosine tetrapeptides [mimosine-Phe-Phe-Tyr (MFFY) and mimosine-Phe-Trp-Tyr (MFWY)] inhibit PAK1 at nanomolar level (IC50 of 0.13 and 0.60 μM, respectively). Thus, we hope these derivatives of hispidin and mimosine could be used as potential leading compounds for developing far more potent anti-PAK1 drugs which would be useful for clinical application in the future. PMID:25639302

  4. Marine Subsurface Microbial Communities Across a Hydrothermal Gradient in Okinawa Trough Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, L. D.; Hser Wah Saw, J.; Ettema, T.; House, C. H.

    2015-12-01

    IODP Expedition 331 to the Okinawa backarc basin provided an opportunity to study the microbial stratigraphy within the sediments surrounding a hydrothermal vent. The Okinawa backarc basin is a sedimented region of the seafloor located on a continental margin, and also hosts a hydrothermal network within the subsurface. Site C0014 within the Iheya North hydrothermal field is located 450 m east of the active vent and has a surface temperature of 5°C with no evidence of hydrothermal alteration within the top 10 meters below sea floor (mbsf). Temperature increases with depth at an estimated rate of 3°C/m and transitions from non-hydrothermal margin sediments to a hydrothermally altered regime below 10 mbsf. In this study, we utilized deep 16S rRNA sequencing of DNA from IODP Expedition 331 Site C0014 sediment horizons in order to assess diversity throughout the sediment column as well as determine the potential limits of the biosphere. Analysis of the amplicon data shows a shift over 15 mbsf from a heterogeneous community of cosmopolitan marine subsurface taxa toward an archaeal-dominated community in the deepest horizons of the predicted biosphere. Notably, the phylum Chloroflexi represents a substantial taxon through most horizons, where it appears to be replaced below 10 mbsf by punctuations of thermophilic and methanotrophic Archaea and Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotic Group abundances. DNA from the aforementioned transition horizons was further analyzed using metagenomic sequencing. Preliminary taxonomic analysis of the metagenomic data agrees well with amplicon data in capturing the shift in relative abundance of Archaea increasing with depth. Additionally, reverse gyrase, a gene found exclusively in hyperthermophilic microorganisms, was recovered only in the metagenome of the deepest horizon. A BLAST search of this protein sequence against the GenBank non-redudnant protein database produced top hits with reverse gyrase from Thermococcus and Pyrococcus, which are

  5. A MySQL Based EPICS Archiver

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher Slominski

    2009-10-01

    Archiving a large fraction of the EPICS signals within the Jefferson Lab (JLAB) Accelerator control system is vital for postmortem and real-time analysis of the accelerator performance. This analysis is performed on a daily basis by scientists, operators, engineers, technicians, and software developers. Archiving poses unique challenges due to the magnitude of the control system. A MySQL Archiving system (Mya) was developed to scale to the needs of the control system; currently archiving 58,000 EPICS variables, updating at a rate of 11,000 events per second. In addition to the large collection rate, retrieval of the archived data must also be fast and robust. Archived data retrieval clients obtain data at a rate over 100,000 data points per second. Managing the data in a relational database provides a number of benefits. This paper describes an archiving solution that uses an open source database and standard off the shelf hardware to reach high performance archiving needs. Mya has been in production at Jefferson Lab since February of 2007.

  6. Precipitation of authigenic uranium in suboxic continental margin sediments from the Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Masatoshi; Wang, Zhong-Liang; Kato, Yoshihisa

    2006-02-01

    Concentrations of U and Th isotopes in Okinawa Trough and East China Sea sediment cores were determined by isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-MS) to investigate the behavior of redox sensitive uranium in suboxic hemipelagic sediments and determine their significance in oceanic uranium balance. 238U concentrations and 238U/ 232Th activity ratios in the East China Sea sediments showed no remarkable variation with depth. However, 238U and 238U/ 232Th ratios in the Okinawa Trough sediments were low in the surface oxidizing layer but increased where the suboxic condition was encountered. The distribution profiles of 230Th and 232Th concentrations were relatively constant with depth in both the Okinawa Trough and East China Sea sediment cores. These results suggested that there has been post-depositional precipitation of authigenic uranium within the suboxic Okinawa Trough sediment column. The post-depositional precipitation rates of authigenic uranium were estimated to be 47 ± 5 to >62 ± 8 ng cm -2 yr -1; these rates were comparable to those previously reported for several anoxic sediments. A mechanism controlling precipitation of uranium may be the downward diffusion of uranium U(VI), reduction to U(IV) and finally precipitation onto the solid phase. The accumulation rate of uranium for the Okinawa Trough sediments was approximately eight times higher than the world average rate reported for suboxic sediments. This removal of uranium in the oceanic budget increases the importance of the suboxic sediment sink.

  7. Using electronic polarization from the internal continuum (EPIC) for intermolecular interactions.

    PubMed

    Truchon, Jean-François; Nicholl's, Anthony; Grant, J Andrew; Iftimie, Radu I; Roux, Benoît; Bayly, Christopher I

    2010-03-01

    Recently, the vacuum-phase molecular polarizability tensor of various molecules has been accurately modeled (Truchon et al., J Chem Theory Comput 2008, 4, 1480) with an intramolecular continuum dielectric model. This preliminary study showed that electronic polarization can be accurately modeled when combined with appropriate dielectric constants and atomic radii. In this article, using the parameters developed to reproduce ab initio quantum mechanical (QM) molecular polarizability tensors, we extend the application of the "electronic polarization from internal continuu" (EPIC) approach to intermolecular interactions. We first derive a dielectric-adapted least-square-fit procedure similar to RESP, called DRESP, to generate atomic partial charges based on a fit to a QM abinitio electrostatic potential (ESP). We also outline a procedure to adapt any existing charge model to EPIC. The ability of this to reproduce local polarization, as opposed to uniform polarization, is also examined leading to an induced ESP relative root mean square deviation of 1%, relative to ab initio, when averaged over 37 molecules including aromatics and alkanes. The advantage of using a continuum model as opposed to an atom-centered polarizable potential is illustrated with a symmetrically perturbed atom and benzene. We apply EPIC to a cation-pi binding system formed by an atomic cation and benzene and show that the EPIC approach can accurately account for the induction energy. Finally, this article shows that the ab initio electrostatic component in the difficult case of the H-bonded 4-pyridone dimer, a highly polar and polarized interaction, is well reproduced without adjusting the vacuum-phase parameters. PMID:19598266

  8. ORAL PRESENTATION:EPA'S ENVIRONMENTAL PHOTOGRAPHIC INTERPRETATION CENTER (EPIC)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation provides an overview of the remote sensing technical support and research and development activities of the Environmental Photographic Interprettion Center (EPIC). It is the basis for a presentation given at the EPA's Office of Acquisition Management's Annual C...

  9. Students Speak With Gary Cox, EPIC Project Manager

    NASA Video Gallery

    From NASA’s International Space Station Mission Control Center Gary Cox EPIC Project Manager, participates in a Digital Learning Network (DLN) event with students at South Effingham Middle School...

  10. Operational experience from a large EPICS-based accelerator facility

    SciTech Connect

    Ciarlette, D.J.; Gerig, R.

    1995-12-31

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory is a third-generation x-ray light source which uses the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) to operate its linear accelerator, positron accumulator ring, booster synchrotron, and storage ring equipment. EPICS has been used at the APS since the beginning of installation and commissioning. Currently, EPICS controls approximately 100 VME crates containing over 100,000 process variables. With this complexity, the APS has had to review some of the methods originally employed and make changes as necessary. In addition, due to commissioning and operational needs, higher-level operator software needed to be created. EPICS has been flexible enough to allow this.

  11. Experience with EPICS in a wide variety of applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kraimer, M.R.; Clausen, M.; Lupton, W.; Watson, C.

    1997-08-01

    Currently more than 70 organizations have obtained permission to use the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS), a set of software packages for building real-time control systems. In this paper representatives from four of these sites discuss the reasons their sites chose EPICS, provide a brief discussion of their control system development, and discuss additional control system tools obtained elsewhere or developed locally.

  12. EPIC modeling of soil organic carbon sequestration in croplands of Iowa.

    PubMed

    Causarano, Hector J; Doraiswamy, Paul C; McCarty, Gregory W; Hatfield, Jerry L; Milak, Sushil; Stern, Alan J

    2008-01-01

    Depending on management, soil organic carbon (SOC) is a potential source or sink for atmospheric CO(2). We used the EPIC model to study impacts of soil and crop management on SOC in corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) croplands of Iowa. The National Agricultural Statistics Service crops classification maps were used to identify corn-soybean areas. Soil properties were obtained from a combination of SSURGO and STATSGO databases. Daily weather variables were obtained from first order meteorological stations in Iowa and neighboring states. Data on crop management, fertilizer application and tillage were obtained from publicly available databases maintained by the NRCS, USDA-Economic Research Service (ERS), and Conservation Technology Information Center. The EPIC model accurately simulated state averages of crop yields during 1970-2005 (R(2) = 0.87). Simulated SOC explained 75% of the variation in measured SOC. With current trends in conservation tillage adoption, total stock of SOC (0-20 cm) is predicted to reach 506 Tg by 2019, representing an increase of 28 Tg with respect to 1980. In contrast, when the whole soil profile was considered, EPIC estimated a decrease of SOC stocks with time, from 1835 Tg in 1980 to 1771 Tg in 2019. Hence, soil depth considered for calculations is an important factor that needs further investigation. Soil organic C sequestration rates (0-20 cm) were estimated at 0.50 to 0.63 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1) depending on climate and soil conditions. Overall, combining land use maps with EPIC proved valid for predicting impacts of management practices on SOC. However, more data on spatial and temporal variation in SOC are needed to improve model calibration and validation. PMID:18574164

  13. Aerosol Retrieval and Atmospheric Correction Algorithms for EPIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Lyapustin, A.; Marshak, A.; Korkin, S.; Herman, J. R.

    2011-12-01

    EPIC is a multi-spectral imager onboard planned Deep Space Climate ObserVatoRy (DSCOVR) designed for observations of the full illuminated disk of the Earth with high temporal and coarse spatial resolution (10 km) from Lagrangian L1 point. During the course of the day, EPIC will view the same Earth surface area in the full range of solar and view zenith angles at equator with fixed scattering angle near the backscattering direction. This talk will describe a new aerosol retrieval/atmospheric correction algorithm developed for EPIC and tested with EPIC Simulator data. This algorithm uses the time series approach and consists of two stages: the first stage is designed to periodically re-initialize the surface spectral bidirectional reflectance (BRF) on stable low AOD days. Such days can be selected based on the same measured reflectance between the morning and afternoon reciprocal view geometries of EPIC. On the second stage, the algorithm will monitor the diurnal cycle of aerosol optical depth and fine mode fraction based on the known spectral surface BRF. Testing of the developed algorithm with simulated EPIC data over continental USA showed a good accuracy of AOD retrievals (10-20%) except over very bright surfaces.

  14. Real-Time performance measurements of EPICS IOCcore.

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, S.; Kraimer, M. R.; Accelerator Systems Division

    2005-01-01

    As the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) is used in an increasing number of accelerator control systems, EPICS IOCcore is ported to a wider variety of OS platforms and thus the performance of EPICS IOCcore on different hardware and software platforms becomes more important. This paper provides real-time performance measurements of EPICS IOCcore on a VME hardware platform and on three different OS platforms: vxWorks, RTEMS, and Linux. EPICS Input/Output Controller core (IOCcore) software has been ported to several different operating systems (OSs) and many hardware platforms. This paper compares the EPICS IOCcore runtime performance on one hardware platform (MVME2100 PowerPC) and three popular Operating Systems: vxWorks, RTEMS, and Linux. For Linux the following versions were tested: Linux 2.4.2 hard hat 2.0, standard Linux 2.4.30, and Linux 2.6.13. For Linux 2.6.13, the kernel was built both preemptive and non-preemptive. Three real-time parameters are measured: interrupt, context switch, and total response latency. On Linux, more detailed interrupt latencies are measured: interrupt top half to bottom half, and interrupt bottom half to user space interrupt service routine. To implement the tests, several software components were developed. In order to port to other operating systems or hardware platforms only, one component has to be implemented.

  15. Aerosol Retrieval and Atmospheric Correction Algorithms for EPIC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yujie; Lyapustin, Alexei; Marshak, Alexander; Korkin, Sergey; Herman, Jay

    2011-01-01

    EPIC is a multi-spectral imager onboard planned Deep Space Climate ObserVatoRy (DSCOVR) designed for observations of the full illuminated disk of the Earth with high temporal and coarse spatial resolution (10 km) from Lagrangian L1 point. During the course of the day, EPIC will view the same Earth surface area in the full range of solar and view zenith angles at equator with fixed scattering angle near the backscattering direction. This talk will describe a new aerosol retrieval/atmospheric correction algorithm developed for EPIC and tested with EPIC Simulator data. This algorithm uses the time series approach and consists of two stages: the first stage is designed to periodically re-initialize the surface spectral bidirectional reflectance (BRF) on stable low AOD days. Such days can be selected based on the same measured reflectance between the morning and afternoon reciprocal view geometries of EPIC. On the second stage, the algorithm will monitor the diurnal cycle of aerosol optical depth and fine mode fraction based on the known spectral surface BRF. Testing of the developed algorithm with simulated EPIC data over continental USA showed a good accuracy of AOD retrievals (10-20%) except over very bright surfaces.

  16. Macrogenomic Evidence for the Origin of the Black Fly Simulium suzukii (Diptera: Simuliidae) on Okinawa Island, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Peter H.; Huang, Yao-Te; Reeves, Will K.; Kim, Sam Kyu; Otsuka, Yasushi; Takaoka, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    To determine the geographic origin of the black fly Simulium suzukii on Okinawa Island, Japan, macrogenomic profiles derived from its polytene chromosomes were compared with those of mainland and other insular populations of S. suzukii and of the isomorphic Simulium tani species complex. The Okinawan population is a chromosomally unique cytoform, designated ‘D,’ which is essentially monomorphic and differs by about 27 fixed rearrangements from the chromosomal standard sequence for the subgenus Simulium and by two fixed differences from its nearest known relative, representing the type of S. suzukii, on the main islands of Japan. Chromosomal band sequences revealed two additional, sympatric cytoforms of S. suzukii, designated ‘A’ and ‘B,’ each with species status, in Korea, and a third cytoform, designated ‘C,’ on Hokkaido, Japan. A new cytoform, ‘K,’ of S. tani from Malaysia, representing the type of S. tani, is more closely related to cytoforms in Thailand, as are populations from Taiwan previously treated as S. suzukii but more closely aligned with S. tani and newly recognized as cytoform ‘L’ of the latter nominal species. Rooting of chromosomal band sequences by outgroup comparisons allowed directionality of chromosomal rearrangements to be established, enabling phylogenetic inference of cytoforms. Of 41 macrogenomic rearrangements discovered in the five new cytoforms, four provide evidence for a stepwise origin of the Okinawan population from populations characteristic of the main islands of Japan. The macrogenomic approach applied to black flies on Okinawa Island illustrates its potential utility in defining source areas for other species of flies including those that might pose medical and veterinary risks. PMID:23951001

  17. Vertical distribution of precipitation particles in Baiu frontal stratiform intense rainfall around Okinawa Island, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oue, M.; Ohigashi, T.; Tsuboki, K.; Nakakita, E.

    2015-06-01

    The vertical distribution of precipitation particles in an intensely precipitating stratiform cloud associated with the Baiu front around Okinawa Island was observed. X-band polarimetric radar, disdrometer, and hydrometeor videosonde data were used to examine the precipitation processes. The cloud top was approximately 12 km above sea level, as convection was depressed while stratiform regions developed near Okinawa Island. In the rain region below 3 km, the mean median volume diameter of the raindrop size distribution (DSD) estimated from the radar variables was 1.55 mm, and the mean normalized intercept parameter was 104.12 mm-1 m-3 with a mean radar reflectivity of 40.5 dBZe. The DSD indicates that the stratiform precipitation was characterized by higher number concentrations of smaller drops than observed previously in convective cells in a Baiu frontal convective precipitation region around Okinawa Island. The DSD also suggests the presence of larger raindrops than in convective cells embedded in a Baiu frontal stratiform precipitation region around Okinawa Island. In the ice region at 5-6 km, just above the melting layer and 6 km below the cloud top, the differential reflectivity and specific differential phase showed positive values, and videosonde measurements revealed that the number concentration of column-, plate-, and capped-column-like crystals (maximum dimensions of ≥0.1 mm) was 112 L-1. The high number concentration of these crystals contributed to the intense stratiform rainfall associated with the Baiu front.

  18. Situation Report--Hong Kong, Malawi, Pakistan, Panama, Philippines, Ryukyu Islands (Okinawa), Sabah, Sarawak.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in eight foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Hong Kong, Malawi, Pakistan, Panama, Philippines, Ryukyu Islands (Okinawa), Sabah, and Sarawak. Information is provided where appropriate and available, under two topics, general background and family planning…

  19. Effect of introduction of a new electronic anesthesia record (Epic) system on the safety and efficiency of patient care in a gastrointestinal endoscopy suite-comparison with historical cohort

    PubMed Central

    Goudra, B; Singh, PM; Borle, A; Gouda, G

    2016-01-01

    Background: Use of electronic medical record systems has increased in the recent years. Epic is one such system gaining popularity in the USA. Epic is a private company, which invented the electronic documentation system adopted in our hospital. In spite of many presumed advantages, its use is not critically analyzed. Some of the perceived advantages are increased efficiency and protection against litigation as a result of accurate documentation. Materials and Methods: In this study, retrospective data of 305 patients who underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (wherein electronic charting was used - “Epic group”) were compared with 288 patients who underwent the same procedure with documentation saved on a paper chart (“paper group”). Time of various events involved in the procedure such as anesthesia start, endoscope insertion, endoscope removal, and transfer to the postanesthesia care unit were routinely documented. From this data, the various time durations were calculated. Results: Both “anesthesia start to scope insertion” times and “scope removal to transfer” times were significantly less in the Epic group compared to the paper group. Use of Epic system led to a saving of 4 min of procedure time per patient. However, the mean oxygen saturation was significantly less in the Epic group. Conclusion: In spite of perceived advantages of Epic documentation system, significant hurdles remain with its use. Although the system allows seamless flow of patients, failure to remove all artifacts can lead to errors and become a source of potential litigation hazard. PMID:27051360

  20. Elemental composition and Its seasonal variation of bulk aerosols collected at the Okinawa archipelago, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Akihide; Oshiro, Seiji; Azechi, Sotaro; Handa, Daishi; Arakaki, Takemitsu

    2010-05-01

    Okinawa is situated approximately 1500 km south of Tokyo, Japan, 2000 km south east of Beijing, China, and 1000 km south of South Korea. Its location in Asia is well suited for studying long-range transport of air pollutions in East Asia, because maritime air mass prevails during summer, while continental air mass dominates during fall, winter, and spring. In the present study, elemental composition and its seasonal variation of bulk aerosols collected at the Okinawa archipelago was investigated by a X-ray fluorescence spectrometric method (XRF). From these results, chemical properties of aerosols transported to Okinawa archipelago and long-range transport of metal pollutions were discussed. We continuously collected bulk aerosols for 7 days at a time during 2008 - 2009. The samplings were performed by using the same type of high volume air sampler at Cape Hedo Atmospheric Aerosol Monitoring Station (CHAAMS, Okinawa island), Kume island (ca. 160 km south-west of CHAAMS), and Minami-Daitou island (ca. 320 km south-east of CHAAMS), respectively. XRF allows us to analyze bulk aerosols rapidly without any pretreatment. However, it is very difficult to determine trace metals in aerosol samples accurately. The concentration ratios to Al for 15-20 elements, whose accuracy was evaluated using standard reference materials (NIES No.28) and measuring by an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after acid-digestion, were obtained by XRF. From seasonal variations obtained, the concentration rations to Al for Pb and As in aerosol particles were clearly higher in winter than in summer. These results suggest that North-west wind blown in winter would transport pollutant aerosols to Okinawa archipelago from East Asia.

  1. EPICS : Extensible record and device support.

    SciTech Connect

    Dalesio, L. R.; Kraimer, M. R.

    1997-11-18

    Although the design of extensible support was not intentionally object oriented, the design does have an object-oriented flavor. Here we discuss the good and bad aspects of using object-oriented ideas. Since the structures generated from a Record Description File contain only data and not methods, they are not similar to Java or C++ classes. Because methods are not present, a clear separation between static and run-time database access is possible. This is a good feature and should be kept. It also allows generation of C structures that can be used by either C or C++ code. The record and device support entry tables are almost like Java interfaces or pure abstract C++ classes. We can state that EPICS databases are defined via a Database Definition Language and an Abstract Interface Definition. The two main shortcomings of the existing implementation are (1) only two interfaces are defined RSETS and DSETS (actually a third called a driver entry table is also defined), and (2) the way hardware links are implemented makes it extremely difficult to support arbitrary bus types and additional hardware configuration information.

  2. IODP Expedition 331: Strong and Expansive Subseafloor Hydrothermal Activities in the Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takai, K.; Mottl, M. J.; Nielsen, S. H. H.; IODP Expedition 331 Scientists, the

    2012-04-01

    Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 331 drilled into the Iheya North hydrothermal system in the middle Okinawa Trough in order to investigate active subseafloor microbial ecosystems and their physical and chemical settings. We drilled five sites during Expedition 331 using special guide bases at three holes for reentry, casing, and capping, including installation of a steel mesh platform with valve controls for postcruise sampling of fluids. At Site C0016, drilling at the base of the North Big Chimney (NBC) mound yielded low recovery, but core included the first Kuroko-type black ore ever recovered from the modern subseafloor. The other four sites yielded interbedded hemipelagic and strongly pumiceous volcaniclastic sediment, along with volcanogenic breccias that are variably hydrothermally altered and mineralized. At most sites, analyses of interstitial water and headspace gas yielded complex patterns with depth and lateral distance of only a few meters. Documented processes included formation of brines and vapor-rich fluids by phase separation and segregation, uptake of Mg and Na by alteration minerals in exchange for Ca, leaching of K at high temperature and uptake at low temperature, anhydrite precipitation, potential microbial oxidation of organic matter and anaerobic oxidation of methane utilizing sulfate, and methanogenesis. Shipboard analyses have found evidence for microbial activity in sediments within the upper 10-30 m below seafloor (mbsf) where temperatures were relatively low, but little evidence in the deeper hydrothermally altered zones and hydrothermal fluid regime. doi:10.2204/iodp.sd.13.03.2011

  3. The EPIC Professional Learning Model: A Review of EPIC's Alignment with Leadership Development Research and Professional Learning National Standards. The Effective Practice Incentive Community (EPIC). Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Kay; Perreira-Leon, Maura

    2010-01-01

    With the creation of the Effective Practice Incentive Community (EPIC), New Leaders for New Schools hoped to accomplish two broad and ambitious goals. The first was to identify and reward leadership practices driving significant achievement gains in high-poverty, urban schools. The second was to learn from those practices and make them more widely…

  4. AERIAL PHOTO INTERPRETATION FOR SITE CHARACTERIZATION, ENVIRONMENTAL PHOTOGRAPHIC INTERPRETATION CENTER (EPIC)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Photographic Interpretation Center (EPIC) is a field station of the Landscape Ecology Branch (LEB), Environmental Sciences Division - Las Vegas, Office of Research and Development EPIC provides remote sensing technical support to help the Agency achieve its mult...

  5. EPIC'S NEW REMOTE SENSING DATA AND INFORMATION TOOLS AVAILABLE FOR EPA CUSTOMERS

    EPA Science Inventory



    EPIC's New Remote Sensing Data and Information Tools Available for EPA Customers Donald Garofalo Environmental Photographic Interpretation Center (EPIC) Landscape Ecology Branch Environmental Sciences Division National Exposure Research Laboratory

    Several new too...

  6. DOE`s Pollution Prevention Information Clearinghouse (EPIC)

    SciTech Connect

    Otis, P.T.

    1994-05-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Pollution Prevention Information Clearinghouse (EPIC) is a computer system intended for the exchange of pollution prevention information DOE-wide. EPIC is being developed as a distributed system that will allow access to other databases and applications. The first prototype of EPIC (Prototype I) was put on-line in January 1994. Prototype I contains information on EM-funded pollution prevention projects; relevant laws, regulations, guidance, and policy; facility and DOE contacts; and meetings and conferences. Prototype I also gives users access to the INEL Hazardous Solvent Substitution Data System (HSSDS) and to information contained on the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPNS) Pollution Prevention Infbrmation Exchange System (PIES) as a test of the distributed system concept. An initial user group of about 35 is testing and providing feedback on Prototype I. Prototype II, with a Graphical User Interface (GUI), is planned for the end of CY94. This paper describes the current state of EPIC in terms of architecture, user interface, and information content. Plans for Prototype II and the final system are then discussed. The EPIC development effort is being coordinated with EPA and US Department of Defense (DoD) efforts to develop or upgrade their pollution prevention information exchange systems.

  7. The 1768 and 1791 Okinawa tsunamis in the Ryukyu Trench region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, M.

    2013-12-01

    Risk of the great earthquakes and tsunamis has been assumed to be low in the Ryukyu Trench because the interplate coupling is weak and great interplate earthquakes (> M8.0) had not been recorded historically for about 300 years. However, recent study revealed that the 1771 Yaeyama earthquake (M8.5 from tsunami heights distribution) at south Ryukyu Trench and the 1911 Kikaijima earthquake (M 8.0) at north-central Ryukyu Trench were the interplate earthquakes. We need re-examine the great historical earthquakes in the Ryukyu Trench. Two historical tsunamis which occurred on 1768 and 1791 in the Okinawa Island were documented in the old document 'Kyuyo' (formal chronicles of Ryukyu). I investigated the source fault model of two tsunami events using numerical simulations of tsunami and earthquake shaking, and showed that their events would be the interplate earthquakes. One earthquake occurred at noon of July 22th, 1768. The rock-walls of castle, grave of royal family were collapsed by the earthquake shaking around Naha, Okinawa Island. After the shaking, tsunami arrived Naha port and Zamami Island, which is west of Okinawa Island. Recorded tsunami heights were about 1 m at Naha port. Nine houses and rice fields were damaged by the inundation of the tsunami in the Zamami Island. Estimated tsunami heights were 4 and 5 m in the villages of the Zamami Island. The numerical modeling of tsunami and the estimation of earthquake shaking using empirical formula were employed, and the fault parameters of the 1768 earthquake were estimated. The faults were set to Okinawa Trough (M7.5 normal faults), southwest of Okinawa island (M7.5 normal faults), southwest of Okinawa island (M7.5 reverse fault), and Ryukyu Trench (M8.0 thrust faults). The computed tsunami heights and intensities of the ground shaking of the M7.5 reverse fault near the Zamami Island and the M8.0 interplate earthquake models are consistent with to the recorded ones. Another tsunami was also recorded in the

  8. Development of mpi_EPIC model for global agroecosystem modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Shujiang; Wang, Dali; Jeff A. Nichols; Schuchart, Joseph; Kline, Keith L.; Wei, Yaxing; Ricciuto, Daniel M.; Wullschleger, Stan D.; Post, Wilfred M.; Izaurralde, R. Cesar

    2014-12-31

    Models that address policy-maker concerns about multi-scale effects of food and bioenergy production systems are computationally demanding. We integrated the message passing interface algorithm into the process-based EPIC model to accelerate computation of ecosystem effects. Simulation performance was further enhanced by applying the Vampir framework. When this enhanced mpi_EPIC model was tested, total execution time for a global 30-year simulation of a switchgrass cropping system was shortened to less than 0.5 hours on a supercomputer. The results illustrate that mpi_EPIC using parallel design can balance simulation workloads and facilitate large-scale, high-resolution analysis of agricultural production systems, management alternatives and environmental effects.

  9. Development of mpi_EPIC model for global agroecosystem modeling

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kang, Shujiang; Wang, Dali; Jeff A. Nichols; Schuchart, Joseph; Kline, Keith L.; Wei, Yaxing; Ricciuto, Daniel M.; Wullschleger, Stan D.; Post, Wilfred M.; Izaurralde, R. Cesar

    2014-12-31

    Models that address policy-maker concerns about multi-scale effects of food and bioenergy production systems are computationally demanding. We integrated the message passing interface algorithm into the process-based EPIC model to accelerate computation of ecosystem effects. Simulation performance was further enhanced by applying the Vampir framework. When this enhanced mpi_EPIC model was tested, total execution time for a global 30-year simulation of a switchgrass cropping system was shortened to less than 0.5 hours on a supercomputer. The results illustrate that mpi_EPIC using parallel design can balance simulation workloads and facilitate large-scale, high-resolution analysis of agricultural production systems, management alternatives and environmentalmore » effects.« less

  10. Microearthquakes and Crustal Structures in the Southern Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, J.; Sibuet, J.; Lee, C.; Hsu, S.; Klingelhoefer, F.; Auffret, Y.; Pelleau, P.; Crozon, J.

    2004-12-01

    Located east of Taiwan, the southern Okinawa Trough (SOT) is a portion of a young continental backarc basin, which is still in the rifting stage. Based on seismicity data, a slab tear was identified along 123.3°E. In order to better understand the nature and role of tectonic features in this region, a passive seismic Ocean Bottom Seismometer (OBS) experiment was conducted from November 19 to December 1, 2003. 15 OBSs were deployed in a 130 x 90 km area including the Ryukyu slab tear and the Cross Backarc Volcanic Trail (CBVT). OBSs with three 4.5 Hz component geophones and an hydrophone recorded about 4000 microearthquakes. Most of them (about 94%) are crustal earthquakes (0-20 km) which occured in the SOT central graben. Just a few earthquakes were recorded from the upper slope of the northern SOT and from the Ryukyu forearc. Most of the earthquake local magnitudes (ML) range from 1 to 2, even if the whole range of magnitudes spans from 0.9 to 4. Three clusters of high microearthquake activity are observed in : (1) the CBVT area (24.7-25°N; 122.5-123°E); (2) the southern central graben area (24.65-24.85°N;123-123.3°E); and (3) the northern central graben area (24.9-25.2°N ;123.2-123.65°E). The southern central graben cluster is also identified by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA). The earthquakes determined by the JMA in the northern central graben present larger magnitudes than ours, but are globally located 10-km south of our cluster. The CBVT cluster is not recorded in JMA data probably because the shallow (O-5 km) volcanic activity only involved small earthquakes which are too far from the JMA's network. Based on swath bathymetric and seismic data, most of the epicenters lie along already identified normal faults. Thus, except the volcanic activity, which occurs in the CBVT area, the main factor controlling the SOT tectonic activity is normal faulting. On the northern and southern slopes of the central graben, hypocenters occur along normal fauls

  11. Comparative Single-Cell Genomics of Chloroflexi from the Okinawa Trough Deep-Subsurface Biosphere

    PubMed Central

    Fullerton, Heather

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chloroflexi small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequences are frequently recovered from subseafloor environments, but the metabolic potential of the phylum is poorly understood. The phylum Chloroflexi is represented by isolates with diverse metabolic strategies, including anoxic phototrophy, fermentation, and reductive dehalogenation; therefore, function cannot be attributed to these organisms based solely on phylogeny. Single-cell genomics can provide metabolic insights into uncultured organisms, like the deep-subsurface Chloroflexi. Nine SSU rRNA gene sequences were identified from single-cell sorts of whole-round core material collected from the Okinawa Trough at Iheya North hydrothermal field as part of Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) expedition 331 (Deep Hot Biosphere). Previous studies of subsurface Chloroflexi single amplified genomes (SAGs) suggested heterotrophic or lithotrophic metabolisms and provided no evidence for growth by reductive dehalogenation. Our nine Chloroflexi SAGs (seven of which are from the order Anaerolineales) indicate that, in addition to genes for the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway, exogenous carbon sources can be actively transported into cells. At least one subunit for pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase was found in four of the Chloroflexi SAGs. This protein can provide a link between the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway and other carbon anabolic pathways. Finally, one of the seven Anaerolineales SAGs contains a distinct reductive dehalogenase homologous (rdhA) gene. IMPORTANCE Through the use of single amplified genomes (SAGs), we have extended the metabolic potential of an understudied group of subsurface microbes, the Chloroflexi. These microbes are frequently detected in the subsurface biosphere, though their metabolic capabilities have remained elusive. In contrast to previously examined Chloroflexi SAGs, our genomes (several are from the order Anaerolineales) were recovered from a hydrothermally driven system and therefore provide a

  12. Science with EPICS, the E-ELT planet finder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gratton, Raffaele; Kasper, Markus; Vérinaud, Christophe; Bonavita, Mariangela; Schmid, Hans M.

    2011-11-01

    EPICS is the proposed planet finder for the European Extremely Large Telescope. EPICS is a high contrast imager based on a high performing extreme adaptive optics system, a diffraction suppression module, and two scientific instruments: an Integral Field Spectrograph (IFS) for the near infrared (0.95-1.65 μm), and a differential polarization imager (E-POL). Both these instruments should allow imaging and characterization of planets shining in reflected light, possibly down to Earth-size. A few high interesting science cases are presented.

  13. EPICS: A control system software co-development success story

    SciTech Connect

    Knott, M.; Gurd, D.; Lewis, S.; Thuot, M.

    1993-11-01

    The Experimental Physics and Industrial Control Systems (EPICS) is the result of a software sharing and co-development effort of major importance now underway. The initial two participants, LANL and ANL, have now been joined by three other labs, and an earlier version of the software has been transferred to three commercial firms and is currently undergoing separate development. The reasons for EPICS`s success may be useful to enumerate and explain and the desire and prospects for its continued development are certainly worth examining.

  14. Melting features along the Ryukyu slab tear, beneath the southwestern Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jing-Yi; Hsu, Shu-Kun; Sibuet, Jean-Claude

    2004-10-01

    The present-day active volcanic front associated with the Ryukyu subduction zone extends from Japan to the Ilan plain (northern Taiwan) and is located within the Okinawa Trough, 80-100 km above the Ryukyu slab. An abnormal amount of arc volcanism, which consists of basalt, andesite and rhyolite occurs within the southwestern Okinawa Trough, above a slab tear of the Ryukyu subduction zone (CBVT). The power spectrum analysis of magnetic data shows the occurrence of a thin crust above the slab tear and a thick crust beneath this volcanic area. We suggest that an excess of H2O-rich fluid might occur at the slab tear and might increase the melt flux. Both are conveyed obliquely to the uppermost mantle and lower crust CBVT magmas. After interactions, basaltic magmas would rise up, accounting for the contrast of magnetization between this volcanic body and the adjacent OT crust.

  15. Ribosomal DNA haplotype distribution of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus in Kyushu and Okinawa islands, Japan.

    PubMed

    Nose, Mine; Shiraishi, Susumu; Miyahara, Fumihiko; Ohira, Mineko; Matsunaga, Koji; Tobase, Masashi; Koyama, Takao; Yoshimoto, Kikuo

    2009-09-01

    Ribosomal DNA region sequences (partial 18S, 28S and complete ITS1, 5.8S, and ITS2) of the pinewood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus) were obtained from DNA extracted directly from wood pieces collected from wilted pine trees throughout the Kyushu and Okinawa islands, Japan. Either a 2569bp or 2573bp sequence was obtained from 88 of 143 samples. Together with the 45 rDNA sequences of pinewood nematode isolates previously reported, there were eight single nucleotide polymorphisms and two indels of two bases. Based on these mutations, nine haplotypes were estimated. The haplotype frequencies differed among regions in Kyushu island (northwest, northeast and center, southeast, and southwest), and the distribution was consistent with the invasion and spreading routes of the pinewood nematode previously estimated from past records of pine wilt and wood importation. There was no significant difference in haplotype frequencies among the collection sites on Okinawa island. PMID:22736814

  16. Distribution characteristics of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in coastal areas of Okinawa Island, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheikh, M. A.; Nakama, F.; Oomori, T.

    2007-07-01

    Surface sediment and seawater samples were collected from coastal areas around Okinawa Island from September 2001 to May 2002. The samples were analyzed for total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels and homolog composition. The results show that total PCB levels ranged from 0.32 to 128.7 ng/g (dry wt.) in sediment and 1.59 to 2.48 ng/L in seawater. The levels exceed the Environmental Quality Standard (EQS) for water pollution of Japan. The distribution of PCB homolog showed different patterns in the sediments and seawaters. Penta-chlorobiphenyls (CBs) comprised the main congener group in seawater, while hexa-CBs were more abundant homologs in the sediments. The heavily contaminated sites featured higher CBs, including penta-CBs, hexa-CBs, and hepta-CBs, than those in less contaminated sites where tri-CBs dominated. This study provides current distribution and geochemical behavior of PCBs in the coastal areas around Okinawa Island.

  17. A remarkable new species of the genus Teinotarsina (Lepidoptera, Sesiidae) from Okinawa-jima, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Yagi, Sadahisa; Hirowatari, Toshiya; Arita, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of long-legged clearwing moth Teinotarsina aurantiaca Yagi, Hirowatari & Arita, sp. n. is described from Okinawa-jima, the Ryukyus, Japan. The species is distinguishable at a glance from other related congeners by the remarkable orange scales ornamenting many parts of the body, such as antennae, palpi, legs, and wings. We hypothesize that the species acquired these differences as a result of convergence with toxic species (Batesian mimicry) or other mimics (Müllerian mimicry). PMID:27110163

  18. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium parvum from two different Japanese prefectures, Okinawa and Hokkaido.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa-Seki, Madoka; Aita, Junya; Masatani, Tatsunori; Suzuki, Moemi; Nitta, Yoshiki; Tamayose, Genta; Iso, Takehiro; Suganuma, Keisuke; Fujiwara, Takashi; Matsuyama, Keita; Niikura, Tadamasa; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Yamakawa, Kazuhiro; Inokuma, Hisashi; Itagaki, Tadashi; Zakimi, Satoshi; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi

    2015-04-01

    Infectious diarrhea is the most frequent cause of morbidity and mortality in neonatal calves. Cryptosporidium parvum is one of the main pathogens associated with calf diarrhea. Although diarrhea is a symptom of infection with various pathogens, investigations to detect the types of pathogens have never been performed in Japan. This study investigated the prevalence of four major diarrhea-causing pathogens in calves: C. parvum, rotavirus, coronavirus, and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (E. coli K99). Commercial immunochromatography testing of all four pathogens and molecular analysis of C. parvum with diarrhea in calves from southernmost Okinawa and northernmost Hokkaido, Japan, were conducted. The frequencies of C. parvum, rotavirus, coronavirus, and E. coli (K99) in Okinawa were 50%, 28%, 2.3%, and 4.7%, respectively. Watery fecal stools were significantly correlated with C. parvum (p<0.05). In oocyst calculations for C. parvum, no significant difference was observed between the single-infection cases and the mixed-infection cases with rotavirus. Interestingly, molecular analyses targeting small subunit ribosomal RNA as well as glycoprotein 60 (GP60) genes revealed that the C. parvum nucleotide sequences from the two prefectures were identical, indicating that C. parvum with a uniform characteristic is distributed throughout Japan. GP60 subtyping analysis identified C. parvum from Okinawa and Hokkaido as belonging to the IIaA15G2R1 subtype, a known zoonotic subtype. Hence, control of cryptosporidiosis is important not only for pre-weaned calves, but also for human health. PMID:25481361

  19. The Epic Tradition in Science Fiction and Fantasy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahon, Robert Lee

    1987-01-01

    Claims that some of the finest works of contemporary science fiction and fantasy borrow heavily from the epic tradition. Proposes that science fiction and fantasy can avoid the disbelief problem by the simple expedient of removing the "here and now," and, thereby, the realistic diminishment of causes and heroes. (JD)

  20. Becoming Teachers' Little Epics: What Digital Storytelling Might Reveal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radford, Linda; Aitken, Avril

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses pre-service teachers' use of multi-modal tools to produce three-minute films in light of critical moments in their teaching practice. Two cases are considered; each centers on a film, a "little epic" that was produced by a future teacher who attempts to work within an anti-racist framework for social justice.…

  1. The Epic of Sundiata: Using African Literature in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Margaret Lo Piccolo

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the "Epic of Sundiata" which chronicles the rise of the Empire of Mali in the grasslands of northwestern Africa in the 13th century. This work is a compelling drama that bears comparison to such other hero tales as "The Iliad" and the Arthurian legend. Includes suggested teaching activities. (MJP)

  2. The Epic inside Us: Using Intuitive Play to Teach Beowulf

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menzies, J. Beth Haase

    2004-01-01

    The element of play is underutilized in the secondary classroom in spite of the fact that play produces unique opportunities for meaningful learning. The ways in which the elements of epic poetry, Beowulf, and the Old English diction differed from the modern usage is discussed.

  3. The E.P.I.C. Journey Sanctioning Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fueglein, Jennifer S.; Price, Kevin S.; Alicea-Rodriguez, Adriana; McKinney, Jan Wilson; Jimenez, Anne L.

    2012-01-01

    As universities look for more effective ways to address violations of behavioral standards, a proposed solution is to infuse intentional development into well-established conduct processes inherently focused on legal mandates and due process. The E.P.I.C. Journey Sanctioning Model was designed to refocus the outcomes of the conduct process to…

  4. Simulating field-scale soil organic carbon dynamics using EPIC

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Simulation models integrate our understanding of soil organic C (SOC) dynamics and are useful tools for evaluating impacts of crop management on soil C sequestration, yet, they require local calibration. Our objectives were to calibrate the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model, and e...

  5. Compilation of a standardised international folate database for EPIC.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Geneviève; Witthöft, Cornelia M; Vignat, Jérôme; Knaze, Viktoria; Huybrechts, Inge; Roe, Mark; Finglas, Paul; Slimani, Nadia

    2016-02-15

    This paper describes the methodology applied for compiling an "international end-user" folate database. This work benefits from the unique dataset offered by the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) (N=520,000 subjects in 23 centres). Compilation was done in four steps: (1) identify folate-free foods then find folate values for (2) folate-rich foods common across EPIC countries, (3) the remaining "common" foods, and (4) "country-specific" foods. Compiled folate values were concurrently standardised in terms of unit, mode of expression and chemical analysis, using information in national food composition tables (FCT). 43-70% total folate values were documented as measured by microbiological assay. Foods reported in EPIC were either matched directly to FCT foods, treated as recipes or weighted averages. This work has produced the first standardised folate dataset in Europe, which was used to calculate folate intakes in EPIC; a prerequisite to study the relation between folate intake and diseases. PMID:26433299

  6. "El Norte," Deracination and Circularity: An Epic Gone Awry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brakel, Arthur

    2007-01-01

    Early journalistic reviews (e.g., Gold, Ebert, and Kael) of "El Norte" (1983), Gregory Nava's first major film, identify it as an epic. In "El Norte" the siblings Enrique and Rosa, two Guatemalan Amerindians, leave their native village on a quest to what for them is the mythical land in the North. Although "El Norte" corresponds to the general…

  7. Helicobacter pylori cagA 12-bp insertion can be a marker for duodenal ulcer in Okinawa, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, Yuichi; Shiota, Seiji; Matsunari, Osamu; Suzuki, Rumiko; Watada, Masahide; Binh, Tran Thanh; Kinjo, Nagisa; Kinjo, Fukunori; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    Backgrounds Helicobacter pylori cagA can be classified into mainly two types (East-Asian-type and Western-type cagA) according to the repeat regions located in the 3′ region. Recent studies showed that the Western-type cagA in strains from Okinawa, Japan formed a different cluster (J-Western-type cagA subtype). We also reported that J-Western-type cagA possess a 12-bp insertion located in the 5′ region of cagA sequence. Methods The prevalence of 12-bp insertion in cagA in Okinawa and the United States (U.S.) was examined by DNA sequencing. We then designed the primer pair which can detect the 12-bp insertion only by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The prevalence of strains with 12-bp insertion was examined in 336 strains isolated from Okinawa by PCR. Results In case of Western-type cagA/vacA s1m2 strains, the prevalence of 12-bp insertion was significantly higher in strains isolated from Okinawa than that from the U.S. (P = 0.002). Phylogenetic tree showed that strains with 12-bp insertion formed two individual clusters within J-Western-type cagA subtype; one is from Okinawa and another is from the U.S. Our designed primer set showed high sensitivity (100%) and specificity (90.8%) in Okinawa. The 12-bp insertion was found in 23.7%, 14.3%, 4.2%, and 4.0% of strains with duodenal ulcer (DU), gastritis, gastric cancer (GC), and gastric ulcer (GU), respectively (P < 0.001 for DU vs. GU) in Okinawa. Conclusions Although the mechanisms are unknown, the presence of 12-bp insertion was associated with the presence of DU and might have a suppressive action on GU and GC. PMID:23190390

  8. Possible Food Sources of Macrozoobenthos in the Manko Mangrove Ecosystem, Okinawa (Japan): A Stable Isotope Analysis Approach

    PubMed Central

    Wardiatno, Yusli; Mardiansyah; Prartono, Tri; Tsuchiya, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Identifying potential food sources in mangrove ecosystems is complex because of the multifarious inputs from both land and sea. This study, which was conducted in the Manko mangrove ecosystem of Okinawa, Japan, determined the composition of the stable isotopes δ13C and δ15N in primary producers and macrozoobenthos to estimate the potential food sources assimilated and to elucidate the target trophic levels of the macrozoobenthos. We measured the two stable isotope signatures of three gastropods (Cerithidea sp., Cassidula mustelina, Peronia verruculata), two crabs (Grapsidae sp., Uca sp.), mangrove tree (Kandelia candel) leaves, and sediment from the mangrove ecosystem. The respective carbon and nitrogen isotope signature results were as follows: −22.4‰ and 8.6‰ for Cerithidea sp., −25.06‰ and 8‰ for C. mustelina, −22.58‰ and 8‰ for P. verruculata, −24.3‰ and 10.6‰ for unidentified Grapsidae, −21.87 ‰ and 11.5 ‰ for Uca sp., −29.81‰ and 11‰ for K. candel, and −24.23‰ and 7.2‰ for the sediment. The stable isotope assimilation signatures of the macrozoobenthos indicated sediment as their food source. Considering the trophic levels, the stable isotope values may also indicate that the five macrozoobenthos species were secondary or higher consumers. PMID:26019747

  9. Possible food sources of macrozoobenthos in the manko mangrove ecosystem, okinawa (Japan): a stable isotope analysis approach.

    PubMed

    Wardiatno, Yusli; Mardiansyah; Prartono, Tri; Tsuchiya, Makoto

    2015-04-01

    Identifying potential food sources in mangrove ecosystems is complex because of the multifarious inputs from both land and sea. This study, which was conducted in the Manko mangrove ecosystem of Okinawa, Japan, determined the composition of the stable isotopes δ(13)C and δ(15)N in primary producers and macrozoobenthos to estimate the potential food sources assimilated and to elucidate the target trophic levels of the macrozoobenthos. We measured the two stable isotope signatures of three gastropods (Cerithidea sp., Cassidula mustelina, Peronia verruculata), two crabs (Grapsidae sp., Uca sp.), mangrove tree (Kandelia candel) leaves, and sediment from the mangrove ecosystem. The respective carbon and nitrogen isotope signature results were as follows: -22.4‰ and 8.6‰ for Cerithidea sp., -25.06‰ and 8‰ for C. mustelina, -22.58‰ and 8‰ for P. verruculata, -24.3‰ and 10.6‰ for unidentified Grapsidae, -21.87 ‰ and 11.5 ‰ for Uca sp., -29.81‰ and 11‰ for K. candel, and -24.23‰ and 7.2‰ for the sediment. The stable isotope assimilation signatures of the macrozoobenthos indicated sediment as their food source. Considering the trophic levels, the stable isotope values may also indicate that the five macrozoobenthos species were secondary or higher consumers. PMID:26019747

  10. Oceanic And Terrestrial Controls On Chlorophyll -a Abundance Around The Island Of Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikema, T.; Bryant, R. G.; Bigg, G. R.

    2007-12-01

    This research aims to understand key factors affecting ocean surface chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) blooms at a range of scales (both regional and near the coastal zone) around the Island of Okinawa in the western Pacific. The study region is characterised by both the actions of the Kuroshio Current (which brings warm water) and the Asian Monsoon (which provides moist southwest winds in summer and dry northern winds in winter). Due to these influences, Okinawa has a subtropical climate, with a rainy season in the summer months (MJ), and prevailing northerly winds in winter (NDJ). In order to better understand factors which may influence the timing and magnitude of Chl-a blooms in the vicinity of Okinawa, we applied empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis to a time series of AVHRR (monthly mean SST from 1985-2006) and SeaWIFS (monthly mean Chl-a from 1998 to 2006) data over two different spatial scales: domain 1 (D1) - a region of the ocean southeast of Kuroshio, and domain 2 (D2) - a sub-region near coastline focused on Okinawa itself. The first EOF mode of SST in regions D1 and D2 (which accounted for more than 90 % in each domain) showed a clear radiation-driven annual cycle: high SST in summer and low SST in winter. The first EOF mode of Chl-a in D1 (which accounted for 51 %) also demonstrated an annual cycle, but in this instance one that mirrored that of SST (i.e. low Chl-a in summer and high Chl-a in winter). The first mode Chl-a EOF in D2 (accounting for 63 % of the total variance) also has a similar annual cycle, displaying a significant correlation (r=0.75, p<0.001) with northerly wind magnitudes, lagged by 2 months, suggesting that the winter monsoon is a major control on the observed Chl-a bloom. However, extreme events such as typhoons can also cause a Chl-a bloom around the coast. As a result of further analysis of daily Chl-a data along the western coastline of Okinawa, it was found that some of the peaks of Chl-a were closely correlated with river

  11. An Evaluation of EPIC's Analysis of School Practice & Knowledge System. The Effective Practice Incentive Community (EPIC). Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Kay; Pereira-Leon, Maura; Honeyford, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Established in 2006 by New Leaders for New Schools[TM], the Effective Practice Incentive Community (EPIC) initiative rewards high-need urban schools showing significant gains in student achievement. In exchange, schools agree to share the practices helping to drive those gains, which they do through an in-depth study of practice, aided by the EPIC…

  12. Microbial diversity in the deep-sea sediments of Iheya North and Iheya Ridge, Okinawa Trough.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Sun, Qing-lei; Zeng, Zhi-gang; Chen, Shuai; Sun, Li

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we analyzed the bacterial and archaeal diversities of the deep-sea sediments in Iheya North and Iheya Ridge, Okinawa Trough, using the high-throughput sequencing technology of Illumina MiSeq 2500 platform. Four samples (IN1, IN2, IR1 and IR2) were used in this study, of which IN1 and IN2 were located at regions close to and distant, respectively, from the active hydrothermal vents in Iheya North, while IR1 and IR2 were located at regions close to and distant, respectively, from the active hydrothermal vents in Iheya Ridge. The four samples were rich in different metal elements. Sequence analysis based on the V3-V4 regions of 16S rDNA gene obtained 170,363 taxon tags, including 122,920 bacterial tags and 47,433 archaeal tags, which cover 31 phyla, 50 classes, 59 orders, 87 families, and 138 genera. Overall, the microbial communities in all samples were dominated by bacteria, in which Proteobacteria was the largest phylum, followed by Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, and Nitrospirae, which together accounted for 64.6% of the total taxon tags. In contrast to the high bacterial diversities, the archaeal diversity was low and dominated by Thaumarchaeota, which accounted for 22.9% of the total taxon tags. Comparative analysis showed that (i) IN2 and IR2 exhibited more microbial richness than IN1 and IR1, (ii) IR1 and IR2 exhibited higher microbial diversities than IN1 and IN2, (iii) samples from Iheya Ridge and Iheya North fell into two groups based on principle component analysis. Furthermore, microbes potentially involved in sulfur, nitrogen, and metal metabolism and cycling were detected in all samples. These results provide for the first time a comparative picture of the microbial diversities in the sediments of Iheya North and Iheya Ridge and indicate that geological features and distance from active hydrothermal vents likely play important roles in the shaping of microbial community structure. PMID:26211965

  13. EPICS : input / output controller (IOC) application developer's guide. EPICS release 3.12 specific documentation.[Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System

    SciTech Connect

    Kraimer, M. R.

    2002-01-30

    This document describes the core software that resides in an Input/Output Controller (IOC), one of the major components of EPICS. EPICS consists of a set of software components and tools that Application Developers use to create a control system. The basic components are: OPI--Operator Interface. This is a UNIX based workstation which can run various EPICS tools; IOC--Input/Output Controller. This is a VME/VXI based chassis containing a processor, various I/O modules and VME modules that provide access to other I/O buses such as GPIB; and LAN--Local Area Network. This is the communication network which allows the IOCs and OPIs to communicate. EPICS provides a software component, Channel Access, which provides network transparent communication between a Channel Access client and an arbitrary number of Channel Access servers. This report is intended for anyone developing EPICS IOC databases and/or new record/device/driver support.

  14. Expression, purification, and characterization of EpiC, an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of the lantibiotic epidermin, and sequence analysis of Staphylococcus epidermidis epiC mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Kupke, T; Gotz, F

    1996-01-01

    The plasmid-encoded epidermin biosynthetic gene epiC of Staphylococcus epidermidis Tü3298 was expressed in Escherichia coli by using the T7 RNA polymerase-promoter system, and the gene product EpiC was identified by Western blotting (immunoblotting) with an anti-EpiC-peptide antiserum. EpiC was a hydrophobic but soluble protein. EpiC was purified by hydrophobic-interaction chromatography. The determined amino-terminal amino acid sequence was M I N I N N I .... The electrophoretic migration behavior of EpiC depended on the oxidation state of the enzyme, indicating the formation of an intramolecular disulfide bridge between C-274 and C-321. The cysteine residues in the motifs WC-274YG and C-321HG of EpiC are conserved in all lantibiotic enzymes of the C type (so-called LanC proteins) and in the CylM protein. Mutated epiC genes from S. epidermidis epiC mutants were cloned and expressed in E. coli. Sequence analysis revealed that the mutations occurred in the two motifs -S-X-X-X-G-X-X-G- and -N-X-G-X-A-H-G-X-X-G-, which are conserved in all LanC proteins. For the investigation of EpiC-EpiA interactions, precursor peptide EpiA was coupled to N-hydroxysuccinimide-activated Sepharose High Performance Material (HiTrap). Under reducing conditions, EpiC was retarded on the EpiA-HiTrap column. In the incubation experiments, EpiC did not react with EpiA, with proepidermin, or with oxidative decarboxylated peptides. PMID:8631710

  15. Screening of medicinal and edible plants in Okinawa, Japan, for enhanced proliferative and collagen synthesis activities in NB1RGB human skin fibroblast cells.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Makoto; Asikin, Yonathan; Takara, Kensaku; Wada, Koji

    2012-01-01

    To identify plants with bioactive potential for skin care, methanol extracts of 56 plant parts from 47 medical and edible plants cultivated in Okinawa were tested for their proliferative effects on NB1RGB skin fibroblast cells. Extracts from six plants, Bischofia javanica, Colocasia esculenta, Melaleuca alternifolia, Piper angustifolia, Jasminum sambac, and Curcuma longa, showed higher NB1RGB cell proliferation activity (>10%) than the control, at various concentrations. Among the six extracts, only the C. longa extract caused an increase in collagen synthesis in NB1RGB cells, as compared to treatment with the positive control, ascorbic acid (AsA). Expression of the collagen synthesis marker, transforming growth factor-β1, was higher after treatment with the C. longa extract than with AsA. PMID:23221723

  16. areaDetector: Software for 2-D Detectors in EPICS

    SciTech Connect

    Rivers, M.

    2011-09-23

    areaDetector is a new EPICS module designed to support 2-D detectors. It is modular C++ code that greatly simplifies the task of writing support for a new detector. It also supports plugins, which receive detector data from the driver and process it in some way. Existing plugins perform Region-Of-Interest extraction and analysis, file saving (in netCDF, HDF, TIFF and JPEG formats), color conversion, and export to EPICS records for image display in clients like ImageJ and IDL. Drivers have now been written for many of the detectors commonly used at synchrotron beamlines, including CCDs, pixel array and amorphous silicon detectors, and online image plates.

  17. areaDetector: Software for 2-D Detectors in EPICS

    SciTech Connect

    Rivers, Mark L.

    2010-06-23

    areaDetector is a new EPICS module designed to support 2-D detectors. It is modular C++ code that greatly simplifies the task of writing support for a new detector. It also supports plugins, which receive detector data from the driver and process it in some way. Existing plugins perform Region-Of-Interest extraction and analysis, file saving (in netCDF, HDF, TIFF and JPEG formats), color conversion, and export to EPICS records for image display in clients like ImageJ and IDL. Drivers have now been written for many of the detectors commonly used at synchrotron beamlines, including CCDs, pixel array and amorphous silicon detectors, and online image plates.

  18. Simulating Field-Scale Soil Organic Carbon Dynamics Using EPIC

    SciTech Connect

    Causarano, Hector J.; Shaw, Joey N.; Franzluebbers, A. J.; reeves, D. W.; Raper, Randy L.; Balkcom, Kipling S.; Norfleet, M. L.; Izaurralde, R Cesar

    2007-07-01

    Simulation models integrate our knowledge of soil organic C (SOC) dynamics and are useful tools for evaluating impacts of crop management on soil C sequestration; yet, they require local calibration. Our objectives were to calibrate the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model, and evaluate its performance for simulating SOC fractions as affected by soil landscape and management. An automated parameter optimization procedure was used to calibrate the model for a site-specific experiment in the Coastal Plain of central Alabama. The ability of EPIC to predict corn (Zea mays L.) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) yields and SOC dynamics on different soil landscape positions (summit, sideslope and drainageway) during the initial period of conservation tillage adoption (5 years) was evaluated using regression and mean squared deviations. Simulated yield explained 88% of measured yield variation, with greatest disagreement on the sideslope position and highest agreement in the drainageway. Simulations explained approximately 1, 34 and 40% of the total variation in microbial biomass C (MBC), particulate organic C (POC) and total organic C (TOC), respectively. Lowest errors on TOC simulations (0-20 cm) were found on the sideslope and summit. We conclude that the automated parameterization was generally successful, although further work is needed to refine the MBC and POC fractions, and to improve EPIC predictions of SOC dynamics with depth. Overall, EPIC was sensitive to spatial differences in C fractions that resulted from differing soil landscape positions. The model needs additional refinement for accurate simulations of field-scale SOC dynamics affected by short-term management decisions.

  19. EPICS V4 Evaluation for SNS Neutron Data

    SciTech Connect

    Kasemir, Kay; Pearson, Matthew R; Guyotte, Greg S

    2015-01-01

    Version 4 of the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) toolkit allows defining application-specific structured data types (pvData) and offers a network protocol for their efficient exchange (pvAccess). We evaluated V4 for the transport of neutron events from the detectors of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) to data acquisition and experiment monitoring systems. This includes the comparison of possible data structures, performance tests, and experience using V4 in production on a beam line.

  20. EPICS SCA CLIENTS ON THE .NET X64 PLATFORM

    SciTech Connect

    Timossi, Chris; Nishimura, Hiroshi

    2006-10-19

    We have developed a .NET assembly, which we call SCA.NET,which we have been using for building EPICS based control roomapplications at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). In this paper we reporton our experiences building a 64-bit version of SCA.NET and theunderlying channel access libraries for Windows XP x64 (using a dual coreAMD Athlon CPU). We also report on our progress in building newaccelerator control applications for this environment.

  1. Structuring an EPICS System to Optimize Reliability, Performance and Cost

    SciTech Connect

    Bickley, Matthew; White, Karen S

    2005-10-10

    Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) uses EPICS as the basis for its control system, effectively operating a number of plants at the laboratory, including the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator (CEBA), a Free Electron Laser (FEL), Central Helium Liquefier, and several ancillary systems. We now use over 200 distributed computers running over a complex segmented network with 350,000 EPICS records and 50,000 control points to support operation of two machines for three experimental halls, along with the supporting infrastructure. During the 10 years that EPICS has been in use we have made a number of design and implementation choices in the interest of optimizing control system reliability, performance, security and cost. At the highest level, the control system is divided into a number of distinct segments, each controlling a separate operational plant. This supports operational independence, and therefore reliability, and provides a more flexible environment for maintenance and support. The control system is relatively open, allowing any of the 300 account holders to look at data from any segment. However security and operational needs mandate restricted write access to the various control points based on each user's job function and the operational mode of the facility. Additionally, the large number of simultaneous users, coupled with the amount of available data, necessitates the use of throttling mechanisms such as a Nameserver, which effectively reduces broadcast traffic and improves application initialization performance. Our segmented approach provides natural boundaries for managing data flow and restricting access, using tools such as the EPICS Gateway and Channel Access Security. This architecture enables cost optimizations by allowing expensive resources, such as Oracle, to be effectively shared throughout the control system, while minimizing the impact of a failure in any single area. This paper discusses the various design

  2. A survey of junior high school students' sleep habit and lifestyle in Okinawa.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, M; Taira, K; Tanaka, H; Yamakawa, K; Toguchi, H; Kadekaru, H; Yamamoto, Y; Uezu, E; Shirakawa, S

    2001-06-01

    A survey was made of the sleep and lifestyle activity patterns of 3754 students from 14 different junior high schools on Okinawa Island. The survey showed that bedtimes became progressively and significantly later as students ascended to higher grades, resulting in adolescent sleep debt. The later adolescents retired to sleep, there appeared significantly greater numbers suffering from insufficient sleep, who found difficulty in waking up, who arose later in the mornings, and who failed to eat breakfast. The study indicated that along with later bedtimes, staying up late resulted in deterioration of sleep health, poor dietary habits and feeling ill, contributing to sleepiness during class. PMID:11422845

  3. Tetrodotoxin-Medicated Delay in Aconitine Toxicity: A Murder in Okinawa.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Y

    2014-07-01

    Aconite (wolfsbane) plants, which belong to the genus Aconitum (Ranunculaceae family), contain highly toxic alkaloids, including aconitine, mesaconitine, hypaconitine, and jesaconitine, in all of their parts. The relevance of this plant material is illustrated by the case of a Japanese female who died suddenly in 1986 and was autopsied in Okinawa by the author. The detection in 1987 of Aconitum alkaloids in her blood using gas chromatography/selected ion monitoring (GC/SIM), which was newly developed for this case, demonstrated that she had died from aconite poisoning. PMID:26227030

  4. Vertical Cable Seismic (VCS) Survey for SMS exploration in Izena Cauldron, Okinawa-Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asakawa, Eiichi; Murakami, Fumitoshi; Tsukahara, Hitoshi; Mizohata, Shigeharu; Tara, Kenji

    2015-04-01

    In 2014, the Japanese government started the Cross-ministerial Strategic Innovation Promotion Program (SIP), which includes 'New-generation Offshore Exploration Techniques' as an area of interest. We proposed the Vertical Cable Seismic (VCS) survey technique for this program, especially for the exploration of Seafloor Massive Sulfides (SMS). VCS is a reflection seismic method that uses hydrophone arrays vertically moored from the seafloor to record acoustic waves generated by various acoustic sources. This method is useful to delineate detailed structures in a spatially-limited area below the seabed in the deep sea where conventional surface seismic is not effective. We have been developing an autonomous VCS system with the financial support of the Japanese government since 2009. We have carried out several VCS surveys and completed our VCS system. Izena Cauldron, Okinawa Trough is one of the most promising SMS areas around Japan. There are two high potential areas, the north and south mound. We carried out the first VCS survey around the north mound in 2011 and the second survey around the south mound in 2013 respectively. The first VCS survey in Izena Cauldron was carried out using a GI gun in September, 2011, with the objective of surveying the large-scale and deeper structure of the hydrothermal system. The water depth was 1,500-1,600m. Four VCS systems were deployed. The shooting lines covered an area of 9 km x 9 km with a shooting interval of about 25m and line spacing of 200m to 400m. In the second survey, we used a high-voltage sparker. The objective is to explore very shallow parts to delineate very thin SMS deposits. The survey area was about 4 km x 4km with a 12.5 m shooting interval and 100m to 200m line spacing. Three VCS systems were deployed in this survey. The result of the first GI gun VCS survey was a 3D PSDM volume of the subsurface structure. It extends 2,000m horizontally and down to 1,500m in depth. Further, by re-processing the data with a

  5. Spatial variations in the frequency-magnitude distribution of earthquakes in the southwestern Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, J.-Y.; Sibuet, J.-C.; Lee, C.-S.; Hsu, S.-K.; Klingelhoefer, F.

    2007-04-01

    The relations between the frequency of occurrence and the magnitude of earthquakes are established in the southern Okinawa Trough for 2823 relocated earthquakes recorded during a passive ocean bottom seismometer experiment. Three high b-values areas are identified: (1) for an area offshore of the Ilan Plain, south of the andesitic Kueishantao Island from a depth of 50 km to the surface, thereby confirming the subduction component of the island andesites; (2) for a body lying along the 123.3°E meridian at depths ranging from 0 to 50 km that may reflect the high temperature inflow rising up from a slab tear; (3) for a third cylindrical body about 15 km in diameter beneath the Cross Backarc Volcanic Trail, at depths ranging from 0 to 15 km. This anomaly might be related to the presence of a magma chamber at the base of the crust already evidenced by tomographic and geochemical results. The high b-values are generally linked to magmatic and geothermal activities, although most of the seismicity is linked to normal faulting processes in the southern Okinawa Trough.

  6. Sea surface temperature variability in southern Okinawa Trough during last 2700 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Weichao; Tan, Wenbing; Zhou, Liping; Yang, Huan; Xu, Yunping

    2012-07-01

    Most of the temperature reconstructions for the past two millennia are based on proxy data from various sites on land. Here we present a bidecadal resolution record of sea surface temperature (SST) in Southern Okinawa Trough for the past ca. 2700 years by analyzing tetraether lipids of planktonic archaea in the ODP Hole 1202B, a site under the strong influence of Kuroshio Current and East Asian monsoon. The reconstructed SST anomalies generally coincided with previously reported late Holocene climate events, including the Roman Warm Period, Sui-Tang dynasty Warm Period, Medieval Warm Period, Current Warm Period, Dark Age Cold Period and Little Ice Age. However, the Medieval Warm Period usually thought to be a historical analogue for the Current Warm Period has a mean SST of 0.6-0.8°C lower than that of the Roman Warm Period and Sui-Tang dynasty Warm Period. Despite an increase since 1850 AD, the mean SST in the 20th century is still within the range of natural variability during the past 2700 years. A close correlation of SST in Southern Okinawa Trough with air temperature in East China, intensity of East Asian monsoon and the El-Niño Southern Oscillation index has been attributed to the fluctuations in solar output and oceanic-atmospheric circulation.

  7. Sediment and crustal structures in the Okinawa trough constrained from seafloor compliance inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Ban-Yuan; Cheng-Chien, Peng

    2014-05-01

    Seafloor compliance, the spectral ratio of vertical displacement over water pressure, measures how the seafloor deforms under the loading of ocean waves and thus reflects the elastic properties of the oceanic crust and mantle. Compliance functions have been constructed for 5 portable OBSs equipped with 120 s seismometers and differential pressure gauges (DPG) and one permanent, cabled OBS (station EOS1) equipped with a 360 s sensor and an absolute pressure gauge (APG) deployed offshore eastern Taiwan. The DPG and APG amplitude sensitivities were calibrated using the vertical acceleration and pressure data associated with Rayleigh waves. The compliance functions increase with frequency, implying the decreasing stiffness from mantle to sediment. We searched the best sediment/crustal model for each OBS by fitting the observed compliance function in a forward fashion. EOS1 is located on the Ryukyu arc 40 km offshore, and the portable OBSs S002 and S005 were deployed in the Okinawa trough 100 and 150 km away, respectively. The shear modulus of the sediment and shallow crust inverted from seafloor compliance at these sites may reflect effects of progressive rifting of the back-arc basin toward Taiwan or different source of sediment supply along the Okinawa trough.

  8. Reproductive traits of the Ryukyu long-furred rat (Diplothrix legata) on Okinawa-jima Island.

    PubMed

    Okano, Tsukasa; Nakata, Katsuhi; Nakaya, Yumiko; Nagamine, Takashi; Onuma, Manabu

    2015-06-01

    The Ryukyu long-furred rat, Diplothrix legata, is a large rodent distributed only on Amami-ohshima Island, Tokuno-shima Island and Okinawa-jima Island, Japan. This animal is endangered as a result of deforestation, predation by introduced carnivores and mortality caused by vehicles. We performed theriogenological examinations of 32 male and 25 female Ryukyu long-furred rats carcasses collected from wild populations on northern Okinawa-jima Island from December 2005 to September 2013. Adult males had remarkably large preputial glands. Seminiferous diameter of adult was significantly small (136 ± 28 µm, n=8) from April to August. Numerous spermatozoa were observed from September through February, and seminiferous diameter was significantly large (216 ± 27 µm, n=12) during this time in adults; testes length changed in a similar pattern. These findings indicate that the mating season may occur from September through February. Size (body length) at sexual maturity was estimated to be >560 mm in both sexes. From observation of corpora lutea and placental scars, litter size was estimated to range from 2 to 12 (average=6, n=4). These results provide fundamental knowledge that will be beneficial for in situ and ex situ conservation of this rare species. PMID:25649850

  9. Geological Structures of the South Okinawa Trough based on Seismic Reflection Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, M.; Liu, C.; Teng, L. S.

    2011-12-01

    The Southern Okinawa Trough (SOT) located offshore northeastern Taiwan is an extensional basin north of the Ryukyu Island Arc that opens toward Taiwan. In order to better understand the geological processes in the Southern Okinawa Trough, we collect all the available multi-channel seismic reflection data, reprocess some of them to improve the data quality, and interpret 22 seismic reflection profiles. A structural map, which shows the distribution of fault structures and submarine volcanoes in the study area, is compiled with the aid of seismic sequence analysis. We found that normal faults developed in both the northern and southern flanks of the SOT, and also in the axial area where volcanic extrusions are abundant, suggesting that the SOT is presently undergoing active extension. Some deeply rooted compressional structures are observed below the younger normal faults, which may indicate that the area offshore northern Taiwan was once in a convergent tectonic environment. We use seismic and bathymetry data to discuss the fault activities and related tectonic processes, also examine the volcanic activities and their geological environment.

  10. Determination of 210Pb and 222Rn in ground water of Okinawa Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, M.; Tanahara, A.

    2012-12-01

    In this study, we developed the method of 210Pb measurement from a large amount of ground water. The chelating resin (NOBIAS CHELATE-PA1; Hitachi High-technology) column combined with the ion-exchange resin (DOWEX-88; Dow Chemical Company) column were used for pre-treatment of 210Pb from ground water of 20 litter. It should be mentioned that this determination procedure is simple, fast, and give high recovery (more than 80 %). It avoids precipitation and large consumption of chemicals. Finally 210Pb was precipitated as PbSO4 and determined with low background 2πgas flow counter. 210Pb concentration in ground water of Okinawa Island ranged from 1.40-16.7 mBq/L. We also found that the organo-210Pb complex which could not be detected by this method was involved in some water samples. By increasing the column radius and the resin mass, while keeping a constant height of the resin column, it is possible to additionally increase the flow rate and accelerate the isolation procedure. 222Rn was determined by the direct method. The emulsion scintillation cocktail (10 mL) and water sample (10 mL) were put into a vial. After shaking and stand for 200 min, 222Rn was counted by LSC for 120 min. 222Rn concentration in ground water of Okinawa Island ranged from 0.71-14.0 Bq/L.

