Science.gov

Sample records for poultry litter application

  1. Subsurface band application of poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broiler litter is commonly used as a fertilizer on pastures and cropland. Poultry litter is typically land-applied by broadcasting the litter on the soil surface. Rain falling on soil to which poultry litter has been applied, may carry phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) nutrients from the soil into s...

  2. Repeated Poultry Litter Application Builds Cotton Soil Productivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry litter is a bulky mix of mainly chicken manure and bedding materials. It is generated in huge amounts on a continuous basis in the Mid South and southeastern US. This necessitates yearly application to crops as a way of managing the constant supply. Manures including poultry litter applied ...

  3. An implement for subsurface band application of poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broiler litter is commonly used as a fertilizer on pastures and cropland. Poultry litter is typically land-applied by broadcasting the litter on the soil surface. Rain falling on soil to which poultry litter has been applied, may carry phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) nutrients from the soil into s...

  4. SOIL PHOSPHOROUS SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION IN PASTURES RECEIVING POULTRY LITTER APPLICATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmentally-based P management strategies could be improved by delineating management zones incorporating the effects of landscape position on soil morphology, hydrology, and soil P distribution. Three farm pasture sites in SW Missouri receiving long-term poultry litter applications were sampled...

  5. Poultry litter application increases carbon sequestration and soil quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry litter, a cheap source of nutrients, is widely available in the southeastern U.S. because of a large-scale poultry industry. Disposal of poultry litter is causing an increasing environmental concern because of groundwater contamination of nitrogen and phosphorus through leaching and surface ...

  6. Poultry Litter Application Time Effect on Nutrient Availability and Corn Yield In Central Kentucky.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the growing interest in poultry litter use as nutrient sources, knowledge of whether application time is consequential to production is pertinent. This study investigated the effects of fall and spring application of two rates (9 and 18 mega grams per ha) of poultry litter and a 19-19-19 NPK b...

  7. Effects of subsurface poultry litter application technology on water quality, odor, and corn yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Impending rules in Maryland will require that poultry litter be incorporated into the soil upon application. For the past five years, we have tested various direct incorporation technologies for poultry litter on Maryland’s coastal plain. Most recently, the USDA-ARS “Subsurfer” has been the focus of...

  8. Injecting poultry litter into orchardgrass hay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traditional surface application of poultry litter leaves nutrients vulnerable to loss through volatilization and runoff. However, injection can increase capture of these nutrients in agricultural fields. Therefore, a field experiment was conducted to determine the effects of poultry litter injection...

  9. Legacy phosphorus in calcareous soils: effects of long-term poultry litter application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sequential fractionation techniques, coupled with phosphatase hydrolysis, have allowed for greater understanding of manure/litter effects on soil P distribution. We evaluated the effect of long-term (> 10 years) poultry litter (broiler and turkey litter) application at annual rates of 4.5, 6.7, 9.0,...

  10. Legacy phosphorus in calcareous soils: effects of long-term poultry litter application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sequential fractionation techniques, coupled with phosphatase hydrolysis, have allowed for greater understanding of manure/litter effects on soil P distribution. We evaluated the effect of long-term (greater than 10 years) poultry litter (broiler and turkey litter) application at annual rates of 4.5...

  11. Detection of pathogens, indicators and antibiotic resistance genes following land application of poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The United States (U.S.) is the world’s largest producer of poultry with over 18,000 kg of poultry litter (PL), a mixture of poultry manure, bedding, feathers, and spilled feed produced as a by-product. This PL is a valuable nutrient source for crop production however; land application of livestock ...

  12. Subsurface application of poultry litter in pasture and no-till soils.

    PubMed

    Pote, D H; Way, T R; Kleinman, P J A; Moore, P A; Meisinger, J J; Sistani, K R; Saporito, L S; Allen, A L; Feyereisen, G W

    2011-01-01

    Poultry litter provides a rich nutrient source for crops, but the usual practice of surface-applying litter can degrade water quality by allowing nutrients to be transported from fields in surface runoff while much of the ammonia (NH3)-N escapes into the atmosphere. Our goal was to improve on conventional titter application methods to decrease associated nutrient losses to air and water while increasing soil productivity. We developed and tested a knifing technique to directly apply dry poultry litter beneath the surface of pastures. Results showed that subsurface litter application decreased NH3-N volatilization and nutrient losses in runoff more than 90% (compared with surface-applied litter) to levels statistically as low as those from control (no litter) plots. Given this success, two advanced tractor-drawn prototypes were developed to subsurface apply poultry litter in field research. The two prototypes have been tested in pasture and no-till experiments and are both effective in improving nutrient-use efficiency compared with surface-applied litter, increasing crop yields (possibly by retaining more nitrogen in the soil), and decreasing nutrient losses, often to near background (control plot) levels. A paired-watershed study showed that cumulative phosphorus losses in runoff from continuously grazed perennial pastures were decreased by 55% over a 3-yr period if the annual poultry litter applications were subsurface applied rather than surface broadcast. Results highlight opportunities and challenges for commercial adoption of subsurface poultry litter application in pasture and no-till systems. PMID:21520747

  13. Prospects for phosphorus recovery from poultry litter.

    PubMed

    Szogi, A A; Vanotti, M B

    2009-11-01

    Land disposal of poultry litter is an environmental concern often associated to excess phosphorus (P) in soils and potential water pollution in regions with intense poultry production. Although poultry litter can be moved off the farm and traded as fertilizer, its transportation becomes less economical with increasing distances from the farm. Thus, new litter management alternatives are needed to reduce the environmental impact of P litter application to land. This paper summarizes established and emerging alternative technologies in the U.S. that facilitate handling, concentration, and transporting of litter P. Furthermore, it examines the potential integration of technologies into poultry litter management systems that could reduce poultry litter volume and increase P content in litter byproducts. The adoption of alternative technologies may encourage new opportunities to produce bio-energy, fertilizer, and other valuable P byproducts from poultry litter while reducing environmental impact and promoting sustainable poultry production. PMID:19394817

  14. Soluble calcium amendment: Co-Application with poultry litter to reduce P loss following surface application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper will discuss the utilization of gypsum (CaSO4 .2H2O) to reduce P losses from surface runoff when poultry litter is used as a fertilizer source in agriculture. Utilization of poultry litter as a fertilizer source is common in regions with intense poultry production. While poultry litter ha...

  15. Application of composted poultry litter as a fertilizer for landscape bedding plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Each year, over 16 million tons of poultry litter is produced in the U.S. Federal and state regulations now limit the amount of poultry litter that can be land-applied, making it difficult to store and dispose poultry litter. The objective of this study was to evaluate composted poultry litter (CPL)...

  16. A New Method of Poultry Litter Application to Perennial Pasture: Subsurface Banding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, incorporation of poultry litter by subsurface band application into pasture has been shown to dramatically reduce surface runoff transport of environmentally sensitive nutrients and pathogens. However, no data are currently available to evaluate the impact of this potential litter managem...

  17. Cotton lint yield improvement attributed to residual effect of repeated poultry litter application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The magnitude of any poultry litter carryover and the possibility to decrease the rate of litter applied to soils with only a few years of application history is not documented. The objective of this research was to determine and quantify the contribution of carryover effect of moderate rates of br...

  18. Antibiotic resistant and pathogenic bacteria associated with rain runoff following land application of poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry rearing in the United States is approximately a thirty million dollar per year industry. The land application of poultry litter as an organic fertilizer is an ideal choice for the disposal of this high nitrogen, high organic waste, however microbial runoff following rain events is a concern...

  19. Bacteria associated with rain runoff following land application of poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry rearing in the United States is approximately a thirty million dollar per year industry. Land application of poultry litter is an economical viable use of this manure byproduct. However the recent concern associated with organic food and pathogenic bacterial contamination has led to increa...

  20. Application of gypsum to control P runoff from poultry litter fertilization of pasture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper will discuss the utilization of gypsum (CaSO4 .2H2O) to reduce P losses from surface runoff when poultry litter is used as a fertilizer source in agriculture. Utilization of poultry litter as a fertilizer source is common in regions with intense poultry production. While poultry litter ...

  1. Influence of Poultry Litter Applications on Nematode Communities in Cotton Agroecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Koenning, S. R.; Barker, K. R.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of the application of poultry litter at 0.0, 6.7, 13.4, and 20.1 tons/ha on population changes during the growing season on nematode communities were evaluated in two cotton production fields in North Carolina. Numbers of bactivorous nematodes increased at midseason in response to the rate at which litter was applied but decreased with increasing litter application rates at cotton harvest. Numbers of fungivores at cotton harvest were related positively to the rate of litter applied, and this affected a positive increase in the fungivore-to-bacterivore ratio at this sampling date. The rate at which poultry litter was applied resulted in an increase in the bacterivore to plant-parasite ratio, and this corresponded with increased cotton lint yield. Trophic diversity was increased by litter application rate at cotton harvest at one location but not at another. The plant-parasite maturity index was greater consistently at one site than at a second site where the Hoplolaimus columbus population density was above the damage threshold for cotton. The population density of H. columbus was suppressed with increasing rates of poultry litter application, but other plant-parasitic nematodes were affected marginally. PMID:19262834

  2. Centrifugal spreader mass and nutrients distribution patterns for application of fresh and aged poultry litter.

    PubMed

    Temple, W D; Skowrońska, M; Bomke, A A

    2014-06-15

    A spin-type centrifugal spreader was evaluated using fresh and aged poultry litter upon dry mass, product nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K), incubation study soil available N and particle size distribution patterns. Relative to the aged litter (37% moisture content), the fresh litter (17% moisture content) had greater <1.00 mm particle size fraction weights and atmospheric particulate was launched, which posed as a potential fallout to adjacent fields, waterways and residences. Relative to the aged litter, the broadcast fresh litter resulted in higher coefficients of variation (CV) over its transverse distance, a narrower calculated space distance between passes for uniform spread and lower soil available N concentrations. For nitrogen application over the broadcast transverse distance the fresh litter displayed a high R(2) best fit 4th order polynomial distribution pattern, while the aged litter showed high R(2) best fit 6th order polynomial distribution pattern. A soil incubation study of the fresh and aged broadcast litter resulted in a more variable or lower R(2) best fit 2nd order polynomial distribution pattern. For both the fresh and aged litter, the calculated distance between passes to achieve a uniform mass distribution was greater than that required for the broadcast of soil available N. For the fresh litter, the soil available N and litter P concentration levels strongly correlated (relatively high p and R(2) values) with the <1.00 mm fraction weight, while for the aged litter this relationship was not as significant. In addition to reducing the health risk (i.e. pathogens, antibiotic residues and resistant bacteria) and/or environment issues (particulate fallout onto waterways, adjacent fields and/or residences) our study mass, particulate and N distribution patterns results suggest that poultry litter should be allowed to age before broadcast application is attempted. PMID:24705099

  3. Implement with adjustable band spacing for subsurface band application of poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broiler litter is commonly used as a fertilizer on pastures and cropland. Poultry litter is typically land-applied by broadcasting the litter on the soil surface. Rain falling on soil to which poultry litter has been applied, may carry phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) nutrients from the soil into s...

  4. Soil profile nutrient distribution following 10 years of poultry litter application in conventional and conservation tillage systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The distribution of pH, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn and Zn within the soil profile was determined following 10 years of poultry litter application to a Cecil sandy loam soil in the Southern Piedmont. During the 10 year period, 95 Mg ha-1 of poultry litter was applied to five cotton crops and five corn crops. ...

  5. Corn response and soil nutrient concentration from subsurface application of poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen fertilizer management is vital to corn (Zea mays L.) production from financial and environmental perspectives. Poultry litter as a nutrient source in this cropping system is generally surface broadcast, potentially causing volatilization of NH3. Recently a new application method was devel...

  6. Nitrogen and Phosphorus Accumulation in Pasture Soil from Repeated Poultry Litter Application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry litter is a traditionally inexpensive and effective fertilizer to improve soil quality and agricultural productivity. However, over application to soil has raised concern because excess nutrients in runoff could accelerate the eutrophication of fresh water. In this work, we determined the co...

  7. Legacy phosphorus in calcareous soils: effects of long-term poultry litter application on phosphorus distribution in Texas Blackland Vertisol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sequential fractionation techniques, coupled with phosphatase hydrolysis, have allowed for greater understanding of manure/litter effects on soil phosphorus (P) distribution. We evaluated the effect of long-term (> 10 years) poultry litter (broiler and turkey litter) application at rates of 4.5, 6.7...

  8. Carbon Dioxide Efflux from Soil with Poultry Litter Applications in Conventional and Conservation Tillage Systems in Northern Alabama

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased carbon dioxide release from soils resulting from agricultural practices such as tillage and application of poultry litter in cotton production systems has generated concerns about contributions to global warming which negatively impacts natural ecosystems, weather patterns, and food pro...

  9. Subsurface band application of poultry litter and its influence on Phosphorus concentration and retention after runoff from permanent pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Excessive P loss from agricultural fields has been identified as a major cause of eutrophication to river, lakes, and streams. To minimize and mitigate P loss from poultry litter (PL) applications, new technology is being developed for subsurface band application of litter below the soil surface. Th...

  10. Phosphatase activities in soil after repeated untreated and alum-treated poultry litter applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Repeated additions of untreated and aluminum sulfate (alum)-treated poultry litter to soil affect ecology and consequent nutrient dynamics. The objective of this study was to determine how repeated annual poultry litter additions affected phosphatase activities in concert with changes in soil phosph...

  11. Application of Composted Poultry Litter as a Fertilizer for Landscape Annual Bedding Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years there has been a major expansion in the poultry industry, leading to waste disposal problems in many of areas. A study was conducted to determine if the use of poultry litter in the landscape industry could provide an environmentally sound means of disposal for poultry producers as ...

  12. Detection of pathogens, indicators, and antibiotic resistance genes following land application of poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The United States (U.S.) is the world’s largest producer of poultry with over eight billion broilers produced yearly. Poultry litter (PL) is a mixture of manure, bedding, feathers, and spilled feed that is a by-product of broiler production. In 2009, the U.S. produced more than 50 million tons of PL...

  13. Long-term applications of untreated and alum-treated poultry litter drive soil nitrogen concentrations and associated microbial community dynamics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aluminum sulfate (alum)-treatment retains ammonia in poultry litter, potentially altering nitrogen cycling after application to soil. The objective of this research was to assess if eight and nine years of annual application of untreated or alum-treated poultry litters or ammonium nitrate have resul...

  14. Photodegradation of roxarsone in poultry litter leachates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bednar, A.J.; Garbarino, J.R.; Ferrer, I.; Rutherford, D.W.; Wershaw, R. L.; Ranville, J.F.; Wildeman, T.R.

    2003-01-01

    Arsenic compounds have been used extensively in agriculture in the US for applications ranging from cotton herbicides to animal feed supplements. Roxarsone (3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid), in particular, is used widely in poultry production to control coccidial intestinal parasites. It is excreted unchanged in the manure and introduced into the environment when litter is applied to farmland as fertilizer. Although the toxicity of roxarsone is less than that of inorganic arsenic, roxarsone can degrade, biotically and abiotically, to produce more toxic inorganic forms of arsenic, such as arsenite and arsenate. Experiments were conducted on aqueous litter leachates to test the stability of roxarsone under different conditions. Laboratory experiments have shown that arsenite can be cleaved photolytically from the roxarsone moiety at pH 4-8 and that the degradation rate increases with increasing pH. Furthermore, the rate of photodegradation increases with nitrate and natural organic matter concentration, reactants that are commonly found in poultry-litter-water leachates. Additional photochemical reactions rapidly oxidize the cleaved arsenite to arsenate. The formation of arsenate is not entirely undesirable, because it is less mobile in soil systems and less toxic than arsenite. A possible mechanism for the degradation of roxarsone in poultry litter leachates is proposed. The results suggest that poultry litter storage and field application practices could affect the degradation of roxarsone and subsequent mobilization of inorganic arsenic species. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Salmonella and fecal indicator bacteria in tile waters draining poultry litter application fields in central Iowa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hruby, C.; Soupir, M.

    2012-12-01

    E. coli and enterococci are commonly used as pathogen indicators in surface waters. Along with these indicators, pathogenic Salmonella are prevalent in poultry litter, and have the potential to be transported from land-application areas to tile waters and ultimately to impact waters that are used for drinking-water and recreation. The fate and transport of these bacteria to drainage tiles from application fields, and the correlation of fecal indicator bacteria to pathogens in this setting, is poorly understood. In this field study, samples were obtained from poultry litter, soil, and drainage tile waters below chisel-plowed and no-till cornfields in central Iowa where poultry litter was applied each year in late spring prior to planting. Litter was applied at three different rates; commercial fertilizer with no litter, a low application rate based on the nitrogen requirements of the corn (PL1), and double the low rate (PL2). This site is characterized by low sloping (0-9%) Clarion and Nicollet soils, which are derived from glacial till. Samples were collected from April to September for three years (2010-12) when tiles were flowing. Record high precipitation fell during the sampling period in 2010, while 2011 and 2012 were exceptionally dry years at this location. Grab samples were taken directly from flowing tiles after every rainfall event (>2 cm in less than 24 hours) and samples were collected hourly throughout selected events using an automatic sampling device. Concentrations of E. coli, enterococci and Salmonella spp. were quantified by membrane filtration and growth on selective agars. Peak bacteria concentrations following rainfall events were often one order of magnitude higher in tile waters discharging from no-till plots, despite the smaller size and lower tile flow rates at these plots compared to the chisel-plowed plots. Bacteria concentrations regularly varied by two orders of magnitude in response to rainfall events. Bacteria transport via macropores

  16. Environmental fate of roxarsone in poultry litter. Part II. Mobility of arsenic in soils amended with poultry litter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rutherford, D.W.; Bednar, A.J.; Garbarino, J.R.; Needham, R.; Staver, K.W.; Wershaw, R. L.

    2003-01-01

    Poultry litter often contains arsenic as a result of organo-arsenical feed additives. When the poultry litter is applied to agricultural fields, the arsenic is released to the environment and may result in increased arsenic in surface and groundwater and increased uptake by plants. The release of arsenic from poultry litter, litter-amended soils, and soils without litter amendment was examined by extraction with water and strong acids (HCI and HN03). The extracts were analyzed for As, C, P, Cu, Zn, and Fe. Copper, zinc, and iron are also poultry feed additives. Soils with a known history of litter application and controlled application rate of arsenic-containing poultry litter were obtained from the University of Maryland Agricultural Experiment Station. Soils from fields with long-term application of poultry litter were obtained from a tilled field on the Delmarva Peninsula (MD) and an untilled Oklahoma pasture. Samples from an adjacent forest or nearby pasture that had no history of litter application were used as controls. Depth profiles were sampled for the Oklahoma pasture soils. Analysis of the poultry litter showed that 75% of the arsenic was readily soluble in water. Extraction of soils shows that weakly bound arsenic mobilized by water correlates positively with C, P, Cu, and Zn in amended fields and appears to come primarily from the litter. Strongly bound arsenic correlates positively with Fe in amended fields and suggests sorption or coprecipitation of As and Fe in the soil column.

  17. Total phosphorous, calcium, aluminum and iron levels in Cecil soil after ten years of poultry litter application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry litter (PL) is a traditionally inexpensive and effective organic fertilizer to improve soil quality and agricultural productivity. However, there is concern with over application as this can lead to excess releases of nutrients, especially phosphorus, and metals into fresh water bodies resul...

  18. Transport of dissolved trace elements in surface runoff and leachate from a coastal plain soil after poultry litter application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The application of poultry (Gallus gallus domesticus) litter to agricultural soils may exacerbate losses of trace elements in runoff water, an emerging concern to water quality. We evaluated trace elements (arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, manganese, mercury, selenium and zinc) in surface runoff and ...

  19. Long-term dynamics of labile and stable phosphorus following poultry litter application to pasture soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nonpoint-source agricultural P runoff can accelerate eutrophication of surface water ecosystems. Land-applied animal manure is sometimes identified as a source of runoff P from agricultural soils. We evaluated the quantities and forms of P from pasture soils in Alabama receiving poultry litter (PL...

  20. Subsurface application of dry poultry litter: Impacts on common bermudagrass and other no-till crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry manure provides a rich organic nutrient source to fertilize crops and help neutralize soil acidity. However, the usual practice of broadcasting litter on the surface of pastures and other no-till systems can degrade water quality by allowing nutrients to be transported from fields in surfac...

  1. No-till corn response to subsurface application of poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen fertilizer management is vital to no-till corn (Zea mays) production from financial and environmental perspectives. Poultry litter as a nutrient source in this cropping system is generally land applied by surface broadcast, potentially causing volatilization of ammonia (NH3)-N. Recently a...

  2. Changes in poultry litter toxicity with simulated acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, G.; Krishnamurthy, S. )

    1991-01-01

    The Delmarva Peninsula on the Eastern Shore of Maryland ranks 4th in the nation in poultry production and generates 9,500 metric tons of poultry manure/litter per day. The poultry litter contains many macro and micro nutrients and is an excellent source of fertilizer. The litter also contains antibiotics, heavy metals, hormones and many microorganisms. Land application of this litter has been the only means of its utilization and disposal. With rainfall, surface water run-off (leachate), from land on which litter has been applied, reaches the Cheasapeake Bay from this region. This leachate with its high organic and inorganic salt contents and high biochemical oxygen demand can severely disrupt the aquatic life and cause fish kills. The objective of this research was to study the effect of simulated acid rain (pH 3, 4 and 5) on the toxicity of poultry litter extracts.

  3. Impact of Soil Type and Application Rate on the Availability of P Applied as Alum-Treated Poultry Litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this laboratory incubation study was to assess the solubility of P in alum-treated poultry litter (ATPL) when applied to three Virginia soils at equivalent P-based rates. Three poultry litter sources; one that had received no alum additions and two that had received alum additions we...

  4. Establishment of Rabbiteye Blueberries in Poultry Litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry litter is abundant in the Southeast where there is also a growing blueberry production. Poultry litter has been used for fertilization of other crops such as cotton and grass with increased yields and growth. This study was conducted to determine if rabbiteye blueberries ‘Tifblue’ and ‘Pre...

  5. Microbial biomass and soil carbon after 8 and 9 years of field applications of alum-treated and untreated poultry litter and inorganic nitrogen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Amendment with aluminum sulfate (alum) is considered a best management practice for its benefits in poultry production and increased retention of nutrients in the litter. However, little is known about how long-term applications of alum-treated litter to soil will affect the microbial community and ...

  6. Water addition, evaporation and water holding capacity of poultry litter.

    PubMed

    Dunlop, Mark W; Blackall, Patrick J; Stuetz, Richard M

    2015-12-15

    Litter moisture content has been related to ammonia, dust and odour emissions as well as bird health and welfare. Improved understanding of the water holding properties of poultry litter as well as water additions to litter and evaporation from litter will contribute to improved litter moisture management during the meat chicken grow-out. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how management and environmental conditions over the course of a grow-out affect the volume of water A) applied to litter, B) able to be stored in litter, and C) evaporated from litter on a daily basis. The same unit of measurement has been used to enable direct comparison-litres of water per square metre of poultry shed floor area, L/m(2), assuming a litter depth of 5cm. An equation was developed to estimate the amount of water added to litter from bird excretion and drinking spillage, which are sources of regular water application to the litter. Using this equation showed that water applied to litter from these sources changes over the course of a grow-out, and can be as much as 3.2L/m(2)/day. Over a 56day grow-out, the total quantity of water added to the litter was estimated to be 104L/m(2). Litter porosity, water holding capacity and water evaporation rates from litter were measured experimentally. Litter porosity decreased and water holding capacity increased over the course of a grow-out due to manure addition. Water evaporation rates at 25°C and 50% relative humidity ranged from 0.5 to 10L/m(2)/day. Evaporation rates increased with litter moisture content and air speed. Maintaining dry litter at the peak of a grow-out is likely to be challenging because evaporation rates from dry litter may be insufficient to remove the quantity of water added to the litter on a daily basis. PMID:26367067

  7. Poultry litter toxicity comparison from various bioassays

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, G.; Kelly, P. )

    1992-01-01

    Poultry litter contains many toxic chemicals including Cu, As, Pb, Cd, Hg, Se and PCBs. Poultry litter leachate has been shown to be more toxic to marine luminescent organisms (Photobacterium phosphoreum) than other farm animal manures. A comparison of toxicity of the poultry litter leachate was undertaken using various bioassays. The EC{sub 50} (or LC{sub 50}) value for the leachate with the Microtox and Daphnia bioassays was 2.9 g/L/ Nitrobacter and Pseudomonas bioassays were not useful in determining the leachate toxicity because of the nutritional properties of the litter. Poultry litter leachate was found to be mutagenic to strains TA 97, TA 98, TA 100 and TA 102 using the Ames Test.

  8. Small farm plots and application of simulated rain to determine the potential for bacterial runoff after poultry litter surface application to bermudagrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land application of poultry litter is an economical and environmentally viable use of this manure byproduct. Runoff following a rain event is one possible source of environmental contamination resulting from manure application. In this second part of a two-part study, a series of treatments involv...

  9. Carbon dioxide efflux from soil with poultry litter applications in conventional and conservation tillage systems in northern Alabama.

    PubMed

    Roberson, T; Reddy, K C; Reddy, S S; Nyakatawa, E Z; Raper, R L; Reeves, D W; Lemunyon, J

    2008-01-01

    Increased CO2 release from soils resulting from agricultural practices such as tillage has generated concerns about contributions to global warming. Maintaining current levels of soil C and/or sequestering additional C in soils are important mechanisms to reduce CO2 in the atmosphere through production agriculture. We conducted a study in northern Alabama from 2003 to 2006 to measure CO2 efflux and C storage in long-term tilled and non-tilled cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) plots receiving poultry litter or ammonium nitrate (AN). Treatments were established in 1996 on a Decatur silt loam (clayey, kaolinitic thermic, Typic Paleudults) and consisted of conventional-tillage (CT), mulch-tillage (MT), and no-tillage (NT) systems with winter rye [Secale cereale (L.)] cover cropping and AN and poultry litter (PL) as nitrogen sources. Cotton was planted in 2003, 2004, and 2006. Corn was planted in 2005 as a rotation crop using a no-till planter in all plots, and no fertilizer was applied. Poultry litter application resulted in higher CO2 emission from soil compared with AN application regardless of tillage system. In 2003 and 2006, CT (4.39 and 3.40 micromol m(-2) s(-1), respectively) and MT (4.17 and 3.39 micromol m(-2) s(-1), respectively) with PL at 100 kg N ha(-1) (100 PLN) recorded significantly higher CO2 efflux compared with NT with 100 PLN (2.84 and 2.47 micromol m(-2) s(-1), respectively). Total soil C at 0- to 15-cm depth was not affected by tillage but significantly increased with PL application and winter rye cover cropping. In general, cotton produced with NT conservation tillage in conjunction with PL and winter rye cover cropping reduced CO2 emissions and sequestered more soil C compared with control treatments. PMID:18396538

  10. Poultry industry trends for litter usage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broiler litter, a combination of primarily organic bedding material and excreta, has been routinely applied for decades as fertilizer. Poultry litter improves soil quality by adding organic material, an advantage over commercial fertilizers. Once a hindrance to be disposed, rising costs of commerc...

  11. Prospects for phosphorus recovery from poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land disposal of poultry litter is an environmental concern in regions with intense poultry production because there is not enough land for crop utilization of its nutrients, especially phosphorus (P). This situation promotes soil P surplus and potential pollution of water resources. Although poultr...

  12. Poultry litter moisture management to reduce ammonia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia generation in poultry houses results from the natural breakdown of litter (bedding material mixed with deposits of feces, feathers, spilled feed and water). Good management practices can reduce ammonia concentrations in poultry houses. This factsheet relates findings from a recent publicat...

  13. Treating poultry litter with aluminum sulfate (alum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is a USDA/ARS factsheet on how to treat poultry litter with aluminum sulfate (alum) to reduce ammonia emissions. Over half of the nitrogen excreted from chickens is lost to the atmosphere as ammonia before the manure is removed from the poultry houses. Research has shown that additions of alu...

  14. The management of phosphorus in poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry litter provides an important source of plant nutrients including nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium and sulphur. The potential for phosphorus (P) surplus at the farm scale can increase when farming systems change from cropping to intensive poultry and animal production, as P...

  15. Subsurface Band Application of Poultry Litter and Its Influence on Phosphorus Concentration and Retention after Runoff from Permanent Pastures.

    PubMed

    Watts, Dexter B; Way, Thomas R; Torbert, H Allen; Armstrong, Shalamar D

    2015-11-01

    Excessive phosphorus (P) loss from agricultural fields is a major cause of eutrophication to rivers, lakes, and streams. To mitigate P loss after poultry litter (PL) applications, technology is being developed to apply litter below the soil surface. Thus, research was conducted to evaluate the effects of subsurface PL banding on soil P under pasture management. Treatments consisted of surface-broadcasted or subsurface-banded PL (38 cm apart) at 9 Mg ha, surface-broadcasted commercial fertilizer (CF; urea and triple superphosphate blend) at N (330 kg N ha) and P (315 kg N ha) application rates equivalent to PL, and a nonfertilized control. Runoff events lasting 40 min were simulated in bermudagrass ( L.) pastures on common soil types of the Coastal Plain and Piedmont regions. One day later, Mehlich-1 and water-soluble P concentrations in soil were measured at depths of 0 to 5 cm and 5 to 10 cm to determine P distribution and movement. The greatest P concentrations were observed at the shallow depth for all treatments. Phosphorus measurements at the point of application for PL bands were greater than for the surface-applied treatments (PL and CF) and control. Measurements between subsurface PL bands were slightly higher than the control but were statistically similar, suggesting that this application method can abate short-term P movement. Results obtained from this study show that subsurface band applying PL could increase P retention and reduce movement by precluding contact between surface water and litter nutrients. PMID:26641345

  16. Factors affecting arsenic and copper runoff from fields fertilized with poultry litter.

    PubMed

    DeLaune, P B; Moore, P A

    2014-07-01

    Arsenic (As) and copper (Cu) runoff from fields fertilized with poultry litter has received increasing attention in recent years, although it is not known if heavy metal runoff from poultry litter poses a significant threat to the environment. The objective of this study was to determine the main factors affecting As and Cu concentrations in runoff water from pastures receiving poultry litter applications. Rainfall simulation studies were conducted to determine the effects of the following treatments on metal runoff: (i) aluminum sulfate (alum) additions, (ii) diet modification using phytase or high available phosphorus corn, (iii) fertilizer type, (iv) poultry litter application rate, and (v) time until the first runoff event occurs after poultry litter application. Results showed that alum additions to poultry litter significantly decreased As and Cu concentrations in runoff water. Copper concentrations were highest in runoff from poultry litter from birds fed phytase diets compared with other diets; however, this effect may have been a result of wet storage conditions rather than diet. Triple superphosphate applications resulted in the lowest heavy metal concentrations in runoff water among all fertilizer treatments, while normal poultry litter resulted in the highest concentrations. Arsenic and Cu concentrations increased in runoff water as poultry litter application rates increased and decreased with increasing time until the first runoff event. These data indicate that adding alum to poultry litter, a cost-effective best management practice, which also results in lower P runoff and ammonia emissions, may also be an effective tool in reducing metal runoff. PMID:25603088

  17. Bacterial content in runoff from simulated rainfall applied to plots amended with poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To evaluate potential bacterial runoff from poultry litter, litter was applied to test plots and exposed to simulated rainfall 1, 8 or 15 d after litter application. Runoff samples were tested for Salmonella and Campylobacter, two bacterial pathogens commonly associated with poultry, as well as com...

  18. Total copper, manganese, and zinc levels in a Cecil soil during ten years of poultry litter application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heavy metals in poultry litter (PL) can cause environmental problems despite the cost-effectiveness of PL as source of plant nutrients. We compared total Cu, Mn, and Zn levels in a Cecil soil near Watkinsville, GA, in a 5-yr of cotton and 5-yr of corn study under conventional tillage (CT) and no-til...

  19. Temporary Storage of Poultry Broiler Litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transportation and storage of poultry broiler litter during the winter months is critical to implementing comprehensive nutrient/waste management plans, but acceptable temporary storage near the site of spreading can be difficult to arrange. Alternative, less expensive methods for temporary storage...

  20. Temporary Storage of Poultry Broiler Litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Row crop farmers have been reluctant to use broiler litter on their crops because of the difficulty getting it transported and spread at planting time in the spring. Temporary field storage near the site of spreading will help with this problem and encourage more row crop farmers to use poultry lit...

  1. Utilization of poultry litter for pesticide bioremediation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural chemical products such as pesticides have been used to increase crop production, especially in undeveloped countries. Poultry litter, the combination of feces and bedding materials, has also been used as an alternative to improve soil quality for crop production. However, information re...

  2. Water-Quality Effects of a Mechanized Subsurface-Banding Technique for Applying Poultry Litter to Perennial Grassland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry litter is known to be an excellent organic fertilizer, but the common practice of spreading litter on the surface of pastures has raised serious water-quality concerns and may limit potential benefits of poultry litter applications. Because surface-applied litter is completely exposed to th...

  3. 17B-Estradiol and testosterone in drainage and runoff from poultry litter applications to tilled and no-till crop land under irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thirteen metric tons of poultry litter is produced annually by poultry producers in the U.S. Poultry litter contains the reproductive hormones estradiol and testosterone, endocrine disruptors that have been detected in surface waters. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential for p...

  4. On-farm evaluation of aluminum sulfate (alum) as a poultry litter amendment: effects on litter properties.

    PubMed

    Sims, J T; Luka-McCafferty, N J

    2002-01-01

    Aluminum sulfate [alum; Al2(SO4)3] amendment of poultry litters has been suggested as a best management practice to help reduce the potential environmental effects of poultry production. Past research has shown that alum treatment reduced NH3 emissions from litters, decreased the loss in runoff of P and trace metals from litter-amended soils, improved poultry health, and reduced the costs of poultry production. We conducted a large scale, "on-farm" evaluation of alum as a poultry (broiler) litter amendment on the Delmarva peninsula to determine the effect of alum on (i) litter properties and elemental composition and (ii) the solubility of several elements in litter that are of particular concern for water quality (Al, As, Cu, P, and Zn). Alum was applied over a 16-mo period to 97 poultry houses on working poultry farms; 97 houses on other farms served as controls (no alum). Litter samples were analyzed initially and after approximately seven alum applications. We found that alum decreased litter pH and the water solubility of P, As, Cu, and Zn. Alum-treated houses also had higher litter total N, NH4-N, and total S concentrations and thus a greater overall fertilizer value than litters from the control houses. Higher litter NH4-N values also suggest that alum reduced NH3 losses from litters. Thus, alum appears to have promise as a best management practice (BMP) for poultry production. Future research should focus on the long-term transformations of P, Al, As, Cu, and Zn in soils amended with alum-treated litters. PMID:12469858

  5. Poultry litter-based biochar: preparation, characterization, and utilization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Disposal of poultry litter (PL) by land application in concentrated bird production regions has resulted in severe water eutrophication issues. Given its high lignocelluosic content and low moisture, PL can be readily converted into agriculture-use biochar through farm-scale slow pyrolysis, with bio...

  6. Nitrous Oxide Emissions from a Bermudagrass Pasture: Interseeded Winter Rye and Poultry Litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact of poultry litter applications and interseeded winter rye on nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from pasture is not well documented. This study was conducted to estimate soil surface N2O fluxes as affect by poultry litter applications and interseeded winter rye as well as weather and soil vari...

  7. Demonstration of a Small Modular BioPower System Using Poultry Litter

    SciTech Connect

    John P. Reardon; Art Lilley; Jim Wimberly; Kingsbury Browne; Kelly Beard; Jack Avens

    2002-05-22

    The purpose of this project was to assess poultry grower residue, or litter (manure plus absorbent biomass), as a fuel source for Community Power Corporation's small modular biopower system (SMB). A second objective was to assess the poultry industry to identify potential ''on-site'' applications of the SMB system using poultry litter residue as a fuel source, and to adapt CPC's existing SMB to generate electricity and heat from the poultry litter biomass fuel. Bench-scale testing and pilot testing were used to gain design information for the SMB retrofit. System design approach for the Phase II application of the SMB was the goal of Phase I testing. Cost estimates for an onsite poultry litter SMB were prepared. Finally, a market estimate was prepared for implementation of the on-farm SMB using poultry litter.

  8. Decreasing phosphorus runoff losses from land-applied poultry litter with dietary modifications and alum addition.

    PubMed

    Smith, Douglas R; Moore, P A; Miles, D M; Haggard, B E; Daniel, T C

    2004-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) losses from pastures fertilized with poultry litter contribute to the degradation of surface water quality in the United States. Dietary modification and manure amendments may reduce potential P runoff losses from pastures. In the current study, broilers were fed a normal diet, phytase diet, high available phosphorus (HAP) corn diet, or HAP corn + phytase diet. Litter treatments were untreated control and alum added at 10% by weight between flocks. Phytase and HAP corn diets reduced litter dissolved P content in poultry litter by 10 and 35%, respectively, compared with the normal diet (789 mg P kg(-1)). Alum treatment of poultry litter reduced the amount of dissolved P by 47%, while a 74% reduction was noted after alum treatment of litter from the HAP corn + phytase diet. The P concentrations in runoff water were highest from plots receiving poultry litter from the normal diet, whereas plots receiving poultry litter from phytase and HAP corn diets had reduced P concentrations. The addition of alum to the various poultry litters reduced P runoff by 52 to 69%; the greatest reduction occurred when alum was used in conjunction with HAP corn and phytase. This study demonstrates the potential added benefits of using dietary modification in conjunction with manure amendments in poultry operations. Integrators and producers should consider the use of phytase, HAP corn, and alum to reduce potential P losses associated with poultry litter application to pastures. PMID:15537944

  9. Optimum poultry litter rates for maximum profit vs. yield in cotton production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton lint yield responds well to increasing rates of poultry litter fertilization, but little is known of how optimum rates for yield compare with optimum rates for profit. The objectives of this study were to analyze cotton lint yield response to poultry litter application rates, determine and co...

  10. Nutrition of cotton fertilized with poultry litter versus ammonium nitrate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry litter has proven to be an effective fertilizer for cotton in the upland soils of the southeastern US. Fertilizing with poultry litter often results in better lint yield than fertilizing with single-nutrient synthetic fertilizers. This superiority of litter to synthetic fertilizers for cot...

  11. Reducing Ammonia Emissions from Poultry Litter with Alum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aluminum sulfate (alum) additions to poultry litter have been shown to reduce ammonia (NH3) volatilization. The objectives of this paper were to present data on the effects of alum treatment of poultry litter on: (1) the efficacy of reducing ammonia loss, (2) poultry production parameters, and (3) ...

  12. Amino compounds in poultry litter, litter-amended pasture soils and grass shoots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic N accounts for 95-98% of total soil N contents with amino compounds (ACs) as major ingredients. But relatively little is known about the effects of poultry litter (PL) application on soil AC pools and turnover. In this work, we determined 21 AC contents in 23 PL samples, 15 soil samples with...

  13. Amino Compounds in Poultry Litter, Litter-Amended Soil and Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Amino acids and amino sugars generally constitute the bulk of N in soil, so understanding their cycling is critical for efficient N use in crop production. Although poultry litter (PL) is relatively rich in N, little is known about the effects of PL application on turnover and availability of amino...

  14. Does Proximity to Subsurface Poultry Litter Affect Corn Seedling Survival and Growth?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry litter provides a rich nutrient source for crops, but the usual practice of surface broadcasting litter can degrade water quality by allowing storm runoff to transport nutrients into streams and lakes, while much of the ammonia N escapes into the atmosphere. Subsurface application of litter...

  15. Arsenic speciation and reactivity in poultry litter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arai, Y.; Lanzirotti, A.; Sutton, S.; Davis, J.A.; Sparks, D.L.

    2003-01-01

    Recent U.S. government action to lower the maximum concentration levels (MCL) of total arsenic (As) (10 ppb) in drinking water has raised serious concerns about the agricultural use of As-containing biosolids such as poultry litter (PL). In this study, solid-state chemical speciation, desorbability, and total levels of As in PL and long-term amended soils were investigated using novel synchrotronbased probing techniques (microfocused (??) synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) and ??-X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopies) coupled with chemical digestion and batch experiments. The total As levels in the PL were as high as ???50 mg kg-1, and As(II/III and V) was always concentrated in abundant needle-shaped microscopic particles (???20/ ??m x 850 ??m) associated with Ca, Cu, and Fe and to a lesser extent with S, CI, and Zn. Postedge XANES features of litter particles are dissimilar to those of the organo-As(V) compound in poultry feed (i.e., roxarsone), suggesting possible degradation/transformation of roxarsone in the litter and/or in poultry digestive tracts. The extent of As desorption from the litter increased with increasing time and pH from 4.5 to 7, but at most 15% of the total As was released after 5 d at pH 7, indicating the presence of insoluble phases and/or strongly retained soluble compounds. No significant As accumulation (< 15 mg kg-1) was found in long-term PL-a mended agricultural surface soils. This suggests that As in the PL may have undergone surface and subsurface transport processes. Our research results raise concerns about long-term PL amendment effects on As contamination in surrounding soilwater environments.

  16. Poultry Litter Ash: A Potential Fertilizer Source for Agricultural Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Maryland Eastern Shore is densely populated with poultry houses. Over 65 million broilers are produced annually in this area. Stricter regulations of litter disposal on high P soils require that the 50 thousand tons of poultry litter produced annually be disposed of in ways that minimize envir...

  17. Alum affects ammonia-producing microorganisms in poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scientists at the USDA-ARS in Bowling Green, KY and in Fayetteville, AR are working to uncover the microbiology of ammonia production in poultry litter. Poultry litter is a valuable nutrient source for plants and microorganisms that contains high levels of protein, nitrogen, and other minerals. Howe...

  18. Survival and Transport of Campylobacter Jejuni from Poultry Litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of gastrointestinal illness worldwide. Although widely known to survive in refrigerated and undercooked poultry, less is known about its occurrence in poultry litter and the potential for transport from applied litter material into the subsurface. In this stud...

  19. Application of Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 to describe the syntrophic acetate oxidation of poultry litter in thermophilic anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Salvador, Víctor; López-Cruz, Irineo L; Espinosa-Solares, Teodoro; Aranda-Barradas, Juan S; Huber, David H; Sharma, Deepak; Toledo, J Ulises

    2014-09-01

    A molecular analysis found that poultry litter anaerobic digestion was dominated by hydrogenotrophic methanogens which suggests that bacterial acetate oxidation is the primary pathway in the thermophilic digestion of poultry litter. IWA Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) was modified to include the bacterial acetate oxidation process in the thermophilic anaerobic digestion (TAD). Two methods for ADM1 parameter estimation were applied: manual calibration with non-linear least squares (MC-NLLS) and an automatic calibration using differential evolution algorithms (DEA). In terms of kinetic parameters for acetate oxidizing bacteria, estimation by MC-NLLS and DEA were, respectively, km 1.12 and 3.25 ± 0.56 kg COD kg COD(-1)d(-1), KS 0.20 and 0.29 ± 0.018 kg COD m(-3) and Yac-st 0.14 and 0.10 ± 0.016 kg COD kg COD(-1). Experimental and predicted volatile fatty acids and biogas composition were in good agreement. Values of BIAS, MSE or INDEX demonstrate that both methods (MC-NLLS and DEA) increased ADM1 accuracy. PMID:25011081

  20. Carbon Dioxide Efflux From Poultry Litter Applied Soils under Conservation Tillage Systems in North Alabama

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased carbon dioxide release from soils resulting from agricultural practices such as tillage and application of poultry litter in cotton production systems has generated concerns about contributions to global warming which negatively impacts natural ecosystems, weather patterns, and food produc...

  1. Phosphorus runoff losses from a no-till coastal plain soil with surface and subsurface-applied poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The application of poultry litter to soils is a water quality concern on the Delmarva Peninsula, as runoff contributes phosphorus (P) to the eutrophic Chesapeake Bay. This study compared a new subsurface applicator for poultry litter with conventional surface application and tillage incorporation of...

  2. Legacy phosphorus in calcareous soils: Effects of long-term poultry litter application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of manure application on soil phosphorus has been intensively studied with modifications of the Hedley sequential fractionation procedure, X ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy, and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance. Modern sequential fractionation techniques, coupled with phosph...

  3. A method for subsurface-banding poultry litter in plots not accessible with conventional field equipment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Subsurface band application of poultry litter has been shown to be effective in reducing nutrients in runoff and leachate, relative to surface broadcast application of litter. Some field plot arrangements, such as plots having adjacent pits in the soil, prevent the use of conventional field equipme...

  4. Legacy phosphorus in calcareous soils: Effects of long-term poultry litter application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of manure application on soil phosphorus (P) has been intensively studied with modifications of the Hedley sequential fractionation procedure, X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy, and 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance. Modern sequential fractionation techniques, coupled with ph...

  5. Long-term tillage and poultry litter application impacts on crop production in northeastern Alabama

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conservation tillage, manure application, and crop rotations are thought to increase yields compared to conventional monoculture (continuous cropping system without rotation) tillage systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate cropping sequences of corn with a wheat cover crop and corn with...

  6. Microbial mineralization of organic nitrogen forms in poultry litters.

    PubMed

    Rothrock, Michael J; Cook, Kimberly L; Warren, Jason G; Eiteman, Mark A; Sistani, Karamat

    2010-01-01

    Ammonia volatilization from the mineralization of uric acid and urea has a major impact on the poultry industry and the environment. Dry acids are commonly used to reduce ammonia emissions from poultry houses; however, little is known about how acidification affects the litter biologically. The goal of this laboratory incubation was to compare the microbiological and physiochemical effects of dry acid amendments (Al+Clear, Poultry Litter Treatment, Poultry Guard) on poultry litter to an untreated control litter and to specifically correlate uric acid and urea contents of these litters to the microbes responsible for their mineralization. Although all three acidifiers eventually produced similar effects within the litter, there was at least a 2-wk delay in the microbiological responses using Poultry Litter Treatment. Acidification of the poultry litter resulted in >3 log increases in total fungal concentrations, with both uricolytic (uric acid degrading) and ureolytic (urea degrading) fungi increasing by >2 logs within the first 2 to 4 wk of the incubation. Conversely, total, uricolytic, and ureolytic bacterial populations all significantly declined during this same time period. While uric acid and urea mineralization occurred within the first 2 wk in the untreated control litter, acidification resulted in delayed mineralization events for both uric acid and urea (2 and 4 wk delay, respectively) once fungal cell concentrations exceeded a threshold level. Therefore, fungi, and especially uricolytic fungi, appear to have a vital role in the mineralization of organic N in low-pH, high-N environments, and the activity of these fungi should be considered in best management practices to reduce ammonia volatilization from acidified poultry litter. PMID:21043291

  7. Influence of Poultry Litter Application Methods on the Longevity of Nutrient and E. coli in Runoff from Tall Fescue Pasture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Significant quantities of the broiler (chicken, Gallus gallus domesticus) litter produced in the U.S. are being applied to pasture lands. The traditional surface- broadcast application of animal manure onto permanent pasture, however, may lead to high concentration of nutrients and pathogenic micro...

  8. The impact of alum addition on organic P transformations in poultry litter and litter-amended soil.

    PubMed

    Warren, Jason G; Penn, Chad J; McGrath, Joshua M; Sistani, Karamat

    2008-01-01

    Poultry litter treatment with alum (Al(2)(SO(4))(3) . 18H(2)O) lowers litter phosphorus (P) solubility and therefore can lower litter P release to runoff after land application. Lower P solubility in litter is generally attributed to aluminum-phosphate complex formation. However, recent studies suggest that alum additions to poultry litter may influence organic P mineralization. Therefore, alum-treated and untreated litters were incubated for 93 d to assess organic P transformations during simulated storage. A 62-d soil incubation was also conducted to determine the fate of incorporated litter organic P, which included alum-treated litter, untreated litter, KH(2)PO(4) applied at 60 mg P kg(-1) of soil, and an unamended control. Liquid-state (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance indicated that phytic acid was the only organic P compound present, accounting for 50 and 45% of the total P in untreated and alum-treated litters, respectively, before incubation and declined to 9 and 37% after 93 d of storage-simulating incubation. Sequential fractionation of litters showed that alum addition to litter transformed 30% of the organic P from the 1.0 mol L(-1) HCl to the 0.1 mol L(-1) NaOH extractable fraction and that both organic P fractions were more persistent in alum-treated litter compared with untreated litter. The soil incubation revealed that 0.1 mol L(-1) NaOH-extractable organic P was more recalcitrant after mixing than was the 1.0 mol L(-1) HCl-extractable organic P. Thus, adding alum to litter inhibits organic P mineralization during storage and promotes the formation of alkaline extractable organic P that sustains lower P solubility in the soil environment. PMID:18268310

  9. XANES spectroscopic analysis of phosphorus speciation in alum-amended poultry litter.

    PubMed

    Seiter, Jennifer M; Staats-Borda, Kristin E; Ginder-Vogel, Matthew; Sparks, Donald L

    2008-01-01

    Aluminum sulfate (alum; Al(2)(SO(4))(3).14H(2)O) is used as a chemical treatment of poultry litter to reduce the solubility and release of phosphate, thereby minimizing the impacts on adjacent aquatic ecosystems when poultry litter is land applied as a crop fertilizer. The objective of this study was to determine, through the use of X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy and sequential extraction, how alum amendments alter P distribution and solid-state speciation within the poultry litter system. Our results indicate that traditional sequential fractionation procedures may not account for variability in P speciation in heterogeneous animal manures. Analysis shows that NaOH-extracted P in alum amended litters is predominantly organic ( approximately 80%), whereas in the control samples, >60% of NaOH-extracted P was inorganic P. Linear least squares fitting (LLSF) analysis of spectra collected of sequentially extracted litters showed that the P is present in inorganic (P sorbed on Al oxides, calcium phosphates) and organic forms (phytic acid, polyphosphates, and monoesters) in alum- and non-alum-amended poultry litter. When determining land application rates of poultry litter, all of these compounds must be considered, especially organic P. Results of the sequential extractions in conjunction with LLSF suggest that no P species is completely removed by a single extractant. Rather, there is a continuum of removal as extractant strength increases. Overall, alum-amended litters exhibited higher proportions of Al-bound P species and phytic acid, whereas untreated samples contained Ca-P minerals and organic P compounds. This study provides in situ information about P speciation in the poultry litter solid and about P availability in alum- and non-alum-treated poultry litter that will dictate P losses to ground and surface water systems. PMID:18268311

  10. XANES Spectroscopic Analysis of Phosphorus Speciation in Alum-Amended Poultry Litter

    SciTech Connect

    Seiter,J.; Staats-Borda, K.; Ginder-Vogel, M.; Sparks, D.

    2008-01-01

    Aluminum sulfate (alum; Al2(SO4)3{center_dot}14H2O) is used as a chemical treatment of poultry litter to reduce the solubility and release of phosphate, thereby minimizing the impacts on adjacent aquatic ecosystems when poultry litter is land applied as a crop fertilizer. The objective of this study was to determine, through the use of X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy and sequential extraction, how alum amendments alter P distribution and solid-state speciation within the poultry litter system. Our results indicate that traditional sequential fractionation procedures may not account for variability in P speciation in heterogeneous animal manures. Analysis shows that NaOH-extracted P in alum amended litters is predominantly organic ({approx}80%), whereas in the control samples, >60% of NaOH-extracted P was inorganic P. Linear least squares fitting (LLSF) analysis of spectra collected of sequentially extracted litters showed that the P is present in inorganic (P sorbed on Al oxides, calcium phosphates) and organic forms (phytic acid, polyphosphates, and monoesters) in alum- and non-alum-amended poultry litter. When determining land application rates of poultry litter, all of these compounds must be considered, especially organic P. Results of the sequential extractions in conjunction with LLSF suggest that no P species is completely removed by a single extractant. Rather, there is a continuum of removal as extractant strength increases. Overall, alum-amended litters exhibited higher proportions of Al-bound P species and phytic acid, whereas untreated samples contained Ca-P minerals and organic P compounds. This study provides in situ information about P speciation in the poultry litter solid and about P availability in alum- and non-alum-treated poultry litter that will dictate P losses to ground and surface water systems.

  11. Long-Term Tillage and Poultry Litter Impacts Soil Carbon and Nitrogen Mineralization and Fertility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term tillage and manure application are thought to alter the ability of the soil to sequester plant nutrients and mineralize carbon and nitrogen. Thus, a laboratory incubation study was conducted under aerobic conditions to evaluate the residual effect of long-term poultry litter (litter) appli...

  12. Soil test nutrient changes induced by poultry litter under conventional tillage and no-tillage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry litter (PL) is applied to crops and pastures to provide N, P, and K in areas of intensive poultry production. Other plant nutrients, such as copper (Cu), manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn) are also available but may accumulate to excessive levels with over application of PL. Nutrient availability ...

  13. Effect of Litter Amendments on Poultry Litter Microbial Communities and the Subsequent Effect on Nitrogen Dynamics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia production in poultry houses has serious implications for flock health and performance, nutrient value of poultry litter, and energy costs for running poultry operations. Numerous amendments are available for reducing ammonia volatilization, with acidifier-types being the most prevalent due ...

  14. Reducing phosphorus runoff and leaching from poultry litter with alum: Twenty year small plot and paired-watershed studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Treating poultry litter with alum is a best management practice (BMP) for lowering ammonia (NH3) emissions and phosphorus (P) runoff losses. The objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term (20 year) effects of alum-treated and untreated poultry litter applications on P availability, leachi...

  15. Microbiological quality of litter from poultry houses in Mississippi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry concentrated animal feeding operations generate approximately 1 kg of litter per broiler put to market. The majority of this litter is applied as a fertilizer to either forage or row crops. Though much is known about the fertilizer nutrient value associated with this manure, little is actu...

  16. Management Options for Reducing Ammonia Emissions from Poultry Litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia emissions from poultry litter not only result in air pollution; high levels of ammonia in poultry houses cause poor bird performance, increase the susceptibility of birds to viral diseases, and negatively impact human health. Although ammonia emissions are a concern, few cost-effective best ...

  17. Dissipation of 17B-estradiol in composted poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of heated composting and ambient temperature poultry waste decomposition on the fate of 17ß-estradiol and testosterone were determined in separate experiments. A mixture of poultry litter, wood chips and straw was amended with [14C]17ß-estradiol or [14C]testosterone and allowed to under...

  18. Microbial mineralization of organic nitrogen forms in poultry litters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia volatilization from the mineralization of uric acid and urea has a major impact on the poultry industry and the environment. Dry acids are a common management practice to reduce ammonia emissions from poultry houses, however little is known about how acidification affects the litter biologic...

  19. Poultry Industry Trends for Litter Utilization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broiler litter utilization falls primarily into two broad categories, as fertilizer or in litter-to-energy processes. Without economic, environmentally sound litter uses, potential or real regional litigation may force alternative management that can be detrimental to the grower’s bottom line as wel...

  20. Subsurface application of poultry litter and its influence on nutrient losses in runoff water from permanent pastures.

    PubMed

    Watts, D B; Way, T R; Torbert, H A

    2011-01-01

    Environmental pressure to reduce nutrient losses from agricultural fields has increased in recent years. To abate this nutrient loss to the environment, better management practices and new technologies need to be developed. Thus, research was conducted to evaluate if subsurface banding poultry litter (PL) would reduce nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loss in surface water runoff using a four-row prototype implement. Rainfall simulations were conducted to create a 40-min runoff event in an established bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L.) pasture on soil types common to the Coastal Plain and Piedmont regions. The Coastal Plain soil type was a Marvyn loamy sand (fine-loamy, kaolinitic, thermic Typic Kanhapludults) and the Piedmont soil type was a Hard Labor loamy sand (fine, kaolinitic, thermic Oxyaquic Kanhapludults). Treatments consisted of surface- and subsurface-applied PL at a rate of 9 Mg ha(-1), surface broadcast-applied commercial fertilizer (CF; urea and triple superphosphate blend) at the equivalent N (330 kg N ha(-1)) and P (315 kg N ha(-1)) content of PL, and a nonfertilized control. The greatest loss for inorganic N, total N, dissolved reactive P (DRP), and total P occurred with the surface broadcast treatments, with CF contributing to the greatest loss. Nutrient losses from the subsurface banded treatment reduced N and P in surface water runoff to levels of the control. Subsurface banding of PL reduced concentrations of inorganic N 91%, total N 90%, DRP 86%, and total P 86% in runoff water compared with surface broadcasted PL. These results show that subsurface band-applied PL can greatly reduce the impact of N and P loss to the environment compared with conventional surface-applied PL and CF practices. PMID:21520749

  1. Impacts of Poultry House Environment on Poultry Litter Bacterial Community Composition

    PubMed Central

    Dumas, Michael D.; Polson, Shawn W.; Ritter, Don; Ravel, Jacques; Gelb, Jack; Morgan, Robin; Wommack, K. Eric

    2011-01-01

    Viral and bacterial pathogens are a significant economic concern to the US broiler industry and the ecological epicenter for poultry pathogens is the mixture of bedding material, chicken excrement and feathers that comprises the litter of a poultry house. This study used high-throughput sequencing to assess the richness and diversity of poultry litter bacterial communities, and to look for connections between these communities and the environmental characteristics of a poultry house including its history of gangrenous dermatitis (GD). Cluster analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed differences in the distribution of bacterial phylotypes between Wet and Dry litter samples and between houses. Wet litter contained greater diversity with 90% of total bacterial abundance occurring within the top 214 OTU clusters. In contrast, only 50 clusters accounted for 90% of Dry litter bacterial abundance. The sixth largest OTU cluster across all samples classified as an Arcobacter sp., an emerging human pathogen, occurring in only the Wet litter samples of a house with a modern evaporative cooling system. Ironically, the primary pathogenic clostridial and staphylococcal species associated with GD were not found in any house; however, there were thirteen 16S rRNA gene phylotypes of mostly Gram-positive phyla that were unique to GD-affected houses and primarily occurred in Wet litter samples. Overall, the poultry house environment appeared to substantially impact the composition of litter bacterial communities and may play a key role in the emergence of food-borne pathogens. PMID:21949751

  2. Phosphorus runoff losses from subsurface-applied poultry litter on coastal plain soils.

    PubMed

    Kibet, Leonard C; Allen, Arthur L; Kleinman, Peter J A; Feyereisen, Gary W; Church, Clinton; Saporito, Lou S; Way, Thomas R

    2011-01-01

    The application of poultry litter to soils is a water quality concern on the Delmarva Peninsula, as runoff contributes P to the eutrophic Chesapeake Bay. This study compared a new subsurface applicator for poultry litter with conventional surface application and tillage incorporation of litter on a Coastal Plain soil under no-till management. Monolith lysimeters (61 cm by 61 cm by 61 cm) were collected immediately after litter application and subjected to rainfall simulation (61 mm h(-1) 1 h) 15 and 42 d later. In the first rainfall event, subsurface application of litter significantly lowered total P losses in runoff (1.90 kg ha(-1)) compared with surface application (4.78 kg ha(-1)). Losses of P with subsurface application were not significantly different from disked litter or an unamended control. By the second event, total P losses did not differ significantly between surface and subsurface litter treatments but were at least twofold greater than losses from the disked and control treatments. A rising water table in the second event likely mobilized dissolved forms of P in subsurface-applied litter to the soil surface, enriching runoff water with P. Across both events, subsurface application of litter did not significantly decrease cumulative losses of P relative to surface-applied litter, whereas disking the litter into the soil did. Results confirm the short-term reduction of runoff P losses with subsurface litter application observed elsewhere but highlight the modifying effect of soil hydrology on this technology's ability to minimize P loss in runoff. PMID:21520748

  3. Effect of Fresh Poultry Litter and Compost on Soil Physical and Chemical Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, Stacy; Tsegaye, Teferi; Coleman, Tommy

    1998-01-01

    Application of poultry litter and compost as a substitute for fertilizer not only uses unwanted waste and decreases expenditures for commercial fertilizer, it adds nutrients to soil for plant uptake. The properties of soil affected by poultry litter were analyzed to determine the positive and negative aspects of using this substitute fertilizer. This study focused on changes associated with saturated hydraulic conductivity, bulk density, nitrate concentrations, and pH after application of varying concentrations of poultry litter and compost. Soil samples from Tennessee Valley Substation in Alabama were analyzed in a laboratory at Alabama A&M University. As a result of the application of fresh poultry litter and compost, we found that the saturated hydraulic conductivity increased and the bulk density decreased, while the pH was generally not affected. Using poultry litter and compost as an alternative commercial fertilizers could be adapted by the farming community to protect the sustainability of our environment. Unwanted waste is used productively and soil is enriched for farming.