  11. Litarcturus kexueiae sp. nov., a new deep-sea isopod from the Okinawa Trough (Crustacea, Isopoda, Valvifera, Antarcturidae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenliang; Sha, Zhongli

    2015-01-01

    A new species of the genus Litarcturus Brandt, 1990, L. kexueiae sp. nov., collected from deep sea of the Okinawa Trough, is described and illustrated. It is readily distinguished from the other seven species of the genus by bearing long supraocular spines about as long as the head and posterolateral pleotelsonic spines overreaching the pleotelson apex. PMID:26623914

  12. Massively parallel sequencing of single cells by epicPCR links functional genes with phylogenetic markers

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Sarah J; Tamminen, Manu V; Preheim, Sarah P; Guo, Mira T; Briggs, Adrian W; Brito, Ilana L; A Weitz, David; Pitkänen, Leena K; Vigneault, Francois; Virta, Marko PJuhani; Alm, Eric J

    2016-01-01

    Many microbial communities are characterized by high genetic diversity. 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing can determine community members, and metagenomics can determine the functional diversity, but resolving the functional role of individual cells in high throughput remains an unsolved challenge. Here, we describe epicPCR (Emulsion, Paired Isolation and Concatenation PCR), a new technique that links functional genes and phylogenetic markers in uncultured single cells, providing a throughput of hundreds of thousands of cells with costs comparable to one genomic library preparation. We demonstrate the utility of our technique in a natural environment by profiling a sulfate-reducing community in a freshwater lake, revealing both known sulfate reducers and discovering new putative sulfate reducers. Our method is adaptable to any conserved genetic trait and translates genetic associations from diverse microbial samples into a sequencing library that answers targeted ecological questions. Potential applications include identifying functional community members, tracing horizontal gene transfer networks and mapping ecological interactions between microbial cells. PMID:26394010

  13. Massively parallel sequencing of single cells by epicPCR links functional genes with phylogenetic markers.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Sarah J; Tamminen, Manu V; Preheim, Sarah P; Guo, Mira T; Briggs, Adrian W; Brito, Ilana L; A Weitz, David; Pitkänen, Leena K; Vigneault, Francois; Juhani Virta, Marko P; Alm, Eric J

    2016-02-01

    Many microbial communities are characterized by high genetic diversity. 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing can determine community members, and metagenomics can determine the functional diversity, but resolving the functional role of individual cells in high throughput remains an unsolved challenge. Here, we describe epicPCR (Emulsion, Paired Isolation and Concatenation PCR), a new technique that links functional genes and phylogenetic markers in uncultured single cells, providing a throughput of hundreds of thousands of cells with costs comparable to one genomic library preparation. We demonstrate the utility of our technique in a natural environment by profiling a sulfate-reducing community in a freshwater lake, revealing both known sulfate reducers and discovering new putative sulfate reducers. Our method is adaptable to any conserved genetic trait and translates genetic associations from diverse microbial samples into a sequencing library that answers targeted ecological questions. Potential applications include identifying functional community members, tracing horizontal gene transfer networks and mapping ecological interactions between microbial cells. PMID:26394010

  14. Teaching about Indian Culture through Its Epic Literature: "The Mahabharata" and "the Ramayana."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Patrick S.

    Two epic poems from India, "The Mahabharata" and "The Ramayana" have endured for more than 2,000 years as important parts of Indian culture, and the study of these epics can yield insights into Indian life and religion. This paper contains a list of the major characters and an explanation of the major themes in both books. The themes include good…

  15. EPIC Simulations of Crop Yields and Soil Organic Carbon in Iowa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Depending on management, soil organic carbon is source or sink of atmospheric carbon dioxide. The Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model is a useful tool for predicting impacts of soil management on crop yields and soil organic carbon. We used EPIC-Century to simulate changes in soil o...

  16. Correspondence and Contradiction in Ancient Greek Society and Education: Homer's Epic Poetry and Plato's Early Dialogues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sichel, Betty A.

    1983-01-01

    Homer's epic poetry illustrates correspondence between society's needs and the values stressed in education, while Socrates' thought uncovers contradictions between social and educational values and seeks a new form of correspondence. Examples from the Epics and Plato's early dialogues trace changing educational attitudes among the Classical…

  17. An Evaluation of OCLC's EPIC as a Resource for Subject Access to Videos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Joseph W.

    1992-01-01

    An examination of OCLC's EPIC service and standard video reference tools revealed that EPIC was more comprehensive in finding video titles on the popular or specialized topics of bonsai, genealogy, karate, and holography, because of its keyword searching ability on the massive OCLC database. (11 references) (EA)

  18. Evaluating EPIC-based Harvest Index Approach for Yield Prediction and Response to Soil Water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The EPIC-based plant growth model has been used in many national modeling efforts such as WEPP, WEPPS, SWAT, and GPFARM. Many approaches are used in simulation models to predict final crop harvestable yield. The EPIC-based plant growth model uses the harvest index (HI, defined here as the ratio of h...

  19. The "epic" challenge of optimizing antimicrobial stewardship: the role of electronic medical records and technology.

    PubMed

    Kullar, Ravina; Goff, Debra A; Schulz, Lucas T; Fox, Barry C; Rose, Warren E

    2013-10-01

    Antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) are established means for institutions to improve patient outcomes while reducing the emergence of resistant bacteria. With the increased adoption and evolution of electronic medical records (EMRs), there is a need to assimilate the tools of ASPs into EMRs, using decision support and feedback. Third-party software vendors provide the mainstay for integration of individual institutional EMR and ASP efforts. Epic is the leading implementer of EMR technology in the United States. A collaboration of physicians and pharmacists are working closely with Epic to provide a more comprehensive platform of ASP tools that may be institutionally individualized. We review the historical relationship between ASPs and the EMR, cite examples of Epic stewardship tools from 3 academic medical centers' ASPs, discuss limitations of these Epic tools, and conclude with the current process in evolution to integrate ASP tools and decision support capacities directly into Epic's EMR. PMID:23667260

  20. Microbial community in a sediment-hosted CO2 lake of the southern Okinawa Trough hydrothermal system

    PubMed Central

    Inagaki, Fumio; Kuypers, Marcel M. M.; Tsunogai, Urumu; Ishibashi, Jun-ichiro; Nakamura, Ko-ichi; Treude, Tina; Ohkubo, Satoru; Nakaseama, Miwako; Gena, Kaul; Chiba, Hitoshi; Hirayama, Hisako; Nunoura, Takuro; Takai, Ken; Jørgensen, Bo B.; Horikoshi, Koki; Boetius, Antje

    2006-01-01

    Increasing levels of CO2 in the atmosphere are expected to cause climatic change with negative effects on the earth's ecosystems and human society. Consequently, a variety of CO2 disposal options are discussed, including injection into the deep ocean. Because the dissolution of CO2 in seawater will decrease ambient pH considerably, negative consequences for deep-water ecosystems have been predicted. Hence, ecosystems associated with natural CO2 reservoirs in the deep sea, and the dynamics of gaseous, liquid, and solid CO2 in such environments, are of great interest to science and society. We report here a biogeochemical and microbiological characterization of a microbial community inhabiting deep-sea sediments overlying a natural CO2 lake at the Yonaguni Knoll IV hydrothermal field, southern Okinawa Trough. We found high abundances (>109 cm−3) of microbial cells in sediment pavements above the CO2 lake, decreasing to strikingly low cell numbers (107 cm−3) at the liquid CO2/CO2-hydrate interface. The key groups in these sediments were as follows: (i) the anaerobic methanotrophic archaea ANME-2c and the Eel-2 group of Deltaproteobacteria and (ii) sulfur-metabolizing chemolithotrophs within the Gamma- and Epsilonproteobacteria. The detection of functional genes related to one-carbon assimilation and the presence of highly 13C-depleted archaeal and bacterial lipid biomarkers suggest that microorganisms assimilating CO2 and/or CH4 dominate the liquid CO2 and CO2-hydrate-bearing sediments. Clearly, the Yonaguni Knoll is an exceptional natural laboratory for the study of consequences of CO2 disposal as well as of natural CO2 reservoirs as potential microbial habitats on early Earth and other celestial bodies. PMID:16959888

  1. EPICS Input Output Controller (IOC) Record Reference Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.B.; Kraimer, M.R.

    1994-12-01

    This manual describes all supported EPICS record types. The first chapter gives introduction and describes the field summary table. The second chapter describes the fields in database common, i.e. the fields that are present in every record type. The third chapter describes the input and output field that are common to many record types and have the same usage wherever they are used. Following the third chapter is a separate chapter for each record type containing a description of all the fields for that record type except those in database common.

  2. Perfusion Electronic Record Documentation Using Epic Systems Software

    PubMed Central

    Steffens, Thomas G.; Gunser, John M.; Saviello, George M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: This paper describes the design and use of Epic Systems software for documentation of perfusion activities as part of the patient electronic medical record. The University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics adapted the Anesthesia software module and developed an integrated perfusion/anesthesia record for the documentation of cardiac and non-cardiac surgical procedures. This project involved multiple committees, approvals, and training to successfully implement. This article will describe our documentation options, concepts, design, challenges, training, and implementation during our initial experience. PMID:26834288

  3. EPICS and WANs: Tradeoffs between Isolation, Security, Robustness, and Transparency

    SciTech Connect

    J. Hill; K. Furukawa; S. Hunt; A. Johnson; R. Lange; J. Sage; E. Williams

    2003-10-01

    The Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS)[1] was originally designed for use in local area networks (LANs). Today, the system is routinely deployed into complex wide area networks (WANs) using specialized configuration options and proxy gateways. There are advantages to the current approach including robustness and control over isolation and security. However, some important features are missing including WAN transparent configuration, resource location monitoring, detection of name space collisions during installation, and wildcard queries into the resource attribute space. The paper discusses these issues in detail exploring the relative tradeoffs between different solutions and including our plans for future enhancements.

  4. EPIC: an Error Propagation/Inquiry Code. [EPIC estimates the variance of a materials balance closed about a materials balance area in a processing plant

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, A.L.

    1985-01-01

    The use of a computer program EPIC (Error Propagation/Inquiry Code) will be discussed. EPIC calculates the variance of a materials balance closed about a materials balance area (MBA) in a processing plant operated under steady-state conditions. It was designed for use in evaluating the significance of inventory differences in the Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear plants. EPIC rapidly estimates the variance of a materials balance using average plant operating data. The intent is to learn as much as possible about problem areas in a process with simple straightforward calculations assuming a process is running in a steady-state mode. EPIC is designed to be used by plant personnel or others with little computer background. However, the user should be knowledgeable about measurement errors in the system being evaluated and have a limited knowledge of how error terms are combined in error propagation analyses. EPIC contains six variance equations; the appropriate equation is used to calculate the variance at each measurement point. After all of these variances are calculated, the total variance for the MBA is calculated using a simple algebraic sum of variances. The EPIC code runs on any computer that accepts a standard form of the BASIC language. 2 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  5. Satellite Observations of the Epic California Drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Famiglietti, J. S.; Thomas, B. F.; Reager, J. T., II; Castle, S. L.; David, C. H.; Thomas, A. C.; Andreadis, K.; Argus, D. F.; Behrangi, A.; Farr, T.; Fisher, J. B.; Landerer, F. W.; Lo, M. H.; Molotch, N. P.; Painter, T. H.; Rodell, M.; Schimel, D.; Swenson, S. C.; Watkins, M. M.

    2014-12-01

    As California enters its third year of drought, questions of future water sustainability are inevitable. Snowpack, soil moisture, streamflow, reservoir and groundwater levels are at record lows. Mandatory water restrictions are being implemented, statewide fines for wasting water have been authorized, and billions of dollars and tens of thousands of jobs have been lost. Enhanced monitoring and modeling of the state's dwindling water supplies can help manage what remains while looking forward to a post-drought, sustainable water future. Here we demonstrate the role of satellite observations in comprehensive drought characterization and monitoring. In particular we highlight changing water supply, declining groundwater and reservoir levels, agricultural and urban stress. Potential contributions to water management will be discussed.

  6. The EPIC-MOS Particle-Induced Background Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuntz, K. D.; Sowden, S. L.

    2007-01-01

    In order to analyse diffuse emission that fills the field of view, one must accurately characterize the instrumental backgrounds. For the XMM-Newton EPIC instrument these backgrounds include a temporally variable "quiescent" component. as well as the strongly variable soft proton contamination. We have characterized the spectral and spatial response of the EPIC detectors to these background components and have developed tools to remove these backgrounds from observations. The "quiescent" component was characterized using a combination of the filter-wheel-closed data and a database of unexposed-region data. The soft proton contamination was characterized by differencing images and spectra taken during flared and flare-free intervals. After application of our modeled backgrounds, the differences between independent observations of the same region of "blank sky" are consistent with the statistical uncertainties except when there is clear spectral evidence of solar wind charge exchange emission. Using a large sample of blank sky data, we show that strong magnetospheric SWCX emission requires elevated solar wind fluxes; observations through the densest part of the magnetosheath are not necessarily strongly contaminated with SWCX emission.

  7. Characteristics of the Eclipsing Triple System EPIC 202062176

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lester, Kathryn Victoria; Gies, Douglas R.; Guo, Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Time series photometry from the Kepler K2 mission has led to the discovery of a number of particularly interesting eclipsing binary systems. One of these is EPIC 202062176, a young, eccentric binary found in the star forming region NGC 2175. Our analysis of the light curve from K2 Campaign 0 and spectra from the CHIRON spectrograph and CTIO's 1.5m telescope indicates that EPIC 202062176 is actually a triple system composed of a hot B-type star and a distant pair of less massive stars. We determined the pulsation frequency of the hot star with Period04, removed this signal from the light curve, and then modeled the eclipses of the companion binary with the Eclipsing Light Curve (ELC) program. We estimated the effective temperature and flux contribution for the hot star by comparison with TLUSTY model spectra, and we completed a radial velocity analysis of the hot star using cross-correlation methods. We present the characteristics of the triple system, including the stellar parameters of the primary B0V star and the orbital elements of the companion eclipsing binary system.

  8. JBluIce-EPICS control system for macromolecular crystallography.

    SciTech Connect

    Stepanov, S.; Makarov, O.; Hilgart, M.; Pothineni, S.; Urakhchin, A.; Devarapalli, S.; Yoder, D.; Becker, M.; Ogata, C.; Sanishvili, R.; Nagarajan, V.; Smith, J. L.; Fischetti, R. F.

    2011-01-01

    The trio of macromolecular crystallography beamlines constructed by the General Medicine and Cancer Institutes Collaborative Access Team (GM/CA-CAT) in Sector 23 of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) have been in growing demand owing to their outstanding beam quality and capacity to measure data from crystals of only a few micrometres in size. To take full advantage of the state-of-the-art mechanical and optical design of these beamlines, a significant effort has been devoted to designing fast, convenient, intuitive and robust beamline controls that could easily accommodate new beamline developments. The GM/CA-CAT beamline controls are based on the power of EPICS for distributed hardware control, the rich Java graphical user interface of Eclipse RCP and the task-oriented philosophy as well as the look and feel of the successful SSRL BluIce graphical user interface for crystallography. These beamline controls feature a minimum number of software layers, the wide use of plug-ins that can be written in any language and unified motion controls that allow on-the-fly scanning and optimization of any beamline component. This paper describes the ways in which BluIce was combined with EPICS and converted into the Java-based JBluIce, discusses the solutions aimed at streamlining and speeding up operations and gives an overview of the tools that are provided by this new open-source control system for facilitating crystallographic experiments, especially in the field of microcrystallography.

  9. Electrolysis Performance Improvement Concept Study (EPICS) Flight Experiment-Reflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, F. H.

    1997-01-01

    The Electrolysis Performance Improvement Concept Study (EPICS) is a flight experiment to demonstrate and validate in a microgravity environment the Static Feed Electrolyzer (SFE) concept which was selected for the use aboard the International Space Station (ISS) for oxygen (O2) generation. It also is to investigate the impact of microgravity on electrochemical cell performance. Electrochemical cells are important to the space program because they provide an efficient means of generating O2 and hydrogen (H2) in space. Oxygen and H2 are essential not only for the survival of humans in space but also for the efficient and economical operation of various space systems. Electrochemical cells can reduce the mass, volume and logistical penalties associated with resupply and storage by generating and/or consuming these gases in space. An initial flight of the EPICS was conducted aboard STS-69 from September 7 to 8, 1995. A temperature sensor characteristics shift and a missing line of software code resulted in only partial success of this initial flight. Based on the review and recommendations of a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) review team a reflight activity was initiated to obtain the remaining desired results, not achieved during the initial flight.

  10. Data acquisition system for KOMAC beam monitoring using EPICS middleware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Young-Gi

    2015-10-01

    The beam diagnostics instrument used to measure the beam properties is one of the important devices for the 100-MeV proton linear accelerator of the KOrea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex (KOMAC). A data acquisition system (DAQ) is required to collect the output beam signals conditioned in the analog front-end circuitry of a beam loss monitor (BLM) and a beam position monitor (BPM). The electrical beam signal must be digitized, and the sampling has to be synchronized to a global timing system that produces a pulse signal for the pulsed beam operation. The digitized data must be accessible by the experimental physics and industrial control system (EPICS)-based control system, which manages all accelerator control. An input output controller (IOC), which runs Linux on a central process unit (CPU) module with a peripheral component interconnect (PCI) express-based Analog-to-digital converter (ADC) card, has been adopted to satisfy the requirements. An associated Linux driver and EPICS device support module have also been developed. The IOC meets the requirements, and the development and maintenance of software for the IOC is very efficient. In this paper, the details of the DAQ system for the BLM and the BPM with the introduction of the KOMAC beam-diagnostics devices, along with the performance, are described.

  11. Effects of causeway construction on environment and biota of subtropical tidal flats in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Reimer, James Davis; Yang, Sung-Yin; White, Kristine N; Asami, Ryuji; Fujita, Kazuhiko; Hongo, Chuki; Ito, Shingo; Kawamura, Iori; Maeda, Isshu; Mizuyama, Masaru; Obuchi, Masami; Sakamaki, Takashi; Tachihara, Katsunori; Tamura, Maiko; Tanahara, Akira; Yamaguchi, Aika; Jenke-Kodama, Holger

    2015-05-15

    Okinawa, Japan is known for its high marine biodiversity, yet little work has been performed on examining impacts of numerous large-scale coastal development projects on its marine ecosystems. Here, we examine apparent impacts of the construction of the Kaichu-Doro causeway, which was built over 40 years ago. The causeway is a 4.75 km long embankment that divides a large tidal flat and has only two points of water exchange along its entire length. We employed quadrats, transects, sampling, visual surveys, and microbial community analyses combined with environmental, water quality data, and 1m cores, at five stations of two paired sites each (one on each side of Kaichu-Doro) to investigate how the environment and biota have changed since the Kaichu-Doro was built. Results indicate reduction in water flow, and site S1 was particularly heavily impacted by poor water quality, with low diversity and disturbed biotic communities. PMID:25865345

  12. Origin of the southern Okinawa Trough volcanism from detailed seismic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jing-Yi; Sibuet, J.-C.; Lee, Chao-Shing; Hsu, Shu-Kun; Klingelhoefer, Frauke

    2007-08-01

    Magmatism associated with subducting plate edges or slab tears has been suggested in the southern Okinawa Trough. The cross back-arc volcanic trail, which consists of a cluster of about 70 seamounts, is located above a Ryukyu slab tear lying along the 123.3°E meridian. In November 2003, more than 3300 earthquakes recorded in this area by 15 ocean bottom seismometers and surrounding land stations during a period of 12 days were used to determine the three-dimensional Vp and Vs velocity structures and Vp/Vs ratios. A mantle inflow characterized by low Vp and Vs and high Vp/Vs passing through the slab tear is imaged. The fluid and/or melt component is rising obliquely from the slab tear in the directions of the cross back-arc volcanic trail, the northern slope of the southern Okinawa Trough and to north of Iriomote Island. The asthenospheric intake is also imaged by an inclined chip-like high Vp/Vs and low Vp and Vs body dipping northerly, which might be linked to the slab retreat. West of the slab tear, most of the earthquakes are located around low Vp and Vs and high Vp/Vs bodies, which suggests that the seismicity is related to magmatic and/or fluid activities. East of it, earthquakes are concentrated in an area characterized by high Vp and Vs velocities and low Vp/Vs, suggesting that the magma chamber is absent beneath the axial part of the trough and that normal faulting is the main factor controlling the seismicity.

  13. Carbonate system at Iheya North in Okinawa Trough~IODP drilling and post drilling environment~

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noguchi, T.; Hatta, M.; Sunamura, M.; Fukuba, T.; Suzue, T.; Kimoto, H.; Okamura, K.

    2012-12-01

    The Iheya North hydrothermal field in middle Okinawa Trough is covered with thick hemipelagic and volcanic sediment. Geochemical characteristics of Okinawa Trough is to provide abundant of CO2, CH4, NH4, H2, and H2S which originated from magmatic gases, sedimentary organic matters. On this hydrothermal field, a scientific drilling by Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 331 was conducted to investigate metabolically diverse subseafloor microbial ecosystem and their physical and chemical settings. To clarify the spatial distribution of physical condition beneath seafloor around the hydrothermal filed, we focus on the carbonate species analysis to reconstruct in-situ pH, which regulate the diversities of microbial community and mineral composition. We developed the small sample volume dissolved total inorganic carbon (DIC) analyzer and conducted the onboard analysis for the interstitial water during IODP Exp.331. Total alkalinity, boron, phosphate, and ammonium also analyzed for thermodynamic calculation. In this presentation, we represent the spatial distribution of pH beneath the Iheya North hydrothermal field. In addition, we developed a 128 bottles multiple water sampler (ANEMONE) for post drilling environmental monitoring. ANEMONE sampler was deployed on the manned submersible Shinkai 6500 with other chemical sensors (CTD, turbidity, pH, ORP, and H2S), and collected the hydrothermal plume samples every 5 minutes during YK12-05 cruise by R/V Yokosuka (Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, JAMSTEC). DIC concentration of plume samples collected by ANEMONE sampler were analyzed just after submersible retrieve, and nutrients, manganese, density, and total cell counts determination were conducted onshore analysis. Based on these results, we describe the spatial distribution of DIC and carbonate system on Iheya North hydrothermal field (interstitial water, hydrothermal fluid, and hydrothermal plume).

  14. Rifting Process and Geomorphic Development of the Okinawa Tough, Southwest Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, T.; Arai, K.; Inoue, T.; Matsumoto, D.

    2012-12-01

    The Ryukyu Island Arc extends from Kyushu to Taiwan, a distance of 1,200 km, along the Ryukyu Trench where the Philippine Sea Plate is subducting beneath the Eurasian Plate. The Okinawa Trough, a back arc basin has formed behind the Ryukyu Island Arc in late Pliocene to early Pleistocene. The research cruises of GH11 (from 14 July to 15 August, 2011) and GH12 (from 20 to 30 July, 2012) were carried out around the Okinawa Trough. More than 3,600 miles multi channel high-resolution seismic profiles were acquired during these cruises by the GI-gun (Generator 250 cu inch and Injector 105 cu. inch) systems with 16ch digital streamer cable. As a result, two unconformities and three depositional sequence divided by the unconformities are recognized in the trough. The lower and the midlle sequence are tilted and blocked by many normal faults, on the other hand the upper one is not tilted and shows the pattern of onlap fill. From this result, the upper sequence started to deposit after start of the rifting. Additionally, internal reflection of the upper sequence shows the cyclic activities of the rifting. The position of the rifting axis was revealed based on dip of the normal faults. As a result, rifting axis shows echelon arrangement and the displacement of the faults are varied with the segment of the arrangement. The location of the segment boundaries is correlated with geometrical boundary of the adjacent slope. Steep slope with incised valley is distributed in southwestern part where the displacement of the normal fault is large, on the other hand, gentle slope without incised valley is distributed in northeastern part where the displacement is small. This difference of the displacement strongly controls the geometry of the adjacent slope.

  15. Deepwater redox changes in the southern Okinawa Trough since the last glacial maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Yanguang; Yang, Shouye; Li, Chao; Shi, Xuefa; Liu, Jihua; Bi, Lei

    2015-06-01

    In this study, rare earth element (REE) was treated as a paleo-redox proxy to investigate the changes of depositional environment in the southern Okinawa Trough since the last glacial maximum. The acid-leachable fraction (leachate) of the sediments recovered from the ODP Site 1202B is dominated by biogenic and authigenic components while detrital contamination is minor. The significant enrichment of middle REE suggests a large contribution from authigenic Mn oxyhydroxides and cerium (Ce) anomaly can indicate deepwater redox change. The REE parameters including Ce anomaly in the leachate exhibit remarkable and abrupt changes in the early Holocene (∼9.5 ka) and during LGM (∼20 ka). An increase of Ce anomaly at 28-22 ka implies the suboxic deepwater condition probably caused by increased primary productivity. Weak positive Ce anomalies during the last glacial maximum and deglaciation suggest an oxic depositional environment responding to the enhanced deepwater ventilation with the advection of the North Pacific Intermediate Water and/or South China Sea Intermediate Water into the trough. A decrease of Ce anomaly in the early Holocene might be caused by the intrusion and strengthening of the Kuroshio Current in the trough that enhanced the water stratification and induced a gradual development of suboxic depositional condition. Furthermore, an abrupt change of chemical composition at ca. 4 ka probably indicates a decrease of dissolved oxygen in deepwater and a weakening of ventilation in the Okinawa Trough. This study suggests that REE proxy can provide new insights into the linkage among surface current, deepwater circulation and sediment record in the continental margin where terrigenous input dominates.

  16. Assessment of Spacecraft Systems Integration Using the Electric Propulsion Interactions Code (EPIC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Kuharski, Robert A.; Mandell, Myron J.; Gardner, Barbara M.; Kauffman, William J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    SAIC is currently developing the Electric Propulsion Interactions Code 'EPIC', an interactive computer tool that allows the construction of a 3-D spacecraft model, and the assessment of interactions between its subsystems and the plume from an electric thruster. EPIC unites different computer tools to address the complexity associated with the interaction processes. This paper describes the overall architecture and capability of EPIC including the physics and algorithms that comprise its various components. Results from selected modeling efforts of different spacecraft-thruster systems are also presented.

  17. EPIC 2.0: a second youth for XMM-Newton's workhorse.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molendi, S.

    2016-06-01

    While much has been achieved with the EPIC experiment on board XMM-Newton, in several areas, we can get even more. In this presentation I will discuss results we have recently obtained, including those from an "all archive" analysis of the EPIC background. I will show how these, along with others, can be used to improve measures of diffuse low surface brightness sources. I will also illustrate how the work we are doing on EPIC is contributing to the design of experiments on the next Large European X-ray mission: Athena.

  18. Monitoring commercial conventional facilities control with the APS control system: The Metasys-to-EPICS interface

    SciTech Connect

    Nawrocki, G.J.; Seaver, C.L.; Kowalkowski, J.B.

    1995-12-31

    As controls needs at the Advanced Photon Source matured from an installation phase to an operational phase, the need to monitor the existing conventional facilities control system with the EPICS-based accelerator control system was realized. This existing conventional facilities control network is based on a proprietary system from Johnson Controls called Metasys. Initially read-only monitoring of the Metasys parameters will be provided; however, the ability for possible future expansion to full control is available. This paper describes a method of using commercially available hardware and existing EPICS software as a bridge between the Metasys and EPICS control systems.

  19. Radiocarbon Analysis of Elemental Carbon and Total Organic Carbon in Atmospheric Aerosols Collected at Cape Hedo, Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arakaki, T.; Handa, D.; Nakajima, H.; Kumata, H.; Suzuki, M.; Shibata, Y.; Uchida, M.

    2008-12-01

    A study was initiated to understand the sources and behaviors of carbon-containing compounds in the atmospheric aerosols in East Asian region. As an initial attempt, we collected airborne particulate matter (APM) with diameter <10 micrometer (PM10) in Okinawa, Japan and analyzed 14C/12C ratio in EC and total organic carbon (TOC) to apportion source of biomass and fossil fuel combustion in PM10 aerosols. Okinawa is situated approximately 1500 km south of Tokyo, Japan, 2000 km southeast of Beijing, China, and 1000 km south of South Korea. Its location in Asia is well suited for studying long-range transport of air pollutants in East Asia. Aerosol particles were collected at the Cape Hedo Atmosphere and Aerosol Monitoring Station (CHAAMS) in Okinawa, Japan. Each sample was collected for two weeks with a high-volume air sampler at a rate of 1000 L min-1 to collect aerosol particles on a quartz filter, which was pre-combusted before use to eliminate residual organic compounds. Radiocarbon is measured in AMS facility (NIES-TERRA) at National Institute for Environmental Studies after preparing graphite. The results showed that during Asian dust events in March and April, both APM and EC in PM10 aerosols collected in Okinawa, Japan were much higher than those of non-Asian dust event. The percent modern carbon (pMC) of EC and TOC was much smaller for the PM10 aerosols collected during Asian dust events than those of non-dust event. When maritime air mass prevailed, biomass originated organic compounds were the major TOC in the aerosols. We will report data on 14C/12C ratio of EC and TOC in PM10 aerosols collected at CHAAMS during March to October, 2008

  20. Impacts of Long-Range Transport of Metals from East Asia in Bulk Aerosols Collected at the Okinawa Archipelago, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A, Sotaro; S, Yuka; I, Moriaki; N, Fumiya; H, Daishi; A, Takemitsu; T, Akira

    2010-05-01

    Economy of East Asia has been growing rapidly, and atmospheric aerosols discharged from this region have been transported to Japan. Okinawa island is situated approximately 1500 km south of Tokyo, Japan, 2000 km southeast of Beijing, China, and 1000 km of south Korea. Its location in Asian is well suited for studying long-range transport of air pollutants in East Asia because maritime air mass prevails during summer, while continental air mass dominates during fall, winter, and spring. The maritime air mass data can be seen as background and can be compared with continental air mass which has been affected by anthropogenic activities. Therefore, Okinawa region is suitable area for studying impacts of air pollutants from East Asia. We simultaneously collected bulk aerosol samples by using the same type of high volume air samplers at Cape Hedo Atmospheric Aerosol Monitoring Station (CHAAMS, Okinawa island), Kume island (ca. 160 km south-west of CHAAMS), and Minami-Daitou island (ca. 320 km south-east of CHAAMS). We determined the concentrations of acid-digested metals using atomic absorption spectrometer and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). We report and discuss spatial and temporal distribution of metals in the bulk atmospheric aerosols collected at CHAAMS, Kume island and Minami-Daitou island during June, 2008 to June 2009. We also determined 'background' concentration of metals in Okinawa archipelago. We then compare each chemical component among CHAAMS, Kume island and Minami-Daitou island to elucidate the influence of the transport processes and distances from Asian continent on metal concentrations.

  1. Spatial distribution and temporal variation of chemical species in the bulk atmospheric aerosols collected at the Okinawa archipelago, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handa, D.; Somada, Y.; Ijyu, M.; Azechi, S.; Nakaema, F.; Arakaki, T.; Tanahara, A.

    2009-12-01

    The economic development and population growth in recent Asia have been increasing air pollution. A computer simulation study showed that air pollutants emitted from Asian continent could spread quickly within northern hemisphere. We initiated a study to elucidate the special distribution and chemical characterization of atmospheric aerosols around Okinawa archipelago, Japan. Okinawa Island is situated approximately 1500 km south of Tokyo, Japan, 2000 km southeast of Beijing, China, and 1000 km south of South Korea. Its location in Asia is well suited for studying long-range transport of air pollutants in East Asia because maritime air mass prevails during summer, while continental air mass dominates during fall, winter, and spring. The maritime air mass data can be seen as background and can be compared with continental air masses which have been affected by anthropogenic activities. We simultaneously collected bulk aerosol samples by using the same types of high volume air samplers at Cape Hedo Atmosphere and Aerosol Monitoring Station (CHAAMS, Okinawa Island), Kume Island (ca. 160 km south-west of CHAAMS) and Minami-daitou Island (ca. 320 km south-east of CHAAMS). We determined the concentrations of water-soluble anions, cations and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) using ion chromatography, atomic absorption spectrometry, and total organic carbon analyzer, respectively. We report and discuss spatial distribution and temporal variation of chemical species concentrations in bulk atmospheric aerosols collected during July, 2008 to July, 2009. We determine “background” concentration of chemical components in Okinawa archipelago. We then compare each chemical component among CHAAMS, Kume Island and Minami-daito Island to elucidate the influence of the long-range transport of chemical species from Asian continent.

  2. Experience with the EPICS PV Gateway at the APS.

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, K. Jr.; Smith, M.; Accelerator Systems Division

    2006-01-01

    The EPICS Process Variable Gateway has become a stable, high-performance application that provides access to process variables while minimizing the impact on critical Input-Output Controllers (IOCs) and implementing additional access security. The additional access security typically prevents write access but is highly configurable. The Advanced Photon Source (APS) currently uses 40 Gateways running on 11 workstations to provide access to the machine subnet from the offices and for the individual experimental teams. These include reverse Gateways that allow administration of all 40 APS Gateways from a single MEDM screen, even though the Gateways are running on separate networks. This administration includes starting, stopping, making and viewing reports, and viewing and editing access security files. There is one Gateway that provides process variable renaming. This paper provides an overview of the Gateways at the APS and describes the procedures that have been set up to use and administer them.

  3. Using EPICS enabled industrial hardware for upgrading control systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorkland, Eric A; Veeramani, Arun; Debelle, Thierry

    2009-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has been working with National Instruments (NI) and Cosy lab to implement EPICS Input Output Controller (IOC) software that runs directly on NI CompactRIO Real Time Controller (RTC) and communicates with NI LabVIEW through a shared memory interface. In this presentation, we will discuss our current progress in upgrading the control system at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Centre (LANSCE) and what we have learned about integrating CompactRIO into large experimental physics facilities. We will also discuss the implications of using Channel Access Server for LabVIEW which will enable more commercial hardware platforms to be used in upgrading existing facilities or in commissioning new ones.

  4. JBluIce–EPICS control system for macromolecular crystallography

    PubMed Central

    Stepanov, Sergey; Makarov, Oleg; Hilgart, Mark; Pothineni, Sudhir Babu; Urakhchin, Alex; Devarapalli, Satish; Yoder, Derek; Becker, Michael; Ogata, Craig; Sanishvili, Ruslan; Venugopalan, Nagarajan; Smith, Janet L.; Fischetti, Robert F.

    2011-01-01

    The trio of macromolecular crystallography beamlines constructed by the General Medicine and Cancer Institutes Collaborative Access Team (GM/CA-CAT) in Sector 23 of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) have been in growing demand owing to their outstanding beam quality and capacity to measure data from crystals of only a few micrometres in size. To take full advantage of the state-of-the-art mechanical and optical design of these beamlines, a significant effort has been devoted to designing fast, convenient, intuitive and robust beamline controls that could easily accommodate new beamline developments. The GM/CA-CAT beamline controls are based on the power of EPICS for distributed hardware control, the rich Java graphical user interface of Eclipse RCP and the task-oriented philosophy as well as the look and feel of the successful SSRL BluIce graphical user interface for crystallography. These beamline controls feature a minimum number of software layers, the wide use of plug-ins that can be written in any language and unified motion controls that allow on-the-fly scanning and optimization of any beamline com­ponent. This paper describes the ways in which BluIce was combined with EPICS and converted into the Java-based JBluIce, discusses the solutions aimed at streamlining and speeding up operations and gives an overview of the tools that are provided by this new open-source control system for facilitating crystallo­graphic experiments, especially in the field of microcrystallo­graphy. PMID:21358048

  5. Neutron Source Facility Training Simulator Based on EPICS

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Young Soo; Wei, Thomas Y.; Vilim, Richard B.; Grelle, Austin L.; Dworzanski, Pawel L.; Gohar, Yousry

    2015-01-01

    A plant operator training simulator is developed for training the plant operators as well as for design verification of plant control system (PCS) and plant protection system (PPS) for the Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology Neutron Source Facility. The simulator provides the operator interface for the whole plant including the sub-critical assembly coolant loop, target coolant loop, secondary coolant loop, and other facility systems. The operator interface is implemented based on Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS), which is a comprehensive software development platform for distributed control systems. Since its development at Argonne National Laboratory, it has been widely adopted in the experimental physics community, e.g. for control of accelerator facilities. This work is the first implementation for a nuclear facility. The main parts of the operator interface are the plant control panel and plant protection panel. The development involved implementation of process variable database, sequence logic, and graphical user interface (GUI) for the PCS and PPS utilizing EPICS and related software tools, e.g. sequencer for sequence logic, and control system studio (CSS-BOY) for graphical use interface. For functional verification of the PCS and PPS, a plant model is interfaced, which is a physics-based model of the facility coolant loops implemented as a numerical computer code. The training simulator is tested and demonstrated its effectiveness in various plant operation sequences, e.g. start-up, shut-down, maintenance, and refueling. It was also tested for verification of the plant protection system under various trip conditions.

  6. Lessons learned enhancing EPICS CA for LANSCE timed and flavored data

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, Jeffrey O

    2009-01-01

    A previous paper described an upgrade to EPICS enabling client side tools at LANSCE to receive subscription updates filtered selectively to match a logical configuration of LANSCE beam gates, as configured by the control room. The upgrade required fundamental changes in the EPICS core components. First, the event queue in the EPICS server was upgraded to buffer record (function block) and device specific parameters accessed generically via software interfaces for introspection of 3rd party data. In contrast, event queues in previous versions of EPICS were strictly limited to buffering only value, timestamp, and alarm status tuples. Second, the Channel Access server is being upgraded to filter subscription updates. In this follow on paper some necessary design changes mid-project and the lessons learned during the software development will be described.

  7. Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Biofuel Crops and Parameterization in the EPIC Biogeochemical Model

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes year 1 field measurements of N2O fluxes and crop yields which are used to parameterize the EPIC biogeochemical model for the corresponding field site. Initial model simulations are also presented.

  8. Dietary lipids and geriatric depression scale score among elders: the EPIC-Greece cohort.

    PubMed

    Kyrozis, A; Psaltopoulou, T; Stathopoulos, P; Trichopoulos, D; Vassilopoulos, D; Trichopoulou, A

    2009-05-01

    In a prospective epidemiological investigation aiming to identify dietary lipids potentially associated with affective state and depression, 610 healthy men and women aged 60 years or older, participating in the EPIC-Greece cohort and residing in the Attika region had dietary, sociodemographic, anthropometric, medical and lifestyle variables ascertained at enrollment. Six to 13 years later, affective state was evaluated through the 15-point geriatric depression scale (GDS) score along with cognitive function and medical variables. In multivariate linear regression analysis, while adjusting for potential confounders, GDS score was negatively associated with dietary intake of monounsaturated lipids (MUFA) and their main source, olive oil, and positively associated with intake of polyunsaturated lipids (PUFA) and one of their principal sources, seed oils. Intake of calories, total lipids, fish and seafood or saturated lipids did not exhibit significant association with GDS. Potential non-linearities were assessed by quantile multivariate regression analysis: The median GDS score was positively associated with PUFA and seed oils intake, while other lipid groups showed no appreciable associations. The 90th percentile of the GDS score (towards the high end) exhibited significant negative associations with MUFA and olive oil, weaker positive associations with PUFA and seed oils and no appreciable association with other lipid group dietary intakes. We conclude that among Attika elders, lower intake of seed oils and higher intake of olive oil prospectively predict a healthier affective state. Olive oil intake, in particular, predicts a lower chance of scoring in the highest part of the GDS. PMID:18952225

  9. Evaluation of nutrient sources for the sponges inhabited around seafloor hydrothermal fields in the Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagashio, H.; Yamanaka, T.; Watanabe, H.; Yamagami, S.; Ise, Y.; Makita, H.

    2012-12-01

    Since discovery of seafloor hydrothermal vents, the dense and endemic animal communities inhabited around the hot vents have been the most impressive feature for many scientists. Such animals have been known as chemosynthesis-based species and studied many investigators. On the other hand, some benthic animals found on abyssal plain have been observed slightly high density at the adjacent area to active vent sites. It implies that those opportunistic benthoses may also rely on the chemosynthetic primary production and the hydrothermal chemosynthetic ecosystem may extend widely rather than previous expectation. In that case, it is an interesting issue how the dense sponge community is sustained around the hydrothermal fields. For clarifying the issue isotope geochemical study has been performed to evaluate food sources of the sponges and some other animals obtained from the deep seafloor in the Okinawa Trough. Stable isotope analysis for carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur of the sample organisms obtained from the Izena Hole, where active hydrothermal emission has been observed, show significant low d13C and d34S values for the sponge samples. Those results suggest plausible contribution of sulfur oxidizing bacteria as food source for the sponges because such low d13C and d34S values are often observed for thioautotrophic chemosynthesis-based animals. The sulfur isotopic ratios of the sponges are almost comparable with the ratio reported hydrogen sulfide emitted from the vents, implying that the source of sulfur for sulfur oxidizing bacteria is magmatic and/or hydrothermal in origin. On the other hand, the sponge sample obtained from the Tarama Knoll ,where active hydrothermal emission were not found yet, shows similar isotopic characteristics observed for the sponges from the Izena Hole. It may also imply the importance of sulfur oxidizing bacteria as food source for the sponge at the Tarama Knoll. Turbid water was often observed during dive studies by the ROV around the

  10. Underground dams for irrigation supplies in coastal limestone aquifer, Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasumoto, J.; Nakano, T.; Nawa, N.

    2011-12-01

    The use of underground dams to store water in regions with arid or tropical climates is a method that has received considerable attention in the last few decades. And now, for the tropical and subtropical islands that are highly vulnerable to climate change underground dams have been attracting attention again as a method of groundwater management. Okinawa Prefecture is Japan's southernmost prefecture, which consists of hundreds of islands in a chain over 1,000 km long, called the Ryukyu Islands which extend southwest from Kyushu to Taiwan. The national irrigation project of the Ryukyu Islands has been carried out, and several underground dams have been constructed. The Komesu and Giiza underground dams are first full scale underground dam facilities constructed for irrigation in Japan. The Komesu underground dam is a salt-water proof type. It prevents salt-water intrusion and provides storage fresh-water for irrigation in coastal limestone aquifer. Giiza underground dam is a dam up type for storage of fresh-water. These groundwater reservoirs are located in the coastal region of southern part of Okinawa (main island), where Ryukyu limestone is extensively distributed. We studied the behaviour of groundwater flow, saltwater intrusion and nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N) in groundwater in this region by using observation data of groundwater and springs through long term (from 1993 to 2010) monitoring. And, a groundwater flow and salt-water intrusion analysis have been conducted with three dimensional numerical model applied to these dam reservoir areas. The MODFLOW-NWT with SWI code and PEST was used to simulate the complex groundwater flow patterns. Through the comparison with simulation and observed data, it was concluded that the cut off wall of underground dams effectively stores the groundwater and prevents the salt-water intrusion in the reservoir areas. The observed groundwater levels at the reservoir areas were almost reproduced by the numerical model, but there

  11. Bottom water oxygenation changes in the northern Okinawa Trough since the last 88ka: Controlled by local hydrology and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Jianjun; Shi, Xuefa; Zhu, Aimei; Bai, Yazhi; Selvaraj, Kandasamy

    2014-05-01

    Dissolved oxygen content in oceanic bottom water is closely related to the surface organic carbon export and subsurface water stratification, regulating the biogeochemical cycles of some key nutrients and trace elements in intermediate and deep water columns. Further, the rate of organic carbon flux to sediments and bottom water oxygen concentration together determine the intensity of reducing conditions in sediments. In this study, we obtain high-resolution geochemical elements (TOC, TN, TS, CaCO3, Cd, U, Mn and Mo) in a radiocarbon (14C) and δ18O dated, sediment core CSH1 collected from the northern Okinawa Trough to reconstruct the history of bottom water redox conditions over 88 ka. Our data revealed the presence of hypoxic bottom water in the northern Okinawa Trough during late MIS5a-early MIS4, Last Glacial Maximum, and the early Last Deglacial intervals. During the Holocene and the early MIS5a, the dissolved oxygen content in bottom water has increased with decreasing water stratification, which was probably caused by the increased upwelling from the bottom in tandem with the climbing of Kuroshio Current and subdued freshwater effect in the northern Okinawa Trough. The reasons that caused the change of dissolved oxygen content in bottom water in the northern Okinawa Trough varied during different periods. The main factors are related to sea level, strengths of East Asian monsoon and the Kuroshio Current, and the shift of Westerly Jet Axis. The semi-closed topography in the northern Okinawa Trough provides a space framework for the presence of anoxia, while the sea level together with the Kuroshio Current, the East Asian monsoon and the Westerly Jet Axis seems to affect the strength of water stratification and the nutrient supply; thereby, regulating the dissolved oxygen exchange between surface and bottom waters. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China(Grant No.:40906035,40710069004) and by basic scientific fund for

  12. EPIC Radiance Simulator for Deep Space Climate ObserVatoRy (DSCOVR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyapustin, Alexei; Marshak, Alexander; Wang, Yujie; Korkin, Sergey; Herman, Jay

    2011-01-01

    The Deep Space Climate ObserVatoRy (DSCOVR) is a planned space weather mission for the Sun and Earth observations from the Lagrangian L1 point. Onboard of DSCOVR is a multispectral imager EPIC designed for unique observations of the full illuminated disk of the Earth with high temporal and 10 km spatial resolution. Depending on latitude, EPIC will observe the same Earth surface area during the course of the day in a wide range of solar and view zenith angles in the backscattering view geometry with the scattering angle of 164-172 . To understand the information content of EPIC data for analysis of the Earth clouds, aerosols and surface properties, an EPIC radiance Simulator was developed covering the UV -VIS-NIR range including the oxygen A and B-bands (A=340, 388, 443, 555, 680, 779.5, 687.7, 763.3 nm). The Simulator uses ancillary data (surface pressure/height, NCEP wind speed) as well as MODIS-based geophysical fields such as spectral surface bidirectional reflectance, column water vapor, and properties of aerosols and clouds including optical depth, effective radius, phase and cloud top height. The original simulations are conducted at 1 km resolution using the look-up table approach and then are averaged to 10 km EPIC radiances. This talk will give an overview of the EPIC Simulator with analysis of results over the continental USA and northern Atlantic.

  13. An autonomous observation and control system based on EPICS and RTS2 for Antarctic telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guang-yu; Wang, Jian; Tang, Peng-yi; Jia, Ming-hao; Chen, Jie; Dong, Shu-cheng; Jiang, Fengxin; Wu, Wen-qing; Liu, Jia-jing; Zhang, Hong-fei

    2016-01-01

    For unattended telescopes in Antarctic, the remote operation, autonomous observation and control are essential. An EPICS-(Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System) and RTS2-(Remote Telescope System, 2nd Version) based autonomous observation and control system with remoted operation is introduced in this paper. EPICS is a set of open source software tools, libraries and applications developed collaboratively and used worldwide to create distributed soft real-time control systems for scientific instruments while RTS2 is an open source environment for control of a fully autonomous observatory. Using the advantage of EPICS and RTS2, respectively, a combined integrated software framework for autonomous observation and control is established that use RTS2 to fulfil the function of astronomical observation and use EPICS to fulfil the device control of telescope. A command and status interface for EPICS and RTS2 is designed to make the EPICS IOC (Input/Output Controller) components integrate to RTS2 directly. For the specification and requirement of control system of telescope in Antarctic, core components named Executor and Auto-focus for autonomous observation is designed and implemented with remote operation user interface based on browser-server mode. The whole system including the telescope is tested in Lijiang Observatory in Yunnan Province for practical observation to complete the autonomous observation and control, including telescope control, camera control, dome control, weather information acquisition with the local and remote operation.

  14. Long-Range Transport of Perchlorate Observed in the Atmospheric Aerosols Collected at Okinawa Island, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handa, D.; Okada, K.; Kuroki, Y.; Nakama, Y.; Nakajima, H.; Arakaki, T.; Tanahara, A.; Oomori, T.; Miyagi, T.; Kadena, H.; Ishizaki, T.; Nakama, F.

    2007-12-01

    The study of perchlorate has become quite active in the U.S. in the last several years. Perchlorate has been recognized as a new environmental pollutant and it attracted much attention quickly in the world. The health concern about perchlorate stems from the fact that it displaces iodide in the thyroid gland, while iodine-containing thyroid hormones are essential for proper neural development from the fetal stage through the first years of life. In this study, we determined the concentrations of perchlorate ion present in the atmospheric aerosols collected in Okinawa Island, Japan. We then examined the relationships between the perchlorate concentrations and the environmental parameters and the climatic conditions peculiar to Okinawa. Bulk aerosol samples were collected on quartz filters by using a high volume air sampler at Cape Hedo Atmosphere and Aerosol Monitoring Station (CHAAMS). Each sampling duration was one week. The quartz filters with aerosols were stirred with Milli-Q pure water for three hours before perchlorate ion was extracted. The extracted perchlorate ion concentrations were determined by ion chromatography (ICS-2000, DIONEX). The mean perchlorate concentration for the samples collected at CHAAMS was 1.83 ng/m3, and the minimum was 0.18 ng/m3. The samples collected during November 21-27, 2005, January 23-30, 2006 and April 24-01, 2006 had highest perchlorate concentrations. For these three samples, we performed back trajectory analysis, and found that the air mass for the three samples arrived from the Asian continent. A relatively strong correlation (r2 = 0.55) was found between perchlorate and nss-sulfate concentrations for the CHAAMS samples. Furthermore, we analyzed perchlorate in the soils and the fertilizers used for sugar cane farming around the CHAAMS area. The Milli-Q extract of the soil and the fertilizers did not contain any detectable levels of perchlorate ions. Therefore, it was suggested that perchlorate found in the atmospheric

  15. High-resolution imaging of the Okinawa Trough deep-tow sonar WADATSUMI exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okino, K.; Tokuyama, H.; Takeuchi, A.; Sibuet, J. C.; Lee, C. S.

    2003-04-01

    High-resolution deep-tow side scan sonar data collected in the Okinawa Trough reveal details of the volcanic and tectonic features occurring along an active backarc rift zone, including an active hydrothermal vent site. Our new system, the deep-tow vector sidescan sonar WADATSUMI, is a 100 kHz system, which provides not only high-resolution backscattering images but also phase bathymetry. The system also includes a 3-6 kHz chirp sonar to investigate sub-bottom structure. The swath width for this survey is 1 km for a towing altitude of 100 to 350 m. The pixel size of the collected images is 50 cm. The towfish positioning is based on the ISBL (inverted short baseline) system, in which the signal transmitted from the ship is received at the towfish and all information is sent to the onboard control unit using co-axial cable. Four MAPRs (Miniature Autonomous Plume Recorder / provided by NOAA) were also equipped on the deep-tow system to detect hydrothermal activity using its thermometer and nephelometer. The Okinawa Trough, located between Japan and Taiwan, is an incipient backarc basin formed by extension within continental lithosphere behind the Ryukyu trench-arc system. The continuous formation of new oceanic crust has not yet occurred, however, crustal thinning and rifting is ongoing and many normal faults have developed. The southwestern part of the trough is most active and contains many interesting features, such as numerous volcanoes crossing the rift zone, high heat flow, and active hydrothermal site. The WADATSUMI images revealed the detailed volcanic and tectonic structure of the axial rift and a hydrothermal site. In the western area seafloor is dominated by volcanic construction, including hummocks, sheet flows, and blocky lava terrains. Small volcanic cones with crater pits are aligned along an E-W direction, which may constitute an elongated volcanic ridge within the graben. On the other hand, the eastern part of the survey area is a sedimented, deep

  16. Chemical Analysis of Fractionated Halogens in Atmospheric Aerosols Collected in Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuhako, A.; Miyagi, Y.; Somada, Y.; Azechi, S.; Handa, D.; Oshiro, Y.; Murayama, H.; Arakaki, T.

    2013-12-01

    Halogens (Cl, Br and I) play important roles in the atmosphere, e.g. ozone depletion by Br during spring in Polar Regions. Sources of halogens in atmospheric aerosols are mainly from ocean. But, for example, when we analyzed Br- with ion chromatography, its concentrations were almost always below the detection limit, which is also much lower than the estimated concentrations from sodium ion concentrations. We hypothesized that portions of halogens are escaped to the atmosphere, similar to chlorine loss, changed their chemical forms to such as BrO3- and IO3-, and/or even formed precipitates. There was few reported data so far about fractionated halogen concentrations in atmospheric aerosols. Thus, purpose of this study was to determine halogen concentrations in different fractions; free ion, water-soluble chemically transformed ions and precipitates using the authentic aerosols. Moreover, we analyzed seasonal variation for each fraction. Atmospheric aerosol samples were collected at Cape Hedo Atmosphere and Aerosol Monitoring Station (CHAAMS) of Okinawa, Japan during January 2010 and August 2013. A high volume air sampler was used for collecting total particulate matters on quartz filters on a weekly basis. Ultrapure water was used to extract water-soluble factions of halogens. The extracted solutions were filtered with the membrane filter and used for chemical analysis with ion chromatography and ICP-MS. Moreover, the total halogens in aerosols were obtained after digesting aerosols with tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) using the microwave and analysis with ICP-MS. For Cl, water-soluble Cl- accounted for about 70% of the estimates with Na content. No other forms of water-soluble Cl were found. About 30% of Cl was assumed volatilized to the gas-phase. For Br, water-soluble Br accounted for about 43% of the estimates with Na content, and within the 43%, about 10% of Br was not in the form of Br-. About 46% of Br was assumed volatilized to the gas-phase. For I

  17. The new SCOS-based EGSE of the EPIC flight-spare on-ground cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Palombara, Nicola; Abbey, Anthony; Insinga, Fernando; Calderon-Riano, Pedro; Casale, Mauro; Kirsch, Marcus; Martin, James; Munoz, Ramon; Palazzo, Maddalena; Poletti, Mauro; Sembay, Steve; Vallejo, Juan C.; Villa, Gabriele

    2014-07-01

    The XMM-Newton observatory, launched by the European Space Agency in 1999, is still one of the scientific community's most important high-energy astrophysics missions. After almost 15 years in orbit its instruments continue to operate smoothly with a performance close to the immediate post-launch status. The competition for the observing time remains very high with ESA reporting a very healthy over-subscription factor. Due to the efficient use of spacecraft consumables XMM-Newton could potentially be operated into the next decade. However, since the mission was originally planned for 10 years, progressive ageing and/or failures of the on-board instrumentation can be expected. Dealing with them could require substantial changes of the on-board operating software, and of the command and telemetry database, which could potentially have unforeseen consequences for the on-board equipment. In order to avoid this risk, it is essential to test these changes on ground, before their upload. To this aim, two flight-spare cameras of the EPIC experiment (one MOS and one PN) are available on-ground. Originally they were operated through an Electrical Ground Support Equipment (EGSE) system which was developed over 15 years ago to support the test campaigns up to the launch. The EGSE used a specialized command language running on now obsolete workstations. ESA and the EPIC Consortium, therefore, decided to replace it with new equipment in order to fully reproduce on-ground the on-board configuration and to operate the cameras with SCOS2000, the same Mission Control System used by ESA to control the spacecraft. This was a demanding task, since it required both the recovery of the detailed knowledge of the original EGSE and the adjustment of SCOS for this special use. Recently this work has been completed by replacing the EGSE of one of the two cameras, which is now ready to be used by ESA. Here we describe the scope and purpose of this activity, the problems faced during its

  18. Interspecific interactions among species of the coral genus Porites from Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Rinkevich, B; Sakai, K

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of field established xenogeneic interactions among five Porites species from Sesoko Island, Okinawa, revealed a transitive type of hierarchy as: P. rus >P. cylindrica >P. lobata >P. australiensis>P. lutea. Out of the 111 interspecific encounters studied, in only 5.4% reciprocal interactions were recorded, and in a single case, the opposite directionality of hierarchy was documented. Allogeneic encounters were also observed. A single major effector mechanism, an overgrowth (together with secondary outcomes such as the formation of small points of rejection, bleaching and pink color formation along a narrow peripheral belt of contacting tissues), was the only response in all 10 xenogeneic and 5 allogeneic combinations. In some massive colonies, a long contacting line of up to 50 cm was established. No sign for allelopathy, stand-off or rejection from a distance (i.e., by sweeper tentacles, sweeper polyps) was observed. Results are discussed with the accumulated data on Porites species from different reefs, worldwide, confirming that this genus is commonly lower in the hierarchy of xenogeneic interactions. PMID:16351822

  19. Multiple copies of SRY on the large Y chromosome of the Okinawa spiny rat, Tokudaia muenninki.

    PubMed

    Murata, Chie; Yamada, Fumio; Kawauchi, Norihiro; Matsuda, Yoichi; Kuroiwa, Asato

    2010-09-01

    The Okinawa spiny rat, Tokudaia muenninki, is the only species with a Y chromosome in the genus Tokudaia. Its phylogenic relationship with two XO/XO species, Tokudaia osimensis and Tokudaia tokunoshimensis, lacking a Y chromosome and the mammalian sex-determining gene SRY, is unknown. Furthermore, there has been little cytogenetic analysis of the sex chromosomes in T. muenninki. Therefore, we constructed molecular phylogenetic trees with nucleotide sequences of cyt b, RAG1, and IRBP. All trees strongly supported that T. muenninki was the first to diverge from the Tokudaia ancestor, indicating that loss of the Y chromosome and SRY occurred in the common ancestor of the two XO/XO species after T. muenninki diverged. We found that the X and Y chromosomes of T. muenninki consisted of large euchromatic and heterochromatic regions by conducting G- and C-banding analyses. PCR, Southern blotting, and FISH revealed that T. muenninki males had multiple SRY copies on the long arm of the Y chromosome. At least three of 24 SRY sequences contained a complete open reading frame (ORF). A species-specific substitution from alanine to serine was found in all copies at the DNA-binding surface within the HMG-box, suggesting that it occurred in an original SRY. PMID:20574822

  20. Vapor-rich Hydrothermal Fluid Migration Within Pumiceous Sediment in the Iheya North Knoll, Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishibashi, J.; Suzuki, R.; Hamasaki, H.; Yamanaka, T.; Chiba, H.; Tsunogai, U.; Ijiri, A.; Nakagawa, S.; Nunoura, T.; Takai, K.; Kinoshita, M.; Ashi, J.

    2007-12-01

    The newly developed ROV NSS (Navigable Sampling System) enabled pin-point piston core sampling from the active hydrothermal field. In the Iheya North hydrothermal field in the mid-Okinawa Trough (27°47.5'N, 126°53.8'E, depth = 1000m), animal colonies are observed not only around the central mound structure (named as NBC) which discharges vigrously high temperature (T=311°C) clear fluid, but also as Calyptogena colony at 200m east from the NBC mound and as tube-worm colony at 250m southeast from the NBC mound. During Leg 3 of KY05-14 cruise (R/V Kaiyo of JAMSTEC) in Jan. 2005, fourn piston cores were successfully recovered with length from 65cm to 250cm. Surface sediments from the Calyptogena colony and the tube-worm colony were revealed as mainly composed of pumiceous sediment. Pore fluids from the Calyptogena Field showed unusual chemistry characterized as very low salinity (Cl=420mM), low Mg concentration, significantly lower Na/Cl ratio than seawater and high methane concentration, which suggests contribution of a vapor-rich hydrothermal component migrating within the pumice layer from the activity center. Moreover, decrease of SO4 accompanied by increase of alkalinity is notable even less than one meter depth below the seafloor. In situ sulfate reduction in the surface sediment caused by entrainment of the hydrothermal component would be a source of hydrogen sulfide that supports Calyptogena colony.

  1. Gametogenesis and fecundity of Acropora tenella (Brook 1892) in a mesophotic coral ecosystem in Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasetia, Rian; Sinniger, Frederic; Harii, Saki

    2016-03-01

    Mesophotic coral ecosystems (below 30-40 m depth) host a large diversity of zooxanthellate coral communities and may play an important role in the ecology and conservation of coral reefs. Investigating the reproductive biology of mesophotic corals is important to understand their life history traits. Despite an increase in research on mesophotic corals in the last decade, their reproductive biology is still poorly understood. Here, gametogenesis and fecundity of the Indo-Pacific mesophotic coral , Acropora tenella, were examined in an upper mesophotic reef (40 m depth) in Okinawa, Japan for the first time. Acropora tenella is a hermaphrodite with a single annual gametogenic cycle, and both oogenesis and spermatogenesis occurring for 11-12 and 5-6 months, respectively. Timing of spawning of this species was similar to other shallow Acropora spp. in the region. However, colonies had longer gametogenic cycles and less synchronous gamete maturation compared to shallow acroporids with spawning extended over consecutive months. Both the polyp fecundity (number of eggs per polyp) and gonad index (defined as the number of eggs per square centimeter) of A. tenella were lower than most acroporids. Our findings contribute to understanding of the life history of corals on mesophotic reefs and suggest that the reproductive biology of upper mesophotic corals is similar to that of shallow-water corals.

  2. Vertical Cable Seismic Survey for SMS Exploration in Izena Cauldron, Okinawa-Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asakawa, E.; Murakami, F.; Tsukahara, H.; Mizohata, S.; Tara, K.

    2014-12-01

    The VCS survey is one of the reflection seismic methods. It uses hydrophone arrays vertically moored from the seafloor to record acoustic waves generated by seismic sources. Because the VCS is an efficient high-resolution 3D seismic survey method for a spatially-bounded area, we proposed it for the SMS survey tool development program started by Japanese government. In 2010, we manufactured the autonomous VCS data acquisition systems. Through several experimental surveys, our VCS is successfully completed. In 2011 and 2013, we carried out the two VCS surveys using GI gun and high-voltage sparker respectively in the Izena Cauldron, Okinawa Trough, which is one of the most promising SMS areas around Japan. Because seismic survey is not proven to be effective for SMS exploration, no seismic surveys have been conducted there so far. Our strategy for SMS exploration consists of two stages. In the first stage, we carried out VCS survey with the lower frequency GI gun (but higher compared to the convebtional oil/gas exploration) and explored deeper (up to 1,500m) structure to obtain the fault system of hydrothermal flow. Next, using a high frequency (about 1 kHz higher) and high-voltage sparker, we explored very shallow (up to 200m) part to delineate the very thin SMS deposits. These two VCS dataset have been processed with 3D Prestack Depth Migration. These results are consistent with geological information from the borehole drilled nearby and give useful information to SMS exploration.

  3. Unique chemistry of the hydrothermal solution in the mid-Okinawa Trough Backarc Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, H.; Gamo, T.; Kim, E.S.; Shitashima, K.; Yanagisawa, F.; Tsutsumi, M.; Ishibashi, J.; Sano, Y.; Wakita, H. ); Tanaka, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Naganuma, T.; Mitsuzawa, K. )

    1990-11-01

    Submarine hydrothermal fluids from JADE and CLAM sites in the mid-Okinawa Trough Backarc Basin are highly enriched in CO{sub 2}, K, Li, NH{sub 4}, CH{sub 4} and titration alkalinity compared to MOR fluids so far studied, while their H{sub 2}S and {sup 3}He contents are similar. The He and C isotropic ratios as well as these chemical features indicate that the hydrothermal systems are controlled by reaction between seawater and CO{sub 2}-rich intermediate to acid volcanic rocks of island-arc type, with strong influence of organic matter and are consistent with its initial stage of rifting on a continental plate margin. While the endmember JADE fluid is nearly devoid of Mg and SO{sub 4}, the CLAM fluid has definite concentrations of Mg (upper limit 22 {plus minus} 5 mM) and, most interestingly of {sup 34}S-enriched SO{sub 4} (upper limit 10 {plus minus} 2 mM, {delta}{sup 34}S = 27 to 39{per thousand}).

  4. Characterization of fatty acid composition in healthy and bleached corals from Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachok, Zainudin; Mfilinge, Prosper; Tsuchiya, Makoto

    2006-11-01

    Under bleaching conditions, corals lose their symbiotic zooxanthellae, and thus, the ability to synthesize fatty acids (FAs) from photosynthetically derived carbon. This study investigated the lipid content and FA composition in healthy and bleached corals from the Odo reef flat in Okinawa, southern Japan, following a bleaching event. It was hypothesized that the FA composition and abundance would change as algae are lost or die, and possibly microbial abundance would increase in corals as a consequence of bleaching. The lipid content and FA composition of three healthy coral species ( Pavona frondifera, Acropora pulchra, and Goniastrea aspera) and of partially bleached and completely bleached colonies of P. frondifera were examined. The FA composition did not differ among healthy corals, but differed significantly among healthy, partially bleached, and completely bleached specimens of P. frondifera. Completely bleached corals contained significantly lower lipid and total FA content, as well as lower relative amounts of polyunsaturated FAs and higher relative amounts of saturated FAs, than healthy and partially bleached corals. Furthermore, there was a significantly higher relative concentration of monounsaturated FAs and odd-numbered branched FAs in completely bleached corals, indicating an increase in bacterial colonization in the bleached corals.

  5. Insights into life-history traits of Munidopsis spp. (Anomura: Munidopsidae) from hydrothermal vent fields in the Okinawa Trough, in comparison with the existing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Masako; Chen, Chong; Mitarai, Satoshi

    2015-06-01

    Squat lobsters in the genus Munidopsis are commonly found at, and near, hydrothermal vents. However, the reproductive traits of most Munidopsis spp. are unknown. This study examined the reproductive features of two Munidopsis species sampled from hydrothermal vent fields in the southern Okinawa Trough in February 2014. Three ovigerous females were collected: two Munidopsis ryukyuensis at Irabu Knoll (1661-1675 m depth) and one M. longispinosa at Hatoma Knoll (1482 m depth). Carapace sizes and egg volumes were measured and compared with those of other Munidopsis species. The ovigerous M. ryukyuensis specimens had postorbital carapace lengths of 10.3 and 11.8 mm, without the rostrum, and carapace widths of 8.6 and 9.7 mm. Mean egg volumes of M. ryukyuensis and M. longispinosa were ~4 mm3. These results are consistent with early sexual maturity in M. ryukyuensis and lecithotrophic development in both species, as described in other species of the genus. These life-history traits may enable these vent species to maximize their reproductive and dispersive potential.

  6. Electric Propulsion Interactions Code (EPIC): Recent Enhancements and Goals for Future Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Barbara M.; Kuharski, Robert A.; Davis, Victoria A.; Ferguson, Dale C.

    2007-01-01

    The Electric Propulsion Interactions Code (EPIC) is the leading interactive computer tool for assessing the effects of electric thruster plumes on spacecraft subsystems. EPIC, developed by SAIC under the sponsorship of the Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Program at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, has three primary modules. One is PlumeTool, which calculates plumes of electrostatic thrusters and Hall-effect thrusters by modeling the primary ion beam as well as elastic scattering and charge-exchange of beam ions with thruster-generated neutrals. ObjectToolkit is a 3-D object definition and spacecraft surface modeling tool developed for use with several SEE Program codes. The main EPIC interface integrates the thruster plume into the 3-D geometry of the spacecraft and calculates interactions and effects of the plume with the spacecraft. Effects modeled include erosion of surfaces due to sputtering, re-deposition of sputtered materials, surface heating, torque on the spacecraft, and changes in surface properties due to erosion and deposition. In support of Prometheus I (JIMO), a number of new capabilities and enhancements were made to existing EPIC models. Enhancements to EPIC include adding the ability to scale and view individual plume components, to import a neutral plume associated with a thruster (to model a grid erosion plume, for example), and to calculate the plume from new initial beam conditions. Unfortunately, changes in program direction have left a number of desired enhancements undone. Variable gridding over a surface and resputtering of deposited materials, including multiple bounces and sticking coefficients, would significantly enhance the erosion/deposition model. Other modifications such as improving the heating model and the PlumeTool neutral plume model, enabling time dependent surface interactions, and including EM1 and optical effects would enable EPIC to better serve the aerospace engineer and electric propulsion systems integrator

  7. Orbit and Atmospheric Composition of the Warm Sub-Saturn EPIC-2037b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petigura, Erik; Deck, Katherine; Benneke, Bjoern; Knutson, Heather; Deming, Drake; Werner, Michael; Livingston, John; Crossfield, Ian

    2015-10-01

    We propose a joint Spitzer/HST proposal to observe transits of two warm, sub-Saturn sized planets orbiting EPIC-203771098 (EPIC-2037 hereafter), a bright G dwarf observed by K2. EPIC-2037b and c are 5.7±0.6 and 7.6±0.8 Earth-radii. Sine the two planets are close to the 2:1 mean-motion resonance, transit timing variations (TTVs) are expected to be large (several hours). Our proposed Spitzer transit observations will yield precise transit times for EPIC-2037b and c. We will model the TTVs to constrain the eccentricities of EPIC-2037b and c which are linked to the formation pathway for this system. EPIC-2037b and c have low densities of 0.4 g/cc and 0.2 g/cc, respectively. Their large size and low surface gravities make these planets favorable targets for transmission spectroscopy by Spitzer, HST, and JWST. In addition to their favorable observability, the planets have low equilibrium temperatures of ~710 K and ~560 K, respectively. These temperatures have not been well-explored in previous studies with transmission spectroscopy. While over a dozen HST+Spitzer transmission spectra have been published in the literature, only GJ1214b, GJ346b, HAT-P-11b, and HAT-P-12b have comparable temperatures. While Spitzer can detect wavelength-dependent variation in transit depth, the Spitzer measurements alone cannot discriminate between various atmospheric compositions. Therefore we propose to use HST/WFC3 to probe the atmosphere of EPIC-2037b. The HST transmission spectrum will probe water vapor in the atmosphere, which reflects the planet?s oxygen abundance, a proxy for the planet?s heavy element enrichment.

  8. Investigating the Impact of EPIC Professional Development on Perspectives Charter School Principals. An Evaluation of the EPIC Professional Learning Model. Evaluation Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Kay; Pereira-Leon, Maura; Honeyford, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    In 2009-10, New Leaders for New Schools partnered with the Perspectives Charter School Network in Chicago to pilot an innovative leadership development program for principals. The program is part of the Effective Practice Incentive Community (EPIC) initiative, which was created by New Leaders in 2006 to identify, reward, and share effective…

  9. Anthropometry and the Risk of Lung Cancer in EPIC.

    PubMed

    Dewi, Nikmah Utami; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Johansson, Mattias; Vineis, Paolo; Kampman, Ellen; Steffen, Annika; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjær, Jytte; Overvad, Kim; Severi, Gianluca; Fagherazzi, Guy; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Kaaks, Rudolf; Li, Kuanrong; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Klinaki, Eleni; Tumino, Rosario; Palli, Domenico; Mattiello, Amalia; Tagliabue, Giovanna; Peeters, Petra H; Vermeulen, Roel; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Torhild Gram, Inger; Huerta, José María; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, María-José; Ardanaz, Eva; Dorronsoro, Miren; Quirós, José Ramón; Sonestedt, Emily; Johansson, Mikael; Grankvist, Kjell; Key, Tim; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Cross, Amanda J; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio; Fanidi, Anouar; Muller, David; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas

    2016-07-15

    The associations of body mass index (BMI) and other anthropometric measurements with lung cancer were examined in 348,108 participants in the European Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) between 1992 and 2010. The study population included 2,400 case patients with incident lung cancer, and the average length of follow-up was 11 years. Hazard ratios were calculated using Cox proportional hazard models in which we modeled smoking variables with cubic splines. Overall, there was a significant inverse association between BMI (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) and the risk of lung cancer after adjustment for smoking and other confounders (for BMI of 30.0-34.9 versus 18.5-25.0, hazard ratio = 0.72, 95% confidence interval: 0.62, 0.84). The strength of the association declined with increasing follow-up time. Conversely, after adjustment for BMI, waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio were significantly positively associated with lung cancer risk (for the highest category of waist circumference vs. the lowest, hazard ratio = 1.25, 95% confidence interval: 1.05, 1.50). Given the decline of the inverse association between BMI and lung cancer over time, the association is likely at least partly due to weight loss resulting from preclinical lung cancer that was present at baseline. Residual confounding by smoking could also have influenced our findings. PMID:27370791

  10. The EPIC-MOS Particle-Induced Background Spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuntz, K. D.; Snowden, S. L.