  4. The uses and management of poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The poultry industry is one of the largest and fastest growing agro-based industries in the world. There is an increasing demand for poultry meat mainly due to its acceptance by most societies and its relatively low cholesterol content. The poultry industry is currently facing numerous environmental...

  5. Environmental concerns of roxarsone in broiler poultry feed and litter in Maryland, USA.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Daniel J; Yonkos, Lance T; Staver, Kenneth W

    2015-02-17

    Roxarsone has been used extensively in the broiler chicken industry. We reviewed the environmental concerns of this usage. To summarize, arsenic added to poultry feed as roxarsone ends up in poultry litter. Fresh litter contains predominately roxarsone, whereas aged litter contains predominately inorganic arsenic. Soil arsenic concentrations from long-term poultry litter applications can exceed Maryland arsenic soil background remediation standards. Due to continued soil accumulation, arsenic-amended litter use as fertilizer is thought to be unsustainable. Surface-applied roxarsone-amended litter does not influence deep aquifer arsenic concentrations but is transported as inorganic arsenic to receiving waters and very shallow groundwater after precipitation. Arsenic in some receiving waters and sediments from agriculturally dominated watersheds have levels above established criteria. Arsenic in fish and shellfish is mostly organic. Phosphorus-based nutrient management will tend to limit PL application rates in areas that have over-applied phosphorus relative to crop needs, resulting in decreased rates of arsenic application and accumulation. Despite most arsenic in surface soils being tightly bound, as surface soils become more enriched in arsenic, the potential for downward movement increases but is limited in most soils due to the high capacity for binding of arsenic to clay minerals and oxides of iron and aluminum in subsoil horizons. In 2012, Maryland passed a law banning the use of arsenic additives except nitarsone in poultry feed. In 2013, the USFDA withdrew approval of roxarsone, carbarsone, and arsanilic but is reviewing nitarsone. PMID:25608233

  6. Evidence for extraintestinal growth of bacteroidales originating from poultry litter.

    PubMed

    Weidhaas, Jennifer; Mantha, Sirisha; Hair, Elliott; Nayak, Bina; Harwood, Valerie J

    2015-01-01

    Water quality monitoring techniques that target microorganisms in the order Bacteroidales are potential alternatives to conventional methods for detection of fecal indicator bacteria. Bacteroidales and members of the genus Bacteroides have been the focus of microbial source tracking (MST) investigations for discriminating sources of fecal pollution (e.g., human or cattle feces) in environmental waters. For accurate source apportionment to occur, one needs to understand both the abundance of Bacteroides in host feces and the survival of these host-associated microbial markers after deposition in the environment. Studies were undertaken to evaluate the abundance, persistence, and potential for growth of Bacteroidales originating from poultry litter under oxic and anoxic environmental conditions. Bacteroidales abundance, as determined by quantitative PCR (qPCR) with GenBac primers and probe, increased 2 to 5 log gene copies ml(-1) and 2 log gene copies g litter(-1) under most conditions during incubation of poultry litter in a variety of laboratory microcosm and field mesocosm studies. DNA sequencing of the Bacteroidales organisms in the litter identified taxa with sequences corresponding exactly to the GenBac primer and probe sequences and that were closely related to Bacteroides uniformis, B. ovatus, and B. vulgatus. These results suggest that MST studies using qPCR methods targeting Bacteroidales in watersheds that are affected by poultry litter should be interpreted cautiously. Growth of Bacteroidales originating from poultry litter in environmental waters may occur while Bacteroidales growth from other fecal sources declines, thus confounding the interpretation of MST results. PMID:25326306

  7. Biocrude oils from the fast pyrolysis of poultry litter and hardwood.

    PubMed

    Agblevor, F A; Beis, S; Kim, S S; Tarrant, R; Mante, N O

    2010-02-01

    The safe and economical disposal of poultry litter is becoming a major problem for the USA poultry industry. Current disposal methods such as land application and feeding to cattle are now under pressure because of pollution of water resources due to leaching, runoffs and concern for mad cow disease contamination of the food chain. Incineration or combustion is potentially applicable to large scale operations, but for small scale growers and EPA non-attainment areas, this is not a suitable option because of the high cost of operation. Thus, there is a need for developing appropriate technologies to dispose poultry litter. Poultry litters from broiler chicken and turkey houses, as well as bedding material were converted into biocrude oil in a fast pyrolysis fluidized bed reactor. The biocrude oil yields were relatively low ranging from 36 wt% to 50 wt% depending on the age and bedding material content of the litter. The bedding material (which was mostly hardwood shavings) biocrude oil yield was 63 wt%. The higher heating value (HHV) of the poultry litter biocrude oils ranged from 26 MJ/kg to 29 MJ/kg while that of the bedding material was 24 MJ/kg. The oils had relatively high nitrogen content ranging from 4 wt% to 8 wt%, very low sulfur (<1 wt%) content and high viscosity. The viscosities of the oils appeared to be a function of both the source of litter and the pyrolysis temperature. The biochar yield ranged from 27 wt% to 40 wt% depending on the source, age and composition of the poultry litter. The biochar ash content ranged from 24 wt% to 54 wt% and was very rich in inorganic components such as potassium and phosphorous. PMID:19880302

  8. Biocrude oils from the fast pyrolysis of poultry litter and hardwood

    SciTech Connect

    Agblevor, F.A.; Beis, S.; Kim, S.S.; Tarrant, R.; Mante, N.O.

    2010-02-15

    The safe and economical disposal of poultry litter is becoming a major problem for the USA poultry industry. Current disposal methods such as land application and feeding to cattle are now under pressure because of pollution of water resources due to leaching, runoffs and concern for mad cow disease contamination of the food chain. Incineration or combustion is potentially applicable to large scale operations, but for small scale growers and EPA non-attainment areas, this is not a suitable option because of the high cost of operation. Thus, there is a need for developing appropriate technologies to dispose poultry litter. Poultry litters from broiler chicken and turkey houses, as well as bedding material were converted into biocrude oil in a fast pyrolysis fluidized bed reactor. The biocrude oil yields were relatively low ranging from 36 wt% to 50 wt% depending on the age and bedding material content of the litter. The bedding material (which was mostly hardwood shavings) biocrude oil yield was 63 wt%. The higher heating value (HHV) of the poultry litter biocrude oils ranged from 26 MJ/kg to 29 MJ/kg while that of the bedding material was 24 MJ/kg. The oils had relatively high nitrogen content ranging from 4 wt% to 8 wt%, very low sulfur (<1 wt%) content and high viscosity. The viscosities of the oils appeared to be a function of both the source of litter and the pyrolysis temperature. The biochar yield ranged from 27 wt% to 40 wt% depending on the source, age and composition of the poultry litter. The biochar ash content ranged from 24 wt% to 54 wt% and was very rich in inorganic components such as potassium and phosphorous.

  9. Evidence for Extraintestinal Growth of Bacteroidales Originating from Poultry Litter

    PubMed Central

    Mantha, Sirisha; Hair, Elliott; Nayak, Bina; Harwood, Valerie J.

    2014-01-01

    Water quality monitoring techniques that target microorganisms in the order Bacteroidales are potential alternatives to conventional methods for detection of fecal indicator bacteria. Bacteroidales and members of the genus Bacteroides have been the focus of microbial source tracking (MST) investigations for discriminating sources of fecal pollution (e.g., human or cattle feces) in environmental waters. For accurate source apportionment to occur, one needs to understand both the abundance of Bacteroides in host feces and the survival of these host-associated microbial markers after deposition in the environment. Studies were undertaken to evaluate the abundance, persistence, and potential for growth of Bacteroidales originating from poultry litter under oxic and anoxic environmental conditions. Bacteroidales abundance, as determined by quantitative PCR (qPCR) with GenBac primers and probe, increased 2 to 5 log gene copies ml−1 and 2 log gene copies g litter−1 under most conditions during incubation of poultry litter in a variety of laboratory microcosm and field mesocosm studies. DNA sequencing of the Bacteroidales organisms in the litter identified taxa with sequences corresponding exactly to the GenBac primer and probe sequences and that were closely related to Bacteroides uniformis, B. ovatus, and B. vulgatus. These results suggest that MST studies using qPCR methods targeting Bacteroidales in watersheds that are affected by poultry litter should be interpreted cautiously. Growth of Bacteroidales originating from poultry litter in environmental waters may occur while Bacteroidales growth from other fecal sources declines, thus confounding the interpretation of MST results. PMID:25326306

  10. Converting poultry litter to activated carbon: optimal carbonization conditions and product sorption for benzene.

    PubMed

    Guo, Mingxin; Song, Weiping

    2011-12-01

    To promote utilization of poultry litter as a source material for manufacturing low-cost activated carbon (AC) that can be used in wastewater treatment, this study investigated optimal production conditions and water-borne organic sorption potential of poultry litter-based AC. Pelletized broiler litter was carbonized at different temperatures for varied time periods and activated with steam at a range of flow rate and time. The AC products were examined for quality characteristics using standard methods and for organic sorption potentials using batch benzene sorption techniques. The study shows that the yield and quality of litter AC varied with production conditions. The optimal production conditions for poultry litter-based AC were carbonization at 700 degrees C for 45 min followed by activation with 2.5 ml min(-1) steam for another 45 min. The resulting AC possessed an iodine number of 454 mg g(-1) and a specific surface area of 403 m2 g(-1). It sorbed benzene in water following sigmoidal kinetic and isothermal patterns. The sorption capacity for benzene was 23.70 mg g(-1), lower than that of top-class commercial AC. The results, together with other reported research findings, suggest that poultry litter is a reasonable feedstock for low-cost AC applicable to pre-treat wastewater contaminated by organic pollutants and heavy metals. PMID:22439566

  11. Impact on Soil Utilizing Poultry Litter as a Fertilizer Source in Conservation Tillage Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term tillage and manure application are thought to alter soil’s ability to sequester plant nutrients and mineralize C and N. Thus, an aerobic laboratory incubation study (C and N mineralization) was conducted to evaluate the impact of long-term poultry litter (PL) application (>10 years) as aff...

  12. Residual impact of raw and composted poultry litter on soil carbon pools

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Application of animal manures or composts to soils increases soil carbon levels and improves soil physical properties. However, there is little information on the duration of these effects after manure or compost applications cease. We evaluated the residual effects of applying poultry litter (PL)...

  13. Poultry litter as a source of gastrointestinal helminth infections.

    PubMed

    Maurer, V; Amsler, Z; Perler, E; Heckendorn, F

    2009-05-12

    worm burdens in tracer animals were low compared to a similar study with tracers kept in poultry runs. The reasons for this may be that poultry litter negatively affects viability and infectiousness of helminth eggs. However, underlying mechanisms need to be clarified. PMID:19251370

  14. Subsurface banding poultry litter impacts greenhouse gas emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact subsurface banding poultry litter (PL) has on greenhouse gas emissions is limited. Thus, a study was conducted in established bermudagrass pastures located in Coastal Plain and Piedmont regions to determine the effects subsurface applying PL has on soil flux using two different band spaci...

  15. Evaluation of poultry litter fertilization practices on greenhouse gas emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere have been increasing since preindustrial times. Integrating poultry litter use into conservation agricultural systems could be a management practice for sequestering atmospheric C in soil. However, consideration for the best method for this...

  16. Soybean response to poultry litter in a rotation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean yield response to annual poultry litter rates (0, 1.0 and 3.4 tons/acre) on a Leeper silty clay loam soil in corn (M), cotton (C) and soybean (B) rotation system were evaluated. The rotation systems from 2010-2014 were: CMBBMR; CMCBM and CCMMB. This study site had high levels of soil test Ph...

  17. Water quality benefits of subsurface-banded poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broiler chicken production is an important industry in Alabama and several other states. Broiler litter is commonly used as a fertilizer on pastures and cropland. This litter has commonly been land-applied near the broiler houses and this has resulted in long-term repeated application of litter to...

  18. Adsorption of trace elements from poultry litter by montmorillonite clay.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Bhaskaran; Gupta, Gian

    2006-01-16

    Poultry litter (PL) is used as fertilizer on agricultural lands because of its high nutrient content. However, the litter also contains trace elements such as As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn. On land application of PL, these trace elements may be absorbed by crops, leach into groundwater, or enter the aquatic system as run-off. The objective of this research was to study the effect of the addition of montmorillonite clay-mineral (CM) in reducing the release of trace elements from PL. Cd, Cu, and Zn showed significant decreases of 29, 34, and 22%, respectively, in PL aqueous leachate (compared with the control-PL without CM) on mixing with 0.05 g CM but no change in As, Co, and Cr concentrations was observed. Lead showed a significant increase in PL aqueous leachate on mixing with 0.2 g CM but Pb concentration was two orders of magnitude less than in CM aqueous leachate alone. On washing, the settled precipitate (PL+CM) in the centrifuge tubes with water (desorption study) most of the adsorbed metals (Cd 85%, Cu 61%, and Zn 100%) were released. The results of this study show that the addition of CM resulted in significant adsorption of Cd and Cu from PL. PMID:16298051

  19. Cover crop and poultry litter management influence spatiotemporal availability of topsoil nitrogen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Green and animal manures provide plant-available nitrogen (N) in annual cropping systems and contribute to improved soil quality. Our objectives were to determine the effects of cover crop residue type and pelletized poultry litter (PPL) application method on: 1) the spatiotemporal distribution of s...

  20. Accumulation of N and P in Pasture Soil by Repeated Poultry Litter Accumulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry litter is a traditionally inexpensive and effective fertilizer to improve soil quality and agricultural productivity. However, over application to soil has raised concern because excess nutrients in runoff could accelerate the eutrophication of fresh water. In this work, we determined the co...

  1. Impacts of Long-Term Land Applied Poultry Litter on Soil Properties and Macro Cations Status

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry litter (PL) is a traditionally inexpensive and effective fertilizer to improve soil quality and agricultural productivity. However, over application to soils has raised concern because excess nutrients in runoff could accelerate eutrophication of fresh water. A long-term field experiment usi...

  2. Seasonal changes in phosphorus and phosphatase compositions in soils enriched with poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Season and soil depth may play an important role in phosphorus (P) dynamics and mineralization in soil because of changes in soil moisture, temperature and microbial activity. This study was conducted to quantify P fractions and enzymatic activity from poultry litter (PL) application as affected by ...

  3. Nutrient cycling in an agroforestry alley cropping system receiving poultry litter or nitrogen fertilizer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Optimal utilization of animal manures as a plant nutrient source should also prevent adverse impacts on water quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate long-term poultry litter and N fertilizer application on nutrient cycling following establishment of an alley cropping system with easter...

  4. Double-cropping annual ryegrass and bermudagrass to reduce phosphorus levels in soil with history of poultry litter application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Double-cropping forages may help to ameliorate excess soil nutrients in manure-impacted fields. Studies were conducted on Savannah soil with a 30+ yr history of broiler litter to determine the yield of biomass and P in bermudagrass (summer) and ryegrass-bermudagrass (year-round) forage systems. Duri...

  5. Subsurface application of poultry litter and its influence on nutrient losses in runoff water from permanent pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmental pressure to reduce nutrient losses from agricultural fields has increased in recent years. To abate this nutrient loss to the environment, better management practices and new technologies need to be developed. Thus, research was conducted to evaluate if subsurface banding poultry lit...

  6. The management of phosphorus in poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potential for phosphorus (P) surplus at the farm scale can increase when farming systems change from cropping to intensive poultry and animal production, as P inputs become dominated by animal feed rather than fertilizer. Cost-effective and innovative solutions are needed to expand the range of ...

  7. Rainfall simulation in greenhouse microcosms to assess bacterial-associated runoff from land-applied poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land application of poultry litter is an economically and environmentally viable use of this poultry-rearing byproduct. However the recent concern associated with food and surface water contamination with pathogenic and fecal indicator bacteria, nutrients, and colloidal particles has led to increas...

  8. The Impact of Alum Additions on Organic P Transformations in Poultry Litter and Litter Amended Soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The treatment of poultry litter with alum (Al2(SO4)3•18H2O) has been shown to reduce P solubility. This decreased P solubility results in reduced risk of P in surface water runoff. Generally this decrease in P solubility is attributed to the formation of insoluble Al-P compounds after alum additio...

  9. Availability of Nitrogen in Poultry litter: Influence of Bedding Material and Litter Age

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the influence of bedding material on the availability of N in poultry to crop production. Experiments included two corn grain trials in which litter sources were applied at a rate of 125 lbs N acre-1 and inorganic fertilizer was applied at 0, 50, 100, 1...

  10. Nutrient dynamics and tree growth of silvopastoral systems: impact of poultry litter.

    PubMed

    Blazier, Michael A; Gaston, Lewis A; Clason, Terry R; Farrish, Kenneth W; Oswald, Brian P; Evans, Hayden A

    2008-01-01

    Fertilizing pastures with poultry litter has led to an increased incidence of nutrient-saturated soils, particularly on highly fertilized, well drained soils. Applying litter to silvopastures, in which loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) and bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum) production are integrated, may be an ecologically desirable alternative for upland soils of the southeastern USA. Integrating subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum) into silvopastures may enhance nutrient retention potential. This study evaluated soil nutrient dynamics, loblolly pine nutrient composition, and loblolly pine growth of an annually fertilized silvopasture on a well drained soil in response to fertilizer type, litter application rate, and subterranean clover. Three fertilizer treatments were applied annually for 4 yr: (i) 5 Mg litter ha(-1) (5LIT), (ii) 10 Mg litter ha(-1) (10LIT), and (iii) an inorganic N, P, K pasture blend (INO). Litter stimulated loblolly pine growth, and neither litter treatment produced soil test P concentrations above runoff potential threshold ranges. However, both litter treatments led to accumulation of several nutrients (notably P) in upper soil horizons relative to INO and unfertilized control treatments. The 10LIT treatment may have increased N and P leaching potential. Subterranean clover kept more P sequestered in the upper soil horizon and conferred some growth benefits to loblolly pine. Thus, although these silvopasture systems had a relatively high capacity for nutrient use and retention at this site, litter should be applied less frequently than in this study to reduce environmental risks. PMID:18574187

  11. Effects of pelletized and non-pelletized poultry litter and nutrient immobilizing agent on surface runoff water quality from a forage based system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry litter is recognized as a desirable organic fertilizer that improves soil fertility by adding essential plant nutrients and organic matter. Poultry litter is pelletized to improve the economics and handling and transport from production areas to land application sites. Compared to non-pell...

  12. Correlation of quantitative PCR for a poultry-specific brevibacterium marker gene with bacterial and chemical indicators of water pollution in a watershed impacted by land application of poultry litter.

    PubMed

    Weidhaas, Jennifer L; Macbeth, Tamzen W; Olsen, Roger L; Harwood, Valerie J

    2011-03-01

    The impact of fecal contamination from human and agricultural animal waste on water quality is a major public health concern. Identification of the dominant source(s) of fecal pollution in a watershed is necessary for assessing the safety of recreational water and protecting water resources. A field study was conducted using quantitative PCR (qPCR) for the 16S rRNA gene of Brevibacterium sp. LA35 to track feces-contaminated poultry litter in environmental samples. Based on sensitivity and specificity characteristics of the qPCR method, the Bayesian conditional probability that detection of the LA35 marker gene in a water sample represented a true-positive result was 93%. The marker's covariance with fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and metals associated with poultry litter was also assessed in litter, runoff, surface water, and groundwater samples. LA35 was detected in water and soil samples collected throughout the watershed, and its concentration covaried with concentrations of Escherichia coli, enterococci, As, Cu, P, and Zn. Significantly greater concentrations of FIB, As, Cu, P, and Zn were observed in edge-of-field runoff samples in which LA35 was detected, compared to samples in which it was not detected. Furthermore, As, Cu, P, and Zn concentrations covaried in environmental samples in which LA35 was detected and typically did not in samples in which the marker gene was not detected. The covariance of the poultry-specific LA35 marker gene with these known contaminants from poultry feces provides further evidence that it is a useful tool for assessing the impact of poultry-derived fecal pollution in environmental waters. PMID:21278274

  13. Impact of amendments on microbial communities associated with nitrogen mineralization in poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As energy costs increase poultry litter is an ever more valuable commodity. Reducing ammonia volatilization from poultry litter becomes important not only to reduce ventilation costs and improve bird performance but also to retain the nutrient value of the litter as a fertilizer. The goal of this r...

  14. Effect of Alum Amendment on the Bacterial and Fungal Populations in Poultry Litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alum (Al2 (SO4)3•14H2O) is a commonly used ammonia reducing poultry litter amendment that acidifies the litter to convert the volatile NH3-N to the mineralized NH4-N form. The effect of alum addition on the chemical makeup of the poultry litter has been previously studied, but very little work has ...

  15. A microbial approach to understanding the production of ammonia in poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As fertilizer costs increase, poultry litter has become an increasingly valuable commodity. Reducing ammonia (NH3) volatilization from poultry litter is therefore important not only to reduce ventilation costs and improve bird performance but also to retain the fertilizer value of the litter. The g...

  16. Bioremediation of gasoline-contaminated soil using poultry litter

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, G; Tao, J.

    1996-10-01

    Contaminated soil, excavated from around a leaking underground gasoline storage tank, is commonly subjected to thermal degradation to remove the gasoline. Bioremediation as an alternative treatment technology is now becoming popular. The important hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria include Pseudomonas, Arthrobacter, and Flavobacterium. Poultry litter contains a large number of microorganisms, including Pseudomonas, as well as many inorganic nutrients and organic biomass that may assist in biodegrading gasoline in contaminated soil. During bioremediation of contaminated soil, microbial densities are known to increase by 2-3 orders of magnitude. However, bioremediation may result in a increase in the toxic characteristics of the soil due to the production of potentially toxic degradation intermediates. The objective of this research was to study the influence of the addition of poultry litter on the bioremediation of gasoline-contaminated soil by quantifying the changes in the densities of microorganisms and by monitoring the toxicity of the degradation products. 25 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Acidification delays the microbial mineralization of organic N forms in poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry litter is a valuable nutrient source for plants which contains high levels of protein, nitrogen and other minerals. While many agronomic benefits of poultry litter exist, one of the largest environmental concerns associated with confined poultry production is the creation and volatilization ...

  18. The Role of Organic Phosphorus in Alum ability to Reduce Phosphorus Solubility in Poultry Litter and Litter Amended Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alum (Al2[SO4]3) addition to litter in poultry houses is an effective strategy for reducing phosphorus (P) solubility in the litter and litter-amended soils, thereby reducing the potential for soluble P losses in runoff. Although there has been much research on the subject, there is still uncertaint...

  19. Soil-incorporating Poultry Litter Increases Cotton Tissue Nitrogen Concentration and Uptake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Applying poultry litter to fertilize no-till cotton implies the litter is left on the surface without soil-incorporation which exposes the litter and its nutrients to risks of loss in runoff water and volatilization. This research was conducted to test if light soil-incorporation of litter increases...

  20. Cotton response to poultry litter applied by subsurface banding relative to surface broadcasting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dry poultry litter is typically land-applied by surface broadcasting, a practice that exposes certain litter nutrients to volatilization loss. Applying litter with a new, experimental implement that places the litter in narrow bands below the soil surface may reduce or eliminate such losses but has...

  1. Nutrient and Bacterial Levels in Common Contiguous Soils With and Without Poultry Litter Fertilization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the Mid-South US, poultry litter is a valuable resource traditionally used to fertilize hay fields and pastures, but also used for small grains and row crops. Levels of nutrients and bacteria in litter, and nutrients in litter-fertilized (LF) soil are well documented, but less is known of litter...

  2. Release of Nitrogen and Phosphorus from Poultry Litter Amended with Acidified Biochar

    PubMed Central

    Doydora, Sarah A.; Cabrera, Miguel L.; Das, Keshav C.; Gaskin, Julia W.; Sonon, Leticia S.; Miller, William P.

    2011-01-01

    Application of poultry litter (PL) to soil may lead to nitrogen (N) losses through ammonia (NH3) volatilization and to potential contamination of surface runoff with PL-derived phosphorus (P). Amending litter with acidified biochar may minimize these problems by decreasing litter pH and by retaining litter-derived P, respectively. This study evaluated the effect of acidified biochars from pine chips (PC) and peanut hulls (PH) on NH3 losses and inorganic N and P released from surface-applied or incorporated PL. Poultry litter with or without acidified biochars was surface-applied or incorporated into the soil and incubated for 21 d. Volatilized NH3 was determined by trapping it in acid. Inorganic N and P were determined by leaching the soil with 0.01 M of CaCl2 during the study and by extracting it with 1 M KCl after incubation. Acidified biochars reduced NH3 losses by 58 to 63% with surface-applied PL, and by 56 to 60% with incorporated PL. Except for PH biochar, which caused a small increase in leached NH4 +-N with incorporated PL, acidified biochars had no effect on leached or KCl-extractable inorganic N and P from surface-applied or incorporated PL. These results suggest that acidified biochars may decrease NH3 losses from PL but may not reduce the potential for P loss in surface runoff from soils receiving PL. PMID:21655132

  3. Factors affecting arsenic and copper runoff from pastures fertilized with poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heavy metal runoff from soils fertilized with poultry litter has received increasing attention in recent years, although it is not really known if heavy runoff from poultry litter poses a significant threat to the environment. The objective of this study was to evaluate arsenic (As) and copper (Cu)...

  4. Effect of direct incorporation of poultry litter on phosphorus leaching from coastal plain soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Management of poultry litter on the Delmarva Peninsula is critical to reducing phosphorus loads to the Chesapeake Bay. New poultry litter incorporation technologies have shown promise at reducing phosphorus losses, but their effectiveness has not been tested in this environmentally-sensitive region...

  5. The effect of alum addition on microbial communities in poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alum (Al2(SO4)3 • 14 H2O) is a common poultry litter amendment used to decrease water soluble phosphorus and/or reduce ammonia volatilization. While the physiochemical effects of alum addition has been well researched, little attention has been given to the poultry litter microbial communities. Th...

  6. Spatial Shifts in Microbial Population Structure Within Poultry Litter Associated with Physicochemical Properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microbial populations within poultry litter have been largely ignored with the exception of potential human or livestock pathogens. A better understanding of the community structure and identity of the microbial populations within poultry litter could aid in the development of management practices t...

  7. Phosphorus and nitrogen losses via leaching and surface runoff from stacking of poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The practice of stacking poultry litter in fields prior to spreading provides important logistical benefits to farmers but is controversial due to its potential to serve as a source of nutrients to leachate and runoff. We evaluated nutrient fate under stacked poultry litter to assess differences in ...

  8. Phosphorus and nitrogen losses from poultry litter stacks and leaching through soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The practice of stacking poultry litter in fields prior to spreading provides important logistical benefits to farmers but is controversial due to its potential to serve as a source of nutrients to leachate and runoff. We evaluated nutrient fate under stacked poultry litter to assess differences in ...

  9. Nitrogen and Phosphorus Loads in an Agricultural Watershed Affected by Poultry Litter Application and Wastewater Effluent, Northeastern Oklahoma and Northwestern Arkansas, 2002-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esralew, R.; Tortorelli, R. L.

    2010-12-01

    The Eucha-Spavinaw Basin in Northeastern Oklahoma and Northwestern Arkansas is the source of water for Lake Eucha and Spavinaw Lake, which are part of the water supply for the city of Tulsa, Oklahoma. Lake Eucha and Spavinaw Lakes have experienced deteriorating water quality largely due to growth of algae, notably cyanobacteria, from the excess input of nutrients. As a result, the city of Tulsa has spent millions of dollars to eliminate taste and odor problems resulting from production of algal and bacterial byproducts. To evaluate changes in nutrient loading resulting from a reduction in land application of poultry litter, installation of best management practices, and reductions in the phosphorus concentrations in wastewater effluent, the U.S. Geological Survey investigated nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations from samples collected during baseflow and runoff and used regression models to estimate nitrogen and phosphorus loads, yields, and flow-weighted concentrations in two major tributaries to Lake Eucha, Spavinaw and Beaty Creeks, for the period 2002-2009. Estimated mean flow-weighted total unfiltered nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations in the basin were about 5 to 10 times greater than the 75th percentile of flow-weighted nutrient concentrations in other mostly undeveloped basins of the United States. Spavinaw and Beaty Creeks contributed an estimated mean annual total load of about 762,500 kilograms of nitrogen and 49,200 kilograms of phosphorus per year, 76 to 91 percent of which was transported to Lake Eucha by runoff. Thirty-four percent of the nitrogen load and 48 percent of the phosphorus load to Lake Eucha occurred during the year 2008 which was the wettest year on record for the Eucha-Spavinaw Basin. The results of this analysis indicate that although efforts were made to control nutrient loading, nutrient concentrations, especially phosphorus, were substantially augmented by non-point sources and that most loading occurs during runoff events

  10. Trace element losses in runoff due to subsurface-applied poultry litter on a coastal plain soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Delmarva’s four poultry companies and 1,800 growers generated roughly 9 million tons of poultry litter in 2008. This litter is primarily used to fertilize farmland and support crop production (e.g., corn, soybeans and wheat). In this study, three poultry litter amendment treatments – broadcast (conv...

  11. Controlling phosphate releasing from poultry litter using stabilized Fe-Mn binary oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wenbo; Zhao, Dongye

    2016-01-15

    Animal wastes contain high concentrations of phosphorus (P), most of which is lost into the environment due to uncontrolled release rates. Polysaccharide stabilized Fe-Mn binary oxide nanoparticles were prepared and tested for phosphate adsorption from water and for controlling leachability of P from poultry litter. A water soluble starch and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) were used as a stabilizer. Both the Freundlich and Langmuir models were able to adequately interpret the isotherm data. The Langmuir maximum capacity was determined at 252, 298 and 313 mg-P/g for bare, CMC- and starch-stabilized nanoparticles, respectively. The presence of the stabilizers not only enhanced the sorption capacity, but facilitated delivery and dispersion of the nanoparticles in poultry litter (PL) and in soil. High phosphate sorption capacity was observed over a broad pH range of 4-9. FTIR analyses indicated that inner sphere surface complexation (Fe-O-P) was the key mechanism for the enhanced uptake of P. When applied to poultry litter, the stabilized nanoparticles reduced water leachable phosphate by >86% at a dose of 0.2 g/L as Fe, and simultaneously, water leachable arsenic by >87-95%. Under conditions of simulated land application of PL, the nanoparticle amendment of PL reduced the water soluble P from 66% (for untreated PL) to 4.4%, and lowered the peak soluble P concentration from 300 to <20 mg/L. By transferring the peak soluble P to the nanoparticle-bound P, the nanoparticles not only greatly reduce the potential runoff loss of P from PL, but also provide a long-term slow-releasing nutrient source. Fortuitously, the nanoparticle treatment was able to immobilize arsenic from PL. With excellent adsorption capacity, easy deliverability, low cost and environmental innocuousness, the stabilized Fe-Mn nanoparticles appear promising for controlling P releases from poultry litter or other animal wastes and for phosphate recovery from water. PMID:26442720

  12. Chemical property of poultry litter amended with selected industrial and agricultural byproducts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The bulk of poultry litter consists of chicken manure and bedding materials. When applied to the soil, litter supplies all essential plant nutrients and serves as a source of organic matter that improves several important soil properties. Litter breaks down in the soil and its soil conditioning ef...

  13. Cover crop enhances the benefit of fall-applied poultry litter as cotton fertilizer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effectiveness of poultry litter as cotton fertilizer in regions with warm fall or winter months is reduced if applied in the fall or winter. A 3-yr study was conducted in northern Mississippi to test whether litter applied in the fall can be as effective as litter applied in the spring for no-t...

  14. Impact of poultry litter cake, cleanout, and bedding following chemical amendments on soil C and N mineralization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry litter is a great alternative N source for crop production. However, recent poultry litter management changes and increased chemical amendment use may impact litter plant N availability. Thus, research was initiated to evaluate the effect that broiler house cake and total cleanout litter ame...

  15. Quantification of a Novel Group of Ammonia Producing Bacteria Found in Poultry Litter by Quantitative Real-Time PCR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia production in poultry houses has serious implications for flock health and performance, nutrient value of poultry litter, and energy costs for running poultry operations. The microbial enzyme responsible for final step in the conversion of uric acid (~70% of total N in poultry litter) to am...

  16. Ammonia emissions factors from broiler litter in barns, storage, and after land application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia (NH3) emissions from poultry litter can cause high levels of NH3 in poultry rearing facilities, as well as atmospheric pollution. The objectives of this study were to: (1) measure NH3 emissions from litter in broiler houses, during storage and following land application, and (2) conduct a m...

  17. Water activity of poultry litter: Relationship to moisture content during a grow-out.

    PubMed

    Dunlop, Mark W; McAuley, Jim; Blackall, Patrick J; Stuetz, Richard M

    2016-05-01

    Poultry grown on litter floors are in contact with their own waste products. The waste material needs to be carefully managed to reduce food safety risks and to provide conditions that are comfortable and safe for the birds. Water activity (Aw) is an important thermodynamic property that has been shown to be more closely related to microbial, chemical and physical properties of natural products than moisture content. In poultry litter, Aw is relevant for understanding microbial activity; litter handling and rheological properties; and relationships between in-shed relative humidity and litter moisture content. We measured the Aw of poultry litter collected throughout a meat chicken grow-out (from fresh pine shavings bedding material to day 52) and over a range of litter moisture content (10-60%). The Aw increased non-linearly from 0.71 to 1.0, and reached a value of 0.95 when litter moisture content was only 22-33%. Accumulation of manure during the grow-out reduced Aw for the same moisture content. These results are relevant for making decisions regarding litter re-use in multiple grow-outs as well as setting targets for litter moisture content to minimise odour, microbial risks and to ensure necessary litter physical conditions are maintained during a grow-out. Methods to predict Aw in poultry litter from moisture content are proposed. PMID:26946169

  18. Alum amendment effects on phosphorus release and distribution in poultry litter-amended sandy soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Staats, K.E.; Arai, Y.; Sparks, D.L.

    2004-01-01

    Increased poultry production has contributed to excess nutrient problems in Atlantic Coastal Plain soils due to land application of poultry litter (PL). Aluminum sulfate [alum, Al2(SO4)3?? 14H2O] amendment of PL effectively reduces soluble phosphorus (P) in the PL; however, the effects of these litters when added to acidic, sandy soils are not well understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of alum-amended poultry litter in reducing P release from three Delaware Coastal Plain soils: Evesboro loamy sand (Ev; excessively drained, mesic, coated Typic Quartzipsamments), Rumford loamy sand (Ru; well drained, coarse-loamy, siliceous, subactive, thermic Typic Hapludults), and Pocomoke sandy loam (Pm; very poorly drained, coarse-loamy, siliceous, active, thermic Typic Umbraquults). Long-term (25 d) and short-term (24 h) desorption studies were conducted, in addition to chemical extractions and kinetic modeling, to observe the changes that alum-amended versus unamended PL caused in the soils. The Ev, Ru, and Pm soils were incubated with 9 Mg ha-1 of alum-amended or unamended PL. Long-term desorption (25 d) of the incubated material resulted in approximately 13.5% (Ev), 12.7% (Ru), and 13.3% (Pm) reductions in cumulative P desorbed when comparing soil treated with unamended and alum-amended PL. In addition, the P release from the soil treated with alum-amended litter was not significantly different from the control (soil alone). Short-term desorption (24 h) showed 7.3% (Ev), 15.4% (Ru), and 20% (Pm) reductions. The overall implication from this study is that the use of alum as a PL amendment is useful in coarse-textured soils of the Coastal Plain. With increased application of alum-amended PL, more significant decreases may be possible with little or no effect on soil quality.

  19. Water-quality effects of incorporating poultry litter into perennial grassland soils.

    PubMed

    Pote, D H; Kingery, W L; Aiken, G E; Han, F X; Moore, P A; Buddington, K

    2003-01-01

    Poultry litter provides a rich source of nutrients for perennial forages, but the usual practice of surface-applying litter to pastures can degrade water quality by allowing nutrients to be transported from fields in surface runoff, while much of the NH4-N volatilizes. Incorporating litter into the soil can minimize such problems in tilled systems, but has not been used for perennial forage systems. In this study, we minimized disturbance of the crop, thatch, and soil structure by using a knifing technique to move litter into the root zone. Our objective was to determine effects of poultry litter incorporation on quantity and quality of runoff water. Field plots were constructed on a silt loam soil with well-established bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] and mixed grass forage. Each plot had 8 to 10% slopes, borders to isolate runoff, and a downslope trough with sampling pit. Poultry litter was applied (5.6 Mg ha(-1)) by one of three methods: surface-applied, incorporated, or surface-applied on soil-aeration cuts. There were six treatment replications and three controls (no litter). Nutrient concentrations and mass losses in runoff from incorporated litter were significantly lower (generally 80-95% less) than in runoff from surface-applied litter. By the second year of treatment, litter-incorporated soils had greater rain infiltration rates, water-holding capacities, and sediment retention than soils receiving surface-applied litter. Litter incorporation also showed a strong tendency to increase forage yield. PMID:14674565

  20. Poultry Littler Application Increases Nitrogen Cycling Compared with Inorganic Nitrogen Fertilization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry litter, an inexpensive source of nutrients and available in abundant amounts in the southeastern USA, may increase N cycling and reduce N losses compared with inorganic N fertilization if applied in crop production. We evaluated the effect of long-term application of poultry litter and inorg...

  1. Effect of alum additions to poultry litter on in-house ammonia and greenhouse gas concentrations and emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alum (Al2(SO4)3 •14H2O) additions to poultry litter have been shown to reduce ammonia (NH3) concentrations in poultry houses and NH3 fluxes from litter; however, continuous, accurate measurements of in-house NH3 concentrations and emissions from alum-treated and untreated commercial poultry houses i...

  2. Formations of hydroxyapatite and inositol hexakisphosphate in poultry litter during the composting period: sequential fractionation, P K-edge XANES and solution (31)P NMR investigations.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Yohey; Takamoto, Akira; Kikkawa, Ren; Murakami, Keiichi; Yamaguchi, Noriko

    2014-05-20

    Little is known about how the solubility and chemical speciation of phosphorus (P) in poultry litters are altered during the composting period. This study investigated the quantitative and qualitative changes in organic P (Po) and inorganic P (Pi) compositions in poultry litters during the seven-day composting period using sequential extraction in combination with P K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and solution (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The result of sequential extraction illustrated that the significant decrease of H2O-P by 55% in poultry litters occurred concomitantly with the increase of HCl-Pi and HCl-Po during the composting period (p < 0.05). X-ray diffraction results for poultry litter samples showed three distinct peaks indicative of hydroxyapatite. Phosphorus K-edge XANES confirmed the increase of hydroxyapatite during the composting period, corresponding to the increase of HCl-Pi determined by the sequential extraction. The NaOH-EDTA extraction for solution (31)P NMR revealed that myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (IHP) constituted about 80% of phosphate monoesters and was increased from 16 to 28% in the poultry litter during the composting period. The combined applications of chemical extraction and molecular-spectroscopic techniques determined that water-soluble P in poultry litter was transformed into less soluble phases, primarily hydroxyapatite and IHP, during the composting period. PMID:24735189

  3. Effects of Subsurface Applying Poultry Litter in Pasture and No-Till Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry litter provides a rich nutrient source for crops, but the usual practice of surface-broadcasting litter can degrade water quality by allowing storm runoff to transport nutrients into streams and lakes, while much of the ammonia-N escapes into the atmosphere. We developed and tested a knifin...

  4. Combining nitrogen fertilizer with poultry litter in a binary mixture of tall fescue and bermudagrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A common problem when poultry litter is applied to pastures in the southeastern USA is the buildup of soil P because of the difference in N-P-K ratio of the litter and plant requirements. This 2-yr study tested the theory that if the N requirement of a tall fescue-bermudagrass binary mixture is only...

  5. Effect of Alum Treatment on the Concentration of Total and Ureolytic Microorganisms in Poultry Litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The microbial mineralization of urea and uric acid results in the production of ammonia, which can lead to decreased poultry performance, malodorous emissions, and loss of poultry litter value as a fertilizer. Despite the fact that this is a microbial process, little is known about how the microbia...

  6. Evaluation of Poultry Litter for Biocontrol of Sclerotia of Sclerotium rolfsii in Soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry litter (PL), a major byproduct produced in large quantities on corporate poultry farms for which new uses are needed, was evaluated for potential use as a biocontrol material against sclerotia of Sclerotium rolfsii in soil. Survival of sclerotia was evaluated following their incubation with...

  7. Development of a new manure amendment for reducing ammonia volatilization and phosphorus runoff from poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Treating poultry litter with alum (Al2(SO4)3.14H2O) is a best management practice (BMP) that reduces phosphorus (P) runoff and ammonia (NH3) emissions. Due to the environmental benefits, improvements in poultry production, and lower energy costs over one billion broiler chickens are grown with alum...

  8. Evaluation of amendments to manage nitrogen loss and microbiological quality in poultry litter.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry litter is a valuable nutrient source for crop production that requires proper management to garner environmentally and financially sustainable benefits. Successful management to reduce ammonia (NH3-N) and its harmful side-effects for poultry and the environment can be aided by the use of lit...

  9. Poultry litter and the environment: Physiochemical properties of litter and soil during successive flock rotations and after remote site deposition.

    PubMed

    Crippen, Tawni L; Sheffield, Cynthia L; Byrd, J Allen; Esquivel, Jesus F; Beier, Ross C; Yeater, Kathleen

    2016-05-15

    The U.S. broiler meat market has grown over the past 16 years and destinations for U.S. broiler meat exports expanded to over 150 countries. This market opportunity has spurred a corresponding increase in industrialized poultry production, which due to the confined space in which high numbers of animals are housed, risks accumulating nutrients and pollutants. The purpose of this research was to determine the level of pollutants within poultry litter and the underlying soil within a production facility; and to explore the impact of spent litter deposition into the environment. The study follows a production facility for the first 2.5 years of production. It monitors the effects of successive flocks and management practices on 15 physiochemical parameters: Ca, Cu, electrical conductivity, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, moisture, Na, NO3(-)/N, organic matter, P, pH, S, and Zn. Litter samples were collected in-house, after clean-outs and during stockpiling. The soil before house placement, after the clean-outs and following litter stockpiling was monitored. Management practices markedly altered the physiochemical profiles of the litter in-house. A canonical discriminant analysis was used to describe the relationship between the parameters and sampling times. The litter profiles grouped into five clusters corresponding to time and management practices. The soil in-house exhibited mean increases in all physiochemical parameters (2-297 fold) except Fe, Mg, %M, and pH. The spent litter was followed after deposition onto a field for use as fertilizer. After 20 weeks, the soil beneath the litter exhibited increases in EC, Cu, K, Na, NO3(-)/N, %OM, P, S and Zn; while %M decreased. Understanding the impacts of industrialized poultry farms on the environment is vital as the cumulative ecological impact of this land usage could be substantial if not properly managed to reduce the risk of potential pollutant infiltration into the environment. PMID:26990075

  10. Hormone and pathogen content in soil after litter applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry litter applications at agronomic rates established for a crop’s P or N requirements may contain as much as 385 mg estradiol ha-1, 605 mg testosterone ha-1, 4.4(10)12 Escherichia coli cells ha-1, and 4.4(10)13 fecal enterococci cells ha-1. Field experiments from small plot- to small watershed...

  11. The effect of composting on the persistence of four ionophores in dairy manure and poultry litter.

    PubMed

    Arikan, Osman A; Mulbry, Walter; Rice, Clifford

    2016-08-01

    Manure composting is a well-described approach for stabilization of nutrients and reduction of pathogens and odors. Although composting studies have shown that thermophilic temperatures and aerobic conditions can increase removal rates of selected antibiotics, comparable information is lacking for many other compounds in untreated or composted manure. The objective of this study was to determine the relative effectiveness of composting conditions to reduce concentrations of four widely used ionophore feed supplements in dairy manure and poultry litter. Replicate aliquots of fresh poultry litter and dairy manure were amended with monensin, lasalocid, salinomycin, or amprolium to 10mgkg(-1)DW. Non-amended and amended dairy manure and poultry litter aliquots were incubated at 22, 45, 55, or 65°C under moist, aerobic conditions. Residue concentrations were determined from aliquots removed after 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12weeks. Results suggest that the effectiveness of composting for contaminant reduction is compound and matrix specific. Composting temperatures were not any more effective than ambient temperature in increasing the rate or extent of monensin removal in either poultry litter or dairy manure. Composting was effective for lasalocid removal in poultry litter, but is likely to be too slow to be useful in practice (8-12weeks at 65°C for >90% residue removal). Composting was effective for amprolium removal from poultry litter and salinomycin in dairy manure but both required 4-6weeks for >90% removal. However, composting did not increase the removal rates or salinomycin in poultry litter or the removal rates of lasalocid or amprolium in dairy manure. PMID:27189139

  12. Effects of Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate against pathogen populations in poultry litters

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Tae Ho; Park, Chul; Choi, In Hag

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate as litter amendments on ammonia, soluble reactive phosphorus, and pathogen populations in poultry litters. Methods Increasing levels of Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate were applied onto the surface of rice hull as a top-dress application; untreated rice hulls served as controls. Results: Treatment with Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate or aluminum sulfate alone resulted in lower litter pH (p < 0.05), as compared with that of the controls. There were some differences (p < 0.05) between treatments with Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate or aluminum sulfate alone and controls at 2–4 wk (not at 1 wk). Ammonia levels reduced on an average by 29%, 30%, and 32% for 10 g, 20 g Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate, and aluminum sulfate alone, respectively, as compared with controls at 4 wk. During the experiment, Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate or aluminum sulfate treatment had an effect (p < 0.05) on soluble reactive phosphorus content, as compared with the controls (not at 4 wk). A decrease in Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli was observed (p < 0.05) in litter amended with both Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate and aluminum sulfate alone, as compared with the control, except at 1–3 wk for Salmonella enterica and 1 wk and 4 wk for Escherichia coli, respectively. Conclusion The results showed that using Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate (blends), which act as acidifying agents by reducing the pH of the litter, was equally effective as aluminum sulfate in reducing the environmental impact. PMID:26869836

  13. Distribution of Bacteria at Different Poultry Litter Depths

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A common practice in the commercial broiler industry is to reuse litter over multiple broiler flocks. Morbidity, mortality, and condemnation have been attributed to pathogenic bacteria which reside in used litter. Information that describes how bacteria are distributed throughout the litter bed is...

  14. Effects of liquid aluminum chloride additions to poultry litter on broiler performance, ammonia emissions, soluble phosphorus, total volatile Fatty acids, and nitrogen contents of litter.

    PubMed

    Choi, I H; Moore, P A

    2008-10-01

    Recent studies have shown that the use of aluminum sulfate [alum, Al2(SO4)3.14H2O] and aluminum chloride (AlCl3) additions to animal manures are more effective than other chemicals in reducing ammonia (NH3) emissions and P solubility. Although the use of Al2(SO4)3.14H2O has been intensively used in the poultry industry for many years, no research has been conducted to evaluate the effect of liquid AlCl3 on these parameters. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of applying liquid AlCl3 to poultry litter on 1) broiler performance, 2) NH3 fluxes, and 3) litter chemical characteristics, including soluble reactive P, total volatile fatty acids, and N content. Eight hundred broiler chicks were placed into 16 floor pens (50 birds/pen) in a single house for 6 wk. Liquid AlCl3 treatments were sprayed on the litter surface at rates of 100, 200, and 300 g of liquid AlCl3/kg of litter; un-treated litter served as controls. At the 2 lower rates, liquid AlCl3 treatments tended to improve weight gain and feed intake but had no effect on feed conversion or mortality, whereas the higher rate (300 g/kg of litter) had a negative effect on intake. Application of 100, 200, and 300 g of liquid AlCl3 reduced NH3 fluxes by 63, 76, and 76% during the 6-wk period, respectively, compared with the controls. Liquid AlCl3 additions reduced litter soluble reactive P contents by 24, 30, and 36%, respectively, at the low, medium, and high rates. Total volatile fatty acid contents (odor precursors) in litter were reduced by 20, 50, and 51%, respectively, with 100, 200, and 300 g of liquid AlCl3/kg of litter. Liquid AlCl3 additions increased total N, inorganic N, and plant available N contents in litter. These results indicate that liquid AlCl3 additions at the lower rates can provide significant positive environmental benefits to broiler operations. PMID:18809856

  15. Development of a New Manure Amendment for Reducing Ammonia Volatilization and Phosphorus Runoff from Poultry Litter.

    PubMed

    Moore, Philip A

    2016-07-01

    Treating poultry litter with alum is a best management practice that reduces phosphorus (P) runoff and ammonia (NH) emissions. However, alum prices have increased substantially during the past decade. The goal of this research was to develop inexpensive manure amendments that are as effective as alum in reducing NH volatilization and P runoff. Sixteen amendments were developed using mixtures of alum mud, bauxite ore, sulfuric acid, liquid alum, and water. Alum mud is the residual left over from alum manufacture when produced by reacting bauxite with sulfuric acid. A laboratory NH volatilization study was conducted using 11 treatments: untreated poultry litter, poultry litter treated with liquid or dry alum, or eight new mixtures. All of the litter amendments tested resulted in significantly lower NH volatilization than untreated litter. Dry and liquid alum reduced NH losses by 86 and 75%, respectively. The eight new litter amendments reduced NH losses from 62 to 73% compared with untreated litter, which was not significantly different from liquid alum; the three most effective mixtures were not significantly different from dry alum. Water-extractable P (WEP) was significantly reduced by all of the amendments, three of which resulted in significantly lower WEP than dry alum. The most promising new amendments were mixtures of alum mud, bauxite, and sulfuric acid. The potential impact of these amendments could be enormous because they could be produced for less than half the price of alum while being as effective in reducing NH emissions and P runoff. PMID:27380093

  16. Thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion of poultry litter and thin stillage.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Deepak; Espinosa-Solares, Teodoro; Huber, David H

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to test whether the performance of a thermophilic CSTR digester that has been stabilized on poultry litter will be enhanced or diminished by the addition of thin stillage as co-substrate. Replicate laboratory digesters, derived from a stable pilot-scale digester, were operated with increasing ratios (w/w) of thin stillage/poultry litter feedstock. After a period of adaptation to 20% and 40% thin stillage, digester performance showed increases in biogas, percent methane and COD removal, as well as a decrease in volatile acids. Peak performance occurred with 60% thin stillage. However, 80% thin stillage caused significant reduction of performance, including declines of methanogenic activity and COD removal. In conclusion, supplementing the thermophilic digestion of poultry litter with thin stillage improved the bioenergy (methane) output, but thin stillage became inhibitory at high concentrations. PMID:23567688

  17. Soil and foliar nutrient and nitrogen isotope composition (δ(15)N) at 5 years after poultry litter and green waste biochar amendment in a macadamia orchard.

    PubMed

    Bai, Shahla Hosseini; Xu, Cheng-Yuan; Xu, Zhihong; Blumfield, Timothy J; Zhao, Haitao; Wallace, Helen; Reverchon, Frédérique; Van Zwieten, Lukas

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the improvement in soil fertility and plant nutrient use in a macadamia orchard following biochar application. The main objectives of this study were to assess the effects of poultry litter and green waste biochar applications on nitrogen (N) cycling using N isotope composition (δ(15)N) and nutrient availability in a soil-plant system at a macadamia orchard, 5 years following application. Biochar was applied at 10 t ha(-1) dry weight but concentrated within a 3-m diameter zone when trees were planted in 2007. Soil and leaf samples were collected in 2012, and both soil and foliar N isotope composition (δ(15)N) and nutrient concentrations were assessed. Both soil and foliar δ(15)N increased significantly in the poultry litter biochar plots compared to the green waste biochar and control plots. A significant relationship was observed between soil and plant δ(15)N. There was no influence of either biochars on foliar total N concentrations or soil NH4 (+)-N and NO3 (-)-N, which suggested that biochar application did not pose any restriction for plant N uptake. Plant bioavailable phosphorus (P) was significantly higher in the poultry litter biochar treatment compared to the green waste biochar treatment and control. We hypothesised that the bioavailability of N and P content of poultry litter biochar may play an important role in increasing soil and plant δ(15)N and P concentrations. Biochar application affected soil-plant N cycling and there is potential to use soil and plant δ(15)N to investigate N cycling in a soil-biochar-tree crop system. The poultry litter biochar significantly increased soil fertility compared to the green waste biochar at 5 years following biochar application which makes the poultry litter a better feedstock to produce biochar compared to green waste for the tree crops. PMID:25266060

  18. Relationships between Chemical Characteristics and Phytotoxicity of Biochar from Poultry Litter Pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Rombolà, Alessandro G; Marisi, Giovanni; Torri, Cristian; Fabbri, Daniele; Buscaroli, Alessandro; Ghidotti, Michele; Hornung, Andreas

    2015-08-01

    Three biochars were prepared by intermediate pyrolysis from poultry litter at different temperatures (400, 500, and 600 °C with decreasing residence times) and compared with biochars from corn stalk prepared under the same pyrolysis conditions. The phytotoxicity of these biochars was estimated by means of seed germination tests on cress (Lepidium sativum L.) conducted in water suspensions (at 2, 5, and 40 g/L) and on biochars wetted according to their water-holding capacity. Whereas the seeds germinated after 72 h in water suspensions with corn stalk biochar were similar to the control (water only), significant inhibition was observed with poultry litter biochars. In comparison to corn stalk, poultry litter generated biochars with higher contents of ash, ammonium, nitrogen, and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and a similar concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Results from analytical pyrolysis (Py-GC-MS) indicated that nitrogen-containing organic compounds (NCCs) and aliphatic components were distinctive constituents of the thermally labile fraction of poultry litter biochar. The inhibition of germination due to poultry litter biochar produced at 400 °C (PL400) was suppressed after solvent extraction or treatment with active sludge. A novel method based on solid-phase microextraction (SPME) enabled the identification of mobile organic compounds in PL400 capable of being released in air and water, including VFAs and NCCs. The higher phytotoxicity of poultry litter than corn biochars was tentatively attributed to hydrophilic biodegradable substances derived from lipids or proteins removable by water leaching or microbial treatments. PMID:26151387

  19. Effect of heating and aging of poultry litter on the persistence of enteric bacteria.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, K G; Tee, E; Tomkins, R B; Hepworth, G; Premier, R

    2011-01-01

    Food-borne illnesses have rarely been associated with the reuse of poultry litter as an organic fertilizer and soil amendment in agriculture. Yet farming practices in many countries have come under increased scrutiny because of heightened consumer awareness of food safety and environmental issues. This study was conducted to determine whether simple on-farm management practices could improve the microbiological safety of poultry litter. First, the effects of heat and moisture on the survival of Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in poultry litter were investigated under laboratory conditions. Second, the persistence and regrowth of enteric bacteria were examined in poultry litter that had been aged for up to 12 wk in either a turned or static (unturned) windrow. Escherichia coli and Salmonella counts in poultry litter were reduced by >99% in 1 h at 55 or 65°C under laboratory conditions. At 35°C, both persisted longer under moist (65% wt/wt, wet basis) than dry (30% wt/wt) conditions. Poultry litter aged for 3 wk in a turned windrow, and up to 6 wk in a static windrow, supported increased E. coli densities when incubated in the laboratory at 37°C for 21 d. Peak temperatures >65°C were observed in both windrows within the first 3 wk of aging; after this point, the turned windrow was more consistently exposed to temperatures >45°C than the static windrow. By 12 wk, however, E. coli counts were very similar (3 to 3.6 log(10)) in the outside edge of both windrows. This study highlights the need for a better understanding of the interrelationship between spontaneous heating in organic waste streams, organic matter stabilization, and pathogen reduction. PMID:21177438

  20. Transformation of Organic P Forms of Poultry Litter in Soil Identified by Enzymatic Hydrolysis and P-31 NMR Spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Identification of the various phosphorus (P) forms in poultry litter coupled with knowledge of their transformations once added to soil will improve our understanding of long-term P roles in eutrophication. In this study, P in a poultry litter (PL) and a pasture soil with a 20-year history of PL app...

  1. New technology for ammonia recovery from poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abatement of gaseous ammonia in poultry houses is beneficial to both improve health/productivity of the birds and to reduce emissions into the environment surrounding the production facility. Current ammonia abatement technologies from poultry houses can be classified into four broad categories: 1) ...

  2. Optimum Broiler litter application timing on coastal bermudagrass in southeastern U.S.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry growers in general produce 5 to 6 flocks of birds yearly resulting in 5 to 6 litter/cake collection and application events following each sell out. Presently, most of the boiler litter is applied to pasture land year-round. This practice results in nutrient losses and potentially unfavorable...

  3. Fall- and spring-applied poultry litter effectiveness as corn fertilizer in the mid-southern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effectiveness of fall- or winter-applied poultry litter, relative to spring-applied litter, as row crop fertilizer in the southern and southeastern US has not been well researched. A 3-yr field research was conducted in northern Mississippi to determine the effectiveness of litter as corn fertil...