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a method for constructing a spectrum of the particle-induced instrumental background of the XMM-Newton EPIC MOS detectors that can be used for observations of the diffuse background and extended sources that fill a significant fraction of the instrument field of view. The strength and spectrum of the particle-induced background, that is, the background due to the interaction of particles with the detector and the detector surroundings, is temporally variable as well as spatially variable over individual chips. Our method uses a combination of the filter-wheel-closed data and a database of unexposed-region data to construct a spectrum of the "quiescent" background. We show that, using this method of background subtraction, the differences between independent observations of the same region of "blank sky" are consistent with the statistical uncertainties except when there is clear evidence of solar wind charge exchange emission. We use the blank sky observations to show that contamination by SWCX emission is a strong function of the solar wind proton flux, and that observations through the flanks of the magnetosheath appear to be contaminated only at much higher solar wind fluxes. We have also developed a spectral model of the residual soft proton flares, which allows their effects to be removed to a substantial degree during spectral fitting.

  11. Area deprivation and age related macular degeneration in the EPIC-Norfolk Eye Study

    PubMed Central

    Yip, Jennifer L.Y.; Khawaja, Anthony P.; Chan, Michelle P.Y.; Broadway, David C.; Peto, Tunde; Luben, Robert; Hayat, Shabina; Bhaniani, Amit; Wareham, Nick; Foster, Paul J.; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the relationship between area deprivation, individual socio-economic status (SES) and age related macular degeneration (AMD). Study design Cross sectional study nested within a longitudinal cohort study. Methods Data were collected in the EPIC-Norfolk Eye Study by trained nurses, using standardized protocols and lifestyle questionnaires. The English Index of multiple deprivation 2010 (IMD) was derived from participants' postcodes. AMD was identified from standardized grading of fundus photographs. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between IMD, SES and AMD. Results 5344 pairs (62.0% of total 8623) of fundus photographs were of sufficient quality for grading of AMD. Of 5182 participants with complete data, AMD was identified in 653 participants (12.60%, 95%CI = 11.7–13.5%). Multivariable logistic regression showed that people living in the most affluent 5% of areas had nearly half the odds of AMD compared to those living in comparatively more deprived areas (OR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.36–0.89, P = 0.02), after adjusting for age, sex, education, social class and smoking. Conclusions The authors found that living in the most affluent areas exerted a protective effect on AMD, independently of education and social class. Further investigation into underlying mechanisms will inform potential interventions to reduce health inequalities relating to AMD. PMID:25687711

  12. Chemical enrichment in the hot intra-cluster medium seen with XMM-Newton/EPIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mernier, F.; de Plaa, J.; Pinto, C.; Kaastra, J.; Kosec, P.; Zhang, Y.; Mao, J.; Werner, N.

    2016-06-01

    The intra-cluster medium (ICM), permeating the large gravitational potential well of galaxy clusters and groups, is rich in metals, which can be detected via their emission lines in the soft X-ray band. These heavy elements (typically from O to Ni) have been synthesized by Type Ia (SNIa) and core-collapse (SNcc) supernovae within the galaxy members, and continuously enrich the ICM since the cosmic star formation peak (z ≃ 2-3). Because the predicted chemical yields of supernovae depend on either their explosion mechanisms (SNIa) or the initial mass and metallicity of their progenitors (SNcc), measuring the abundances in the ICM can help to constrain supernovae models. In this study, we use XMM-Newton/EPIC to measure the abundances of 9 elements (Mg, Si, S, Ar, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe and Ni) in a sample of 44 cool-core galaxy clusters, groups and ellipticals (the CHEERS catalog). Combining these results with the O and Ne abundances measured using RGS, we establish an average X/Fe abundance pattern in the ICM, and we determine the best-fit SNIa and SNcc models, as well as the relative fraction of SNIa/SNcc responsible for the enrichment.

  13. Chemical enrichment in the hot intra-cluster medium seen with XMM-Newton/EPIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mernier, F.; de Plaa, J.; Pinto, C.; Kaastra, J.; Kosec, P.; Zhang, Y.; Mao, J.; Werner, N.

    2016-06-01

    The intra-cluster medium (ICM), permeating the large gravitational potential well of galaxy clusters and groups, is rich in metals, which can be detected via their emission lines in the soft X-ray band. These heavy elements (typically from O to Ni) have been synthesized by Type Ia (SNIa) and core-collapse (SNcc) supernovae within the galaxy members, and continuously enrich the ICM since the cosmic star formation peak (z ≃ 2--3). Because the predicted chemical yields of supernovae depend on either their explosion mechanisms (SNIa) or the initial mass and metallicity of their progenitors (SNcc), measuring the abundances in the ICM can help to constrain supernovae models. In this study, we use XMM-Newton/EPIC to measure the abundances of 9 elements (Mg, Si, S, Ar, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe and Ni) in a sample of 44 cool-core galaxy clusters, groups and ellipticals (the CHEERS catalog). Combining these results with the O and Ne abundances measured using RGS, we establish an average X/Fe abundance pattern in the ICM, and we determine the best-fit SNIa and SNcc models, as well as the relative fraction of SNIa/SNcc responsible for the enrichment.

  14. The Calibration of the DSCOVR EPIC Multiple Visible Channel Instrument Using MODIS and VIIRS as a Reference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haney, Conor; Doeling, David; Minnis, Patrick; Bhatt, Rajendra; Scarino, Benjamin; Gopalan, Arun

    2016-01-01

    The Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR), launched on 11 February 2015, is a satellite positioned near the Lagrange-1 (L1) point, carrying several instruments that monitor space weather, and Earth-view sensors designed for climate studies. The Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) onboard DSCOVR continuously views the sun-illuminated portion of the Earth with spectral coverage in the UV, VIS, and NIR bands. Although the EPIC instrument does not have any onboard calibration abilities, its constant view of the sunlit Earth disk provides a unique opportunity for simultaneous viewing with several other satellite instruments. This arrangement allows the EPIC sensor to be inter-calibrated using other well-characterized satellite instrument reference standards. Two such instruments with onboard calibration are MODIS, flown on Aqua and Terra, and VIIRS, onboard Suomi-NPP. The MODIS and VIIRS reference calibrations will be transferred to the EPIC instrument using both all-sky ocean and deep convective clouds (DCC) ray-matched EPIC and MODIS/VIIRS radiance pairs. An automated navigation correction routine was developed to more accurately align the EPIC and MODIS/VIIRS granules. The automated navigation correction routine dramatically reduced the uncertainty of the resulting calibration gain based on the EPIC and MODIS/VIIRS radiance pairs. The SCIAMACHY-based spectral band adjustment factors (SBAF) applied to the MODIS/ VIIRS radiances were found to successfully adjust the reference radiances to the spectral response of the specific EPIC channel for over-lapping spectral channels. The SBAF was also found to be effective for the non-overlapping EPIC channel 10. Lastly, both ray-matching techniques found no discernable trends for EPIC channel 7 over the year of publically released EPIC data.

  15. Seasonal variations of biogenic secondary organic aerosol tracers in Cape Hedo, Okinawa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Chunmao; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Fu, Pingqing

    2016-04-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) substantially contributes to particulate organic matter affecting the regional and global air quality and the climate. Total suspended particle (TSP) samples were collected in October 2009 to February 2012 on a weekly basis at Cape Hedo, Okinawa, Japan in the western North Pacific Rim, an outflow region of Asian aerosols and precursors. The TSP samples were analyzed for SOA tracers derived from biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs). Total isoprene-SOA tracers showed a maximum in summer (2.12 ± 2.02 ng m-3) and minimum in winter (1.16 ± 0.92 ng m-3). This seasonality is mainly controlled by isoprene emission from the local subtropical forest, followed by regional scale emission of isoprene from the surrounding seas and long-range transported air masses. Total monoterpene-SOA tracers peaked in March (3.38 ± 2.03 ng m-3) followed by October (2.95 ± 1.62 ng m-3). In contrast, sesquiterpene-SOA tracer, β-caryophyllinic acid, showed winter maximum (1.63 ± 1.18 ng m-3) and summer minimum (0.20 ± 0.46 ng m-3). The variations of the monoterpene- and sesquiterpene-SOA tracers are likely related to the continental outflow of oxidation products of BVOC. Using a tracer-based method, we estimated the total biogenic SOC of 0.25-157 ng m-3 (mean 35.8 ng m-3) that accounts for 0.01-9.8% (mean 2.7%) of aerosol organic carbon. Our study suggests that SOA formation in the western North Pacific Rim is involved with not only local but also regional emissions followed by long-range atmospheric transport.

  16. Use of microbial analysis to evaluate denitrification in the karstic aquifer of Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasumoto, J.

    2014-12-01

    Denitrification, a microbial process in the nitrogen cycle, is a facultative respiratory pathway in which nitrate (NO3-), nitrite (NO2-), nitric oxide (NO), and nitrous oxide (N2O), successively, are reduced to nitrogen gas (N2). This study explores the use of microbial analysis to evaluate the processes involved in nitrate attenuation in groundwater. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) is used to identify denitrifiers based only on their 16SrRNA gene sequences, and Real-Time PCR analysis is used to quantify nitrite reducing genes (nirK and nirS), this suggest that a new methods for detecting denitrification activity by comparing the gene dosage that has been detected by RT-PCR and the value of the δ15NNO3- and δ18ONO3-. This study focuses on a zone of significant NO3- attenuation occurring at underground dam catchment area in the karstic Ryukyu limestone aquifer, which is located southern part of Okinawa, Japan. As a result of microbial analysis, the bacteria were detected at all observation points which have been reported to have denitrification ability. And it has been confirmed that the bacteria has a gene nirS which is related to denitrification. In addition, many bacteria related to denitrification have been extracted from suspended solids more than from groundwater in the aquifer. And, the correlation was high between nirK /nirS gene dosage that has been detected by RT-PCR and the value of the δ15N and δ18O; therefore, this study demonstrates the effectiveness of using Real-Time PCR analysis for providing insights into the processes affecting nitrate attenuation in ground water.

  17. Vibrio ishigakensis sp. nov., in Halioticoli clade isolated from seawater in Okinawa coral reef area, Japan.

    PubMed

    Gao, Feng; Al-Saari, Nurhidayu; Rohul Amin, A K M; Sato, Kazumichi; Mino, Sayaka; Suda, Wataru; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Ohkuma, Moriya; Hargreaves, Paulo Iiboshi; Meirelles, Pedro Milet; Thompson, Fabiano L; Thompson, Cristiane; Gomez-Gil, Bruno; Sawabe, Toko; Sawabe, Tomoo

    2016-07-01

    Five novel strains showing non-motile, alginolytic, halophilic and fermentative features were isolated from seawater samples off Okinawa in coral reef areas. These strains were characterized by an advanced polyphasic taxonomy including genome based taxonomy using multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) and in silico DNA-DNA similarity (in silico DDH). Phylogenetic analyses on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the isolates could be assigned to the genus Vibrio, however they were not allocated into any distinct cluster with known Vibrionaceae species. MLSA based on eight protein-coding genes (gapA, gyrB, ftsZ, mreB, pyrH, recA, rpoA, and topA) showed the vibrios formed an outskirt branch of Halioticoli clade. The experimental DNA-DNA hybridization data revealed that the five strains were in the range of being defined as conspecific but separate from nine Halioticoli clade species. The G+C contents of the Vibrio ishigakensis strains were 47.3-49.1mol%. Both Amino Acid Identity and Average Nucleotide Identity of the strain C1(T) against Vibrio ezurae HDS1-1(T), Vibrio gallicus HT2-1(T), Vibrio halioticoli IAM 14596(T), Vibrio neonatus HDD3-1(T) and Vibrio superstes G3-29(T) showed less than 95% similarity. The genome-based taxonomic approach by means of in silico DDH values also supports the V. ishigakensis strains being distinct from the other known Halioticoli clade species. Sixteen traits (growth temperature range, DNase and lipase production, indole production, and assimilation of 10 carbon compounds) distinguished these strains from Halioticoli clade species. The names V. ishigakensis sp. nov. is proposed for the species of Halioticoli clade, with C1(T) as the type strain (JCM 19231(T)=LMG 28703(T)). PMID:27262360

  18. 75 FR 8322 - EPIC Merchant Energy NJ/PA, LP, SESCO Enterprises, LLC, Coaltrain Energy, LP, Complainants, v...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission EPIC Merchant Energy NJ/PA, LP, SESCO Enterprises, LLC, Coaltrain Energy, LP... Rules of Practice and Procedure, 18 CFR 385.206 (2009), EPIC Merchant Energy NJ/PA, LP,...

  19. EPICS Input/Output Controller (IOC) application developer`s guide. APS Release 3.12

    SciTech Connect

    Kraimer, M.R.

    1994-11-01

    This document describes the core software that resides in an Input/Output Controller (IOC), one of the major components of EPICS. The basic components are: (OPI) Operator Interface; this is a UNIX based workstation which can run various EPICS tools; (IOC) Input/Output Controller; this is a VME/VXI based chassis containing a Motorola 68xxx processor, various I/O modules, and VME modules that provide access to other I/O buses such as GPIB, (LAN), Local Area Network; and this is the communication network which allows the IOCs and OPIs to communicate. Epics provides a software component, Channel Access, which provides network transparent communication between a Channel Access client and an arbitrary number of Channel Access servers.

  20. A molecular epidemiology project on diet and cancer: the EPIC-Italy Prospective Study. Design and baseline characteristics of participants.

    PubMed

    Palli, Domenico; Berrino, Franco; Vineis, Paolo; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Masala, Giovanna; Saieva, Calogero; Salvini, Simonetta; Ceroti, Marco; Pala, Valeria; Sieri, Sabina; Frasca, Graziella; Giurdanella, Maria Concetta; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Fiorini, Laura; Celentano, Egidio; Galasso, Rocco; Decarli, Adriano; Krogh, Vittorio

    2003-01-01

    EPIC-Italy is the Italian section of a larger project known as EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition), a prospective study on diet and cancer carried out in 10 European countries. In the period 1993-1998, EPIC-Italy completed the recruitment of 47,749 volunteers (15,171 men, 32,578 women, aged 35-65 years) in 4 different areas covered by cancer registries: Varese (12,083 volunteers) and Turin (10,604) in the Northern part of the country; Florence (13,597) and Ragusa (6,403) in Central and Southern Italy, respectively. An associate center in Naples enrolled 5,062 women. Detailed information for each individual volunteer about diet and life-style habits, anthropometric measurements and a blood sample was collected, after signing an informed consent form. A food frequency questionnaire specifically developed for the Italian dietary pattern was tested in a pilot phase. A computerized data base with the dietary and life-style information of each participant was completed. Blood samples were processed in the same day of collection, aliquoted (RBC, WBC, serum and plasma) and stored in liquid nitrogen containers. Follow-up procedures were validated and implemented for the identification of newly diagnosed cancer cases. Cancer incidence was related to dietary habits and biochemical markers of food consumption and individual susceptibility in order to test the role of diet-related exposure in the etiology of cancer and its interaction with other environmental or genetic determinants. The comparability of information in a prospective study design is much higher than in other studies. The availability of such a large biological bank linked to individual data on dietary and life-style exposures also provides the unique opportunity of evaluating the role of selected genotypes involved in the metabolism of chemical compounds and DNA repair, potentially related to the risk of cancer, in residents of geographic areas of Italy characterized by specific

  1. Quality assurance of the international computerised 24 h dietary recall method (EPIC-Soft).

    PubMed

    Crispim, Sandra P; Nicolas, Genevieve; Casagrande, Corinne; Knaze, Viktoria; Illner, Anne-Kathrin; Huybrechts, Inge; Slimani, Nadia

    2014-02-01

    The interview-administered 24 h dietary recall (24-HDR) EPIC-Soft® has a series of controls to guarantee the quality of dietary data across countries. These comprise all steps that are part of fieldwork preparation, data collection and data management; however, a complete characterisation of these quality controls is still lacking. The present paper describes in detail the quality controls applied in EPIC-Soft, which are, to a large extent, built on the basis of the EPIC-Soft error model and are present in three phases: (1) before, (2) during and (3) after the 24-HDR interviews. Quality controls for consistency and harmonisation are implemented before the interviews while preparing the seventy databases constituting an EPIC-Soft version (e.g. pre-defined and coded foods and recipes). During the interviews, EPIC-Soft uses a cognitive approach by helping the respondent to recall the dietary intake information in a stepwise manner and includes controls for consistency (e.g. probing questions) as well as for completeness of the collected data (e.g. system calculation for some unknown amounts). After the interviews, a series of controls can be applied by dietitians and data managers to further guarantee data quality. For example, the interview-specific 'note files' that were created to track any problems or missing information during the interviews can be checked to clarify the information initially provided. Overall, the quality controls employed in the EPIC-Soft methodology are not always perceivable, but prove to be of assistance for its overall standardisation and possibly for the accuracy of the collected data. PMID:24001201

  2. Intense winter cooling of the surface water in the northern Okinawa Trough during the last glacial period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Masanobu; Kishizaki, Midori; Oba, Tadamichi; Kawahata, Hodaka

    2013-06-01

    We generated a 42,000-year record of TEX86 (TEX86L and TEX86H) from core MD98-2195 to better understand changes in the hydrology of the East China Sea (ECS) in the last glacial period. The TEX86-derived temperature showed an intense cooling in the last glacial period, whereas U37K-derived spring sea surface temperature (SST) and foraminiferal Mg/Ca-derived summer SST showed a much smaller-scale cooling. The difference between the TEX86- and Mg/Ca-derived temperatures was around 14 °C from 19 to 16 ka and abruptly decreased to around 5 °C from 16 to 13 ka. This suggests a strong winter cooling of the surface water during the last glacial period. TEX86-, U37K'-, and Mg/Ca-derived temperatures were lowest at 18-17 ka, implying that the formation of cold water was maximized during that period. These results show that the cold water mass developed in the northern Okinawa Trough during the last glacial and the Kuroshio branch did not fully enter the northern margin of the Okinawa Trough.

  3. Organic tracers of primary biological aerosol particles at subtropical Okinawa Island in the western North Pacific Rim

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Chunmao; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Kunwar, Bhagawati

    2015-06-01

    Primary biological aerosol particles (PBAPs) play an important role in affecting atmospheric physical and chemical properties. Aerosol samples were collected at Cape Hedo, Okinawa Island, Japan, from October 2009 to February 2012 and analyzed for five primary saccharides and four sugar alcohols as PBAP tracers. We detected high levels of sucrose in spring when blossoming of plants happens and prolifically emits pollen to the air. Concentrations of glucose, fructose, and trehalose showed levels higher than the other saccharides in spring in 2010. In comparison, primary saccharide levels were mutually comparable in spring, summer, and autumn in 2011, indicating the interannual variability of their local production in subtropical forests, which is driven by local temperature and radiation. High trehalose events were found to be associated with Asian dust outflows, indicating that Asian dust also contributes to PBAPs at Okinawa. Sugar alcohols peaked in summer and correlated with local precipitation and temperature, indicating high microbial activities. Positive matrix factorization analysis confirmed that the PBAPs are mainly derived from local vegetation, pollen, and fungal spores. A higher contribution of PBAP tracers to water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) was found in summer (14.9%). The annual mean ambient loadings of fungal spores and PBAPs were estimated as 0.49 µg m-3 and 4.12 µg m-3, respectively, using the tracer method. We report, for the first time, year-round biomarkers of PBAP and soil dust and their contributions to WSOC in the subtropical outflow region of the Asian continent.

  4. A study of ambient seismic noise on the seafloor of the Okinawa trough and the Bashi Channel south of Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, C.; Kuo, B.; Wang, C.

    2013-12-01

    Since September. 2006, the Institute of Earth Sciences, Acadmia Sinica (IES-AS) has begun deployment of Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBSs) in the waters around Taiwan in collaboration with the National Sun Yat-sen University and the Taiwan Ocean Research Institute. So far there are three kinds of OBSs with different bandwidth that have been deployed and analyzed: 120 s - 50 Hz for WHOI designed broadband OBS, 60 s - 50 Hz for Lobster, KUM, and 20 s - 45 Hz for Yardbird-20s designed by IES (Lin et al., 2012). We have analyzed noise levels for these OBSs deployed in the Okinawa trough to the NE of Taiwan and, the Bashi channel south of Taiwan, and the Huatung basin east of Tawian. The early results had very few samples in the Okinawa trough and the Huatung basin ( Lin et al., 2010). This poster presents new results offshore southern Taiwan and increases the samples in previously studied regions. References: Ching-Ren Lin, Chai-ChangWang, Po-Chi Chen, Hsu-Kuang Chang, Jia-Pu Jang, Ban-Yuan Kuo (2012), OBS development and data analysis in Taiwan. 2012 AGU Fall Meeting. Lin, C.R., B. Y. Kuo, W. T. Liang, W. C. Chi, Y. C. Huang, J. Collins and C. Y. Wang (2010), Ambient Noise and Teleseismic Signals Recorded by Ocean-Bottom Seismometers Offshore Eastern Taiwan. Terr. Atmos. Ocea Sci., 21, No. 5, 743-75510.

  5. ESR dating of barite in sea-floor hydrothermal sulfide deposits at Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, T.; Toyoda, S.; Uchida, A.; Ishibashi, J.; Nakai, S.; Takamasa, A.

    2013-12-01

    The temporal change of submarine hydrothermal activities has been an important issue in the aspect of the evolution of hydrothermal systems which is related with ore formation and biological systems sustained by the chemical species arising from hydrothermal activities (Macdonald et al., 1980). With this aspect, Okumura et al. (2010) made the first practical application of ESR (electron spin resonance) dating technique to a sample of submarine hydrothermal barite to obtain preliminary ages, while Kasuya et al. (1991) first pointed out that barite can be used for ESR dating. ESR is a method to observe radicals having unpaired electrons. As natural radiation creates unpaired electrons in minerals, the age is deduced by dividing the natural radiation dose (obtained from the amount of unpaired electrons) by the dose rate which is estimated by the amount of environmental radioactive elements. The samples were taken by the research cruises, NT12-10 and NT11-20 and NT12-06 operated by JAMSTEC from Hatoma, Yoron, Izena, North Iheya, and Yonaguni IV Knolls of Okinawa Trough. The blocks of sulfide deposits were cut into pieces, and about 2.0g was crushed. The samples were soaked in 12M hydrochloric acid, left for approximately 24 hours. Then, 13M nitric acid was added. Finally, after rinsing in distilled water, the sample was filtered and dried. Impurities were removed by handpicking. A X-ray diffraction study was made to confirm that the grains are pure barite. After γ-ray irradiation at Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, they were measured at room temperature with an ESR spectrometer (JES-PX2300) with a microwave power of 1mW, and the magnetic field modulation amplitude of 0.1mT. The equivalent natural radiation doses were obtained from the increase of ESR signal intensity of SO3- by irradiation. The bulk Ra concentration was measured by the low background pure Ge gamma ray spectrometer. Assuming that Ra is populated only in barite

  6. Investigation of anthropogenic-origin-metals in the atmospheric aerosols collected at Cape Hedo, Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murayama, H.; Azechi, S.; Tsuhako, A.; Miyagi, Y.; Kasaba, T.; Arakaki, T.

    2014-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosols are important to atmospheric chemistry, and affect our lives. Aerosols include fine particles, which consist of inorganic compounds, organic substances, heavy metals, etc. Aerosols can be roughly separated into natural and anthropogenic origins. For example, natural origins include wind-blown sea-salt, Asian dust (called Kosa in Japan), etc. Anthropogenic origins include burning of fossil fuel and agricultural biomass, automobiles, industrial activities, etc. In Japan, Kosa is the most well-known aerosol. This study investigated anthropogenic-origin-metals present in the aerosols. Aerosol samples were collected at Cape Hedo Atmospheric Aerosol Monitoring Station (CHAAMS) in Okinawa Island, Japan with a high volume air sampler. Samples analyzed for this study were collected between January 2008 and August 2014. A 1/8 of aerosol filter was digested by the mixture of acids and oxidant (nitric acid/hydrogen fluoride/hydrogen peroxide). The sample was filtered by 0.45 μm membrane filter before analyses. Metal ion concentrations were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (Na, Mg, K) and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometer (Al, Fe, Ca, Ti, Mn, V, Cu, Cd, Zn, Pb). Air mass movement was analyzed by NOAA's HYSPRIT model. Results showed that concentrations of heavy metals were high during winter and spring, and the lowest in summer. V/Mn ratios were used as an indicator for heavy oil burning. High V/Mn ratios were observed during maritime air mass periods. On the other hand, Pb/Zn ratio was used as an indicator for leaded gasoline usage, which was high when air mass was coming from Asian continent during winter and spring. Average Pb/Zn ratio was 0.65. Non-sea-salt K (nss-K) was used as an indicator for biomass burning, and showed good correlation with total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations. However, nss-K and crustal-origin-metals also showed good correlation. Thus, we have to be careful when considering whether nss-K is from

  7. Geochemical Evidence for Recent Hydrothermal Alteration of Marine Sediments in Mid-Okinawa Trough, Southwest Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, A.; Abe, G.; Yamaguchi, K. E.

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that submarine hydrothermal system supports diverse microbial life. Bio-essential metals supporting such microbial communities were released from basalts by high-temperature water-rock interaction in deeper part of the oceanic crust and carried by submarine fluid flow. Its total quantity in global hydrothermal settings has been estimated to be on the order of ~1019 g/yr, which is surprisingly on the same order of the total river flows (Urabe et al., 2011). Therefore, it is important to explore how submarine river system works, i.e., to understand mechanism and extent of elemental transport, which should lead to understanding of the roles of hydrothermal circulation in oceanic crust in controlling elemental budget in the global ocean and geochemical conditions to support deep hot biosphere.  We performed REE analysis of marine sediments influenced by submarine hydrothermal activity in Mid-Okinawa Trough. The sediment samples used in this study are from IODP site at Iheya North region and JADE site at Izena region. The samples show alternation between volcanic and clastic sediments. Hydrothermal fluids of this area contain elevated concentrations of volatile components such as H2, CO2, CH4, NH4+, and H2S, supporting diverse chemoautotrophic microbial community (Nakagawa et al., 2005). The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of hydrothermal activity on the REE signature of the sediments. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns of the samples show relative enrichment of light over heavy REEs, weak positive Ce anomalies, and variable degrees of negative Eu anomalies. The REE patterns suggest the sediments source was mainly basalt, suggesting insignificant input of continental materials. Negative Eu anomalies found in the IODP site become more pronounced with increasing depth, suggesting progressive increase of hydrothermal alteration where Eu was reductively dissolved into fluids by decomposition of feldspars. Contrary, at the JADE site

  8. Warm Eddy Structure Observed During EPIC in Eastern Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shay, L. K.; Jaimes, B.; Brewster, J.

    2007-05-01

    During the NSF/NOAA sponsored Eastern Pacific Investigation of Climate (EPIC) field program in Sept. and Oct. 2001, oceanic current, temperature and salinity profiles were acquired by deploying expendable profilers from research aircraft flights above the warm pool grid centered on the TAO mooring at 10oN 95oW and the R/V Ron Brown, and along the 95oW transect from the NOAA WP-3D and the NCAR WC-130, respectively. Analyses of mooring, ship and aircraft observations suggest the propagation of a wind-forced, warm eddy in accord with remotely sensed fields from radar altimetry and TRMM microwave imager (TMI) measurements. This anti- cyclonically rotating warm eddy, consistent with Rossby wave dynamics, impacted both the oceanic and atmospheric mixed layer structure. To examine the evolving characteristics of this oceanic feature, SSTs, isotherm depths and oceanic heat content variations (relative to the 26oC isotherm depth referred to as OHC) were compared at the TAO buoy. Satellite- based OHC variations were estimated by inferring isotherm depths (20oC, 26oC) from blended and objectively mapped, altimeter-derived surface height anomaly (SHA) fields based on climatology and TMI-derived SSTs. Based on sequential maps of the SHA, the observed warm eddy had SHA elevation of 12 to 14 cm that indicated a propagation speed of 13 cm s-1 towards the southwest. Inferred isotherm depths and OHC variations agreed with those from the TAO mooring and profiler measurements. For example, the 26oC isotherm depth ranged from 35 to 40 m with OHC values of 40 kJ cm-2. Understanding the evolving 3-D structure of these features is central to assessing the upper ocean's role in hurricane intensity fluctuations in the Eastern Pacific Ocean. This approach is now being applied to several years of in situ and remotely sensed measurements in this regime to assess uncertainties in satellite retrievals to build climatology for use with hurricane intensity forecast models as in the Atlantic Ocean

  9. PCR survey of 50 introns in animals: cross-amplification of homologous EPIC loci in eight non-bilaterian, protostome and deuterostome phyla.

    PubMed

    Gérard, K; Guilloton, E; Arnaud-Haond, S; Aurelle, D; Bastrop, R; Chevaldonné, P; Derycke, S; Hanel, R; Lapègue, S; Lejeusne, C; Mousset, S; Ramšak, A; Remerie, T; Viard, F; Féral, J-P; Chenuil, A

    2013-12-01

    Exon Primed Intron Crossing (EPIC) markers provide molecular tools that are susceptible to be variable within species while remaining amplifiable by PCR using potentially universal primers. In this study we tested the possibility of obtaining PCR products from 50 EPIC markers on 23 species belonging to seven different phyla (Porifera, Cnidaria, Arthropoda, Nematoda, Mollusca, Annelida, Echinodermata) using 70 new primer pairs. A previous study had identified and tested those loci in a dozen species, including another phylum, Urochordata (Chenuil et al., 2010). Results were contrasted among species. The best results were achieved with the oyster (Mollusca) where 28 loci provided amplicons susceptible to contain an intron according to their size. This was however not the case with the other mollusk Crepidula fornicata, which seems to have undergone a reduction in intron number or intron size. In the Porifera, 13 loci appeared susceptible to contain an intron, a surprisingly high number for this phylum considering its phylogenetic distance with genomic data used to design the primers. For two cnidarian species, numerous loci (24) were obtained. Ecdysozoan phyla (arthropods and nematodes) proved less successful than others as expected considering reports of their rapid rate of genome evolution and the worst results were obtained for several arthropods. Some general patterns among phyla arose, and we discuss how the results of this EPIC survey may give new insights into genome evolution of the study species. This work confirms that this set of EPIC loci provides an easy-to-use toolbox to identify genetic markers potentially useful for population genetics, phylogeography or phylogenetic studies for a large panel of metazoan species. We then argue that obtaining diploid sequence genotypes for these loci became simple and affordable owing to Next-Generation Sequencing development. Species surveyed in this study belong to several genera (Acanthaster, Alvinocaris, Aplysina

  10. Theological presuppositions of the evolutionary epic: From Robert Chambers to E. O. Wilson.

    PubMed

    Megill, Allan

    2016-08-01

    We can trace the "evolutionary epic" (named by E. O. Wilson, 1978) back to earlier writers, beginning with Robert Chambers (1844). Its basic elements are: fixation on seeing human history as rooted in biology; an aspiration toward telling the whole history of humankind (in its essential features); and insistence on the overall coherence of the projected narrative. The claim to coherence depends on assuming either that the universe possesses an "embedded rationality," or that it is guided by divine purpose. This article proposes the term "idealism" to refer to these two assumptions taken together, for in practice they were closely linked. Nietzsche (1881) was perhaps the first thinker to point out the evolutionary epic's dependence on such an idealism, and he also pointed out that the assumptions of embedded rationality and of divine purpose are closely connected. Darwin's theory of descent with modification (1859) was sharply inconsistent with these assumptions: he was not an "idealist" in the sense indicated here, and not a proponent of the evolutionary epic. Proclaiming his "materialism," Wilson (1978) failed to acknowledge that the epic depends on idealist assumptions; other adherents of the genre (M. Dowd, L. Rue) resurrect (knowingly or not) its theological roots. PMID:26775028

  11. The Epic Narrative of Intellectual Culture as a Framework for Curricular Coherence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, Robert N.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a proposed middle school curriculum designed to coordinate the major subject areas around a single coherent story line and tell the epic tale of the development of formal intellectual culture from its distant origins to the present day. Ourstory explores the history of scientific culture from the perspective of foundational disciplines…

  12. The True Lion King of Africa: The Epic History of Sundiata, King of Old Mali.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterno, Domenica R.

    David Wisniewski's 1992 picture book version of the African epic of "Sundiata, Lion King of Mali" and the actual historical account of the 13th century Lion King, Sundiata, are both badly served by Disney's "The Lion King." Disney has been praised for using African animals as story characters; for using the African landscape as a story setting;…

  13. The Einstein polarization interferometer for cosmology (EPIC) and the millimeter-wave bolometric interferometer (MBI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timbie, P. T.; Tucker, G. S.; Ade, P. A. R.; Ali, S.; Bierman, E.; Bunn, E. F.; Calderon, C.; Gault, A. C.; Hyland, P. O.; Keating, B. G.; Kim, J.; Korotkov, A.; Malu, S. S.; Mauskopf, P.; Murphy, J. A.; O'Sullivan, C.; Piccirillo, L.; Wandelt, B. D.

    2006-12-01

    We provide an overview of a mission concept study underway for the Einstein Inflation Probe (EIP). Our study investigates the advantages and tradeoffs of using an interferometer (EPIC) for the mission. We also report on the status of the millimeter-wave bolometric interferometer (MBI), a ground-based pathfinder optimized for degree-scale CMB polarization measurements at 90 GHz.

  14. 75 FR 65985 - Safety Zone: Epic Roasthouse Private Party Firework Display, San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-27

    ... Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone in the navigable waters of San Francisco Bay 1,000 yards... place on November 5, 2010, on the navigable waters of San Francisco Bay, 1,000 yards off Epic Roasthouse...) Location. This temporary safety zone is established for the waters of San Francisco Bay 1,000 yards...

  15. Integrating the Epic Model with spatially defined land use, soil, weather and tillage data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land-use and soil management (including tillage and crop rotations) affect soil organic carbon (SOC) balance and can be significant for the improvement of soil quality and productivity, and greenhouse gas emissions. The Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model was used to study the long ...

  16. Measuring School and Teacher Effectiveness in EPIC Charter School Consortium--Year 2. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potamites, Liz; Booker, Kevin; Chaplin, Duncan; Isenberg, Eric

    2009-01-01

    New Leaders for New Schools, a nonprofit organization committed to training school principals, heads the Effective Practices Incentive Community (EPIC), an initiative that offers financial awards to effective educators. Through this initiative, New Leaders offers financial awards to educators in two urban school districts and a consortium of…

  17. Estimating plant available water for general crop simulations in ALMANAC/APEX/EPIC/SWAT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Process-based simulation models ALMANAC/APEX/EPIC/SWAT contain generalized plant growth subroutines to predict biomass and crop yield. Environmental constraints typically restrict plant growth and yield. Water stress is often an important limiting factor; it is calculated as the sum of water use f...

  18. DIGITAL IMAGE ANALYSIS REPORTS: THE CONVERSION OF EPIC'S TRADITIONAL SITE CHARACTERIZATION PRODUCT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the past several years EPIC has been exploring the practicality and cost-effectiveness of providing its traditional hard-copy report product in digital form. This conversion has a number of practical uses including- 1) compatibility for use as data layers in a GIS; 2) transp...

  19. EPIC Simulation of Landscape and Management Effects on Soil Organic Carbon Dynamics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Simulation models integrate our understanding of soil organic C (SOC) dynamics and are useful tools for evaluating impacts of crop management on soil C sequestration. Our objectives were to calibrate the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model and evaluate its performance for simulating...

  20. Warrior Mothers as Heroines and Other Healing Imagery in the Finnish National Epic of "Kalevala."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiltunen, Sirkku M. Sky

    2001-01-01

    Examines mother imagery from the Finnish mythological epic "Kalevala," and describes how they offer healing imagery for understanding and acceptance of one's own mother and subsequently one's self. Offers background to the "Kalevala" itself, its language and to warriors, shamans, and sages in general. Examines seven mother metaphors found in the…

  1. Reliability and Validity of the Evidence-Based Practice Confidence (EPIC) Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salbach, Nancy M.; Jaglal, Susan B.; Williams, Jack I.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The reliability, minimal detectable change (MDC), and construct validity of the evidence-based practice confidence (EPIC) scale were evaluated among physical therapists (PTs) in clinical practice. Methods: A longitudinal mail survey was conducted. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were estimated using Cronbach's alpha…

  2. Implementation of EPICS based vacuum control system for variable energy cyclotron centre, Kolkata.

    PubMed

    Roy, Anindya; Bhole, R B; Nandy, Partha P; Yadav, R C; Pal, Sarbajit; Roy, Amitava

    2015-03-01

    The vacuum system of the Room Temperature (K = 130) Cyclotron of Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre is comprised of vacuum systems of main machine and Beam Transport System. The vacuum control system is upgraded to a PLC based Automated system from the initial relay based Manual system. The supervisory control of the vacuum system is implemented in Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). An EPICS embedded ARM based vacuum gauge controller is developed to mitigate the requirement of vendor specific gauge controller for gauges and also for seamless integration of the gauge controllers with the control system. A set of MS-Windows ActiveX components with embedded EPICS Channel Access interface are developed to build operator interfaces with less complex programming and to incorporate typical Windows feature, e.g., user authentication, file handling, better fonts, colors, mouse actions etc. into the operator interfaces. The control parameters, monitoring parameters, and system interlocks of the system are archived in MySQL based EPICS MySQL Archiver developed indigenously. In this paper, we describe the architecture, the implementation details, and the performance of the system. PMID:25832222

  3. Implementation of EPICS based vacuum control system for variable energy cyclotron centre, Kolkata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Anindya; Bhole, R. B.; Nandy, Partha P.; Yadav, R. C.; Pal, Sarbajit; Roy, Amitava

    2015-03-01

    The vacuum system of the Room Temperature (K = 130) Cyclotron of Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre is comprised of vacuum systems of main machine and Beam Transport System. The vacuum control system is upgraded to a PLC based Automated system from the initial relay based Manual system. The supervisory control of the vacuum system is implemented in Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). An EPICS embedded ARM based vacuum gauge controller is developed to mitigate the requirement of vendor specific gauge controller for gauges and also for seamless integration of the gauge controllers with the control system. A set of MS-Windows ActiveX components with embedded EPICS Channel Access interface are developed to build operator interfaces with less complex programming and to incorporate typical Windows feature, e.g., user authentication, file handling, better fonts, colors, mouse actions etc. into the operator interfaces. The control parameters, monitoring parameters, and system interlocks of the system are archived in MySQL based EPICS MySQL Archiver developed indigenously. In this paper, we describe the architecture, the implementation details, and the performance of the system.

  4. Modeling Soil Organic Carbon in a Semiarid Region of Kazakhstan Using EPIC

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inappropriate land use and soil mismanagement produced wide-scale soil and environmental degradation to the short-grass steppe ecosystem in the semiarid region of Kazakhstan. We used the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model to study long-term impacts of land use changes and soil mana...

  5. Implementation of EPICS based vacuum control system for variable energy cyclotron centre, Kolkata

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Anindya Bhole, R. B.; Nandy, Partha P.; Yadav, R. C.; Pal, Sarbajit; Roy, Amitava

    2015-03-15

    The vacuum system of the Room Temperature (K = 130) Cyclotron of Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre is comprised of vacuum systems of main machine and Beam Transport System. The vacuum control system is upgraded to a PLC based Automated system from the initial relay based Manual system. The supervisory control of the vacuum system is implemented in Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). An EPICS embedded ARM based vacuum gauge controller is developed to mitigate the requirement of vendor specific gauge controller for gauges and also for seamless integration of the gauge controllers with the control system. A set of MS-Windows ActiveX components with embedded EPICS Channel Access interface are developed to build operator interfaces with less complex programming and to incorporate typical Windows feature, e.g., user authentication, file handling, better fonts, colors, mouse actions etc. into the operator interfaces. The control parameters, monitoring parameters, and system interlocks of the system are archived in MySQL based EPICS MySQL Archiver developed indigenously. In this paper, we describe the architecture, the implementation details, and the performance of the system.

  6. Educational level and risk of colorectal cancer in EPIC with specific reference to tumor location.

    PubMed

    Leufkens, Anke M; Van Duijnhoven, Fränzel J B; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Siersema, Peter D; Kunst, Anton E; Mouw, Traci; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Morois, Sophie; Krogh, Vittorio; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Polidoro, Silvia; Palli, Domenico; Kaaks, Rudolf; Teucher, Birgit; Pischon, Tobias; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Orfanos, Philippos; Goufa, Ioulia; Peeters, Petra H M; Skeie, Guri; Braaten, Tonje; Rodríguez, Laudina; Lujan-Barroso, Leila; Sánchez-Pérez, Maria-José; Navarro, Carmen; Barricarte, Aurelio; Zackrisson, Sophia; Almquist, Martin; Hallmans, Goran; Palmqvist, Richard; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Gallo, Valentina; Jenab, Mazda; Riboli, Elio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas

    2012-02-01

    Existing evidence is inconclusive on whether socioeconomic status (SES) and educational inequalities influence colorectal cancer (CRC) risk, and whether low or high SES/educational level is associated with developing CRC. The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between educational level and CRC. We studied data from 400,510 participants in the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) study, of whom 2,447 developed CRC (colon: 1,551, rectum: 896, mean follow-up 8.3 years). Cox proportional hazard regression analysis stratified by age, gender and center, and adjusted for potential confounders were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Relative indices of inequality (RII) for education were estimated using Cox regression models. We conducted separate analyses for tumor location, gender and geographical region. Compared with participants with college/university education, participants with vocational secondary education or less had a nonsignificantly lower risk of developing CRC. When further stratified for tumor location, adjusted risk estimates for the proximal colon were statistically significant for primary education or less (HR 0.73, 95%CI 0.57-0.94) and for vocational secondary education (HR 0.76, 95%CI 0.58-0.98). The inverse association between low education and CRC risk was particularly found in women and Southern Europe. These associations were statistically significant for CRC, for colon cancer and for proximal colon cancer. In conclusion, CRC risk, especially in the proximal colon, is lower in subjects with a lower educational level compared to those with a higher educational level. This association is most pronounced in women and Southern Europe. PMID:21412763

  7. A calibration procedure to improve global rice yield simulations with EPIC

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong, Wei; Balkovic, Juraj; van der Velde, M.; Zhang, Xuesong; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Skalsky, Rastislav; Lin, Erda; Mueller, Nathan; Obersteiner, Michael

    2014-02-01

    Crop models are increasingly used to assess impacts of climate change/variability and management practices on productivity and environmental performance of alternative cropping systems. Calibration is an important procedure to improve reliability of model simulations, especially for large area applications. However, global-scale crop model calibration has rarely been exercised due to limited data availability and expensive computing cost. Here we present a simple approach to calibrate Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model for a global implementation of rice. We identify four parameters (potential heat unit – PHU, planting density – PD, harvest index – HI, and biomass energy ratio – BER) and calibrate them regionally to capture the spatial pattern of reported rice yield in 2000. Model performance is assessed by comparing simulated outputs with independent FAO national data. The comparison demonstrates that the global calibration scheme performs satisfactorily in reproducing the spatial pattern of rice yield, particularly in main rice production areas. Spatial agreement increases substantially when more parameters are selected and calibrated, but with varying efficiencies. Among the parameters, PHU and HI exhibit the highest efficiencies in increasing the spatial agreement. Simulations with different calibration strategies generate a pronounced discrepancy of 5–35% in mean yields across latitude bands, and a small to moderate difference in estimated yield variability and yield changing trend for the period of 1981–2000. Present calibration has little effects in improving simulated yield variability and trends at both regional and global levels, suggesting further works are needed to reproduce temporal variability of reported yields. This study highlights the importance of crop models’ calibration, and presents the possibility of a transparent and consistent up scaling approach for global crop simulations given current availability of

  8. Nutrient Patterns and Their Food Sources in an International Study Setting: Report from the EPIC Study

    PubMed Central

    Moskal, Aurelie; Pisa, Pedro T.; Ferrari, Pietro; Byrnes, Graham; Freisling, Heinz; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Cadeau, Claire; Nailler, Laura; Wendt, Andrea; Kühn, Tilman; Boeing, Heiner; Buijsse, Brian; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjær, Jytte; Dahm, Christina C.; Chiuve, Stephanie E.; Quirós, Jose R.; Buckland, Genevieve; Molina-Montes, Esther; Amiano, Pilar; Huerta Castaño, José M.; Gurrea, Aurelio Barricarte; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Lentjes, Marleen A.; Key, Timothy J.; Romaguera, Dora; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Orfanos, Philippos; Palli, Domenico; Pala, Valeria; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; de Magistris, Maria Santucci; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Ocké, Marga C.; Beulens, Joline W. J.; Ericson, Ulrika; Drake, Isabel; Nilsson, Lena M.; Winkvist, Anna; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Hjartåker, Anette; Riboli, Elio; Slimani, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Background Compared to food patterns, nutrient patterns have been rarely used particularly at international level. We studied, in the context of a multi-center study with heterogeneous data, the methodological challenges regarding pattern analyses. Methodology/Principal Findings We identified nutrient patterns from food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study and used 24-hour dietary recall (24-HDR) data to validate and describe the nutrient patterns and their related food sources. Associations between lifestyle factors and the nutrient patterns were also examined. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied on 23 nutrients derived from country-specific FFQ combining data from all EPIC centers (N = 477,312). Harmonized 24-HDRs available for a representative sample of the EPIC populations (N = 34,436) provided accurate mean group estimates of nutrients and foods by quintiles of pattern scores, presented graphically. An overall PCA combining all data captured a good proportion of the variance explained in each EPIC center. Four nutrient patterns were identified explaining 67% of the total variance: Principle component (PC) 1 was characterized by a high contribution of nutrients from plant food sources and a low contribution of nutrients from animal food sources; PC2 by a high contribution of micro-nutrients and proteins; PC3 was characterized by polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin D; PC4 was characterized by calcium, proteins, riboflavin, and phosphorus. The nutrients with high loadings on a particular pattern as derived from country-specific FFQ also showed high deviations in their mean EPIC intakes by quintiles of pattern scores when estimated from 24-HDR. Center and energy intake explained most of the variability in pattern scores. Conclusion/Significance The use of 24-HDR enabled internal validation and facilitated the interpretation of the nutrient patterns derived from FFQs

  9. Experimental physics and industrial control system (EPICS) input/output controller (IOC) application developer`s guide

    SciTech Connect

    Kraimer, M.R.

    1994-05-01

    This document describes the core software that resides in an Input/Output Controller (IOC), one of the major components of EPICS. The plan of the book is: EPICS overview, IOC test facilities, general purpose features, database locking - scanning - and processing, static database access, runtime database access, database scanning, record and device support, device support library, IOC database configuration, IOC initialization, and database structures. Other than the first chapter this document describes only core IOC software. Thus it does not describe other EPICS tools such as the sequencer. It also does not describe Channel Access, a major IOC component.

  10. The InterAct Project: An Examination of the Interaction of Genetic and Lifestyle Factors on the Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes in the EPIC Study

    PubMed Central

    Langenberg, C; Sharp, S; Forouhi, NG; Franks, P; Schulze, MB; Kerrison, N; Ekelund, U; Barroso, I; Panico, S; Tormo, M; Spranger, J; Griffin, S; van der Schouw, YT; Amiano, P; Ardanaz, E; Arriola, L; Balkau, B; Barricarte, A; Beulens, JWJ; Boeing, H; Bueno-de-Mesquita, HB; Buijsse, BB; Chirlaque Lopez, MD; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Crowe, FL; de Lauzon-Guillan, B; Deloukas, P; Dorronsoro, M; Drogan, DD; Froguel, P; Gonzalez, C; Grioni, S; Groop, L; Groves, C; Hainaut, P; Halkjaer, J; Hallmans, G; Hansen, T; Kaaks, R; Key, TJ; Khaw, K; Koulman, A; Mattiello, A; Navarro, C; Nilsson, P; Norat, T; Overvad, K; Palla, L; Palli, D; Pedersen, O; Peeters, PH; Quirós, JR; Ramachandran, A; Rodriguez-Suarez, L; Rolandsson, O; Romaguera, D; Romieu, I; Sacerdote, C; Sánchez, M; Sandbaek, A; Slimani, N; Sluijs, I; Spijkerman, AMW; Teucher, B; Tjonneland, A; Tumino, R; van der A, DL; Verschuren, WMM; Tuomilehto, J; Feskens, E; McCarthy, M; Riboli, E; Wareham, NJ

    2014-01-01

    Background Studying gene-lifestyle interaction may help to identify lifestyle factors that modify genetic susceptibility and uncover genetic loci exerting important subgroup effects. Adequately powered studies with prospective, unbiased, standardised assessment of key behavioural factors for gene-lifestyle studies are lacking. Objective To establish a type 2 diabetes case-cohort study designed to investigate how genetic and potentially modifiable lifestyle and behavioral factors, particularly diet and physical activity, interact in their influence on the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Methods Funded by the Sixth European Framework Programme, InterAct consortium partners ascertained and verified incident cases of type 2 diabetes occurring in European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohorts between 1991 and 2007 from 8 of the 10 EPIC countries. A pragmatic, high sensitivity approach was used for case ascertainment including multiple sources at each EPIC centre, followed by diagnostic verification. Prentice-weighted Cox regression and random effects meta-analyses were used to investigate differences in diabetes incidence by age and sex. Results A total of 12,403 verified incident cases of type 2 diabetes occurred during 3.99 million person-years of follow-up of 340,234 EPIC participants eligible for InterAct. We defined a centre stratified subcohort of 16,154 individuals for comparative analyses. Individuals with incident diabetes that were randomly selected into the subcohort (n=778) were included as cases in the analyses. All prevalent diabetes cases were excluded from the study. InterAct cases were followed-up for an average of 6.9 years, 49.7% were men. Mean baseline age and age at diagnosis were 55.6 and 62.5 years, mean BMI and waist were 29.4 kg/m2 and 102.7 cm in men, and 30.1 kg/m2 and 92.8 cm in women, respectively. Risk of type 2 diabetes increased linearly with age, with an overall hazard ratio (95% CI) of 1.56 (1.48; 1

  11. Feasibility of the Enhancing Participation In the Community by improving Wheelchair Skills (EPIC Wheels) program: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Many older adults rely on a manual wheelchair for mobility but typically receive little, if any, training on how to use their wheelchair effectively and independently. Standardized skill training is an effective intervention, but limited access to clinician trainers is a substantive barrier. Enhancing Participation in the Community by Improving Wheelchair Skills (EPIC Wheels) is a 1-month monitored home training program for improving mobility skills in older novice manual wheelchair users, integrating principles from andragogy and social cognitive theory. The purpose of this study is to determine whether feasibility indicators and primary clinical outcome measures of the EPIC Wheels program are sufficiently robust to justify conducting a subsequent multi-site randomized controlled trial. Methods A 2 × 2 factorial randomized controlled trial at two sites will compare improvement in wheelchair mobility skills between an EPIC Wheels treatment group and a computer-game control group, with additional wheelchair use introduced as a second factor. A total of 40 community-dwelling manual wheelchair users at least 55 years old and living in two Canadian metropolitan cities (n = 20 × 2) will be recruited. Feasibility indicators related to study process, resources, management, and treatment issues will be collected during data collection and at the end of the study period, and evaluated against proposed criteria. Clinical outcome measures will be collected at baseline (pre-randomization) and post-intervention. The primary clinical outcome measure is wheelchair skill capacity, as determined by the Wheelchair Skills Test, version 4.1. Secondary clinical outcome measures include wheelchair skill safety, satisfaction with performance, wheelchair confidence, life-space mobility, divided-attention, and health-related quality of life. Discussion The EPIC Wheels training program offers several innovative features. The convenient, portable, economical, and adaptable

  12. Association of Plasma Phospholipid n-3 and n-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids with Type 2 Diabetes: The EPIC-InterAct Case-Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Forouhi, Nita G.; Schulze, Matthias B.; Zheng, Jusheng; Ye, Zheng; Kröger, Janine; Wang, Laura Yun; Summerhill, Keith; Griffin, Julian L.; Feskens, Edith J. M.; Affret, Aurélie; Amiano, Pilar; Boeing, Heiner; Dow, Courtney; Fagherazzi, Guy; Franks, Paul W.; Gonzalez, Carlos; Kaaks, Rudolf; Key, Timothy J.; Khaw, Kay Tee; Kühn, Tilman; Mortensen, Lotte Maxild; Nilsson, Peter M.; Overvad, Kim; Pala, Valeria; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Quirós, J. Ramón; Rolandsson, Olov; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Scalbert, Augustin; Slimani, Nadia; Spijkerman, Annemieke M. W.; Tjonneland, Anne; Tumino, Rosario; van der A, Daphne L.; Riboli, Elio

    2016-01-01

    Background Whether and how n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are related to type 2 diabetes (T2D) is debated. Objectively measured plasma PUFAs can help to clarify these associations. Methods and Findings Plasma phospholipid PUFAs were measured by gas chromatography among 12,132 incident T2D cases and 15,919 subcohort participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-InterAct study across eight European countries. Country-specific hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using Prentice-weighted Cox regression and pooled by random-effects meta-analysis. We also systematically reviewed published prospective studies on circulating PUFAs and T2D risk and pooled the quantitative evidence for comparison with results from EPIC-InterAct. In EPIC-InterAct, among long-chain n-3 PUFAs, α-linolenic acid (ALA) was inversely associated with T2D (HR per standard deviation [SD] 0.93; 95% CI 0.88–0.98), but eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were not significantly associated. Among n-6 PUFAs, linoleic acid (LA) (0.80; 95% CI 0.77–0.83) and eicosadienoic acid (EDA) (0.89; 95% CI 0.85–0.94) were inversely related, and arachidonic acid (AA) was not significantly associated, while significant positive associations were observed with γ-linolenic acid (GLA), dihomo-GLA, docosatetraenoic acid (DTA), and docosapentaenoic acid (n6-DPA), with HRs between 1.13 to 1.46 per SD. These findings from EPIC-InterAct were broadly similar to comparative findings from summary estimates from up to nine studies including between 71 to 2,499 T2D cases. Limitations included potential residual confounding and the inability to distinguish between dietary and metabolic influences on plasma phospholipid PUFAs. Conclusions These large-scale findings suggest an important inverse association of circulating plant-origin n-3 PUFA (ALA) but no convincing association of marine-derived n3 PUFAs (EPA and DHA) with T2D. Moreover, they

  13. Interface between shamanism and psychiatry in Miyako Islands, Okinawa, Japan: a viewpoint from medical and psychiatric anthropology.

    PubMed

    Shimoji, A

    1991-12-01

    This study is the first report regarding the borderland between psychiatry and shamanism in Miyako Islands, Okinawa, Japan. Folk healing practices are still flourishing on the islands. Most mentally ill persons we examined admitted to having consulted shamans. Although there is a need to assess the positive and negative effects of shamanistic practices on Miyako Islands' health care system as a whole, this report indicates the urgent need to come to terms with the interaction between shamanism and psychiatry on a multidimensional level. We describe here psychotic illness attributed to kandaari. These cases underline the importance of understanding "the explanatory model" (Kleinman 1979) of people as regards the causes and the effective healing of illness. From the viewpoint of medical and psychiatric anthropology, aspects of the treatment of such patients in the biocultural context are described. PMID:1813672

  14. Sesquiterpene Hydroquinones with Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B Inhibitory Activities from a Dysidea sp. Marine Sponge Collected in Okinawa.

    PubMed

    Abdjul, Delfly B; Yamazaki, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Ohgi; Kirikoshi, Ryota; Ukai, Kazuyo; Namikoshi, Michio

    2016-07-22

    Three new sesquiterpene hydroquinones, avapyran (1), 17-O-acetylavarol (2), and 17-O-acetylneoavarol (3), were isolated from a Dysidea sp. marine sponge collected in Okinawa together with five known congeners: avarol (4), neoavarol (5), 20-O-acetylavarol (6), 20-O-acetylneoavarol (7), and 3'-aminoavarone (8). The structures of 1-3 were assigned on the basis of their spectroscopic data. Compounds 1-3 inhibited the activity of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B with IC50 values of 11, 9.5, and 6.5 μM, respectively, while known compounds 4-8 gave IC50 values of 12, >32, 10, 8.6, and 18 μM, respectively. In a preliminary investigation on structure-activity relationships, six ester and methoxy derivatives (9-14) were prepared from 4 and 5. PMID:27336796

  15. Concentration of organic sun-blocking agents in seawater of beaches and coral reefs of Okinawa Island, Japan.

    PubMed

    Tashiro, Yutaka; Kameda, Yutaka

    2013-12-15

    The concentration of UV filters (UVFs) and UV light stabilizers (UVLSs) were measured in seawater and river water collected from sites at four beaches, two reefs, and one river on Okinawa Island, Japan. UVFs and/or UVLSs of 8-10 types were detected in beaches samples and 6-9 types were detected in reef samples. The total UVF concentrations at the beach sites were highest either in July or August with a maximum of 1.4 μg L(-1). The concentrations at the reef sites did not show peaks in summer and the maximum values were close to 10 ng L(-1). The detected UVF profiles reflected the ingredients of sunscreens used in each region. The highest UVLS concentrations at the reefs were observed not only in summer but also in June and September. The UVLS concentrations at the reefs were similar to or even higher than that at the beaches or in the river. PMID:24139648

  16. A new species of the palaemonid shrimp genus Palaemonella Dana, 1852 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea) from Okinawa Island, Ryukyu Islands, Japan.

    PubMed

    Komai, Tomoyuki; Yamada, Yusuke

    2015-01-01

    The palaemonid shrimp genus Palaemonella Dana, 1852 is currently represented by 21 formally described species worldwide, of which 17 species are known from the Indo-West Pacific. In this study, a new species, P. okunoi, is described and illustrated on the basis of two ovigerous female specimens collected from coastal waters in Okinawa Island, Ryukyu Islands, Japan, at depths of 5-30 m. The new species closely resembles P. hachijo Okuno, 1999, but the shorter rostrum, more anteriorly located postrostral teeth on the carapace, the presence of a pair of submedian teeth on the fourth thoracic sternite and the less slender pereopods distinguish P. okunoi n. sp. from P. hachijo. The discovery of the present new species raises the number of Japanese species of Palaemonella to eight. An updated key to the Indo-West Pacific species of the genus is presented. PMID:26249444

  17. Venting of carbon dioxide-rich fluid and hydrate formation in mid-okinawa trough backarc basin.

    PubMed

    Sakai, H; Gamo, T; Kim, E S; Tsutsumi, M; Tanaka, T; Ishibashi, J; Wakita, H; Yamano, M; Oomori, T

    1990-06-01

    Carbon dioxide-rich fluid bubbles, containing approximately 86 percent CO(2), 3 percent H(2)S, and 11 percent residual gas (CH(4) + H(2)), were observed to emerge from the sea floor at 1335- to 1550-m depth in the JADE hydrothermal field, mid-Okinawa Trough. Upon contact with seawater at 3.8 degrees C, gas hydrate immediately formed on the surface of the bubbles and these hydrates coalesced to form pipes standing on the sediments. Chemical composition and carbon, sulfur, and helium isotopic ratios indicate that the CO(2)-rich fluid was derived from the same magmatic source as dissolved gases in 320 degrees C hydrothermal solution emitted from a nearby black smoker chimney. The CO(2)-rich fluid phase may be separated by subsurface boiling of hydrothermal solutions or by leaching of CO(2)-rich fluid inclusion during posteruption interaction between pore water and volcanogenic sediments. PMID:17733370

  18. A new genus and species of octocoral with aragonite calcium-carbonate skeleton (Octocorallia, Helioporacea) from Okinawa, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Miyazaki, Yu; Reimer, James Davis

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new genus and species of octocoral with a calcium-carbonate skeleton, Nanipora kamurai sp. n., is described from a shallow coral reef in Okinawa, Japan. Contrary to most octocorals, the skeleton is composed of crystalline aragonite as in blue coral Heliopora. The results of molecular phylogenetic analyses of sequences of mtMutS, COI, and ITS1-5.8s-ITS2-28S region suggest Nanipora gen. n. specimens should be included in order Helioporacea. Based on morphological results compared with other Helioporacea including the genus Epiphaxum (family Lithotelestidae), we establish the new genus Nanipora within Lithotelestidae. This is the first time that a close molecular phylogenetic relationship between Heliopora and a related genus within Helioporacea has been revealed. PMID:26257549

  19. Faulting and hydration of the upper crust of the SW Okinawa Trough during continental rifting: Evidence from seafloor compliance inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Ban-Yuan; Crawford, Wayne C.; Webb, Spahr C.; Lin, Ching-Ren; Yu, Tai-Chieh; Chen, Liwen

    2015-06-01

    The elastic response of seafloor to ocean gravity wave loading, or seafloor compliance, provides a constraint on the elastic properties of the crust. We measured seafloor compliance at three ocean bottom seismometer (OBS) sites around Taiwan—two in the southwestern (SW) Okinawa Trough and one on the Ryukyu arc—and performed inversion for crustal structures beneath them. Models best fitting the data demonstrate a decrease in upper crustal shear velocity and an increase in the compressional/shear velocity ratio from the arc site to the trough sites with increasing amount of back-arc extension. This variation suggests that the upper continental crust is highly faulted and hydrated during rifting of the Eurasian lithosphere.

  20. Melting features along the western Ryukyu slab edge (northeast Taiwan) and Ryukyu slab tear (southernmost Okinawa Trough): Seismic evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, J.; Hsu, S.; Sibuet, J.

    2003-12-01

    Behind the sedimentary Ryukyu arc lies the Okinawa Trough whose termination is located at the tip of the Ilan plain (northern Taiwan), just above the Ryukyu slab edge. The present-day active volcanic front, located 80-100 km above the Ryukyu slab, extends from Japan to Kueishantao Island, an islet situated 10-km offshore the Ilan plain. 3370 earthquakes recorded in northern Taiwan by 65 seismic land stations between December 1990 and May 1999 were used to determine the 3-D Vp and Vs velocity structures and Vp/Vs ratios. A low Vp, low Vs and high Vp/Vs sausage like body, about 20 km in diameter, lies within the Eurasian mantle wedge, on top of the western Ryukyu slab extremity, from depths ranging between 20 km and 100 km. We suggest that the friction of the Ryukyu slab edge against the Eurasian lithosphere and/or the upwelling of the underlying Philippine Sea plate lithospheric mantle around the slab edge would cause an abnormal heating resulting in the formation of partial melt. Part of this melt feeds obliquely the Kueishantao andesitic Island. An abnormal amount of volcanism occurs within the Okinawa Trough, east of a slab tear located 140 km from the Ryukyu slab edge. The power spectrum analysis of magnetic data shows the presence of a thick crust located above the slab tear, suggesting that a similar pattern to the one identified above of the Ryukyu slab edge might exist in the slab tear region, feeding obliquely this area of abnormal volcanism.

  1. Springtime variations of organic and inorganic constituents in submicron aerosols (PM1.0) from Cape Hedo, Okinawa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunwar, Bhagawati; Torii, K.; Zhu, Chunmao; Fu, Pingqing; Kawamura, Kimitaka

    2016-04-01

    During the spring season with enhanced Asian outflow, we collected submicron aerosol (PM1.0) samples at Cape Hedo, Okinawa Island in the western North Pacific Rim. We analyzed the filter samples for diacids, oxoacids, pyruvic acid, α-dicarbonyls and fatty acids to better understand the sources and atmospheric processes in the outflow regions of Asian pollutants. Molecular distributions of diacids show a predominance of oxalic acid (C2) followed by malonic (C3) and succinic (C4) acids. Total diacids strongly correlated with secondary source tracers such as SO42- (r = 0.87), NH4+ (0.90) and methanesulfonate (MSA-) (0.84), suggesting that diacids are secondarily formed from their precursor compounds. We also found good correlations among C2, organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) in the Okinawa aerosols, suggesting that diacids are mainly derived from anthropogenic sources. However, a weak correlation of diacids with levoglucosan, a biomass burning tracer, suggests that biomass buring is not the main source of diacids, rather diacids are secondarily formed by photochemical oxidation of organic precursors derived from fossil fuel combustion. We found a strong correlation (r = 0.98) between inorganic nitrogen (NO3-N + NH4-N) and total nitrogen (TN), to which organic nitrogen (ON) contributed 23%. Fatty acids were characterized by even carbon number predominance, suggesting that they are derived from biogenic sources. The higher abundances of short chain fatty acids (C20) further suggest that fatty acids are largely derived from marine phytoplankton during spring bloom.

  2. Effect of biomass burning over the western North Pacific Rim: wintertime maxima of anhydrosugars in ambient aerosols from Okinawa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, C.; Kawamura, K.

    2014-10-01

    Biomass burning (BB) largely modifies the chemical compositions of atmospheric aerosols on the globe. We collected aerosol samples (TSP) at Cape Hedo, subtropical Okinawa Island from October 2009 to February 2012 to study anhydrosugars as BB tracers. Levoglucosan was detected as the dominant anhydrosugar followed by its isomers, mannosan and galactosan. We found a clear seasonal trend of levoglucosan and mannosan with winter maxima and summer minima. Positive correlation was found between levoglucosan and nss-K+ (r = 0.38, p < 0.001); the latter is another BB tracer. The analyses of air mass trajectories and fire spots demonstrated that the seasonal variations of anhydrsosugsars are caused by a long-range transport of BB emissions from the Asian continent. We found winter maxima of anhydrosugars, which may be associated with open burning and domestic heating and cooking in north and northeast China, Mongolia and Russia and with the enhanced westerly. The monthly averaged levoglucosan/mannosan ratios were lower (2.1-4.8) in May-June and higher (13.3-13.9) in November-December. The lower values may be associated with softwood burning in north China, Korea and southwest Japan whereas the higher values are probably caused by agriculture waste burning of maize straw in the North China Plain. Anhydrosugars comprised 0.22% of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and 0.13% of organic carbon (OC). The highest values to WSOC (0.37%) and OC (0.25%) were found in winter, again indicating an important BB contribution to Okinawa aerosols in winter. This study provides useful information to better understand the effect of East Asian biomass burning on the air quality in the western North Pacific Rim.

  3. Effect of biomass burning over the western North Pacific Rim: wintertime maxima of anhydrosugars in ambient aerosols from Okinawa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, C.; Kawamura, K.; Kunwar, B.

    2015-02-01

    Biomass burning (BB) largely modifies the chemical composition of atmospheric aerosols on the globe. We collected aerosol samples (TSP) at Cape Hedo, on subtropical Okinawa Island, from October 2009 to February 2012 to study anhydrosugars as BB tracers. Levoglucosan was detected as the dominant anhydrosugar followed by its isomers, mannosan and galactosan. We found a clear seasonal trend of levoglucosan and mannosan with winter maxima and summer minima. Positive correlation was found between levoglucosan and nss-K+ (r = 0.38, p < 0.001); the latter is another BB tracer. The analyses of air mass trajectories and fire spots demonstrated that the seasonal variations of anhydrosugars are caused by long-range transport of BB emissions from the Asian continent. We found winter maxima of anhydrosugars, which may be associated with open burning and domestic heating and cooking in northern and northeastern China, Mongolia and Russia and with the enhanced westerly winds. The monthly averaged levoglucosan / mannosan ratios were lower (2.1-4.8) in May-June and higher (13.3-13.9) in November-December. The lower values may be associated with softwood burning in northern China, Korea and southwestern Japan whereas the higher values are probably caused by agricultural waste burning of maize straw in the North China Plain. Anhydrosugars comprised 0.22% of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and 0.13% of organic carbon (OC). The highest values to WSOC (0.37%) and OC (0.25%) were found in winter, again indicating an important BB contribution to Okinawa aerosols in winter. This study provides useful information to better understand the effect of East Asian biomass burning on the air quality in the western North Pacific Rim.

  4. Petrology and Geochemistry of Hydrothermally Altered Volcanic Rocks in the Iheya North Hydrothermal Field, Middle Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamasaki, T.

    2015-12-01

    The Iheya North hydrothermal field is located in the middle Okinawa Trough, a young and actively spreading back-arc basin extending behind the Ryukyu arc-trench system in the southeastern margin of the East China Sea. In this hydrothermal field, two scientific drilling expeditions (IODP Exp 331 and SIP CK14-04) were conducted using a deep-sea drilling vessel "Chikyu," and samples from a total of 27 holes were taken. Through these expeditions, Kuroko-type volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits (VMS), hydrothermally altered volcanic rocks, and pumiceous and pelagic sediments were recovered. The recovered core provided important information about the relationship between hydrothermal activity, alteration, and ore mineralization. Whole-rock major element composition and trace element (TE) patterns of pumices were very similar to those of rhyolites in the middle Okinawa Trough (RMO). However, pumices were relatively enriched in chalcophile elements Sr and Nb, which suggest incipient mineralization. Volcanic rock generally demonstrated strong silicification and was greenish pale gray in color. Regardless of severe alteration, some rock displayed major element composition broadly similar to the RMO. Alteration was evidenced by an increase in the content of SiO2 and MgO, and decrease in Al2O3, Na2O, and K2O content. The most striking geochemical feature of altered volcanic rock was the discordance between texture and the degree of modification of TEs. Some samples showed decussate texture occupied by petal-like quartz with severe silicification, but no prominent disturbance of concentration and patterns of TEs were observed. In contrast, samples with well-preserved igneous porphyritic texture showed very low TE content and modification of TE patterns. These results suggest that the modification of texture and composition of TEs, as well as silicification, do not occur by a uniform process, but several processes. This may reflect the differences in temperature and the

  5. Spatial and temporal variation in the soil CO2 efflux in a subtropical broadleaved forest in Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Kazuho; Terasawa, Kei; Taniguchi, Shingo; Takashima, Atsushi; Katayama, Ayumi; Ohashi, Mizue

    2016-04-01

    Soil CO2 efflux (Rs) is a major component of the carbon emissions from terrestrial ecosystems. The spatiotemporal variation in Rs and its dependency on biotic and abiotic factors have been clarified in various ecosystems. It is thought that subtropical ecosystem RS values are slightly higher than those of temperate ecosystems, but much smaller than those of tropical ecosystems (Bond-Lamberty & Thomson, 2010), but compared with temperate and tropical ecosystems there are limited relevant data. This study examined spatial (within stand-scale) and temporal (hourly to seasonal) variation in Rs in a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest on Okinawa Island, Japan. We measured Rs using a closed dynamic chamber at 60 locations within a 0.15-ha plot once a month in 2013 and 2014. In addition, Rs was measured continuously using automated chambers at two locations within the same plot in 2015. The annual average Rs value (5.5 μmol m‑2 s‑1) obtained from the monthly manual measurements was comparable with values reported for tropical rainforests and larger than those for temperate forests. At our site, Rs showed clear seasonal variation depending on soil temperature, unlike in tropical rainforests, which lack seasonality. The spatial variation in Rs was positively correlated with the ratio of litter cover area per unit soil area, which was larger on the ridge and smaller on the slope. We propose that the amount of litter, as a material for heterotrophic respiration, largely characterises the spatial variation in Rs at this site, with a relatively small contribution from autotrophic respiration by plant roots. The results clarify that Rs values in subtropical forests in Okinawa have characteristics between those of temperate forests (seasonality) and tropical rainforests (large Rs).