  4. Effect of fractionation and pyrolysis on fuel properties of poultry litter.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kaushlendra; Risse, L Mark; Das, K C; Worley, John; Thompson, Sidney

    2010-07-01

    Raw poultry litter has certain drawbacks for energy production such as high ash and moisture content, a corrosive nature, and low heating values. A combined solution to utilization of raw poultry litter may involve fractionation and pyrolysis. Fractionation divides poultry litter into a fine, nutrient-rich fraction and a coarse, carbon-dense fraction. Pyrolysis of the coarse fraction would remove the corrosive volatiles as bio-oil, leaving clean char. This paper presents the effect of fractionation and pyrolysis process parameters on the calorific value of char and on the characterization of bio-oil. Poultry litter samples collected from three commercial poultry farms were divided into 10 treatments that included 2 controls (raw poultry litter and its coarse fraction having particle size greater than 0.85 mm) and 8 other treatments that were combinations of three factors: type (raw poultry litter or its coarse fraction), heating rate (30 or 10 degrees C/min), and pyrolysis temperature (300 or 500 degrees C). After the screening process, the poultry litter samples were dried and pyrolyzed in a batch reactor under nitrogen atmosphere and char and condensate yields were recorded. The condensate was separated into three fractions on the basis of their density: heavy, medium, and light phase. Calorific value and proximate and nutrient analysis were performed for char, condensate, and feedstock. Results show that the char with the highest calorific value (17.39 +/- 1.37 MJ/kg) was made from the coarse fraction at 300 degrees C, which captured 68.71 +/- 9.37% of the feedstock energy. The char produced at 300 degrees C had 42 +/- 11 mg/kg arsenic content but no mercury. Almost all of the Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na, and P remained in the char. The pyrolysis process reduced ammoniacal-nitrogen (NH4-N) in char by 99.14 +/- 0.47% and nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) by 95.79 +/- 5.45% at 500 degrees C. PMID:20681435

  5. Evaluation of chemical amendments to reduce ammonia volatilization from poultry litter.

    PubMed

    Moore, P A; Daniel, T C; Edwards, D R; Miller, D M

    1996-03-01

    Ammonia volatilization from poultry litter often causes high levels of atmospheric ammonia in poultry houses, which is detrimental to both farm workers and birds. Ammonia emissions from houses also aggravate environmental problems, such as acid rain, and result in a loss of fertilizer nitrogen. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of litter amendments on ammonia volatilization and to determine the effect of these amendments on nitrogen and phosphorus content in litter. The results of this research indicate that alum [Al2(SO4)3.18H2O], ferrous sulfate (FeSO4.7H2O), and phosphoric acid (H3PO4) dramatically reduce ammonia volatilization form litter. The amount of ammonia lost from litter treated with sodium bisulfate (NaHSO4) and a proprietory product made of Ca-Fe silicate with a phosphoric acid coating was not different from the control (untreated litter). Aluminum sulfate (alum) and ferrous sulfate also reduced water soluble P concentrations in litter, whereas phosphoric acid greatly increased water-soluble P levels. The most effective compound evaluated with respect to reducing both ammonia loss and P solubility was alum. PMID:8778722

  6. Alternative poultry litter storage for improved transportation and use as a soil amendment.

    PubMed

    Penn, Chad J; Vitale, Jeffery; Fine, Scott; Payne, Joshua; Warren, Jason G; Zhang, Hailin; Eastman, Margaret; Herron, Sheri L

    2011-01-01

    Transportation of poultry litter out of nutrient limited watersheds such as the Illinois River basin (eastern Oklahoma) is a logical solution for minimizing phosphorus (P) losses from soils to surface waters. Transportation costs are basedon mass of load and distance transported. This study investigated an alternative litter storage technique designed to promote carbon (C) degradation, thereby concentrating nutrients for the purpose of decreasing transportation costs through decreased mass. Poultry litter was stored in 0.90-Mg conical piles under semipermeable tarps and adjusted to 40% moisture content, tested with and without addition of alum (aluminum sulfate). additional study was conducted using 3.6-Mg piles under the same conditions, except tested with and without use of aeration pipes. Samples were analyzed before and after (8 wk) storage. Litter mass degradation (i.e., loss in mass due to organic matter decomposition) was estimated on the basis of changes in litter total P contents. Additional characterization included pH, total nutrients, moisture content, total C, and degree of humification. Litter storage significantly decreased litter mass (16 to 27%), concentrated nutrients such as P and potassium (K) and increased proportion of fulvic and humic acids. The addition of aeration pipes increased mass degradationrelative to piles without aeration pipes. Nitrogen volatilization losses were minimized with alum additions. Increases in P and K concentrations resulted in greater monetary value per unit mass compared with fresh litter. Such increases translate to increased litter shipping distance and cost savings of $17.2 million over 25 yr for litter movement out of eastern Oklahoma. PMID:21488512

  7. Composted Poultry Litter as an Amendment for Substrates with High Wood Content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whole Tree (WT) and Clean Chip Residual (CCR) are potential new nursery substrates that are by-products of the forestry industry containing high wood content. Initial immobilization of nitrogen is one limitation of these new substrates, however the addition of composted poultry litter (CPL) to subs...

  8. SOIL COMPACTION AND POULTRY LITTER EFFECTS ON FACTORS AFFECTING NITROGEN AVAILABILITY IN A CLAYPAN SOIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil compaction may affect N mineralization and the subsequent fate of N in agroecosystems. Laboratory incubation and field experiments were conducted to determine the effects of surface soil compaction on soil N mineralization in a claypan soil amended with poultry litter (i.e., turkey excrement mi...

  9. Inorganic fertilizer and poultry-litter manure amendments alter the soil microbial communities in agricultural systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of agricultural land management practices on soil prokaryotic diversity are not well described. We investigated three land usage systems (row cropped, ungrazed pasture, and cattle-grazed pasture) and two fertilizer systems (inorganic fertilizer or IF and poultry-litter or PL) and compare...

  10. Inactivation of avian influenza virus in chicken litter as a potential method to decontaminate poultry houses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Full cleaning and disinfection of a poultry house after an avian influenza virus (AIV) outbreak is expensive and labor intensive. An alternative to full house cleaning and disinfection is to inactivate the virus with high temperatures within the house. Litter in the house normally has a high virus...

  11. Applying Poultry Litter in the Fall to Fertilize Corn May not be Advisable Under Warm Climate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Row crop farmers prefer to apply poultry litter in the fall or winter but whether this practice is safe environmentally and effective for production in regions with warm fall and winter months is not well researched and documented. Research in Mississippi tested the effectiveness of fall- versus spr...

  12. Pathogens, indicators and antibiotic resistance genes in soils with land applied poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry litter (PL) is a by-product of broiler production most of which is land applied where it is a valuable nutrient source for crop production. PL can also be a route of contamination with manure-borne bacteria; in fact, two of the top causes of foodborne illness, Campylobacter sp. and Salmonell...

  13. No-till corn response and soil nutrient concentrations from subsurface banding of poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen fertilizer management is vital to no-till corn (Zea mays) production from financial and environmental perspectives. Poultry litter as a nutrient source in this cropping system is generally land applied by surface broadcast, potentially causing volatilization of ammonia (NH3)-N. Recently a...

  14. Trace metal enrichment and distribution in a poultry litter-amended soil under different tillage practices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant nutrients and minor elements contamination resulting from enrichment due to agronomic practices such as poultry litter amendment of soils, tillage practices, and crop rotation patterns that have long been investigated to determine their impacts on yield, as well as soil and environmental susta...

  15. Mineral nutrition of cotton fertilized with poultry litter versus ammonium nitrate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry litter is a superior fertilizer for cotton production in some soils, but whether this superiority is related with its ability to supply multiple mineral nutrients has not been well investigated in the field. The objective of this research was to describe the mineral nutrient profile of litte...

  16. Demonstration of a Small Modular Biopower System Using Poultry Litter-Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    John Reardon; Art Lilley

    2004-06-15

    On-farm conversion of poultry litter into energy is a unique market connected opportunity for commercialization of small modular bioenergy systems. The United States Department of Energy recognized the need in the poultry industry for alternative litter management as an opportunity for bioenergy. The DOE created a relevant topic in the December 2000 release of the small business innovative research (SBIR) grant solicitation. Community Power Corporation responded to this solicitation by proposing the development of a small modular gasification and gas cleanup system to produce separate value streams of clean producer gas and mineral rich solids. This phase II report describes our progress in the development of an on-farm litter to energy system.

  17. Rainfall simulation in greenhouse microcosms to assess bacterial-associated runoff from land-applied poultry litter.

    PubMed

    Brooks, John P; Adeli, Ardeshir; Read, John J; McLaughlin, Michael R

    2009-01-01

    Runoff water following a rain event is one possible source of environmental contamination after a manure application. This greenhouse study used a rainfall simulator to determine bacterial-associated runoff from troughs of common bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] that were treated with P-based, N-based, and N plus lime rates of poultry (Gallus gallus) litter, recommended inorganic fertilizer, and control. Total heterotrophic plate count (HPC) bacteria, total and thermotolerant coliforms, enterococci, staphylococci, Clostridium perfringens, Salmonella, and Campylobacter, as well as antibiotic resistance profiles for the staphylococci and enterococci isolates were all monitored in runoff waters. Analysis following five rainfall events indicated that staphylococci, enterococci, and clostridia levels were related to manure application rate. Runoff release of staphylococci, enterococci, and C. perfringens were approximately 3 to 6 log10 greater in litter vs. control treatment. In addition, traditional indicators such as thermotolerant and total coliforms performed poorly as fecal indicators. Some isolated enterococci demonstrated increased antibiotic resistance to polymixin b and/or select aminoglyocosides, while many staphylococci were susceptible to most antimicrobials tested. Results indicated poultry litter application can lead to microbial runoff following simulated rain events. Future studies should focus on the use of staphylococci, enterococci, and C. perfringens as indicators. PMID:19141812

  18. Sequential P Extracts in Cecil soil during ten years of conventional and conservation tillage cropping management with and without poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil phosphorus (P) buildup from long-term applications of poultry litter presents a potential environmental problem. Knowledge of soil P distribution among its chemical forms is useful for assessing risk levels. We measured sequentially-fractioned H2O, NaHCO3, NaOH, and HCl extractable P in a Cecil...

  19. Long-term effects of poultry litter and conservation 1 tillage on crop 2 yields and soil phosphorus in cotton-cotton-corn rotation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term field experiments are needed to fully realize positive and negative impacts of conservation tillage and poultry litter application. A study was initiated on a Decatur silt loam soil at the Tennessee Valley Research and Extension Center, Belle Mina, AL, USA in 1996 to evaluate cotton (Gossy...

  20. Subsurface banding, placement of pelletized poultry litter in cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternative management of broiler (Gallus gallus domesticus ) litter in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) production is needed to effectively capture nutrients in the root zone and enable greater crop utilization of land-applied nutrients and hence yield . This four-year study compared the growth, lin...

  1. Spatial variability of heating profiles in windrowed poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In-house windrow composting of broiler litter has been suggested as a means to reduce microbial populations between flocks. Published time-temperature goals are used to determine the success of the composting process for microbial reductions. Spatial and temporal density of temperature measurement ...

  2. Effect of various litter amendments on ammonia volatilization and nitrogen content of poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia (NH3) volatilization from poultry manure contributes to atmospheric nitrogen (N) pollution, negatively effects poultry performance and reduces the fertilizer value of manure. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of alum (Al2(SO4)3.14H2O), liquid alum, high acid alum (A7), ...

  3. Environmental fate of roxarsone in poultry litter. I. Degradation of roxarsone during composting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garbarino, J.R.; Bednar, A.J.; Rutherford, D.W.; Beyer, R.S.; Wershaw, R. L.

    2003-01-01

    Roxarsone, 3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid, is an organoarsenic compound that is used extensively in the feed of broiler poultryto control coccidial intestinal parasites, improve feed efficiency, and promote rapid growth. Nearly all the roxarsone in the feed is excreted unchanged in the manure. Poultry litter composed of the manure and bedding material has a high nutrient content and is used routinely as a fertilizer on cropland and pasture. Investigations were conducted to determine the fate of poultrylitter roxarsone in the environment. Experiments indicated that roxarsone was stable in fresh dried litter; the primary arsenic species extracted with water from dried litter was roxarsone. However, when water was added to litter at about 50 wt % and the mixture was allowed to compost at 40 ??C, the speciation of arsenic shifted from roxarsone to primarily arsenate in about 30 days. Increasing the amount of water increased the rate of degradation. Experiments also suggested that the degradation process most likely was biotic in nature. The rate of degradation was directly proportional to the incubation temperature; heat sterilization eliminated the degradation. Biotic degradation also was supported by results from enterobacteriaceae growth media that were inoculated with litter slurry to enhance the biotic processes and to reduce the concomitant abiotic effects from the complex litter solution. Samples collected from a variety of litter windrows in Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Maryland also showed that roxarsone originally present had been converted to arsenate.

  4. Transformation of ionophore antimicrobials in poultry litter during pilot-scale composting.

    PubMed

    Munaretto, Juliana S; Yonkos, Lance; Aga, Diana S

    2016-05-01

    Ionophores are the second top selling class of antimicrobials used in food-producing animals in the United States. In chickens, ionophores are used as feed additives to control coccidiosis; up to 80% of administered ionophores are excreted in the litter. Because poultry litter is commonly used to fertilize agricultural fields, ionophore residues in litter have become contaminants of emerging concern. This study aims to develop a liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to quantify ionophores, and identify their transformation products (TPs) in poultry litter after on-farm pilot-scale composting. The validation parameters of the optimized method showed good accuracy, ranging from 71 to 119% recovery and relative standard deviation (precision) of ≤19% at three different concentration levels (10, 50 and 100 μg/kg). Monensin, salinomycin and narasin, were detected in the poultry litter samples prior to composting at 290.0 ± 40, 426 ± 46, and 3113 ± 318 μg kg(-1), respectively. This study also aims to investigate the effect of different composting conditions on the removal of ionophores, such as the effect of turning or aeration. Results revealed a 13-68% reduction in ionophore concentrations after 150 d of composting, depending on whether the compost was aerated, turned, or subjected to a combination of both aeration and turning. Three transformation products and one metabolite of ionophores were identified in the composted litter using high-resolution liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QToF/MS). PMID:26874321

  5. Reducing Phosphorus Runoff and Leaching from Poultry Litter with Alum: Twenty-Year Small Plot and Paired-Watershed Studies.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lidong; Moore, Philip A; Kleinman, Peter J A; Elkin, Kyle R; Savin, Mary C; Pote, Daniel H; Edwards, Dwayne R

    2016-07-01

    Treating poultry litter with alum has been shown to lower ammonia (NH) emissions and phosphorus (P) runoff losses. Two long-term studies were conducted to assess the effects of alum-treated poultry litter on P availability, leaching, and runoff under pasture conditions. From 1995 to 2015, litter was applied annually in a paired watershed study comparing alum-treated and untreated litter and in a small plot study comparing 13 treatments (an unfertilized control, four rates of alum-treated litter, four rates of untreated litter, and four rates of NHNO). In the paired watershed study, total P loads in runoff were 231% higher from pasture receiving untreated litter (1.96 kg P ha) than from that receiving alum-treated litter (0.85 kg P ha). In both studies, alum-treated litter resulted in significantly higher Mehlich III P (M3-P) and lower water-extractable P at the soil surface, reflecting greater retention of applied P and lesser availability of that P to runoff or leaching. In soils fertilized with alum-treated litter, M3-P was much higher when analyzed by inductively coupled argon plasma emission spectrometry than by colorimetry, possibly due to the formation of aluminum phytate. Indeed, alum-treated poultry litter leached less P over the 20-yr study: M3-P at 10 to 50 cm was 266% greater in plots fertilized with untreated litter (331 kg M3-P ha) than with alum-treated litter (124 kg M3-P ha). This research provides compelling evidence that treating poultry litter with alum provides short-term and long-term benefits to P conservation and water quality. PMID:27380092

  6. Determination of veterinary pharmaceuticals in poultry litter and soil by methanol extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Furtula, Vesna; Huang, Lee; Chambers, Patricia A

    2009-09-01

    Pharmaceuticals are emerging contaminants with potential risks to the environment and human health. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) method was developed for determination of the antimicrobials virginiamycin, monensin, salinomycin, narasin and nicarbazin in poultry litter and soil. This method involves methanol extraction and clean-up of extracts through glass microfibre filters, introduction of the extracts and separation of compounds on a Zorbax Eclipse XDB C8 column, and compound detection in a Quattro Micro Micromass spectrometer. For litter samples, Method Detection Limits ranged from 0.1-0.6 microg Kg(-1), while Limits of Quantitation (LOQs) were 2, 1, 0.4, 1 and 2 microg Kg(-1) for virginiamycin, monensin, salinomycin, narasin and nicarbazin, respectively. For soil samples calculated LOQs were 2, 3, 1, 1, and 1 microg Kg(-1) for virginiamycin, monensin, salinomycin, narasin and nicarbazin, respectively. Application of the LC-MS-MS method for detection of veterinary pharmaceuticals in litter collected from commercial poultry farms showed that compounds were present at concentrations ranging from 10-11,000 microg Kg(-1). PMID:20183082

  7. Influence of poultry litter on the toxicity of cadmium to aquatic organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosal, T.K.; Kaviraj, A.

    1996-12-01

    Increased deposition of cadmium in impounded water through atmospheric fallout and runoff water is a growing concern for aquaculture. In India, pisciculture practices are threatened by frequent low to moderate deposition of Cd in ponds. Although several studies have been conducted on Cd toxicity to freshwater organisms, little is known about the interaction of Cd with other chemicals present in the receiving water system. There is evidence that Cd, in the presence of other chemicals, may produce synergistic, additive or antagonistic effect on aquatic organisms. Aquatic ecosystems, heavily enriched by nitrogen and phosphorus, have reduced the stress imposed by Cd. In contrast, chemicals such as KMnO{sub 4} and CoCl{sub 2} used in aquaculture increase Cd toxicity to fish and plankton. Poultry litter is frequently used in pisciculture ponds to enrich nutrients. However, interaction of poultry litter with Cd is not known. 17 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  8. Phases' characteristics of poultry litter hydrothermal carbonization under a range of process parameters.

    PubMed

    Mau, Vivian; Quance, Julie; Posmanik, Roy; Gross, Amit

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this work was to study the hydrothermal carbonization of poultry litter under a range of process parameters. Experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of HTC of poultry litter under a range of operational parameters (temperature, reaction time, and solids concentration) on the formation and characteristics of its phases. Results showed production of a hydrochar with caloric value of 24.4MJ/kg, similar to sub-bituminous coal. The gaseous phase consisted mainly of CO2. However, significant amounts of H2S dictate the need for (further) treatment. The process also produced an aqueous phase with chemical characteristics suggesting its possible use as a liquid fertilizer. Temperature had the most significant effect on processes and product formation. Solids concentration was not a significant factor once dilution effects were considered. PMID:27544913

  9. Long Term Effects of Poultry Litter on Soil Physical and Chemical Properties in Cotton Plots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surrency, J.; Tsegaye, T.; Coleman, T.; Fahsi, A.; Reddy, C.

    1998-01-01

    Poultry litter and compost can alter the moisture holding capacity of a soil. These organic materials can also increase the nutrient status of a soil during the decomposition process by microbial actions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of poultry litter and compost on the dielectric constant and moisture holding capacity of soil. The Delta-T theta-probe was used to measure volumetric soil water content and the apparent dielectric constant of the upper 6-cm of the soil profile. Soil texture, pH, and organic matter were also determined for each plot. Results of these analyses indicated that the pH of the soil ranged from 6.4 to 7.7 and the volumetric soil moisture content ranged from 0.06 to 0.18 cu m/cu m for the upper 6-cm of the soil profile. The effect of poultry litter and compost on soil properties resulted in an increase in the volumetric moisture content and dielectric constant of the soil due to the improvement of the soil structure.

  10. Enhancing management of fall-applied poultry litter with cover crop and subsurface band placement in no-till cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whether yield reduction risk of cotton fertilized with fall-applied poultry litter in regions with warm fall or winter months can be minimized by applying the litter in subsurface bands in conjunction with winter cover crop is unknown. A field study was conducted in Mississippi to test whether litte...

  11. Arsenic in Soils and Forages from Poultry Litter-Amended Pastures

    PubMed Central

    Ashjaei, Shadi; Miller, William P.; Cabrera, Miguel L.; Hassan, Sayed M.

    2011-01-01

    In regions of concentrated poultry production, poultry litter (PL) that contains significant quantities of trace elements is commonly surface-applied to pastures at high levels over multiple years. This study examined the effect of long-term applications of PL on soil concentrations of arsenic (As), copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), and the uptake of these elements by bermuda grass grown on Cecil (well-drained) and Sedgefield (somewhat poorly-drained) soils. The results showed that concentrations of As, Cu, and Zn in soils that had received surface-applied PL over a 14-year period were significantly greater than untreated soil at 0–2.5 and 2.5–7.5 cm depths. However, the levels were well below the USEPA loading limits established for municipal biosolids. Arsenic fractionation showed that concentrations of all As fractions were significantly greater in PL-amended soils compared to untreated soils at 0–2.5 and 2.5–7.5 cm depths. The residual fraction was the predominant form of As in all soils. The water-soluble and NaHCO3-associated As were only 2% of the total As. Significant differences were found in concentrations of these trace elements and phosphorus (P) in forage from PL-amended soils compared to that in untreated plots. The concentrations of Cu, Zn, As, and P were significantly greater in forage from Sedgefield amended soil compared to Cecil soil, but were in all cases below levels of environmental concern. PMID:21655135

  12. Occurrence and sorption of fluoroquinolones in poultry litters and soils from São Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Leal, Rafael Marques Pereira; Figueira, Rafael Fernandes; Tornisielo, Valdemar Luiz; Regitano, Jussara Borges

    2012-08-15

    Animal production is one of the most expressive sectors of Brazilian agro-economy. Although antibiotics are routinely used in this activity, their occurrence, fate, and potential impacts to the local environment are largely unknown. This research evaluated sorption-desorption and occurrence of four commonly used fluoroquinolones (norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, danofloxacin, and enrofloxacin) in poultry litter and soil samples from São Paulo State, Brazil. The sorption-desorption studies involved batch equilibration technique and followed the OECD guideline for pesticides. All compounds were analyzed by HPLC, using fluorescence detector. Fluoroquinolones' sorption potential to the poultry litters (K(d) ≤65 L kg(-1)) was lower than to the soil (K(d) ~40,000 L kg(-1)), but was always high (≥69% of applied amount) indicating a higher specificity of fluoroquinolones interaction with soils. The addition of poultry litter (5%) to the soil had not affected sorption or desorption of these compounds. Desorption was negligible in the soil (≤0.5% of sorbed amount), but not in the poultry litters (up to 42% of sorbed amount). Fluoroquinolones' mean concentrations found in the poultry litters (1.37 to 6.68 mg kg(-1)) and soils (22.93 μg kg(-1)) were compatible to those found elsewhere (Austria, China, and Turkey). Enrofloxacin was the most often detected compound (30% of poultry litters and 27% of soils) at the highest mean concentrations (6.68 mg kg(-1) for poultry litters and 22.93 μg kg(-1) for soils). These results show that antibiotics are routinely used in poultry production and might represent one potential source of pollution to the environment that has been largely ignored and should be further investigated in Brazil. PMID:22750180

  13. Organoarsenicals in poultry litter: detection, fate, and toxicity.

    PubMed

    P Mangalgiri, Kiranmayi; Adak, Asok; Blaney, Lee

    2015-02-01

    Arsenic contamination in groundwater has endangered the health and safety of millions of people around the world. One less studied mechanism for arsenic introduction into the environment is the use of organoarsenicals in animal feed. Four organoarsenicals are commonly employed as feed additives: arsanilic acid, carbarsone, nitarsone, and roxarsone. Organoarsenicals are composed of a phenylarsonic acid molecule with substituted functional groups. This review documents the use of organoarsenicals in the poultry industry, reports analytical methods available for quantifying organic arsenic, discusses the fate and transport of organoarsenicals in environmental systems, and identifies toxicological concerns associated with these chemicals. In reviewing the literature on organoarsenicals, several research needs were highlighted: advanced analytical instrumentation that allows for identification and quantification of organoarsenical degradation products; a greater research emphasis on arsanilic acid, carbarsone, and nitarsone; identification of degradation pathways, products, and kinetics; and testing/development of agricultural wastewater and solid treatment technologies for organoarsenical-laden waste. PMID:25461415

  14. Microbial Communities and Enzymatic Activities as Affected by Various Poultry Litter Application Rates to Pasture and Cultivated Soils of the Texas Blackland Prairies Ecosystem

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land application is the most common and usually most desirable method of utilizing manure because of nutrient and organic matter addition to soils. In recent years, as a result of the shift to fewer and larger confined animal operations, environmental and economic issues associated with utilization...

  15. Role of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in modulating the efficiency of poultry litter composting with rock phosphate and its effect on growth and yield of wheat.

    PubMed

    Billah, Motsim; Bano, Asghari

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the role of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) in P solubilisation from rock phosphate through composting with poultry litter, and further to study the effects of prepared enriched composts on growth, yield, and phosphorus uptake of wheat crop. Various phosphorus-enriched composts were prepared from rock phosphate and poultry litter (1:10) with and without inoculation of plant growth promoting rhizobacterias (Pseudomonas sp. and Proteus sp.). Results showed that the rock-phosphate-added poultry litter had higher total phosphorus, available (Mehlic-3 extracted) phosphorus, microbial biomass (carbon and phosphorus), and lower total organic carbon, total nitrogen, and carbon/nitrogen ratio over poultry litter alone. Inoculation of Pseudomonas sp. with rock phosphate-added poultry litter showed maximum increase in available phosphorus (41% of total phosphorus) followed by Proteus sp. inoculation (30% of total phosphorus) over uninoculated treatment (23% of total phosphorus) on the 120th day of composting. Microbial biomass (carbon and phosphorus) increased up to Day 45 and tended to decrease till the 120th day of composting, irrespective of the treatments. However, in pot experiments, wheat seeds receiving inoculation with plant growth promoting rhizobacterias, subsequently treated with rock phosphate-enriched compost proved highly stimulatory to plant height, phosphorus uptake, grain yield, and seed phosphorus content over uninoculated untreated control. The plant growth promoting rhizobacterias inoculation can be a sustainable source releasing phosphorus from low grade rock phosphate through composting and application of rock phosphate-enriched compost can be an alternative to chemical fertilisers for better crop production. PMID:25423956

  16. The effect of poultry manure application rate and AlCl3 treatment on bacterial fecal indicators in runoff

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The land application of poultry litter was once considered to be the disposal of a ‘waste’ byproduct of the poultry industry, however, now due to increasing costs associated with inorganic fertilizer the application of this residual is becoming more desirable. Proper land application is paramount t...

  17. Extractability and leachability of Pb in a shooting range soil amended with poultry litter ash: investigations for immobilization potentials.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Yohey; Taki, Tomohiro; Sato, Takeshi

    2009-05-01

    The use of agricultural and industrial by-products as a metal immobilizing agent is cost effective for remediation of vast amounts of contaminated soil. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of an amendment (poultry litter ash) on immobilizing Pb in a shooting range soil. For a contaminant transport study, the soil admixed with amendment at the rate of 0 (control), 0.5, 1, 3 and 6%(w/w) was packed into soil columns and eluted solutions were collected through 40 pore volumes. The amendment application significantly reduced the concentrations of water-extractable and toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP)-extractable Pb by > 96% and > 97% of control, respectively. The contaminant transport study demonstrated that increasing amendment additions up to 3% decreased eluted Pb concentration below 0.5 mg L(-1). The X-ray diffraction peaks indicative of chloropyromorphite were observed in the soil of the 1 and 3% treatments, but were less intense in the 0.5 and 6% treatments. The 6% treatment had an eluted Pb concentration of 13 mg L(-1) at the first pore volume and significantly increased the total Pb elution (38 mg kg(-1)), mainly due to a drastic increase of organically complexed Pb as a result of soil alkalinization. These results suggest that poultry litter ash may have potential for immobilizing Pb in shooting range sites, if the soil pH is properly managed. PMID:19337921

  18. Phosphorus release behaviors of poultry litter biochar as a soil amendment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue; Lin, Yingxin; Chiu, Pei C; Imhoff, Paul T; Guo, Mingxin

    2015-04-15

    Phosphorus (P) may be immobilized and consequently the runoff loss risks be reduced if poultry litter (PL) is converted into biochar prior to land application. Laboratory studies were conducted to examine the water extractability of P in PL biochar and its release kinetics in amended soils. Raw PL and its biochar produced through 400°C pyrolysis were extracted with deionized water under various programs and measured for water extractable P species and contents. The materials were further incubated with a sandy loam at 20 g kg(-1) soil and intermittently leached with water for 30 days. The P release kinetics were determined from the P recovery patterns in the water phase. Pyrolysis elevated the total P content from 13.7 g kg(-1) in raw PL to 27.1 g kg(-1) in PL biochar while reduced the water-soluble P level from 2.95 g kg(-1) in the former to 0.17 g kg(-1) in the latter. The thermal treatment transformed labile P in raw PL to putatively Mg/Ca phosphate minerals in biochar that were water-unextractable yet proton-releasable. Orthophosphate was the predominant form of water-soluble P in PL biochar, with condensed phosphate (e.g., pyrophosphate) as a minor form and organic phosphate in null. Release of P from PL biochar in both water and neutral soils was at a slower and steadier rate over a longer time period than from raw PL. Nevertheless, release of P from biochar was acid-driven and could be greatly promoted by the media acidity. Land application of PL biochar at soil pH-incorporated rates and frequency will potentially reduce P losses to runoffs and minimize the adverse impact of waste application on aquatic environments. PMID:25644841

  19. Slow pyrolysis of poultry litter and pine woody biomass: impact of chars and bio-oils on microbial growth.

    PubMed

    Das, K C; Garcia-Perez, M; Bibens, B; Melear, N

    2008-06-01

    Accidental or prescribed fires in forests and in cultivated fields, as well as primitive charcoal production practices, are responsible for the release of large amounts of gases, char and condensable organic molecules into the environment. This paper describes the impact of condensable organic molecules and chars resulting from the slow pyrolysis of poultry litter, pine chips and pine pellets on the growth of microbial populations in soil and water. The proximate and elemental analyses as well as the content of proteins, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and ash for each of these bio-materials are reported. The yields and some properties of char and condensable liquids are also documented. The behavior of microbial populations in soil and water is followed through respiration studies. It was found that biological activity was highest when aqueous fractions from poultry litter were applied in water. Cumulative oxygen consumption over a 120-h period was highest in the aqueous phases from poultry litter coarse fraction (1.82 mg/g). On average the oxygen consumption when oily fractions from poultry litter were applied represented 44 to 62% of that when aqueous fractions were applied. Pine chip and pine pellet derived liquids and chars produced respiration activity that were an order of magnitude lower than that of poultry litter liquid fractions. These results suggest that the growth observed is due to the effect of protein-derived molecules. PMID:18444073

  20. Direct Speciation of Phosphorus in Alum-Amended Poultry Litter: Solid-State 31P NMR Investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Hunger, Stefan; Cho, Herman M.; Sims, James T.; Sparks, Donald L.