  6. Contrasting behavior of tungsten and molybdenum in the Okinawa Trough, the East China Sea and the Yellow Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Sohrin, Yoshiki; Matsui, Masakazu; Nakayama, Eiichiro

    1999-10-01

    By using catalytic current polarography and high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, W and Mo in seawater were determined in the Okinawa Trough, a backarc rift, and in the East China Sea and the Yellow Sea. Mo was distributed conservatively throughout the study area, and its salinity-normalized concentration was 104 {+-} 6 nM (n = 105). W was also uniformly distributed south of the Kuroshio Current (56 {+-} 7 pM, n = 51). Anomalous high concentrations of W (maximum 254 pM) were found in the Iheya Graben in the middle Okinawa Trough ({gt}1,000 m depth), which were probably supplied by hydrothermal activity. The concentrations of Mo and W in the East China Sea and the Yellow Sea showed linear correlation with salinity (26 {lt} S {lt} 35). The Mo data can be explained by mixing of seawater and river water of the Changjiang (Mo = 10 nM; Qu et al., 1993). However, the values of W extrapolated to S = 0 were largely different between two cruises (1,200 pM in May-June 1987 and 540 pM in June 1994) and much higher than the reported concentrations of 160 pM for world rivers by Turekian (1969) and 30 pM for unpolluted Japanese rivers by Sohrin et al. (1989). Moreover, significantly high W was observed in the bottom water at stations near the Changjiang River estuary and the western Yellow Sea. While these data may suggest that W is released from the anoxic sediments of the continental shelf, more data are needed to elucidate the mechanism controlling the distribution of W.

  7. Seasonal variation of water-soluble chemical components in the bulk atmospheric aerosols collected at Okinawa Island, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handa, D.; Nakajima, H.; Nakaema, F.; Arakaki, T.; Tanahara, A.

    2008-12-01

    The economic development and population growth in recent Asia spread air pollution. Emission rate of air pollutants from Asia, in particular oxides of nitrogen, surpassed those from North America and Europe and should continue to exceed them for decades. The study of the air pollution transported from Asian continent has gained a special attention in Japan. Okinawa Island is situated approximately 1500 km south of Tokyo, Japan, 2000 km southeast of Beijing, China, and 1000 km south of South Korea. Its location is ideal in observing East Asian atmospheric aerosols because maritime air mass prevails during summer, while continental air mass dominates during fall, winter, and spring. The maritime air mass data can be seen as background and can be compared with continental air masses which have been affected by anthropogenic activities. In 2005, Cape Hedo Atmosphere and Aerosol Monitoring Station (CHAAMS) was established by the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) at the northern tip of Okinawa Island, Japan to monitor the air quality of Asia. Bulk aerosol samples were collected on quartz filters by using a high volume air sampler. Sampling duration was one week for each sample. We determined the concentrations of water-soluble anions, cations and dissolved organic carbon in the bulk aerosols collected at the CHAAMS, using ion chromatography, atomic absorption spectrometry, and total organic carbon analyzer, respectively. Seasonal variation of water-soluble chemical components showed that the concentrations were relatively low in summer, higher in fall and winter, and the highest in spring. When air mass came from Asian Continent, the concentrations of water-soluble chemical components were much higher compared to the other directions.

  8. Long-term observation of water-soluble chemical components in the bulk atmospheric aerosols collected at Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handa, Daishi; Somada, Yuka; Ijyu, Moriaki; Azechi, Sotaro; Nakaema, Fumiya; Arakaki, Takemitsu; Tanahara, Akira

    2010-05-01

    The economic development and population growth in recent Asia spread air pollution. Emission rate of air pollutants from Asia, in particular oxides of nitrogen, surpassed those from North America and Europe and should continue to exceed them for decades. The study of the long-range transported air pollution from Asian continent has gained a special attention in Japan because of increase in photochemical oxidants in relatively remote islands. Okinawa Island is situated approximately 1500 km south of Tokyo, Japan, 2000 km southeast of Beijing, China, and 1000 km south of South Korea. Its location in Asia is well suited for studying long-range transport of air pollutants in East Asia because maritime air mass prevails during summer, while continental air mass dominates during fall, winter, and spring. The maritime air mass data can be seen as background and can be compared with continental air masses which have been affected by anthropogenic activities. Bulk aerosol samples were collected on quartz filters by using a high volume air sampler. Sampling duration was one week for each sample. We determined the concentrations of water-soluble anions, cations and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the bulk aerosols collected at the Cape Hedo Atmosphere and Aerosol Monitoring Station (CHAAMS) using ion chromatography, atomic absorption spectrometry, and total organic carbon analyzer, respectively. We will report water-soluble chemical components data of anions, cations and DOC in bulk atmospheric aerosols collected at CHAAMS during August, 2005 to April, 2010. Seasonal variation of water-soluble chemical components showed that the concentrations were relatively low in summer, higher in fall and winter, and the highest in spring. When air mass came from Asian Continent, the concentrations of water-soluble chemical components were much higher compared to the other directions. In addition, we calculated background concentration of water-soluble chemical components at Okinawa

  9. A new solitary free-living species of the genus Sphenopus (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Zoantharia, Sphenopidae) from Okinawa-jima Island, Japan.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Takuma; Reimer, James Davis

    2016-01-01

    A new species of free-living solitary zoantharian is described from Okinawa, Japan. Sphenopus exilis sp. n. occurs on silty seafloors in Kin Bay and Oura Bay on the east coast of Okinawa-jima Island. Sphenopus exilis sp. n. is easily distinguished from other Sphenopus species by its small polyp size and slender shape, although there were relatively few differences between Sphenopus exilis sp. n. and Sphenopus marsupialis in the molecular phylogenetic analyses. Currently, very little is known about the ecology and diversity of Sphenopus species. Thus, reviewing each species carefully via combined morphological and molecular analyses by using newly obtained specimens from type localities is required to clearly understand and distinguish the species within the genus Sphenopus. PMID:27551219

  10. A new solitary free-living species of the genus Sphenopus (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Zoantharia, Sphenopidae) from Okinawa-jima Island, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Takuma; Reimer, James Davis

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of free-living solitary zoantharian is described from Okinawa, Japan. Sphenopus exilis sp. n. occurs on silty seafloors in Kin Bay and Oura Bay on the east coast of Okinawa-jima Island. Sphenopus exilis sp. n. is easily distinguished from other Sphenopus species by its small polyp size and slender shape, although there were relatively few differences between Sphenopus exilis sp. n. and Sphenopus marsupialis in the molecular phylogenetic analyses. Currently, very little is known about the ecology and diversity of Sphenopus species. Thus, reviewing each species carefully via combined morphological and molecular analyses by using newly obtained specimens from type localities is required to clearly understand and distinguish the species within the genus Sphenopus. PMID:27551219

  11. Multipurpose Controller with EPICS integration and data logging: BPM application for ESS Bilbao

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arredondo, I.; del Campo, M.; Echevarria, P.; Jugo, J.; Etxebarria, V.

    2013-10-01

    This work presents a multipurpose configurable control system which can be integrated in an EPICS control network, this functionality being configured through a XML configuration file. The core of the system is the so-called Hardware Controller which is in charge of the control hardware management, the set up and communication with the EPICS network and the data storage. The reconfigurable nature of the controller is based on a single XML file, allowing any final user to easily modify and adjust the control system to any specific requirement. The selected Java development environment ensures a multiplatform operation and large versatility, even regarding the control hardware to be controlled. Specifically, this paper, focused on fast control based on a high performance FPGA, describes also an application approach for the ESS Bilbao's Beam Position Monitoring system. The implementation of the XML configuration file and the satisfactory performance outcome achieved are presented, as well as a general description of the Multipurpose Controller itself.

  12. 16ch high-resolution seismic reflection surveys on the active fault of upper fore-arc slope off Okinawa Island, central Ryukyu Island Arc, Southwest Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, K.; Inoue, T.; Sato, T.; Tuzino, T.

    2010-12-01

    The Ryukyu Island Arc extends from Kyushu to Taiwan, a distance of 1,200 km, along the Ryukyu Trench where the Philippine Sea Plate is subducting beneath the Eurasian Plate. The Okinawa Trough, a back arc basin has formed behind the Ryukyu Island Arc in late Pliocene to early Pleistocene. The research cruises of GH08 (from 28th July to 29th August 2008) and GH09 (from 16th July to 17th August 2009) were carried out around Okinawa Island, which is located on the central Ryukyu Island Arc. More than 4,500 miles multi channel high-resolution seismic profiles were acquired during these two cruises by the GI-gun (355cu. inch) or the Cluster-gun (30+30 cu. inch) systems with 16ch digital streamer cable. Survey area in the southeast off Okinawa Island is located on the upper fore-arc slope. Seismic reflections of the upper fore-arc slope show a distinct reflector which may represent erosional unconformable surface. The distinct reflector had tilted southeastward and was overlain by the stratified sediments. No obvious deformation such as the fold and faults parallel to the Ryukyu Trench axis was found under the upper slope. In contrast, some active faults which were perpendicular to the Ryukyu Trench axis (NW-SE direction) were observed. The most conspicuous normal fault was found on north off Okinawa Island. The fault with 70-80°dipping toward northeast has been active since the early Pleistocene inferred from seismic stratigraphy and calcareous nannofossil biochronology. The maximum displacement reaches to 0.7 s two way travel time in depth. An average of maximum vertical displace component of the normal fault may reach up to ten cm/1000 years. Seismic profiles indicate that the tilting of Ryukyu Island Arc forward to the Ryukyu Trench plays the important role of formation of the fault in a NW-SE direction.

  13. Probathylepadidae, a new family of Scalpelliformes (Thoracica: Cirripedia: Crustacea), for Probathylepas faxian gen. nov., sp. nov., from a hydrothermal vent in the Okinawa Trough.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xian-Qiu; Sha, Zhong-Li

    2015-01-01

    A new pedunculate barnacle, Probathylepas faxian gen. and sp. nov., is described from a hydrothermal vent in the Okinawa Trough. A new scalpelliform family, Probathylepadidae, is also proposed for the new genus and species. Probathylepadidae differs from all other five families of the order Scalpelliformes by the capitulum bearing eight primal plates and two whorls of imbricating supplementary plates, and the peduncle being without scales. The relationships between the species of the new family and sessile barnacles are also discussed. PMID:26624398

  14. Species-Specific Responses of Corals to Bleaching Events on Anthropogenically Turbid Reefs on Okinawa Island, Japan, over a 15-year Period (1995–2009)

    PubMed Central

    Hongo, Chuki; Yamano, Hiroya

    2013-01-01

    Coral bleaching, triggered by elevated sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) has caused a decline in coral cover and changes in the abundances of corals on reefs worldwide. Coral decline can be exacerbated by the effects of local stressors like turbidity, yet some reefs with a natural history of turbidity can support healthy and resilient coral communities. However, little is known about responses of coral communities to bleaching events on anthropogenically turbid reefs as a result of recent (post World War II) terrestrial runoff. Analysis of region-scale coral cover and species abundance at 17–20 sites on the turbid reefs of Okinawa Island (total of 79 species, 30 genera, and 13 families) from 1995 to 2009 indicates that coral cover decreased drastically, from 24.4% to 7.5% (1.1%/year), subsequent to bleaching events in 1998 and 2001. This dramatic decrease in coral cover corresponded to the demise of Acropora species (e.g., A. digitifera) by 2009, when Acropora had mostly disappeared from turbid reefs on Okinawa Island. In contrast, Merulinidae species (e.g., Dipsastraea pallida/speciosa/favus) and Porites species (e.g., P. lutea/australiensis), which are characterized by tolerance to thermal stress, survived on turbid reefs of Okinawa Island throughout the period. Our results suggest that high turbidity, influenced by recent terrestrial runoff, could have caused a reduction in resilience of Acropora species to severe thermal stress events, because the corals could not have adapted to a relatively recent decline in water quality. The coral reef ecosystems of Okinawa Island will be severely impoverished if Acropora species fail to recover. PMID:23565291

  15. Enhanced Monitoring for the Eastern Pacific Investigation of Climate Processes (EPIC) Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cronin, M. F.; Bond, N.; Fairall, C.; Hare, J.; McPhaden, M. J.; Weller, R. A.

    2002-12-01

    The Eastern Pacific Investigation of Climate Processes (EPIC) is a five-year experiment designed to improve understanding of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), its interactions with the cold tongue of water that extends along the equator, and the physics of the cloud deck that forms over the cool waters off South America. EPIC fieldwork began in 1999 and involves short-term process studies, embedded within longer-term (3-4 years) enhanced monitoring, built on the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) observing system. As part of EPIC enhanced monitoring, an IMET mooring was deployed at 20°S, 85°W in the stratus deck region, and the easternmost (95°W) Tropical Atmosphere and Ocean (TAO) line of moorings was enhanced with additional sensors and moorings. With 10 EPIC-enhanced TAO moorings between 8°S, 95°W and 12°N, 95°W, the 95°W mooring line provides a picket fence of time series of heat, moisture and momentum fluxes and upper ocean temperature, salinity, and horizontal currents from the stratocumulus region, across the cold tongue / ITCZ complex and into the northeastern tropical Pacific warm pool. Six-monthly TAO maintenance cruises were also specially equipped to monitor air-sea fluxes and boundary layer properties. In this presentation we combine ship transect measurements with moored time series to show the structure and evolution of the cold tongue / ITCZ complex. In addition, southern moorings along 95°W are compared with the 20°S, 85°W stratus mooring to show the meridional extent of the cold season stratiform. Implications for understanding and modeling eastern tropical Pacific ocean-atmosphere interactions will be discussed.

  16. Experience with the SNS LabVIEW/EPICS-Based Diagnostics Instruments

    SciTech Connect

    Blokland, Willem; Assadi, Saeed

    2004-11-10

    The SNS Diagnostics Group uses rack-mounted PCs running LabVIEW and EPICS to implement its instruments as network attached devices. Many of these instruments, such as wire scanners and beam position monitors, come from the partner labs. The final integration and testing is done at SNS. We have now gone through several commissioning runs with success. This paper describes the integration, the commissioning, and the physics performance of the devices.

  17. HPC-EPIC for High Resolution Simulations of Environmental and Sustainability Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Dali; Post, Wilfred M; Kang, Shujiang; Nichols, Dr Jeff A

    2011-01-01

    Multiple concerns over the impact of wide scale changes in land management have motivated comprehensive analyses of environmental sustainability of food and biofuel production. These call for high-resolution land management tools that enable comprehensive analyses of natural resources for decision-making. The agroecosystem simulation models with the most biophysical detail are point models, which often have a user interface that allows users to provide inputs and examine results for agricultural field scale analyses. These are not able to meet the needs of high-resolution regional or national simulations. We describe an efficient computational approach for deployment of the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model at high-resolution spatial scales using high performance computing (HPC) techniques. We developed an integrated procedure for executing the millions of simulations required for high-resolution, regional studies, and also address building databases for model initialization, model forcing data, and model outputs. We first ported EPIC from Windows to an HPC platform and validated output from both platforms. We then developed methods of packaging simulations for efficient, unattended parallel execution on the HPC cluster. The job queuing system, Portable Batch System (PBS) is employed to control job submission. Simulation outputs are extracted to PostgreSQL database for analysis. In a case study covering four counties in central Wisconsin using HPC-EPIC, we finished over 140 K simulations in a total of 10 h on an HPC cluster using 20 nodes. This is a speedup of 40 times. More nodes could be used to achieve larger speedups. The HPC-EPIC model developed in this study is anticipated to provide information useful for high-resolution land use management and decision making. The framework for high-performance computing can be extended to other traditional, point-based biophysical simulation models.

  18. The Improved Physical Activity Index for Measuring Physical Activity in EPIC Germany

    PubMed Central

    Wientzek, Angelika; Vigl, Matthäus; Steindorf, Karen; Brühmann, Boris; Bergmann, Manuela M.; Harttig, Ulrich; Katzke, Verena; Kaaks, Rudolf; Boeing, Heiner

    2014-01-01

    In the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study (EPIC), physical activity (PA) has been indexed as a cross-tabulation between PA at work and recreational activity. As the proportion of non-working participants increases, other categorization strategies are needed. Therefore, our aim was to develop a valid PA index for this population, which will also be able to express PA continuously. In the German EPIC centers Potsdam and Heidelberg, a clustered sample of 3,766 participants was re-invited to the study center. 1,615 participants agreed to participate and 1,344 participants were finally included in this study. PA was measured by questionnaires on defined activities and a 7-day combined heart rate and acceleration sensor. In a training sample of 433 participants, the Improved Physical Activity Index (IPAI) was developed. Its performance was evaluated in a validation sample of 911 participants and compared with the Cambridge Index and the Total PA Index. The IPAI consists of items covering five areas including PA at work, sport, cycling, television viewing, and computer use. The correlations of the IPAI with accelerometer counts in the training and validation sample ranged r = 0.40–0.43 and with physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) r = 0.33–0.40 and were higher than for the Cambridge Index and the Total PA Index previously applied in EPIC. In non-working participants the IPAI showed higher correlations than the Cambridge Index and the Total PA Index, with r = 0.34 for accelerometer counts and r = 0.29 for PAEE. In conclusion, we developed a valid physical activity index which is able to express PA continuously as well as to categorize participants according to their PA level. In populations with increasing rates of non-working people the performance of the IPAI is better than the established indices used in EPIC. PMID:24642812

  19. Modeling Seasons in the Outer Solar System: Enabling EPIC to Roar on 1 Watt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowling, Timothy E.; Sussman, M. G.; Greathouse, T. K.; Chanover, N. J.

    2012-10-01

    We describe solutions to key technical problems that arise in GCMs when modeling the circulations of Uranus and Neptune, and provide an update to the EPIC model radiative transfer (RT) package, with application to seasonal forcing of Saturn and Uranus. The primary challenges in ice-giant circulation modeling stem from the low value of the solar insolation ( 1 Wm-2), which results in slow ( 10-3 ms-1) meridional-plane circulations that are coupled to fast ( 102 ms-1) zonal winds. Computational modes that are negligible for inner solar-system atmospheric modeling because of high insolation are not negligible for Uranus and Neptune, and hence must be reduced or eliminated. We describe a new, high-order hyperviscosity algorithm that is non-dimensional, efficient, and has well-behaved boundary conditions at the poles. A 12th-order application to Uranus permits EPIC to run for multiple Uranus years without degrading the 11th-order zonal-wind model of Sromovsky et al. (2009). Additional EPIC (Ver. 5.0) improvements include a runtime RT package based on the Greathouse et al. (2010 EGU) Saturn seasonal model that employs our fast and accurate DISORT c_twostr rewrite, a pressure vertical-coordinate option, a dynamic convective adjustment scheme which incorporates improvements to the turbulent Prandtl number by Zilitinkevich et al. (2007), and an accurate analemma, or Sun-in-sky position as a function of time and location on the planet, for Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. These improvements make EPIC a versatile tool for dynamic 3D modeling of stratospheric temperatures and hydrocarbon distributions. This research is funded by the NASA Planetary Atmospheres Program, Grant NNX08AEG4G.

  20. Association between socioeconomic and demographic characteristics and utilization of colonoscopy in the EPIC-Heidelberg cohort.

    PubMed

    Hermann, Silke; Friedrich, Susanne; Haug, Ulrike; Rohrmann, Sabine; Becker, Nikolaus; Kaaks, Rudolf

    2015-03-01

    We aimed to describe the utilization of colonoscopy and its association with sociodemographic characteristics within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Heidelberg cohort study. We included 15 014 study participants (43% men) of the EPIC-Heidelberg cohort recruited between 1994 and 1998. At baseline recruitment, as well as in the 3-yearly follow-up surveys, study participants completed questionnaires on lifestyle, socioeconomic background variables, health status, and use of medications and medical services, including colonoscopy examinations. The present analyses focused on participants who completed the question on colonoscopy examination in all follow-up rounds. Our results show that by the end of the fourth follow-up round, more than half of all participants of the EPIC-Heidelberg cohort had had a colonoscopy. Colonoscopy was associated with some socioeconomic and demographic characteristics: a positive association with vocational training level as well as overall socioeconomic status level [International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) classification]. A negative association was found for household size and employment status. Colonoscopy usage increased steeply within the subgroup of participants older than 55 years of age and decreased again within the subgroup of participants older than 75 years of age. Organized colorectal cancer screening should include a written invitation system, to overcome the problem of sociodemographic-related differential awareness of and attendance at colonoscopy examinations. Also, the high proportion of prescreened individuals should be taken into account to avoid unnecessary re-examinations. PMID:25244156

  1. Extended Magnetohydrodynamics with Embedded Particle-in-Cell (XMHD-EPIC) Simulations of Magnetospheric Reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toth, Gabor; Gombosi, Tamas; Jia, Xianzhe; Welling, Daniel; Chen, Yuxi; Haiducek, John; Jordanova, Vania; Peng, Ivy Bo; Markidis, Stefano; Lapenta, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    We have recently developed a new modeling capability to embed the implicit Particle-in-Cell (PIC) model iPIC3D into the BATS-R-US extended magnetohydrodynamic model. The PIC domain can cover the regions where kinetic effects are most important, such as reconnection sites. The BATS-R-US code with its block-adaptive grid can efficiently handle the rest of the computational domain where the MHD or Hall MHD description is sufficient. The current implementation of the MHD-EPIC model allows two-way coupled simulations in two and three dimensions with multiple embedded PIC regions. The MHD and PIC grids can have different grid resolutions and grid structures. The MHD variables and the moments of the PIC distribution functions are interpolated and message passed in an efficient manner through the Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF). Both BATS-R-US and iPIC3D are massively parallel codes fully integrated into, run by and coupled through the SWMF. We have successfully applied the MHD-EPIC code to model Ganymede's and Mercury's magnetospheres. We compared our results with Galileo and MESSENGER magnetic observations, respectively, and found good overall agreement. We will report our progress on modeling the Earth magnetosphere with MHD-EPIC with the goal of providing direct comparison with and global context for the MMS observations.

  2. New Radiative Transfer Capability in the EPIC Atmospheric Model with Application to Saturn and Uranus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowling, Timothy Edward; Greathouse, T. K.; Sussman, M. G.; Chanover, N. J.

    2010-10-01

    We have adapted radiative transfer (RT) schemes from the gas-giant seasonal models of Greathouse et al. (EGU 2010) and Sussman et al. (AGU 2009) into the EPIC atmospheric model, and applied them to Saturn and Uranus. These additions give EPIC a hierarchy of RT options to account for solar heating via CH4 absorption from 5 microns to the UV, and radiative cooling due to thermal emission of CH4, C2H2, C2H6, and collision-induced opacity between 0 and 1600 cm-1. We have written an IDL tool to calculate radiative-equilibrium T(p) profiles for model initialization. We have ported the versatile DISORT RT model (Stamnes et al. 1988) from Fortran to C, and are incorporating it into an IDL post-processing tool to allow us to create synthetic spectra from EPIC output that accounts for thermal emission, reflected solar light, and aerosol and Rayleigh scattering. We give an update of applications to simulations of middle-atmosphere temperatures for Saturn and zonal-wind spin-up experiments for Uranus. This research is supported by NASA Planetary Atmospheres grant NNX08AE64G and NSF Planetary Astronomy grant AST-0807989.

  3. When is pile-up important in the XMM-Newton EPIC cameras?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jethwa, P.; Saxton, R.; Guainazzi, M.; Rodriguez-Pascual, P.; Stuhlinger, M.

    2015-09-01

    Context. Pile-up in X-ray charged couple device (CCD) detectors is defined as the reconstruction of independent events in the same detection cell as a single event during a read-out cycle. Pile-up can seriously compromise the spectral performance, modifying both the flux and the spectral shape of celestial sources. Aims: In this paper we define rigorous metrics to characterise the effect of pile-up in terms of flux loss and spectral distortion. Methods: We extend analytical formulae derived for pile-up on CCD detectors with the inclusion of the calibrated energy-dependence of the point spread function. We validated our analytical results through both Monte-Carlo simulations of the EPIC cameras on-board XMM-Newton and comparison with pile-up diagnostics in observed data. Results: We estimate new count rate levels corresponding to a given degree of flux loss and spectral distortion for each EPIC imaging acquisition mode and provide guidance to observers wishing to estimate these values in their own observations. Conclusions: We strongly recommend using these thresholds in planning future observations with the EPIC cameras.

  4. Characterization of Heavy Metal Contents in the Bulk Atmospheric Aerosols Simultaneously Collected at Three Islands in Okinawa, Japan by X-ray fluorescence spectrometric method (XRF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshiro, Y.; ITOH, A.; Azechi, S.; Somada, Y.; Handa, D.; Miyagi, Y.; Arakaki, T.; Tanahara, A.

    2011-12-01

    We studied heavy metal contents of atmospheric aerosols using an X-ray fluorescence spectrometric method (XRF). The XRF method enables us to analyze heavy metal contents of bulk aerosols rapidly without any chemical pretreatments. We used an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer that is compact and portable. We prepared several different amounts of standard reference materials (NIES No.28) of Japanese National Institute of Environmental Studies on quartz filters for calibration curves. Then, we evaluated quantitative responses of XRF method by comparing with the metal contents determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) after acid-digestion. Good linear relationships between X-ray intensity and amount of aerosol on filter were seen in the following 10 metals; Al, K, Ti, V, Fe, Ni, Rb, Ba, Pb and As. We then used XRF method to determine heavy metal contents in authentic atmospheric aerosols collected in Okinawa islands, Japan. Okinawa islands, consisting of many small islands, are situated east of Asian continent, and its location in Asian is well suited for studying long-range transport of air pollutants. Also, in Okinawa islands, maritime air mass prevails during summer, while Asian continental air mass dominates during fall, winter, and spring. The maritime air mass data can be seen as background clean air and can be compared with continental air mass which has been affected by anthropogenic activities such as industries and automobiles. Therefore, Okinawa region is suitable area for studying impacts of air pollutants from East Asia. We simultaneously collected bulk aerosol samples by using identical high-volume air samplers at 3 islands; Cape Hedo Atmospheric Aerosol Monitoring Station (CHAAMS, Okinawa island), Kume island (ca. 160 km south-west of CHAAMS), and Minami-Daitou island (ca. 320 km south-east of CHAAMS). We report and discuss spatial and temporal distribution of heavy metals

  5. Behavior of Particulate Mercury in the Bulk Atmospheric Aerosols Simultaneously Collected at 2 Sites in Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyagi, Y.; Arakaki, T.; Azechi, S.; Somada, Y.; Oshiro, Y.; Tsuhako, A.; Murayama, H.; Tanahara, A.

    2013-12-01

    Mercury is toxic to animals. Mercury is emitted to the atmosphere mainly from two sources; natural and anthropogenic sources. Natural sources include volcanic eruption, forest fire and so on. Anthropogenic sources include fossil fuel combustion, metal and cement production and so on. There are three forms of mercury in the atmosphere: gaseous elemental mercury, reactive gaseous mercury and particulate mercury. Gaseous elemental mercury is the most abundant form in the atmosphere, and has long atmospheric lifetime, ca. a few years. This study focuses on particulate mercury, which has a relatively short lifetime, ca. a few days, in the atmosphere because it reflects characteristics of nearby emission sources. Objectives of this study were to elucidate the behavior of particulate mercury in aerosols and to understand relationships between mercury and other metals and water-soluble anions. Aerosol samples were collected at two sites; Cape Hedo Atmosphere and Aerosol Monitoring Station (CHAAMS, Jan.2008-Nov.2012), northern tip of Okinawa island, and University of the Ryukyus (UR, Jan.2008-Nov.2012), central and more populated area of Okinawa island. They were collected by using identical high-volume air samplers on quartz filters. Concentrations of particulate mercury in aerosols were determined by using a MA-3000 (Nippon Instruments Corporation). The results showed that particulate Hg concentrations were mostly higher for the aerosols collected at UR site than those at CHAAMS site, suggesting locally emitted Hg. Samples collected at UR showed clear seasonal variation, the lowest in summer and the highest winter. On the other hand, the CHAAMS samples showed lower concentration in winter and higher concentration in summer, but the difference was relatively small. Both UR and CHAAMS samples had similar concentration levels in summer season. Back trajectory analysis showed that particulate Hg at CHAAMS site during summer was not from Asian continent. Since samples

  6. Current status of extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis in Okinawa prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakama, Rika; Shingaki, Aoi; Miyazato, Hiroko; Higa, Rikako; Nagamoto, Chota; Hamamoto, Kouta; Ueda, Shuhei; Hachiman, Teruyuki; Touma, Yuki; Miyagi, Kazufumi; Kawahara, Ryuji; Toyosato, Takehiko; Hirai, Itaru

    2016-05-01

    Enterobacteriaceae producing extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) are distributed worldwide. In this study, 114 ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae were isolated by analyzing 1672 clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae collected from an Okinawa prefectural hospital in Japan between June 2013 and July 2014. The overall prevalence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae was 6.8%; the prevalence of different bacterial species among the ESBL-producing isolates was as follows: 11.5% Escherichia coli (90 of 783 isolates), 6.2% Klebsiella pneumoniae (19 of 307 isolates), and 11.1% Proteus mirabilis (5 of 45 isolates). The ESBL types blaCTX-M-1, -3, -15, -2, -14, -27, and mutants of blaSHV-1 were detected. Among them, blaCTX-M-15 (33.3%), blaCTX-M-14 (27.8%) and blaCTX-M-27 (33.3%) were dominant in the E. coli isolates, whereas a blaSHV mutant which possessed four mutations (Tyr7Phe, Leu35Gln, Gly238Ser and Glu240Lys) in the amino acid sequence of SHV-1 dominated in the K. pneumoniae isolates (11 of 19, 57.9%). The pandemic E. coli ST131 clone was found to constitute 3.3% of the overall examined isolates and 62.2% of the ESBL-producing E. coli isolates. Our results suggest that the genetic combination of blaCTX-M, and blaSHV and antibiotics-resistant profile were different from that in other regions such as other areas of Japan, Asia, Europe, and North America, especially in the ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae isolates and in the E. coli B2-O25b-ST131 isolates possessing blaCTX-M-15 (40.7% of the E. coli B2-O25b-ST131 isolates). Taken together, our results indicate that the ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Okinawa, Japan, might be of a unique nature. PMID:26898665

  7. Intraspecific variations in carbon-isotope and oxygen-isotope compositions of a brachiopod Basiliola lucida collected off Okinawa-jima, southwestern Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takayanagi, Hideko; Asami, Ryuji; Abe, Osamu; Miyajima, Toshihiro; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Sasaki, Keiichi; Iryu, Yasufumi

    2013-08-01

    This study presents intraspecific variations in carbon-isotope (δ13C) and oxygen-isotope (δ18O) compositions of nine specimens of a subtropical brachiopod, Basiliola lucida, collected west of Okinawa-jima, Ryukyu Islands, southwestern Japan. The δ13C values of samples collected along the maximum growth axis (ontogenetic samples) from two modern and seven older (pre-1945 cal AD) shells show no seasonal changes. The modern shells, which were collected from comparable depths, have similar δ13C values that fall within the range of calcite precipitated in isotopic equilibrium with ambient seawater (equilibrium calcite) (δ13CEC values), and their mean δ13C values are ˜1.1-1.6‰ less than those from the older shells. This decrease in δ13C values is similar in magnitude to the decreases in atmospheric CO2 and the oceanic dissolved inorganic carbon at the sea surface in recent years (13C Suess effect), suggesting that the effect can even be detected at water depths of 200-300 m in the subtropical northwestern Pacific Ocean. The δ18O values fluctuate within a narrow range (0.26-0.41‰) with no seasonal changes, and they exhibit small (0.14-0.51‰) offsets from those of equilibrium calcite (δ18OEC values). A statistically significant negative linear relationship is established between seawater temperature and mean δ18O values of the nine shells, but the slope (-0.31‰/°C) is steeper than those of equilibrium calcite (-0.23‰/°C) and other calcareous organisms (-0.15‰ to -0.26‰/°C). The cross-plots of the δ13C and δ18O values suggest that the degree of the vital effect varies among individuals in this species. The δ13C and δ18O values of B. lucida are potentially useful for reconstructing the δ13C and δ18O evolution of ancient oceans, because both values show small intraspecific variations, the former is identical to the δ13CEC values, and the latter shows small within-shell variations and small, nearly constant offsets from the δ18OEC values.

  8. Structural and functional diversity of microbial communities beneath the hydrothermal vent at the Iheya North field of the Mid-Okinawa Trough (IODP Expedition 331)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagawa, K.; Nunoura, T.; Kawagucci, S.; Hirai, M.; Sunamura, M.; Breuker, A.; Brandt, L.; House, C. H.; McAllister, S. M.; Moyer, C. L.; Takai, K.

    2012-12-01

    Complex and diverse microbial communities in deep-sea hydrothermal fluids are apparently different from those in ambient seawater, some of which are predicted to migrate along hydrothermal vein from "subvent biosphere". Subseafloor environment just beneath active hydrothermal vent has been expected to be one of the most conceivable habitats for metabolically active and diverse microbial community. We conducted the scientific ocean drilling (IODP Expedition 331) for the Iheya North hydrothermal field in the Mid-Okinawa Trough in Sept. 2010, and collected core samples from the subseafloor biosphere beneath the hydrothermal vent. IODP Site C0014 was located 450 m east off the main hydrothermal vent. Temperature exceeded the limit of life at the depth of approximately 40 m below the seafloor. Both microscopy and quantitative PCR analyses successfully detected microbial populations in the shallower zone above 15 mbsf. However, the cultivation attempts of (hyper-)thermophiles were unsuccessful all over the depth. Culture-independent molecular biological experiments showed that microbial community composition distinctly changed with depth, possibly because of physicochemical conditions such as methane, sulfate and temperature. Microbial activities of methanogenesis and anaerobic methane oxidation were in accordance with the geochemical profiles of methane and sulfate. These results indicated the presence of functionally active subseafloor microbial communities but those were different from expected members in subvent biosphere. Site C0017 located 1.6 km east off the hydrothermal vent is a potential seawater recharge zone of the hydrothermal system, where seawater penetrates into the oceanic crust. The lithostratigraphy consists of characteristic coarse angular pumiceous gravel, lying above and below hemipelagic mud, in which high permeability may allow entrainment of seawater. As is the case with sedimentary subsurface environments, uncultivated archaeal groups were

  9. What is the constraint on formation of oil-starved hydrothermal systems in the sediment-rich Okinawa Trough, southwestern Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanaka, T.; Akashi, H.; Mitsunari, T.

    2012-12-01

    Petroleum generation associated with seafloor hydrothermal systems was first identified at the Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California in 1978 (Simoneit et al., 1979). Since the first discovery, hydrothermal petroleums have been discovered at other seafloor hydrothermal fields, Escanaba Trough, Middle Valley, and the Red Sea, where thick sedimentary layer overlay the active spreading center. Simoneit (1990) suggested that hydrothermal petroleum can be occurred any hydrothermal systems as a result of interaction between hot hydrothermal fluid and organic mater in the sedimentary layer. In the middle Okinawa Trough, where typical sediment-hosted hydrothermal systems distribute, occurrence of hydrothermal petroleum has not been found. In 2010 IODP Exp. 331 had been performed, and then five sites were drilled at the Iheya North hydrothermal system. However, hydrothermal petroleum generation has not been reported even at that time. On the other hand, significant hydrothermal petroleum generation has been observed at a shallow-seafloor hydrothermal system in the Kagoshima Bay, north extension of Okinawa Trough (Yamanaka et al., 1999). It is an interesting subject why hydrothermal petroleum can not be found in the Okinawa Trough. So we considered what is the most critical constraint on occurrence of hydrothermal petroleum based on comparison with the well known hydrothermal fields occurred hydrothermal petroleum. Three major control factors for petroleum generation at seafloor hydrothermal systems are expected; (i) temperature, (ii) elapsed time, (iii) type of sediment. High temperature is essential for maturation of organic matter, but under extremely high temperature condition pyrolysis to gaseous hydrocarbon and other low-molecular weight product may be prevailed. Dissolved organic matter (DOM) and methane concentrations may reflect the temperature condition, because methane generation may continue under extreme condition but DOM, especially low-molecular weight organic acid

  10. [Toxicity and toxin profile of scavenging and carnivorous gastropods from the coastal waters of Okinawa Prefecture, Japan].

    PubMed

    Taniyama, Shigeto; Takatani, Tomohiro; Sorimachi, Taiki; Sagara, Takefumi; Kubo, Hirofumi; Oshiro, Naomasa; Ono, Kaname; Xiao, Ning; Tachibana, Katsuyasu; Arakawa, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    From January to June 2009, a total of 64 gastropod specimens of 15 species were collected from the coastal waters of Okinawa Prefecture, Japan, and examined for toxicity by means of mouse bioassay. Among the specimens tested, 5 species, Nassarius glans, Nassariuscoronatus, Olivaannulata, Oliva concavospira and Zeuxis sp., were toxic. The toxicity scores of N. glans were very high; 39.6-461 MU/g in muscle, and 98.6-189 MU/g in viscera including digestive gland, followed by Zeuxis sp. (12.7 MU/g in whole body), N. coronatus (5.64-11.1 MU/g in whole body), O. annulata (10.8 MU/g in the whole body), O. concavospira (6.65 MU/g in the muscle). Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC-MS) revealed that the major toxic component was tetrodotoxin (TTX), which accounting for 13-82% of the total toxicity. As for the remaining toxicity in the case of N. glans, 4,9-anhydroTTX, 4-epiTTX and 11-oxoTTX were contributors. Moreover, Niotha albescens showed no toxicity (less than 10 MU/g) in mouse bioassay, but TTX (5.08 MU/g) was detected by LC-MS. Paralytic shellfish poison was not detected in any of the specimens by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorometric detection (HPLC-FLD). PMID:23470873

  11. Entamoeba marina n. sp.; a New Species of Entamoeba Isolated from Tidal Flat Sediment of Iriomote Island, Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Shiratori, Takashi; Ishida, Ken-Ichiro

    2016-05-01

    The genus Entamoeba includes anaerobic lobose amoebae, most of which are parasites of various vertebrates and invertebrates. We report a new Entamoeba species, E. marina n. sp. that was isolated from a sample of tidal flat sediment collected at Iriomote Island, Okinawa, Japan. Trophozoites of E. marina were 12.8-32.1 μm in length and 6.8-15.9 μm in width, whereas the cysts were 8.9-15.8 μm in diam. and contained four nuclei. The E. marina cells contained a rounded nucleus with a small centric karyosome and uniformly arranged peripheral chromatin. Although E. marina is morphologically indistinguishable from other tetranucleated cyst-forming Entamoeba species, E. marina can be distinguished from them based on the combination of molecular phylogenetic analyses using SSU rDNA gene and the difference of collection sites. Therefore, we propose E. marina as a new species of the genus Entamoeba. PMID:26452446

  12. Tombs, tunnels, and terraces a cultural resources survey of a former ammunition supply point in Okinawa, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Verhaaren, B. T.; Levenson, J. B.; Komine, G.

    2000-02-09

    U.S. forces serving at military bases on foreign soil are obligated to act as good stewards of the cultural and natural resources under their control. However, cultural resources management presents special challenges at U.S. bases in other countries where cultural properties laws differ in emphasis and detail from those in the United States and issues of land ownership and occupancy are not always clear. Where status of forces agreements (SOFAs) exist, environmental governing standards bridge the gap between U.S. and host nation cultural priorities. In Japan, the Department of Defense Japan Environmental Governing Standards (JEGS) fill this function. Under Criteria 12-4.2 and 12-4.3 of the JEGS, U.S. Forces Japan commit themselves to inventory and protect cultural properties found on the lands they control or use. Cultural properties include archaeological sites, tombs, historic buildings, and shrines. Natural monuments, such as landscape features or plant and animal species, may also be designated as cultural properties. As part of this commitment, in February 1999 a cultural resources inventory was conducted in Area 1, part of Kadena Air Base (AB), Okinawa, Japan. Area 1, the former U.S. army Ammunition Supply Point 1, is currently used primarily for training exercises and recreational paint ball.

  13. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective actions of medicinal herb, Terminalia catappa L. from Okinawa Island and its tannin corilagin.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, S; Inoue, Y; Nakama, S; Ichiba, T; Aniya, Y

    2007-11-01

    The antioxidant and hepatoprotective actions of Terminalia catappa L. collected from Okinawa Island were evaluated in vitro and in vivo using leaves extract and isolated antioxidants. A water extract of the leaves of T. catappa showed a strong radical scavenging action for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and superoxide (O(2)(.-)) anion. Chebulagic acid and corilagin were isolated as the active components from T. catappa. Both antioxidants showed a strong scavenging action for O(2)(.-) and peroxyl radicals and also inhibited reactive oxygen species production from leukocytes stimulated by phorbol-12-myristate acetate. Galactosamine (GalN, 600 mg/kg, s.c.,) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 0.5 microg/kg, i.p.)-induced hepatotoxicity of rats as seen by an elevation of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities was significantly reduced when the herb extract or corilagin was given intraperitoneally to rats prior to GalN/LPS treatment. Increase of free radical formation and lipid peroxidation in mitochondria caused by GalN/LPS treatment were also decreased by pretreatment with the herb/corilagin. In addition, apoptotic events such as DNA fragmentation and the increase in caspase-3 activity in the liver observed with GalN/LPS treatment were prevented by the pretreatment with the herb/corilagin. These results show that the extract of T. catappa and its antioxidant, corilagin are protective against GalN/LPS-induced liver injury through suppression of oxidative stress and apoptosis. PMID:17293097

  14. Characteristics of the cultivable bacteria from sediments associated with two deep-sea hydrothermal vents in Okinawa Trough.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qing-lei; Wang, Ming-qing; Sun, Li

    2015-12-01

    In this study, different culture-dependent methods were used to examine the cultivable heterotrophic bacteria in the sediments associated with two deep-sea hydrothermal vents (named HV1 and HV2) located at Iheya Ridge and Iheya North in Okinawa Trough. The two vents differed in morphology, with HV1 exhibiting diffuse flows while HV2 being a black smoker with a chimney-like structure. A total of 213 isolates were identified by near full-length 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Of these isolates, 128 were from HV1 and 85 were from HV2. The bacterial community structures were, in large parts, similar between HV1 and HV2. Nevertheless, differences between HV1 and HV2 were observed in one phylum, one class, 4 orders, 10 families, and 20 genera. Bioactivity analysis revealed that 25 isolates belonging to 9 different genera exhibited extracellular protease activities, 21 isolates from 11 genera exhibited extracellular lipase activities, and 13 isolates of 8 genera displayed antimicrobial activities. This is the first observation of a large population of bacteria with extracellular bioactivities existing in deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Taken together, the results of this study provide new insights into the characteristics of the cultivable heterotrophic bacteria in deep-sea hydrothermal ecosystems. PMID:26410427

  15. Effect of Okinawa Propolis on PAK1 Activity, Caenorhabditis elegans Longevity, Melanogenesis, and Growth of Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Taira, Nozomi; Nguyen, Binh Cao Quan; Be Tu, Pham Thi; Tawata, Shinkichi

    2016-07-13

    Propolis from different areas has been reported to inhibit oncogenic/aging kinase PAK1, which is responsible for a variety of conditions, including cancer, longevity, and melanogenesis. Here, a crude extract of Okinawa propolis (OP) was tested against PAK1 activity, Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) longevity, melanogenesis, and growth of cancer cells. We found that OP blocks PAK1 and exhibits anticancer activity in the A549 cell (human lung cancer cell) line with IC50 values of 6 μg/mL and 12 μg/mL, respectively. Most interestingly, OP (1 μg/mL) significantly reduces reproduction and prolongs the lifespan of C. elegans by activating the HSP-16.2 gene, as shown in the PAK1-deficient strain. Furthermore, OP inhibits melanogenesis in a melanoma cell line (B16F10) by downregulating intracellular tyrosinase activity with an IC50 of 30 μg/mL. Our results suggest that OP demonstrated a life span extending effect, C. elegans, anticancer, and antimelanogenic effects via PAK1 inactivation; therefore, this can be a potent natural medicinal supplement against PAK1-dependent diseases. PMID:27337169

  16. Implementation of Epic Beaker Clinical Pathology at an academic medical center

    PubMed Central

    Krasowski, Matthew D.; Wilford, Joseph D.; Howard, Wanita; Dane, Susan K.; Davis, Scott R.; Karandikar, Nitin J.; Blau, John L.; Ford, Bradley A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Epic Beaker Clinical Pathology (CP) is a relatively new laboratory information system (LIS) operating within the Epic suite of software applications. To date, there have not been any publications describing implementation of Beaker CP. In this report, we describe our experience in implementing Beaker CP version 2012 at a state academic medical center with a go-live of August 2014 and a subsequent upgrade to Beaker version 2014 in May 2015. The implementation of Beaker CP was concurrent with implementations of Epic modules for revenue cycle, patient scheduling, and patient registration. Methods: Our analysis covers approximately 3 years of time (2 years preimplementation of Beaker CP and roughly 1 year after) using data summarized from pre- and post-implementation meetings, debriefings, and the closure document for the project. Results: We summarize positive aspects of, and key factors leading to, a successful implementation of Beaker CP. The early inclusion of subject matter experts in the design and validation of Beaker workflows was very helpful. Since Beaker CP does not directly interface with laboratory instrumentation, the clinical laboratories spent extensive preimplementation effort establishing middleware interfaces. Immediate challenges postimplementation included bar code scanning and nursing adaptation to Beaker CP specimen collection. The most substantial changes in laboratory workflow occurred with microbiology orders. This posed a considerable challenge with microbiology orders from the operating rooms and required intensive interventions in the weeks following go-live. In postimplementation surveys, pathology staff, informatics staff, and end-users expressed satisfaction with the new LIS. Conclusions: Beaker CP can serve as an effective LIS for an academic medical center. Careful planning and preparation aid the transition to this LIS. PMID:26955505

  17. Quantitative Assessment of Articular Cartilage Morphology via EPIC-μCT

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Liqin; Lin, Angela S.P.; Levenston, Marc E.; Guldberg, Robert E.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Objective The objective of the present study was to validate the ability of EPIC-μCT to nondestructively assess cartilage morphology in the rat model. Design An appropriate contrast agent (Hexabrix) concentration and incubation time for equilibration were determined for reproducible segmentation of femoral articular cartilage from contrast-enhanced μCT scans. Reproducibility was evaluated by triplicate scans of six femora, and the measured articular cartilage thickness was independently compared to thickness determined from needle probe testing and histology. The validated technique was then applied to quantify age-related differences in articular cartilage morphology between 4, 8, and 16-week old (n=5 each) male Wistar rats. Results A 40% Hexabrix/60% PBS solution with 30 minute incubation was optimal for segmenting cartilage from the underlying bone tissue and other soft tissues in the rat model. High reproducibility was indicated by the low coefficient of variation (1.7-2.5%) in cartilage volume, thickness and surface area. EPIC-μCT evaluation of thickness showed a strong linear relationship and good agreement with both needle probing (r2=0.95, slope=0.81, p<0.01, mean difference 11±22μm, n=43) and histology (r2=0.99, slope=0.97, p<0.01, mean difference 12±10μm, n=30). Cartilage volume and thickness significantly decreased with age while surface area significantly increased. Conclusion EPIC-μCT imaging has the ability to nondestructively evaluate three-dimensional articular cartilage morphology with high precision and accuracy in a small animal model. PMID:18789727

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: K2 EPIC stellar properties for 138600 targets (Huber+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, D.; Bryson, S. T.; Haas, M. R.; Barclay, T.; Barentsen, G.; Howell, S. B.; Sharma, S.; Stello, D.; Thompson, S. E.

    2016-06-01

    The K2 Mission uses the Kepler spacecraft to obtain high-precision photometry over ~80 day campaigns in the ecliptic plane. The Ecliptic Plane Input Catalog (EPIC) provides coordinates, photometry, and kinematics based on a federation of all-sky catalogs to support target selection and target management for the K2 mission. We describe the construction of the EPIC, as well as modifications and shortcomings of the catalog. Kepler magnitudes (Kp) are shown to be accurate to ~0.1mag for the Kepler field, and the EPIC is typically complete to Kp~17 (Kp~19 for campaigns covered by Sloan Digital Sky Survey). We furthermore classify 138600 targets in Campaigns 1-8 (~88% of the full target sample) using colors, proper motions, spectroscopy, parallaxes, and galactic population synthesis models, with typical uncertainties for G-type stars of ~3% in Teff, ~0.3dex in logg~40% in radius, ~10% in mass, and ~40% in distance. Our results show that stars targeted by K2 are dominated by K-M dwarfs (~41% of all selected targets), F-G dwarfs (~36%), and K giants (~21%), consistent with key K2 science programs to search for transiting exoplanets and galactic archeology studies using oscillating red giants. However, we find significant variation of the fraction of cool dwarfs with galactic latitude, indicating a target selection bias due to interstellar reddening and increased contamination by giant stars near the galactic plane. We discuss possible systematic errors in the derived stellar properties, and differences with published classifications for K2 exoplanet host stars. (1 data file).

  19. Diurnal Cycle of Convection in the East Pacific ITCZ during EPIC-2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boccippio, Dennis J.; Petersen, Walter A.; Cifelli, Robert; Rutledge, Steven A.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    During the last three weeks of September 2001, the EPIC-2001 intensive field campaign focused on studies of deep convection in the ITCZ over the Mexican warm pool region (10N, 95W) of the East Pacific. This study focuses on the pronounced observed diurnal cycle of environmental and convective parameters within the experiment domain. Data from three primary sources are examined: the R/V Ronald H. Brown C-band weather radar, 4-hourly soundings from the Brown and the Global Atmospherics, Inc. National Lightning Detection Network (long range product). Satellite data from TRMM, GOES and OV-1 are also used. The domain boundary layer shows a robust daily evolution of moist enthalpy (as reflect by equivalent potential temperature, theta-e, or wet bulb potential temperature, theta-w), with contributions from changes in both dry and moist entropy. Peak theta-w is found after local nightfall; the average diurnal range of theta-w is approximately 1 deg C. A composite diurnal cycle of convective properties was derived from the C-band volume scans, sampled continuously through the experiment at 10 minute updates. Products derived from the volumetric data include a surface PPI, 15 and 30 dBZ echo top height, vertically integrated liquid, and 6 km (mixed phase region) reflectivity CAPPIs. For almost all products, the parameter means showed virtually no diurnal cycle. However, for the upper-level products, the parameter spectra showed a clear peak in the occurrence of deep/vigorous convection (the "tail end of the distribution") between 7-9 UTC (1-3 AM local), while overall frequency of occurrence peaked later, from 12-15 UTC (6-9 AM local). This represents a daily "outbreak" of isolated deep cells a couple of hours after sunset and subsequent growth, organization and decay through the nighttime hours. The coherence of the diurnal cycle of the convective spectrum is impressive given the wide variety of convective organization observed during the experiment, and given the modulation

  20. EPIC: A C++ Service Oriented Inter-process Messaging Framework and its Usage in the PFS Reduction Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal, C.; Chabaud, P.-Y.

    2015-09-01

    We present EPIC: a C++ library for managing inter process communication in the Prime Focus Spectrograph Data Reduction Pipeline (PFS/DRP). The aim of EPIC is to provide a consistent framework for building distributed softwares that can be efficiently used in various kind of astronomical data processing pipeline. The Prime Focus Spectrograph multi-fiber system will allow more than 2000 simultaneous spectral observations of astronomical targets at the same time, leading the need of a high throughput system for processing data reduction of each observations. This framework provide a load balanced, messages and services oriented system, where nodes communicate with each other using a set of C++ APIs.

  1. Incorporation of a PbSe Array Based Spectrograph into EPICS using LabView at the JLab FEL Facility

    SciTech Connect

    D. Hardy; S.V. Benson; Michelle D. Shinn; S. Zhang

    2005-08-21

    A real-time spectrograph with a 1Hz update rate was designed and installed at the JLab FEL facility using a Cal Sensors PbSe array and a Roper Scientific SpectraPro 300 monochrometer. This paper describes the implementation of EPICS channel access on a remote PC running LabView with modification of vendor supplied LabView VI's to allow display of FEL light spectra in real-time on a remote workstation. This allows PC based diagnostics to be used in EPICS.

  2. ["Expanded prostate cancer index composite" (EPIC-26): Results of functional treatment in patients with localized prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Beyer, B; Huland, H; Feick, G; Graefen, M

    2015-11-01

    The standardized collation of the quality of treatment is a subject of discussion both nationally and internationally. This article presents the work of the International Consortium for Health Outcomes Measurement (ICHOM) and the validated German translation of the expanded prostate cancer index composite (EPIC-26). This questionnaire allows a standardized interdisciplinary collation of the quality of treatment for all therapy modalities of localized prostate cancer. Use of the ICHOM standard set and the EPIC-26 achieves a possibility for comparison of each form of therapy with respect to the curative success and the effect on health and quality of life of patients. PMID:26347350

  3. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions of ambient aerosols collected from Okinawa Island in the western North Pacific Rim, an outflow region of Asian dusts and pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunwar, Bhagawati; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Zhu, Chunmao

    2016-04-01

    Stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotope ratios were measured for total carbon (TC) and nitrogen (TN), respectively, in aerosol (TSP) samples collected at Cape Hedo, Okinawa, an outflow region of Asian pollutants, during 2009-2010. The averaged δ13C and δ15N ratios are -22.2‰ and +12.5‰, respectively. The δ13C values are similar in both spring (-22.5‰) and winter (-22.5‰), suggesting the similar sources and/or source regions. We found that δ13C from Okinawa aerosols are ca. 2‰ higher than those reported from Chinese megacities probably due to photochemical aging of organic aerosols. A strong correlation (r = 0.81) was found between nss-Ca and TSP, suggesting that springtime aerosols are influenced from Asian dusts. However, carbonates in the Asian dusts were titrated with acidic species such as sulfuric acid and oxalic acid during atmospheric transport although two samples suggested the presence of remaining carbonate. No correlations were found between δ13C and tracer compounds (levoglucosan, elemental carbon, oxalic acid, and Na+). During winter and spring, coal burning is significant source in China. Based on isotopic mass balance, contribution of coal burning origin particles to total aerosol carbon was estimated as ca. 97% in winter, which is probably associated with the high emissions in China. Contribution of NO3- to TN was on average 45% whereas that of NH4+ was 18%. These results suggest that vehicular exhaust is an important source of TN in Okinawa aerosols. Concentration of water-soluble organic nitrogen (WSON) is higher in summer, suggesting that WSON is more emitted from the ocean in warmer season whereas inorganic nitrogen is more emitted in winter and spring from pollution sources in the Asian continent.

  4. The tug-of-war between the West Philippine Sea and South China Sea Tropical Waters and Intermediate Waters in the Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C. T. A.

    2015-12-01

    It has been known that Kuroshio subsurface waters are the major source of nutrients to the East China Sea continental shelf, a major fishing ground. It has also been known that subsurface waters that upwell onto the shelf are heavily affected by the South China Sea (SCS) Tropical Water and the SCS Intermediate Water which contain more nutrients than the tropical (Smax) and intermediate (Smin) waters from the West Philippine Sea (WPS). A front has been found to separate the tropical and intermediate waters from the SCS and WPS. The reported front in the Okinawa Trough, however, was identified based only on one-time data from a single cross-section in the central Okinawa Trough. Here historical hydrographic data between Mar. 1950 and Dec. 2011 in the Okinawa Trough and its neighborhood are analyzed. A vertical front tilted toward the west is found in all seasons in all years across the World Ocean Circulation Repeated Lines PR 18 and 19 as well as at the PN cross-section in the central Okinawa Trough. The front at the Smax level (sigma theta=24.6-24.9) shows large seasonal and interannual variations. In winter during normal and La Niña periods the presence of the SCS Tropical Water is the most prominent. It is the weakest in autumn during normal periods and in spring during La Nina periods. Yet during El Niño periods the SCS Tropical Water is the most prominent in spring and it becomes the weakest in winter. As for intermediate waters (Smin at sigma theta= 26.7-26.9) the WPS Intermediate Water and SCS Intermediate Water show much weaker seasonality compared with tropical waters although during normal periods in winter the WPS Intermediate Water contribution is slightly larger than during other times. During El Niño periods the WPS Intermediate Water contribution is the smallest but in spring it is much strengthened. On the other hand, the WPS Intermediate Water contribution is the smallest in spring, and the largest in winter during La Niña periods.

  5. Geochemical Characteristics of Volcanic Rocks from the Southern Okinawa Trough and its Implications for Tectono-magmatic Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinjo, R.; Hokakubo, S.; Haraguchi, S.; Matsumoto, T.; Woodhead, J.

    2003-12-01

    The Okinawa Trough is a site of ongoing backarc rifting behind the Ryukyu arc-trench system. Recent intensive surveys, including submersible dives, at the southern Okinawa Trough (SOT) have revealed details of bathymetric, geological, and geophysical features. Here, we present the petrological and geochemical characteristics of volcanic rocks collected during these cruises, and discuss its relation to the evolutionary stage of rifting. Based on bathymetirc and magmatic features, SOT can be divided into two (i.e., eastern and western) segments with non-transform offset at ˜ 123.5° E. The eastern segment represents a well-developed rift system with E-W-trending central graben and separated NE-SW-trending volcanic front; these two features merge at ˜ 125° E. In contrast, the western segment is in the incipient rifting stage; rift axis exists close to 100 km contour of the Wadati-Benioff zone. The most notable feature is the presence of 'abnormal' volcanic chain (Cross Backarc Volcanic Trail, CBVT), which trends NE-SW and is obviously oblique to the axial trend. All rocks are subalkaline, but range from basalt to rhyolite; dacite-rhyolite are dominant in the eastern volcanic front and CBVT. Basalts from both segments are low-K tholeiites; they have high abundance of LILEs relative to HFSEs, negative Nb anomalies on MORB-normalized diagrams, and range of 143Nd/144Nd (0.5128-0.5129) and 87Sr/86Sr (0.7034-0.7048). Pb isotope systematics indicate 206Pb/204Pb=18.398-18.582, 207Pb/204Pb=15.594-15.652 and 208Pb/204Pb=38.570-38.912, clearly above the Northern Hemisphere Reference Line. These elemental and isotopic variations are compatible with derivation from Indian Ocean MORB-like mantle with strong overprint of subduction components from the slab. There is clear difference among more felsic rocks between two segments. At similar silica contents, most of felsic rocks from the western segment, including CBVT rhyolites, have higher LILE contents, 87Sr/86Sr and 208Pb/204Pb

  6. A unique Fe-rich carbonate chimney associated with cold seeps in the Northern Okinawa Trough, East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhilei; Wei, Helong; Zhang, Xunhua; Shang, Luning; Yin, Xijie; Sun, Yunbao; Xu, Lei; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Xianrong

    2015-01-01

    The East China Sea is an important marginal sea of the Western Pacific Ocean, from which natural gas hydrate sample has not been acquired so far. Recently, copious carbonate chimneys have been discovered in turbidite deposits in the olistostrome zone located on the west slope of the northern section of Okinawa Trough. Here, the petrology, geochemistry and chronology of an iron-rich carbonate chimney were characterized, confirming a close relationship between its formation and the dissociation of natural gas hydrate beneath the chimney in OT. A distinctive relationship has been observed between goethite and total carbonate contents along with a negative correlation between Fe and Ca contents. Conversely, abundant Fe accumulated on carbonate substrate by mineralized microorganisms. The δ13C values of the chimney wall were from -27.56 to -43.66‰ (average: -37.18‰, V-PDB), implying anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) as a predominant controlling factor on carbonate precipitation. As no pyrite and organic residues were identified in the iron-rich chimney, it was assumed that AOM was coupled to the iron reduction reaction at least to some extent during the chimney growth owing to the local deficiency of sulfate supply. The δ56Fe values of bulk chimney wall (ranging from -0.316‰ to -0.023‰, average -0.134‰) suggest mass and isotope exchanges between the chimney and ambient environment during its growth history, whereas the enrichment of δ18O of the carbonate implies these carbonate sourcing from hydrate dissociation underlying our sampling site. This assumption has been supported by a distinct bottom simulation reflector (BSR) and a well-developed fault system beneath the sampling site. This is the first report of cold seepage inside the OT and the identified iron-dependent AOM has shed a new light to the Carbon cycle related to the marine methane oxidation, particularly before the Great Oxidation Event ~2.45 Ga ago.

  7. ITCZ and ENSO pacing on East Asian winter monsoon variation during the Holocene: Sedimentological evidence from the Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xufeng; Li, Anchun; Wan, Shiming; Kao, Shuhji; Kuhn, Gerhard

    2016-04-01

    Deep-sea fan sediments provide an excellent geological archive for paleoenvironment reconstruction. Grain size, clay mineral and elemental (Ti, Fe, Ca) compositions were measured for a core retrieved from a submarine fan in the Okinawa Trough. Varimax-rotated Principal Component Analysis (V-PCA) on time-evolution of grain size spectrum reveals that, since the Holocene, sediment was transported mainly by the benthic nepheloid layer (33%) and upper layers (33%) which is driven by the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM). The intensification of the Kuroshio Current during the Holocene, masks the fluvial signal of the summer monsoon and obstructs clay minerals derived from the Yellow River, a major contributor prior to 12 ka BP. A new grain size index (GSI), which represents the EAWM well, exhibits a negative correlation with the δ18O record in Dongge Cave, China during the Holocene when sea level was relatively steady. This anticorrelation suggests the southward migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). The consistency among our records and rainfall records in Peru, Ti counts in the Cariaco Basin, monsoon records in Oman and the averaged summer insolation pattern at 30°N further support the ITCZ's impact on monsoon systems globally. Cross-Correlation Analyses for GSI and log(Ti/Ca) against δ18O record in Dongge Cave reveal a decoupling between the East Asian winter and summer monsoon during 5500-2500 cal yr BP, with greater complexity in the last 2500 years. This can be attributed to exacerbated ENSO mode fluctuations and possibly anthropogenic interference superimposed on insolation and ITCZ forcing.

  8. Virological and epidemiological analysis of coxsackievirus A24 variant epidemic of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis in Okinawa, Japan, in 2011

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Kazuhiro; Fujimoto, Tsuguto; Asato, Yoshimori; Uchio, Eiichi

    2015-01-01

    Background Acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC) is a highly contagious enterovirus infection of the conjunctiva and cornea. Coxsackievirus A24 variant (CA24v) is one of its etiological agents. We report a clinical, epidemiological, and virological analysis of a large epidemic of AHC that occurred from May to September, 2011, in Okinawa, Japan. Methods Clinical and epidemic aspects were evaluated for 435 AHC patients (348 bilateral and 87 unilateral, 783 eyes). Virological studies were carried out on nine isolates from ten patients. Virus isolation and direct detection of the enterovirus genome by the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction method and complete nucleotide sequencing of the VP1 gene and phylogeny-based classification using the VP4 sequences were carried out. Results The 11–15-year age group comprised the highest (62.0%) proportion of cases among all age groups. Conjunctival hyperemia was present in all patients, and subconjunctival hemorrhage, superficial punctate keratitis, and preauricular lymphadenopathy were present in 25.4%, 10.3%, and 7.8% of eyes, respectively. CA24v was isolated from the epidemic strain, and phylogenetic analysis based on a fragment of the VP1 gene showed 96%–97% identity between the current strain and the recent China/GD01/2010 strain. Conclusion These findings demonstrate that the clinical and epidemiological features of AHC observed in this study were similar to those of the past epidemic in the same region. It should be noted that sequential outbreaks of AHC due to CA24v might occur in the same location after a considerable period of time, and public health precautions are necessary to control this explosive epidemic. PMID:26109843

  9. A comparison of sedimentary aliphatic hydrocarbon distribution between the southern Okinawa Trough and a nearby river with high sediment discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeng, Woei-Lih; Huh, Chih-An

    2006-01-01

    Twelve surface sediments from the southern Okinawa Trough (OT) and nine surface sediments from a nearby river, the Lanyang River (LR), with high sediment discharge were analyzed for comparison of their aliphatic hydrocarbon distributions. Performing cluster analysis on all hydrocarbon data of LR and OT sediments showed that the two areas had a similarity level of only 0.15, meaning that they were quite dissimilar. The average ratio of terrigenous to aquatic n-alkanes was 0.99 for LR sediments and 9.64 for OT sediments, indicating that the concentrations of n-alkanes in LR and OT sediments were quite different. Furthermore, the mean pristane/phytane ratios for LR and OT sediments were 1.01 and 2.57, respectively; the difference between them was significant (Student's t test, at the 99% significance level). The carbon preference index (CPI) of C 25-C 33n-alkanes averaged 3.26 (range 2.16-4.59) for LR sediments and 2.92 (range 2.35-5.24) for OT sediments; no significant difference was found between the two CPI averages (Student's t test, at the 99% confidence level). However, higher plant n-alkanes generally maximized at C 29 for LR sediments, but maximized at C 31 for all OT sediments, strongly indicating significant differences in the origins of the hydrocarbons in these two areas. All present results appear to suggest that LR sediments are not a major hydrocarbon source for OT sediments. In addition, there was no positive, linear correlation between diploptene (hop-22(29)-ene) and terrestrial higher plant n-alkanes for LR and OT sediments.

  10. Isotopic composition and speciation of sedimentary nitrogen and carbon in the Okinawa Trough over the past 30 ka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Li-Wei; Hsiao, Silver Sung-Yun; Ding, Xiao-Dong; Li, Dawei; Chang, Yuan-Pin; Kao, Shuh-Ji

    2015-10-01

    Total organic carbon to total nitrogen ratios (C/N) and their isotopic compositions (δ13CTOC and δ15NTN) are oft-applied proxies to discern terrigenous from marine-sourced organics and to unravel ancient environmental information. In high depositional Asian marginal seas, the inclusion of N-bearing minerals in the bulk sediment dilutes or masks signals sought after in δ15N and δ13C analyses, thus leading to incorrect and even contradictory interpretations. We used KOH-KOBr to separate operationally defined total organic matter into oxidizable (labile) and residual fractions for content and isotope measurements. In a sediment core in the Okinawa Trough, significant amounts of carbon and nitrogen existed in the residual phase, in which the C/N ratio was ~9, resembling most documented sedimentary bulk C/N ratios in the China marginal seas. The residual carbon, which was included in operationally defined total organic carbon (TOC), displayed a δ13C range (-22.7 to -18.9‰, mean -20.7‰) similar to the oft-used marine end-member. After removing the interference from the residual fraction, we found that the temporal pattern of δ13CLOC (LOC denotes labile organic carbon) was more variable. The residual nitrogen content was associated with illite, suggesting a terrestrial origin. Additionally, δ15N in the residual fraction likely reflected the climatic controls (e.g., precipitation) on lithogenic source materials. Further studies are required to explore the controlling factors for carbon and nitrogen isotopic speciation and to retrieve the information locked in the residual fraction.

  11. ITCZ and ENSO pacing on East Asian winter monsoon variation during the Holocene: Sedimentological evidence from the Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xufeng; Li, Anchun; Wan, Shiming; Jiang, Fuqing; Kao, Shuh Ji; Johnson, Cody

    2014-07-01

    Deep-sea fan sediments provide an excellent geological archive for paleoenvironment reconstruction. Grain size, clay mineral and elemental (Ti, Fe, Ca) compositions were measured for a core retrieved from a submarine fan in the Okinawa Trough. Varimax-rotated Principal Component Analysis (V-PCA) on time-evolution of grain size spectrum reveals that, since the Holocene, sediment was transported mainly by the benthic nepheloid layer (33%) and upper layers (33%) which is driven by the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM). The intensification of the Kuroshio Current during the Holocene, masks the fluvial signal of the summer monsoon and obstructs clay minerals derived from the Yellow River, a major contributor prior to 12 ka BP. A new grain size index (GSI), which represents the EAWM well, exhibits a negative correlation with the δ18O record in Dongge Cave, China during the Holocene when sea level was relatively steady. This anticorrelation suggests the southward migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). The consistency among our records and rainfall records in Peru, Ti counts in the Cariaco Basin, monsoon records in Oman and the averaged summer insolation pattern at 30°N further support the ITCZ's impact on monsoon systems globally. Cross-Correlation Analyses for GSI and log(Ti/Ca) against δ18O record in Dongge Cave reveal a decoupling between the East Asian winter and summer monsoon during 5500-2500 cal yr BP, with greater complexity in the last 2500 years. This can be attributed to exacerbated ENSO mode fluctuations and possibly anthropogenic interference superimposed on insolation and ITCZ forcing.

  12. MULTIDISCIPLINARY PERSPECTIVES IN EVENT-RELATED BRAIN POTENTIAL RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The volume is the Proceedings of the Fourth International Congress on Event-Related Potentials of the Brain (EPIC-IV) held in Hendersonville, North Carolina in April 1976. It contains 118 manuscripts including critical reviews and data reports in the following areas of ERP resear...

  13. Antibody levels against BK virus and prostate, kidney and bladder cancers in the EPIC-Oxford cohort

    PubMed Central

    Newton, R; Ribeiro, T; Casabonne, D; Alvarez, E; Touzé, A; Key, T; Coursaget, P

    2005-01-01

    In a case–control study nested within the EPIC-Oxford cohort, there were no statistically significant differences in the prevalence or titre of antibodies against BK virus measured in plasma taken prior to diagnosis between cases with cancer of the prostate (n=31), kidney (n=5) or bladder (n=9) and controls (n=45). PMID:16304559

  14. “Nitrogen Budgets for the Mississippi River Basin using the linked EPIC-CMAQ-NEWS Models”

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation on the results from the 3 linked models, EPIC (USDA), CMAQ and NEWS to analyze a scenario of increased corn production related to biofuels together with Clean Air Act emission reductions across the US and the resultant effect on nitrogen loading to the Gulf of Mexico...

  15. 75 FR 12230 - Black Oak Energy, L.L.C., EPIC Merchant Energy, LP, SESCO Enterprises, LLC v. PJM Interconnection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Black Oak Energy, L.L.C., EPIC Merchant Energy, LP, SESCO Enterprises, LLC v. PJM Interconnection, L.L.C.; Notice of Filing March 8, 2010. Take notice that on March 1, 2010, PJM Interconnection, L.L.C. filed a report of refund pursuant to the Federal Energy Regulatory...

  16. 75 FR 40815 - Black Oak Energy, LLC, EPIC Merchant Energy, LP, SESCO Enterprises, LLC v. PJM Interconnection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Black Oak Energy, LLC, EPIC Merchant Energy, LP, SESCO Enterprises, LLC v... Oak Energy, LLC, et al. v. PJM Interconnection, LLC, 131 FERC ] 61,024 (2010) (April 15 Order)....

  17. First Comparative Analysis of the Community Structures and Carbon Metabolic Pathways of the Bacteria Associated with Alvinocaris longirostris in a Hydrothermal Vent of Okinawa Trough

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Qing-lei; Zeng, Zhi-gang; Chen, Shuai; Sun, Li

    2016-01-01

    Alvinocaris longirostris is a species of shrimp existing in the hydrothermal fields of Okinawa Trough. To date the structure and function of the microbial community associated with A. longirostris are essentially unknown. In this study, by employment of the techniques of high through-put sequencing and clone library construction and analysis, we compared for the first time the community structures and metabolic profiles of microbes associated with the gill and gut of A. longirostris in a hydrothermal field of Okinawa Trough. Fourteen phyla were detected in the gill and gut communities, of which 11 phyla were shared by both tissues. Proteobacteria made up a substantial proportion in both tissues, while Firmicutes was abundant only in gut. Although gill and gut communities were similar in bacterial diversities, the bacterial community structures in these two tissues were significantly different. Further, we discovered for the first time the existence in the gill and gut communities of A. longirostris the genes (cbbM and aclB) encoding the key enzymes of Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) cycle and the reductive tricarboxylic acid (rTCA) cycle, and that both cbbM and aclB were significantly more abundant in gill than in gut. Taken together, these results provide the first evidence that at least two carbon fixation pathways are present in both the gill and the gut communities of A. longirostris, and that the communities in different tissues likely differ in autotrophic productivity. PMID:27111851

  18. First Comparative Analysis of the Community Structures and Carbon Metabolic Pathways of the Bacteria Associated with Alvinocaris longirostris in a Hydrothermal Vent of Okinawa Trough.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qing-Lei; Zeng, Zhi-Gang; Chen, Shuai; Sun, Li

    2016-01-01

    Alvinocaris longirostris is a species of shrimp existing in the hydrothermal fields of Okinawa Trough. To date the structure and function of the microbial community associated with A. longirostris are essentially unknown. In this study, by employment of the techniques of high through-put sequencing and clone library construction and analysis, we compared for the first time the community structures and metabolic profiles of microbes associated with the gill and gut of A. longirostris in a hydrothermal field of Okinawa Trough. Fourteen phyla were detected in the gill and gut communities, of which 11 phyla were shared by both tissues. Proteobacteria made up a substantial proportion in both tissues, while Firmicutes was abundant only in gut. Although gill and gut communities were similar in bacterial diversities, the bacterial community structures in these two tissues were significantly different. Further, we discovered for the first time the existence in the gill and gut communities of A. longirostris the genes (cbbM and aclB) encoding the key enzymes of Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) cycle and the reductive tricarboxylic acid (rTCA) cycle, and that both cbbM and aclB were significantly more abundant in gill than in gut. Taken together, these results provide the first evidence that at least two carbon fixation pathways are present in both the gill and the gut communities of A. longirostris, and that the communities in different tissues likely differ in autotrophic productivity. PMID:27111851

  19. Discrepancy in the degree of population differentiation between color-morph frequencies and neutral genetic loci in the damselfly Ischnura senegalensis in Okinawa Island, Japan.

    PubMed

    Inomata, Nobuyuki; Hironaka, Kumiko; Sawada, Kouji; Kuriwada, Takashi; Yamahira, Kazunori

    2015-06-01

    Evaluation of relative contribution of natural selection and stochastic processes to population differentiation has been of great interest in evolutionary biology. In a damselfly, Ischnura senegalensis, females show color dimorphism (gynochrome vs. androchrome), and color-morph frequencies are known to greatly vary among local populations within Okinawa Island, a small island of Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. In this study, to examine the effects of natural selection and stochastic processes on the within-island variation in color-morph frequencies, we compared the degree of population differentiation at the color-morph locus with that at a mitochondrial DNA region and ten nuclear microsatellite loci. F ST values at the neutral loci were close to zero, indicating presence of sufficient gene flow (dispersal of adult individuals) between the local populations. In contrast, F ST values at the color-morph locus were significantly different from zero. These results suggest that variation in female color-morph frequencies observed among local populations in Okinawa Island has been caused by divergent selection acting on the phenotype and/or genes tightly linked with the color locus. PMID:25633100

  20. The tug-of-war between the West Philippine Sea and South China Sea Tropical Waters and Intermediate Waters in the Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur; Yeh, Ya-Ting; Yanagi, Tetsuo; Bai, Yan; He, Xianqiang; Huang, Ting-Hsuan

    2016-03-01

    Kuroshio subsurface waters are the major source of nutrients to the East China Sea continental shelf, a major fishing ground. These subsurface waters are heavily affected by the South China Sea (SCS) Tropical and Intermediate Waters which contain more nutrients than the tropical (Smax) and intermediate (Smin) waters from the West Philippine Sea (WPS). A front was found to separate these waters from the SCS and WPS. The reported front in the Okinawa Trough, however, was identified based only on one-time data from a single cross section. Here historical hydrographic data between March 1950 and December 2011 are analyzed. A vertical front tilted toward the west is found in all seasons in all years in the Okinawa Trough. In winter, the presence of the SCS Tropical Water is the most prominent. It is the weakest in autumn. As for intermediate waters (Smin), the WPS and SCS Intermediate Waters show much weaker seasonality compared with tropical waters although in summer, the WPS Intermediate Water contribution is slightly larger than during other times.

  1. Photochemical Formation of Fe(II) and Peroxides in Coastal Seawater Collected around Okinawa Island, Japan - Impact of Red Soil Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, K.; Nakajima, H.; Higuchi, T.; Fujimura, H.; Arakaki, T.; Taira, H.

    2003-12-01

    In a study to elucidate the impacts of red soil pollution on the oxidizing power of seawater, photochemical formation of Fe(II) and peroxides was studied in seawaters collected around Okinawa Island, Japan. The northern part of Okinawa Island suffers from red soil pollution which is caused mainly by land development such as pineapple farming and the construction of recreational facilities. We studied photochemical formation of peroxides and Fe(II) in the same seawater samples because the reaction between HOOH and Fe(II) forms hydroxyl radical (OH radical), the most potent environmental oxidant. Photochemical formation of Fe(II) was fast and reached steady-state in 30 minutes of simulated sunlight illumination and the steady-state Fe(II) concentrations were about 80% of total iron concentrations. Photochemical formation of peroxides was relatively slow and formation kinetics varied, depending on the initial peroxide concentrations. Because photochemical formation of peroxides was faster and total iron concentrations in the red soil polluted seawater were higher, red soil polluted seawater is expected to have greater oxidizing power than seawater that is not polluted with red soil.

  2. Intrarectal Amifostine During External Beam Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer Produces Significant Improvements in Quality of Life Measured by EPIC Score

    SciTech Connect

    Simone, Nicole L.; Menard, Cynthia; Soule, Benjamin P.; Albert, Paul S.; Guion, Peter; Smith, Sharon; Godette, Denise; Crouse, Nancy S.; Sciuto, Linda C.; Cooley-Zgela, Theresa; Camphausen, Kevin; Coleman, C. Norman; Singh, Anurag K. E-mail: singan@mail.nih.gov

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To test whether intrarectal amifostine limits symptoms of radiation proctitis, measured by using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity score and the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC) score. Methods and Materials: Patients with localized prostate cancer received amifostine as a rectal suspension 30-45 minutes before daily three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy. The first 18 patients received 1 g of amifostine, and the next 12 patients received 2 g. Toxicity was assessed at baseline, during treatment, and at follow-up visits by using RTOG grading and the EPIC Quality of Life (QoL) 50-item questionnaire. The Bowel Function subset of the bowel domain (EPIC-BF), which targets symptom severity, and the Bowel Bother subset of the bowel domain (EPIC-BB), which assesses QoL, were evaluated and compared with the RTOG GI toxicity score. Results: Median follow-up was 30 months (range, 18-36 months). Overall, EPIC-BF and EPIC-BB scores both tracked closely with the RTOG GI toxicity score. Seven weeks after the start of radiation therapy, the incidence of RTOG Grade 2 toxicity was 33% in the 1-g group (6/18 patients) compared with 0% (0/12 patients) in the 2-g group and trended toward statistical significance (p = 0.06). A significant difference between amifostine groups was observed using the EPIC-BF score at 7 weeks (p = 0.04). A difference in EPIC-BB scores between dose groups was evident at 7 weeks (p = 0.07) and was significant at 12 months (p = 0.04). Conclusions: Higher doses of amifostine produced significant improvements in acute and late bowel QoL (up to 1 year after therapy), measured using the EPIC score.

  3. Development and application of the EPIC model for carbon cycle, greenhouse-gas mitigation, and biofuel studies

    SciTech Connect

    Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Mcgill, William B.; Williams, J.R.

    2012-06-01

    This chapter provides a comprehensive review of the EPIC model in relation to carbon cycle, greenhouse-gas mitigation, and biofuel applications. From its original capabilities and purpose (i.e., quantify the impacts or erosion on soil productivity), the EPIC model has evolved into a comprehensive terrestrial ecosystem model for simulating with more or less process-level detail many ecosystem processes such as weather, hydrology, plant growth and development, carbon cycle (including erosion), nutrient cycling, greenhouse-gas emissions, and the most complete set of manipulations that can be implemented on a parcel of land (e.g. tillage, harvest, fertilization, irrigation, drainage, liming, burning, pesticide application). The chapter also provides details and examples of the latest efforts in model development such as the coupled carbon-nitrogen model, a microbial denitrification model with feedback to the carbon decomposition model, updates on calculation of ecosystem carbon balances, and carbon emissions from fossil fuels. The chapter has included examples of applications of the EPIC model in soil carbon sequestration, net ecosystem carbon balance, and biofuel studies. Finally, the chapter provides the reader with an update on upcoming improvements in EPIC such as the additions of modules for simulating biochar amendments, sorption of soluble C in subsoil horizons, nitrification including the release of N2O, and the formation and consumption of methane in soils. Completion of these model development activities will render an EPIC model with one of the most complete representation of biogeochemical processes and capable of simulating the dynamic feedback of soils to climate and management in terms not only of transient processes (e.g., soil water content, heterotrophic respiration, N2O emissions) but also of fundamental soil properties (e.g. soil depth, soil organic matter, soil bulk density, water limits).

  4. Observations of transits of K2 exoplanet discoveries EPIC 203371098b&c

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Michael; Gorjian, Varoujan; Beichmani, Charles; Akeson, Rachel; Ciardi, Dave; Christiansen, Jessie; Crossfield, Ian; Petigura, Erik; Krick, Jessica

    2015-08-01

    We request DDT time to observe transits of two super-Neptune planets orbiting a bright G star, EPIC 203371098. Erik Petigura has brought to our attention a particularly interesting K2 discovery that consists of two sub-Saturn-sized planets (5.9 RE and 7.8 RE) orbiting EPIC-203371098, a bright G star (K = 9.2). The orbital periods of the planets are 20.9 d and 42.4 d, respectively. The planets have sizes between that of Neptune and Saturn; sizes not represented among the Solar System planets. Due to the brightness of the host star, this system is an ideal laboratory to study this new class of planets. Over the past two months, our team has conducted radial velocity (RV) follow up of EPIC-203371098 with Keck/HIRES. Our preliminary measurements suggest these planets have low densities, ~0.6 g/cc and ~0.4 g/cc, respectively. Low planet masses translate into larger atmospheric scale heights, which sets the amplitude of the features in planet transmission spectra. The apparent commensurability of their orbits suggest that this is a resonant system where transit timing variations may be particularly large. Our Spitzer observations, compared with the previous K2 first epoch observations, can provide initial evidence for TTVs and set the stage for future campaigns from Spitzer and other telescopes which will independently determine the planetary masses; they will also pin down the ephemerides of these interesting planets - including the hard to capture orbital eccentricity - for possible JWST study.It is important to carry out these observations in the upcoming apparition of this star in the October-December time frame because multiple observations are required for accurate studies of TTVs, and to prevent secular errors in timing from building up to a point where the system is hard to recover. The size of these planets and the brightness of the star shows us that we will achieve S/N>20 per transit on each planet.We will propose to observe one transit of each planet

  5. EPICS Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Sherry

    2005-01-01

    With a satisfying "Whoompf!" the air cannon sends a tennis ball the length of the school gym. The successful launch is met with cheers from the science club members and their partners--college engineering students from a local university. This air cannon activity was one of many learning opportunities that grew out of a partnership between the…

  6. Hg Isotopic Compositions of Chimneys and Pelagic Sediments at Active Submarine Hydrothermal Field in the Okinawa Trough, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, A.; Marumo, K.; Tomiyasu, T.; Yamamoto, M.; Komuro, K.

    2012-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a globally distributed and highly toxic pollutant in the environment. It is known that a submarine hydrothermal activity is one of the natural processes to emit Hg to marine environment. In order to estimate the degree to which the Hg found in the marine environment is from anthropogenic versus natural sources, it is important to characterize the Hg from the hydrothermal vents. Samples of chimneys and a ~20 cm sediment core, collected by a deep-sea remotely operated vehicle, from Iheya North hydrothermal field in Okinawa Trough, Japan, were analyzed for Hg concentrations and Hg isotopic compositions. Total Hg concentrations of chimneys range between 8.2 and 16.9 mg/kg, whereas seafloor sediment total Hg concentrations are from 3.8 to 34.8 mg/kg. Approximately 0.4 to 1.1 μg/kg of monomethyl Hg (MMHg) was detected in the top 6 cm sediment cores. Hg isotopic compositions (δ202Hg) of chimneys are between -0.30 and -0.96 ‰, whereas δ202Hg values of sediment samples range from -0.85 to -1.60 ‰. Neither chimneys nor sediment samples exhibit the significant mass independent fractionations in Hg isotopes (Δ201Hg > ± 0.10). The chimney δ202Hg values are slightly higher than the δ202Hg values of sediments. This may indicate that the heavier Hg isotopes tend to be incorporated with mercury-bearing sulfides in chimneys, and the lighter isotopes tend to be remained in the hydrothermal fluid and distributed in the surrounding sediments. Also, the sediment samples from the upper portion of cores demonstrate approximately 0.4 - 0.5 ‰ lower δ202Hg values than those from the lower part. This isotopic fractionation may be resulted from a demethylated process of MMHg by microbes. Several studies have previously demonstrated the rapid demethylation of MMHg by microbes in Hg-contaminated aquatic sediments, and range of the isotopic fractionation is similar to that of the experimentally determined isotopic fractionation of MMHg by bacterial reduction

  7. The peculiar dipping events in the disk-bearing young-stellar object EPIC 204278916

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scaringi, S.; Manara, C. F.; Barenfeld, S. A.; Groot, P. J.; Isella, A.; Kenworthy, M. A.; Knigge, C.; Maccarone, T. J.; Ricci, L.; Ansdell, M.

    2016-08-01

    EPIC 204278916 has been serendipitously discovered from its K2 light curve which displays irregular dimmings of up to 65% for ≈25 consecutive days out of 78.8 days of observations. For the remaining duration of the observations, the variability is highly periodic and attributed to stellar rotation. The star is a young, low-mass (M-type) pre-main-sequence star with clear evidence of a resolved tilted disk from ALMA observations. We examine the K2 light curve in detail and hypothesise that the irregular dimmings are caused by either a warped inner-disk edge or transiting cometary-like objects in either circular or eccentric orbits. The explanations discussed here are particularly relevant for other recently discovered young objects with similar absorption dips.

  8. Average energetic ion flux variations associated with geomagnetic activity from EPIC/STICS on Geotail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christon, S. P.; Gloeckler, G.; Eastman, T. E.; McEntire, R. W.; Roelef, E. C.; Lui, A. T. Y.; Williams, D. J.; Frank, L. A.; Paterson, W. R.; Kokubun, S.; Matsumoto, H.; Kojima, H.; Mukai, T.; Saito, Y.; Yamamoto, T.

    1996-01-01

    The magnetotail ion flux measurements from the Geotail spacecraft are analyzed both with and without the application of selection criteria that identify the plasma regime in which an observation is obtained. The different results are compared with each other. The initial results on the changes of energetic ion flux and composition correlated to average substorm activity in different magnetotail plasma regimes are discussed. The energetic ions are measured using the energetic particles and ion composition (EPIC) experiment and the suprathermal ion composition spectrometer (STICS). The plasma, wave and field instruments of the Geotail satellite were used to identify the principle magnetotail plasma regimes of plasma sheet, lobe, and magnetospheric boundary layer, as well as the magnetosheath and solar wind. Energetic O and H ions were observed in all the plasma regimes.

  9. Enhancement of real-time EPICS IOC PV management for the data archiving system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jae-Ha

    2015-10-01

    The operation of a 100-MeV linear proton accelerator, the major driving values and experimental data need to be archived. According to the experimental conditions, different data are required. Functions that can add new data and delete data in real time need to be implemented. In an experimental physics and industrial control system (EPICS) input output controller (IOC), the value of process variables (PVs) are matched with the driving values and data. The PV values are archived in text file format by using the channel archiver. There is no need to create a database (DB) server, just a need for large hard disk. Through the web, the archived data can be loaded, and new PV values can be archived without stopping the archive engine. The details of the implementation of a data archiving system with channel archiver are presented, and some preliminary results are reported.

  10. HPC-EPIC for High Resolution Simulations of Environmental and Sustainability Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, Jeffrey A.; Kang, Shujiang; Post, W. M.; Wang, Dali; Bandaru, Varaprasad; Manowitz, David H.; Zhang, Xuesong; Izaurralde, Roberto C.

    2011-11-01

    Multiple concerns over the impact of wide scale changes in land management have motivated comprehensive analyses of environmental sustainability of food and biofuel production. These call for high-resolution, spatial-temporal information of lands using tools that enable comprehensive analyses of natural resources for decision-making. Most agroecosystem simulation models are point models with a user interface that allows users to provide inputs and examine results for agricultural field scale analyses, and they aren’t able to meet the needs of the regional and national simulation with high spatial resolutions. We describe an efficient computational approach over deployment of the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model at high-resolution scales using a high performance computing (HPC) technique in this study. We concentrate on an integrated procedure for executing millions of simulations required, but also address building databases for model initialization and forcing the simulations, and post-processing model outputs.

  11. Cultural Trauma and Christian Identity in the Late Medieval Heroic Epic, The Siege of Jerusalem.

    PubMed

    DeMarco, Patricia A

    2015-01-01

    This essay examines scenes of violence in the late medieval poem The Siege of Jerusalem in order to reveal the ways in which trauma is used as the grounds upon which Christian/Jewish difference is established. In particular, I argue that this poem serves as an example of a widespread element in Christian chivalric identity, namely the need to manage the repetitive invocation of Christ's crucifixion (ritually repeated through liturgical and poetic invocation) as a means of asserting both the bodily and psychic integrity of the Christian subject in contrast to the violently abjected figure of the Jewish body. The failure of The Siege protagonist, Wespasian, to navigate the cultural trauma of the crucifixion is contrasted to the successful management of trauma by the martial hero, Tancred, in Tasso's epic, Gerusalemme Liberata, illustrating the range of imaginative possibilities for understanding trauma in pre-modern war literature. PMID:26949207

  12. Cloud Information Content Analysis for EPIC's Oxygen A- and B-band Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, A. B.; Sanghavi, S.

    2011-12-01

    The Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) instrument on the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) will have two molecular oxygen channels: one for the well-known ``A'' band at~764 nm and one for the weaker ``B'' band at 688~nm. In both cases, a channel-integrated relative measurement of absorption is possible using an ``in-band'' channel and a nearby ``reference'' channel. Together, these four observations enable a rudimentary differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) of O2 in the characteristic retro-reflection geometry of the L1 vantage point. A priori, we thus have at best two new pieces of cloud information to access. EPIC's pixels have 10x10 km2 footprints at nadir (center of the illuminated disk), more as the viewing angle increases away from local zenith. What new information can be learned about clouds from these data on a pixel-by-pixel basis? O2 A-band observations from space have been pioneered with CNES's POLDER, ESA's SCIAMACHY, and JAXA's GOSat. NASA's OCO-2, to be launched in early 2013, will also have A-band capability. POLDER has low spectral and spatial resolutions, but offers multiple viewing directions for every pixel; SCIAMACHY has higher spectral but worse spatial resolution and just one viewing angle. GOSat has very high spectral but rather low spatial resolutions, again with the possibility of dense angular sampling, but no imaging (just one pixel at a time). OCO-2, a narrow swath imager, will have similarly high spectral resolution and reasonably high ( ˜2~km) spatial resolution. Of these four LEO missions, two are focused on CO2 DOAS, with O2 being assayed operationally only to deliver it in ppm's. POLDER and SCIAMACHY however have official cloud products based on A-band measurements. They contain, at the least, an estimate of cloud top height and, at the most, that plus an estimate of cloud pressure thickness. Cloud optical depth and effective particle size are derived from other spectral data, including continuum values

  13. 36-cm2 large monolythic pn-CCD detector for EPIC on XMM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holl, Peter; Braeuninger, Heinrich W.; Briel, Ulrich G.; Hartmann, R.; Hartner, Gisela D.; Hauff, D.; Kemmer, Josef; Kendziorra, Eckhard; Krause, N.; Lechner, Peter; Maier, B.; Meidinger, Norbert; Pfeffermann, Elmar; Pflueger, Bernhard; Popp, M.; Reppin, Claus; Richter, R. H.; Riedel, J.; Soltau, Heike; Stoetter, Diana; Strueder, Lothar; Truemper, Joachim; von Zanthier, Christoph

    1997-10-01

    Monolithic arrays of 12 CCDs, 3 by 1 cm(superscript 2) each, have been developed and produced for the focal plane instrumentation of the European photon imaging camera (EPIC) on XMM and the German ABRIXAS x-ray satellite mission. The design parameters have been optimized to match the properties of the x-ray imaging optics as well as the x-ray intensity, energy bandwidth and characteristic time constants of the objects to observe. The pixel size is 150 by 150 micrometer(superscript 2); readout is performed in parallel; low noise, spectroscopic performance is realized by on-chip integrated JFET electronics; highohmic, ultrapure bulk material allows full depletion and enhances the efficiency for higher energy x-ray detection. The fabrication process, the layout topology and the operating conditions guarantee for a ten year operation in space without performance degradation.

  14. Implementation of an EPICS IOC on an Embedded Soft Core Processor Using Field Programmable Gate Arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas Curry; Alicia Hofler; Hai Dong; Trent Allison; J. Hovater; Kelly Mahoney

    2005-09-20

    At Jefferson Lab, we have been evaluating soft core processors running an EPICS IOC over {mu}Clinux on our custom hardware. A soft core processor is a flexible CPU architecture that is configured in the FPGA as opposed to a hard core processor which is fixed in silicon. Combined with an on-board Ethernet port, the technology incorporates the IOC and digital control hardware within a single FPGA. By eliminating the general purpose computer IOC, the designer is no longer tied to a specific platform, e.g. PC, VME, or VXI, to serve as the intermediary between the high level controls and the field hardware. This paper will discuss the design and development process as well as specific applications for JLab's next generation low-level RF controls and Machine Protection Systems.

  15. EPIC 201585823, a rare triple-mode RR Lyrae star discovered in K2 mission data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurtz, Donald W.; Bowman, Dominic M.; Ebo, Simon J.; Moskalik, Paweł; Handberg, Rasmus; Lund, Mikkel N.

    2016-01-01

    We have discovered a new, rare triple-mode RR Lyr star, EPIC 201585823, in the Kepler K2 mission Campaign 1 data. This star pulsates primarily in the fundamental and first-overtone radial modes, and, in addition, a third non-radial mode. The ratio of the period of the non-radial mode to that of the first-overtone radial mode, 0.616 285, is remarkably similar to that seen in 11 other triple-mode RR Lyr stars, and in 260 RRc stars observed in the Galactic bulge. This systematic character promises new constraints on RR Lyr star models. We detected subharmonics of the non-radial mode frequency, which are a signature of period doubling of this oscillation; we note that this phenomenon is ubiquitous in RRc and RRd stars observed from space, and from ground with sufficient precision. The non-radial mode and subharmonic frequencies are not constant in frequency or in amplitude. The amplitude spectrum of EPIC 201585823 is dominated by many combination frequencies among the three interacting pulsation mode frequencies. Inspection of the phase relationships of the combination frequencies in a phasor plot explains the `upward' shape of the light curve. We also found that raw data with custom masks encompassing all pixels with significant signal for the star, but without correction for pointing changes, is best for frequency analysis of this star, and, by implication, other RR Lyr stars observed by the K2 mission. We compare several pipeline reductions of the K2 mission data for this star.

  16. Microbial community stratification controlled by the subseafloor fluid flow and geothermal gradient at the Iheya North hydrothermal field in the Mid-Okinawa Trough (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 331).

    PubMed

    Yanagawa, Katsunori; Breuker, Anja; Schippers, Axel; Nishizawa, Manabu; Ijiri, Akira; Hirai, Miho; Takaki, Yoshihiro; Sunamura, Michinari; Urabe, Tetsuro; Nunoura, Takuro; Takai, Ken

    2014-10-01

    The impacts of lithologic structure and geothermal gradient on subseafloor microbial communities were investigated at a marginal site of the Iheya North hydrothermal field in the Mid-Okinawa Trough. Subsurface marine sediments composed of hemipelagic muds and volcaniclastic deposits were recovered through a depth of 151 m below the seafloor at site C0017 during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 331. Microbial communities inferred from 16S rRNA gene clone sequencing in low-temperature hemipelagic sediments were mainly composed of members of the Chloroflexi and deep-sea archaeal group. In contrast, 16S rRNA gene sequences of marine group I Thaumarchaeota dominated the microbial phylotype communities in the coarse-grained pumiceous gravels interbedded between the hemipelagic sediments. Based on the physical properties of sediments such as temperature and permeability, the porewater chemistry, and the microbial phylotype compositions, the shift in the physical properties of the sediments is suggested to induce a potential subseafloor recharging flow of oxygenated seawater in the permeable zone, leading to the generation of variable chemical environments and microbial communities in the subseafloor habitats. In addition, the deepest section of sediments under high-temperature conditions (∼90°C) harbored the sequences of an uncultivated archaeal lineage of hot water crenarchaeotic group IV that may be associated with the high-temperature hydrothermal fluid flow. These results indicate that the subseafloor microbial community compositions and functions at the marginal site of the hydrothermal field are highly affected by the complex fluid flow structure, such as recharging seawater and underlying hydrothermal fluids, coupled with the lithologic transition of sediments. PMID:25063666

  17. Microbial Community Stratification Controlled by the Subseafloor Fluid Flow and Geothermal Gradient at the Iheya North Hydrothermal Field in the Mid-Okinawa Trough (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 331)

    PubMed Central

    Breuker, Anja; Schippers, Axel; Nishizawa, Manabu; Ijiri, Akira; Hirai, Miho; Takaki, Yoshihiro; Sunamura, Michinari; Urabe, Tetsuro; Nunoura, Takuro; Takai, Ken

    2014-01-01

    The impacts of lithologic structure and geothermal gradient on subseafloor microbial communities were investigated at a marginal site of the Iheya North hydrothermal field in the Mid-Okinawa Trough. Subsurface marine sediments composed of hemipelagic muds and volcaniclastic deposits were recovered through a depth of 151 m below the seafloor at site C0017 during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 331. Microbial communities inferred from 16S rRNA gene clone sequencing in low-temperature hemipelagic sediments were mainly composed of members of the Chloroflexi and deep-sea archaeal group. In contrast, 16S rRNA gene sequences of marine group I Thaumarchaeota dominated the microbial phylotype communities in the coarse-grained pumiceous gravels interbedded between the hemipelagic sediments. Based on the physical properties of sediments such as temperature and permeability, the porewater chemistry, and the microbial phylotype compositions, the shift in the physical properties of the sediments is suggested to induce a potential subseafloor recharging flow of oxygenated seawater in the permeable zone, leading to the generation of variable chemical environments and microbial communities in the subseafloor habitats. In addition, the deepest section of sediments under high-temperature conditions (∼90°C) harbored the sequences of an uncultivated archaeal lineage of hot water crenarchaeotic group IV that may be associated with the high-temperature hydrothermal fluid flow. These results indicate that the subseafloor microbial community compositions and functions at the marginal site of the hydrothermal field are highly affected by the complex fluid flow structure, such as recharging seawater and underlying hydrothermal fluids, coupled with the lithologic transition of sediments. PMID:25063666

  18. Size Distributions and Formation Pathways of Organic and Inorganic Constituents in Spring Aerosols from Okinawa Island in the Western North Pacific Rim: An Outflow Region of Asian Dusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshmukh, D. K.; Lazaar, M.; Kawamura, K.; Kunwar, B.; Tachibana, E.; Boreddy, S. K. R.

    2015-12-01

    Size-segregated aerosols (9-stages) were collected at Okinawa Island in the western North Pacific Rim in spring 2008. The samples were analyzed for diacids (C2-C12), ω-oxoacids (ωC2-ωC9), a-dicarbonyls (C2-C3), organic carbon (OC), water-soluble OC (WSOC) and major ions to understand the sources and atmospheric processes in the outflow region of Asian pollutants. The molecular distribution of diacids showed the predominance of oxalic acid (C2) followed by malonic and succinic acids in all the size-segregated aerosols. ω-Oxoacids showed the predominance of glyoxylic acid (ωC2) whereas glyoxal (Gly) was more abundant than methylglyoxal in all the sizes. The abundant presence of sulfate as well as phthalic and adipic acids in Okinawa aerosols suggested a significant contribution of anthropogenic sources in East Asia via long-range atmospheric transport. Diacids (C2-C5), ωC2 and Gly as well as WSOC and OC peaked at 0.65-1.1 µm in fine mode whereas azelaic (C9) and 9-oxononanoic (ωC9) acids peaked at 3.3-4.7 µm in coarse mode. Sulfate and ammonium are enriched in fine mode whereas sodium and chloride are in coarse mode. An important mechanism for the formation of these organic species in Okinawa aerosols is probably gas phase oxidation of VOCs and subsequent in-cloud processing during long-range transport. Their characteristics size distribution implies that fine particles enriched with these organic and inorganic species could act as CCN to develop the cloud cover over the western North Pacific. The major peak of C9 and ωC9 on coarse mode suggest that they are produced by photooxidation of unsaturated fatty acids mainly derived from phytoplankton via heterogeneous reactions on sea spray particles. This study demonstrates that anthropogenic aerosols emitted from East Asia have significant influence on the compositions of organic and inorganic aerosols in the western North Pacific Rim.

  19. Long-term observation of water-soluble chemical components and acid-digested metals in the total suspended particles collected at Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handa, D.; Okada, K.; Kuroki, Y.; Nakama, Y.; Nakajima, H.; Somada, Y.; Ijyu, M.; Azechi, S.; Oshiro, Y.; Nakaema, F.; Miyagi, Y.; Arakaki, T.; Tanahara, A.

    2011-12-01

    The economic growth and population increase in recent Asia have been increasing air pollution. Emission rate of air pollutants from Asia, in particular oxides of nitrogen, surpassed those from North America and Europe and should continue to exceed them for decades. Okinawa Island is situated approximately 1500 km south of Tokyo, Japan, 2000 km southeast of Beijing, China, and 1000 km south of South Korea. Its location is ideal in observing East Asia's air quality because maritime air mass prevails during summer, while continental air mass dominates during fall, winter, and spring. The maritime air mass data can be seen as background clean air and can be compared with continental air masses which have been affected by anthropogenic activities. We collected total suspended particles (TSP) on quartz filters by using a high volume air sampler at the Cape Hedo Atmosphere and Aerosol Monitoring Station (CHAAMS), Okinawa, Japan during August 2005 and August 2010. Sampling duration was one week for each sample. We determined the concentrations of water-soluble anions, cations, water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and acid-digested metals in TSP samples using ion chromatography, atomic absorption spectrometry, total organic carbon analyzer and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), respectively. Seasonal variation of water-soluble chemical components and acid-digested metals showed that the concentrations were the lowest in summer, higher in fall and winter, and the highest in spring. When air mass came from Asian continent, the concentrations of water-soluble chemical components and acid-digested metals were much higher compared to the other directions, suggesting long-range transport of air pollutants from Asian continent. Also, when the air mass came from Asian continent (75-100% dominant), the mean concentrations of non-sea salt sulfate and nitrate increased ca. 1.8 times and ca. 3.7 times, respectively between 2005 and 2010, and the ratio of nitrate to

  20. Additional record of Rayllianassa amboinensis (de Man, 1888) from Japan, and description of a new species from Okinawa Island, Ryukyu Islands (Crustacea: Decapoda: Axiidea: Callianassidae).

    PubMed

    Komai, Tomoyuki; Fujita, Yoshihisa; Maenosono, Tadafumi

    2014-01-01

    Two species referred to the callianassid ghost shrimp genus Rayllianassa Komai & Tachikawa, 2008 are reported herewith. Additional locality records from Japan are provided for R. amboinensis (de Man, 1888), and the synonymy of Callianassa ngochoae Sakai, 1999 with R. amboinensis is discussed. It is shown that R. amboinensis is associated with sponges or alcyonacean soft corals, representing unusual habitats for callianassids. Rayllianassa rudisulcus n. sp. is described on the basis of a single ovigerous female from shallow soft sediment in Ohura Bay, Okinawa Island, Ryukyu Islands. The new species is distinguished from R. amboinensis by the absence of a dorsal oval on the carapace, the antennal peduncle being longer than the antennular peduncle, and the different shape of the third maxilliped. The status of Rayllianassa is also briefly discussed. PMID:25081469

  1. Peltogasterella sensuru n. sp. (Crustacea: Cirripedia: Rhizocephala) from off Okinawa Island (Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan) with remarks on its single brood externae.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Ryuta; Hirose, Mamiko; Hirose, Euichi

    2015-09-01

    Peltogasterella sensuru n. sp. infests Pagurixus hermit crabs inhabiting rocky shores off Okinawa Island (Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan). This species is clearly distinguishable from Peltogasterella gracilis (Boschma, 1927): the stalk emerges from the middle part of the externa in the present species and P. sulcata (Lilljeborg, 1859), while the stalk in P. gracilis emerges from the posterior end of the externae. The new species differs from P. sulcata based on the morphology of the mantle aperture. Peltogasterella sensuru n. sp. repeatedly produces single brood externae that have not been previously observed in species belonging to the suborder Kentrogonida Delage, 1884. We also determined partial sequences of the COI gene and 16S rRNA gene of the new species for use as molecular markers for species identification. PMID:26249520

  2. First records of interstitial leptocytherids (Crustacea, Ostracoda): two new species and a redescription of Callistocythere ventricostata Ruan & Hao, 1988 collected from the Okinawa Islands, southern Japan.

    PubMed

    Ha, Tran Manh; Tsukagoshi, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Two new and one known species belonging to the genus Callistocythere of the family Leptocytheridae from interstitial environments of the Okinawa Islands are fully described. Callistocythere intermedia sp. nov. is regarded as belonging to the C. japonica group, and Callistocythere ryukyuensis sp. nov. belongs to the C. minor group (these groups were established by Hanai 1957 based on carapace morphology). The redescribed Callistocythere ventricostata Ruan & Hao, 1988 clearly differs from known leptocytherid species in the morphologies of the carapace and the male copulatory organ. The habitats of C. intermedia sp. nov. and C. ryukyuensis sp. nov. are found along the shoreline zone and the mid to high tide levels of the littoral zone, respectively, and C. ventricostata is found from the shoreline to the sub-tidal zone. These species are the first global records of interstitial leptocytherids. PMID:26623759

  3. MHD-Epic: Embedded Particle-in-Cell Simulations of Reconnection in Global 3D Extended MHD Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daldorff, L. K. S.; Toth, G.; Borovikov, D.; Gombosi, T. I.; Lapenta, G.

    2014-12-01

    With the new modeling capability in the Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF) of embedding an implicit Particle-in-Cell (PIC) model iPIC3D into the BATS-R-US magnetohydrodynamics model (Daldorff et al. 2014, JCP, 268, 236) we are ready to locally handle the full physics of the reconnection and its implications on the full system where globally, away from the reconnection region, a magnetohydrodynamic description is satisfactory. As magnetic reconnection is one of the main drivers in magnetospheric and heliospheric plasma dynamics, the self-consistent description of the electron dynamics in the coupled MHD-EPIC model is well suited for investigating the nature of these systems. We will compare the new embedded MHD-EPIC model with pure MHD and Hall MHD simulations of the Earth's magnetosphere.

  4. Analyses of Heavy Metal Contents in the Bulk Atmospheric Aerosols Simultaneously Collected at Okinawa Archipelago, Japan by Using X-ray fluorescence spectrometric method (XRF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshiro, Y.; ITOH, A.; Azechi, S.; Somada, Y.; Handa, D.; Miyagi, Y.; Arakaki, T.; Tanahara, A.

    2012-12-01

    We studied heavy metal contents of bulk atmospheric aerosols using an X-ray fluorescence spectrometric method (XRF). The XRF method enables us to analyze heavy metal contents in the bulk aerosols rapidly without any chemical pretreatments. We used an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer that is compact and portable. We prepared several different amounts of standard reference materials (referred to "SRM", NIES No.28 of Japanese National Institute of Environmental Studies) on quartz filters for calibration curves in two different methods; 1) water-insoluble materials were collected after dispersing SRM in pure water and filtered with the quartz filters ("wet method"), and 2) SRM was dispersed in air in the plastic container and the aerosols were collected by using the low-volume air sampler ("dry method"). Good linear relationships between X-ray intensity and amount of aerosols on the filter were seen in the following 9 metals; Al, K, Ti, V, Fe, Ni, Rb, Ba, and Pb (with wet method) and 12 metals; K, Ti, Fe, Ni, Rb, Ba, Pb, Sr, Ca, Mn, Zn, and Cu (with dry method). Furthermore, we evaluated quantitative responses of XRF method by comparing with the metal contents determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) after acid-digestion. We then used XRF method to determine heavy metal contents in authentic atmospheric aerosols collected in Okinawa islands, Japan. We simultaneously collected bulk aerosol samples by using identical high-volume air samplers at 3 islands; Cape Hedo Atmospheric Aerosol Monitoring Station (CHAAMS, Okinawa island), Kume island (ca. 160 km south-west of CHAAMS), and Minami-Daitou island (ca. 320 km south-east of CHAAMS). We report and discuss spatial and temporal distribution of heavy metals determined by the XRF method in the bulk atmospheric aerosols collected at the three islands during June 2008 to June 2010, and for CHAAMS during June 2008 to October 2012.

  5. The Electric Propulsion Interactions Code (EPIC): A Member of the NASA Space Environment and Effects Program (SEE) Toolset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Mandell, Myron J.; Kuharski, Robert A.; Davis, D. A.; Gardner, Barbara M.; Minor, Jody

    2003-01-01

    Science Applications International Corporation is currently developing the Electric Propulsion Interactions Code, EPIC, as part of a project sponsored by the Space Environments and Effects Program at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. Now in its second year of development, EPIC is an interactive computer toolset that allows the construction of a 3-D spacecraft model, and the assessment of a variety of interactions between its subsystems and the plume from an electric thruster. This paper reports on the progress of EPZC including the recently added ability to exchange results the NASA Charging Analyzer Program, Nascap-2k. The capability greatly enhances EPIC's range of applicability. Expansion of the toolset's various physics models proceeds in parallel with the overall development of the software. Also presented are recent upgrades of the elastic scattering algorithm in the electric propulsion Plume Tool. These upgrades are motivated by the need to assess the effects of elastically scattered ions on the SIC for ion beam energies that exceed loo0 eV. Such energy levels are expected in future high-power (>10 kW) ion propulsion systems empowered by nuclear sources.

  6. Measuring and Predicting Prostate Cancer Related Quality of Life Changes using the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite for Clinical Practice (EPIC-CP)

    PubMed Central

    Chipman, Jonathan J.; Sanda, Martin G.; Dunn, Rodney L.; Wei, John T.; Litwin, Mark S.; Crociani, Catrina M.; Regan, Meredith M.; Chang, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To expand the clinical usefulness of the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite for Clinical Practice (EPIC-CP) by evaluating its responsiveness to health related quality of life (HRQOL) changes, defining the minimally important differences (MID) for an individual patient's change in each domain, and applying it to a sexual outcome prediction model. Methods In 1,201 subjects from a previously described multi-center, longitudinal cohort, we modeled each treatment group's EPIC-CP domain scores at pre-treatment, short-term, and long-term follow-up. We considered post-treatment domain score changes from pre-treatment ≥ 0.5 standard deviations (SD) clinically significant and with a p-value ≤ 0.01 as statistically significant. We determined domain MIDs using the 0.5 pooled SD of the 2, 6, 12, and 24 month post-treatment changes from pre-treatment. We recalibrated an EPIC-CP-based nomogram model predicting 2-year post-prostatectomy functional erections from that developed using EPIC-26. Results For every HRQOL domain, EPIC-CP was sensitive to similar post-treatment HRQOL changes over time as had been observed using EPIC-26. The EPIC-CP MIDs for changes in the urinary incontinence, urinary irritation/obstruction, bowel, sexual, and vitality/hormonal domains are 1.0, 1.3, 1.2, 1.6, and 1.0, respectively. The EPIC-CP-based sexual prediction model performs well (AUC=0.76) and shows robust agreement with its EPIC-26-based counterpart, with predicted probability differences between models of ≤10% for 95% of individuals and a mean difference of 0.0 (SD=0.05) across all individuals. Conclusions EPIC-CP is responsive to HRQOL changes during convalescence, and can be used to predict 2-year post-prostatectomy sexual outcomes. Its use can facilitate shared medical decision-making and patient-centered care. PMID:24076307

  7. XMM-Newton EPIC observations of 21 low-redshift PG quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porquet, D.; Reeves, J. N.; O'Brien, P.; Brinkmann, W.

    2004-07-01

    We present an X-ray spectral analysis of 21 low redshift quasars observed with XMM-Newton EPIC. All the sources are Palomar Green quasars with redshifts between 0.05 and 0.4 and have low Galactic absorption along the line-of-sight. A large majority of quasars in the sample (19/21) exhibit a significant soft excess below ˜1-1.5 keV, whilst two objects (PG 1114+445 and I Zw1) show a deficit of soft X-ray flux due to the presence of a strong warm absorber. Indeed, contrary to previous studies with ASCA and ROSAT, we find that the presence of absorption features near 0.6-1.0 keV is common in our sample. At least half of the objects appear to harbor a warm absorber, as found previously in Seyfert 1 galaxies. We find significant detections of Fe Kα emission lines in at least twelve objects, whilst there is evidence for some broadening of the line profile, compared to the EPIC-pn resolution, in five of these quasars. The determination of the nature of this broadening (e.g., Keplerian motion, a blend of lines, relativistic effects) is not possible with the present data and requires either higher S/N or higher resolution spectra. In seven objects the line is located between 6.7-7 keV, corresponding to highly ionized iron, whereas in the other five objects the line energy is consistent with 6.4 keV, i.e. corresponding to near neutral iron. The ionized lines tend to be found in the quasars with the steepest X-ray spectra. We also find a correlation between the continuum power law index Γ and the optical Hβ width, in both the soft and hard X-ray bands, whereby the steepest X-ray spectra are found in objects with narrow Hβ widths, which confirms previous ROSAT and ASCA results. The soft and hard band X-ray photon indices are also strongly correlated, i.e. the steepest soft X-ray spectra correspond the steepest hard X-ray spectra. We propose that a high accretion rate and a smaller black hole mass is likely to be the physical driver responsible for these trends, with the

  8. Convection and Easterly Wave Structure Observed in the Eastern Pacific Warm-Pool during EPIC-2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Walter A.; Cifelli, R.; Boccippio, D.; Rutledge, S. A.; Fairall, C. W.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    During September-October 2001, the East Pacific Investigation of Climate Processes in the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere System (EPIC-2001) ITCZ field campaign focused on studies of deep convection in the warm-pool region of the East Pacific. In addition to the TAO mooring array, observational platforms deployed during the field phase included the NOAA ship RN Ronald H. Brown, the NSF ship RN Horizon, and the NOAA P-3 and NCAR C-130 aircraft. This study combines C-band Doppler radar, rawinsonde, and surface heat flux data collected aboard the RN Brown to describe ITCZ convective structure and rainfall statistics in the eastern Pacific as a function of 3-5 day easterly wave phase. Three distinct easterly wave passages occurred during EPIC-2001. Wind and thermodynamic data reveal that the wave trough axes exhibited positively correlated U and V winds and a slight westward phase tilt with height. A relatively strong (weak) northeasterly deep tropospheric shear followed the trough (ridge) axis. Temperature and humidity perturbations exhibited mid-to upper level cooling (warming) and drying (moistening) in the northerly (trough and southerly) phase. At low levels warming (cooling) occurred in the northerly (southerly) phase with little change in the relative humidity, though mixed layer mixing ratios were larger during the northerly phase. When composited, radar, sounding, lightning and surface heat flux observations suggest the following systematic behavior as a function of wave phase: approximately zero to one quarter wavelength ahead of (behind) the wave trough in northerly (southerly) flow, larger (smaller) CAPE, lower (higher) CIN, weaker (stronger) tropospheric shear, higher (lower) conditional mean rain rates, higher (lower) lightning flash densities, and more (less) robust convective vertical structure occurred. Latent and sensible heat fluxes reached a minimum in the northerly phase and then increased through the trough, reaching a peak during the ridge phase

  9. Association between lifestyle factors and quality-adjusted life years in the EPIC-NL cohort.

    PubMed

    Fransen, Heidi P; May, Anne M; Beulens, Joline W J; Struijk, Ellen A; de Wit, G Ardine; Boer, Jolanda M A; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Hoekstra, Jeljer; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Peeters, Petra H M

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our study was to relate four modifiable lifestyle factors (smoking status, body mass index, physical activity and diet) to health expectancy, using quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) in a prospective cohort study. Data of the prospective EPIC-NL study were used, including 33,066 healthy men and women aged 20-70 years at baseline (1993-7), followed until 31-12-2007 for occurrence of disease and death. Smoking status, body mass index, physical activity and adherence to a Mediterranean-style diet (excluding alcohol) were investigated separately and combined into a healthy lifestyle score, ranging from 0 to 4. QALYs were used as summary measure of healthy life expectancy, combining a person's life expectancy with a weight for quality of life when having a chronic disease. For lifestyle factors analyzed separately the number of years living longer in good health varied from 0.12 year to 0.84 year, after adjusting for covariates. A combination of the four lifestyle factors was positively associated with higher QALYs (P-trend <0.0001). A healthy lifestyle score of 4 compared to a score of 0 was associated with almost a 2 years longer life in good health (1.75 QALYs [95% CI 1.37, 2.14]). PMID:25369457

  10. MHD-EPIC: Extended Magnetohydrodynamics with Embedded Particle-in-Cell Simulation of Ganymede's Magnetosphere.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toth, G.; Daldorff, L. K. S.; Jia, X.; Gombosi, T. I.; Lapenta, G.

    2014-12-01

    We have recently developed a new modeling capability to embed theimplicit Particle-in-Cell (PIC) model iPIC3D into the BATS-R-USmagnetohydrodynamic model. The PIC domain can cover the regions wherekinetic effects are most important, such as reconnection sites. TheBATS-R-US code, on the other hand, can efficiently handle the rest ofthe computational domain where the MHD or Hall MHD description issufficient. As one of the very first applications of the MHD-EPICalgorithm (Daldorff et al. 2014, JCP, 268, 236) we simulate theinteraction between Jupiter's magnetospheric plasma with Ganymede'smagnetosphere, where the separation of kinetic and global scalesappears less severe than for the Earth's magnetosphere. Because theexternal Jovian magnetic field remains in an anti-parallel orientationwith respect to Ganymede's intrinsic magnetic field, magneticreconnection is believed to be the major process that couples the twomagnetospheres. As the PIC model is able to describe self-consistentlythe electron behavior, our coupled MHD-EPIC model is well suited forinvestigating the nature of magnetic reconnection in thisreconnection-driven mini-magnetosphere. We will compare the MHD-EPICsimulations with pure Hall MHD simulations and compare both modelresults with Galileo plasma and magnetic field measurements to assess therelative importance of ion and electron kinetics in controlling theconfiguration and dynamics of Ganymede's magnetosphere.

  11. A good Darwinian? Winwood Reade and the making of a late Victorian evolutionary epic.

    PubMed

    Hesketh, Ian

    2015-06-01

    In 1871 the travel writer and anthropologist W. Winwood Reade (1838-1875) was inspired by his correspondence with Darwin to turn his narrow ethnological research on West African tribes into the broadest history imaginable, one that would show Darwin's great principle of natural selection at work throughout the evolutionary history of humanity, stretching back to the origins of the universe itself. But when Martyrdom of Man was published in 1872, Reade confessed that Darwin would not likely find him a very good Darwinian, as he was unable to show that natural selection was anything more than a secondary law that arranges all details. When it came to historicising humans within the sweeping history of all creation, Reade argued that the primary law was that of development, a less contentious theory of human evolution that was better suited to Reade's progressive and teleological history of life. By focussing on the extensive correspondence between Reade and Darwin, this paper reconstructs the attempt to make an explicitly Darwinian evolutionary epic in order to shed light on the moral and aesthetic demands that worked to give shape to Victorian efforts to historicise humans within a vastly expanding timeframe. PMID:25716223

  12. 2D optical array probe analysis of precipitating cumulonimbus clouds during EPIC 2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgardner, D.; Raga, G. B.

    2007-05-01

    During the 2001 East Pacific Investigation of Climate (EPIC) experiment, numerous measurements were made of the size distributions of raindrops in convective clouds that were developing over a region of the Mexican inter- tropical convergence zone (ITCZ). These measurements were made with optical array probes (PMS 2D-C and 2D-P) mounted on the National Science Foundation Hercules C-130, operated by the National Center for Atmospheric Research. In addition to capturing shadow images of individual drops between 25 μm and 6400 μm, these instruments also record the distance between each drop via a measurement of arrival times in the spectrometers lasers. The separation distance, along with the drop size, provides detailed information about the microstructure of precipitation. The 2D probe measurements have been analyzed as a function of altitude above cloud base, horizontal distance from cloud edges, cloud droplet size distributions (2-50 μm) and vertical wind velocities. The objective of the analysis is to evaluate the spatial distribution of precipitation events with respect to the microphysical and dynamical processes that are related to the development and evolution of rain in tropical convective clouds. In addition, the reflectivity is calculated from the size distributions and evaluated to assess how inhomogeneities in the precipitation might be observed by meteorological radars.

  13. Genetic Affinity of the Bhil, Kol and Gond Mentioned in Epic Ramayana

    PubMed Central

    Chaubey, Gyaneshwer; Kadian, Anurag; Bala, Saroj; Rao, Vadlamudi Raghavendra

    2015-01-01

    Kol, Bhil and Gond are some of the ancient tribal populations known from the Ramayana, one of the Great epics of India. Though there have been studies about their affinity based on classical and haploid genetic markers, the molecular insights of their relationship with other tribal and caste populations of extant India is expected to give more clarity about the the question of continuity vs. discontinuity. In this study, we scanned >97,000 of single nucleotide polymorphisms among three major ancient tribes mentioned in Ramayana, namely Bhil, Kol and Gond. The results obtained were then compared at inter and intra population levels with neighboring and other world populations. Using various statistical methods, our analysis suggested that the genetic architecture of these tribes (Kol and Gond) was largely similar to their surrounding tribal and caste populations, while Bhil showed closer affinity with Dravidian and Austroasiatic (Munda) speaking tribes. The haplotype based analysis revealed a massive amount of genome sharing among Bhil, Kol, Gond and with other ethnic groups of South Asian descent. On the basis of genetic component sharing among different populations, we anticipate their primary founding over the indigenous Ancestral South Indian (ASI) component has prevailed in the genepool over the last several thousand years. PMID:26061398

  14. EPIC211351816.01: A test of giant planet inflation scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grunblatt, Samuel Kai; Gaidos, Eric; Huber, Daniel; Howard, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    Giant planets with high equilibrium temperatures have been observed with radii larger than pure gravitational contraction models of formation would allow. Although these anomalously inflated planets have been known about for over a decade, it is unclear whether their inflation is caused by energy deposition from the host star, or inhibited cooling of the planet. These processes can be distinguished if the planet orbits at a period such that it becomes highly irradiated only when the star evolves onto the red giant branch. We report the discovery of EPIC211351816.01, a 1.4 Rjup planet orbiting a low-luminosity red giant star with a period of 8.4 days. Stellar and planetary parameters were obtained with medium and high-resolution spectra, and transit and asteroseismic analysis of the K2 lightcurve. Radial velocity measurements confirm the planetary nature of this object. Preliminary estimates of this planet's radius suggest planets become inflated directly from incident stellar radiation rather than by delayed loss of heat from formation. Further studies of planets around red giant branch stars will confirm or contradict this inflation hypothesis, and may reveal a new class of re-inflated planets.

  15. Programming PLCS under EPICS at the SNS Project : Further Experiences in Collaboration

    SciTech Connect

    P. A. Gurd; W. H. Strong; J. D. Creel

    2003-10-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is an accelerator-based neutron source being built in Tennessee by a partnership of six national laboratories. The control system components for the SNS were produced by personnel at the collaborating laboratories, by vendors of the equipment, and by commercial contractors. A number of different approaches were used to provide the programming for both the programmable logic controllers (PLCs) and the input-output controllers (IOCs) which were all based on the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). For conventional facilities, both the PLCs and the IOCs were programmed under a commercial contract. The PLCs for the high power radio frequency system (HPRF) were programmed by the vendors of the equipment, while the IOCs were programmed by the collaborating laboratory. Finally, while the IOCs for the cryogenic systems were programmed at Oak Ridge, three different approaches were used to produce the PLC programming: some were programmed at Oak Ridge, some at TJNAF, and some at vendor sites. This paper discusses the status of the PLCs in the control system and the integration challenges encountered in the various approaches.

  16. The influence of Ryukyu subduction on magma genesis in the Northern Taiwan Volcanic Zone and Middle Okinawa Trough - Evidence from boron isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pi, Ju-Lien; You, Chen-Feng; Wang, Kuo-Lung

    2016-09-01

    Boron (B) is an excellent geochemical tracer for investigating crustal recycling processes at convergent margins, due to its high fluid mobility under high P-T conditions, distinct elemental abundances and isotopic compositions in the mantle wedge and subducting slabs. The Northern Taiwan Volcanic Zone (NTVZ), wherein the nature of magma genesis has long been a topic of debate, is located at the rear side of the Okinawa Trough (OT), an atypical back-arc rift in the Ryukyu subduction system. In this study, B and B isotopes (δ11B) were measured in 19 volcanic rocks collected from the NTVZ and the middle Okinawa Trough (MOT) to assess the influence of the Ryukyu subduction system on magma genesis. The B concentrations in the MOT and NTVZ volcanic rocks are 5.8 to 13.6 mg/L and 2.2 to 48.6 mg/L, respectively. The large B abundances variation in the NTVZ was caused mainly by variable degrees of partial melting. The Nb/B and δ11B in the MOT have small ranges of 0.5 to 0.6 and - 2.7‰ to 0.2‰, respectively, whereas they range widely from 0.4 to 2.5 and from - 8.6‰ to 2.4‰, respectively in the NTVZ. These Nb/B values suggest that the magma contains a smaller subduction component than that normally observed in arcs, although this component is still more substantial than in a typical back-arc setting. The δ11B results indicate insignificant influence of the subducting Philippine Sea Plate at 2.6 Ma, but it becomes more substantial later in the NTVZ. The mixing proportions of sediment derived fluids in onshore volcanoes in the NTVZ imply a rather heterogeneous mantle wedge near the plate boundary, most likely due to either a heterogeneous source of slab derived fluids or more complicated mantle flow. A substantial B flux from the subducting slab in the incipient back-arc rifting in the MOT and NTVZ may reflect characteristics of a cold, steep and fast subducting slab, which may be capable of carrying volatiles efficiently into greater depth in subduction zones. The

  17. Thermal Design and Analysis of a Multi-Stage 30K Radiative Cooling System for EPIC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chui, Talso; Bock, Jamie; Holmes, Warren; Raab, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    The Experimental Probe of Inflationary Cosmology (EPIC) is an implementation of the NASA Einstein Inflation Probe mission, to answer questions about the physics of Inflation in the early Universe by measuring the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). The mission relies on a passive cooling system to cool the enclosure of a telescope to 30 K; a cryocooler then cools this enclosure to 18 K and the telescope to 4 K. Subsequently, an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator further cools a large focal plane to approx.100 mK. For this mission, the telescope has an aperture of 1.4 m, and the spacecraft's symmetry axis is oriented approx. 45 degrees relative to the direction of the sun. The spacecraft will be spun at approx. 0.5 rpm around this axis, which then precesses on the sky at 1 rph. The passive system must both supply the necessary cooling power for the cryocooler and meet demanding temperature stability requirements. We describe the thermal design of a passive cooling system consisting of four V-groove radiators for shielding of solar radiation and cooling the telescope to 30 K. The design realizes loads of 20 and 68 mW at the 4 K and 18 K stages on the cooler, respectively. A lower cost option for reaching 40 K with three V-groove radiators is also described. The analysis includes radiation coupling between stages of the radiators and sunshields, and parasitic conduction in the bipod support, harnesses, and ADR leads. Dynamic effects are also estimated, including the very small variations in temperature due to the scan motion of the spacecraft.

  18. Smoking, Smoking Cessation, and Risk of Tooth Loss: The EPIC-Potsdam Study.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, T; Walter, C; Oluwagbemigun, K; Bergmann, M; Pischon, T; Pischon, N; Boeing, H

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between cigarette smoking and smoking cessation and the prevalence and incidence of tooth loss in a large cohort study in Germany. We analyzed data of 23,376 participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam study recruited between 1994 and 1998 from the general population in Potsdam and other parts of Brandenburg, Germany, who had complete data on cigarette smoking, tooth loss, and covariates. Negative binomial regression and tooth-specific logistic regression models were fit to evaluate the association between smoking and the baseline prevalence and incidence of tooth loss during follow-up, respectively. Cigarette smoking was associated with higher prevalence of tooth loss at baseline as well as higher incidence of tooth loss during follow-up. The association between smoking and the incidence of tooth loss was stronger in men than women and stronger in younger versus older individuals. Heavy smoking (≥15 cigarettes/d) was associated with >3 times higher risk of tooth loss in men (odds ratio, 3.6; 95% confidence interval, 3.0, 4.4) and more than twice the risk of tooth loss in women (odds ratio, 2.5; 95% confidence interval, 2.1, 2.9) younger than 50 y when compared with never smokers. Smoking cessation was consistently associated with a reduction in tooth loss risk, with the risk of tooth loss approaching that of never smokers after approximately 10 to 20 y of cessation. PMID:26243734

  19. Inflammatory markers and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer by tumor subtypes: the EPIC cohort

    PubMed Central

    Ose, Jennifer; Schock, Helena; Tjonneland, Anne; Hansen, Louise; Overvad, Kim; Dossus, Laure; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Baglietto, Laura; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopolou, Antonia; Benetou, Vassiliki; Lagiou, Pagona; Masala, Giovanna; Tagliabue, Giovanna; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Mattiello, Amalia; de Mesquita, H.Bas Bueno; Peeters, Petra H M; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Gram, Inger T; Sánchez, Soledad; Obon-Santacana, Mireia; Sànchez-Pérez, Maria-José; Larrañaga, Nerea; Castaño, José María Huerta; Ardanaz, Eva; Brändstedt, Jenny; Lundin, Eva; Idahl, Annika; Travis, Ruth C; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Rinaldi, Sabina; Romieu, Isabelle; Merrit, Melissa A; Gunter, Marc J; Riboli, Elio; Kaaks, Rudolf; Fortner, Renée T

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests an etiologic role for inflammation in ovarian carcinogenesis and heterogeneity between tumor subtypes and anthropometric indices. Prospective studies on circulating inflammatory markers and epithelial invasive ovarian cancer (EOC) have predominantly investigated overall risk; data characterizing risk by tumor characteristics (histology, grade, stage, dualistic model of ovarian carcinogenesis) and anthropometric indices are sparse. Methods We conducted a nested case-control study in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort to evaluate C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and EOC risk by tumor characteristics. A total of 754 eligible EOC cases were identified; two controls (n=1,497) were matched per case. We used multivariable conditional logistic regression to assess associations. Results CRP and IL-6 were not associated with overall EOC risk. However, consistent with prior research, CRP >10 vs. CRP ≤1 mg/L was associated with higher overall EOC risk (OR=1.67 [1.03 - 2.70]). We did not observe significant associations or heterogeneity in analyses by tumor characteristics. In analyses stratified by waist circumference, inflammatory markers were associated with higher risk among women with higher waist circumference; no association was observed for women with normal waist circumference: (e.g., IL-6: waist ≤80: ORlog2=0.97 [0.81 - 1.16]; waist >88: ORlog2=1.78 [1.28 - 2.48], pheterogeneity ≤0.01). Conclusions Our data suggest that high CRP is associated with increased risk of overall EOC, and that IL-6 and CRP may be associated with EOC risk among women with higher adiposity. Impact Our data add to global evidence that ovarian carcinogenesis may be promoted by an inflammatory milieu. PMID:25855626

  20. Alcohol consumption and breast cancer risk subtypes in the E3N-EPIC cohort.

    PubMed

    Fagherazzi, Guy; Vilier, Alice; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Mesrine, Sylvie; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain an overview of the associations between alcohol consumption and breast cancer risk at adulthood, by type of alcohol and subtype of breast cancer. Between 1993 and 2008, 66,481 women from the French E3N-EPIC cohort were followed up and asked to report their alcohol consumption, by type of alcohol, through a 208-item diet-history questionnaire. A total of 2812 breast cancer cases were validated during the follow-up session. No association was found between high alcohol consumption, whatever its type, and increase in breast cancer risk in the premenopausal period. During the postmenopausal period, a linear association between total alcohol consumption and breast cancer risk was found (P<0.0001), mainly driven by the associations with wine and beer [hazard ratio=1.33 (1.11-1.58) and 1.85 (1.19-2.89)] for more than two glasses per day of wine and beer, respectively, compared with nondrinkers] and with ER+/PR+ breast cancer subtypes. In the postmenopausal period, we observed interactions between total alcohol and folate intake levels (P=0.1192) and BMI (P=0.0367), with higher increased risks observed for high alcohol intake among women with low folate intake or who were overweight or obese. Our results make precise the current body of knowledge on the relationship between alcohol and breast cancer subtypes. Interactions between alcohol and other factors should further be taken into account in public health nutrition programs. PMID:24743350

  1. Thermal design and analysis of a multi-stage 30 K radiative cooling system for EPIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chui, Talso; Bock, Jamie; Holmes, Warren; Raab, Jeff

    2010-09-01

    The Experimental Probe of Inflationary Cosmology (EPIC) is an implementation of the NASA Einstein Inflation Probe mission, to answer questions about the physics of Inflation in the early Universe by measuring the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). The mission relies on a passive cooling system to cool the enclosure of a telescope to 30 K; a cryocooler then cools this enclosure to 18 K and the telescope to 4 K. Subsequently, an Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator further cools a large Focal Plane to ˜100 mK. For this mission, the telescope has an aperture of 1.4 m, and the spacecraft's symmetry axis is oriented ˜45° relative to the direction of the sun. The spacecraft will be spun at ˜0.5 rpm around this axis, which then precesses on the sky at 1 rph. The passive system must both supply the necessary cooling power for the cryocooler and meet demanding temperature stability requirements. We describe the thermal design of a passive cooling system consisting of four V-groove radiators for shielding of solar radiation and cooling the telescope to 30 K. The design realizes loads of 20 and 68 mW at the 4 K and 18 K stages on the cooler, respectively. A lower cost option for reaching 40 K with three V-groove radiators is also described. The analysis includes radiation coupling between stages of the radiators and sunshields, and parasitic conduction in the bipod support, harnesses, and ADR leads. Dynamic effects are also estimated, including the very small variations in temperature due to the scan motion of the spacecraft.

  2. Glycemic index, glycemic load and mammographic breast density: the EPIC Florence longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Masala, Giovanna; Assedi, Melania; Bendinelli, Benedetta; Ermini, Ilaria; Occhini, Daniela; Sieri, Sabina; Brighenti, Furio; Del Turco, Marco Rosselli; Ambrogetti, Daniela; Palli, Domenico

    2013-01-01

    A few studies have evaluated the association between diet and mammographic breast density (MBD) and results are inconsistent. MBD, a well-recognized risk factor for breast cancer, has been proposed as a marker of cumulative exposure to hormones and growth factors. Diets with a high glycemic index (GI) or glycemic load (GL) may increase breast cancer risk, via an effect on the insulin-like growth factor axis. We have investigated the association between carbohydrate intake, GI, GL and MBD in a prospective study. We identified a large series of women, in the frame of the EPIC-Florence cohort, with a mammogram taken five years after enrolment, when detailed information on dietary and lifestyle habits and anthropometric measurements had been collected. Mammograms have been retrieved (1,668, 83%) and MBD assessed according to Wolfe's classification. We compared women with high MBD (P2+DY Wolfe's categories) with those with low MBD (N1+P1) through logistic models adjusted for age, education, body mass index, menopause, number of children, breast feeding, physical activity, non-alcohol energy, fibers, saturated fat and alcohol. A direct association between GL and high MBD emerged in the highest quintile of intake in comparison with the lowest quintile (OR = 1.73, 95%CI 1.13-2.67, p for trend = 0.048) while no association with glycemic index was evident. These results were confirmed after exclusion of women reporting to be on a diet or affected with diabetes, and when Hormone Replacement Therapy at the date of mammographic examination used to assess MBD was considered. The effect was particularly evident among leaner women, although no interaction was found. A positive association was suggested for increasing simple sugar and total carbohydrates intakes limited to the highest quintiles. In this Italian population we observed an association between glycemic load, total and rapidly absorbed carbohydrates and high MBD. These novel results warrant further investigations. PMID

  3. Reproductive and menstrual factors and risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma: the EPIC study.

    PubMed

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Rinaldi, Sabina; Biessy, Carine; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjaer, Jytte; Fournier, Agnes; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Mesrine, Sylvie; Tikk, Kaja; Fortner, Reneé T; Boeing, Heiner; Förster, Jana; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Papatesta, Eleni-Maria; Masala, Giovanna; Tagliabue, Giovanna; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Polidoro, Silvia; Peeters, Petra H M; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Lund, Eiliv; Argüelles, Marcial; Agudo, Antonio; Molina-Montes, Esther; Navarro, Carmen; Barricarte, Aurelio; Larrañaga, Nerea; Manjer, Jonas; Almquist, Martin; Sandström, Maria; Hennings, Joakim; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Schmidt, Julie A; Khaw, Kay-Thee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Romieu, Isabelle; Byrnes, Graham; Gunter, Marc J; Riboli, Elio; Franceschi, Silvia

    2015-03-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (TC) is threefold more common in women than in men and, therefore, a role of female hormones in the etiology of differentiated TC has been suggested. We assessed these hypotheses in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Among 345,157 women (mean age 51) followed for an average of 11 years, 508 differentiated TC cases were identified. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression models. No significant associations were observed between differentiated TC risk and number of pregnancies, breast feeding, menopausal status, and age at menarche and at menopause. Significant associations were found with history of infertility problems (HR 1.70; 95% CI 1.12-2.60), a recent pregnancy (HR for ≤ 5 vs. >5 years before recruitment 3.87; 95% CI 1.43-10.46), menopause type (HR for surgical vs. natural menopause: 2.16; 95% CI 1.41-3.31), oral contraceptive (OC) use at recruitment (HR: 0.48; 95% CI 0.25-0.92) and duration of OC use (HR for ≥ 9 vs. ≤ 1 year: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.50-0.89). An increased risk was also found with hormone replacement therapy use at recruitment (HR = 1.30, 95% CI 1.02-1.67), but this was not significant after adjustment for type of menopause (HR = 1.22, 95% CI 0.95-1.57). Overall, our findings do not support a strong role of reproductive and menstrual factors, and female hormone use in the etiology of differentiated TC. The few observed associations may be real or accounted for by increased surveillance in women who had infertility problems, recent pregnancies or underwent surgical menopause. PMID:25041790

  4. EPICE-HIV: An Epidemiologic Cost-Effectiveness Model for HIV Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Vandewalle, Björn; Llibre, Josep M.; Parienti, Jean-Jacques; Ustianowski, Andrew; Camacho, Ricardo; Smith, Colette; Miners, Alec; Ferreira, Diana; Félix, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this research was to establish a new and innovative framework for cost-effectiveness modeling of HIV-1 treatment, simultaneously considering both clinical and epidemiological outcomes. EPICE-HIV is a multi-paradigm model based on a within-host micro-simulation model for the disease progression of HIV-1 infected individuals and an agent-based sexual contact network (SCN) model for the transmission of HIV-1 infection. It includes HIV-1 viral dynamics, CD4+ T cell infection rates, and pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics modeling. Disease progression of HIV-1 infected individuals is driven by the interdependent changes in CD4+ T cell count, changes in plasma HIV-1 RNA, accumulation of resistance mutations and adherence to treatment. The two parts of the model are joined through a per-sexual-act and viral load dependent probability of disease transmission in HIV-discordant couples. Internal validity of the disease progression part of the model is assessed and external validity is demonstrated in comparison to the outcomes observed in the STaR randomized controlled clinical trial. We found that overall adherence to treatment and the resulting pattern of treatment interruptions are key drivers of HIV-1 treatment outcomes. Our model, though largely independent of efficacy data from RCT, was accurate in producing 96-week outcomes, qualitatively and quantitatively comparable to the ones observed in the STaR trial. We demonstrate that multi-paradigm micro-simulation modeling is a promising tool to generate evidence about optimal policy strategies in HIV-1 treatment, including treatment efficacy, HIV-1 transmission, and cost-effectiveness analysis. PMID:26870960

  5. Dietary Total Antioxidant Capacity and Colorectal Cancer in the Italian EPIC Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Vece, Marilena Monica; Agnoli, Claudia; Grioni, Sara; Sieri, Sabina; Pala, Valeria; Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Frasca, Graziella; Tumino, Rosario; Mattiello, Amalia; Panico, Salvatore; Bendinelli, Benedetta; Masala, Giovanna; Ricceri, Fulvio; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Krogh, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer worldwide. Diet has been hypothesized as involved in colorectal cancer etiology, but few studies on the influence of total dietary antioxidant intake on colorectal cancer risk have been performed. Methods We investigated the association between colorectal cancer risk and the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of the diet, and also of intake of selected antioxidants, in 45,194 persons enrolled in 5 centers (Florence, Naples, Ragusa, Turin and Varese) of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Italy study. TAC was estimated by the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay. Hazard ratios (HRs) for developing colorectal cancer, and colon and rectal cancers separately, adjusted for confounders, were estimated for tertiles of TAC by Cox modeling, stratifying by center. Results Four hundred thirty-six colorectal cancers were diagnosed over a mean follow-up of 11.28 years. No significant association between dietary TAC and colorectal cancer incidence was found. However for the highest category of TAC compared to the lowest, risk of developing colon cancer was lower (HR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.44–0.89, P trend: 0.008). By contrast, increasing TAC intake was associated with significantly increasing risks of rectal cancer (2nd tertile HR: 2.09; 95%CI: 1.19–3.66; 3rd tertile 2.48 95%CI: 1.32–4.66; P trend 0.007). Intakes of vitamin C, vitamin E, and ß-carotene were not significantly associated with colorectal cancer risk. Conclusions Further prospective studies are needed to confirm the contrasting effects of high total antioxidant intake on risk of colon and rectal cancers. PMID:26565695

  6. Diet, metabolic polymorphisms and dna adducts: the EPIC-Italy cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Palli, D; Vineis, P; Russo, A; Berrino, F; Krogh, V; Masala, G; Munnia, A; Panico, S; Taioli, E; Tumino, R; Garte, S; Peluso, M

    2000-08-01

    DNA adducts in peripheral leukocytes are considered a reliable indicator of internal dose exposure to genotoxic agents and, possibly, of cancer risk. We investigated their association with diet and other individual characteristics in healthy adults. The prospective study EPIC-Italy, a section of a larger European project, enrolled 47,749 men and women, aged 35-64 years, in 5 centres: all provided individual information about dietary and life-style habits and a blood sample. In a cross-sectional study, approximately 100 volunteers were randomly selected from each of the three main geographical study areas (Northern, Central and Southern Italy). DNA adducts and four polymorphic metabolic genotypes were determined in peripheral leukocytes by using (32)P-postlabelling technique and PCR methods. Among 309 subjects (153 men), 72.8% had detectable levels of DNA adducts (mean: 8.1 +/- 0.6 per 10(9) nucleotides). Strong negative associations emerged with the reported frequency of consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables, olive oil, and the intake of antioxidants. DNA adducts were higher in subjects with GSTT1 null genotype (p = 0.05). Significant differences between study centres emerged in multivariate analyses (mean levels: 11.0, 10.0, 7.2, 6.5 and 5.2 for Florence, Naples, Turin, Varese and Ragusa, respectively). A possible opposite seasonal variation was found according to latitude: adduct levels tended to be lower in winter in Florence and the southern centres, and during summer in the two northern centres. Frequent consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables is associated with reduced levels of DNA adducts, possibly contributing to the role of diet in modulating cancer risk. PMID:10897053

  7. Modeling Microbial Processes in EPIC to Estimate Greenhouse Gas Emissions from soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwab, D. E.; Izaurralde, R. C.; McGill, W. B.; Williams, J. R.; Schmid, E.