    2004-02-01

    Amending poultry litter (PL) with aluminum sulfate (alum) has proven to be effective in reducing water-soluble phosphorus (P) in the litter and in runoff from fields that have received PL applications; it has therefore been suggested as a best management practice. Although its effectiveness has been demonstrated on a macroscopic scale in the field, little is known about P speciation in either alumamended or unamended litter. This knowledge is important for the evaluation of the long-term stability and bioavailability of P, which is a necessary prerequisite for the assessment of the sustainability of intensive poultry operations. Both solid state MAS and CP-MAS {sup 31}P NMR as well as {sup 31}P({sup 27}Al) TRAPDOR were used to investigate P speciation in alumamended and unamended PL. The results indicate the presence of a complex mixture of organic and inorganic orthophosphate phases. A calcium phosphate phase, probably a surface precipitate on calcium carbonate, could be identified in both unamended and alum-amended PL, as well as physically bound HPO{sub 4}{sup 2-}. Phosphate associated with Al was found in the alum-amended PL, most probably a mixture of a poorly ordered wavellite and phosphate surface complexes on aluminum hydroxide that had been formed by the hydrolysis of alum. However, a complex mixture of organic and inorganic phosphate species could not be resolved. Phosphate associated with Al comprised on average 40{+-}14% of the total P in alum-amended PL, whereas calcium phosphate phases comprised on average 7{+-}4% in the alum-amended PL and 14{+-}5% in the unamended PL.

  1. Poultry litter and switchgrass blending for biochar production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biochars for both soil improvement and bioenergy applications are affected by the choice of both the parent feedstock and pyrolysis temperature. As such, controlling these two variables may yield an ideal product with engineered properties—“A Designer Biochar.” The potential for a designer biochar c...

  2. Assessing changes in the composition of broiler litters from commercial poultry units in Northern Ireland following the adoption of phytase in diets.

    PubMed

    Foy, R H; Ball, M E E; George, J

    2014-11-01

    Microbial phytases increase the bioavailability of phytate P in poultry diets, and a survey was undertaken to determine if their use had lowered the P composition of broiler litter in Northern Ireland compared with standard values of litter composition listed in the current United Kingdom fertilizer recommendations. Litter samples were collected from a total of 20 units across Northern Ireland in 2010 and analyzed for DM, N, phosphate (P2O5), potash (K2O), magnesium oxide (MgO), water-soluble P (WSP), ammonium N (NH4N), and uric acid N. Dry matter of litter was positively correlated (P < 0.001) with N (r(2) = 0.65), P2O5 (r(2) = 0.63), K2O (r(2) = 0.56), and MgO (r(2) = 0.58). Negative correlations were observed between litter DM and WSP (r(2) = 0.45, P < 0.001) and NH4N (r(2) = 0.22, P = 0.038) contents. A standardized litter composition with a 60% DM gave a phosphate content of 13.7 kg/t that was 45% lower than the fertilizer book value (RB209), but there were only slight differences (<3%) between book values and DM standardized values for N and potash contents. Uric acid and NH4 contents were similar to published values. Mean N:P ratio (by weight) of litter increased from 3.7 in 2004 to 5.0 in 2010, lowering the risk of oversupply of P if land applications are targeted to meet N supply. Using the standard RB209 values to plan land applications of broiler litter to meet crop P demands risks undersupplying P, and there is a need for the regulatory values to be modified in light of the changing composition of broiler litter. PMID:25260527

  3. Phosphate reactivity in long-term poultry litter-amended southern Delaware sandy soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arai, Y.; Livi, K.J.T.; Sparks, D.L.

    2005-01-01

    Eutrophication caused by dissolved P from poultry litter (PL)-amended agricultural soils has been a serious environmental concern in the Delaware-Maryland-Virginia Peninsula (Delmarva), USA. To evaluate state and federal nutrient management strategies for reducing the environmental impact of soluble P from long-term PL-amended Delaware (DE) soils, we investigated (i) inorganic P speciation; (ii) P adsorption capacity; and (iii) the extent of P desorption. Although the electron microprobe (EMP) analyses showed a strong correlation between P and Al/Fe, crystalline Al/Fe-P precipitates were not detected by x-ray diffraction (XRD). Instead, the inorganic P fractionation analyses showed high levels of oxalate extractable P, Al, and Fe fractions (615-858, 1215-1478, and 337-752 mg kg-1, respectively), which were susceptible to slow release during the long-term (30-d) P desorption experiments at a moderately acidic soil pHwater. The labile P in the short-term (24-h) desorption studies was significantly associated with oxalate and F extractable Fe and Al, respectively. This was evident in an 80% reduction maximum in total desorbable P from NH4 oxalate/F pretreated soils. In the adsorption experiments, P was strongly retained in soils at near targeted pH of lime (???6.0), but P adsorption gradually decreased with decreasing pH near the soil pHwater (???5.0). The overall findings suggest that P losses from the can be suppressed by an increase in the P retention capacity of soils via (i) an increase in the number of lime applications to maintain soil pHwater at near targeted pH values, and/or (ii) alum/iron sulfate amendments to provide additional Al- and Fe-based adsorbents. ?? Soil Science Society of America.

  4. Soil solution chemistry of a fly ash-, poultry litter-, and sewage sludge-amended soil

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, B.P.; Miller, W.P.

    2000-04-01

    Mixing coal fly ash (FA) with organic wastes to provide balanced soil amendments offers a potential viable use of this industrial by-product. When such materials are land-applied to supply nutrients for agronomic crops, trace element contaminant solubility must be evaluated. In this study, major and trace element soil solution concentrations arising from application of fly ash, organic wastes, and mixtures of the two were compared in a laboratory incubation. Two fly ashes, broiler poultry litter (PL), municipal sewage sludge (SS), and mixtures of FA with either PL or SS were mixed with a Cecil sandy loam (fine, kaolinitic, thermic Typic Kanhapludult) at rates of 32.3, 8.1, and 16.1 g kg{sup {minus}1} soil for FA, PL, and SS, respectively. Treatments were incubated at 22 C at 17% moisture content and soil solution was periodically extracted by centrifugation over 33 d. Initial soil solution concentrations of As, Mo, Se, and Cu were significantly greater in FA/OL treatments than the respective FA-only treatments. For Cu, increased solution concentrations were attributable to increased loading rates in FA/PL mixtures. Solution Cu concentrations were strongly correlated with dissolved C (R{sup 2} > 0.96) in all PL treatments. Significant interactive effects for solution Mo and Se concentrations were observed for the FA/PL and may have resulted from the increased pH and competing anion concentrations of these treatments. Solution As concentrations showed a significant interactive effect for one FA/PL mixture. For the individual treatments, As was more soluble in the Pl treatment than either FA treatment. Except for soluble Se from on FA/SS mixture, trace element solubility in the FA/SS mixtures was not significantly different than the respective FA-only treatment.

  5. Lime and Micronutrient Use in Clean Chip Residual Substrate Amended with Composted Poultry Litter or Peat for Use in Annual Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Clean Chip Residual (CCR) has been identified as possible replacement for pine bark (PB) in nursery and greenhouse production. Poultry litter is a major waste problem in Alabama for which alternative uses need to be explored. Pine bark, CCR, Composted poultry litter (CPL) CPL and peat were tested i...

  6. Greenhouse gas (CO2, CH4, N2O) flux associated with agricultural fields with residual poultry litter applied as banded and surface applied treatments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tillage and fertilization practices used in row crop production are thought to alter greenhouse gas emissions from soil. One fertilization practice that can have long lasting impacts in greenhouse gas emissions is poultry litter. Poultry litter is increasingly being used as a source of fertilizer i...

  7. Poultry manure application time impact on corn grain production in a crider silt loam

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the growing interest in poultry litter (PL) use as nutrient sources, whether fall versus spring application timing is consequential to production, is pertinent. This study investigated the effects of fall and spring application of two rates of PL (9.0 Mg-ha-1 and 18.0 Mg-ha-1) and a 19-19-19 (...

  8. In vivo and in vitro estrogenicity and GC/MS/MS and LC/MS/MS quantification of estrogens in aqueous mixtures of raw and pelletized poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abundance, degradation, and bio-activity of estrogens were examined in aqueous solutions of poultry litter from three Delmarva broiler integrators, a pelletized litter sample, a biosolids sample from a regional WWTP, and an estrone (E1) positive control allowed to stand static for 28 days. Litter an...

  9. Development of a Quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay to Target a Novel Group of Ammonia-Producing Bacteria Found in Poultry Litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia production in poultry houses has serious implications for flock health and performance, nutrient value of poultry litter, and energy costs for running poultry operations. The urease enzyme is responsible for the final step in the conversion of organic N (specifically uric acid and urea) to ...

  10. Evaluation of Poultry Litter Amendment to Agricultural Soils: Leaching Losses and Partitioning of Trace Elements in Collard Greens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leaching of trace metals and greenhouse plant growth (Collard greens; Brassica oleracea var. acephala) response studies were conducted in two types of soils with contrasting characteristics amended with varying rates (0 to 24.70 Mg ha-1) of poultry litter (PL) or 1:1 mixture of PL and fly ash (FA). ...

  11. Effect of poultry litter biochar on Saccharomyces cerevisiae growth and ethanol production from steam-exploded poplar and corn stover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diallo, Oumou

    The use of ethanol produced from lignocellulosic biomass for transportation fuel offers solutions in reducing environmental emission and the use of non-renewable fuels. However, lignocellulosic ethanol production is still hampered by economic and technical obstacles. For instance, the inhibitory effect of toxic compounds produced during biomass pretreatment was reported to inhibit the fermenting microorganisms, hence there was a decrease in ethanol yield and productivity. Thus, there is a need to improve the bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol in order to promote its commercialization. The research reported here investigated the use of poultry litter biochar to improve the ethanol production from steam-exploded poplar and corn stover. The effect of poultry litter biochar was first studied on Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 204508/S288C growth, and second on the enzyme hydrolysis and fermentation of two steam-exploded biomasses: (poplar and corn stover). The third part of the study investigated optimal process parameters (biochar loading, biomass loading, and enzyme loading) on the reducing sugars production, and ethanol yield from steam-exploded corn stover. In this study, it has been shown that poultry litter biochar improved the S. cerevisiae growth and ethanol productivity; therefore poultry litter biochar could potentially be used to improve the ethanol production from steam-exploded lignocellulosic biomass.

  12. Consequences of Aluminum or Ferrous Sulfate Amended Poultry Litter on Concentrations of Aluminum in Plants and Soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Amending poultry litter with aluminum sulfate (alum) reduces phosphorous (P) runoff and ammonia volatilization but its effects on soil pH are not completely researched. Greenhouse pot experiments with cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and soybean (Glycine max. L. Merr) as test crops were conducted with...

  13. Identification and Molecular Characterization of Class 1 Integrons in Multiresistant Escherichia coli Isolates from Poultry Litter

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Márquez, María-Enriqueta; Khan, Ashraf A.

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the prevalence of arrays of class 1 integron cassettes and Qnr determinants (A, B, and S) in 19 fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli isolates from chicken litter. qnrS and qnrA were the predominant genes in these fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates, and an uncommon array of aacA4-catB3-dfrA1 gene cassettes from a class1 integron was found. Additionally, aadA1 and dfrA1 gene cassettes, encoding resistance to streptomycin and trimethoprim, constituted the most common genes identified and was located on megaplasmids as well on the chromosome. Antibiotic resistance, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and plasmid data suggest a genetically diverse origin of poultry E. coli isolates. PMID:22635994

  14. On-farm agro-economic effects of fertilizing cropland with poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As animal feeding operations increase in size, public and regulatory pressure is being exerted on the animal industry to develop and implement appropriate by-product utilization practices. One such practice is offsite application of litter and manure as fertilizer for cultivated crop production. How...

  15. Poultry litter incineration as a source of energy: reviewing the potential for impacts on environmental health and justice.

    PubMed

    Stingone, Jeanette A; Wing, Steve

    2011-01-01

    Legislation in North Carolina has mandated obtaining renewable energy from the incineration of poultry waste, resulting in proposals for three poultry-litter-fueled power plants statewide. This article summarizes environmental health and environmental justice issues associated with incineration of poultry waste for the generation of electric power. Emissions from poultry waste incineration include particulate matter, dioxins, arsenic, bioaerosols and other toxins; various components are associated with cardiovascular disease, cancer, respiratory illness, and other diseases. Industrial farm animal production tends to be concentrated in low-income, rural communities, where residents may be more vulnerable to air pollutants due to pre-existing diseases, other exposures and stressors, and poor access to medical services. These communities lack the political clout to prevent citing of polluting facilities or to pressure industry and government to follow and enforce regulations. Policies intended to reduce reliance on fossil fuels have the potential to increase environmental injustices and threats to environmental health. PMID:21411424

  16. Develop an alternate energy source thru use of a poultry litter pelletizer and a combustion chamber to heat poultry houses. Final technical project report

    SciTech Connect

    Gonthier, M.W.; Mercier, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    Poultry litter in a pelletized form is an acceptable energy source. The machinery and mechanism to process the litter, the combustion chamber with supporting controls and equipment, is practical and marketable. The controlling factor is economic demand. With the price of fossil fuel diminishing and with the labor cost and energy cost to process the litter, it is not economically desirable to pay the equivalent of $1.50 per gallon. It would not be economically competitive with present heating power plants because of its high initial cost, the cost of labor to maintain a pellet supply and the undesirable feature of solid fuel versus liquid fuel. This system could not be fully competitive with present systems until fuel pric

  17. Environmental impacts of in-house windrow composting of broiler litter prior to land application in subtropical/semi-arid conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land application to crop and pasture land is a common and effective method of utilizing the resource value of poultry litter. In-house windrow composting of litter is an emerging management practice with the potential to mitigate water quality and nuisance odor concerns associated with land applica...

  18. Odour emissions from poultry litter - A review litter properties, odour formation and odorant emissions from porous materials.

    PubMed

    Dunlop, Mark W; Blackall, Patrick J; Stuetz, Richard M

    2016-07-15

    Odour emissions from meat chicken sheds can at times cause odour impacts on surrounding communities. Litter is seen as the primary source of this odour. Formation and emission of odour from meat chicken litter during the grow-out period are influenced by various factors such as litter conditions, the environment, microbial activity, properties of the odorous gases and management practices. Odour emissions vary spatially and temporally. This variability has made it challenging to understand how specific litter conditions contribute to odour emissions from the litter and production sheds. Existing knowledge on odorants, odour formation mechanisms and emission processes that contribute to odour emissions from litter are reviewed. Litter moisture content and water thermodynamics (i.e. water activity, Aw) are also examined as factors that contribute to microbial odour formation, physical litter conditions and the exchange of individual odorant gases at the air-water interface. Substantial opportunities exist for future research on litter conditions and litter formation mechanisms and how these contribute to odour emissions. Closing this knowledge gap will improve management strategies that intercept and interfere with odour formation and emission processes leading to an overall reduction in the potential to cause community impacts. PMID:27111649

  19. Veterinary pharmaceuticals and antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli isolates in poultry litter from commercial farms and controlled feeding trials.

    PubMed

    Furtula, V; Farrell, E G; Diarrassouba, F; Rempel, H; Pritchard, J; Diarra, M S

    2010-01-01

    Veterinary pharmaceuticals are commonly used in poultry farming to prevent and treat microbial infections as well as to increase feed efficiency, but their use has created public and environmental health concerns. Poultry litter contains antimicrobial residues and resistant bacteria; when applied as fertilizer, the level and effects of these pharmaceuticals and antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in the environment are of concern. The purpose of this study was to investigate poultry litter for veterinary pharmaceuticals and resistance patterns of Escherichia coli. Litter samples were collected from controlled feeding trials and from commercial farms. Feed additives bacitracin, chlortetracycline, monensin, narasin, nicarbazin, penicillin, salinomycin, and virginiamycin, which were present in the feed on commercial farms and added to the feed in the controlled trials, were extracted in methanol and analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry techniques. Sixty-nine E. coli were isolated and identified by API 20E. The susceptibility of the isolates to antibiotics was determined using Avian plates and the Sensititer automated system. This study confirmed the presence of antimicrobial residues in broiler litter from controlled environments as well as commercial farms, ranging from 0.07 to 66 mg/L depending on the compound. Concentrations of individual residues were higher in litter from controlled feeding trials than those from commercial farms. All E. coli isolates from commercial farms were multiresistant to at least 7 antibiotics. Resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics (amoxicillin, ceftiofur), tetracyclines, and sulfonamides was the most prevalent. This study concluded that broiler litter is a source of antimicrobial residues and represents a reservoir of multiple antibiotic-resistant E. coli. PMID:20008817

  20. An assessment of the effectiveness of four in-house treatments to reduce the bacterial levels in poultry litter.

    PubMed

    Lopes, M; Leite, F L; Valente, B S; Heres, T; Dai Prá, M A; Xavier, E G; Roll, V F B

    2015-09-01

    Although the use of quicklime (CaO) and tarping are common handling practices aimed at the reuse of litter in the Brazilian poultry industry, few scientific studies have proven the effectiveness of these methods in reducing the pathogenic microbial load during fallowing. The objective of this study was to evaluate the following litter treatments: T1 no treatment (control), T2 quicklime (300 g m(-2)), T3 tarping, T4 tarping+quicklime (300 g m(-2)). The litter samples were collected on day zero and on the sixth and twelfth days after the start of fallowing. The use of quicklime alone or quicklime+tarping was more effective (P<0.05) in reducing bacteria when compared to litter tarping. Except for the control group, all treatments resulted in a more than 84% reduction in the count of colony-forming units (CFUs) at the end of fallowing. It is concluded that the use of quicklime alone in practical terms is the most indicated treatment for the reduction of the bacterial load of poultry litter. PMID:26217027

  1. Effects of in ovo vaccination and anticoccidials on the distribution of Eimeria spp. in poultry litter and serum antibody titers against coccidia in broiler chickens raised on the used litters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study reports the effects of various field anticoccidial programs on the distribution of Eimeria spp. in poultry litter and serum antibody titers against coccidia in broiler chickens raised on the used litters. The programs included in ovo vaccination and various medications with either ...

  2. Effect of in ovo vaccination and anticoccidials on the distribution of Eimeria spp. in poultry litter and serum antibody titers against coccidia in broiler chickens raised on used litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study reports the effects of various field anticoccidial programs on the distribution of Eimeria spp. in poultry litter and serum antibody titers against coccidia in broiler chickens raised on used litter. The programs included in ovo vaccination and various medications with either chemi...

  3. Agronomic and environmental soil test phosphorus method comparisons and diet modification impacts on poultry litter phosphorus composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eugene, Branly

    account for extractable Al and Fe, the primary P sorbents in most soils. Although Bray P1 is an appropriate soil test based on the data generated in this study, it would not be the most practical soil test as it is not considered a multi-element extraction in most states. Since PM3 was strongly correlated with Bray P1 and the benefit of using PM3as a multi-element extractant from which the PSRM3 can be calculated, it is probably the most practical test to use for both agronomic and environmental soil P assessment. We also evaluated the impacts of diets containing different amounts of DDGS and dietary fumeric acid on P excretion and P transformations during litter storage. Total P and phytate P were significantly (p< 0.0001) affected by dietary inclusion of DDGS; where DDGS inclusion of 20% decreased TP by 16, 15, and 16% for day 0, 7, and 14 of storage, respectively compared to commercial diets. Phytate P, on the other hand, was reduced by 38, 37, and 47% for day 0, 7, and 14 of storage, respectively. Overall, DDGS influenced the forms of P in poultry litter with phytate P being the most impacted. The inclusion of DDGS in poultry diets seems promising as it can potentially decrease the levels of phytate P in poultry litters, which is of may be of environmental significance as phytate P can desorb inorganic P in soils.

  4. Nutrient release and ammonium sorption by poultry litter and wood biochars in stormwater treatment.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jing; Miller, Valentina; Chiu, Pei C; Maresca, Julia A; Guo, Mingxin; Imhoff, Paul T

    2016-05-15

    The feasibility of using biochar as a filter medium in stormwater treatment facilities was evaluated with a focus on ammonium retention. Successive batch extractions and batch ammonium sorption experiments were conducted in both deionized (DI) water and artificial stormwater using poultry litter (PL) and hardwood (HW) biochars pyrolyzed at 400°C and 500°C. No measureable nitrogen leached from HW biochars except 0.07 μmol/g of org-N from 400°C HW biochar. PL biochar pyrolyzed at 400°C leached 120-127 μmol/g of nitrogen but only 7.1-8.6 μmol/g of nitrogen when pyrolyzed at 500°C. Ammonium sorption was significant for all biochars. At a typical ammonium concentration of 2mg/L in stormwater, the maximum sorption was 150 mg/kg for PL biochar pryolyzed at 400°C. In stormwater, ion competition (e.g. Ca(2+)) suppressed ammonium sorption compared to DI water. Surprisingly, ammonium sorption was negatively correlated to the BET surface area of the tested biochars, but increased linearly with cation exchange capacity. Cation exchange capacity was the primary mechanism controlling ammonium sorption and was enhanced by pyrolysis at 400°C, while BET surface area was enhanced by pyrolysis at 500°C. The optimal properties (BET surface area, CEC, etc.) of biochar as a sorbent are not fixed but depend on the target pollutant. Stormwater infiltration column experiments in sand with 10% biochar removed over 90% of ammonium with influent ammonium concentration of 2mg/L, compared to only 1.7% removal in a sand-only column, indicating that kinetic limitations on sorption were minor for the storm conditions studied. Hardwood and poultry litter biochar pyrolyzed at 500°C and presumably higher temperature may be viable filter media for stormwater treatment facilities, as they showed limited release of organic and inorganic nutrients and acceptable ammonium sorption. PMID:26938322

  5. Updraft gasification of poultry litter at farm-scale--A case study.

    PubMed

    Taupe, N C; Lynch, D; Wnetrzak, R; Kwapinska, M; Kwapinski, W; Leahy, J J

    2016-04-01

    Farm and animal wastes are increasingly being investigated for thermochemical conversion, such as gasification, due to the urgent necessity of finding new waste treatment options. We report on an investigation of the use of a farm-scale, auto-thermal gasification system for the production of a heating gas using poultry litter (PL) as a feedstock. The gasification process was robust and reliable. The PL's ash melting temperature was 639°C, therefore the reactor temperature was kept around this value. As a result of the low reactor temperature the process performance parameters were low, with a cold gas efficiency (CGE) of 0.26 and a carbon conversion efficiency (CCE) of 0.44. The calorific value of the clean product gas was 3.39 MJ m(-3)N (LHV). The tar was collected as an emulsion containing 87 wt.% water and the extracted organic compounds were identified. The residual char exceeds thresholds for Zn and Cu to obtain European biochar certification; however, has potential to be classified as a pyrogenic carbonaceous material (PCM), which resembles a high nutrient biochar. PMID:26948170

  6. Poultry litter and the environment: Physiochemical properties of litter and soil during successive flock rotations and after remote site deposition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The U.S. broiler meat market has grown over the past 16 years and destinations for U.S. broiler meat exports expanded to over 150 countries. This market opportunity has spurred a corresponding increase in industrialized poultry production, which due to the confined space in which high numbers of an...

  7. Hydrothermal carbonisation of poultry litter: Effects of treatment temperature and residence time on yields and chemical properties of hydrochars.

    PubMed

    Ghanim, Bashir M; Pandey, Daya Shankar; Kwapinski, Witold; Leahy, James J

    2016-09-01

    In this study, hydrochars were prepared by hydrothermal carbonisation (HTC) of poultry litter (PL) at temperatures between 150-300°C with residence times of 30, 120 and 480min. The effects of treatment temperature and residence time on the yield and composition of hydrochar were investigated. Both treatment temperature and residence time effects were observed however, the effect of residence time was lower. The results indicated that the HHV was improved by up to 25.17% and the overall ash in hydrochar was significantly lower compared to PL, however this coincided with a lower hydrochar yield. PMID:27262091

  8. Engineering and economic feasibility of using poultry litter as a fuel to generate electric power at Maryland`s Eastern Correctional Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Estomin, S.L.; Walters, G.; Prasad, A.; Ross, J.

    1998-02-16

    This report presents an analysis of the engineering, environmental, and economic feasibility of the Eastern Correctional Institute (ECI) meeting its electric power and thermal requirements by relying on poultry litter as a fuel. In addition to satisfying all or a portion of the utility requirements of ECI, a maximum/medium security prison located in Princess Anne, Maryland, the use of poultry litter as a fuel would reduce the amount of poultry waste currently used on the Eastern Shore as fertilizer. Based on the engineering and environmental assessments conducted, three alternative scenarios to satisfy ECI`s electric power supply and thermal requirements using poutlry litter as a fuel were developed. For all scenarios, as well as a base case defined by current operations at ECI, 20-year life-cycle costs were estimated based on projections of usage, capital costs, fuel costs, labor costs, and other relevant factors.

  9. Comparison of two poultry litter qPCR assays targeting the 16S rRNA gene of Brevibacterium sp.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Hodon; Elk, Michael; Khan, Izhar U H; Harwood, Valerie J; Molina, Marirosa; Edge, Thomas A; Domingo, Jorge Santo

    2014-01-01

    Chicken feces commonly contain human pathogens and are also important sources of fecal pollution in environmental waters. Consequently, methods that can detect chicken fecal pollution are needed in public health and environmental monitoring studies. In this study, we compared a previously developed SYBR green qPCR assay (LA35) to a novel TaqMan qPCR assay (CL) for the environmental detection of poultry-associated fecal pollution. We tested both assays against chicken litter (n = 40), chicken fecal samples (n = 186), non-chicken fecal sources (n = 484), and environmental water samples (n = 323). Most chicken litter samples (i.e., ≥ 98%) were positive for both assays with relatively high signal intensities, whereas only 23% and 12% of poultry fecal samples (n = 186) were positive with the LA35 and the CL assays, respectively. Data using fecal samples from non-target animal species showed that the assays are highly host-associated (≥ 95%). Bayesian statistical models showed that the two assays are associated with relatively low probability of false-positive and false-negative signals in water samples. The CL marker had a lower prevalence than the LA35 assay when tested against environmental water samples (i.e., 21% vs. 31% positive signals). However, by combining the results from the two assays the detection levels increased to 41%, suggesting that using multiple assays can improve the detection of chicken-fecal pollution in environmental waters. PMID:24169514

  10. Rainfall and tillage effects on transport of fecal bacteria and sex hormones 17beta-estradiol and testosterone from broiler litter applications to a Georgia Piedmont Ultisol.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Michael B; Truman, Clint C; Siragusa, Gregory; Line, Eric; Bailey, J Stan; Frye, Jonathan; Endale, Dinku M; Franklin, Dorcas H; Schomberg, Harry H; Fisher, Dwight S; Sharpe, Ronald R

    2008-09-15

    Poultry litter provides nutrients for crop and pasture production; however, it also contains fecal bacteria, sex hormones (17beta-estradiol and testosterone) and antibiotic residues that may contaminate surface waters. Our objective was to quantify transport of fecal bacteria, estradiol, testosterone and antibiotic residues from a Cecil sandy loam managed since 1991 under no-till (NT) and conventional tillage (CT) to which either poultry litter (PL) or conventional fertilizer (CF) was applied based on the nitrogen needs of corn (Zea mays L) in the Southern Piedmont of NE Georgia. Simulated rainfall was applied for 60 min to 2 by 3-m field plots at a constant rate in 2004 and variable rate in 2005. Runoff was continuously measured and subsamples taken for determining flow-weighted concentrations of fecal bacteria, hormones, and antibiotic residues. Neither Salmonella, nor Campylobacter, nor antimicrobial residues were detected in litter, soil, or runoff. Differences in soil concentrations of fecal bacteria before and after rainfall simulations were observed only for Escherichia coli in the constant rainfall intensity experiment. Differences in flow-weighted concentrations were observed only for testosterone in both constant and variable intensity rainfall experiments, and were greatest for treatments that received poultry litter. Total loads of E. coli and fecal enterococci, were largest for both tillage treatments receiving poultry litter for the variable rainfall intensity. Load of testosterone was greatest for no-till plots receiving poultry litter under variable rainfall intensity. Poultry litter application rates commensurate for corn appeared to enhance only soil concentrations of E. coli, and runoff concentrations of testosterone above background levels. PMID:18571694

  11. Exploration of using stripped ammonia and ash from poultry litter for the cultivation of the cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis and the green microalga Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Markou, Giorgos; Iconomou, Dimitris; Sotiroudis, Theodore; Israilides, Cleanthes; Muylaert, Koenraad

    2015-11-01

    Herein a new approach of exploiting poultry litter (PL) is demonstrated. The suggested method includes drying of PL with simultaneously striping and recovery of ammonia, followed by the direct combustion of dried PL. The generated ash after the combustion, and the striped ammonia consequently, could be used as nutrient source for the cultivation of microalgae or cyanobacteria to produce feed additives. The present study explored the application of PL ash and recovered ammonia for the cultivation of Arthrospira platensis and Chlorella vulgaris. For a simultaneously 90% dissolution of ash potassium and phosphorus, a ratio of acid to ash of 0.02mol-H(+)/g was required. The optimum mass of ash required was 0.07-0.08g/g dry biomass, while the addition of ammoniac nitrogen of 8-9mgN per g of dry biomass per day was adequate for a satisfactory production of A. platensis and C. vulgaris. PMID:26280098

  12. Broiler Litter Application Method and Antecedent Time to Runoff Initiation Effect on Nutrient and E. coli Losses from Tall Fescue Pasture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many studies have indicated the advantages of manure incorporation into soil in contrast to broadcast application to reduce nutrient losses. However, subsurface application of poultry litter through injection banding into a perennial forage system has not been evaluated. We used rainfall simulations...