    2009-12-01

    Emissions of trace gases (CO2, N2O and CH4) to the atmosphere from managed terrestrial ecosystems have been contributing significantly to the warming of Earth. Trace gas production is dominated by biospheric processes. An improved knowledge of the soil-plant-atmosphere interface is of key importance for understanding trace gas dynamics. In soils, microbial metabolism plays a key role in the release or uptake of trace gases. Here we present work on the biophysical and biogeochemical model EPIC (Environmental Policy/Integrated Climate) to extend its capabilities to simulate CO2 and N2O fluxes in managed and unmanaged ecosystems. Emphasis will be given to recently developed, microbially-based, denitrification and nitrification modules. The soil-atmosphere exchange of trace gases can be measured by using various equipments, but often these measurements exhibit extreme space-time variability. We use hourly time steps to account for the variability induced by small changes in environmental conditions. Soils are often studied as macroscopic systems, although their functions are predominantly controlled at a microscopic level; i.e. the level of the microorganisms. We include these processes to the extent that these are known and can be quantitatively described. We represent soil dynamics mathematically with routines for gas diffusion, Michael Menten processes, electron budgeting and other processes such as uptake and transformations. We hypothesize that maximization of energy capture form scarce substrates using energetic favorable reactions drives evolution and that competitive advantage can result by depriving a competitor from a substrate. This Microbe Model changes concepts of production of N-containing trace gases; it unifies understanding of N oxidation and reduction, predicts production and evolution of trace gases and is consistent with observations of anaerobic ammonium oxidation.

  8. EPICE-HIV: An Epidemiologic Cost-Effectiveness Model for HIV Treatment.

    PubMed

    Vandewalle, Björn; Llibre, Josep M; Parienti, Jean-Jacques; Ustianowski, Andrew; Camacho, Ricardo; Smith, Colette; Miners, Alec; Ferreira, Diana; Félix, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this research was to establish a new and innovative framework for cost-effectiveness modeling of HIV-1 treatment, simultaneously considering both clinical and epidemiological outcomes. EPICE-HIV is a multi-paradigm model based on a within-host micro-simulation model for the disease progression of HIV-1 infected individuals and an agent-based sexual contact network (SCN) model for the transmission of HIV-1 infection. It includes HIV-1 viral dynamics, CD4+ T cell infection rates, and pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics modeling. Disease progression of HIV-1 infected individuals is driven by the interdependent changes in CD4+ T cell count, changes in plasma HIV-1 RNA, accumulation of resistance mutations and adherence to treatment. The two parts of the model are joined through a per-sexual-act and viral load dependent probability of disease transmission in HIV-discordant couples. Internal validity of the disease progression part of the model is assessed and external validity is demonstrated in comparison to the outcomes observed in the STaR randomized controlled clinical trial. We found that overall adherence to treatment and the resulting pattern of treatment interruptions are key drivers of HIV-1 treatment outcomes. Our model, though largely independent of efficacy data from RCT, was accurate in producing 96-week outcomes, qualitatively and quantitatively comparable to the ones observed in the STaR trial. We demonstrate that multi-paradigm micro-simulation modeling is a promising tool to generate evidence about optimal policy strategies in HIV-1 treatment, including treatment efficacy, HIV-1 transmission, and cost-effectiveness analysis. PMID:26870960

  9. Long-term mortality of hospitalized pneumonia in the EPIC-Norfolk cohort.

    PubMed

    Myint, P K; Hawkins, K R; Clark, A B; Luben, R N; Wareham, N J; Khaw, K-T; Wilson, A M

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about cause-specific long-term mortality beyond 30 days in pneumonia. We aimed to compare the mortality of patients with hospitalized pneumonia compared to age- and sex-matched controls beyond 30 days. Participants were drawn from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk prospective population study. Hospitalized pneumonia cases were identified from record linkage (ICD-10: J12-J18). For this study we excluded people with hospitalized pneumonia who died within 30 days. Each case identified was matched to four controls and followed up until the end June 2012 (total 15 074 person-years, mean 6·1 years, range 0·08-15·2 years). Cox regression models were constructed to examine the all-cause, respiratory and cardiovascular mortality using date of pneumonia onset as baseline with binary pneumonia status as exposure. A total of 2465 men and women (503 cases, 1962 controls) [mean age (s.d.) 64·5 (8·3) years] were included in the study. Between a 30-day to 1-year period, hazard ratios (HRs) of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality were 7·3 [95% confidence interval (CI) 5·4-9·9] and 5·9 (95% CI 3·5-9·7), respectively (with very few respiratory deaths within the same period) in cases compared to controls after adjusting for age, sex, asthma, smoking status, pack years, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, diabetes, physical activity, waist-to-hip ratio, prevalent cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. All outcomes assessed also showed increased risk of death in cases compared to controls after 1 year; respiratory cause of death being the most significant during that period (HR 16·4, 95% CI 8·9-30·1). Hospitalized pneumonia was associated with increased all-cause and specific-cause mortality beyond 30 days. PMID:26300532

  10. Droughts, epic droughts and droughty centuries - lessons from a California paleoclimatic record: a PACLIM 2001 meeting report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dettinger, M.D.

    2001-01-01

    During the early 1990s (but echoing studies by S.T. Harding at the University of California, from as early as the 1930s), several lines of paleoclimate evidence in and around the Sierra Nevada Range have provided the water community in California with some real horror stories. By studying ancient tree stumps submerged in Lake Tahoe and Tenaya Lake, stumps that were emerging from Mono Lake during its recent decline, and stumps that were exhumed in the Walker River bed during the floods of 1997, paleoclimatologists like Scott Stine of California State University, Hayward, assembled a picture of epic droughts in the central Sierra Nevada during the medieval period. These droughts had to be severe to drop water levels in the lakes and rivers low enough for the trees to grow in the first place, and then had to last for hundreds of years to explain tree-ring counts in these sizeable stumps. Worse yet, the evidence suggested at least two such epic droughts, one ending close to 1100 and the other close to 1350. These epic droughts challenged paleoclimatologists, as well as modern climatologists and hydrologists, to understand and, ultimately, to determine the likelihood that such droughts might recur in the foreseeable future. The first challenge, however, was to verify that such droughts were more than local events and as extreme as suggested. At this year’s Pacific Climate (PACLIM) Workshop, held March 18–21, 2001, at Asilomar (Pacific Grove, Calif.), special sessions brought together scientists to compare paleoclimatic reconstructions of ancient droughts and pluvial (wet) epidodes to try to determine the nature of decadal and centennial climate fluctuations in western North America, with emphasis on California. A companion session brought together modern climatologists to report on the latest explanations (and evidence) for decadal climate variations during the instrumental era of the 20th century.

  11. Dietary intake of acrylamide and epithelial ovarian cancer risk in the european prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC) cohort.

    PubMed

    Obón-Santacana, Mireia; Peeters, Petra H M; Freisling, Heinz; Dossus, Laure; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Baglietto, Laura; Schock, Helena; Fortner, Renée T; Boeing, Heiner; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Menéndez, Virginia; Sanchez, Maria-José; Larrañaga, Nerea; Huerta Castaño, José María; Barricarte, Aurelio; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Travis, Ruth C; Merritt, Melissa A; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Orfanos, Philippos; Masala, Giovanna; Sieri, Sabina; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Mattiello, Amalia; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Wirfält, Elisabeth; Stocks, Tanja; Idahl, Annika; Lundin, Eva; Skeie, Guri; Gram, Inger T; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Riboli, Elio; Duell, Eric J

    2015-01-01

    Acrylamide, classified in 1994 by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as "probably carcinogenic" to humans, was discovered in 2002 in some heat-treated, carbohydrate-rich foods. The association between dietary acrylamide intake and epithelial ovarian cancer risk (EOC) has been previously studied in one case-control and three prospective cohort studies which obtained inconsistent results and could not further examine histologic subtypes other than serous EOC. The present study was carried out in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) subcohort of women (n = 325,006). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the association between questionnaire-based acrylamide intake and EOC risk. Acrylamide was energy-adjusted using the residual method and was evaluated both as a continuous variable (per 10 μg/d) and in quintiles; when subgroups by histologic EOC subtypes were analyzed, acrylamide intake was evaluated in quartiles. During a mean follow-up of 11 years, 1,191 incident EOC cases were diagnosed. At baseline, the median acrylamide intake in EPIC was 21.3 μg/d. No associations and no evidence for a dose-response were observed between energy-adjusted acrylamide intake and EOC risk (HR10μg/d,1.02; 95% CI, 0.96-1.09; HRQ5vsQ1, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.76-1.23). No differences were seen when invasive EOC subtypes (582 serous, 118 endometrioid, and 79 mucinous tumors) were analyzed separately. This study did not provide evidence that acrylamide intake, based on food intake questionnaires, was associated with risk for EOC in EPIC. Additional studies with more reliable estimates of exposure based on biomarkers may be needed. PMID:25300475

  12. Dietary intake of acrylamide and epithelial ovarian cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort

    PubMed Central

    Obón-Santacana, Mireia; Peeters, Petra H.M.; Freisling, Heinz; Dossus, Laure; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Baglietto, Laura; Schock, Helena; Fortner, Renée T.; Boeing, Heiner; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Menéndez, Virginia; Sanchez, Maria-José; Larrañaga, Nerea; Castaño, José María Huerta; Barricarte, Aurelio; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Travis, Ruth C.; Merritt, Melissa A.; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Orfanos, Philippos; Masala, Giovanna; Sieri, Sabina; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Mattiello, Amalia; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.B.; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Wirfält, Elisabeth; Stocks, Tanja; Idahl, Annika; Lundin, Eva; Skeie, Guri; Gram, Inger T.; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Riboli, Elio; Duell, Eric J

    2014-01-01

    Acrylamide, classified in 1994 by IARC as ‘probably carcinogenic’ to humans, was discovered in 2002 in some heat-treated, carbohydrate-rich foods. The association between dietary acrylamide intake and epithelial ovarian cancer risk (EOC) has been previously studied in one case-control and three prospective cohort studies which obtained inconsistent results, and could not further examine histological subtypes other than serous EOC. The present study was carried out in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) sub-cohort of women (n=325,006). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the association between questionnaire-based acrylamide intake and EOC risk. Acrylamide was energy-adjusted using the residual method, and was evaluated both as a continuous variable (per 10μg/day) and in quintiles; when subgroups by histological EOC subtypes were analyzed, acrylamide intake was evaluated in quartiles. During a mean follow-up of 11 years, 1,191 incident EOC cases were diagnosed. At baseline, the median acrylamide intake in EPIC was 21.3 μg/day. No associations, and no evidence for a dose-response were observed between energy-adjusted acrylamide intake and EOC risk (HR10μg/day:1.02, 95%CI:0.96-1.09; HRQ5vsQ1:0.97, 95%CI:0.76-1.23). No differences were seen when invasive EOC subtypes (582 serous, 118 endometrioid, and 79 mucinous tumors) were analyzed separately. This study did not provide evidence that acrylamide intake, based on food intake questionnaires, was associated with risk for EOC in EPIC. Additional studies with more reliable estimates of exposure based on biomarkers may be needed. PMID:25300475

  13. Photochemical Formation of Hydroxyl Radical, Hydrogen Peroxide and Fe(II) in the Sea Surface Microlayer (SML) Collected in Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higaonna, Y.; Tachibana, C.; Kasaba, T.; Ishikawa, R.; Arakaki, T.

    2014-12-01

    The sea surface microlayer (SML) covers upper 1 to 1000 μm deep boundary layer of the ocean, where important biogeochemical processes take place. Photo-chemical reactions are activated by sunlight, so it is assumed that more photo-chemical reactions occur in SML than underlying bulk seawater (bulk). We initiated a study to understand chemical changes occurring in the SML by studying photochemical formation of oxidants such as hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radical (OH), both of which react with various organic substances and determine their lifetimes. Since OH can be formed by reaction between hydrogen peroxide and Fe(II), Fe(II) photoformation was also studied. We collected SML samples using a widely-used glass plate method and bulk samples by using a polyethylene bottles near the coast of Okinawa Island, Japan. Results showed that dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in the SML were about twice those of bulk seawater samples. Hydrogen peroxide formation in the SML samples was ca. 2.8 times faster than the bulk seawater samples. On the other hand, Fe(II) and OH photoformation kinetics was similar for both SML and bulk samples. Although it was predicted that more OH could be formed from reaction between hydrogen peroxide and Fe(II), OH formation kinetics was similar in both SML and bulk, suggesting that either Fe(II) did not react with hydrogen peroxide or reaction is very slow, possibly by forming a complex with organic compounds in the SML and bulk.

  14. Resistance phenotypes and genotypes among multiple-antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Choleraesuis strains isolated between 2008 and 2012 from slaughter pigs in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan

    PubMed Central

    MATAYOSHI, Masanao; KITANO, Takashi; SASAKI, Tetsu; NAKAMURA, Masaji

    2015-01-01

    A total of 349 Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Choleraesuis (S. Choleraesuis) strains, which were isolated between 2008 and 2012 from 349 pigs at two slaughterhouses in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan, were investigated for antimicrobial susceptibility and the presence of antimicrobial resistance genes. All isolates were resistant to at least four antimicrobial agents. The antimicrobial agents for which isolates showed a high incidence of resistance were as follows: ampicillin (100%) and streptomycin (100%), followed by gentamicin (99.7%), oxytetracycline (99.7%), sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (99.4%), nalidixic acid (40.1%) and oxolinic acid (40.1%). All isolates were sensitive to cefuroxime, ceftiofur, colistin, fosfomycin, enrofloxacin, orbifloxacin and danofloxacin. The predominant resistance phenotypes and genotypes were: resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, gentamicin, oxytetracycline and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (58.5%, 204/349) and blaTEM-strA-strB-aadA1-aadA2-aacC2-tet (B)-sul1-sul2-dhfrXII-dhfrXIII (36.1%, 126/349). The quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) of gyrA, gyrB, parC and parE of the quinolone-resistant isolates (n=12) showed amino acid substitutions of Ser-83→Phe or Asp-87→Tyr in GyrA and Ser-107→Ala in ParC. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the molecular characterization of antimicrobial resistance among S. Choleraesuis strains in Japan. PMID:25715779

  15. A new genus and new species of Paguridae (Crustacea: Decapoda: Anomura) from shallow subtidal waters in Okinawa Island, the Ryukyu Islands, Japan.

    PubMed

    Komai, Tomoyuki

    2015-01-01

    During a survey on decapod crustacean fauna of shallow coral reefs and nearby environments in Okinawa Island, Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan, four specimens of a small but distinctive undescribed species of pagurid hermit crab, which could not be referred to any known genus, were collected. The new taxon, Eutrichopagurus shirakawai n. gen., n. sp., is described and illustrated herein. The new genus is characterized by the possession of 11 pairs of deeply quadriserial phyllobranchiate gills, the third maxilliped with well-developed crista dentata and one or two accessory teeth on the ischium, the presence of unpaired left gonopore in the female, the absence of paired first pleopods in the female, and the telson with prominent tuft of setae on the lateral margin of the posterior lobes; the male is unknown at present. It appears close to Trichopagurus de Saint Laurent, 1968, but the deeply quadriserial gills immediately distinguish Eutrichopagurus from Trichopagurus. The new genus is also compared with other genera characterized by the possession of 11 pairs of quadriserial phyllobranchiate gills and the lack of paired first pleopods in females. PMID:25781092

  16. Coffee and tea consumption, genotype-based CYP1A2 and NAT2 activity and colorectal cancer risk-results from the EPIC cohort study.

    PubMed

    Dik, Vincent K; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Van Oijen, Martijn G H; Siersema, Peter D; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P M; Van Gils, Carla H; Van Duijnhoven, Fränzel J B; Cauchi, Stéphane; Yengo, Loic; Froguel, Philippe; Overvad, Kim; Bech, Bodil H; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Racine, Antoine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Kühn, Tilman; Campa, Daniele; Boeing, Heiner; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Peppa, Eleni; Oikonomou, Eleni; Palli, Domenico; Grioni, Sara; Vineis, Paolo; Tumino, Rosaria; Panico, Salvatore; Peeters, Petra H M; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Engeset, Dagrun; Braaten, Tonje; Dorronsoro, Miren; Chirlaque, María-Dolores; Sánchez, María-José; Barricarte, Aurelio; Zamora-Ros, Raul; Argüelles, Marcial; Jirström, Karin; Wallström, Peter; Nilsson, Lena M; Ljuslinder, Ingrid; Travis, Ruth C; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Freisling, Heinz; Licaj, Idlir; Jenab, Mazda; Gunter, Marc J; Murphy, Neil; Romaguera-Bosch, Dora; Riboli, Elio

    2014-07-15

    Coffee and tea contain numerous antimutagenic and antioxidant components and high levels of caffeine that may protect against colorectal cancer (CRC). We investigated the association between coffee and tea consumption and CRC risk and studied potential effect modification by CYP1A2 and NAT2 genotypes, enzymes involved in the metabolization of caffeine. Data from 477,071 participants (70.2% female) of the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort study were analyzed. At baseline (1992-2000) habitual (total, caffeinated and decaffeinated) coffee and tea consumption was assessed with dietary questionnaires. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratio's (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Potential effect modification by genotype-based CYP1A2 and NAT2 activity was studied in a nested case-control set of 1,252 cases and 2,175 controls. After a median follow-up of 11.6 years, 4,234 participants developed CRC (mean age 64.7 ± 8.3 years). Total coffee consumption (high vs. non/low) was not associated with CRC risk (HR 1.06, 95% CI 0.95-1.18) or subsite cancers, and no significant associations were found for caffeinated (HR 1.10, 95% CI 0.97-1.26) and decaffeinated coffee (HR 0.96, 95% CI 0.84-1.11) and tea (HR 0.97, 95% CI 0.86-1.09). High coffee and tea consuming subjects with slow CYP1A2 or NAT2 activity had a similar CRC risk compared to non/low coffee and tea consuming subjects with a fast CYP1A2 or NAT2 activity, which suggests that caffeine metabolism does not affect the link between coffee and tea consumption and CRC risk. This study shows that coffee and tea consumption is not likely to be associated with overall CRC. PMID:24318358

  17. Cod liver oil supplement consumption and health: cross-sectional results from the EPIC-Norfolk cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lentjes, Marleen A H; Welch, Ailsa A; Mulligan, Angela A; Luben, Robert N; Wareham, Nicholas J; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2014-10-01

    Supplement users (SU) make healthy lifestyle choices; on the other hand, SU report more medical conditions. We hypothesised that cod liver oil (CLO) consumers are similar to non-supplement users, since CLO use might originate from historical motives, i.e., rickets prevention, and not health consciousness. CLO consumers were studied in order to identify possible confounders, such as confounding by indication. The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC) investigates causes of chronic disease. The participants were 25,639 men and women, aged 40-79 years, recruited from general practices in Norfolk, East-Anglia (UK). Participants completed questionnaires and a health examination between 1993 and 1998. Supplement use was measured using 7-day diet diaries. CLO was the most common supplement used, more prevalent among women and associated with not smoking, higher physical activity level and more favourable eating habits. SU had a higher occurrence of benign growths and bone-related diseases, but CLO was negatively associated with cardiovascular-related conditions. Although the results of SU characteristics in EPIC-Norfolk are comparable with studies worldwide, the CLO group is different from SU in general. Confounding by indication takes place and will need to be taken into account when analysing prospective associations of CLO use with fracture risk and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25325252

  18. Identification of polymorphic and off-target probe binding sites on the Illumina Infinium MethylationEPIC BeadChip.

    PubMed

    McCartney, Daniel L; Walker, Rosie M; Morris, Stewart W; McIntosh, Andrew M; Porteous, David J; Evans, Kathryn L

    2016-09-01

    Genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation has now become a relatively inexpensive technique thanks to array-based methylation profiling technologies. The recently developed Illumina Infinium MethylationEPIC BeadChip interrogates methylation at over 850,000 sites across the human genome, covering 99% of RefSeq genes. This array supersedes the widely used Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip, which has permitted insights into the relationship between DNA methylation and a wide range of conditions and traits. Previous research has identified issues with certain probes on both the HumanMethylation450 BeadChip and its predecessor, the Infinium HumanMethylation27 BeadChip, which were predicted to affect array performance. These issues concerned probe-binding specificity and the presence of polymorphisms at target sites. Using in silico methods, we have identified probes on the Infinium MethylationEPIC BeadChip that are predicted to (i) measure methylation at polymorphic sites and (ii) hybridise to multiple genomic regions. We intend these resources to be used for quality control procedures when analysing data derived from this platform. PMID:27330998

  19. Cod Liver Oil Supplement Consumption and Health: Cross-sectional Results from the EPIC-Norfolk Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Lentjes, Marleen A.H.; Welch, Ailsa A.; Mulligan, Angela A.; Luben, Robert N.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2014-01-01

    Supplement users (SU) make healthy lifestyle choices; on the other hand, SU report more medical conditions. We hypothesised that cod liver oil (CLO) consumers are similar to non-supplement users, since CLO use might originate from historical motives, i.e., rickets prevention, and not health consciousness. CLO consumers were studied in order to identify possible confounders, such as confounding by indication. The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC) investigates causes of chronic disease. The participants were 25,639 men and women, aged 40–79 years, recruited from general practices in Norfolk, East-Anglia (UK). Participants completed questionnaires and a health examination between 1993 and 1998. Supplement use was measured using 7-day diet diaries. CLO was the most common supplement used, more prevalent among women and associated with not smoking, higher physical activity level and more favourable eating habits. SU had a higher occurrence of benign growths and bone-related diseases, but CLO was negatively associated with cardiovascular-related conditions. Although the results of SU characteristics in EPIC-Norfolk are comparable with studies worldwide, the CLO group is different from SU in general. Confounding by indication takes place and will need to be taken into account when analysing prospective associations of CLO use with fracture risk and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25325252

  20. EPIC Study of Two Enigmatic Sources: The Mouse and SNR 359.1-0.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavlov, George

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the original proposal was to observe the Mouse pulsar wind nebula (associated with PSR J1744-2958) and the nearby supernova remnant G359.1-0.5, where the pulsar was probably born, with the XMM-Newton observatory to study the properties of these objects. SNR G359.1-0.5 was accepted as a Category C target and has not been observed. The Mouse was observed on April 27,2003 for 52 ks. The image analysis has shown that the Mouse is extended in the East-West direction, possibly along the direction of the pulsar's proper motion. The spectrum of this pulsar wind nebula can be described as an absorbed power law with the photon index GAMMA = 1.9 plus or minus 0.1, effective hydrogen column density n(sub H) = (2.6 plus or minus 0.1) x 10(exp 22) per square centimeter, and flux F = 1.8 x 10(exp -11) erg per square centimeter per second in the 1-10 keV energy range. Based on the n(sub H) value, the distance to the source is about 5 kpc, which results in the luminosity 3.7 x 10(exp 34) erg per second. We conclude that PSR J1744-2958 and the Mouse are not physically associated with G359.1-0.5, which lies at a larger distance. In addition to the Mouse, we also detected two Low-Mass X-ray Binaries, SLX 1744-299 and 1744-300, in the EPIC MOS and PN fields of view. The latter of these objects showed a Type I X-ray burst during our observation, with a rise time of 5 s and decay time of 60 s. A very strong pileup during the burst made the analysis of the burst properties unreliable. The spectral analysis of the persistent radiation from SLX 1744-299 and 1744-300 yields the hydrogen column densities of 3.2 plus or minus 0.1 and (3.6 plus or minus 0.2) x 10(exp 22) per square centimeter, respectively, which suggests that the sources are close to the Galactic center (d = 8-9 kpc). The spectra can be reasonably well fitted with a blackbody plus thin disk model, with the blackbody temperatures of 1.7 plus or minus 0.2 and 1.8 plus or minus 0.2 keV, respectively.

  1. Epic Moon: a history of lunar exploration in the age of the telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheehan, William P.; Dobbins, Thomas A.

    timeless. The story of mankind's endless fascination with the world of the Moon and the gallery of interesting characters who pursued the details of the lunar surface with often strange intensity is a modern-day epic. Many of the stories recounted for the first time here will still be recounted generations hence, when the Apollo explorations may seem a mere interlude in what has actually been a more sustained and more significant era of endeavour. It is possible that the names of Schroeter, Beer and Mädler, Webb and Schmidt may prove to be as memorable as those of Armstrong, Aldrin, Cernan and Schmitt.

  2. I am Joaquin. Yo Soy Joaquin. An Epic Poem with a Chronology of People and Events in Mexican and Mexican American History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzales, Rodolfo

    Both Spanish and English versions of the epic poem "I Am Joaquin" are given in this book. "I Am Joaquin" is the first work of poetry to be published by Chicanos for Chicanos. It is a historical essay of the greatness and weakness of the Chicano people. Their psychological wounds, cultural genocide, social castration, nobility, courage,…

  3. Towards the Carbon credit and trading schemes: Estimation of soil Carbon storage as influenced by alternative cropping systems using the EPIC model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soils are considered the largest carbon reservoir of the terrestrial carbon cycle and are therefore being targeted as greenhouse gas (GHG) sinks through soil carbon sequestration (SCS). Using the Erosion Policy Impact Climate Calculator (EPIC) simulation, we examined the differences in the capabilit...

  4. Project EPIC. Educational Preparation for Involvement in Careers. Career Education Demonstration. K-12 Low Income Students. Final Report, 1975-1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferson County Public Schools, Louisville, KY. Office of Career Education.

    Project EPIC (Educational Preparation for Involvement in Careers) was designed for the needs of low income, inner city students (K-12). The curriculum was divided into three phases: awareness (focusing on a basic foundation in the areas of academics, work, self concept, decision making, and community for grades K-6); exploration (focusing on…

  5. The thin and medium filters of the EPIC camera on-board XMM-Newton: measured performance after more than 15 years of operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbera, Marco; Gastaldello, Fabio; Sciortino, Luisa; Agnello, Simonpietro; Buscarino, Gianpiero; Collura, Alfonso; La Palombara, Nicola; Cicero, Ugo Lo; Sartore, Nicola; Tiengo, Andrea; Varisco, Salvatore; Venezia, Anna Maria

    2016-08-01

    After more than 15 years of operation of the EPIC camera on board the XMM-Newton X-ray observatory, we have reviewed the status of its Thin and Medium filters. We have selected a set of Thin and Medium back-up filters among those still available in the EPIC consortium and have started a program to investigate their status by different laboratory measurements including: UV/VIS transmission, Raman scattering, X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, and Atomic Force Microscopy. Furthermore, we have investigated the status of the EPIC flight filters by performing an analysis of the optical loading in the PN offset maps to gauge variations in the optical and UV transmission. We both investigated repeated observations of single optically bright targets and performed a statistical analysis of the extent of loading versus visual magnitude at different epochs. We report the results of the measurements conducted up to now. Most notably, we find no evidence for change in the UV/VIS transmission of the back-up filters in ground tests spanning a 2 year period and we find no evidence for change in the optical transmission of the thin filter of the EPIC-pn camera from 2002 to 2012. We point out some lessons learned for the development and calibration programs of filters for X-ray detectors in future Astronomy missions.

  6. PLTW and Epics-High: Curriculum Comparisons to Support Problem Solving in the Context of Engineering Design. Research in Engineering and Technology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Todd; Brenner, Daniel C.; Pieper, Jon T.

    2010-01-01

    A comparative study was conducted to compare two approaches to engineering design curriculum between different schools (inter-school) and between two curricular approaches, "Project Lead the Way" (PLTW) and "Engineering Projects in Community Service" (EPIC High) (inter-curricular). The researchers collected curriculum materials, including…

  7. Excerpts from "The Lewis and Clark Journals: An Epic of Discovery, the Abridgment of the Definitive Nebraska Edition": The Journey across the Plains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moulton, Gary E.

    2003-01-01

    This article contains excerpts from "The Lewis and Clark Journals: An Epic of Discovery, The Abridgment of the Definitive Nebraska Edition," published by the University of Nebraska Press in 2003. Editor Gary E. Moulton chose a few daily entries from the journals to highlight the expedition from May 14-October 12, 1804.

  8. Using EPIC v. 3060 and the Soil Conditioning Index to predict soil organic carbon in cotton production systems of the southeastern USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Soil Conditioning Index (SCI) administered by the USDA-NRCS predicts the consequences of tillage practices and cropping systems on trends in SOC but does not represent an actual quantity or accumulation rate of SOC. We calibrated the EPIC model for three major land resource areas in the southea...

  9. Origin of central abundances in the hot intra-cluster medium. I. Individual and average abundance ratios from XMM-Newton EPIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mernier, F.; de Plaa, J.; Pinto, C.; Kaastra, J. S.; Kosec, P.; Zhang, Y.-Y.; Mao, J.; Werner, N.

    2016-08-01

    The hot intra-cluster medium (ICM) is rich in metals, which are synthesised by supernovae (SNe) explosions and accumulate over time into the deep gravitational potential well of clusters of galaxies. Since most of the elements visible in X-rays are formed by type Ia (SNIa) and/or core-collapse (SNcc) supernovae, measuring their abundances gives us direct information on the nucleosynthesis products of billions of SNe since the epoch of the star formation peak (z ~ 2-3). In this study, we use the EPIC and RGS instruments on board XMM-Newton to measure the abundances of nine elements (O, Ne, Mg, Si, S, Ar, Ca, Fe, and Ni) from a sample of 44 nearby cool-core galaxy clusters, groups, and elliptical galaxies. We find that the Fe abundance shows a large scatter (~20-40%) over the sample, within 0.2r500 and especially 0.05r500. Unlike the absolute Fe abundance, the abundance ratios (X/Fe) are uniform over the considered temperature range (~0.6-8 keV) and with a limited scatter. In addition to an unprecedented treatment of systematic uncertainties, we provide the most accurate abundance ratios measured so far in the ICM, including Cr/Fe and Mn/Fe which we firmly detected (>4σ with MOS and pn independently). We find that Cr/Fe, Mn/Fe, and Ni/Fe differ significantly from the proto-solar values. However, the large uncertainties in the proto-solar abundances prevent us from making a robust comparison between the local and the intra-cluster chemical enrichments. We also note that, interestingly, and despite the large net exposure time (~4.5 Ms) of our dataset, no line emission feature is seen around ~3.5 keV.

  10. Dietary vitamin D intake and risk of type 2 diabetes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition – the EPIC-InterAct study

    PubMed Central

    Abbas, Sascha; Linseisen, Jakob; Rohrmann, Sabine; Beulens, Joline WJ; Buijsse, Brian; Amiano, Pilar; Ardanaz, Eva; Balkau, Beverley; Boeing, Heiner; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Fagherazzi, Guy; Franks, Paul W; Gavrila, Diana; Grioni, Sara; Kaaks, Rudolf; Key, Timothy J; Khaw, Kay Tee; Masters, Tilman Kühn; Mattiello, Amalia; Molina-Montes, Esther; Nilsson, Peter M; Overvad, Kim; Quirós, J. Ramón; Rolandsson, Olov; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Saieva, Calogero; Slimani, Nadia; Sluijs, Ivonne; Spijkerman, Annemieke MW; Tjonneland, Anne; Tumino, Rosario; van der A, Daphne L; Zamora-Ros, Raul; Sharp, Stephen J; Langenberg, Claudia; Forouhi, Nita G; Riboli, Elio; Wareham, Nicholas J

    2014-01-01

    Background Prospective cohort studies have indicated that serum vitamin D levels are inversely related to risk of type 2 diabetes. However, such studies cannot determine the source of vitamin D. Therefore, we examined the association of dietary vitamin D intake with incident type 2 diabetes within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-InterAct study in a heterogeneous European population including 8 countries with large geographical variation. Methods Using a case-cohort design, 11,245 incident cases of type 2 diabetes and a representative subcohort (N=15,798) were included in the analyses. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for type 2 diabetes were calculated using a Prentice-weighted Cox regression adjusted for potential confounders. 24-h diet recall data from a subsample (N=2347) were used to calibrate habitual intake data derived from dietary questionnaires. Results Median follow-up time was 10.8 years. Dietary vitamin D intake was not significantly associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes. HR and 95 % CIs for the highest compared to the lowest quintile of uncalibrated vitamin D intake was 1.09 (0.97-1.22), (ptrend=0.17). No associations were observed in a sex-specific analysis. The overall pooled effect [HR (95% CI)] using the continuous calibrated variable was 1.00 (0.97-1.03) per increase of 1 μg/day dietary vitamin D. Conclusion This observational study does not support an association between higher dietary vitamin D intake and type-2 diabetes incidence. This result has to be interpreted in light of the limited contribution of dietary vitamin D on the overall vitamin D status of a person. PMID:24253760

  11. Differentially methylated microRNAs in prediagnostic samples of subjects who developed breast cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Nutrition and Cancer (EPIC-Italy) cohort.

    PubMed

    Cordero, Francesca; Ferrero, Giulio; Polidoro, Silvia; Fiorito, Giovanni; Campanella, Gianluca; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Mattiello, Amalia; Masala, Giovanna; Agnoli, Claudia; Frasca, Graziella; Panico, Salvatore; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Naccarati, Alessio

    2015-10-01

    The crosstalk between microRNAs (miRNAs) and other epigenetic factors may lead to novel hypotheses about carcinogenesis identifying new targets for research. Because a single miRNA can regulate multiple downstream target genes, its altered expression may potentially be a sensitive biomarker to detect early malignant transformation and improve diagnosis and prognosis. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that altered methylation of miRNA encoding genes, associated with deregulated mature miRNA expression, may be related to dietary and lifestyle factors and may contribute to cancer development. In a case-control study nested in a prospective cohort (EPIC-Italy), we analysed DNA methylation levels of miRNA encoding genes (2191 CpG probes related to 517 genes) that are present in the Infinium Human Methylation450 BeadChip array in prediagnostic peripheral white blood cells of subjects who developed colorectal cancer (CRC, n = 159) or breast cancer (BC, n = 166) and matched subjects who remained clinically healthy. In the whole cohort, several differentially methylated miRNA genes were observed in association with age, sex, smoking habits and physical activity. Interestingly, in the case-control study, eight differentially methylated miRNAs were identified in subjects who went on to develop BC (miR-328, miR-675, miR-1307, miR-1286, miR-1275, miR-1910, miR-24-1 and miR-548a-1; all Bonferroni-adjusted P < 0.05). No significant associations were found with CRC. Assuming that altered methylation of miRNAs detectable in blood may be present before diagnosis, it may represent a biomarker for early detection or risk of cancer and may help to understand the cascade of events preceding tumour onset. PMID:26168820

  12. The K2 Ecliptic Plane Input Catalog (EPIC) and Stellar Classifications of 138,600 Targets in Campaigns 1-8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Daniel; Bryson, Stephen T.; Haas, Michael R.; Barclay, Thomas; Barentsen, Geert; Howell, Steve B.; Sharma, Sanjib; Stello, Dennis; Thompson, Susan E.

    2016-05-01

    The K2 Mission uses the Kepler spacecraft to obtain high-precision photometry over ≈80 day campaigns in the ecliptic plane. The Ecliptic Plane Input Catalog (EPIC) provides coordinates, photometry, and kinematics based on a federation of all-sky catalogs to support target selection and target management for the K2 mission. We describe the construction of the EPIC, as well as modifications and shortcomings of the catalog. Kepler magnitudes (Kp) are shown to be accurate to ≈0.1 mag for the Kepler field, and the EPIC is typically complete to Kp ≈ 17 (Kp ≈ 19 for campaigns covered by Sloan Digital Sky Survey). We furthermore classify 138,600 targets in Campaigns 1–8 (≈88% of the full target sample) using colors, proper motions, spectroscopy, parallaxes, and galactic population synthesis models, with typical uncertainties for G-type stars of ≈3% in {T}{{eff}}, ≈0.3 dex in {log} g, ≈40% in radius, ≈10% in mass, and ≈40% in distance. Our results show that stars targeted by K2 are dominated by K–M dwarfs (≈41% of all selected targets), F–G dwarfs (≈36%), and K giants (≈21%), consistent with key K2 science programs to search for transiting exoplanets and galactic archeology studies using oscillating red giants. However, we find significant variation of the fraction of cool dwarfs with galactic latitude, indicating a target selection bias due to interstellar reddening and increased contamination by giant stars near the galactic plane. We discuss possible systematic errors in the derived stellar properties, and differences with published classifications for K2 exoplanet host stars. The EPIC is hosted at the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST): http://archive.stsci.edu/k2/epic/search.php.

  13. Nondestructive Assessment of sGAG Content and Distribution in Normal and Degraded Rat Articular Cartilage via EPIC-μCT

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Liqin; Lin, Angela S.P.; Guldberg, Robert E.; Levenston, Marc E.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of quantifying the Equilibrium Partitioning of an Ionic Contrast agent via μCT (EPIC-μCT) to nondestructively assess sulfated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) content and distribution in rat articular cartilage ex vivo, and in doing so to establish a paradigm for extension of this technique to other small animal models. Design After determination of an appropriate incubation time for the anionic contrast agent, EPIC-μCT was used to examine age-related differences in cartilage sGAG content between 4-, 8-, and 16-week old (n=5 each) male Wistar rats and to evaluate sGAG depletion in the right femora of each age group after 60 minutes of digestion with chondroitinase ABC. The EPIC-μCT measurements were validated by histological safranin-O staining, and reproducibility was evaluated by triplicate scans of six femora. Results Cartilage attenuation gradually increased with cumulative digestion time and reached a plateau at approximately 60 minutes with a 16.0% temporal increase (p<0.01). Average femoral articular cartilage attenuation increased by 14.2% from 4 to 8 weeks of age (p<0.01) and further increased by 2.5% from 8 to 16 weeks (p<0.05). After 60 minutes of digestion, femoral articular cartilage attenuations increased by 15-17% in each age group (p<0.01). Correspondingly, sGAG optical density decreased with age and digestion, and showed a linear correlation (r=−0.88, slope=−1.26, p<0.01, n=30) with EPIC-μCT cartilage attenuation. High reproducibility was indicated by a low coefficient of variation (1.5%) in cartilage attenuation. Conclusions EPIC-μCT imaging provides high spatial resolution and sensitivity to assess sGAG content and three-dimensional distribution in rat femoral articular cartilage. PMID:19744590

  14. Droughts, epic droughts and droughty centuries - lessons from a California paleoclimatic record: a PACLIM 2001 meeting report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dettinger, M.D.

    2001-01-01

    During the early 1990s (but echoing studies by S.T. Harding at the University of California, from as early as the 1930s), several lines of paleoclimate evidence in and around the Sierra Nevada Range have provided the water community in California with some real horror stories. By studying ancient tree stumps submerged in Lake Tahoe and Tenaya Lake, stumps that were emerging from Mono Lake during its recent decline, and stumps that were exhumed in the Walker River bed during the floods of 1997, paleoclimatologists like Scott Stine of California State University, Hayward, assembled a picture of epic droughts in the central Sierra Nevada during the medieval period. These droughts had to be severe to drop water levels in the lakes and rivers low enough for the trees to grow in the first place, and then had to last for hundreds of years to explain tree-ring counts in these sizeable stumps. Worse yet, the evidence suggested at least two such epic droughts, one ending close to 1100 and the other close to 1350. These epic droughts challenged paleoclimatologists, as well as modern climatologists and hydrologists, to understand and, ultimately, to determine the likelihood that such droughts might recur in the foreseeable future. The first challenge, however, was to verify that such droughts were more than local events and as extreme as suggested. At this year’s Pacific Climate (PACLIM) Workshop, held March 18–21, 2001, at Asilomar (Pacific Grove, Calif.), special sessions brought together scientists to compare paleoclimatic reconstructions of ancient droughts and pluvial (wet) epidodes to try to determine the nature of decadal and centennial climate fluctuations in western North America, with emphasis on California. A companion session brought together modern climatologists to report on the latest explanations (and evidence) for decadal climate variations during the instrumental era of the 20th century. PACLIM is an annual workshop that, since 1983, has brought together

  15. Sea surface temperature variation during the last deglaciation in the southern Okinawa Trough: Modulation of high latitude teleconnections and the Kuroshio Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jingtao; Li, Jun; Cai, Feng; Wei, Helong; Hu, Bangqi; Dou, Yanguang; Wang, Libo; Xiang, Rong; Cheng, Hongwei; Dong, Liang; Zhang, Chuanlun L.

    2015-11-01

    Three paleotemperature records (foraminiferal Mg/Ca, TEX86 and UK‧37) were generated for the past 17.3 ka in the southern Okinawa Trough (OT) using a sediment core (OKT-3) taken at a water depth of 1792 m. Temperature estimates based on the inorganic and organic indices for the OKT-3 core top sample approximated modern sea surface temperature (SST) and extended to the mixed layer (<50 m) in warmer seasons. Reconstructed SSTs from OKT-3 gradually increased towards the top of the core with lower values occurring during Heinrich Stadial 1 (HS1) and the Younger Dryas (YD). These values coincided with the glacial-interglacial cycles established by the Globigerinoides ruber δ18O curve. Notably, SSTs decreased during the BØlling-AllerØd (B-A) but warming occurred before and after the B-A, from approximately 16 to 14 ka and 12.5 to 10 ka. The SST cooling during the B-A corresponded to the timing of the Antarctic Cold Reversal (ACR), which is thought to be connected with melt water pulse 1a (MWP1a). The cooling was also concurrent with the spread of millennial-scale cold signals to the OT during the HS1 and YD periods, when widespread melt and collapse of Northern Hemisphere ice sheets occurred along with reduced Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) and a southward shift of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). The last deglaciation, which began approximately 16-15 ka BP in the OT, might mark the time when the Kuroshio Current (KC) began to strengthen.

  16. Associations between serum omega-3 fatty acid levels and cognitive functions among community-dwelling octogenarians in Okinawa, Japan: The KOCOA study

    PubMed Central

    Nishihira, Junko; Tokashiki, Takashi; Higashiuesato, Yasushi; Willcox, Donald Craig; Mattek, Nora; Shinto, Lynne; Ohya, Yusuke; Dodge, Hiroko H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies have found frequent consumption of fatty fish is protective against cognitive decline. However, the association between circulating omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels and cognitive functions among the oldest old is not well known. Objective To examine the association between serum PUFA levels and cognitive function among community-dwelling, non-demented elderly aged over 80 years old. Methods The data came from the Keys to Optimal Cognitive Aging (KOCOA) study; an ongoing cohort of relatively healthy volunteers aged over 80 years old, living in Okinawa, Japan. One hundred eighty five participants (mean age 84.1 ± 3.4 years) assessed in 2011 who were free from frank dementia (defined as Clinical Dementia Rating < 1.0) were used for the current cross-sectional study. We examined whether serum omega-3 PUFAs (docosahexaenoic acid [DHA] and eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA]), arachidonic acid (AA), EPA/AA ratio, DHA/AA ratio and DHA+EPA are associated with (1) age and (2) global cognitive function (Japanese MMSE) and executive function (Verbal Fluency Letters). Data was analyzed univariately by t-test and multivariately by cumulative logistic regression models controlling for age, gender, years of education, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. Results Serum DHA levels decreased with increasing age (p = 0.04). Higher global cognitive function was associated with higher levels of serum EPA (p = 0.03) and DHA + EPA (p = 0.03) after controlling for confounders. Conclusions Higher serum EPA and DHA + EPA levels were independently associated with better scores on global cognitive function among the oldest old, free from dementia. Longitudinal follow-up studies are warranted. PMID:26890763

  17. Microearthquake activity around Kueishantao island, offshore northeastern Taiwan: Insights into the volcano-tectonic interactions at the tip of the southern Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konstantinou, K. I.; Pan, C.-Y.; Lin, C.-H.

    2013-05-01

    Kueishantao is a volcanic island located offshore the northeastern coast of Taiwan and lies at the tip of the southern Okinawa Trough which is the back-arc basin of the Ryukyu subduction zone. Its last eruption occurred during the Holocene (~ 7 ka), hence Kueishantao can be considered as an active volcano. In an effort to better understand how magmatic processes may interact with the regional tectonics, a seismic network was installed in the area during early January 2008. This network consisted of 16 three-component seismometers located both on Kueishantao and the coast of northeastern Taiwan. One year of data was analyzed yielding 425 earthquakes whose P and S arrival times were manually picked and each event was located using a nonlinear probabilistic location method. In order to improve the location accuracy, the minimum 1-D velocity model for this dataset was derived and all earthquakes were relocated using this model. The results show a tight cluster of events near Kueishantao while the remaining earthquakes are scattered between the island and mainland Taiwan. The majority of hypocentral depths range between 2.5 and 10 km where the former depth coincides with the bottom of the shallow sedimentary layer and the latter with the ductile lower crust. Waveforms of the three largest events were also inverted for the determination of their deviatoric and full moment tensor. No statistically significant isotropic component was found, while two of the events can be explained by a double-couple source. The third event exhibited a low frequency content (< 10 Hz) and a large non-double-couple component suggesting fluid involvement at its source. A stress inversion of all available focal mechanisms in the area shows that fluid circulation in the upper crust generates a local stress field around Kueishantao facilitating the opening of cracks along the NW-SE direction of regional extension.

  18. Single nucleotide polymorphism and lifestyle-related diseases in the Asia-Pacific region: comparative study in Okinawa, Palau and Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kagawa, Y; Dever, G J; Otto, C T Y; Charupoonphol, P; Supannatas, S; Yanagisawa, Y; Sakuma, M; Hasegawa, K

    2003-01-01

    Genetic differences between Asians and Caucasians may be involved in the rapid increase in lifestyle-related diseases in the Asia-Pacific region that has coincided with Westernisation of diets in the region. In the present study, we assessed correlation between 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and chronic disease risk factors in age-matched and population-based groups in four Asian-Pacific locations: Okinawa, Palau and Thailand (two areas). The following allelic SNP profiles significantly differed (p<0.01) among the four populations, in both men and women: uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), uncoupling protein 3 promoter (UCP3p), leptin receptor (LEPR) exon 6, and angiotensinogen (AGTa-20c). Multiple regression analyses showed significant associations between SNPs and clinical data. For men, these associations were between beta3 adrenergic receptor (beta3AR) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (p<0.01), UCP3p and total cholesterol (p<0.01), UCP2 and age (p<0.05), and AGTa-20c and age (p<0.01). For women, these associations were between LEPR exon 14 and body mass index (BMI) (p<0.05), UCP2 and systolic blood pressure (p<0.05), UCP3p and DBP (p<0.05), UCP2 and DBP (p<0.01), apolipoprotein E (ApoE)nd total cholesterol (p<0.01), beta3AR and triglyceride (p<0.05), AGTa-20c and triglyceride (p<0.05), and UCP2 and age (p<0.05). These results illustrate the interrelationships among SNPs and risk factors in the Asia-Pacific including China and Japan. PMID:18924534

  19. Post-drilling changes in seabed landscape and megabenthos in a deep-sea hydrothermal system, the Iheya North field, Okinawa Trough.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Ryota; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Kawagucci, Shinsuke; Takaya, Yutaro; Nozaki, Tatsuo; Chen, Chong; Fujikura, Katsunori; Miwa, Tetsuya; Takai, Ken

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increasing interest in seafloor exploitation such as mineral mining in deep-sea hydrothermal fields, but the environmental impact of anthropogenic disturbance to the seafloor is poorly known. In this study, the effect of such anthropogenic disturbance by scientific drilling operations (IODP Expedition 331) on seabed landscape and megafaunal habitation was surveyed for over 3 years using remotely operated vehicle video observation in a deep-sea hydrothermal field, the Iheya North field, in the Okinawa Trough. We focused on observations from a particular drilling site (Site C0014) where the most dynamic change of landscape and megafaunal habitation was observed among the drilling sites of IODP Exp. 331. No visible hydrothermal fluid discharge had been observed at the sedimentary seafloor at Site C0014, where Calyptogena clam colonies were known for more than 10 years, before the drilling event. After drilling commenced, the original Calyptogena colonies were completely buried by the drilling deposits. Several months after the drilling, diffusing high-temperature hydrothermal fluid began to discharge from the sedimentary subseafloor in the area of over 20 m from the drill holes, 'artificially' creating a new hydrothermal vent habitat. Widespread microbial mats developed on the seafloor with the diffusing hydrothermal fluids and the galatheid crab Shinkaia crosnieri endemic to vents dominated the new vent community. The previously soft, sedimentary seafloor was hardened probably due to barite/gypsum mineralization or silicification, becoming rough and undulated with many fissures after the drilling operation. Although the effects of the drilling operation on seabed landscape and megafaunal composition are probably confined to an area of maximally 30 m from the drill holes, the newly established hydrothermal vent ecosystem has already lasted 2 years and is like to continue to exist until the fluid discharge ceases and thus the ecosystem in the area has

  20. Solar-, monsoon- and Kuroshio-influenced thermocline depth and sea surface salinity in the southern Okinawa Trough during the past 17,300 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Libo; Li, Jun; Zhao, Jingtao; Wei, Helong; Hu, Bangqi; Dou, Yanguang; Sun, Zhilei; Zou, Liang; Bai, Fenglong

    2016-08-01

    Factors influencing millennial-scale variability in the thermocline depth (vertical mixing) and sea surface salinity (SSS) of the southern Okinawa Trough (OT) during the past 17,300 years were investigated based on foraminifer oxygen isotope records of the surface dweller Globigerinoides ruber sensu stricto and the thermocline dweller Pulleniatina obliquiloculata in the AMS 14C dated OKT-3 core. The thermocline depth is influenced by surface thermal buoyancy (heat) flux, in turn controlled by the annual mean insolation at 30°N and the strength of the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM). Strong insolation and weak EAWM tend to increase buoyancy gain (decrease buoyancy loss), corresponding to shallow thermocline depths, and vice versa. Regional SSS is influenced by the global ice volume, the Kuroshio Current (KC), and vertical mixing. A deep thermocline coincides with a high SSS because strong vertical mixing brings more, saltier subsurface KC water to the surface, and vice versa. Local SSS (excluding the global ice volume effect) became lower in the northern OT than in the southern OT after ~9.2 ka, implying that Changjiang diluted water had stronger influence in the northern sector. SSS show no major changes during the Bølling/Allerød and Younger Dryas events, probably because the KC disturbed the North Atlantic signals. This argues against earlier interpretations of sea surface temperature records of this core. Wavelet and spectral analyses of the Δδ18OP-G (δ18O of P. obliquiloculata minus G. ruber s.s.) and δ18Olocal records display 1,540-, 1,480-, 1,050-, 860-, 640-, and 630-year periods. These are consistent with published evidence of a pervasive periodicity of 1,500 years in global climate as well as EAWM and KC signatures, and a fundamental solar periodicity of 1,000 years and intermediary derived periodicity of 700 years.

  1. Post-Drilling Changes in Seabed Landscape and Megabenthos in a Deep-Sea Hydrothermal System, the Iheya North Field, Okinawa Trough

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Ryota; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Kawagucci, Shinsuke; Takaya, Yutaro; Nozaki, Tatsuo; Chen, Chong; Fujikura, Katsunori; Miwa, Tetsuya; Takai, Ken

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increasing interest in seafloor exploitation such as mineral mining in deep-sea hydrothermal fields, but the environmental impact of anthropogenic disturbance to the seafloor is poorly known. In this study, the effect of such anthropogenic disturbance by scientific drilling operations (IODP Expedition 331) on seabed landscape and megafaunal habitation was surveyed for over 3 years using remotely operated vehicle video observation in a deep-sea hydrothermal field, the Iheya North field, in the Okinawa Trough. We focused on observations from a particular drilling site (Site C0014) where the most dynamic change of landscape and megafaunal habitation was observed among the drilling sites of IODP Exp. 331. No visible hydrothermal fluid discharge had been observed at the sedimentary seafloor at Site C0014, where Calyptogena clam colonies were known for more than 10 years, before the drilling event. After drilling commenced, the original Calyptogena colonies were completely buried by the drilling deposits. Several months after the drilling, diffusing high-temperature hydrothermal fluid began to discharge from the sedimentary subseafloor in the area of over 20 m from the drill holes, ‘artificially’ creating a new hydrothermal vent habitat. Widespread microbial mats developed on the seafloor with the diffusing hydrothermal fluids and the galatheid crab Shinkaia crosnieri endemic to vents dominated the new vent community. The previously soft, sedimentary seafloor was hardened probably due to barite/gypsum mineralization or silicification, becoming rough and undulated with many fissures after the drilling operation. Although the effects of the drilling operation on seabed landscape and megafaunal composition are probably confined to an area of maximally 30 m from the drill holes, the newly established hydrothermal vent ecosystem has already lasted 2 years and is like to continue to exist until the fluid discharge ceases and thus the ecosystem in the area

  2. Solar-, monsoon- and Kuroshio-influenced thermocline depth and sea surface salinity in the southern Okinawa Trough during the past 17,300 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Libo; Li, Jun; Zhao, Jingtao; Wei, Helong; Hu, Bangqi; Dou, Yanguang; Sun, Zhilei; Zou, Liang; Bai, Fenglong

    2016-04-01

    Factors influencing millennial-scale variability in the thermocline depth (vertical mixing) and sea surface salinity (SSS) of the southern Okinawa Trough (OT) during the past 17,300 years were investigated based on foraminifer oxygen isotope records of the surface dweller Globigerinoides ruber sensu stricto and the thermocline dweller Pulleniatina obliquiloculata in the AMS 14C dated OKT-3 core. The thermocline depth is influenced by surface thermal buoyancy (heat) flux, in turn controlled by the annual mean insolation at 30°N and the strength of the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM). Strong insolation and weak EAWM tend to increase buoyancy gain (decrease buoyancy loss), corresponding to shallow thermocline depths, and vice versa. Regional SSS is influenced by the global ice volume, the Kuroshio Current (KC), and vertical mixing. A deep thermocline coincides with a high SSS because strong vertical mixing brings more, saltier subsurface KC water to the surface, and vice versa. Local SSS (excluding the global ice volume effect) became lower in the northern OT than in the southern OT after ~9.2 ka, implying that Changjiang diluted water had stronger influence in the northern sector. SSS show no major changes during the Bølling/Allerød and Younger Dryas events, probably because the KC disturbed the North Atlantic signals. This argues against earlier interpretations of sea surface temperature records of this core. Wavelet and spectral analyses of the Δδ18OP-G (δ18O of P. obliquiloculata minus G. ruber s.s.) and δ18Olocal records display 1,540-, 1,480-, 1,050-, 860-, 640-, and 630-year periods. These are consistent with published evidence of a pervasive periodicity of 1,500 years in global climate as well as EAWM and KC signatures, and a fundamental solar periodicity of 1,000 years and intermediary derived periodicity of 700 years.

  3. Program Epicshow: A computer code to allow interactive viewing of the EPIC data libraries (version 94-1)

    SciTech Connect

    Cullen, D.E.

    1994-02-01

    This report discusses the following on the program EPICSHOW: The EPIC System Overview; The Epicshow code; Contents of the Data Bases; Implementing Epicshow; What is Epicshow?; Brief Instruction to the Menu Options; A Guided tour of Epicshow; Z+10, Z-10, etc.: Selecting a Target; Freeze!!!; Major, Minor, etc.: Selecting a Type of Data; Photon, Electron, etc.: Selecting a Projectile; Example Target and Projectile Output; Grids; 2 X 2; Zoom X and Show All; Points; Ratio; Lin/Log X and Y: Linear or Log Scaling; barn-1/cm:Microscopic or Macroscopic; Listing: Tabulated Output Listings; Pstscript: Postscript Output; Legend; Bigger and Smaller: Character Size; Bottoms Up and No Bottom; Interpolation of Data; Availability; Using your mouse; Size of Data Bases; Epicshow`s Standard Graphic Interface; and Postscript Output to Local Printer.

  4. Creating an EPICS Based Test Stand Development System for a BPM Digitizer of the Linac Coherent Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-06-22

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is required to deliver a high quality electron beam for producing coherent X-rays. As a result, high resolution beam position monitoring is required. The Beam Position Monitor (BPM) digitizer acquires analog signals from the beam line and digitizes them to obtain beam position data. Although Matlab is currently being used to test the BPM digitizer?s functions and capability, the Controls Department at SLAC prefers to use Experimental Physics and Industrial Control Systems (EPICS). This paper discusses the transition of providing similar as well as enhanced functionalities, than those offered by Matlab, to test the digitizer. Altogether, the improved test stand development system can perform mathematical and statistical calculations with the waveform signals acquired from the digitizer and compute the fast Fourier transform (FFT) of the signals. Finally, logging of meaningful data into files has been added.

  5. Occurrence of bovine ephemeral fever in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan, in 2012 and development of a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction assay to detect bovine ephemeral fever virus gene

    PubMed Central

    NIWA, Tsuyoshi; SHIRAFUJI, Hiroaki; IKEMIYAGI, Kazufumi; NITTA, Yoshiki; SUZUKI, Moemi; KATO, Tomoko; YANASE, Tohru

    2014-01-01

    In September 2012, several cows and a calf showed decreased activity, anorexia and fever on Ishigaki Island, Okinawa Prefecture, Japan, and the cases were diagnosed as bovine ephemeral fever (BEF). We isolated BEF virus (BEFV) from one of the affected cows and then determined the complete genome sequence of the G gene, which encodes a class I transmembrane glycoprotein of BEFV. The BEFV isolate in this case, ON-3/E/12, was sorted into the same cluster as other BEFV isolates in Japan, Taiwan and China obtained in 1996−2004 and was most closely related to a 2002 Chinese isolate, JT02L, according to the phylogenetic analysis of the complete G gene. Since inactivated vaccines for BEF available in Japan are considered effective against the ON-3/E/12 isolate as well as other isolates in East Asia from 1996−2004, annual vaccination should be conducted to prevent BEF in Okinawa. Additionally, in this study, we developed an RT-PCR assay to detect the BEFV gene in Japan and neighboring countries. Our assay was able to amplify target sequences in all of the tested BEFV isolates, including 18 isolates in Japan and another isolate in Australia. The assay was found to be useful also for testing RNA samples extracted from bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and the detection limit of the assay was 10 copies per tube. We believe that our assay would be an important tool for the screening of BEFV infection and the diagnosis of BEF. PMID:25648276

  6. Tetrodotoxin and Its Analogues in the Pufferfish Arothron hispidus and A. nigropunctatus from the Solomon Islands: A Comparison of Their Toxin Profiles with the Same Species from Okinawa, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Gorapava Puilingi, Clyde; Kudo, Yuta; Cho, Yuko; Konoki, Keiichi; Yotsu-Yamashita, Mari

    2015-01-01

    Pufferfish poisoning has not been well documented in the South Pacific, although fish and other seafood are sources of protein in these island nations. In this study, tetrodotoxin (TTX) and its analogues in each organ of the pufferfish Arothron hispidus and A. nigropunctatus collected in the Solomon Islands were investigated using high resolution LC-MS. The toxin profiles of the same two species of pufferfish from Okinawa, Japan were also examined for comparison. TTXs concentrations were higher in the skin of both species from both regions, and relatively lower in the liver, ovary, testis, stomach, intestine, and flesh. Due to higher TTX concentrations (51.0 and 28.7 µg/g at highest) detected in the skin of the two species from the Solomon Islands (saxitoxin was <0.02 µg/g), these species should be banned from consumption. Similar results were obtained from fish collected in Okinawa, Japan: TTX in the skin of A. hispidus and A. nigropunctatus were 12.7 and 255 µg/g, respectively, at highest, and saxitoxin was also detected in the skin (2.80 µg/g at highest) and ovary of A. hispidus. TTX, 5,6,11-trideoxyTTX (with its 4-epi form), and its anhydro forms were the most abundant, and 11-oxoTTX was commonly detected in the skin. PMID:26343722

  7. Tetrodotoxin and Its Analogues in the Pufferfish Arothron hispidus and A. nigropunctatus from the Solomon Islands: A Comparison of Their Toxin Profiles with the Same Species from Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Puilingi, Clyde Gorapava; Kudo, Yuta; Cho, Yuko; Konoki, Keiichi; Yotsu-Yamashita, Mari

    2015-09-01

    Pufferfish poisoning has not been well documented in the South Pacific, although fish and other seafood are sources of protein in these island nations. In this study, tetrodotoxin (TTX) and its analogues in each organ of the pufferfish Arothron hispidus and A. nigropunctatus collected in the Solomon Islands were investigated using high resolution LC-MS. The toxin profiles of the same two species of pufferfish from Okinawa, Japan were also examined for comparison. TTXs concentrations were higher in the skin of both species from both regions, and relatively lower in the liver, ovary, testis, stomach, intestine, and flesh. Due to higher TTX concentrations (51.0 and 28.7 µg/g at highest) detected in the skin of the two species from the Solomon Islands (saxitoxin was <0.02 µg/g), these species should be banned from consumption. Similar results were obtained from fish collected in Okinawa, Japan: TTX in the skin of A. hispidus and A. nigropunctatus were 12.7 and 255 µg/g, respectively, at highest, and saxitoxin was also detected in the skin (2.80 µg/g at highest) and ovary of A. hispidus. TTX, 5,6,11-trideoxyTTX (with its 4-epi form), and its anhydro forms were the most abundant, and 11-oxoTTX was commonly detected in the skin. PMID:26343722

  8. Post-drilling hydrothermal vent and associated biological activities seen through artificial hydrothermal vents in the Iheya North field, Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takai, K.; Kawagucci, S.; Miyazaki, J.; Watsuji, T.; Ishibashi, J.; Yamamoto, H.; Nozaki, T.; Kashiwabara, T.; Shibuya, T.

    2012-12-01

    In 2010, IODP Expedition 331 was conducted in the Iheya North Field, the Okinawa Trough and drilled several sites in hydrothermally active subseafloor. In addition, during the IODP Expedition 331, four new hydrothermal vents were created. These post-drilling artificial hydrothermal vents provide excellent opportunities to investigate the physical, chemical and microbiological characteristics of the previously unexplored subseafloor hydrothermal fluid reservoirs, and to monitor and estimate how the anthropogenic drilling behaviors affect the deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystem. We were very much interested in the difference of hydrothermal fluid chemistry between the natural hydrothermal vents and the artificial hydrothermal vents. The IODP porewater chemistry of the cores pointed to the density-driven stratification of the phase-separated hydrothermal fluids and the natural vent fluids were likely derived only from the shallower vapor-enriched phases. However, the artificial hydrothermal vents had deeper fluid sources in the subseafloor hydrothermal fluid reservoirs composed of vapor-lost (Cl-enriched) phases. The fluids from the artificial hydrothermal vents were sampled by ROV at 5, 12 and 18 months after the IODP expedition. The artificial hydrothermal vent fluids were slightly enriched with Cl as compared to the natural hydrothermal vent fluids. Thus, the artificial hydrothermal vents successfully entrained the previously unexplored subseafloor hydrothermal fluids. The newly created hydrothermal vents also hosted the very quickly grown, enormous chimney structures, of which mineral compositions were highly variable among the vents. However, the quickly grown C0016B and C0016D vent chimneys were found to be typical Kuroko ore even though the chimney growth rates in the artificial vents were extremely faster than those in the natural vents. In addition, the IODP drilling operation not only created new hydrothermal vents by deep drilling but also induced the

  9. Implication for horizontally-elongated fluid flow inferred from heat flow measurements in the Iheya-North hydrothermal field, Okinawa Trough back-arc basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masaki, Yuka; Kinoshita, Masataka; Kawada, Yoshifumi

    2010-05-01

    The Okinawa Trough is a back-arc basin located in the southwestern part of Japan. It is considered to be in the initial stage of rifting of continental crust, and the activity generates volcanic edifices in this area, accompanied by hydrothermal circulation. The Iheya-North is one of the most active hydrothermal fields among them. As a proposed drilling site for the Integrated ocean Drilling Program, extensive geophysical surveys have been carried out including single-channel seismic imaging, and precise side-scan sonar imaging by using autonomous underwater vehicle 'Urashima' of Japan Agency for Marine-Science and Technology. In the recent few years, we have measured heat flow in and around the Iheya-North hydrothermal field to understand the spatial of hydrothermal circulation in detail. 78 measurements show that heat flow is higher than 10 W/m2 with in 0.5 km of the hydrothermal vent complex, that it gradually decrease eastward to < 1 W/m2, and that very low heat flow around 0.01 W/m2 is observed at 1.5 km east from the hydrothermal field. The average heat flow outside of Iheya-North is ~0.1 W/m2. The low heat flow to the east is most likely caused by an inward flow of seawater into the formation. Seismic and side-scan sonar images as well as piston core samples suggest an impermeable sediment layer to a few hundreds meters below the seafloor in this area. This sediment layer should work as a hydrological barrier to suppress flow through the seafloor, whereas seawater can penetrate into the formation at 1.5 km east of the hydrothermal field, where sidescan images suggest coars sediments on the seafloor. We infer that the hydrothermal circulation within the Iheya-North involves one with a horizontally-elongated scale (~1.5 km horizontal vs. ~a few hundreds meters vertical). We performed numerical calculations of fluid flow and heat transportation to give constraints on the depth of hydrothermal circulation, the magnitude of darcy velocity, and the permeability at

  10. Structure of a seafloor hydrothermal system in volcanic sediment: distribution of hydrothermal clay minerals, at the Iheya North Knoll, Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyoshi, Y.; Ishibashi, J.; Faure, K.; Uehara, S.

    2012-12-01

    Detailed investigation of clay minerals in hydrothermal fields provides fundamental information for understanding the physical and geochemical conditions within a hydrothermal system. Moreover, stable isotope geochemistry of clay minerals provides constraints on formation temperature. We investigated the distribution of clay minerals by XRD and TEM-EDS in a seafloor hydrothermal field at Iheya North Knoll in the Okinawa Trough, using cored sediment obtained from the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 331. The chemical composition and isotope values of the representative clay minerals were analyzed to obtain information on the hydrothermal system beneath the seafloor. Vertically, two different clay mineral facies are present. The boundary between the facies was identified at 6 mbsf (meters below the seafloor) at Site C0013 (100 m east of hydrothermal mound) and at 23 mbsf at Site C0014 (450 m east of the mound). In the lower facies (6 - 28 mbsf and 45 mbsf at Site C0013, 23 - 114 mbsf at Site C0014), Mg-chlorite and/or Mg-chlorite-smectite mixed layer minerals are dominant. They are associated with sericite in deeper parts (45 mbsf at Site C0013 and 38 - 114 mbsf at Site C0014). The δ18O values of the clays range from +1.5 to +4.7 ‰ (VSMOW) and the formation temperatures of the Mg-chlorite are estimated to be 230 - 300 °C, assuming a value from 0 to +1.5 ‰ for δ18Owater. The original sediment in the Iheya North Knoll is considered to have been volcanic of felsic chemical composition, so alteration to Mg-rich chlorite would require supply of substantial amount of Mg. Abundant formation of Mg-chlorite is attributed to mixing of hydrothermal fluid and seawater. In the upper facies at both sites, Al-rich clay minerals (kaolinite and montmorillonite) dominate. The δ18O values of clays range between +9.6 and +13.3 ‰ and formation temperatures are estimated to range between 120 - 160 °C. As kaolinite formation is favorable under acidic

  11. Use of evidence based practices to improve survival without severe morbidity for very preterm infants: results from the EPICE population based cohort

    PubMed Central

    Manktelow, Bradley N; Piedvache, Aurelie; Cuttini, Marina; Boyle, Elaine; van Heijst, Arno; Gadzinowski, Janusz; Van Reempts, Patrick; Huusom, Lene; Weber, Tom; Schmidt, Stephan; Barros, Henrique; Dillalo, Dominico; Toome, Liis; Norman, Mikael; Blondel, Beatrice; Bonet, Mercedes; Draper, Elisabeth S; Maier, Rolf F

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the implementation of four high evidence practices for the care of very preterm infants to assess their use and impact in routine clinical practice and whether they constitute a driver for reducing mortality and neonatal morbidity. Design Prospective multinational population based observational study. Setting 19 regions from 11 European countries covering 850 000 annual births participating in the EPICE (Effective Perinatal Intensive Care in Europe for very preterm births) project. Participants 7336 infants born between 24+0 and 31+6 weeks’ gestation in 2011/12 without serious congenital anomalies and surviving to neonatal admission. Main outcome measures Combined use of four evidence based practices for infants born before 28 weeks’ gestation using an “all or none” approach: delivery in a maternity unit with appropriate level of neonatal care; administration of antenatal corticosteroids; prevention of hypothermia (temperature on admission to neonatal unit ≥36°C); surfactant used within two hours of birth or early nasal continuous positive airway pressure. Infant outcomes were in-hospital mortality, severe neonatal morbidity at discharge, and a composite measure of death or severe morbidity, or both. We modelled associations using risk ratios, with propensity score weighting to account for potential confounding bias. Analyses were adjusted for clustering within delivery hospital. Results Only 58.3% (n=4275) of infants received all evidence based practices for which they were eligible. Infants with low gestational age, growth restriction, low Apgar scores, and who were born on the day of maternal admission to hospital were less likely to receive evidence based care. After adjustment, evidence based care was associated with lower in-hospital mortality (risk ratio 0.72, 95% confidence interval 0.60 to 0.87) and in-hospital mortality or severe morbidity, or both (0.82, 0.73 to 0.92), corresponding to an estimated 18% decrease

  12. A statistical framework to model the meeting-in-the-middle principle using metabolomic data: application to hepatocellular carcinoma in the EPIC study.

    PubMed

    Assi, Nada; Fages, Anne; Vineis, Paolo; Chadeau-Hyam, Marc; Stepien, Magdalena; Duarte-Salles, Talita; Byrnes, Graham; Boumaza, Houda; Knüppel, Sven; Kühn, Tilman; Palli, Domenico; Bamia, Christina; Boshuizen, Hendriek; Bonet, Catalina; Overvad, Kim; Johansson, Mattias; Travis, Ruth; Gunter, Marc J; Lund, Eiliv; Dossus, Laure; Elena-Herrmann, Bénédicte; Riboli, Elio; Jenab, Mazda; Viallon, Vivian; Ferrari, Pietro

    2015-11-01

    Metabolomics is a potentially powerful tool for identification of biomarkers associated with lifestyle exposures and risk of various diseases. This is the rationale of the 'meeting-in-the-middle' concept, for which an analytical framework was developed in this study. In a nested case-control study on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC), serum (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra (800 MHz) were acquired for 114 cases and 222 matched controls. Through partial least square (PLS) analysis, 21 lifestyle variables (the 'predictors', including information on diet, anthropometry and clinical characteristics) were linked to a set of 285 metabolic variables (the 'responses'). The three resulting scores were related to HCC risk by means of conditional logistic regressions. The first PLS factor was not associated with HCC risk. The second PLS metabolomic factor was positively associated with tyrosine and glucose, and was related to a significantly increased HCC risk with OR = 1.11 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.22, P = 0.02) for a 1SD change in the responses score, and a similar association was found for the corresponding lifestyle component of the factor. The third PLS lifestyle factor was associated with lifetime alcohol consumption, hepatitis and smoking, and had negative loadings on vegetables intake. Its metabolomic counterpart displayed positive loadings on ethanol, glutamate and phenylalanine. These factors were positively and statistically significantly associated with HCC risk, with 1.37 (1.05, 1.79, P = 0.02) and 1.22 (1.04, 1.44, P = 0.01), respectively. Evidence of mediation was found in both the second and third PLS factors, where the metabolomic signals mediated the relation between the lifestyle component and HCC outcome. This study devised a way to bridge lifestyle variables to HCC risk through NMR metabolomics data. This implementation of the 'meeting-in-the-middle' approach finds natural

  13. Associations of anthropometric markers with serum metabolites using a targeted metabolomics approach: results of the EPIC-potsdam study

    PubMed Central

    Bachlechner, U; Floegel, A; Steffen, A; Prehn, C; Adamski, J; Pischon, T; Boeing, H

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: The metabolic consequences of type of body shape need further exploration. Whereas accumulation of body mass in the abdominal area is a well-established metabolic risk factor, accumulation in the gluteofemoral area is controversially debated. We evaluated the associations of anthropometric markers of overall body mass and body shape with 127 serum metabolites within a sub-sample of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam cohort. Subjects/Methods: The cross-sectional analysis was conducted in 2270 participants, randomly drawn from the EPIC-Potsdam cohort. Metabolites were measured by targeted metabolomics. To select metabolites related with both waist circumference (WC) (abdominal subcutaneous and visceral fat) and hip circumference (HC) (gluteofemoral fat, muscles and bone structure) correlations (r) with body mass index (BMI) as aggregating marker of body mass (lean and fat mass) were calculated. Relations with body shape were assessed by median metabolite concentrations across tertiles of WC and HC, mutually adjusted to each other. Results: Correlations revealed 23 metabolites related to BMI (r⩾I0.20 I). Metabolites showing relations with BMI were showing similar relations with HC adjusted WC (WCHC). In contrast, relations with WC adjusted HC (HCWC) were less concordant with relations of BMI and WCHC. In both sexes, metabolites with concordant relations regarding WCHC and HCWC included tyrosine, diacyl-phosphatidylcholine C38:3, C38:4, lyso-phosphatidylcholine C18:1, C18:2 and sphingomyelin C18:1; metabolites with opposite relations included isoleucine, diacyl-phosphatidylcholine C42:0, acyl–alkyl-phosphatidylcholine C34:3, C42:4, C42:5, C44:4 and C44:6. Metabolites specifically related to HCWC included acyl–alkyl-phosphatidylcholine C34:2, C36:2, C38:2 and C40:4, and were solely observed in men. Other metabolites were related to WCHC only. Conclusions: The study revealed specific metabolic

  14. EPIC EVALUATION OF THE IMPACT OF POULTRY LITTER APPLICATION TIMING ON NUTRIENT LOSSES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, changes in the utilization practices of animal manures for fertilization have been encouraged to reduce the potential of non-point pollution of lakes and streams from agricultural land. However, the potential impact of changing some of these practices have not been fully studied. The obj...

  15. EDITORIAL: Proceedings of the 6th Edoardo Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Waves, Bankoku Shinryoukan, Okinawa, Japan, 20-24 June 2005 Proceedings of the 6th Edoardo Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Waves, Bankoku Shinryoukan, Okinawa, Japan, 20-24 June 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mio, N.

    2006-04-01

    This issue is published as the Proceedings of the 6th Edoardo Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Waves, held on 20-24 June 2005 at Bankoku Shinryoukan in Okinawa, Japan. Since the first Amaldi conference was held in Frascati in 1994, eleven years have passed and the scale of the conference has grown with the increasing activity in the field of gravitational waves. As the centenary celebration of Einstein's 'miracle year', 2005 was called 'World Year of Physics'. Among his breakthroughs published in 1905, the special theory of relativity is recognized as the most significant revolution in physics, completely changing our views concerning time and space. Ten years later, Einstein proposed the general theory of relativity, by which he predicted the existence of gravitational waves (GWs). At that time, it was only a dream to observe a GW because its effect was so small. Efforts to detect GWs, pioneered by Weber, have continued for almost 40 years, yet their detection remained a dream. However, the presentations at this conference have convinced us that it is no longer a dream. The GW detector projects have made extraordinary advances; in particular, the significant sensitivity improvement of LIGO and the completion of the VIRGO detector mark the beginning of the new era of GW physics. Firm developments in theories and source estimations were also reported. In particular, the data analysis session was very active and various discussions were held. Elaborate experimental techniques were presented, some of them already achieving the requirements for the next generation of detectors, such as Advanced LIGO and LCGT. In addition to the earth-based detectors, many presentations concerning space detectors were contributed; they indicated that space would become the new stage for GW physics and astronomy. This issue brings together the papers which were presented at this exciting conference. The proceedings comprise two volumes; the largest part is published as a volume of

  16. An efficient method to find potentially universal population genetic markers, applied to metazoans

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Despite the impressive growth of sequence databases, the limited availability of nuclear markers that are sufficiently polymorphic for population genetics and phylogeography and applicable across various phyla restricts many potential studies, particularly in non-model organisms. Numerous introns have invariant positions among kingdoms, providing a potential source for such markers. Unfortunately, most of the few known EPIC (Exon Primed Intron Crossing) loci are restricted to vertebrates or belong to multigenic families. Results In order to develop markers with broad applicability, we designed a bioinformatic approach aimed at avoiding multigenic families while identifying intron positions conserved across metazoan phyla. We developed a program facilitating the identification of EPIC loci which allowed slight variation in intron position. From the Homolens databases we selected 29 gene families which contained 52 promising introns for which we designed 93 primer pairs. PCR tests were performed on several ascidians, echinoderms, bivalves and cnidarians. On average, 24 different introns per genus were amplified in bilaterians. Remarkably, five of the introns successfully amplified in all of the metazoan genera tested (a dozen genera, including cnidarians). The influence of several factors on amplification success was investigated. Success rate was not related to the phylogenetic relatedness of a taxon to the groups that most influenced primer design, showing that these EPIC markers are extremely conserved in animals. Conclusions Our new method now makes it possible to (i) rapidly isolate a set of EPIC markers for any phylum, even outside the animal kingdom, and thus, (ii) compare genetic diversity at potentially homologous polymorphic loci between divergent taxa. PMID:20836842

  17. Urinary excretions of 34 dietary polyphenols and their associations with lifestyle factors in the EPIC cohort study.

    PubMed

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Achaintre, David; Rothwell, Joseph A; Rinaldi, Sabina; Assi, Nada; Ferrari, Pietro; Leitzmann, Michael; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Auffret, Aurélie; Kühn, Tilman; Katzke, Verena; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Naska, Androniki; Vasilopoulou, Effie; Palli, Domenico; Grioni, Sara; Mattiello, Amalia; Tumino, Rosario; Ricceri, Fulvio; Slimani, Nadia; Romieu, Isabelle; Scalbert, Augustin

    2016-01-01

    Urinary excretion of 34 dietary polyphenols and their variations according to diet and other lifestyle factors were measured by tandem mass spectrometry in 475 adult participants from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cross-sectional study. A single 24-hour urine sample was analysed for each subject from 4 European countries. The highest median levels were observed for phenolic acids such as 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (157 μmol/24 h), followed by 3-hydroxyphenylacetic, ferulic, vanillic and homovanillic acids (20-50 μmol/24 h). The lowest concentrations were observed for equol, apigenin and resveratrol (<0.1 μmol/24 h). Urinary polyphenols significantly varied by centre, followed by alcohol intake, sex, educational level, and energy intake. This variability is largely explained by geographical variations in the diet, as suggested by the high correlations (r > 0.5) observed between urinary polyphenols and the intake of their main food sources (e.g., resveratrol and gallic acid ethyl ester with red wine intake; caffeic, protocatechuic and ferulic acids with coffee consumption; and hesperetin and naringenin with citrus fruit intake). The large variations in urinary polyphenols observed are largely determined by food preferences. These polyphenol biomarkers should allow more accurate evaluation of the relationships between polyphenol exposure and the risk of chronic diseases in large epidemiological studies. PMID:27273479

  18. Explosion-induced stress changes estimated from vibrating-wire stressmeter measurements near the Mighty Epic event, Nevada Test Site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, William L.; Kibler, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    Explosion-induced compressive stress increases near an underground nuclear explosion are believed to contribute significantly to the containment of high-pressure gases within the explosion-produced cavity. These induced compressive stresses are predicted by computer calculations, but have never been adequately confirmed by field measurements, owing primarily to the unique difficulties of obtaining such field data. Vibrating-wire stressmeter measurements made near the Mighty Epic nuclear detonation, however, qualitatively indicate that within 150 meters of the working point, permanent compressive stress increases of several megapascals were present 15 weeks after the event. Additionally, stress-change magnitudes interpreted from the stressmeter data between the 75- and 260-meter range from the working point compare favorably with calculational predictions of the stress changes believed to be present shortly after detonation of the event. The measurements and calculations differ, however, with regard to the pattern of stress change radial and transverse to the explosion source. For the range of the field measurements from the working point, computer models predict the largest compressive-stress increase to be radial to the explosion source, while the field data indicate the transverse component of. stress change to be the most compressive. The significance of time-dependent modification of the initial explosion-induced stress distribution is, however, uncertain with regard to the comparison of the field measurements and theoretical predictions.

  19. Hormonal, metabolic, and inflammatory profiles and endometrial cancer risk within the EPIC cohort--a factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Dossus, Laure; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Rinaldi, Sabina; Allen, Naomi; Cust, Anne E; Becker, Susen; Tjonneland, Anne; Hansen, Louise; Overvad, Kim; Chabbert-Buffet, Nathalie; Mesrine, Sylvie; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Teucher, Birgit; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Boeing, Heiner; Drogan, Dagmar; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Benetou, Vasiliki; Bamia, Christina; Palli, Domenico; Agnoli, Claudia; Galasso, Rocco; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; van Duijnhoven, Fränzel J B; Peeters, Petra H M; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Redondo, Maria-Luisa; Travier, Noémie; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Altzibar, Jone M; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Barricarte, Aurelio; Lundin, Eva; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas; Fedirko, Veronika; Romieu, Isabelle; Romaguera, Dora; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio; Kaaks, Rudolf

    2013-04-15

    A "Western" lifestyle characterized by physical inactivity and excess weight is associated with a number of metabolic and hormonal dysregulations, including increased circulating estrogen levels, hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, and chronic inflammation. The same hormonal and metabolic axes might mediate the association between this lifestyle and the development of endometrial cancer. Using data collected within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), a prospective cohort study carried out in 10 European countries during 1992-2000, we conducted a factor analysis to delineate important components that summarize the variation explained by a set of biomarkers and to examine their association with endometrial cancer risk. Prediagnostic levels of testosterone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, sex hormone-binding globulin, estrone, estradiol, C-peptide, insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins 1 and 2, adiponectin, high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, triglycerides, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α, soluble TNF receptors 1 and 2, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist were measured in 233 incident endometrial cancer cases and 446 matched controls. Factor analysis identified 3 components associated with postmenopausal endometrial cancer risk that could be labeled "insulin resistance/metabolic syndrome," "steroids," and "inflammation" factors. A fourth component, "lipids," was not significantly associated with endometrial cancer. In conclusion, besides the well-known associations of risk with sex hormones and insulin-regulated physiological axes, our data further support the hypothesis that inflammation factors play a role in endometrial carcinogenesis. PMID:23492765

  20. JBluIce-EPICS: a fast and flexible open-source beamline control system for macromolecular crystallography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, S.; Hilgart, M.; Makarov, O.; Pothineni, S. B.; Yoder, D.; Ogata, C.; Sanishvili, R.; Venugopalan, N.; Becker, M.; Clift, M.; Smith, J. L.; Fischetti, R. F.

    2013-03-01

    This paper overviews recent advances in the JBluIce-EPICS open-source control system designed at the macromolecular crystallography beamlines of the National Institute of General Medical Sciences and National Cancer Institute at the Advanced Photon Source (GM/CA@APS). We discuss some technical highlights of this system distinguishing it from the competition, such as reduction of software layers to only two, possibility to operate JBluIce in parallel with other beamline controls, plugin-enabled architecture where the plugins can be written in any programming language, and utilization of the whole power of the Java integrated development environment in the Graphical User Interface. Then, we demonstrate how these highlights help to make JBluIce fast, easily adaptable to new beamline developments, and intuitive for users. In particular, we discuss several recent additions to the system including a bridge between crystal rastering and data collection, automatic detection of raster polygons from optical crystal centering, background data processing, and a pathway to a fully automated pipeline from crystal screening to solving crystal structure.

  1. Urinary excretions of 34 dietary polyphenols and their associations with lifestyle factors in the EPIC cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Achaintre, David; Rothwell, Joseph A.; Rinaldi, Sabina; Assi, Nada; Ferrari, Pietro; Leitzmann, Michael; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Auffret, Aurélie; Kühn, Tilman; Katzke, Verena; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Naska, Androniki; Vasilopoulou, Effie; Palli, Domenico; Grioni, Sara; Mattiello, Amalia; Tumino, Rosario; Ricceri, Fulvio; Slimani, Nadia; Romieu, Isabelle; Scalbert, Augustin

    2016-01-01

    Urinary excretion of 34 dietary polyphenols and their variations according to diet and other lifestyle factors were measured by tandem mass spectrometry in 475 adult participants from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cross-sectional study. A single 24-hour urine sample was analysed for each subject from 4 European countries. The highest median levels were observed for phenolic acids such as 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (157 μmol/24 h), followed by 3-hydroxyphenylacetic, ferulic, vanillic and homovanillic acids (20–50 μmol/24 h). The lowest concentrations were observed for equol, apigenin and resveratrol (<0.1 μmol/24 h). Urinary polyphenols significantly varied by centre, followed by alcohol intake, sex, educational level, and energy intake. This variability is largely explained by geographical variations in the diet, as suggested by the high correlations (r > 0.5) observed between urinary polyphenols and the intake of their main food sources (e.g., resveratrol and gallic acid ethyl ester with red wine intake; caffeic, protocatechuic and ferulic acids with coffee consumption; and hesperetin and naringenin with citrus fruit intake). The large variations in urinary polyphenols observed are largely determined by food preferences. These polyphenol biomarkers should allow more accurate evaluation of the relationships between polyphenol exposure and the risk of chronic diseases in large epidemiological studies. PMID:27273479

  2. Implementation and assessment of the mechanical-threshold-stress model using the EPIC2 and PINON computer codes

    SciTech Connect

    Maudlin, P.J.; Davidson, R.F.; Henninger, R.J.

    1990-09-01

    A flow-stress constitutive model based on dislocation mechanics has been implemented in the EPIC2 and PINON continuum mechanics modes. This model provides a better understanding of the plastic deformation process for ductile materials by using an internal state variable called the mechanical threshold stress. This kinematic quantity tracks the evolution of the material's microstructure along some arbitrary strain, strain-rate, and temperature-dependent path using a differential form that balances dislocation generation and recovery processes. Given a value for the mechanical threshold stress, the flow stress is determined using either a thermal-activation-controlled or a drag-controlled kinetics relationship. We evaluated the performance of the Mechanical Threshold Stress (MTS) model in terms of accuracy and computational resources through a series of assessment problems chosen to exercise the model over a large range of strain rates and strains. Our calculations indicate that the more complicated MTS model is reasonable in terms of computational resources when compared with other models in common hydrocode use. In terms of accuracy, these simulations show that the MTS model is superior for problems containing mostly normal strain with shear strains less than 0.2 but perhaps not as accurate for problems that contain large amounts of shear strain. 29 refs., 33 figs., 9 tabs.

  3. Joint effect of unlinked genotypes: application to type 2 diabetes in the EPIC-Potsdam case-cohort study.

    PubMed

    Knüppel, Sven; Meidtner, Karina; Arregui, Maria; Holzhütter, Hermann-Georg; Boeing, Heiner

    2015-07-01

    Analyzing multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) is a promising approach to finding genetic effects beyond single-locus associations. We proposed the use of multilocus stepwise regression (MSR) to screen for allele combinations as a method to model joint effects, and compared the results with the often used genetic risk score (GRS), conventional stepwise selection, and the shrinkage method LASSO. In contrast to MSR, the GRS, conventional stepwise selection, and LASSO model each genotype by the risk allele doses. We reanalyzed 20 unlinked SNPs related to type 2 diabetes (T2D) in the EPIC-Potsdam case-cohort study (760 cases, 2193 noncases). No SNP-SNP interactions and no nonlinear effects were found. Two SNP combinations selected by MSR (Nagelkerke's R² = 0.050 and 0.048) included eight SNPs with mean allele combination frequency of 2%. GRS and stepwise selection selected nearly the same SNP combinations consisting of 12 and 13 SNPs (Nagelkerke's R² ranged from 0.020 to 0.029). LASSO showed similar results. The MSR method showed the best model fit measured by Nagelkerke's R² suggesting that further improvement may render this method a useful tool in genetic research. However, our comparison suggests that the GRS is a simple way to model genetic effects since it does not consider linkage, SNP-SNP interactions, and no non-linear effects. PMID:25907404

  4. Environmental studies on natural halogen compounds. I Estimation of biomass of the acorn wormPtychodera flava Eschscholtz (Hemichordata: Enteropneusta) and excretion rate of metabolites at Kattore Bay, Kohama Island, Okinawa.

    PubMed

    Higa, T; Sakemi, S

    1983-04-01

    In order to study the environmental significance of the acorn wormPtychodera flava, which excretes a copious amount of halogenated metabolites, the biomass and the excretion rate were estimated at Kattore Bay, Kohama Island, Okinawa. The habitat, which extends over 1 km(2), could be divided into two areas: zone A, 3.0 × 10(5)m(2), density 95.6/m(2); and zone B, 7.2 × 10(5) m(2), density 48.8/m(2), according to the densities. The total population was estimated to be 6.4 × 10(7) ± 2.0 × 10(7) individuals or 93.0 ± 28.9 tons. These worms daily excrete about 480 tons of fecal sand which was estimated to contain 43 kg of the material extractable with organic solvents. The material contained halogenated metabolites which showed antimicrobial activity. PMID:24407456

  5. New records of the squat lobster genus Munida Leach, 1820 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Anomura: Munididae) from deep-water off Okinawa Islands, Ryukyu Islands, Japan, with description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Komai, Tomoyuki; Higashiji, Takuo

    2016-01-01

    Two species of the squat lobster genus Munida Leach, 1820, M. pollioculus n. sp. and M. zebra Macpherson, 1994, are recorded from deep-waters off Okinawa Islands, the Ryukyu Islands, at depths of 1000 m and 495 m, respectively. The new species closely resembles M. clevai Macpherson, 1999 and M. microps Alcock, 1894, but it differs from the latter two in the absence of a proximal spine on the mesial margin of the cheliped dactylus and the more stout dactylus of the second pereopod. Munida zebra is first recorded from the Northwest Pacific, as well as Japanese waters, with its geographical range extended to the north from the previously known southwestern Pacific localities. PMID:27394885

  6. The mechanism of formation of the seafloor massive sulfide ore body beneath the seafloor at HAKUREI Site in Izena Caldera, Middle Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshizumi, R.; Urabe, T.

    2012-12-01

    The first seafloor hydrothermal activity in northwest Pacific was found at the northeastern rim of the Izena Caldera (Jade Site), Middle Okinawa Trough in 1988 (Halbach et al.,1989). The tectonic setting of the sulfide occurrence, even though small in amount, is similar to that of Kuroko deposits which are the volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits found in volcano-sedimentary units in northern Japan. Later, large seafloor massive sulfide (SMS) ore bodies were discovered above and beneath the seafloor in the central part of the Izena Caldera (HAKUREI Site). The ore reserve is estimated to be 5million tons based on some 100 short (<20 meters), dense drillings (Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation (JOGMEC), 2011), and is regarded as the biggest "proven" SMS deposit in the world. It is worthy to note that the HAKUREI ore deposit can be divided into Ore A (Upper ore bodies) and the Ore B (Lower ore bodies) which are separated by silt and pumice-rich sedimentary layer of a few meter in thickness. The Upper ore bodies are composed of sulfide "mounds" and "chimneys", which are commonly observed in hydrothermal areas. However, the nature of the Lower ore bodies remain uninvestigated. We conducted two research cruises at the HAKUREI site in 2011: TAIGA11 cruise of Exploration Vessel Hakurei-Maru NO.2 (JOGMEC) with Benthic Multicoreing System (BMS) and NT11-15 cruise of R/V Natshushima with ROV Hyper Dolphin (JAMSTEC). In the former cruise, a core (H-1) 5.4m in length was drilled to intersect both the Upper and Lower ore bodies which are separated by sediment using BMS. While, in latter cruise, volcanic rocks (aphyric rhyolite) and sulfide ores (Upper ore) were collected using Hyper Dolphin. The obtained sulfide ores were served for examination with the ore microscopy, electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA) and heating stage for fluid inclusions in barite in ore. Sphalerite and galena dominate at upper part of the Lower ore, while chalcopyrite and covellite

  7. Extrasolar Planet Inferometric Survey (EPIcS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shao, Michael; Baliunas, Sallie; Boden, Andrew; Kulkarni, Shrinivas; Lin, Douglas N. C.; Loredo, Tom; Queloz, Didier; Shaklan, Stuart; Tremaine, Scott; Wolszczan, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    The discovery of the nature of the solar system was a crowning achievement of Renaissance science. The quest to evaluate the properties of extrasolar planetary systems is central to both the intellectual understanding of our origins and the cultural understanding of humanity's place in the Universe; thus it is appropriate that the goals and objectives of NASA's breakthrough Origins program emphasize the study of planetary systems, with a focus on the search for habitable planets. We propose an ambitious research program that will use SIM - the first major mission of the Origins program - to explore planetary systems in our Galactic neighborhood. Our program is a novel two-tiered SIM survey of nearby stars that exploits the capabilities of SIM to achieve two scientific objectives: (i) to identify Earth-like planets in habitable regions around nearby Sunlike stars: and (ii) to explore the nature and evolution of planetary systems in their full variety. The first of these objectives was recently recommended by the Astronomy and Astrophysics Survey Committee (the McKee-Taylor Committee) as a prerequisite for the development of the Terrestrial Planet Finder mission later in the decade. Our program combines this two-part survey with preparatory and contemporaneous research designed to maximize the scientific return from the limited and thus precious observing resources of SIM.

  8. Modeling soil carbon sequestration with EPIC and the soil conditioning index

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing CO2 in the atmosphere is a concern, because of its potential to warm the planet. CO2 and other greenhouse gases act as a barrier to prevent heat escaping from the atmosphere. Prior to the industrial revolution, atmospheric CO2 concentration was about 280 parts per million (ppm). A deli...

  9. Efficient Photometry In-Frame Calibration (EPIC) Gaussian Corrections for Automated Background Normalization of Rate-Tracked Satellite Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griesbach, J.; Wetterer, C.; Sydney, P.; Gerber, J.

    Photometric processing of non-resolved Electro-Optical (EO) images has commonly required the use of dark and flat calibration frames that are obtained to correct for charge coupled device (CCD) dark (thermal) noise and CCD quantum efficiency/optical path vignetting effects respectively. It is necessary to account/calibrate for these effects so that the brightness of objects of interest (e.g. stars or resident space objects (RSOs)) may be measured in a consistent manner across the CCD field of view. Detected objects typically require further calibration using aperture photometry to compensate for sky background (shot noise). For this, annuluses are measured around each detected object whose contained pixels are used to estimate an average background level that is subtracted from the detected pixel measurements. In a new photometric calibration software tool developed for AFRL/RD, called Efficient Photometry In-Frame Calibration (EPIC), an automated background normalization technique is proposed that eliminates the requirement to capture dark and flat calibration images. The proposed technique simultaneously corrects for dark noise, shot noise, and CCD quantum efficiency/optical path vignetting effects. With this, a constant detection threshold may be applied for constant false alarm rate (CFAR) object detection without the need for aperture photometry corrections. The detected pixels may be simply summed (without further correction) for an accurate instrumental magnitude estimate. The noise distribution associated with each pixel is assumed to be sampled from a Poisson distribution. Since Poisson distributed data closely resembles Gaussian data for parameterized means greater than 10, the data may be corrected by applying bias subtraction and standard-deviation division. EPIC performs automated background normalization on rate-tracked satellite images using the following technique. A deck of approximately 50-100 images is combined by performing an independent median

  10. Consumption of fish and meats and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)

    PubMed Central

    Fedirko, V.; Trichopolou, A.; Bamia, C.; Duarte-Salles, T.; Trepo, E.; Aleksandrova, K.; Nöthlings, U.; Lukanova, A.; Lagiou, P.; Boffetta, P.; Trichopoulos, D.; Katzke, V. A.; Overvad, K.; Tjønneland, A.; Hansen, L.; Boutron-Ruault, M. C.; Fagherazzi, G.; Bastide, N.; Panico, S.; Grioni, S.; Vineis, P.; Palli, D.; Tumino, R.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B.; Peeters, P. H.; Skeie, G.; Engeset, D.; Parr, C. L.; Jakszyn, P.; Sánchez, M. J.; Barricarte, A.; Amiano, P.; Chirlaque, M.; Quirós, J. R.; Sund, M.; Werner, M.; Sonestedt, E.; Ericson, U.; Key, T. J.; Khaw, K. T.; Ferrari, P.; Romieu, I.; Riboli, E.; Jenab, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background While higher intake of fish and lower consumption of red/processed meats have been suggested to play a protective role in the etiology of several cancers, prospective evidence for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is limited, particularly in Western European populations. Methods The associations of fish and meats with HCC risk were analyzed in the EPIC cohort. Between 1992 and 2010, 191 incident HCC were identified among 477 206 participants. Baseline diet was assessed using validated dietary questionnaires. A single 24-h diet recall from a cohort subsample was used for calibration. Multivariable proportional hazard regression was utilized to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). In a nested case–control subset (HCC = 122), HBV/HCV status and liver function biomarkers were measured. Results HCC risk was inversely associated with intake of total fish (per 20 g/day increase, HR = 0.83, 95% CI 0.74–0.95 and HR = 0.80, 95% CI 0.69–0.97 before and after calibration, respectively). This inverse association was also suggested after adjusting for HBV/HCV status and liver function score (per 20-g/day increase, RR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.66–1.11 and RR = 0.74, 95% CI 0.50–1.09, respectively) in a nested case–control subset. Intakes of total meats or subgroups of red/processed meats, and poultry were not associated with HCC risk. Conclusions In this large European cohort, total fish intake is associated with lower HCC risk. PMID:23670094

  11. Physical Activity, Bone Health, and Obesity in Peri-/Pre- and Postmenopausal Women: Results from the EPIC-Potsdam Study.

    PubMed

    Menzel, Juliane; di Giuseppe, Romina; Wientzek, Angelika; Kroke, Anja; Boeing, Heiner; Weikert, Cornelia

    2015-10-01

    Physical activity (PA) is suggested to increase the peak bone mass and to minimize age-related bone loss, and thereby to reduce the risk of osteoporosis. However, the relation between PA and bone health considering the obesity status is unclear so far. The present study examines the association between PA levels and calcaneal broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA), particularly under consideration of obesity. Data from a population-based sample of 6776 German women from the EPIC-Potsdam cohort were analyzed. Calibrated PA data were used. Statistical analyses were stratified by menopausal and obesity status. Multiple linear regression was used to model the relationship between PA and BUA levels after adjustment for age, body mass index (BMI), smoking status, education, alcohol and calcium intake, and hormone use. Peri-/premenopausal had higher BUA levels (112.39 ± 10.05 dB/MHz) compared to postmenopausal women (106.44 ± 9.95 dB/MHz). In both groups, BUA levels were higher in the fourth compared to the lowest quartile of PA (p for trend < 0.05). In women with BMI < 30, but not BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2), PA remained positively associated with BUA levels (p for interaction = 0.03). However, when waist circumference higher than 88 cm or body fat percentage (BF%) measures above the median were used to define obesity, a significant positive relationship was also observed in women with BMI < 30 kg/m(2) but with higher waist circumference or BF%. In conclusion, our results strengthen the hypothesis that PA has a positive influence on BUA levels, though dependent on weight. PMID:26108649

  12. Association of Sleep Duration with Chronic Diseases in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam Study

    PubMed Central

    von Ruesten, Anne; Weikert, Cornelia; Fietze, Ingo; Boeing, Heiner

    2012-01-01

    Background In view of the reduced number of hours devoted to sleep in modern western societies the question arises what effects might result from sleep duration on occurrence of chronic diseases. Methods Data from 23 620 middle-aged participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam study, that were recruited between 1994–1998, were analyzed by using Cox proportional hazard regression to examine the association between self-reported sleep duration at baseline and incidence of chronic diseases, such as diabetes, myocardial infarction, stroke, and cancer. Results During a mean follow-up period of 7.8 years 841 incident cases of type 2 diabetes, 197 cases of myocardial infarction, 169 incident strokes, and 846 tumor cases were observed. Compared to persons sleeping 7-<8 h/day, participants with sleep duration of <6 h had a significantly increased risk of stroke (Hazard Ratio (HR) = 2.06, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.18–3.59), cancer (HR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.09–1.87), and overall chronic diseases (HR = 1.31, 95% CI: 1.10–1.55) in multivariable adjusted models. Self-reported daytime sleep at baseline was not associated with incident chronic diseases in the overall study sample. However, there had been an effect modification of daytime sleep by hypertension showing that daytime sleep was inversely related to chronic disease risk among non-hypertensive participants but directly related to chronic diseases among hypertensives. Conclusion Sleep duration of less than 6 h is a risky behavior for the development of chronic diseases, particularly stroke and cancer, and should be therefore addressed in public health campaigns. PMID:22295122

  13. The impact of education on risk factors and the occurrence of multimorbidity in the EPIC-Heidelberg cohort

    PubMed Central

    Nagel, Gabriele; Peter, Richard; Braig, Stefanie; Hermann, Silke; Rohrmann, Sabine; Linseisen, Jakob

    2008-01-01

    Background In aging populations, the prevalence of multimorbidity is high, and the role of socioeconomic status and its correlates is not well described. Thus, we investigated the association between educational attainment and multimorbidity in a prospective cohort study, taking also into account intermediate factors that could explain such associations. Methods We included 13,781 participants of the Heidelberg cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), who were 50–75 years at the end of follow-up. Information on diet and lifestyle was collected at recruitment (1994–1998). During a median follow-up of 8.7 years, information on chronic conditions and death were collected. Results Overall, the prevalence of multimorbidity (>= 2 concurrent chronic diseases) was 67.3%. Compared to the highest educational category, the lowest was statistically significantly associated with increased odds of multimorbidity in men (OR = 1.43; 95% CI 1.28–1.61) and women (OR = 1.33; 95% CI 1.18–1.57). After adjustment, the positive associations were attenuated (men: OR = 1.28; 95% CI 1.12–1.46; women: OR = 1.16; 95% CI 0.99–1.36). Increasing BMI was more strongly than smoking status an intermediate factor in the association between education and multimorbidity. Conclusion In this German population, the prevalence of multimorbidity is high and is significantly associated with educational level. Increasing BMI is the most important predictor of this association. However, even the fully adjusted model, i.e. considering also other known risk factors for chronic diseases, could not entirely explain socio-economic inequalities in multimorbidity. Educational level should be considered in the development and implementation of prevention strategies of multimorbidity. PMID:19014444

  14. Determinants of non- response to a second assessment of lifestyle factors and body weight in the EPIC-PANACEA study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This paper discusses whether baseline demographic, socio-economic, health variables, length of follow-up and method of contacting the participants predict non-response to the invitation for a second assessment of lifestyle factors and body weight in the European multi-center EPIC-PANACEA study. Methods Over 500.000 participants from several centers in ten European countries recruited between 1992 and 2000 were contacted 2–11 years later to update data on lifestyle and body weight. Length of follow-up as well as the method of approaching differed between the collaborating study centers. Non-responders were compared with responders using multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results Overall response for the second assessment was high (81.6%). Compared to postal surveys, centers where the participants completed the questionnaire by phone attained a higher response. Response was also high in centers with a short follow-up period. Non-response was higher in participants who were male (odds ratio 1.09 (confidence interval 1.07; 1.11), aged under 40 years (1.96 (1.90; 2.02), living alone (1.40 (1.37; 1.43), less educated (1.35 (1.12; 1.19), of poorer health (1.33 (1.27; 1.39), reporting an unhealthy lifestyle and who had either a low (<18.5 kg/m2, 1.16 (1.09; 1.23)) or a high BMI (>25, 1.08 (1.06; 1.10); especially ≥30 kg/m2, 1.26 (1.23; 1.29)). Conclusions Cohort studies may enhance cohort maintenance by paying particular attention to the subgroups that are most unlikely to respond and by an active recruitment strategy using telephone interviews. PMID:23006680

  15. Life Satisfaction and Risk of Chronic Diseases in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Germany Study

    PubMed Central

    Feller, Silke; Teucher, Birgit; Kaaks, Rudolf; Boeing, Heiner; Vigl, Matthaeus

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of the study was to examine the prospective association between life satisfaction and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, myocardial infarction, stroke, and cancer. Previous studies suggested that psychosocial factors may affect the development of chronic diseases but the impact of positive attitudes, in particular life satisfaction, is yet to be determined. Methods The analysis included 50,358 participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Germany study in Potsdam and Heidelberg. Life satisfaction was assessed in a baseline interview and incident cases of chronic diseases were identified and verified during follow-up. Hazard ratios were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression models that were systematically multivariable-adjusted for established risk factors and prevalent diseases. Results During an average of 8 years of follow-up 2,293 cases of cancer, 1,840 cases of type 2 diabetes mellitus, 440 cases of stroke, and 562 cases of myocardial infarction were observed. Women who were unsatisfied with life at baseline showed in all models a significantly increased risk of cancer (HR: 1.45; 95% CI: 1.18-1.78) and stroke (HR: 1.69; 95% CI: 1.05-2.73) as well as an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus by trend across categories (p-trend=0.04) compared to women very satisfied with life. In men, a relationship between life satisfaction and stroke was found but did not persist after consideration of lifestyle factors and prevalent diseases. No significant association was observed between life satisfaction and risk of myocardial infarction. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that reduced life satisfaction is related to the development of chronic diseases—particularly in women and partly mediated by established risk factors. PMID:23977388

  16. Dietary glycemic load and risk of cognitive impairment in women: findings from the EPIC-Naples cohort.

    PubMed

    Simeon, Vittorio; Chiodini, Paolo; Mattiello, Amalia; Sieri, Sabina; Panico, Camilla; Brighenti, Furio; Krogh, Vittorio; Panico, Salvatore

    2015-05-01

    Cognitive impairment is a common cause of morbidity in the elderly. The relationship between dietary habits and cognitive impairment in a female population living in the metropolitan area of Naples, in the Mediterranean part of Italy, has been evaluated in the Naples EPIC prospective cohort study. The study cohort, enrolled between 1993 and 1997, is composed of 5062 women aged 30-69 years. At time of enrolment anthropometric measures were performed and information about socio-demographic details, clinical data, lifestyle and dietary habits were collected. During 2008 and 2009, women 65 years of age or older received a telephone interview to evaluate cognitive status (TICS); the derived score was used as proxy of cognitive impairment. Analyses were carried out on 1514 participants. Linear regression model showed negative association between TICS score and, respectively, age at baseline (β = -.31, 95% CI -.34, -.24), body mass index (BMI) (β = -.08, 95% CI -.16, -.01), and glycemic load (GL) (β = -.02, 95% CI -.03, -.01), whereas education level (β = 0.62, 95% CI .56, .69) showed positive association. A logistic regression model, used to evaluate determinants of the low cognitive score (TICS score ≤ 15, 1st tertile), confirmed association for previous variables [age (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.08, 1.15); BMI (OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.001, 1.07); GL (OR 1.005, 95% CI 1.001, 1.011); education level (OR .82, 95% CI .79, .84)] with, in addition, type II diabetes (OR 1.85, 95% CI 1.014, 3.4). This study indicates that GL may play a role in determining risk of cognitive impairment, besides age, BMI, education and diabetes. PMID:25773755

  17. Plasma Elaidic Acid Level as Biomarker of Industrial Trans Fatty Acids and Risk of Weight Change: Report from the EPIC Study

    PubMed Central

    Chajès, Véronique; Biessy, Carine; Ferrari, Pietro; Romieu, Isabelle; Freisling, Heinz; Huybrechts, Inge; Scalbert, Augustin; Bueno de Mesquita, Bas; Romaguera, Dora; Gunter, Marc J.; Vineis, Paolo; Hansen, Camilla Plambeck; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Fagherazzi, Guy; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Katzke, Verana; Neamat-Allah, Jasmine; Boeing, Heiner; Bachlechner, Ursula; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Naska, Androniki; Orfanos, Philippos; Pala, Valeria; Masala, Giovanna; Mattiello, Amalia; Skeie, Guri; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Agudo, Antonio; Huerta, Jose Maria; Ardanaz, Eva; Sánchez, Maria Jose; Dorronsoro, Miren; Quirós, Jose Ramon; Johansson, Ingegerd; Winkvist, Anna; Sonested, Emily; Key, Tim; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicolas J.; Peeters, Petra H.M.; Slimani, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    Background Few epidemiological studies have examined the association between dietary trans fatty acids and weight gain, and the evidence remains inconsistent. The main objective of the study was to investigate the prospective association between biomarker of industrial trans fatty acids and change in weight within the large study European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Methods Baseline plasma fatty acid concentrations were determined in a representative EPIC sample from the 23 participating EPIC centers. A total of 1,945 individuals were followed for a median of 4.9 years to monitor weight change. The association between elaidic acid level and percent change of weight was investigated using a multinomial logistic regression model, adjusted by length of follow-up, age, energy, alcohol, smoking status, physical activity, and region. Results In women, doubling elaidic acid was associated with a decreased risk of weight loss (odds ratio (OR) = 0.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.55-0.88, p = 0.002) and a trend was observed with an increased risk of weight gain during the 5-year follow-up (OR = 1.23, 95% CI = 0.97-1.56, p = 0.082) (p-trend<.0001). In men, a trend was observed for doubling elaidic acid level and risk of weight loss (OR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.66-1.01, p = 0.062) while no significant association was found with risk of weight gain during the 5-year follow-up (OR = 1.08, 95% CI = 0.88-1.33, p = 0.454). No association was found for saturated and cis-monounsaturated fatty acids. Conclusions These data suggest that a high intake of industrial trans fatty acids may decrease the risk of weight loss, particularly in women. Prevention of obesity should consider limiting the consumption of highly processed foods, the main source of industrially-produced trans fatty acids. PMID:25675445

  18. Investigation of dietary factors and endometrial cancer risk using a nutrient-wide association study approach in the EPIC and Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and NHSII.

    PubMed

    Merritt, Melissa A; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Tworoger, Shelley S; De Vivo, Immaculata; Hankinson, Susan E; Fernandes, Judy; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Tjønneland, Anne; Petersen, Kristina E N; Dahm, Christina C; Overvad, Kim; Dossus, Laure; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Fortner, Renée T; Kaaks, Rudolf; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Grioni, Sara; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Mattiello, Amalia; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Peeters, Petra H; Gram, Inger T; Skeie, Guri; Quirós, J Ramón; Duell, Eric J; Sánchez, María-José; Salmerón, D; Barricarte, Aurelio; Chamosa, Saioa; Ericson, Ulrica; Sonestedt, Emily; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Idahl, Annika; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas; Travis, Ruth C; Rinaldi, Sabina; Romieu, Isabelle; Patel, Chirag J; Riboli, Elio; Gunter, Marc J

    2015-02-01

    Data on the role of dietary factors in endometrial cancer development are limited and inconsistent. We applied a "nutrient-wide association study" approach to systematically evaluate dietary risk associations for endometrial cancer while controlling for multiple hypothesis tests using the false discovery rate (FDR) and validating the results in an independent cohort. We evaluated endometrial cancer risk associations for dietary intake of 84 foods and nutrients based on dietary questionnaires in three prospective studies, the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC; N = 1,303 cases) followed by validation of nine foods/nutrients (FDR ≤ 0.10) in the Nurses' Health Studies (NHS/NHSII; N = 1,531 cases). Cox regression models were used to estimate HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI). In multivariate adjusted comparisons of the extreme categories of intake at baseline, coffee was inversely associated with endometrial cancer risk (EPIC, median intake 750 g/day vs. 8.6; HR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.68-0.97, Ptrend = 0.09; NHS/NHSII, median intake 1067 g/day vs. none; HR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.70-0.96, Ptrend = 0.04). Eight other dietary factors that were associated with endometrial cancer risk in the EPIC study (total fat, monounsaturated fat, carbohydrates, phosphorus, butter, yogurt, cheese, and potatoes) were not confirmed in the NHS/NHSII. Our findings suggest that coffee intake may be inversely associated with endometrial cancer risk. Further data are needed to confirm these findings and to examine the mechanisms linking coffee intake to endometrial cancer risk to develop improved prevention strategies. PMID:25662427

  19. Associations between flavan-3-ol intake and CVD risk in the Norfolk cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC-Norfolk).

    PubMed

    Vogiatzoglou, Anna; Mulligan, Angela A; Bhaniani, Amit; Lentjes, Marleen A H; McTaggart, Alison; Luben, Robert N; Heiss, Christian; Kelm, Malte; Merx, Marc W; Spencer, Jeremy P E; Schroeter, Hagen; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kuhnle, Gunter G C

    2015-07-01

    Dietary intervention studies suggest that flavan-3-ol intake can improve vascular function and reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). However, results from prospective studies failed to show a consistent beneficial effect. Associations between flavan-3-ol intake and CVD risk in the Norfolk arm of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Norfolk) were investigated. Data were available from 24,885 (11,252 men; 13,633 women) participants, recruited between 1993 and 1997 into the EPIC-Norfolk study. Flavan-3-ol intake was assessed using 7-day food diaries and the FLAVIOLA Flavanol Food Composition database. Missing data for plasma cholesterol and vitamin C were imputed using multiple imputation. Associations between flavan-3-ol intake and blood pressure at baseline were determined using linear regression models. Associations with CVD risk were estimated using Cox regression analyses. Median intake of total flavan-3-ols was 1034mg/d (range: 0-8531mg/d) for men and 970mg/d (0-6695mg/d) for women, median intake of flavan-3-ol monomers was 233mg/d (0-3248mg/d) for men and 217 (0-2712mg/d) for women. There were no consistent associations between flavan-3-ol monomer intake and baseline systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP). After 286,147 person-years of follow-up, there were 8463 cardiovascular events and 1987 CVD related deaths; no consistent association between flavan-3-ol intake and CVD risk (HR 0.93, 95% CI: 0.87; 1.00; Q1 vs Q5) or mortality was observed (HR 0.93, 95% CI: 0.84; 1.04). Flavan-3-ol intake in EPIC-Norfolk is not sufficient to achieve a statistically significant reduction in CVD risk. PMID:25795512

  20. Associations between flavan-3-ol intake and CVD risk in the Norfolk cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC-Norfolk)

    PubMed Central

    Vogiatzoglou, Anna; Mulligan, Angela A.; Bhaniani, Amit; Lentjes, Marleen A.H.; McTaggart, Alison; Luben, Robert N.; Heiss, Christian; Kelm, Malte; Merx, Marc W.; Spencer, Jeremy P.E.; Schroeter, Hagen; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kuhnle, Gunter G.C.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary intervention studies suggest that flavan-3-ol intake can improve vascular function and reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). However, results from prospective studies failed to show a consistent beneficial effect. Associations between flavan-3-ol intake and CVD risk in the Norfolk arm of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Norfolk) were investigated. Data were available from 24,885 (11,252 men; 13,633 women) participants, recruited between 1993 and 1997 into the EPIC-Norfolk study. Flavan-3-ol intake was assessed using 7-day food diaries and the FLAVIOLA Flavanol Food Composition database. Missing data for plasma cholesterol and vitamin C were imputed using multiple imputation. Associations between flavan-3-ol intake and blood pressure at baseline were determined using linear regression models. Associations with CVD risk were estimated using Cox regression analyses. Median intake of total flavan-3-ols was 1034 mg/d (range: 0–8531 mg/d) for men and 970 mg/d (0–6695 mg/d) for women, median intake of flavan-3-ol monomers was 233 mg/d (0–3248 mg/d) for men and 217 (0–2712 mg/d) for women. There were no consistent associations between flavan-3-ol monomer intake and baseline systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP). After 286,147 person-years of follow-up, there were 8463 cardiovascular events and 1987 CVD related deaths; no consistent association between flavan-3-ol intake and CVD risk (HR 0.93, 95% CI: 0.87; 1.00; Q1 vs Q5) or mortality was observed (HR 0.93, 95% CI: 0.84; 1.04). Flavan-3-ol intake in EPIC-Norfolk is not sufficient to achieve a statistically significant reduction in CVD risk. PMID:25795512

  1. Investigation of dietary factors and endometrial cancer risk using a nutrient-wide association study approach in the EPIC and Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) and NHSII

    PubMed Central

    Merritt, Melissa A.; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Tworoger, Shelley S.; De Vivo, Immaculata; Hankinson, Susan E.; Fernandes, Judy; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K.; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Tjønneland, Anne; Petersen, Kristina E.N.; Dahm, Christina C.; Overvad, Kim; Dossus, Laure; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Fortner, Renée T.; Kaaks, Rudolf; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Grioni, Sara; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Mattiello, Amalia; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.B(as).; Onland-Moret, N.C. (Charlotte); Peeters, Petra H.; Gram, Inger T.; Skeie, Guri; Quirós, J. Ramón; Duell, Eric J.; Sánchez, María-José; Salmerón, D.; Barricarte, Aurelio; Chamosa, Saioa; Ericson, Ulrica; Sonestedt, Emily; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Idahl, Annika; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas; Travis, Ruth C.; Rinaldi, Sabina; Romieu, Isabelle; Patel, Chirag J.; Riboli, Elio; Gunter, Marc J.

    2014-01-01

    Data on the role of dietary factors in endometrial cancer development are limited and inconsistent. We applied a ‘nutrient-wide association study’ approach to systematically evaluate dietary risk associations for endometrial cancer while controlling for multiple hypothesis tests using the false discovery rate (FDR) and validating the results in an independent cohort. We evaluated endometrial cancer risk associations for dietary intake of 84 foods and nutrients based on dietary questionnaires in three prospective studies, the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC; N=1,303 cases) followed by validation of nine foods/nutrients (FDR≤0.10) in the Nurses’ Health Studies (NHS/NHSII; N=1,531 cases). Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). In multivariate adjusted comparisons of the extreme categories of intake at baseline, coffee was inversely associated with endometrial cancer risk (EPIC, median intake 750 g/day vs 8.6, HR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.68-0.97, Ptrend=0.09; NHS/NHSII, median intake 1067 g/day vs none, HR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.70-0.96, Ptrend=0.04). Eight other dietary factors that were associated with endometrial cancer risk in the EPIC study (total fat, monounsaturated fat, carbohydrates, phosphorus, butter, yogurt, cheese and potatoes) were not confirmed in the NHS/NHSII. Our findings suggest that coffee intake may be inversely associated with endometrial cancer risk. Further data are needed to confirm these findings and to examine the mechanisms linking coffee intake to endometrial cancer risk in order to develop improved prevention strategies. PMID:25662427

  2. The XMM-Newton/EPIC X-Ray Light Curve Analysis of WR 6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ignace, R.; Gayley, K. G.; Hamann, W.-R.; Huenemoerder, D. P.; Oskinova, L. M.; Pollock, A. M. T.; McFall, M.

    2013-09-01

    We obtained four pointings of over 100 ks each of the well-studied Wolf-Rayet star WR 6 with the XMM-Newton satellite. With a first paper emphasizing the results of spectral analysis, this follow-up highlights the X-ray variability clearly detected in all four pointings. However, phased light curves fail to confirm obvious cyclic behavior on the well-established 3.766 day period widely found at longer wavelengths. The data are of such quality that we were able to conduct a search for event clustering in the arrival times of X-ray photons. However, we fail to detect any such clustering. One possibility is that X-rays are generated in a stationary shock structure. In this context we favor a corotating interaction region (CIR) and present a phenomenological model for X-rays from a CIR structure. We show that a CIR has the potential to account simultaneously for the X-ray variability and constraints provided by the spectral analysis. Ultimately, the viability of the CIR model will require both intermittent long-term X-ray monitoring of WR 6 and better physical models of CIR X-ray production at large radii in stellar winds. Based on observations obtained with XMM-Newton, an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member States and NASA.

  3. THE XMM-NEWTON/EPIC X-RAY LIGHT CURVE ANALYSIS OF WR 6

    SciTech Connect

    Ignace, R.; Gayley, K. G.; Hamann, W.-R.; Oskinova, L. M.; Huenemoerder, D. P.; Pollock, A. M. T.; McFall, M.

    2013-09-20

    We obtained four pointings of over 100 ks each of the well-studied Wolf-Rayet star WR 6 with the XMM-Newton satellite. With a first paper emphasizing the results of spectral analysis, this follow-up highlights the X-ray variability clearly detected in all four pointings. However, phased light curves fail to confirm obvious cyclic behavior on the well-established 3.766 day period widely found at longer wavelengths. The data are of such quality that we were able to conduct a search for event clustering in the arrival times of X-ray photons. However, we fail to detect any such clustering. One possibility is that X-rays are generated in a stationary shock structure. In this context we favor a corotating interaction region (CIR) and present a phenomenological model for X-rays from a CIR structure. We show that a CIR has the potential to account simultaneously for the X-ray variability and constraints provided by the spectral analysis. Ultimately, the viability of the CIR model will require both intermittent long-term X-ray monitoring of WR 6 and better physical models of CIR X-ray production at large radii in stellar winds.

  4. Physical activity and lung cancer among non-smokers: A pilot molecular epidemiologic study within EPIC

    PubMed Central

    RUNDLE, ANDREW; RICHIE, JOHN; STEINDORF, KAREN; PELUSO, MARCO; OVERVAD, KIM; RAASCHOU-NIELSEN, OLE; CLAVEL-CHAPELON, FRANCOISE; LINSEISEN, JACOB P.; BOEING, HEINER; TRICHOPOULOU, ANTONIA; PALLI, DOMENICO; KROGH, VITTORIO; TUMINO, ROSARIO; PANICO, SALVATORE; BUENO-DE-MESQUITA, HENDRIK B.; PEETERS, PETRA H.; LUND, EILIV; GONZALEZ, CARLOS A.; MARTINEZ, CARMEN; DORRONSORO, MIREN; BARRICARTE, AURELIO; TORMO, M. JOSE; QUIROS, JOSÈ R.; AGUDO, ANTONIO; BERGLUND, GORAN; JARVHOLM, BENGT; BINGHAM, SHEILA; KEY, TIMOTHY J.; GORMALLY, EMMANUELLE; SARACCI, RODOLFO; KAAKS, RUDOLF; RIBOLI, ELIO; VINEIS, PAOLO

    2013-01-01

    The association between physical activity, potential intermediate biomarkers and lung cancer risk was investigated in a study of 230 cases and 648 controls nested within the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer and Nutrition. Data on white blood cell aromatic-DNA adducts by 32P-postlabeling and glutathione (GSH) in red blood cells were available from a subset of cases and controls. Compared to the first quartile, the fourth quartile of recreational physical activity was associated with lower lung cancer risk [odds ratio=0.56 (0.35–0.90)], higher GSH levels [+1.87 micro mole GSH/gram haemoglobin, p=0.04] but not with the presence of high levels of adducts [odds ratio=1.05 (0.38–2.86)]. Despite being associated with recreational physical activity, in these small scale pilot analyses GSH levels were not associated with lung cancer risk, [odds ratio=0.95 (0.84 – 1.07) per unit increase in glutathione levels]. Household and occupational activity was not associated with lung cancer risk or biomarker levels. PMID:20050820

  5. Application of a XMM-Newton EPIC Monte Carlo to Analysis And Interpretation of Data for Abell 1689, RXJ0658-55 And the Centaurus Clusters of Galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Andersson, Karl E.; Peterson, J.R.; Madejski, G.M.; /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2007-04-17

    We propose a new Monte Carlo method to study extended X-ray sources with the European Photon Imaging Camera (EPIC) aboard XMM Newton. The Smoothed Particle Inference (SPI) technique, described in a companion paper, is applied here to the EPIC data for the clusters of galaxies Abell 1689, Centaurus and RXJ 0658-55 (the ''bullet cluster''). We aim to show the advantages of this method of simultaneous spectral-spatial modeling over traditional X-ray spectral analysis. In Abell 1689 we confirm our earlier findings about structure in temperature distribution and produce a high resolution temperature map. We also confirm our findings about velocity structure within the gas. In the bullet cluster, RXJ 0658-55, we produce the highest resolution temperature map ever to be published of this cluster allowing us to trace what looks like the motion of the bullet in the cluster. We even detect a south to north temperature gradient within the bullet itself. In the Centaurus cluster we detect, by dividing up the luminosity of the cluster in bands of gas temperatures, a striking feature to the north-east of the cluster core. We hypothesize that this feature is caused by a subcluster left over from a substantial merger that slightly displaced the core. We conclude that our method is very powerful in determining the spatial distributions of plasma temperatures and very useful for systematic studies in cluster structure.

  6. Evaluation of the Impact of Implementing the Emergency Medical Services Traumatic Brain Injury Guidelines in Arizona: The Excellence in Prehospital Injury Care (EPIC) Study Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Spaite, Daniel W.; Bobrow, Bentley J.; Stolz, Uwe; Sherrill, Duane; Chikani, Vatsal; Barnhart, Bruce; Sotelo, Michael; Gaither, Joshua B.; Viscusi, Chad; Adelson, P. David; Denninghoff, Kurt R.

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) exacts a great toll on society. Fortunately, there is growing evidence that the management of TBI in the early minutes after injury may significantly reduce morbidity and mortality. In response, evidence-based prehospital and in-hospital TBI treatment guidelines have been established by authoritative bodies. However, no large studies have yet evaluated the effectiveness of implementing these guidelines in the prehospital setting. This article describes the background, design, implementation, emergency medical services (EMS) treatment protocols, and statistical analysis of a prospective, controlled (before/after), statewide study designed to evaluate the effect of implementing the EMS TBI guidelines—the Excellence in Prehospital Injury Care (EPIC) study (NIH/NINDS R01NS071049, “EPIC”; and 3R01NS071049-S1, “EPIC4Kids”). The specific aim of the study is to test the hypothesis that statewide implementation of the international adult and pediatric EMS TBI guidelines will significantly reduce mortality and improve nonmortality outcomes in patients with moderate or severe TBI. Furthermore, it will specifically evaluate the effect of guideline implementation on outcomes in the subgroup of patients who are intubated in the field. Over the course of the entire study (~9 years), it is estimated that approximately 25,000 patients will be enrolled. PMID:25112451

  7. Fruit and vegetable intake and cause-specific mortality in the EPIC study.

    PubMed

    Leenders, Max; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Ferrari, Pietro; Siersema, Peter D; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Dossus, Laure; Dartois, Laureen; Kaaks, Rudolf; Li, Kuanrong; Boeing, Heiner; Bergmann, Manuela M; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Peeters, Petra H M; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Engeset, Dagrun; Braaten, Tonje; Redondo, Maria Luisa; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, María-José; Amiano, Pilar; Huerta, José-María; Ardanaz, Eva; Drake, Isabel; Sonestedt, Emily; Johansson, Ingegerd; Winkvist, Anna; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick J; Key, Timothy J; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Johansson, Mattias; Licaj, Idlir; Gunter, Marc J; Murphy, Neil; Riboli, Elio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas

    2014-09-01

    Consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with a lower overall mortality. The aim of this study was to identify causes of death through which this association is established. More than 450,000 participants from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study were included, of which 25,682 were reported deceased after 13 years of follow-up. Information on lifestyle, diet and vital status was collected through questionnaires and population registries. Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for death from specific causes were calculated from Cox regression models, adjusted for potential confounders. Participants reporting consumption of more than 569 g/day of fruits and vegetables had lower risks of death from diseases of the circulatory (HR for upper fourth 0.85, 95% CI 0.77-0.93), respiratory (HR for upper fourth 0.73, 95% CI 0.59-0.91) and digestive system (HR for upper fourth 0.60, 95% CI 0.46-0.79) when compared with participants consuming less than 249 g/day. In contrast, a positive association with death from diseases of the nervous system was observed. Inverse associations were generally observed for vegetable, but not for fruit consumption. Associations were more pronounced for raw vegetable consumption, when compared with cooked vegetable consumption. Raw vegetable consumption was additionally inversely associated with death from neoplasms and mental and behavioral disorders. The lower risk of death associated with a higher consumption of fruits and vegetables may be derived from inverse associations with diseases of the circulatory, respiratory and digestive system, and may depend on the preparation of vegetables and lifestyle factors. PMID:25154553

  8. Association between the Fatty Liver Index and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in the EPIC-Potsdam Study

    PubMed Central

    Jäger, Susanne; Jacobs, Simone; Kröger, Janine; Stefan, Norbert; Fritsche, Andreas; Weikert, Cornelia; Boeing, Heiner; Schulze, Matthias B.

    2015-01-01

    The fatty liver index (FLI) predicts fatty liver by using BMI, waist circumference, γ-glutamyltransferase and triglycerides. We investigated the association between the FLI and the risk of type 2 diabetes and evaluated to what extent single FLI components contribute to the diabetes risk. We analysed a case-cohort study (random sub-cohort: 1922; incident cases: 563) nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam study. The proportion of exposure effect (PEE) explained by single FLI components was evaluated and effect decomposition using inverse probability weighting (IPW) was applied. Women and men with a FLI ≥60 compared to those with a FLI <30 had a multivariable-adjusted Hazard Ratio (HR) of 17.6; 95% confidence interval (CI) 11.1-28.0 and HR: 10.9; 95% CI 6.22-19.2, respectively. Adjustment for BMI or waist circumference attenuated this association in men [PEEBMI (95% CI) = 53.8% (43.9%-65.8%); PEEwaist (95% CI) = 54.8% (44.2%-68.8%)]. In women, adjustment for waist circumference attenuated the association to a lesser degree than in men [PEEwaist (95% CI) = 31.1%; (21.9%-43.1%)] while BMI had no appreciable effect [PEEBMI (95% CI) = 11.0% (2.68%-21.0%)]. γ-glutamyltransferase and triglycerides showed only a small attenuation in women [PEEGGT(95% CI) = 3.11% (-0.72%-4.48%); PEETG (95% CI) = 6.36% (3.81%-9.92%)] and in men [PEEGGT = 0%; PEETG (95% CI) = 6.23% (2.03%-11.8%)]. In women, the total effect was decomposed into a direct effect and 4 indirect effects (HRBMI = 1.10; HRwaist = 1.28; HRGGT = 0.97 and HRTG = 1.03). In men, the 4 indirect effects were HRBMI = 1.25; HRwaist = 1.29; HRGGT = 0.97 and HRTG = 0.99. These data suggest that the FLI, as a proxy for fatty liver, is associated with risk of type 2 diabetes. This association is only partly explained by standard estimates of overall and abdominal body fatness, particularly among women. PMID:25902304

  9. Consumption of Dairy Products and Colorectal Cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Neil; Norat, Teresa; Ferrari, Pietro; Jenab, Mazda; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Skeie, Guri; Olsen, Anja; Tjønneland, Anne; Dahm, Christina C.; Overvad, Kim; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Nailler, Laura; Kaaks, Rudolf; Teucher, Birgit; Boeing, Heiner; Bergmann, Manuela M.; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Pala, Valeria; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Dik, Vincent K.; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Lund, Eiliv; Garcia, Jose Ramon Quiros; Zamora-Ros, Raul; Pérez, Maria José Sánchez; Dorronsoro, Miren; Navarro, Carmen; Ardanaz, Eva; Manjer, Jonas; Almquist, Martin; Johansson, Ingegerd; Palmqvist, Richard; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Key, Timothy J.; Crowe, Francesca L.; Fedirko, Veronika; Gunter, Marc J.; Riboli, Elio

    2013-01-01

    Background Prospective studies have consistently reported lower colorectal cancer risks associated with higher intakes of total dairy products, total milk and dietary calcium. However, less is known about whether the inverse associations vary for individual dairy products with differing fat contents. Materials and Methods In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), we investigated the associations between intakes of total milk and milk subtypes (whole-fat, semi-skimmed and skimmed), yoghurt, cheese, and dietary calcium with colorectal cancer risk amongst 477,122 men and women. Dietary questionnaires were administered at baseline. Multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted for relevant confounding variables. Results During the mean 11 years of follow-up, 4,513 incident cases of colorectal cancer occurred. After multivariable adjustments, total milk consumption was inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk (HR per 200 g/day 0.93, 95% CI: 0.89–0.98). Similar inverse associations were observed for whole-fat (HR per 200 g/day 0.90, 95% CI: 0.82–0.99) and skimmed milk (HR per 200 g/day 0.90, 95% CI: 0.79–1.02) in the multivariable models. Inverse associations were observed for cheese and yoghurt in the categorical models; although in the linear models, these associations were non-significant. Dietary calcium was inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk (HR per 200 mg/day 0.95, 95% CI: 0.91–0.99); this association was limited to dairy sources of calcium only (HR per 200 mg/day 0.95, 95% CI: 0.91–0.99), with no association observed for non-dairy calcium sources (HR per 200 mg/day 1.00, 95% CI: 0.81–1.24). Conclusions Our results strengthen the evidence for a possible protective role of dairy products on colorectal cancer risk. The inverse associations we observed did not differ by the fat content of the dairy products

  10. Dicarboxylic acids, oxoacids, benzoic acid, α-dicarbonyls, WSOC, OC, and ions in spring aerosols from Okinawa Island in the western North Pacific Rim: size distributions and formation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshmukh, Dhananjay K.; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Lazaar, Manuel; Kunwar, Bhagawati; Boreddy, Suresh K. R.

    2016-04-01

    Size-segregated aerosols (nine stages from < 0.43 to > 11.3 µm in diameter) were collected at Cape Hedo, Okinawa, in spring 2008 and analyzed for water-soluble diacids (C2-C12), ω-oxoacids (ωC2-ωC9), pyruvic acid, benzoic acid, and α-dicarbonyls (C2-C3) as well as water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), organic carbon (OC), and major ions (Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, and MSA-). In all the size-segregated aerosols, oxalic acid (C2) was found to be the most abundant species, followed by malonic and succinic acids, whereas glyoxylic acid (ωC2) was the dominant oxoacid and glyoxal (Gly) was more abundant than methylglyoxal. Diacids (C2-C5), ωC2, and Gly as well as WSOC and OC peaked at fine mode (0.65-1.1 µm) whereas azelaic (C9) and 9-oxononanoic (ωC9) acids peaked at coarse mode (3.3-4.7 µm). Sulfate and ammonium were enriched in fine mode, whereas sodium and chloride were in coarse mode. Strong correlations of C2-C5 diacids, ωC2 and Gly with sulfate were observed in fine mode (r = 0.86-0.99), indicating a commonality in their secondary formation. Their significant correlations with liquid water content in fine mode (r = 0.82-0.95) further suggest an importance of the aqueous-phase production in Okinawa aerosols. They may also have been directly emitted from biomass burning in fine mode as supported by strong correlations with potassium (r = 0.85-0.96), which is a tracer of biomass burning. Bimodal size distributions of longer-chain diacid (C9) and oxoacid (ωC9) with a major peak in the coarse mode suggest that they were emitted from the sea surface microlayers and/or produced by heterogeneous oxidation of biogenic unsaturated fatty acids on sea salt particles.

  11. Relationship of IgG and IgM autoantibodies and immune complexes to oxidized LDL with markers of oxidation and inflammation and cardiovascular events: results from the EPIC-Norfolk Study.

    PubMed

    Ravandi, Amir; Boekholdt, S Matthijs; Mallat, Ziad; Talmud, Philippa J; Kastelein, John J P; Wareham, Nicholas J; Miller, Elizabeth R; Benessiano, Joelle; Tedgui, Alain; Witztum, Joseph L; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Tsimikas, Sotirios

    2011-10-01

    Levels of IgG and IgM autoantibodies (AA) to malondialdehyde (MDA)-LDL and apoB-immune complexes (ICs) were measured in 748 cases and 1,723 controls in the EPIC-Norfolk cohort and their association to coronary artery disease (CAD) events determined. We evaluated whether AA and IC modify CAD risk associated with secretory phospholipase A(2) (sPLA(2)) type IIA mass and activity, lipoprotein-associated PLA(2) activity, lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)], oxidized phospholipids on apoB-100 (OxPL/apoB), myeloperoxidase, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein. IgG ICs were higher in cases versus controls (P = 0.02). Elevated levels of IgM AA and IC were inversely associated with Framingham Risk Score and number of metabolic syndrome criteria (p range 0.02-0.001). In regression analyses adjusted for age, smoking, diabetes, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and systolic blood pressure, the highest tertiles of IgG and IgM AA and IC were not associated with higher risk of CAD events compared with the lowest tertiles. However, elevated levels of IgM IC reduced the risk of Lp(a) (P = 0.006) and elevated IgG MDA-LDL potentiated the risk of sPLA(2) mass (P = 0.018). This epidemiological cohort of initially healthy subjects shows that IgG and IgM AA and IC are not independent predictors of CAD events but may modify CAD risk associated with elevated levels of oxidative biomarkers. PMID:21821825

  12. Combined effect of health behaviours and risk of first ever stroke in 20 040 men and women over 11 years’ follow-up in Norfolk cohort of European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC Norfolk): prospective population study

    PubMed Central

    Luben, Robert N; Wareham, Nicholas J; Bingham, Sheila A; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2009-01-01

    Objective To quantify the potential combined impact of four health behaviours on incidence of stroke in men and women living in the general community. Design Population based prospective study (EPIC-Norfolk). Setting Norfolk, United Kingdom. Participants 20 040 men and women aged 40-79 with no known stroke or myocardial infarction at baseline survey in 1993-7, living in the general community, and followed up to 2007. Main outcome measure Participants scored one point for each health behaviour: current non-smoking, physically not inactive, moderate alcohol intake (1-14 units a week), and plasma concentration of vitamin C ≥50 µmol/l, indicating fruit and vegetable intake of at least five servings a day, for a total score ranging from 0 to 4. Results There were 599 incident strokes over 229 993 person years of follow-up; the average follow-up was 11.5 years. After adjustment for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure, cholesterol concentration, history of diabetes and aspirin use, and social class, compared with people with the four health behaviours the relative risks for stroke for men and women were 1.15 (95% confidence interval 0.89 to 1.49) for three health behaviours, 1.58 (1.22 to 2.05) for two, 2.18 (1.63 to 2.92) for one, and 2.31 (1.33 to 4.02) for none (P<0.001 for trend). The relations were consistent in subgroups stratified by sex, age, body mass index, and social class, and after exclusion of deaths within two years. Conclusion Four health behaviours combined predict more than a twofold difference in incidence of stroke in men and women. PMID:19228771

  13. Long-term changes in sediment type and cavernicolous bivalve assemblages in Daidokutsu submarine cave, Okinawa Islands: evidence from a new core extending over the past 7,000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, N.; Kitamura, A.; Ohmori, A.; Morishima, Y.; Toyofuku, T.; Ohashi, S.

    2009-12-01

    We analyzed sediments and cavernicolous bivalve assemblages within cored sediments recovered from the Daidokutsu submarine limestone cave, which occurs in Pleistocene limestone on the fore-reef slope of Ie Island, off Okinawa, Japan. We found sand-sized brown grains within sediments aged 7,000-6,000 cal BP, and identified the grains as debris derived from a red soil layer developed in coastal zones around the Island. Temporal changes in the abundance of the debris suggest that water flow in the cave weakened at about 6,500 cal BP. Temporal changes in the cavernicolous bivalve assemblages indicate that the environmental conditions of the innermost cave area have gradually spread to the cave entrance over the past 5,000 years. These findings indicate that the filling of cavities within the reefal foundations of the cave has continued over time, resulting in a progressive decrease in the flux of water between the interior and exterior parts of the cave during at least the past 6,500 years. This indicates, in turn, a long-term decline in the functioning of the cryptic community within the reef as a source of the nutrients that support coral reef growth. Our findings regarding the distribution of debris from the red soil layer strongly support the occurrence of a mid-Holocene high-energy window, which represents a period of high wave energy prior to the formation of a reefal barrier.

  14. The first microbiological contamination assessment by deep-sea drilling and coring by the D/V Chikyu at the Iheya North hydrothermal field in the Mid-Okinawa Trough (IODP Expedition 331)

    PubMed Central

    Yanagawa, Katsunori; Nunoura, Takuro; McAllister, Sean M.; Hirai, Miho; Breuker, Anja; Brandt, Leah; House, Christopher H.; Moyer, Craig L.; Birrien, Jean-Louis; Aoike, Kan; Sunamura, Michinari; Urabe, Tetsuro; Mottl, Michael J.; Takai, Ken

    2013-01-01

    During the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 331 at the Iheya North hydrothermal system in the Mid-Okinawa Trough by the D/V Chikyu, we conducted microbiological contamination tests of the drilling and coring operations. The contamination from the drilling mud fluids was assessed using both perfluorocarbon tracers (PFT) and fluorescent microsphere beads. PFT infiltration was detected from the periphery of almost all whole round cores (WRCs). By contrast, fluorescent microspheres were not detected in hydrothermally active core samples, possibly due to thermal decomposition of the microspheres under high-temperature conditions. Microbial contamination from drilling mud fluids to the core interior subsamples was further characterized by molecular-based evaluation. The microbial 16S rRNA gene phylotype compositions in the drilling mud fluids were mainly composed of sequences of Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes and not archaeal sequences. The phylotypes that displayed more than 97% similarity to the sequences obtained from the drilling mud fluids were defined as possible contaminants in this study and were detected as minor components of the bacterial phylotype compositions in 13 of 37 core samples. The degree of microbiological contamination was consistent with that determined by the PFT and/or microsphere assessments. This study suggests a constructive approach for evaluation and eliminating microbial contamination during riser-less drilling and coring operations by the D/V Chikyu. PMID:24265628

  15. An Epic Mission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubroy, Tashni-Ann

    2015-01-01

    For some students, intellectual curiosity and leadership are innate. For many, it must be nurtured. The Shaw University Honors College is an academic center of encouragement, interaction, and care for a diverse population of students. Many of them would otherwise never conceive of the marvelous opportunities and experiences they share during their…

  16. Evaluation of 41 Candidate Gene Variants for Obesity in the EPIC-Potsdam Cohort by Multi-Locus Stepwise Regression

    PubMed Central

    Knüppel, Sven; Rohde, Klaus; Meidtner, Karina; Drogan, Dagmar; Holzhütter, Hermann-Georg; Boeing, Heiner; Fisher, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Objective Obesity has become a leading preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in many parts of the world. It is thought to originate from multiple genetic and environmental determinants. The aim of the current study was to introduce haplotype-based multi-locus stepwise regression (MSR) as a method to investigate combinations of unlinked single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for obesity phenotypes. Methods In 2,122 healthy randomly selected men and women of the EPIC-Potsdam cohort, the association between 41 SNPs from 18 obesity-candidate genes and either body mass index (BMI, mean = 25.9 kg/m2, SD = 4.1) or waist circumference (WC, mean = 85.2 cm, SD = 12.6) was assessed. Single SNP analyses were done by using linear regression adjusted for age, sex, and other covariates. Subsequently, MSR was applied to search for the ‘best’ SNP combinations. Combinations were selected according to specific AICc and p-value criteria. Model uncertainty was accounted for by a permutation test. Results The strongest single SNP effects on BMI were found for TBC1D1 rs637797 (β = −0.33, SE = 0.13), FTO rs9939609 (β = 0.28, SE = 0.13), MC4R rs17700144 (β = 0.41, SE = 0.15), and MC4R rs10871777 (β = 0.34, SE = 0.14). All these SNPs showed similar effects on waist circumference. The two ‘best’ six-SNP combinations for BMI (global p-value = 3.45⋅10–6 and 6.82⋅10–6) showed effects ranging from −1.70 (SE = 0.34) to 0.74 kg/m2 (SE = 0.21) per allele combination. We selected two six-SNP combinations on waist circumference (global p-value = 7.80⋅10–6 and 9.76⋅10–6) with an allele combination effect of −2.96 cm (SE = 0.76) at maximum. Additional adjustment for BMI revealed 15 three-SNP combinations (global p-values ranged from 3.09⋅10–4 to 1.02⋅10–2). However, after carrying out the permutation test all SNP combinations lost significance indicating that the statistical associations

  17. Insulin-like growth factor I and risk of epithelial invasive ovarian cancer by tumour characteristics: results from the EPIC cohort

    PubMed Central

    Ose, J; Fortner, R T; Schock, H; Peeters, P H; Onland-Moret, N C; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Weiderpass, E; Gram, I T; Overvad, K; Tjonneland, A; Dossus, L; Fournier, A; Baglietto, L; Trichopoulou, A; Benetou, V; Trichopoulos, D; Boeing, H; Masala, G; Krogh, V; Matiello, A; Tumino, R; Popovic, M; Obón-Santacana, M; Larrañaga, N; Ardanaz, E; Sánchez, M-J; Menéndez, V; Chirlaque, M-D; Travis, R C; Khaw, K-T; Brändstedt, J; Idahl, A; Lundin, E; Rinaldi, S; Kuhn, E; Romieu, I; Gunter, M J; Merritt, M A; Riboli, E; Kaaks, R

    2015-01-01

    Background: Prospective studies on insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) risk are inconclusive. Data suggest risk associations vary by tumour characteristics. Methods: We conducted a nested case–control study in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) to evaluate IGF-I concentrations and EOC risk by tumour characteristics (n=565 cases). Multivariable conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate associations. Results: We observed no association between IGF-I and EOC overall or by tumour characteristics. Conclusions: In the largest prospective study to date was no association between IGF-I and EOC risk. Pre-diagnostic serum IGF-I concentrations may not influence EOC risk. PMID:25349976

  18. Acrylamide and glycidamide hemoglobin adduct levels and endometrial cancer risk: A nested case-control study in nonsmoking postmenopausal women from the EPIC cohort.