  13. Fungal population levels in soils of cotton fields fertilized with poultry litter and their relationships to soil nutrient concentrations and plant growth parameters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungal population levels in soil and their relationships to nutrient concentrations and plant growth were evaluated in plots on two cotton farms in Mississippi where poultry litter (PL) was applied as a fertilizer to promote its safe disposal. Fungal population levels were estimated by dilution pla...

  14. SEX HORMONES FROM POULTRY LITTER-THEIR FATE AND TRANSPORT IN RUNOFF AND DRAINAGE FROM CROPPED TILL- AND NO-TILL PLOTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The millions of tons of poultry litter that are applied to agricultural fields annually are a source of the sex hormones estradiol and testosterone. Our objective was to determine if the concentrations of these two sex hormones in runoff and drainage from till and no-till soils receiving broiler lit...

  15. Evaluation of Composted Poultry Litter as a Substrate Amendment for WholeTree, Clean Chip Residual, and Pinebark for Container Grown Woody Nursery Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    WholeTree (WT) and Clean Chip Residual (CCR) are potential new nursery substrates that are by-products of the forestry industry containing high wood content. Initial immobilization of nitrogen is one concern when using these new substrates; however the addition of composted poultry litter (CPL) to s...

  16. LINT YIELD ADVANTAGES OF NO-TILL AND POULTRY LITTER-BASED COTTON/RYE CROPPING SYSTEM IN A SOUTHERN PIEDMONT SOIL: A FIVE YEARS DATA SET

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton [Gossipium hirsutum (L.)] is a dominant crop in the Southeast. It is largely grown using conventional tillage and fertilizers. Georgia and bordering states produce about 42% of the poultry in the United States, but only a small percentage of the litter is utilized as fertilizer. We measured...

  17. Utilization of Poultry Litter to Enhance Fungal Activity and Microbial Dynamics in the Presence of Pesticide Mixture: Implication on Pesticide Bioremediation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chemical products such as pesticides have been used to increase crop production, especially in undeveloped countries. Poultry litter, the combination of feces and bedding materials, has also been used as an alternative to improve soil quality for crop production. In this study, five treatments were ...

  18. Impact of long-term land application of broiler litter on environmentally related soil properties

    SciTech Connect

    Kingery, W.L.; Wood, C.W.; Mullins, G.L.

    1994-01-01

    The largest portion of Alabama`s rapidly growing poultry industry is geographically concentrated in the Sand Mountain region of northern Alabama. The result is that large amounts of waste are applied to relatively small areas of agricultural soils. A study was conducted to determine the effects of long-term broiler waste (litter) application on environmentally related soil conditions in the region. The region has an average annual rainfall of 1325 mm, which is evenly distributed throughout the year, a thermic temperature regime, and soils in the region are of the Ultisol order. In each of four major broiler-producing counties, three pairs of sites consisting of long-term (15-28 yr) littered and nonlittered fields on matching soil series and maintained under perennial tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) were sampled. Soil cores were taken to 3 m or lithic contact and depth-incremented samples (0-15, 15-30, and each subsequent 30-cm interval) were analyzed for organic C, total N, NO{sub 3}-N, pH, electrical conductivity, and acid-extractable P, K, Ca, Mg, Co, and Zn. Litter application increased organic C and total N to depths of 15 and 30 cm, respectively, as compared with nonlittered soils, whereas pH was 0.5 units higher to a depth of 60 cm under littered soils. Significant accumulation of NO{sub 3}N was found in littered soils to or near bedrock. Extractable P concentrations in littered soils were more than six times greater than in nonlittered soils to a depth of 60 cm. Elevated levels of extractable K, Ca, and Mg to depths greater than 60 cm also were found as a result of long-term litter use. Extractable Cu and Zn had accumulated in littered soils to a depth of 45 cm. These findings indicate that long-term land application of broiler litter, at present rates, has altered soil chemical conditions and has created a potential for adverse environmental impacts in the Sand Mountain region of Alabama. 43 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Wettability of poultry litter biochars at variable pyrolysis temperatures and their impact on soil wettability and water retention relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, S. C.; Witt, B.; Guo, M.; Chiu, P.; Imhoff, P. T.

    2012-12-01

    To reduce the impact of poultry farming on greenhouse gas emissions, poultry farming waste - poultry litter - can be converted to biofuel and biochar through slow-pyrolysis, with the biochar added to agricultural soil for nutrient enrichment and carbon sequestration. While biochars from source materials other than poultry litter have been shown to sequester carbon and increase soil fertility, there is considerable variability in biochar behavior - even with biochars created from the same source material. This situation is exacerbated by our limited understanding of how biochars alter physical, chemical, and biological processes in agricultural soils. The focus of this work is to develop a mechanistic understanding of how poultry litter (PL) biochars affect the hydrology, microbial communities, N2O emissions, and nitrogen cycling in agricultural soils. The initial focus is on the impact of PL biochar on soil hydrology. PL from Perdue AgriRecycle, LLC (Seaford, Delaware) was used to produce biochars at pyrolysis temperatures from 300°C to 600°C. To explore the impact of these biochars on soil wettability, the PL biochars were mixed with a 30/40 Accusand in mass fractions from 0% to 100%. The water contact angle was then measured using a goniometer on these sand/biochar mixtures using the sessile drop method and a single layer of sample particles. The PL biochars produced at temperatures between 300°C to 400°C were hydrophobic, while those pyrolized at > 400°C were hydrophilic. Water contact angles for samples with 100% biochar varied systematically with pyrolysis temperature, decreasing from 101.12° to 20.57° as the pyrolysis temperature increased from 300 to 600°C. Even for small amounts of hydrophobic biochar added to the hydrophilic sand, the contact angle of the mixture was altered: for sand/biochar mixtures containing only 2% hydrophobic PL biochar by weight, the contact angle of the mixture increased from ~ 8° (0% biochar) to 20° (2% biochar). For

  20. Reducing ammonia emissions and volatile fatty acids in poultry litter with liquid aluminum chloride

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was a pen trial in which the effects of adding different rates of liquid aluminum chloride (AlCl3) on litter pH, total volatile fatty acids (VFAs), and ammonia (NH3) fluxes was evaluated. Liquid AlCl3 treatments used in this study were sprayed on the rice hull surface at rates of 100 g, 2...

  1. On-farm agro-economic effects of fertilizing cropland with poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As animal feeding operations increase in size, public and regulatory pressure is being exerted on the animal industry to develop and implement appropriate uses for the wastes produced. One option is applying the litter and manure waste as fertilizer for cultivated crop production. However, this prac...

  2. Corn production in no-till and conventional tillage with poultry litter: a 5-yr data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn production in the Southeast is erratic due to intermittent droughts and hot weather during the growing season. Increasing demand for corn to satisfy expanding poultry and livestock enterprises as well as biofuels production has resulted in more producers considering corn production. Our recent...

  3. Removal and recovery of ammonia from liquid swine manure and poultry litter using gas permeable membranes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated the use of gas-permeable membranes as components of new processes to capture and recover ammonia from liquid manures and other concentrated effluents as well as from the air in poultry houses. The basic process includes the passage of gaseous ammonia through a microporous hydrophobic...

  4. Recovery of ammonia from poultry litter using flat gas permeable membranes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of flat gas-permeable membranes was investigated as components of a new process to capture and recover ammonia (NH3) in poultry houses. This process includes the passage of gaseous NH3 through a microporous hydrophobic membrane, capture with a circulating dilute acid on the other side of the...

  5. Inactivation of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Through Composting of Litter from Poultry Houses.

    PubMed

    Crespo, Rocio; Badcoe, Lyndon M; Williams, Cheryl; Bary, Andrew I

    2016-06-01

    Very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) was diagnosed in a pullet farm in Washington in 2014. Infectious bursal disease virus is resistant to many environmental stresses and often persists on farms for months. There have been conflicting reports as to whether composting can destroy vvIBDV in the manure. This project investigated the composting of litter from the affected house using an aerated static pile to inactivate the virus. Two weeks before the affected pullet flocks were moved to the layer house, specific-pathogen-free (SPF) birds were placed in the barns. Ten days after they were placed, three SPF birds died and were positive for vvIBDV. Thirty percent of the SPF birds were positive for vvIBDV. After the pullets were moved, at 20 wk of age, the litter in the house was composted using the aerated static pile method. The pile was maintained at above 55 C for 4 wk. After this time, 30 additional SPF birds were placed on the composted material. Two weeks later, the birds were healthy and there was no evidence of vvIBDV. The subsequent pullet flock did not break with vvIBDV. These results demonstrate that this composting method can be used to decontaminate the litter from vvIBDV and help prevent the spread of vvIBDV. PMID:27309296

  6. Determination of Arsenic Species in Poultry Wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, B. P.; Bertsch, P. M.

    2001-05-01

    Two benzenearsenic compounds, p-arsanilic acid (p-ASA) and roxarsone (ROX), are commonly used feed additives in the poultry industry for disease prevention and increased weight gain. Because these compounds are not readily adsorbed by poultry, As in poultry litter can reach concentrations >41 mg/kg, which, for comparison, is the maximum allowable concentration for land application of sewage sludge according to USEPA 503 regulations. In contrast to land application of sewage sludge or industrial by-products such as fly ash, the potential for As loading of soil from poultry litter application has received little attention, despite the more prevalent use of poultry litter as a soil amendment. Furthermore, little is known concerning the biogeochemistry of these organo-arsenic compounds in soils. In incubation studies, we found that soil solution As concentrations were higher for poultry litter amendments when compared with fly ash amendments despite much higher As loading rates for the fly ashes. Further work has shown that >90% of total As can be solubilized from poultry litter through simple water extractions. In order to identify the two benzenearsenic feed additives we have developed ion chromatography methodology to separate As(III), As(V), MMA, DMA, p-ASA and ROX with element specific detection by ICP-MS. All species are well separated and detection limits are <50 ng/L for all species. Analysis of a water extraction of a poultry litter sample showed that the majority of soluble As was present as ROX but trace concentrations of As(V) and DMA were also identified along with an number of unknown As compounds. This methodology will prove useful in future studies of the fate and transport of p-ASA and ROX, and in identifying these compounds in watersheds where poultry litter has been extensively applied.

  7. Bioremediation of gasoline contaminated soil by a bacterial consortium amended with poultry litter, coir pith and rhamnolipid biosurfactant.

    PubMed

    Rahman, K S M; Banat, I M; Thahira, J; Thayumanavan, Tha; Lakshmanaperumalsamy, P

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to find methods for enhancing rates of hydrocarbon biodegradation in gasoline contaminated soil by ex situ bioremediation. Red soil (RS) was treated with gasoline-spilled soil (GS) from a gasoline station and different combinations of amendments were prepared using (i) mixed bacterial consortium (MC), (ii) poultry litter (PL), (iii) coir pith (CP) and (iv) rhamnolipid biosurfactant (BS) produced by Pseudomonas sp. DS10-129. The study was conducted for a period of 90 days during which bacterial growth, hydrocarbon degradation and growth parameters of Phaseolus aureus RoxB including seed germination, chlorophyll content, shoot and root length were measured. Approximately 67% and 78% of the hydrocarbons were effectively degraded within 60 days in soil samples amended with RS + GS + MC + PL + CP + BS at 0.1% and 1%. Maximum percentage of seed germination, shoot length, root length and chlorophyll content in P. aureus were recorded after 60 days in the above amendments. Further incubation to 90 days did not exhibit significant improvements. Statistical analysis using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan's multiple range test (DMRT) revealed that the level of amendments, incubation time and combination of amendments significantly influenced bacterial growth, hydrocarbon degradation, seed germination and chlorophyll content at a 1% probability level. All tested additives MC, PL, CP and rhamnolipid BS had significant positive effects on the bioremediation of GS. PMID:11710344

  8. Effects of broiler litter application on nutrient accumulation in soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Excessive nutrient accumulation in soils due to land application of broiler litter is a growing environmental concern. A four-year study was conducted on a Pembroke silt loam soil (Mollic Paleudalf) cropped to orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) to evaluate accumulation of soil nutrients from broil...

  9. Effects of broiler litter application on nutrient accumulations in soil.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Excessive nutrient accumulation in soils due to land application of broiler litter is a growing environmental concern. A four year study was conducted on a Pembroke silt loam soil (Mollic Paleudalf) cropped to orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) to evaluate accumulation of soil nutrients from broil...

  10. Survival, transport, and sources of fecal bacteria in streams and survival in land-applied poultry litter in the upper Shoal Creek basin, southwestern Missouri, 2001-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schumacher, John G.

    2003-01-01

    five sampling sites along the 5.7-mi study reach of Shoal Creek, but the trends at successive downstream sites were out of phase and could not be explained by simple advection and dispersion. At base-flow conditions, the travel time of bacteria in Shoal Creek along the 5.7-mi reach between State Highway W (site 2) and the MDNR sampling site (site 3) was about 26 hours. Substantial dispersion and dilution occurs along the upper 4.1 mi of this reach because of inflows from a number of springs and tributaries and the presence of several long pools and channel meanders. Minimal dispersion and dilution occurs along the 1.6-mi reach immediately upstream from the MDNR sampling site. Measurements of fecal bacteria decay in Shoal Creek during July 2001 indicated that about 8 percent of fecal coliform and E. coli bacteria decay each hour with an average first-order decay constant of 0.084 h-1 (per hour). Results of field test plots indicated that substantial numbers of fecal bacteria present in poul try litter can survive in fields for as much as 8 weeks after the application of the litter to the land surface. Median densities of fecal coliform and E. coli in slurry-water samples collected from fields increased from less than 60 col/100 mL before the application of turkey and broiler litter, to as large as 420,000 and 290,000 col/100 mL after the application of litter. Bacteria densities in the test plots generally decreased in a exponential manner over time with decay rates ranging from 0.085 to 0.185 d-1 (per day) for fecal coliform to between 0.100 and 0.250 d-1 for E. coli. The apparent survival of significant numbers of fecal bacteria on fields where poultry litter has been applied indicates that runoff from these fields is a potential source of fecal bacteria to vicinity streams for many weeks following litter application.

  11. Poultry manure as raw material for mercury adsorbents in gas applications

    SciTech Connect

    Klasson, K.T.; Lima, I.M.; Boihem, L.L.

    2009-09-30

    The quantity of poultry manure generated each year is large, and technologies that take advantage of the material should be explored. At the same time, increased emphasis on the reduction of mercury emissions from coal-fired electric power plants has resulted in environmental regulations that may, in the future, require application of activated carbons as mercury sorbents. The sorbents could be injected into the flue gas stream, where they could adsorb the mercury. The sorbents (now containing mercury) would be removed via filtration or other means from the flue gas. Our preliminary work has demonstrated that activated carbon made from poultry manure can adsorb mercury from air with good efficiency. In laboratory experiments, an activated carbon made from turkey cake manure removed the majority of elemental mercury from a hot air stream. Other activated carbons made from chicken and turkey litter manure were also efficient. In general, unwashed activated carbons made from poultry manure were more efficient in removing mercury than their acid-washed counterparts. The results suggest that the adsorption of mercury was mainly due to chemisorption on the surface of the carbon. Other potential uses for the activated carbons are the removal of mercury from air and natural gas.

  12. Evaluation of Methane Potential from Swine Slurry with Poultry Litter Amendments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Millions of tons of animal wastes from livestock operations are generated in the U.S. each year. Animal manure has been traditionally used as natural fertilizer for crop production. However, land application of manure is limited due to problems associated with potential groundwater contamination, ...

  13. Poultry litter and switchgrass blending and pelletizing characteritics for biochar production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biochar characteristics for both soil and energy applications have been documented to be affected by both the parent feedstock and pyrolysis production temperature. Controlling these two variables may yield an ideal product with engineered properties—“A Designer Biochar.” Manure-based biochars are k...

  14. Application of disinfectants in poultry hatcheries.

    PubMed

    Samberg, Y; Meroz, M

    1995-06-01

    Veterinary control and routine sanitary procedures in commercial poultry hatcheries should include the following: choice of a suitable geographical location to ensure an isolated site; proper hatchery design with separation of major operations; one-way flow of work within the hatchery; adequate ventilation of each room; routine cleaning and disinfection; formaldehyde fumigation or alternative method for disinfection of eggs, equipment and incubators; a routine programme for monitoring microbial contamination levels within the hatchery. PMID:7579636

  15. Kinetics of batch anaerobic co-digestion of poultry litter and wheat straw including a novel strategy of estimation of endogenous decay and yield coefficients using numerical integration.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jiacheng; Zhu, Jun

    2016-10-01

    The kinetics of anaerobic co-digestion of poultry litter and wheat straw has not been widely reported in the literature. Since endogenous decay and yield coefficients are two basic parameters for the design of anaerobic digesters, they are currently estimated only by continues experiments. In this study, numerical integration was employed to develop a novel strategy to estimate endogenous decay and yield coefficients using initial and final liquid data combined with methane volumes produced over time in batch experiments. To verify this method, the kinetics of batch anaerobic co-digestion of poultry litter and wheat straw at different TS and VS levels was investigated, with the corresponding endogenous decay and (non-observed) yield coefficients in the exponential periods determined to be between 0.74 × 10(-3) and 6.1 × 10(-3) d(-1), and between 0.0259 and 0.108 g VSS (g VS)(-1), respectively. A general Gompertz model developed early for bio-product could be used to simulate the methane volume profile in the co-digestion. The same model parameters obtained from the methane model combined with the corresponding yield coefficients could also be used to describe the VSS generation and VS destruction. PMID:27234662

  16. TRANSPORT/FATE/ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF STEROIDS FROM POULTRY LITTER & EVALUATIONS OF EXISTING/NOVEL MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory assays will clarify exposure criteria required to induce previously observed steroid effects. Controlled field runoff studies will determine the abundance, chemical nature, and environmental fate of litter-associated steroids transported under various cropping stra...

  17. Continuous and residual effects of broiler litter application to cotton on soil properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Application of broiler litter to soils provides nutrients for plant growth and improves soil quality characteristics. However, little is known about these effects after broiler litter application is terminated. Field studies were conducted at Cruger and Coffeeville in Mississippi representing no-til...

  18. Multi-microbial compound eliminates Salmonella Typhimurium from one-third of poultry litter samples within eight days

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broiler litter is composed of bedding material mixed with chicken manure, feathers, and feed. The bedding material is typically composed of wood shavings; peanut or rice hulls depending on the area of the country where the broilers are being raised. Due to the increasing price of fresh bedding mat...

  19. Poultry Litter and Tillage Influence on Corn Production and Soil Nutrients on a Silt Loam Soil in Kentucky

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broiler (Gallus Gallus) litter, a rich source of plant nutrients, is generated in large quantities in southeastern USA where many row crops, such as corn (Zea Mays L.), are also extensively cropped. However, the use of broiler manure as an economical alternative source of nutrients for corn producti...

  20. Antimicrobial resistance in Enterococcus spp. isolated from environmental samples in the area of intensive poultry production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, we investigated antimicrobial resistance of Enterococcus spp. from different environmental compartments including litter from two farms, 12 surface and 28 groundwater sites in an area of intensive poultry production and litter application. The enumerated isolates (n=250) were tested ...

  1. Reducing phosphorus runoff and inhibiting ammonia loss from poultry manure with aluminum sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, P.A. Jr.; Daniel, T.C.; Edwards, D.R.

    2000-02-01

    Applications of aluminum sulfate (Al{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} {center_dot} 14H{sub 2}O), commonly referred to as alum, to poultry litter have been shown to decrease P runoff from lands fertilized with litter and to inhibit NH{sub 3} volatilization. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of alum applications in commercial broiler houses on: (1) NH{sub 3} volatilization (in-house), (2) poultry production, (3) litter chemistry, and (4) P runoff following litter application. Two farms were used for this study: one had six poultry houses and the other had four. The litter in half of the houses at each farm was treated with alum; the other houses were controls. Alum was applied at a rate of 1,816 kg/house, which corresponded to 0.091 kg/bird. Each year the houses were cleaned in the spring and the litter was broadcast onto paired watersheds in tall fescue at each farm. Results from this study showed that alum applications lowered the litter pH, particularly during the first 3 to 4 wk of each growout. Reductions in litter pH resulted in less NH{sub 3} volatilization, which led to reductions in atmospheric NH{sub 3} in the alum-treated houses. Broilers grown on alum-treated litter were significantly heavier than controls (1.73 kg vs. 1.66 kg). Soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) concentrations in runoff from pastures fertilized with alum-treated litter averaged 73% lower than that from normal litter throughout a 3-yr period. These results indicate that alum-treatment of poultry litter is a very effective best management practice that reduces nonpoint source pollution while it increases agricultural productivity.

  2. 9 CFR 381.198 - Importer to make application for inspection of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... inspection of poultry products offered for entry. 381.198 Section 381.198 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products § 381.198 Importer to make application for inspection...

  3. 9 CFR 381.198 - Importer to make application for inspection of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... inspection of poultry products offered for entry. 381.198 Section 381.198 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products § 381.198 Importer to make application for inspection...

  4. 9 CFR 381.198 - Importer to make application for inspection of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... inspection of poultry products offered for entry. 381.198 Section 381.198 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products § 381.198 Importer to make application for inspection...

  5. 9 CFR 381.198 - Importer to make application for inspection of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... inspection of poultry products offered for entry. 381.198 Section 381.198 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products § 381.198 Importer to make application for inspection...

  6. 9 CFR 381.198 - Importer to make application for inspection of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... inspection of poultry products offered for entry. 381.198 Section 381.198 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products § 381.198 Importer to make application for inspection...

  7. Rainfall and tillage effects on transport of fecal bacteria and sex hormones 17ß-estradiol and testosterone from broiler litter applications to a Georgia Piedmont Ultisol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry litter provides plant nutrients for crop and pasture production. Fecal bacteria, sex hormones (17ß-estradiol and testosterone) and antibiotic residues are litter components, however, that may contaminate surface waters and become a public health risk. Our objective was to quantify transpor...

  8. The economics of land application of fresh and composted broiler litter with an environmental constraint

    SciTech Connect

    Vervoort, R.W.; Keeler, A.G. . Dept. of Agricultural and Applied Economics)

    1999-04-01

    Land application of broiler litter is a common disposal method due to its value as a fertilizer substitute, but presents potential environmental problems because of nutrient runoff. Composting has been suggested as an alternative due to the formation of more stable organic components. The land application of fresh and composted broiler litter are compared as alternative disposal methods. The costs of land application of broiler litter are dominated by spreading because of low nutrient densities relative to commercial fertilizers. Composting broiler litter before land application appears to be substantially less economically attractive than land application of fresh broiler litter because of high costs of production and higher spreading costs due to even lower nutrient density. However, when environmental constraints are placed on the phosphorus concentration from hayfield runoff, composting becomes a more attractive alternative. Composting becomes more viable as the land base for application becomes smaller relative to broiler production; as alternative disposal costs for litter become higher; and as environmental constraints become stricter.

  9. Investigation of energy recovery from poultry litter and municipal solid waste by thermochemical conversion method in India.

    PubMed

    Kirubakaran, V; Sivaramakrishnan, V; Premalatha, M; Subramanian, P

    2005-10-01

    The waste disposal is becoming a major threat to environmental issues and to sustainable development of mankind. The rapid growth in population and enormous developmental activities are the main causes for the generation of waste in many forms. Hence there is need to redress the concern on environment and efforts to be made for effective collection and disposal of wastes. Most of the solid waste is a mix of household wastes, street wastes, commercial and institutional wastes containing organic as well as inorganic matter. This offers better opportunity to recover energy from organic fraction of wastes by adapting suitable processing and treatment technologies. This paper describes the various technologies need to be adopted for the disposal of poultry waste and municipal solid waste. More emphasis has been given on waste disposal technologies for better environment and economics. The advantages and disadvantages of each disposal technology have been briefed. PMID:17051912

  10. Stacking Time and Aluminum Sulfate Effects on Polyether Ionophores in Broiler Litter.

    PubMed

    Doydora, Sarah A; Sun, Peizhe; Cabrera, Miguel; Thompson, Aaron; Love-Myers, Kimberly; Rema, John; Calvert, Vaughn; Pavlostathis, Spyros G; Huang, Ching-Hua

    2015-11-01

    The use of ionophores as antiparasitic drugs plays an important role in US poultry production, especially in the broiler () industry. However, administered ionophores can pass through the bird's digestive system and appear in broiler litter, which, when applied to agricultural fields, can present an environmental hazard. Stacking (storing or stockpiling) broiler litter for some time might decrease the litter ionophore concentrations before land application. Because ionophores undergo abiotic hydrolysis at low pH, decreasing litter pH with acidic aluminum sulfate (alum) might also decrease ionophore concentrations. We assessed the change in ionophore concentrations in broiler litter in response to the length of time broiler litter was stored (stacking time) and alum addition. We spiked broiler litter with monensin and salinomycin, placed alum-amended litter (∼pH 4-5) and unamended litter (∼pH 8-9) into 1.8-m bins, and repeatedly sampled each bin for 112 d. Our findings showed that stacking broiler litter alone did not have an impact on monensin concentration, but it did slowly reduce salinomycin concentration by 55%. Adding alum to broiler litter reduced monensin concentration by approximately 20% relative to unamended litter, but it did not change salinomycin concentration. These results call for continued search for alternative strategies that could potentially reduce the concentration of ionophores in broiler litter before their application to agricultural soils. PMID:26641344

  11. Real-time multispectral imaging application for poultry safety inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Bosoon; Lawrence, Kurt C.; Windham, William R.; Snead, Matthew P.

    2006-02-01

    The ARS imaging research group in Athens, Georgia has developed a real-time multispectral imaging system for fecal and ingesta contaminant detection on broiler carcasses for poultry industry. The industrial scale system includes a common aperture camera with three visible wavelength optical trim filters. This paper demonstrates calibration of common aperture multispectral imaging hardware and real-time image processing software. The software design, especially the Unified Modeling Language (UML) design approach was used to develop real-time image processing software for on-line application. The UML models including class, object, activity, sequence, and collaboration diagram were presented. Both hardware and software for a real-time fecal and ingesta contaminant detection were tested at the pilot-scale poultry processing line. The test results of industrial sacle real-time system showed that the multispectral imaging technique performed well for detecting fecal contaminants with a commercial processing speed (currently 140 birds per minute). The accuracy for the detection of fecal and ingesta contaminates was approximately 96%.

  12. [Applicability analysis of spatially explicit model of leaf litter in evergreen broad-leaved forests].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qing-Qing; Liu, He-Ming; Jonard, Mathieu; Wang, Zhang-Hua; Wang, Xi-Hua

    2014-11-01

    The spatially explicit model of leaf litter can help to understand its dispersal process, which is very important to predict the distribution pattern of leaves on the surface of the earth. In this paper, the spatially explicit model of leaf litter was developed for 20 tree species using litter trap data from the mapped forest plot in an evergreen broad-leaved forest in Tiantong, Zhejiang Pro- vince, eastern China. Applicability of the model was analyzed. The model assumed an allometric equation between diameter at breast height (DBH) and leaf litter amount, and the leaf litter declined exponentially with the distance. Model parameters were estimated by the maximum likelihood method. Results showed that the predicted and measured leaf litter amounts were significantly correlated, but the prediction accuracies varied widely for the different tree species, averaging at 49.3% and ranging from 16.0% and 74.0%. Model qualities of tree species significantly correlated with the standard deviations of the leaf litter amount per trap, DBH of the tree species and the average leaf dry mass of tree species. There were several ways to improve the forecast precision of the model, such as installing the litterfall traps according to the distribution of the tree to cover the different classes of the DBH and distance apart from the parent trees, determining the optimal dispersal function of each tree species, and optimizing the existing dispersal function. PMID:25898606

  13. An Application of the Phosphorus Consistent Rule for Environmentally Acceptable Cost-Efficient Management of Broiler Litter in Crop Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paudel, Krishna P.; Limaye, Ashutosh; Adhikari, Murali; Martin, Neil R., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    We calculated the profitability of using broiler litter as a source of plant nutrients using the phosphorus consistent litter application rule. The cost saving by using litter is 37% over the use of chemical fertilizer-only option to meet the nutrient needs of major crops grown in Alabama. In the optimal solution, only a few routes of all the possible routes developed were used for inter- and intra- county litter hauling. If litter is not adopted as the sole source of crop nutrients, the best environmental policy may be to pair the phosphorus consistent rule with taxes, marketable permits, and subsidies.flaws

  14. Poultry farm hygiene: microbiological quality assessment of drinking water used in layer chickens managed under the battery cage and deep litter systems at three poultry farms in southwestern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Folorunso, O R; Kayode, Sule; Onibon, V O

    2014-01-01

    Water troughs from deep litter and caged chicken water troughs (drinkers) fixed to each of the different 3-tier cages containing layer chickens in Farms A, B and C were subjected to a 7-day study which involved the monitoring of poultry farm hygiene. Drinkers were washed before filling with water on Day 1. For Days 3, 5 and 7 water was served without prior washing. The occurrence and characterization of the bacteria isolates were investigated and data obtained were analyzed and compared. For the bacterial count on Day 1, for layer chickens on cage system, no significant differences (p > 0.05) among the farms and between the farms tier interactions. On Day 3, no significant difference (p > 0.05) among the parameters. On Day 5, there was significant difference (p<0.05) among the farms and on Day 7, there was high significant difference (p < 0.01) among the farms. On Days 5 and 7, there were no significant differences (p>0.05) among the tiers nor between the interactions of the farms and tiers. The bacterial count in water troughs of layer chickens in deep litter system, on Day 1, had no significant differences (p > 0.05) between the farms, water troughs and their interactions. On Day 3, no significant difference (p > 0.05) among the parameters. On Days 5 and 7, there were significant difference (p<0.05) and a high significant difference (p < 0.01) between the farms respectively. On Days 5 and 7, no significant differences between the water troughs and between the interaction of the farms and the water troughs. Farm A isolates contained Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris, Streptococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermis, Klebsiella sp., Salmonella sp., Bacillus subtilis, Lactobacillus salivarius and Corynebacterium sp. Farm B had Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermis, Bacillus subtilis, Corynebacterium sp., Escherichia coli, Streptococcus faecalis and Klebsiella sp. while for Farm C, apart from the prevalent bacteria isolates obtained in Farms A

  15. Enhancement of broiler litter to improve the fertilizer quality of litter

    SciTech Connect

    Ransom, J.M.; Strickland, R.C.