    PubMed

    Obón-Santacana, Mireia; Freisling, Heinz; Peeters, Petra H; Lujan-Barroso, Leila; Ferrari, Pietro; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Mesrine, Sylvie; Baglietto, Laura; Turzanski-Fortner, Renee; Katzke, Verena A; Boeing, Heiner; Quirós, J Ramón; Molina-Portillo, Elena; Larrañaga, Nerea; Chirlaque, María-Dolores; Barricarte, Aurelio; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Travis, Ruth C; Merritt, Melissa A; Gunter, Marc J; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Naska, Androniki; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Tumino, Rosario; Fiano, Valentina; Galassom, Rocco; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Idahl, Annika; Lundin, Eva; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Vesper, Hubert; Riboli, Elio; Duell, Eric J

    2016-03-01

    Acrylamide, classified in 1994 by IARC as "probably carcinogenic to humans," was discovered in 2002 in some heat-treated, carbohydrate-rich foods. Four prospective studies have evaluated the association between dietary acrylamide intake and endometrial cancer (EC) risk with inconsistent results. The purpose of this nested case-control study, based on the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, was to evaluate, for the first time, the association between hemoglobin adducts of acrylamide (HbAA) and glycidamide (HbGA) and the risk of developing EC in non-smoking postmenopausal women. Hemoglobin adducts were measured in red blood cells by HPLC/MS/MS. Four exposure variables were evaluated: HbAA, HbGA, their sum (HbAA+HbGA), and their ratio (HbGA/HbAA). The association between hemoglobin adducts and EC was evaluated using unconditional multivariable logistic regression models, and included 383 EC cases (171 were type-I EC), and 385 controls. Exposure variables were analyzed in quintiles based on control distributions. None of the biomarker variables had an effect on overall EC (HRHbAA;Q5vsQ1 : 0.84, 95%CI: 0.49-1.48; HRHbGA;Q5vsQ1 : 0.94, 95%CI: 0.54-1.63) or type-I EC risk. Additionally, none of the subgroups investigated (BMI < 25 vs. ≥25 kg m(-2) , alcohol drinkers vs. never drinkers, oral contraceptive users vs. non-users) demonstrated effect measure modification. Hemoglobin adducts of acrylamide or glycidamide were not associated with EC or type-I EC risk in 768 nonsmoking postmenopausal women from the EPIC cohort. PMID:26376083

  19. Sources of Pre-Analytical Variations in Yield of DNA Extracted from Blood Samples: Analysis of 50,000 DNA Samples in EPIC

    PubMed Central

    Caboux, Elodie; Lallemand, Christophe; Ferro, Gilles; Hémon, Bertrand; Mendy, Maimuna; Biessy, Carine; Sims, Matt; Wareham, Nick; Britten, Abigail; Boland, Anne; Hutchinson, Amy; Siddiq, Afshan; Vineis, Paolo; Riboli, Elio; Romieu, Isabelle; Rinaldi, Sabina; Gunter, Marc J.; Peeters, Petra H. M.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Travis, Ruth; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Canzian, Federico; Sánchez, Maria-José; Skeie, Guri; Olsen, Karina Standahl; Lund, Eiliv; Bilbao, Roberto; Sala, Núria; Barricarte, Aurelio; Palli, Domenico; Navarro, Carmen; Panico, Salvatore; Redondo, Maria Luisa; Polidoro, Silvia; Dossus, Laure; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Lagiou, Pagona; Boeing, Heiner; Fisher, Eva; Tumino, Rosario; Agnoli, Claudia; Hainaut, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC) is a long-term, multi-centric prospective study in Europe investigating the relationships between cancer and nutrition. This study has served as a basis for a number of Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) and other types of genetic analyses. Over a period of 5 years, 52,256 EPIC DNA samples have been extracted using an automated DNA extraction platform. Here we have evaluated the pre-analytical factors affecting DNA yield, including anthropometric, epidemiological and technical factors such as center of subject recruitment, age, gender, body-mass index, disease case or control status, tobacco consumption, number of aliquots of buffy coat used for DNA extraction, extraction machine or procedure, DNA quantification method, degree of haemolysis and variations in the timing of sample processing. We show that the largest significant variations in DNA yield were observed with degree of haemolysis and with center of subject recruitment. Age, gender, body-mass index, cancer case or control status and tobacco consumption also significantly impacted DNA yield. Feedback from laboratories which have analyzed DNA with different SNP genotyping technologies demonstrate that the vast majority of samples (approximately 88%) performed adequately in different types of assays. To our knowledge this study is the largest to date to evaluate the sources of pre-analytical variations in DNA extracted from peripheral leucocytes. The results provide a strong evidence-based rationale for standardized recommendations on blood collection and processing protocols for large-scale genetic studies. PMID:22808065

  20. Population Genetic Structure of the Cotton Bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in India as Inferred from EPIC-PCR DNA Markers

    PubMed Central

    Behere, Gajanan Tryambak; Tay, Wee Tek; Russell, Derek Alan; Kranthi, Keshav Raj; Batterham, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Helicoverpa armigera is an important pest of cotton and other agricultural crops in the Old World. Its wide host range, high mobility and fecundity, and the ability to adapt and develop resistance against all common groups of insecticides used for its management have exacerbated its pest status. An understanding of the population genetic structure in H. armigera under Indian agricultural conditions will help ascertain gene flow patterns across different agricultural zones. This study inferred the population genetic structure of Indian H. armigera using five Exon-Primed Intron-Crossing (EPIC)-PCR markers. Nested alternative EPIC markers detected moderate null allele frequencies (4.3% to 9.4%) in loci used to infer population genetic structure but the apparently genome-wide heterozygote deficit suggests in-breeding or a Wahlund effect rather than a null allele effect. Population genetic analysis of the 26 populations suggested significant genetic differentiation within India but especially in cotton-feeding populations in the 2006–07 cropping season. In contrast, overall pair-wise FST estimates from populations feeding on food crops indicated no significant population substructure irrespective of cropping seasons. A Baysian cluster analysis was used to assign the genetic make-up of individuals to likely membership of population clusters. Some evidence was found for four major clusters with individuals in two populations from cotton in one year (from two populations in northern India) showing especially high homogeneity. Taken as a whole, this study found evidence of population substructure at host crop, temporal and spatial levels in Indian H. armigera, without, however, a clear biological rationale for these structures being evident. PMID:23326431

  1. Dicarboxylic acids, oxoacids, benzoic acid, α-dicarbonyls, WSOC, OC, and ions in spring aerosols from Okinawa Island in the western North Pacific Rim: size distributions and formation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshmukh, D. K.; Kawamura, K.; Lazaar, M.; Kunwar, B.; Boreddy, S. K. R.

    2015-09-01

    Size-segregated aerosols (9-stages from < 0.43 to > 11.3 μm in diameter) were collected at Cape Hedo, Okinawa in spring 2008 and analyzed for water-soluble diacids (C2-C12), ω-oxoacids (ωC2-ωC9), pyruvic acid, benzoic acid and α-dicarbonyls (C2-C3) as well as water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), organic carbon (OC) and major ions. In all the size-segregated aerosols, oxalic acid (C2) was found as the most abundant species followed by malonic and succinic acids whereas glyoxylic acid (ωC2) was the dominant oxoacid and glyoxal (Gly) was more abundant than methylglyoxal. Diacids (C2-C5), ωC2 and Gly as well as WSOC and OC peaked at 0.65-1.1 μm in fine mode whereas azelaic (C9) and 9-oxononanoic (ωC9) acids peaked at 3.3-4.7 μm in coarse mode. Sulfate and ammonium are enriched in fine mode whereas sodium and chloride are in coarse mode. These results imply that water-soluble species in the marine aerosols could act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) to develop the cloud cover over the western North Pacific Rim. The organic species are likely produced by a combination of gas-phase photooxidation, and aerosol-phase or in-cloud processing during long-range transport. The coarse mode peaks of malonic and succinic acids were obtained in the samples with marine air masses, suggesting that they may be associated with the reaction on sea salt particles. Bimodal size distributions of longer-chain diacid (C9) and oxoacid (ωC9) with a major peak in the coarse mode suggest their production by photooxidation of biogenic unsaturated fatty acids via heterogeneous reactions on sea salt particles.

  2. A Multilevel Model to Estimate the Within- and the Between-Center Components of the Exposure/Disease Association in the EPIC Study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In a multicenter study, the overall relationship between exposure and the risk of cancer can be broken down into a within-center component, which reflects the individual level association, and a between-center relationship, which captures the association at the aggregate level. A piecewise exponential proportional hazards model with random effects was used to evaluate the association between dietary fiber intake and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk in the EPIC study. During an average follow-up of 11.0 years, 4,517 CRC events occurred among study participants recruited in 28 centers from ten European countries. Models were adjusted by relevant confounding factors. Heterogeneity among centers was modelled with random effects. Linear regression calibration was used to account for errors in dietary questionnaire (DQ) measurements. Risk ratio estimates for a 10 g/day increment in dietary fiber were equal to 0.90 (95%CI: 0.85, 0.96) and 0.85 (0.64, 1.14), at the individual and aggregate levels, respectively, while calibrated estimates were 0.85 (0.76, 0.94), and 0.87 (0.65, 1.15), respectively. In multicenter studies, over a straightforward ecological analysis, random effects models allow information at the individual and ecologic levels to be captured, while controlling for confounding at both levels of evidence. PMID:25785729

  3. The Broad Iron K-alpha line of Cygnus X-1 as Seen by XMM-Newton in the EPIC-pn Modified Timing Mode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duro, Refiz; Dauser, Thomas; Wilms, Jorn; Pottschmidt, Katja; Nowak, Michael A.; Fritz, Sonja; Kendziorra, Eckhard; Kirsch, Marcus G. F.; Reynolds, Christopher S.; Staubert, Rudiger

    2011-01-01

    We present the analysis of the broadened, flourescent iron K(alpha) line in simultaneous XMM-Newton and RXTE data from the black hole Cygnus X-I. The XMM-Newton data were taken in a modified version of the Timing Mode of the EPIC-pn camera. In this mode the lower energy threshold of the instrument is increased to 2.8 keV to avoid telemetry drop outs due to the brightness of the source, while at the same time preserving the signal to noise ratio in the Fe K(alpha) band. We find that the best-fit spectrum consists of the sum of an exponentially cut-off power-law and relativistically smeared, ionized reflection. The shape of the broadened Fe K(alpha) feature is due to strong Compton broadening combined with relativistic broadening. Assuming a standard, thin accretion disk, the black hole is close to maximally rotating. Key words. X-rays: binaries - black hole physics - gravitation

  4. Evidence of Spin and Energy Extraction in a Galactic Black Hole Candidate: The XMM-Newton/EPIC-pn Spectrum of XTE J1650-500

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, J. M.; Fabian, A. C.; Wijnands, R.; Reynolds, C. S.; Ehle, M.; Freyberg, M. J.; van der Klis, M.; Lewin, W. H. G.; Sanchez-Fernandez, C.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.

    2002-05-01

    We observed the Galactic black hole candidate XTE J1650-500 early in its fall of 2001 outburst with the XMM-Newton European Photon Imaging pn Camera (EPIC-pn). The observed spectrum is consistent with the source having been in the ``very high'' state. We find a broad, skewed Fe Kα emission line that suggests the primary in this system may be a Kerr black hole and that indicates a steep disk emissivity profile that is hard to explain in terms of a standard accretion disk model. These results are quantitatively and qualitatively similar to those from an XMM-Newton observation of the Seyfert galaxy MCG -6-30-15. The steep emissivity in MCG -6-30-15 may be explained by the extraction and dissipation of rotational energy from a black hole with nearly maximal angular momentum or from material in the plunging region via magnetic connections to the inner accretion disk. If this process is at work in both sources, an exotic but fundamental general relativistic prediction may be confirmed across a factor of 106 in black hole mass. We discuss these results in terms of the accretion flow geometry in stellar-mass black holes and the variety of enigmatic phenomena often observed in the very high state.

  5. Evidence of Spin and Energy Extraction in a Galactic Black Hole Candidate: The XMM-NEWTON/EPIC SPECTRUM of XTE 11650-500

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J. M.; Fabian, A. C.; Wunands, R.; Reynolds, C. S.; Ehle, M.; Freyberg, M. J.; VanDerKlis, M.; Lewin, W. H. G.; Sanchez-Fernandez, C.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.

    2002-01-01

    We observed the Galactic black hole candidate XTE J1650-500 early in its fall of 2001 outburst with the XMM-Newton European Photon Imaging pn Camera (EPIC-pn). The observed spectrum is consistent with the source having been in the very high state. We h d a broad, skewed Fe Kar emission line that suggests the primary in this system may be a Kerr black hole and that indicates a steep disk emissivity profile that is hard to explain in terms of a standard accretion disk model. These results are quantitatively and qualitatively similar to those from an XMM-Newton observation of the Seyfert galaxy MCG -6-30-15. The steep emissivity in MCG -6-30-15 may be explained by the extraction and dissipation of rotational energy from a black hole with nearly maximal angular momentum or from material in the plunging region via magnetic connections to the inner accretion disk. If this process is at work in both sources, an exotic but fundamental general relativistic prediction may be confirmed across a factor of l0(exp 6) in black hole mass. We discuss these results in terms of the accretion flow geometry in stellar-mass black holes and the variety of enigmatic phenomena often observed in the very high state.

  6. A multilevel model to estimate the within- and the between-center components of the exposure/disease association in the EPIC study.

    PubMed

    Sera, Francesco; Ferrari, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    In a multicenter study, the overall relationship between exposure and the risk of cancer can be broken down into a within-center component, which reflects the individual level association, and a between-center relationship, which captures the association at the aggregate level. A piecewise exponential proportional hazards model with random effects was used to evaluate the association between dietary fiber intake and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk in the EPIC study. During an average follow-up of 11.0 years, 4,517 CRC events occurred among study participants recruited in 28 centers from ten European countries. Models were adjusted by relevant confounding factors. Heterogeneity among centers was modelled with random effects. Linear regression calibration was used to account for errors in dietary questionnaire (DQ) measurements. Risk ratio estimates for a 10 g/day increment in dietary fiber were equal to 0.90 (95%CI: 0.85, 0.96) and 0.85 (0.64, 1.14), at the individual and aggregate levels, respectively, while calibrated estimates were 0.85 (0.76, 0.94), and 0.87 (0.65, 1.15), respectively. In multicenter studies, over a straightforward ecological analysis, random effects models allow information at the individual and ecologic levels to be captured, while controlling for confounding at both levels of evidence. PMID:25785729

  7. Compositional and isotopic properties of nitrogen in subseafloor hydrothermal environments at the Iheya North field in the mid-Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishizawa, M.; Takai, K.

    2012-12-01

    Nitrogen is one of the essential elements as a substrate for energy metabolism and a building block of protein and nucleic acids. However, little is known about biogeodynamics of nitrogen in the subseafloor hydrothermal environments. Here, we report compositional and isotopic properties of nitrogen in pore water from 0 mbsf to 150 mbsf at the Iheya North hydrothermal field. At the site C0014 (450 meter east from the North Big Chimney), ammonia is the most abundant nitrogen compound, while nitrate is detected in a certain depth interval. In the depth interval around 10 mbsf, the ammonia concentration steeply increased from 0.3 mM to 1.5 mM downwards. In the same interval, potassium concentration profile showed the same trend as ammonia, while sulfate and magnesium concentration profiles showed the opposite trends. These profiles suggest binary mixing of shallower early diagenetic fluid and deeper hydrothermal fluid at the depth around 10 mbsf, where ammonia oxidation coupled with sulfate reduction can potentially occur. Further, Cl-depleted pore water at 40 mbsf was slightly enriched in ammonia relative to Cl-enriched pore water, probably originating from elemental fractionation during phase separation. By combining isotopic and compositional data, we will discuss the nitrogen biogeodynamics.

  8. Reducing our environmental footprint and improving our health: greenhouse gas emission and land use of usual diet and mortality in EPIC-NL: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Food choices influence health status, but also have a great impact on the environment. The production of animal-derived foods has a high environmental burden, whereas the burden of refined carbohydrates, vegetables and fruit is low. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations of greenhouse gas emission (GHGE) and land use of usual diet with mortality risk, and to estimate the effect of a modelled meat substitution scenario on health and the environment. Methods The usual diet of 40011 subjects in the EPIC-NL cohort was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. GHGE and land use of food products were based on life cycle analysis. Cox proportional hazard ratios (HR) were calculated to determine relative mortality risk. In the modelled meat-substitution scenario, one-third (35 gram) of the usual daily meat intake (105 gram) was substituted by other foods. Results During a follow-up of 15.9 years, 2563 deaths were registered. GHGE and land use of the usual diet were not associated with all-cause or with cause-specific mortality. Highest vs. lowest quartile of GHGE and land use adjusted hazard ratios for all-cause mortality were respectively 1.00 (95% CI: 0.86-1.17) and 1.05 (95% CI: 0.89-1.23). Modelled substitution of 35 g/d of meat with vegetables, fruit-nuts-seeds, pasta-rice-couscous, or fish significantly increased survival rates (6-19%), reduced GHGE (4-11%), and land use (10-12%). Conclusions There were no significant associations observed between dietary-derived GHGE and land use and mortality in this Dutch cohort. However, the scenario-study showed that substitution of meat with other major food groups was associated with a lower mortality risk and a reduced environmental burden. Especially when vegetables, fruit-nuts-seeds, fish, or pasta-rice-couscous replaced meat. PMID:24708803

  9. The relative and absolute timing accuracy of the EPIC-pn camera on XMM-Newton, from X-ray pulsations of the Crab and other pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin-Carrillo, A.; Kirsch, M. G. F.; Caballero, I.; Freyberg, M. J.; Ibarra, A.; Kendziorra, E.; Lammers, U.; Mukerjee, K.; Schönherr, G.; Stuhlinger, M.; Saxton, R. D.; Staubert, R.; Suchy, S.; Wellbrock, A.; Webb, N.; Guainazzi, M.

    2012-09-01

    Aims: Reliable timing calibration is essential for the accurate comparison of XMM-Newton light curves with those from other observatories, to ultimately use them to derive precise physical quantities. The XMM-Newton timing calibration is based on pulsar analysis. However, because pulsars show both timing noise and glitches, it is essential to monitor these calibration sources regularly. To this end, the XMM-Newton observatory performs observations twice a year of the Crab pulsar to monitor the absolute timing accuracy of the EPIC-pn camera in the fast timing and burst modes. We present the results of this monitoring campaign, comparing XMM-Newton data from the Crab pulsar (PSR B0531+21) with radio measurements. In addition, we use five pulsars (PSR J0537-69, PSR B0540-69, PSR B0833-45, PSR B1509-58, and PSR B1055-52) with periods ranging from 16 ms to 197 ms to verify the relative timing accuracy. Methods: We analysed 38 XMM-Newton observations (0.2-12.0 keV) of the Crab taken over the first ten years of the mission and 13 observations from the five complementary pulsars. All data were processed with SAS, the XMM-Newton Scientific Analysis Software, version 9.0. Epoch-folding techniques coupled with χ2 tests were used to derive relative timing accuracies. The absolute timing accuracy was determined using the Crab data and comparing the time shift between the main X-ray and radio peaks in the phase-folded light curves. Results: The relative timing accuracy of XMM-Newton is found to be better than 10-8. The strongest X-ray pulse peak precedes the corresponding radio peak by 306 ± 9 μs, which agrees with other high-energy observatories such as Chandra, INTEGRAL and RXTE. The derived absolute timing accuracy from our analysis is ± 48 μs.

  10. Population and assay thresholds for the predictive value of lipoprotein (a) for coronary artery disease: the EPIC-Norfolk Prospective Population Study.

    PubMed

    Verbeek, Rutger; Boekholdt, S Matthijs; Stoekenbroek, Robert M; Hovingh, G Kees; Witztum, Joseph L; Wareham, Nicholas J; Sandhu, Manjinder S; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Tsimikas, Sotirios

    2016-04-01

    Variable agreement exists between different lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] measurement methods, but their clinical relevance remains unclear. The predictive value of Lp(a) measured by two different assays [Randox and University of California, San Diego (UCSD)] was determined in 623 coronary artery disease (CAD) cases and 948 controls in a case-control study within the EPIC-Norfolk Prospective Population Study. Participants were divided into sex-specific quintiles, and by Lp(a) <50 versus ∼50 mg/dl, which represents the 80th percentile in northern European subjects. Randox and UCSD Lp(a) levels were strongly correlated; Spearman's correlation coefficients for men, women, and sexes combined were 0.905, 0.915, and 0.909, respectively (P< 0.001 for each). The >80th percentile cutoff values, however, were 36 mg/dl and 24 mg/dl for the Randox and UCSD assays, respectively. Despite this, Lp(a) levels were significantly associated with CAD risk, with odds ratios of 2.18 (1.58-3.01) and 2.35 (1.70-3.26) for people in the top versus bottom Lp(a) quintile for the Randox and UCSD assays, respectively. This study demonstrates that CAD risk is present at lower Lp(a) levels than the currently suggested optimal Lp(a) level of <50 mg/dl. Appropriate thresholds may need to be population and assay specific until Lp(a) assays are standardized and Lp(a) thresholds are evaluated broadly across all populations at risk for CVD and aortic stenosis. PMID:26828068

  11. Dietary Fibre Intake and Risks of Cancers of the Colon and Rectum in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Neil; Norat, Teresa; Ferrari, Pietro; Jenab, Mazda; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Skeie, Guri; Dahm, Christina C.; Overvad, Kim; Olsen, Anja; Tjønneland, Anne; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Racine, Antoine; Kaaks, Rudolf; Teucher, Birgit; Boeing, Heiner; Bergmann, Manuela M.; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Lagiou, Pagona; Palli, Domenico; Pala, Valeria; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Siersema, Peter; van Duijnhoven, Franzel; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Hjartaker, Anette; Engeset, Dagrun; González, Carlos A.; Sánchez, Maria-José; Dorronsoro, Miren; Navarro, Carmen; Ardanaz, Eva; Quirós, José R.; Sonestedt, Emily; Ericson, Ulrika; Nilsson, Lena; Palmqvist, Richard; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Key, Timothy J.; Crowe, Francesca L.; Fedirko, Veronika; Wark, Petra A.; Chuang, Shu-Chun; Riboli, Elio

    2012-01-01

    Background Earlier analyses within the EPIC study showed that dietary fibre intake was inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk, but results from some large cohort studies do not support this finding. We explored whether the association remained after longer follow-up with a near threefold increase in colorectal cancer cases, and if the association varied by gender and tumour location. Methodology/Principal Findings After a mean follow-up of 11.0 years, 4,517 incident cases of colorectal cancer were documented. Total, cereal, fruit, and vegetable fibre intakes were estimated from dietary questionnaires at baseline. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models stratified by age, sex, and centre, and adjusted for total energy intake, body mass index, physical activity, smoking, education, menopausal status, hormone replacement therapy, oral contraceptive use, and intakes of alcohol, folate, red and processed meats, and calcium. After multivariable adjustments, total dietary fibre was inversely associated with colorectal cancer (HR per 10 g/day increase in fibre 0.87, 95% CI: 0.79–0.96). Similar linear associations were observed for colon and rectal cancers. The association between total dietary fibre and risk of colorectal cancer risk did not differ by age, sex, or anthropometric, lifestyle, and dietary variables. Fibre from cereals and fibre from fruit and vegetables were similarly associated with colon cancer; but for rectal cancer, the inverse association was only evident for fibre from cereals. Conclusions/Significance Our results strengthen the evidence for the role of high dietary fibre intake in colorectal cancer prevention. PMID:22761771

  12. Tailoring iron chelation by iron intake and serum ferritin: the prospective EPIC study of deferasirox in 1744 patients with transfusion-dependent anemias

    PubMed Central

    Cappellini, Maria Domenica; Porter, John; El-Beshlawy, Amal; Li, Chi-Kong; Seymour, John F.; Elalfy, Mohsen; Gattermann, Norbert; Giraudier, Stéphane; Lee, Jong-Wook; Chan, Lee Lee; Lin, Kai-Hsin; Rose, Christian; Taher, Ali; Thein, Swee Lay; Viprakasit, Vip; Habr, Dany; Domokos, Gabor; Roubert, Bernard; Kattamis, Antonis

    2010-01-01

    Background Following a clinical evaluation of deferasirox (Exjade®) it was concluded that, in addition to baseline body iron burden, ongoing transfusional iron intake should be considered when selecting doses. The 1-year EPIC study, the largest ever investigation conducted for an iron chelator, is the first to evaluate whether fixed starting doses of deferasirox, based on transfusional iron intake, with dose titration guided by serum ferritin trends and safety markers, provides clinically acceptable chelation in patients (aged ≥2 years) with transfusional hemosiderosis from various types of anemia. Design and Methods The recommended initial dose was 20 mg/kg/day for patients receiving 2–4 packed red blood cell units/month and 10 or 30 mg/kg/day was recommended for patients receiving less or more frequent transfusions, respectively. Dose adjustments were based on 3-month serum ferritin trends and continuous assessment of safety markers. The primary efficacy end-point was change in serum ferritin after 52 weeks compared with baseline. Results The 1744 patients enrolled had the following conditions; thalassemia (n=1115), myelodysplastic syndromes (n=341), aplastic anemia (n=116), sickle cell disease (n=80), rare anemias (n=43) and other transfused anemias (n=49). Overall, there was a significant reduction in serum ferritin from baseline (−264 ng/mL; P<0.0001), reflecting dosage adjustments and ongoing iron intake. The most common (>5%) adverse events were gastrointestinal disturbances (28%) and skin rash (10%). Conclusions Analysis of this large, prospectively collected data set confirms the response to chelation therapy across various anemias, supporting initial deferasirox doses based on transfusional iron intake, with subsequent dose titration guided by trends in serum ferritin and safety markers (clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00171821). PMID:19951979

  13. Dietary flavonoid and lignan intake and breast cancer risk according to menopause and hormone receptor status in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study.

    PubMed

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Ferrari, Pietro; González, Carlos A; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Bredsdorff, Lea; Overvad, Kim; Touillaud, Marina; Perquier, Florence; Fagherazzi, Guy; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Tikk, Kaja; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Dilis, Vardis; Masala, Giovanna; Sieri, Sabina; Mattiello, Amalia; Tumino, Rosario; Ricceri, Fulvio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Peeters, Petra H M; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; Engeset, Dagrun; Menéndez, Virginia; Travier, Noémie; Molina-Montes, Esther; Amiano, Pilar; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Barricarte, Aurelio; Wallström, Peter; Sonestedt, Emily; Sund, Malin; Landberg, Rikard; Khaw, Kay-Thee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Travis, Ruth C; Scalbert, Augustin; Ward, Heather A; Riboli, Elio; Romieu, Isabelle

    2013-05-01

    Evidence on the association between dietary flavonoids and lignans and breast cancer (BC) risk is inconclusive, with the possible exception of isoflavones in Asian countries. Therefore, we investigated prospectively dietary total and subclasses of flavonoid and lignan intake and BC risk according to menopause and hormonal receptor status in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. The study included 334,850 women, mostly aged between 35 and 70 years from ten European countries. At baseline, country-specific validated dietary questionnaires were used. A flavonoid and lignan food composition database was developed from the US Department of Agriculture, the Phenol-Explorer and the UK Food Standards Agency databases. Cox regression models were used to analyse the association between dietary flavonoid/lignan intake and the risk of developing BC. During an average 11.5-year follow-up, 11,576 incident BC cases were identified. No association was observed between the intake of total flavonoids [hazard ratio comparing fifth to first quintile (HRQ5-Q1) 0.97, 95 % confidence interval (CI): 0.90-1.04; P trend = 0.591], isoflavones (HRQ5-Q1 1.00, 95 % CI: 0.91-1.10; P trend = 0.734), or total lignans (HRQ5-Q1 1.02, 95 % CI: 0.93-1.11; P trend = 0.469) and overall BC risk. The stratification of the results by menopausal status at recruitment or the differentiation of BC cases according to oestrogen and progesterone receptors did not affect the results. This study shows no associations between flavonoid and lignan intake and BC risk, overall or after taking into account menopausal status and BC hormone receptors. PMID:23572295

  14. Models of the merger between the two long-lived giant anticyclones BE and FA in the Jovian atmosphere using the EPIC code.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales-Juberías, R.; Sanchez-Lavega, A.; Hueso, R.; Dowling, T. E.

    2001-11-01

    We use the EPIC code (Dowling et al. Icarus, 132, 221. 1998) to simulate the merger that took place in March - April 2000 between the white ovals BE and FA (A. Sanchez-Lavega et al., Icarus, 142, 116. 1999, and Icarus, 149, 491. 2001). This merger was the final stage of a more complex interaction that started the 1st of October 1999 involving also the GRS and a small cyclone cell located between the two white ovals. One of the most important issues we try to reproduce here is the observation that the merger at the NH3 cloud level (pressures ~ 0.4 - 1 bars) and in upper levels (hazes at 0.15 - 0.20 bar) was different. While at high altitude the vortices orbited around each other before merging, at the ammonia cloud level they formed a `peanut-shaped' structure without any appreciable rotation before they joined. The other important issue that we try to adjust in our simulations is the critical distance to merge ( ~ 9700 km) as well as the `merging time' ( ~ 21 days) once this critical distance is reached. We present a series of simulations on the stability, motions and interactions of the vortices for different sets of the vertical temperature profile, the zonal wind velocity structure (meridional and vertical profiles), and the intensity and vertical extension of the vortices themselves. The vertical analysis covers a pressure range from 1 mbar to 10 bar, allowing to perform a characterization of the upper Jovian troposphere. This work has been supported by an Spanish - US Fulbright cooperation project (2000-2001). The Spanish team was also supported by MCYT research project PNAYA2000-0932. R. Morales acknowledges a fellowship from Universidad del País Vasco and R. Hueso a postdoctoral fellowship from Gobierno Vasco.

  15. Pre-diagnostic Circulating Parathyroid Hormone Concentration and Colorectal Cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort

    PubMed Central

    Fedirko, Veronika; Riboli, Elio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Rinaldi, Sabina; Pischon, Tobias; Norat, Teresa; Jansen, Eugène H.J.M.; van Duijnhoven, Fränzel J.B.; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Engel, Pierre; Kaaks, Rudolf; Teucher, Birgit; Boeing, Heiner; Buijsse, Brian; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Lagiou, Pagona; Sieri, Sabina; Vineis, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore; Palli, Domenico; Tumino, Rosario; van Gils, Carla H; Peeters, Petra HM; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Gurrea, Aurelio Barricarte; Rodríguez, Laudina; Molina-Montes, Esther; Dorronsoro, Miren; Bonet, Catalina; Palmqvist, Richard; Hallmans, Göran; Key, Timothy J.; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Romieu, Isabelle; Straif, Kurt; Wark, Petra A.; Romaguera, Dora; Jenab, Mazda

    2011-01-01

    Background Parathyroid hormone (PTH) has been proposed to play a promoting role in carcinogenesis. However, no epidemiologic studies have yet directly investigated its role in colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods A case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort was conducted with 1,214 incident, sporadic CRC cases matched to 1,214 controls. Circulating pre-diagnostic PTH and 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Detailed dietary and lifestyle questionnaire data were collected at baseline. Multivariable conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the incidence rate ratio (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) for the association between circulating PTH and CRC risk. Results In multivariate analyses (including adjustment for 25(OH)D concentration) with a priori defined cut-points, high levels of serum PTH (≥65ng/L) compared to medium PTH levels of 30–65 ng/L were associated with increased CRC risk (RR=1.41, 95%CI: 1.03-1.93). In analyses by sex, the CRC risk was 1.77 (95%CI: 1.14-2.75) and 1.15 (95%CI: 0.73-1.84) in men and women, respectively (Pheterogeneity=0.01). In sub-group analyses by anatomical sub-site, the risk for colon cancer was RR=1.56, 95%CI:1.03-2.34, and for rectal cancer RR=1.20, 95%CI:0.72-2.01 (Pheterogeneity=0.21). Effect modification by various risk factors was examined. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that high serum PTH levels may be associated with incident, sporadic CRC in Western European populations, and in particular among men. Impact To our knowledge, this is the first study on PTH and CRC. The role of PTH in carcinogenesis needs to be further investigated. PMID:21378267

  16. Aberrant DNA methylation of cancer-associated genes in gastric cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-EURGAST).

    PubMed

    Balassiano, Karen; Lima, Sheila; Jenab, Mazda; Overvad, Kim; Tjonneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Canzian, Federico; Kaaks, Rudolf; Boeing, Heiner; Meidtner, Karina; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Laglou, Pagona; Vineis, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore; Palli, Domenico; Grioni, Sara; Tumino, Rosario; Lund, Eiliv; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Numans, Mattjis E; Peeters, Petra H M; Ramon Quirós, J; Sánchez, María-José; Navarro, Carmen; Ardanaz, Eva; Dorronsoro, Miren; Hallmans, Göran; Stenling, Roger; Ehrnström, Roy; Regner, Sara; Allen, Naomi E; Travis, Ruth C; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Offerhaus, G Johan A; Sala, Nuria; Riboli, Elio; Hainaut, Pierre; Scoazec, Jean-Yves; Sylla, Bakary S; Gonzalez, Carlos A; Herceg, Zdenko

    2011-12-01

    Epigenetic events have emerged as key mechanisms in the regulation of critical biological processes and in the development of a wide variety of human malignancies, including gastric cancer (GC), however precise gene targets of aberrant DNA methylation in GC remain largely unknown. Here, we have combined pyrosequencing-based quantitative analysis of DNA methylation in 98 GC cases and 64 controls nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort and in cancer tissue and non-tumorigenic adjacent tissue of an independent series of GC samples. A panel of 10 cancer-associated genes (CHRNA3, DOK1, MGMT, RASSF1A, p14ARF, CDH1, MLH1, ALDH2, GNMT and MTHFR) and LINE-1 repetitive elements were included in the analysis and their association with clinicopathological characteristics (sex, age at diagnosis, anatomical sub-site, histological sub-type) was examined. Three out of the 10 genes analyzed exhibited a marked hypermethylation, whereas two genes (ALDH2 and MTHFR) showed significant hypomethylation, in gastric tumors. Among differentially methylated genes, we identified new genes (CHRNA3 and DOK1) as targets of aberrant hypermethylation in GC, suggesting that epigenetic deregulation of these genes and their corresponding cellular pathways may promote the development and progression of GC. We also found that global demethylation of tumor cell genomes occurs in GC, consistent with the notion that abnormal hypermethylation of specific genes occurs concomitantly with genome-wide hypomethylation. Age and gender had no significant influence on methylation states, but an association was observed between LINE-1 and MLH1 methylation levels with histological sub-type and anatomical sub-site. This study identifies aberrant methylation patters in specific genes in GC thus providing information that could be exploited as novel biomarkers in clinics and molecular epidemiology of GC. PMID:21831520

  17. Early Anti-Pseudomonal Acquisition in Young Patients with Cystic Fibrosis: Rationale and Design of the EPIC Clinical Trial and Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Treggiari, Miriam M; Rosenfeld, Margaret; Mayer-Hamblett, Nicole; Retsch-Bogart, George; Gibson, Ronald L.; Williams, Judy; Emerson, Julia; Kronmal, Richard A; Ramsey, Bonnie W

    2009-01-01

    Background The primary cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) is progressive obstructive pulmonary disease due to chronic endobronchial infection, particularly with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa). Risk factors for and clinical impact of early Pa infection in young CF patients are less well understood. Purpose The present studies are designed to evaluate risk factors and outcomes associated with early Pa acquisition, and the benefits and harms of four anti-pseudomonal treatment regimens in young CF patients initiated after the first Pa positive respiratory culture. Methods The Early Pseudomonas Infection Control (EPIC) program consists of two studies, a randomized multicenter trial in CF patients ages 1–12 years at first isolation of Pa from a respiratory culture, and a longitudinal cohort study enrolling Pa-negative patients. Using a factorial design, trial participants are assigned for 18 months to either anti-pseudomonal treatment on a scheduled quarterly basis (cycled therapy) or based on recovery of Pa from quarterly respiratory cultures (culture-based therapy). The study drugs include inhaled tobramycin (300 mg BID) for 28 days, combined with either oral ciprofloxacin (15–20 mg/kg BID) or oral placebo for 14 days. The primary endpoints of the trial are the time to pulmonary exacerbation requiring IV antibiotics or hospitalization for respiratory symptoms, and the proportion of patients with new Pa-positive respiratory cultures during the study. The broad goals of the observational study are to describe the risk factors and outcomes associated with early acquisition of Pa. 306 patients were randomized in the clinical trial and 1,787 were enrolled in the cohort study. Conclusions These companion studies will provide valuable epidemiological and microbiological information on early CF lung disease and Pa acquisition, and safety and clinical efficacy data on anti-pseudomonal treatment strategies for early Pa infections in the

  18. Cross Sectional and Longitudinal Associations between Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Age Related Macular Degeneration in the EPIC-Norfolk Eye Study

    PubMed Central

    Yip, Jennifer L. Y.; Khawaja, Anthony P.; Chan, Michelle P. Y.; Broadway, David C.; Peto, Tunde; Tufail, Adnan; Luben, Robert; Hayat, Shabina; Bhaniani, Amit; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Foster, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To examine the cross sectional and longitudinal relationship between cardiovascular risk factors and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in a large British cohort study. Methods The EPIC Norfolk Eye study is nested in a larger prospective cohort study. Data on cardiovascular risk factors were collected at baseline (1993-1997) and follow up (2006-2011) via clinical examination, validated lifestyle questionnaires and serum blood samples. AMD was ascertained using standardised grading of fundus photographs at the follow up. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between baseline and follow up risk factors with AMD. Results 5,344 pairs (62.0% of total 8623) of fundus photographs were of sufficient quality for grading of AMD in participants with mean age of 67.4 years old (range 44-91) at diagnosis. There were 28 cases of late AMD (0.5%, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.3-0.8%) and 645 cases of early AMD (12.1%, 95%CI=11.2-13.0.%). In multivariable analysis, older people with higher levels of baseline high density lipoprotein- cholesterol (HDL-C ) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were more likely to have any signs of AMD, after adjusting for sex, education, smoking, and systolic blood pressure. In cross sectional analysis, only older age and higher HDL were significantly associated with AMD. Conclusions We have found that older age and higher levels of CRP and HDL-C were associated with increased odds of AMD in this population in the longitudinal analysis, but older age and HDL-C, not CRP was significantly associated with AMD in the cross sectional analysis. The prevalence of AMD in this cohort was low compared to other cohorts in Europe, the US and Australia, and probably reflects the some selection biases in follow up participation as well as the low rate of smoking among our healthy participants. PMID:26176222

  19. Flavonoid and lignan intake in relation to bladder cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study

    PubMed Central

    Zamora-Ros, R; Sacerdote, C; Ricceri, F; Weiderpass, E; Roswall, N; Buckland, G; St-Jules, D E; Overvad, K; Kyrø, C; Fagherazzi, G; Kvaskoff, M; Severi, G; Chang-Claude, J; Kaaks, R; Nöthlings, U; Trichopoulou, A; Naska, A; Trichopoulos, D; Palli, D; Grioni, S; Mattiello, A; Tumino, R; Gram, I T; Engeset, D; Huerta, J M; Molina-Montes, E; Argüelles, M; Amiano, P; Ardanaz, E; Ericson, U; Lindkvist, B; Nilsson, L M; Kiemeney, L A; Ros, M; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Peeters, P H M; Khaw, K-T; Wareham, N J; Knaze, V; Romieu, I; Scalbert, A; Brennan, P; Wark, P; Vineis, P; Riboli, E; González, C A

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is growing evidence of the protective role of dietary intake of flavonoids and lignans on cancer, but the association with bladder cancer has not been thoroughly investigated in epidemiological studies. We evaluated the association between dietary intakes of total and subclasses of flavonoids and lignans and risk of bladder cancer and its main morphological type, urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC), within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Methods: A cohort of 477 312 men and women mostly aged 35–70 years, were recruited in 10 European countries. At baseline, dietary flavonoid and lignan intakes were estimated using centre-specific validated questionnaires and a food composition database based on the Phenol-Explorer, the UK Food Standards Agency and the US Department of Agriculture databases. Results: During an average of 11 years of follow-up, 1575 new cases of primary bladder cancer were identified, of which 1425 were UCC (classified into aggressive (n=430) and non-aggressive (n=413) UCC). No association was found between total flavonoid intake and bladder cancer risk. Among flavonoid subclasses, significant inverse associations with bladder cancer risk were found for intakes of flavonol (hazard ratio comparing fifth with first quintile (HRQ5–Q1) 0.74, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.61–0.91; P-trend=0.009) and lignans (HRQ5–Q1 0.78, 95% CI: 0.62–0.96; P-trend=0.046). Similar results were observed for overall UCC and aggressive UCC, but not for non-aggressive UCC. Conclusions: Our study suggests an inverse association between the dietary intakes of flavonols and lignans and risk of bladder cancer, particularly aggressive UCC. PMID:25121955

  20. Reproductive and hormone-related risk factors for epithelial ovarian cancer by histologic pathways, invasiveness and histologic subtypes: Results from the EPIC cohort.

    PubMed

    Fortner, Renée T; Ose, Jennifer; Merritt, Melissa A; Schock, Helena; Tjønneland, Anne; Hansen, Louise; Overvad, Kim; Dossus, Laure; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Baglietto, Laura; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Benetou, Vassiliki; Lagiou, Pagona; Agnoli, Claudia; Mattiello, Amalia; Masala, Giovanna; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Peeters, Petra H; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Torhild Gram, Inger; Duell, Eric J; Larrañaga, Nerea; Ardanaz, Eva; Sánchez, María-José; Chirlaque, M-D; Brändstedt, Jenny; Idahl, Annika; Lundin, Eva; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Travis, Ruth C; Rinaldi, Sabina; Romieu, Isabelle; Gunter, Marc J; Riboli, Elio; Kaaks, Rudolf

    2015-09-01

    Whether risk factors for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) differ by subtype (i.e., dualistic pathway of carcinogenesis, histologic subtype) is not well understood; however, data to date suggest risk factor differences. We examined associations between reproductive and hormone-related risk factors for EOC by subtype in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Among 334,126 women with data on reproductive and hormone-related risk factors (follow-up: 1992-2010), 1,245 incident cases of EOC with known histology and invasiveness were identified. Data on tumor histology, grade, and invasiveness, were available from cancer registries and pathology record review. We observed significant heterogeneity by the dualistic model (i.e., type I [low grade serous or endometrioid, mucinous, clear cell, malignant Brenner] vs. type II [high grade serous or endometrioid]) for full-term pregnancy (phet  = 0.02). Full-term pregnancy was more strongly inversely associated with type I than type II tumors (ever vs. never: type I: relative risk (RR) 0.47 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.33-0.69]; type II, RR: 0.81 [0.61-1.06]). We observed no significant differences in risk in analyses by major histologic subtypes of invasive EOC (serous, mucinous, endometrioid, clear cell). None of the investigated factors were associated with borderline tumors. Established protective factors, including duration of oral contraceptive use and full term pregnancy, were consistently inversely associated with risk across histologic subtypes (e.g., ever full-term pregnancy: serous, RR: 0.73 [0.58-0.92]; mucinous, RR: 0.53 [0.30-0.95]; endometrioid, RR: 0.65 [0.40-1.06]; clear cell, RR: 0.34 [0.18-0.64]; phet  = 0.16). These results suggest limited heterogeneity between reproductive and hormone-related risk factors and EOC subtypes. PMID:25656413

  1. Dietary Intake of Total, Animal, and Vegetable Protein and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-NL Study

    PubMed Central

    Sluijs, Ivonne; Beulens, Joline W.J.; van der A, Daphne L.; Spijkerman, Annemieke M.W.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Dietary recommendations are focused mainly on relative dietary fat and carbohydrate content in relation to diabetes risk. Meanwhile, high-protein diets may contribute to disturbance of glucose metabolism, but evidence from prospective studies is scarce. We examined the association among dietary total, vegetable, and animal protein intake and diabetes incidence and whether consuming 5 energy % from protein at the expense of 5 energy % from either carbohydrates or fat was associated with diabetes risk. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A prospective cohort study was conducted among 38,094 participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-NL study. Dietary protein intake was measured with a validated food frequency questionnaire. Incident diabetes was verified against medical records. RESULTS During 10 years of follow-up, 918 incident cases of diabetes were documented. Diabetes risk increased with higher total protein (hazard ratio 2.15 [95% CI 1.77–2.60] highest vs. lowest quartile) and animal protein (2.18 [1.80–2.63]) intake. Adjustment for confounders did not materially change these results. Further adjustment for adiposity measures attenuated the associations. Vegetable protein was not related to diabetes. Consuming 5 energy % from total or animal protein at the expense of 5 energy % from carbohydrates or fat increased diabetes risk. CONCLUSIONS Diets high in animal protein are associated with an increased diabetes risk. Our findings also suggest a similar association for total protein itself instead of only animal sources. Consumption of energy from protein at the expense of energy from either carbohydrates or fat may similarly increase diabetes risk. This finding indicates that accounting for protein content in dietary recommendations for diabetes prevention may be useful. PMID:19825820

  2. Dietary intakes and risk of lymphoid and myeloid leukemia in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).

    PubMed

    Saberi Hosnijeh, Fatemeh; Peeters, Petra; Romieu, Isabelle; Kelly, Rachel; Riboli, Elio; Olsen, Anja; Tjønneland, Anne; Fagherazzi, Guy; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Dossus, Laure; Nieters, Alexandra; Teucher, Birgit; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Naska, Androniki; Valanou, Elisavet; Mattiello, Amalia; Sieri, Sabina; Parr, Christine L; Engeset, Dagrun; Skeie, Guri; Dorronsoro, Miren; Barricarte, Aurelio; Sánchez, Maria-José; Ericson, Ulrika; Sonestedt, Emily; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Ros, Martine M; Travis, Ruth C; Key, Timothy J; Vineis, Paolo; Vermeulen, Roel

    2014-01-01

    The etiology of leukemias cannot entirely be explained by known risk factors, including ionizing radiation, benzene exposure, and infection with human T cell leukemia virus. A number of studies suggested that diet influences the risk of adult leukemias. However, results have been largely inconsistent. We examined the potential association between dietary factors and risk of leukemias among participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Among the 477,325 participants with mean follow-up of 11.34 yr (SD = 2.47), 773 leukemias (373 and 342 cases of lymphoid and myeloid leukemia, respectively) were identified. Diet over the previous 12 mo was assessed at baseline using a validated country-specific dietary questionnaire. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to explore the association between dietary factors that have previously been associated with leukemia risk, including red and processed meat, poultry, offal, fish, dairy products, vegetables, fruits, and seeds/nuts, and risk of both lymphoid and myeloid leukemias. No significant associations were observed between dietary measures and total, lymphoid, and myeloid leukemias. Additional subtype analyses showed no dietary association with risk of major subtypes of leukemias. In summary, this study did not support a possible link between selected dietary factors and risk of leukemias. PMID:24279598

  3. Cross-sectional study of the prehospital management of adult patients with a suspected seizure (EPIC1)

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Louise H; Shewan, Jane; Baldwin, Trevor; Grünewald, Richard A; Reuber, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Suspected seizures are a common reason for emergency calls to ambulance services. Prehospital management of these patients is an important element of good quality care. The aim of this study, conducted in a regional ambulance service in the UK, was to quantify the number of emergency telephone calls for suspected seizures in adults, the associated costs, and to describe the patients’ characteristics, their prehospital management and their immediate outcomes. Design Quantitative cross-sectional study using routinely collected data and a detailed review of the clinical records of a consecutive series of adult patients (≥16 years). Setting A regional ambulance service within the National Health Service in England. Participants Cross-sectional data from all 605 481 adult emergency incidents managed by the ambulance service from 1 April 2012 to 31 March 2013. We selected a consecutive series of 178 individual incidents from May 2012 for more detailed analysis (132 after exclusions and removal of non-seizure cases). Results Suspected seizures made up 3.3% of all emergency incidents. True medical emergencies were uncommon but 3.3% had partially occluded airways, 6.8% had ongoing seizure activity and 59.1% had clinical problems in addition to the seizure (29.1% involving injury). Emergency vehicles were dispatched for 97.2% of suspected seizures, the seizure had terminated on arrival in 93.2% of incidents, 75% of these patients were transported to hospital. The estimated emergency management cost per annum of suspected seizures in the English ambulance services is £45.2 million (€64.0 million, $68.6 million). Conclusions Many patients with suspected seizures could potentially be treated more effectively and at lower cost by modifying ambulance call handling protocols. The development of innovative care pathways could give call handlers and paramedics alternatives to hospital transportation. Increased adoption of care plans could reduce 999 calls and

  4. Combined Impact of Health Behaviours and Mortality in Men and Women: The EPIC-Norfolk Prospective Population Study

    PubMed Central

    Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas; Bingham, Sheila; Welch, Ailsa; Luben, Robert; Day, Nicholas

    2008-01-01

    Background There is overwhelming evidence that behavioural factors influence health, but their combined impact on the general population is less well documented. We aimed to quantify the potential combined impact of four health behaviours on mortality in men and women living in the general community. Methods and Findings We examined the prospective relationship between lifestyle and mortality in a prospective population study of 20,244 men and women aged 45–79 y with no known cardiovascular disease or cancer at baseline survey in 1993–1997, living in the general community in the United Kingdom, and followed up to 2006. Participants scored one point for each health behaviour: current non-smoking, not physically inactive, moderate alcohol intake (1–14 units a week) and plasma vitamin C >50 mmol/l indicating fruit and vegetable intake of at least five servings a day, for a total score ranging from zero to four. After an average 11 y follow-up, the age-, sex-, body mass–, and social class–adjusted relative risks (95% confidence intervals) for all-cause mortality(1,987 deaths) for men and women who had three, two, one, and zero compared to four health behaviours were respectively, 1.39 (1.21–1.60), 1.95 (1.70–-2.25), 2.52 (2.13–3.00), and 4.04 (2.95–5.54) p < 0.001 trend. The relationships were consistent in subgroups stratified by sex, age, body mass index, and social class, and after excluding deaths within 2 y. The trends were strongest for cardiovascular causes. The mortality risk for those with four compared to zero health behaviours was equivalent to being 14 y younger in chronological age. Conclusions Four health behaviours combined predict a 4-fold difference in total mortality in men and women, with an estimated impact equivalent to 14 y in chronological age. PMID:18184033

  5. Circulating Omentin as a Novel Biomarker for Colorectal Cancer Risk: Data from the EPIC-Potsdam Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Aleksandrova, Krasimira; di Giuseppe, Romina; Isermann, Berend; Biemann, Ronald; Schulze, Matthias; Wittenbecher, Clemens; Fritsche, Andreas; Lehmann, Rainer; Menzel, Juliane; Weikert, Cornelia; Pischon, Tobias; Boeing, Heiner

    2016-07-01

    Omentin is a novel biomarker shown to exert metabolic, inflammatory, and immune-related properties and thereby could be implicated in the risk of colorectal cancer. So far, the association between omentin and colorectal cancer risk has not been evaluated in prospective cohort studies. We investigated the association between prediagnostic plasma omentin concentrations and risk of colorectal cancer in a case-cohort comprising 251 incident colorectal cancer cases diagnosed over a mean follow-up time of 10.4 years and 2,295 persons who remained free of cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Potsdam study. Hazard ratios as a measure of relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed using a Prentice-modified Cox regression. In a multivariable model adjusted for age, sex, education, dietary and lifestyle factors, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference, higher omentin concentrations were associated with a higher colorectal cancer risk (RRcontinuously per doubling of omentin concentrations = 1.98; 95% CI, 1.45-2.73). Additional adjustment for metabolic biomarkers, including glycated hemoglobin, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and C-reactive protein, did not alter the results. In stratified analyses, the positive association between omentin and colorectal cancer risk was retained in participants with BMI < 30 (RRcontinuously per doubling of omentin concentrations = 2.26; 95% CI, 1.57-3.27), whereas among participants with BMI ≥ 30 no association was revealed (RRcontinuously per doubling of omentin concentrations = 1.07; 95% CI, 0.63-1.83; Pinteraction = 0.005). These novel findings provide the first lines of evidence for an independent association between prediagnostic omentin concentrations and colorectal cancer risk and suggest a potential interaction with the adiposity state of the individual. Cancer Res; 76(13); 3862-71. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27216184

  6. The Influence of Hormonal Factors on the Risk of Developing Cervical Cancer and Pre-Cancer: Results from the EPIC Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Roura, Esther; Travier, Noémie; Waterboer, Tim; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Bosch, F. Xavier; Pawlita, Michael; Pala, Valeria; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Margall, Núria; Dillner, Joakim; Gram, Inger T.; Tjønneland, Anne; Munk, Christian; Palli, Domenico; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Overvad, Kim; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Mesrine, Sylvie; Fournier, Agnès; Fortner, Renée T.; Ose, Jennifer; Steffen, Annika; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Orfanos, Philippos; Masala, Giovanna; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Polidoro, Silvia; Mattiello, Amalia; Lund, Eiliv; Peeters, Petra H.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B(as).; Quirós, J. Ramón; Sánchez, María-José; Navarro, Carmen; Barricarte, Aurelio; Larrañaga, Nerea; Ekström, Johanna; Lindquist, David; Idahl, Annika; Travis, Ruth C.; Merritt, Melissa A.; Gunter, Marc J.; Rinaldi, Sabina; Tommasino, Massimo; Franceschi, Silvia; Riboli, Elio; Castellsagué, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Background In addition to HPV, high parity and hormonal contraceptives have been associated with cervical cancer (CC). However, most of the evidence comes from retrospective case-control studies. The aim of this study is to prospectively evaluate associations between hormonal factors and risk of developing cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3)/carcinoma in situ (CIS) and invasive cervical cancer (ICC). Methods and Findings We followed a cohort of 308,036 women recruited in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study. At enrollment, participants completed a questionnaire and provided serum. After a 9-year median follow-up, 261 ICC and 804 CIN3/CIS cases were reported. In a nested case-control study, the sera from 609 cases and 1,218 matched controls were tested for L1 antibodies against HPV types 11,16,18,31,33,35,45,52,58, and antibodies against Chlamydia trachomatis and Human herpesvirus 2. Multivariate analyses were performed to estimate hazard ratios (HR), odds ratios (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI). The cohort analysis showed that number of full-term pregnancies was positively associated with CIN3/CIS risk (p-trend = 0.03). Duration of oral contraceptives use was associated with a significantly increased risk of both CIN3/CIS and ICC (HR = 1.6 and HR = 1.8 respectively for ≥15 years versus never use). Ever use of menopausal hormone therapy was associated with a reduced risk of ICC (HR = 0.5, 95%CI: 0.4–0.8). A non-significant reduced risk of ICC with ever use of intrauterine devices (IUD) was found in the nested case-control analysis (OR = 0.6). Analyses restricted to all cases and HPV seropositive controls yielded similar results, revealing a significant inverse association with IUD for combined CIN3/CIS and ICC (OR = 0.7). Conclusions Even though HPV is the necessary cause of CC, our results suggest that several hormonal factors are risk factors for cervical carcinogenesis. Adherence to

  7. Associations of Erythrocyte Fatty Acids in the De Novo Lipogenesis Pathway with Proxies of Liver Fat Accumulation in the EPIC-Potsdam Study

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Simone; Jäger, Susanne; Jansen, Eugene; Peter, Andreas; Stefan, Norbert; Boeing, Heiner; Schulze, Matthias B.; Kröger, Janine

    2015-01-01

    Background Biomarker fatty acids (FAs) reflecting de novo lipogenesis (DNL) are strongly linked to the risk of cardiometabolic diseases. Liver fat accumulation could mediate this relation. There is very limited data from human population-based studies that have examined this relation. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between specific FAs in the DNL pathway and liver fat accumulation in a large population-based study. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of a subsample (n = 1,562) of the EPIC-Potsdam study, which involves 27,548 middle-aged men and women. Baseline blood samples have been analyzed for proportions of 32 FAs in erythrocyte membranes (determined by gas chromatography) and biomarker concentrations in plasma. As indicators for DNL, the DNL-index (16:0 / 18:2n-6) and proportions of individual blood FAs in the DNL pathway were used. Plasma parameters associated with liver fat content (fetuin-A, ALT, and GGT) and the algorithm-based fatty liver index (FLI) were used to reflect liver fat accumulation. Results The DNL-index tended to be positively associated with the FLI and was positively associated with GGT activity in men (p for trend: 0.12 and 0.003). Proportions of 14:0 and 16:0 in erythrocytes were positively associated with fetuin-A, whereas 16:1n-7 were positively associated with the FLI and GGT activity (all p for trends in both sexes at least 0.004). Furthermore, the proportion of 16:1n-7 was positively related to fetuin-A in women and ALT activity in men (all p for trend at least 0.03). The proportion of 16:1n-9 showed positive associations with the FLI and GGT activity in men and fetuin-A in both sexes, whereas 18:1n-7 was positively associated with GGT activity in men (all p for trend at least 0.048). Conclusion Findings from this large epidemiological study suggest that liver fat accumulation could link erythrocyte FAs in the DNL pathway to the risk of cardiometabolic diseases. PMID:25984792

  8. Diet and risk of diverticular disease in Oxford cohort of European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC): prospective study of British vegetarians and non-vegetarians

    PubMed Central

    Appleby, Paul N; Allen, Naomi E; Key, Timothy J

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine the associations of a vegetarian diet and dietary fibre intake with risk of diverticular disease. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting The EPIC-Oxford study, a cohort of mainly health conscious participants recruited from around the United Kingdom. Participants 47 033 men and women living in England or Scotland of whom 15 459 (33%) reported consuming a vegetarian diet. Main outcome measures Diet group was assessed at baseline; intake of dietary fibre was estimated from a 130 item validated food frequency questionnaire. Cases of diverticular disease were identified through linkage with hospital records and death certificates. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the risk of diverticular disease by diet group and fifths of intake of dietary fibre were estimated with multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models. Results After a mean follow-up time of 11.6 years, there were 812 cases of diverticular disease (806 admissions to hospital and six deaths). After adjustment for confounding variables, vegetarians had a 31% lower risk (relative risk 0.69, 95% confidence interval 0.55 to 0.86) of diverticular disease compared with meat eaters. The cumulative probability of admission to hospital or death from diverticular disease between the ages of 50 and 70 for meat eaters was 4.4% compared with 3.0% for vegetarians. There was also an inverse association with dietary fibre intake; participants in the highest fifth (≥25.5 g/day for women and ≥26.1 g/day for men) had a 41% lower risk (0.59, 0.46 to 0.78; P<0.001 trend) compared with those in the lowest fifth (<14 g/day for both women and men). After mutual adjustment, both a vegetarian diet and a higher intake of fibre were significantly associated with a lower risk of diverticular disease. Conclusions Consuming a vegetarian diet and a high intake of dietary fibre were both associated with a lower risk of admission to hospital or death from diverticular disease. PMID:21771850

  9. Premenopausal serum sex hormone levels in relation to breast cancer risk, overall and by hormone receptor status - results from the EPIC cohort.

    PubMed

    Kaaks, Rudolf; Tikk, Kaja; Sookthai, Disorn; Schock, Helena; Johnson, Theron; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Dossus, Laure; Baglietto, Laura; Rinaldi, Sabina; Chajes, Veronique; Romieu, Isabelle; Boeing, Heiner; Schütze, Madlen; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Tumino, Rosario; Ricceri, Fulvio; Mattiello, Amalia; Buckland, Genevieve; Ramón Quirós, Jose; Sánchez, María-José; Amiano, Pilar; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Barricarte, Aurelio; Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, H; van Gils, Carla H; Peeters, Petra H; Andersson, Anne; Sund, Malin; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Key, Timothy J; Travis, Ruth C; Merritt, Melissa A; Gunter, Marc J; Riboli, Elio; Lukanova, Annekatrin

    2014-04-15

    Results from prospective studies on premenopausal serum hormone levels in relation to breast cancer risk have been inconclusive, especially with regard to tumor subtypes. Using a case-control study nested within the prospective European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort (801 breast cancer cases and 1,132 matched control subjects), we analyzed the relationships of prediagnostic serum estradiol, free estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, free testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels with the risk of breast cancer by estrogen and progesterone receptor-positive and -negative breast tumors and by age at diagnoses. Higher prediagnostic serum levels of testosterone and free testosterone were associated with an increased overall risk of breast cancer [ORQ4-Q1  = 1.56 (95% CI 1.15-2.13), ptrend  = 0.02 for testosterone and ORQ4-Q1  = 1.33 (95% CI 0.99-1.79), ptrend  = 0.04 for free testosterone], but no significant risk association was observed for estradiol, free estradiol, progesterone and SHBG. Tests for heterogeneity between receptor-positive and -negative tumors were not significant. When analysis were stratified by age at tumor diagnosis, the odds ratios observed for estradiol were stronger and borderline significant for breast cancer diagnosed at age less than 50 [ORQ4-Q1  = 1.32 (95% CI 0.87-2.01), ptrend  = 0.05] compared to breast cancer diagnosed at age 50 or above [ORQ4-Q1  = 0.94 (95% CI 0.60-1.47), ptrend  = 0.34, phet  = 0.04]. In conclusion, our data indicate that higher premenopausal circulating testosterone levels are associated with an increased risk of developing breast cancer, but do not show a significant association of estradiol or progesterone with breast cancer risk, overall, by menstrual cycle phase or by tumor receptor status, although a possible risk increase with higher estradiol levels for tumors diagnosed before age 50 was seen. PMID:24155248

  10. Validation of Anthropometric Indices of Adiposity against Whole-Body Magnetic Resonance Imaging – A Study within the German European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Neamat-Allah, Jasmine; Wald, Diana; Hüsing, Anika; Teucher, Birgit; Wendt, Andrea; Delorme, Stefan; Dinkel, Julien; Vigl, Matthaeus; Bergmann, Manuela M.; Feller, Silke; Hierholzer, Johannes; Boeing, Heiner; Kaaks, Rudolf

    2014-01-01

    Background In epidemiological studies, measures of body fat generally are obtained through anthropometric indices such as the body mass index (BMI), waist (WC), and hip circumferences (HC). Such indices, however, can only provide estimates of a person’s true body fat content, overall or by adipose compartment, and may have limited accuracy, especially for the visceral adipose compartment (VAT). Objective To determine the extent to which different body adipose tissue compartments are adequately predicted by anthropometry, and to identify anthropometric measures alone, or in combination to predict overall adiposity and specific adipose tissue compartments, independently of age and body size (height). Methods In a sub-study of 1,192 participants of the German EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) cohorts, whole-body MRI was performed to determine adipose and muscle tissue compartments. Additional anthropometric measurements of BMI, WC and HC were taken. Results After adjusting for age and height, BMI, WC and HC were better predictors of total body volume (TBV), total adipose tissue (TAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) than for VAT, coronary adipose tissue (CAT) and skeletal muscle tissue (SMT). In both sexes, BMI was the best predictor for TBV (men: r = 0.72 [0.68–0.76], women: r = 0.80 [0.77–0.83]) and SMT (men: r = 0.52 [0.45–0.57], women: r = 0.48 [0.41–0.54]). WC was the best predictor variable for TAT (r = 0.48 [0.41–0.54]), VAT (r = 0.44 [0.37–0.50]) and CAT (r = 0.34 [0.26–0.41]) (men), and for VAT (r = 0.42 [0.35–0.49]) and CAT (r = 0.29 [0.22–0.37]) (women). BMI was the best predictor for TAT (r = 0.49 [0.43–0.55]) (women). HC was the best predictor for SAT (men (r = 0.39 [0.32–0.45]) and women (r = 0.52 [0.46–0.58])). Conclusions Especially the volumes of internal body fat compartments are poorly predicted by anthropometry. A possible implication

  11. Comparison of the EPIC Physical Activity Questionnaire with Combined Heart Rate and Movement Sensing in a Nationally Representative Sample of Older British Adults

    PubMed Central

    España-Romero, Vanesa; Golubic, Rajna; Martin, Kathryn R.; Hardy, Rebecca; Ekelund, Ulf; Kuh, Diana; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Cooper, Rachel; Brage, Soren

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To compare physical activity (PA) subcomponents from EPIC Physical Activity Questionnaire (EPAQ2) and combined heart rate and movement sensing in older adults. Methods Participants aged 60–64y from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development in Great Britain completed EPAQ2, which assesses self-report PA in 4 domains (leisure time, occupation, transportation and domestic life) during the past year and wore a combined sensor for 5 consecutive days. Estimates of PA energy expenditure (PAEE), sedentary behaviour, light (LPA) and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) were obtained from EPAQ2 and combined sensing and compared. Complete data were available in 1689 participants (52% women). Results EPAQ2 estimates of PAEE and MVPA were higher than objective estimates and sedentary time and LPA estimates were lower [bias (95% limits of agreement) in men and women were 32.3 (−61.5 to 122.6) and 29.0 (−39.2 to 94.6) kJ/kg/day for PAEE; −4.6 (−10.6 to 1.3) and −6.0 (−10.9 to −1.0) h/day for sedentary time; −171.8 (−454.5 to 110.8) and −60.4 (−367.5 to 246.6) min/day for LPA; 91.1 (−159.5 to 341.8) and 55.4 (−117.2 to 228.0) min/day for MVPA]. There were significant positive correlations between all self-reported and objectively assessed PA subcomponents (rho  = 0.12 to 0.36); the strongest were observed for MVPA (rho = 0.30 men; rho = 0.36 women) and PAEE (rho = 0.26 men; rho = 0.25 women). Conclusion EPAQ2 produces higher estimates of PAEE and MVPA and lower estimates of sedentary and LPA than objective assessment. However, both methodologies rank individuals similarly, suggesting that EPAQ2 may be used in etiological studies in this population. PMID:24516543

  12. Marital transitions and associated changes in fruit and vegetable intake: Findings from the population-based prospective EPIC-Norfolk cohort, UK

    PubMed Central

    Vinther, Johan L.; Conklin, Annalijn I.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Monsivais, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Background Diet is critical to health and social relationships are an important determinant of diet. We report the association between transitions in marital status and healthy eating behaviours in a UK population. Methods Longitudinal study of middle-age and older adults 39−78y (n = 11 577) in EPIC-Norfolk, a population-based cohort, who completed food frequency questionnaires in 1993–97 and 1998–2002. Multivariable linear regression analyses assessed gender-specific associations between five categories of marital transitions and changes in quantity (g/d), and variety (no/month) of fruits or vegetables. Results In 3.6 years of follow-up and relative to men who stayed married, widowed men showed significant declines (mean difference, 95% CI) in all four indicators of healthy eating including fruit quantity (−47.7, −80.6 to −14.9 g/d), fruit variety (−0.6, −1.1 to −0.2 no/month), vegetable quantity (−27.7, −50.5 to −4.9 g/d), and vegetable variety (−1.6, −2.2 to −0.9 no/month). Men who were separated or divorced or who remained single also showed significant declines in three of the indicators. Among women, only those who became separated/divorced or stayed single showed declines in one indicator, vegetable variety. Conclusion Unhealthy changes to diet accompanying divorce, separation and becoming widowed may be more common among men than women. Moreover, deterioration in fruit and vegetable intakes was more apparent for variety rather than quantity consumed. Programmes to promote healthy eating among older adults need to recognise these social determinants of diet and consider prioritising people who live alone and in particular men who have recently left relationships or who have been widowed. PMID:27082023

  13. Going with the Floe? An Analysis of the Epic Expeditions of Fridtjof Nansen and Sir Ernest Shackleton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfirman, S.; Tremblay, B.; Fowler, C.

    2007-12-01

    One hundred years ago, the heroic age of polar exploration was underway. At first glance the Arctic-based Fridtjof Nansen and Antarctic-based Sir Ernest Shackleton, and their most famous expeditions, are literally poles apart. But the expeditions wound up having much in common, including the fact that their fates were largely dependent on their drift trajectory in the sea ice pack and, in Shackleton's case, the wind and ocean currents. These are natural forces, outside the control of the expedition leaders. Were Nansen and Shackleton lucky that the ice and ocean delivered them and their crew to locations from which they could return? Or were their fates more or less inevitable, within the normal range of natural conditions? While we cannot reconstruct the wind and ocean patterns that actually existed 100 years ago to answer this question, we looked at variability over the past three decades to explore potential alternate fates of these expeditions. Our analysis indicates that Nansen and Shackleton were both lucky and unlucky in the natural conditions that they encountered during their expeditions. Most years since 1979, Nansen would have gotten much closer to the North Pole - his goal -- than his ship did in 1895, so he was unlucky in that respect. On the other hand, he was lucky with the relatively short drift duration of his ship in the Arctic pack ice. Shackleton was also lucky in the rapid pace of drift within the pack. The fact that his trajectory was so far to the west might have been a factor in the crushing and sinking of his ship, but it did allow him to land most of his men on Elephant Island while he went for help. Shackleton's heroic, and harrowing, boat journey to South Georgia turned out to be helped by prevailing conditions: it was within the likely ocean drift trajectory from Elephant Island. Analyses such as these, including "Nansen's Luck" by Roger Colony, and "The Coldest March" by Susan Solomon, help set history and profiles of leadership within