    1992-01-01

    This document presents efforts to utilize poultry litter for feed, fertilizer, and soil amendments. Historical and programmatic efforts by TVA are discussed. Current methods of drying and pelleting the litter, along with more direct methods of composting are reported.

  16. Enhancement of broiler litter to improve the fertilizer quality of litter

    SciTech Connect

    Ransom, J.M.; Strickland, R.C.

    1992-12-01

    This document presents efforts to utilize poultry litter for feed, fertilizer, and soil amendments. Historical and programmatic efforts by TVA are discussed. Current methods of drying and pelleting the litter, along with more direct methods of composting are reported.

  17. Changes in physicochemical characteristics of biochars by hydrothermal and dry carbonization of swine solids and poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biomass conversion from agricultural residues is an important resource for renewable energy production. Biochar, the carbonaceous materials derived from biomass conversion, has received a great attention due to its useful applications. Combination of feedstock and thermal processing conditions produ...

  18. Managing Broiler Litter Application Rate and Grazing to Decrease Watershed Runoff Losses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pasture management and broiler litter application rate are critical factors influencing the magnitude of nutrients being transported by runoff from fields. This study was conducted to investigate the impact of pasture management (haying, grazing, and a haying and grazing combination) and broiler lit...

  19. Cropping System and Broiler Litter Application Impacts on Soil Nutrient Dynamics and Quality Characteristics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop rotation and broiler litter applications influence and maintain high yield production of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and corn (Zea mays L.), but relative impact of these management practices on soil nutrient dynamics and soil quality is lacking in the literature particularly in the Mississip...

  20. Distribution of plant nutrient elements and carbon in particle size fractions of broiler litter ash

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An estimated 10.8 million tons of broiler litter and 3.0 million tons of turkey litter were produced in the United States in 2009. Poultry litter is a mixture of manure, bedding material (e.g., wood chips, sawdust, or straw), feathers, and spilled feed. Poultry litter contains high levels of Ca, N...

  1. Environmental assay on the effect of poultry manure application on soil organisms in agroecosystems.

    PubMed

    Delgado, M; Rodríguez, C; Martín, J V; Miralles de Imperial, R; Alonso, F

    2012-02-01

    This paper reports the effects produced on the organisms of the soil (plants, invertebrates and microorganisms), after the application of two types of poultry manure (sawdust and straw bed) on an agricultural land. The test was made using a terrestrial microcosm, Multi-Species Soil System (MS3) developed in INIA. There was no difference in the germination for any of the three species of plants considered in the study. The biomass was increased in the wheat (Triticum aestivum) coming from ground treated with both kinds of poultry manure. Oilseed rape (Brasica rapa) was not affected and regarding vetch (Vicia sativa) only straw poultry manure showed significant difference. For length only Vicia sativa was affected showing a reduction when straw was exposed to poultry manure. When the effect on invertebrates was studied, we observed a reduction in the number of worms during the test, especially from the ground control (13.7%), higher than in the ground with sawdust poultry manure (6.7%), whereas in the ground with straw poultry manure, there was no reduction. The biomass was affected and at the end of the test it was observed that while the reduction of worms in the ground control was about 48%, the number of those that were in the ground with sawdust poultry manure or straw poultry manure decreased by 41% and 22% respectively. Finally, the effects on microorganisms showed that the enzymatic activities: dehydrogenase (DH) and phosphatase and basal respiration rate increased at the beginning of the test, and the differences were statistically significant compared with the values of the control group. During the test, all these parameters decreased (except DH activities) but they were always higher than in the ground control. This is why it is possible to deduce that the contribution of poultry manure caused an improvement in the conditions of fertilization and also for the soil. PMID:22154182

  2. Potassium and magnesium nutrition of cotton fertilized with broiler litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry litter has been shown to be an effective cotton fertilizer and is usually applied as a source of N. Litter contains substantial amounts of K also, but whether the K need of cotton can be met by the commonly recommended litter rate has not been investigated or documented. Litter also contai...

  3. Nutrient loss in leachate and surface runoff from surface-broadcast and subsurface-banded broiler litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Subsurface band application of poultry litter has been shown to reduce the transport of nutrients from fields in surface runoff, compared to the conventional surface broadcast application. Little in situ research has been conducted to determine effects of surface broadcast application and subsurfac...

  4. Effects of frequency of multiple applications of litter amendment on litter ammonia and live performance in a shared airspace

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mitigation of ammonia (NH3) volatilization from litter is of particular interest given its effects on broiler health and production efficiency, as well as air and water quality concerns. Typical management guidelines recommend aerial NH3 concentrations be limited to 25 ppm. However, concentrations i...

  5. Effects of frequency of multiple applications of litter amendment on litter ammonia and live performance in a shared airspace

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mitigation of ammonia (NH3) volatilization from litter is of particular interest given its effects on broiler health and production efficiency, as well as air and water quality concerns. Typical management guidelines recommend aerial NH3 concentrations be limited to 25 ppm. However, concentrations ...

  6. NUTRIENT ASSIMILATION BY A SILVOPASTORAL SYSTEM RECEIVING ANNUAL APPLICATIONS OF POULTRY LITTER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing intensity of confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs) can create serious challenges for implementing environmentally acceptable manure management practices. The objective of this research was to quantify various components of nutrient (N and P) cycling in a silvopastoral system receivi...

  7. Ammonia volatilization, corn and forage yield as a function of poultry litter application methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction Manure management has emerged as a significant agronomic and environmental concern in Brazil. Most manure is broadcast to the soil surface where it remains vulnerable to environmental processes that significantly lower the manure’s nitrogen fertilizer value and negatively impact air qua...

  8. Stratification of phosphorus forms from long-term conservation tillage and poultry litter application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus (P) stratification leaves high P concentrations at the soil surface, which are vulnerable to loss in runoff. Understanding P forms at the soil surface may help control P loss, but little information is available on how P forms stratify in soil. We used 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance spec...

  9. EPIC EVALUATION OF THE IMPACT OF POULTRY LITTER APPLICATION TIMING ON NUTRIENT LOSSES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, changes in the utilization practices of animal manures for fertilization have been encouraged to reduce the potential of non-point pollution of lakes and streams from agricultural land. However, the potential impact of changing some of these practices have not been fully studied. The obj...

  10. Impact of poultry litter application and land use on E. coli runoff from small agricultural watersheds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fecal bacteria contamination of surface waters continues to be a critical water quality concern with serious human health implications, but relatively few land use specific data sets are available to guide management, restoration, policy, and regulatory decisions. In regions with substantial poultr...

  11. Fate of steroid hormones in sewage sludge and poultry litter prior to land application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Steroid hormones can act as potent endocrine disruptors when released into the environment. The main sources of these chemicals are thought to be wastewater treatment plant discharges and waste from animal feeding operations. While these compounds have frequently been found in wastewater effluents...

  12. Nitrous oxide emissions from nitrogen enriched low-phosphorus pelletized broiler litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High concentration of the poultry industry in certain regions of the United States promoted an excess of soil nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) because of recurrent land application of broiler litter waste. A new waste treatment technology developed by USDA-ARS, called “Quick Wash”, can recover phosph...

  13. Effects of immobilizing agents on surface runoff water quality from bermudagrass sod fertilized with broiler litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surface broadcasting is the common method for applying poultry litter on perennial forages, but this application method concentrates nutrients and pathogenic microorganisms at the soil surface where they are vulnerable to runoff water. The potential impairment of surface water from soluble nutrients...

  14. 78 FR 19182 - Electronic Filing of Import Inspection Applications for Meat, Poultry, and Egg Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service Electronic Filing of Import Inspection Applications for Meat... for certain meat, poultry, and egg products through the Automated Commercial Environment (ACE). ACE is... INFORMATION: I. Background The Federal Meat Inspection Act (FMIA) (21 U.S.C. 601 et seq.) and the...

  15. Ammonia Losses from Surface-Applied Poultry Liter and Swine Manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Use of animal manures such as poultry litter and swine manures as soil amendments could be beneficial in improving soil fertility and supplying various nutrients to agricultural crops. Land application of these amendments could also result in N losses through NH3 volatilization. Understanding the m...

  16. Correlation of Quantitative PCR for a Poultry-Specific Brevibacterium Marker Gene with Bacterial and Chemical Indicators of Water Pollution in a Watershed Impacted by Land Application of Poultry Litter▿

    PubMed Central

    Weidhaas, Jennifer L.; Macbeth, Tamzen W.; Olsen, Roger L.; Harwood, Valerie J.

    2011-01-01

    The impact of fecal contamination from human and agricultural animal waste on water quality is a major public health concern. Identification of the dominant source(s) of fecal pollution in a watershed is necessary for assessing the safety of recreational water and protecting water resources. A field study was conducted using quantitative PCR (qPCR) for the 16S rRNA gene of Brevibacterium sp. LA35 to track feces-contaminated poultry litter in environmental samples. Based on sensitivity and specificity characteristics of the qPCR method, the Bayesian conditional probability that detection of the LA35 marker gene in a water sample represented a true-positive result was 93%. The marker's covariance with fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and metals associated with poultry litter was also assessed in litter, runoff, surface water, and groundwater samples. LA35 was detected in water and soil samples collected throughout the watershed, and its concentration covaried with concentrations of Escherichia coli, enterococci, As, Cu, P, and Zn. Significantly greater concentrations of FIB, As, Cu, P, and Zn were observed in edge-of-field runoff samples in which LA35 was detected, compared to samples in which it was not detected. Furthermore, As, Cu, P, and Zn concentrations covaried in environmental samples in which LA35 was detected and typically did not in samples in which the marker gene was not detected. The covariance of the poultry-specific LA35 marker gene with these known contaminants from poultry feces provides further evidence that it is a useful tool for assessing the impact of poultry-derived fecal pollution in environmental waters. PMID:21278274

  17. Impact of fresh or used litter on the post-hatch immune system of commercial broilers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was carried out to investigate the effects of exposure of growing broiler chickens of commercial origin to used poultry litter on intestinal and systemic immune responses. The litter types evaluated were fresh wood shavings or used litter obtained from commercial poultry farms with or wit...

  18. Reducing phosphorus runoff and improving poultry production with alum.

    PubMed

    Moore, P A; Daniel, T C; Edwards, D R

    1999-05-01

    This is a review paper on the effects of aluminum sulfate (alum) on ammonia volatilization and P runoff from poultry litter. Initially, laboratory studies were conducted that showed P solubility could be reduced in poultry litter with Al, Ca, and Fe amendments, indicating that these amendments may reduce P runoff. These results were confirmed in small plot studies in which alum applications to litter were shown to decrease P concentrations in runoff by as much as 87%, while improving tall fescue yields. Leaf tissue analyses indicated that the yield improvements were due to increased N availability, which we hypothesized was due to reduced NH3 volatilization. This result was confirmed in laboratory studies that showed that alum was one of the most effective (and cost-effective) compounds for reducing NH3 volatilization. Field trials conducted at commercial broiler farms in conjunction with the Environmental Protection Agency showed that alum additions to poultry litter lowered litter pH, particularly during the first 3 to 4 wk of each growout, which resulted in less NH3 volatilization and lower atmospheric NH3. Ammonia volatilization rates were reduced by 97% for the first 4 wk of the growout. Broilers grown on alum-treated litter were heavier than the controls (1.73 vs 1.66 kg) and had lower mortality (3.9 vs 4.2%) and better feed efficiency (1.98 vs 2.04). Electricity and propane use were lower for alum-treated houses. As a result of these economic benefits to the integrator and grower, the benefit:cost ratio of alum addition was 1.96. Phosphorus concentrations in runoff from small watersheds were 75% lower from alum-treated litter than normal litter over a 3-yr period. Long-term small plot studies on alum use have shown that alum-treated litter results in lower soil test P levels than normal litter and does not increase Al availability in soils or uptake by plants. PMID:10228965

  19. Critical litter moisture maximizes ammonia generation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The natural breakdown of litter (bedding material mixed with deposits of feces, feathers, spilled feed and water) generates ammonia in poultry houses. Good management practices can reduce ammonia concentrations in poultry houses. Findings from a recent publication indicate there is a critical litt...

  20. Evaluation of ammonia emissions from broiler litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia emissions from poultry litter results in air pollution and can cause high levels of ammonia in poultry houses, which negatively impacts bird performance. The objectives of this study were to: (1) conduct a nitrogen (N) mass balance in broiler houses by measuring the N inputs (bedding, chick...

  1. Nutritional and physical properties of organic Beauregard sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.)] as influenced by broiler litter application rate.

    PubMed

    Gichuhi, Peter N; Kpomblekou-A, Kokoasse; Bovell-Benjamin, Adelia C

    2014-07-01

    Organic farming has been on an upward trend in recent years. However, the manures used like broiler litter have variable nutrient content, making it important to establish optimal application rate, for maximum crop yield and quality. Additionally, some states like Alabama restricts the amount of broiler litter to control excessive nutrients accumulation which can lead to surface and ground water contamination. The current study evaluated the effect of broiler litter at rates 0, 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 t ha(-1) (treatments T0, T0.5, T1, T2, and T3), on the nutritional and physical properties of Beauregard sweet potato. Analyses were performed to determine moisture, ash, fiber, vitamin C, and β-carotene contents using oven, muffler furnace, dye, and spectrophotometric methods; texture; and color using compressive strength and L, a, b system, respectively. Ash content of the samples ranged from 0.9% to 1.4% with a very strong positive linear correlation (r = 0.9) to the broiler litter rate. However, vitamin C had a quadratic relationship with the broiler litter rate with a peaking at T0.5 (15.5 mg/100 g). The yellow color (b-value) also had a strong linear relationship with the broiler litter rate (r = 0.86). However, the other measures showed moderate, weak, or negligible correlations to the broiler litter level. T0.5 had the highest β-carotene (262.0 μg/g), dry matter contents and had the most firm (0.040 kN) sweet potatoes with the deepest orange color (L = 60.7). Based on the study's findings, 0.5 t ha(-1) appeared to be appropriate level of broiler litter, which is consistent with Alabama's law and is also advantageous in terms of low cost of farming practices and water pollution reduction. PMID:25473490

  2. Evaluation of precision litter application practices for cotton production and soil properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broiler litter is typically land applied by surface broadcasting, a practice that exposes litter nutrients to volatilization or runoff losses. Placing litter in narrow bands below the soil surface may mitigate those losses and improve plant growth development, yield and quality. This study was cond...

  3. Characterization of trace elements in chicken and duck litter ash.

    PubMed

    Faridullah; Irshad, Muhammad; Yamamoto, Sadahiro; Honna, Toshimasa; Eneji, A Egrinya

    2009-01-01

    For safe and sustainable management of poultry litter, it is important to evaluate and understand the chemical forms and concentrations of their constituent trace elements during treatment for disposal. This experiment was carried out to compare changes in metal (Cu, Mn, Zn, Pb and Ni) fractions in chicken and duck litter after incineration at temperatures ranging from 200 to 900 degrees C. The metals were stepwise fractionated into exchangeable, adsorbed, organically bound, carbonate precipitated and residual forms by extracting with 0.5M KNO3, de-ionized water, 0.5M NaOH, 0.05M Na2 EDTA and 4M HNO3, respectively. The content of total metal and other elements (i.e., Ca, Mg and K) were was also determined. Results showed an increasing trend in the total concentrations of metals with increasing temperature with higher amounts in chicken litter ash (CLA) than duck litter ash (DLA). Higher temperatures significantly reduced the levels of H2O-soluble Mn, Zn and Ni and enhanced those of Cu and Pb. The metal fractions extracted by EDTA and HNO3 increased directly with increasing temperature while the fraction extracted with KNO3 and NaOH decreased with ashing. For Cu, Mn, Pb and Ni, the amount extracted varied in the order EDTA>HNO3>NaOH>KNO3>H2O, but the absolute amounts differed between CLA and DLA. Peak concentrations of the total metals were achieved at the highest burning temperature. The amount of H2O soluble Ca and Mg decreased and K increased in both CLA and DLA with temperature. Total and exchangeable forms of cations increased with increasing temperature. Total Ca was highest in DLA, whereas total Mg and K were higher in CLA. This study indicated that incinerating poultry litter before soil application may have mixed effects on the vulnerable metal fractions by increasing or decreasing some fractions, depending on poultry type. PMID:18538557

  4. Application of poultry processing industry waste: a strategy for vegetation growth in degraded soil.

    PubMed

    do Nascimento, Carla Danielle Vasconcelos; Pontes Filho, Roberto Albuquerque; Artur, Adriana Guirado; Costa, Mirian Cristina Gomes

    2015-02-01

    The disposal of poultry processing industry waste into the environment without proper care, can cause contamination. Agricultural monitored application is an alternative for disposal, considering its high amount of organic matter and its potential as a soil fertilizer. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of poultry processing industry waste to improve the conditions of a degraded soil from a desertification hotspot, contributing to leguminous tree seedlings growth. The study was carried out under greenhouse conditions in a randomized blocks design and a 4 × 2 factorial scheme with five replicates. The treatments featured four amounts of poultry processing industry waste (D1 = control 0 kg ha(-1); D2 = 1020.41 kg ha(-1); D3 = 2040.82 kg ha(-1); D4 = 4081.63 kg ha(-1)) and two leguminous tree species (Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth and Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit). The poultry processing industry waste was composed of poultry blood, grease, excrements and substances from the digestive system. Plant height, biomass production, plant nutrient accumulation and soil organic carbon were measured forty days after waste application. Leguminous tree seedlings growth was increased by waste amounts, especially M. caesalpiniaefolia Benth, with height increment of 29.5 cm for the waste amount of 1625 kg ha(-1), and L. leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit, with maximum height increment of 20 cm for the waste amount of 3814.3 kg ha(-1). M. caesalpiniaefolia Benth had greater initial growth, as well as greater biomass and nutrient accumulation compared with L. leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit. However, belowground biomass was similar between the evaluated species, resulting in higher root/shoot ratio for L. leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit. Soil organic carbon did not show significant response to waste amounts, but it did to leguminous tree seedlings growth, especially L. leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit. Poultry processing industry waste contributes to leguminous tree seedlings growth

  5. Reduction of nitrogen excretion and emission in poultry: A review for organic poultry.

    PubMed

    Chalova, Vesela I; Kim, Jihyuk; Patterson, Paul H; Ricke, Steven C; Kim, Woo K

    2016-01-01

    Organic poultry is an alternative to conventional poultry which is rapidly developing as a response to customers' demand for better food and a cleaner environment. Although organic poultry manure can partially be utilized by organic horticultural producers, litter accumulation as well as excessive nitrogen still remains a challenge to maintain environment pureness, animal, and human health. Compared to conventional poultry, diet formulation without nitrogen overloading in organic poultry is even more complicated due to specific standards and regulations which limit the application of some supplements and imposes specific criteria to the ingredients in use. This is especially valid for methionine provision which supplementation as a crystalline form is only temporarily allowed. This review is focused on the utilization of various protein sources in the preparation of a diet composed of 100% organic ingredients which meet the avian physiology need for methionine, while avoiding protein overload. The potential to use unconventional protein sources such as invertebrates and microbial proteins to achieve optimal amino acid provision is also discussed. PMID:26786395

  6. Greenhouse gas and ammonia emission from a litter-windrowing in bird houses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of emerging poultry manure management practices is in house windrowing to disinfect the litter. With this practice, growers windrow the litter in broiler houses between flocks, usually for 2 weeks. This results in high litter temperatures that can reduce pathogens in the litter. However, this p...

  7. 40 CFR 412.4 - Best management practices (BMPs) for land application of manure, litter, and process wastewater.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...: Open tile line intake structures, sinkholes, and agricultural well heads. (2) Vegetated buffer means a... surface waters. (i) Vegetated buffer compliance alternative. As a compliance alternative, the CAFO may substitute the 100-foot setback with a 35-foot wide vegetated buffer where applications of manure, litter,...

  8. 40 CFR 412.4 - Best management practices (BMPs) for land application of manure, litter, and process wastewater.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...: Open tile line intake structures, sinkholes, and agricultural well heads. (2) Vegetated buffer means a... surface waters. (i) Vegetated buffer compliance alternative. As a compliance alternative, the CAFO may substitute the 100-foot setback with a 35-foot wide vegetated buffer where applications of manure, litter,...

  9. 40 CFR 412.4 - Best management practices (BMPs) for land application of manure, litter, and process wastewater.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...: Open tile line intake structures, sinkholes, and agricultural well heads. (2) Vegetated buffer means a... surface waters. (i) Vegetated buffer compliance alternative. As a compliance alternative, the CAFO may substitute the 100-foot setback with a 35-foot wide vegetated buffer where applications of manure, litter,...

  10. Phosphorus losses in runoff after application of litter from broilers fed high-available phosphorus corn feed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent efforts to reduce phosphorus (P) content of corn grain fed to poultry have led to the development of low phytic acid corn. Research is needed to evaluate the environmental impact of the application to crop land of manure from animals fed low phytic acid corn. The purpose of this research was ...

  11. Energy conservation and cost benefits in the meat and poultry processing industry. Technology transfer; a technology applications manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Auditing energy consumption and pinpointing areas where energy-conservation activities and investments can provide the most favorable economic return are covered. The wide-application energy-conservation techniques applicable in most industries, including the meat and poultry processing industries, are emphasized. Wide-application (often called generic) techniques include waste heat recovery, improvement of electric motor efficiency, added insulation, refrigeration improvements, and increases in boiler efficiencies. Specific examples of the application of these techniques in meat packing and poultry processing plants are cited. Specific processing changes that have already resulted in significant energy cost savings at some meat packing or poultry processing plants are examined. A summary checklist for energy conservation and brief case studies from industry are provided. Information is presented on energy price trends and discusses the analysis of capital investment alternatives.

  12. Microbial and Antibiotic REsistant Constituents Associated with Biological Aerosols Within A Commercial Poultry House

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry are known to harbor antibiotic resistant and pathogenic bacteria, and as such poultry litter and poultry house air can be contaminated with these bacteria. Health researchers have typically focused on the presence of aerosolized endotoxin, NH3, and particulate matter within poultry houses; ...

  13. 9 CFR 93.218 - Import permits and applications for inspection for poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... inspection for poultry. 93.218 Section 93.218 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND...

  14. 9 CFR 93.218 - Import permits and applications for inspection for poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... inspection for poultry. 93.218 Section 93.218 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND...

  15. 9 CFR 93.218 - Import permits and applications for inspection for poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... inspection for poultry. 93.218 Section 93.218 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND...

  16. 9 CFR 93.218 - Import permits and applications for inspection for poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... inspection for poultry. 93.218 Section 93.218 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND...

  17. 9 CFR 93.218 - Import permits and applications for inspection for poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... inspection for poultry. 93.218 Section 93.218 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND...

  18. Phosphorus Extraction by Cotton Fertilized with Broiler Litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effective management of litter to minimize or prevent the buildup of soil P requires knowledge of the amount of P extracted and removed by harvested crop. This knowledge does not exist or is not well documented for cotton fertilized with poultry litter. The objective of this research was to quanti...

  19. Nanosilver Biocidal Properties and Their Application in Disinfection of Hatchers in Poultry Processing Plants.

    PubMed

    Banach, Marcin; Tymczyna, Leszek; Chmielowiec-Korzeniowska, Anna; Pulit-Prociak, Jolanta

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to use aqueous suspensions of silver nanoparticles with a wide spectrum of particle sizes, variable morphology, high stability, and appropriate physicochemical properties to examine their bactericidal and fungicidal properties against microorganisms present in poultry processing plants. At the same time, the particles were tested for preventing the production of odorogenous pollutants during incubation and thereby reducing the emission of harmful gases from such types of facilities. The results show that the use of nanosilver preparations in order to disinfect eggs and hatchers reduced microbiological contamination. The bactericidal and fungicidal efficacy of the applied preparation was comparable to UV radiation and its effectiveness increasing during the incubation. Good results were achieved in terms of the level of organic gaseous contaminants, which decreased by 86% after the application of the nanosilver preparation. PMID:26903785

  20. Nanosilver Biocidal Properties and Their Application in Disinfection of Hatchers in Poultry Processing Plants

    PubMed Central

    Banach, Marcin; Tymczyna, Leszek; Chmielowiec-Korzeniowska, Anna; Pulit-Prociak, Jolanta

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to use aqueous suspensions of silver nanoparticles with a wide spectrum of particle sizes, variable morphology, high stability, and appropriate physicochemical properties to examine their bactericidal and fungicidal properties against microorganisms present in poultry processing plants. At the same time, the particles were tested for preventing the production of odorogenous pollutants during incubation and thereby reducing the emission of harmful gases from such types of facilities. The results show that the use of nanosilver preparations in order to disinfect eggs and hatchers reduced microbiological contamination. The bactericidal and fungicidal efficacy of the applied preparation was comparable to UV radiation and its effectiveness increasing during the incubation. Good results were achieved in terms of the level of organic gaseous contaminants, which decreased by 86% after the application of the nanosilver preparation. PMID:26903785

  1. Improved poultry house

    SciTech Connect

    1983-01-01

    The relationship of energy and poultry production was explored in three areas: methane production from litter, broiler house insulation, and broiler house HVAC systems. The findings show that while a methane plant would not be popular with individual American poultry producers; the pay back in fuel and fertilizer, if the plant was located in close proximinity to the processing plant, would be favorable. Broiler house insulation has been dramatically improved since the outset of this study. Presently, all new installations in the survey area are the Environmental houses which are fully insulated. HVAC systems have had to keep pace with the introduction of better insulation. The new Environmental houses HVAC systems are fully automated and operating on a positive atmosphere principal. Ammonia and other problems have been kept in check while reducing air changes per house from a high of 7 per hour to as little as 3 per hour.

  2. Broiler litter application and tillage effects on restoration of degraded soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment was initiated in 2005 at Plant Material Center, NRCS, in Coffeeville Mississippi, on a degraded Loring silt loam (fine-silty, mixed, thermic, Glossic Fragiudalf) soil to determine restorative potential of broiler litter, soil and crop management on selected soil physical, chemical, and...

  3. Broiler Litter Application Date on Bermudagrass in Southeastern U.S.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Presently, more than 85% of the boiler (chicken, Gallus gallus domesticus) litter is being applied to pasture lands year-round. This practice results in nutrient losses and potentially unfavorable environmental impacts particularly during the wet winter months. A field plot experiment was initiated ...

  4. High litter moisture content suppresses litter ammonia volatilization.

    PubMed

    Miles, D M; Rowe, D E; Cathcart, T C

    2011-07-01

    With global food demand expected to increase by 100% in the next 50 yr, urgency to combine comprehensive strategies for sustainable, efficacious, and environmentally sensible agronomic practices has never been greater. One effort for US meat bird management is to reduce NH(3) volatilization from litter to create a better growing environment for the birds, improve production efficiency, retain N in litter for fertilizer value, and negate the detrimental environmental impacts of NH(3) loss to the air. To derive the fundamental effects of temperature and moisture on litter NH(3) volatilization over the range of conditions found in commercial houses, experiments were conducted using commercial broiler litter that had moisture contents of approximately 20 to 55% while controlling temperatures ranging from 18.3 to 40.6°C. Litter samples (100 g) were placed in 1-L containers that received humidified air at approximately 113 mL/min. Volatilized NH(3) in exhaust air was captured in H(3)BO(3) traps. Ammonia loss (log(10) transformation) was modeled via an equation using linear coefficients for temperature and moisture, an interaction term for temperature × moisture, and a quadratic term for moisture. The surface responses resembled parabolic cylinders, indicating a critical moisture level at which NH(3) no longer increases but is diminished as moisture continues to increase. The critical moisture level lies between 37.4 and 51.1% litter moisture, depending on the temperature. An increase in temperature consistently increased NH(3) generation. When the temperature extremes were compared, the maximum NH(3) was up to 7 times greater at 40.6 vs. 18.3°C. The upper moisture limit at which NH(3) release is maximized and subsequently arrested as moisture continues to increase had not been defined previously for commercial broiler litter. The poultry industry and researchers can use these results as a decision tool to enable management strategies that limit NH(3) production. PMID

  5. Determination of selected veterinary antimicrobials in poultry excreta by UHPLC-MS/MS, for application in Salmonella control programs.

    PubMed

    Gorissen, Brecht; Reyns, Tim; Devreese, Mathias; De Backer, Patrick; Van Loco, Joris; Croubels, Siska

    2015-06-01

    The most important source of Salmonella spp. infection in humans is by the consumption of contaminated poultry products. Due to the risk of resistance development and its transfer from animals to humans, the Belgian Royal Decree concerning the eradication of Salmonella (C-2007/22784) prohibits treatment of poultry with antimicrobials against zoonotic Salmonella spp. To uncover illicit use, an analytical method using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) for the determination of antimicrobial residues in poultry excreta was developed and validated for classes having an active spectrum against Salmonella spp. in poultry: β-lactams (amoxicillin and penicillin V), fluoroquinolones (enrofloxacin, difloxacin, and flumequine), polymyxins (colistin), sulfonamides in combination with trimethoprim (sulfachloropyridazine, sulfadiazine, and sulfaclozine), and tetracyclines (chlortetracycline and doxycycline). A generic and high-throughput sample preparation was developed. Extraction of samples was performed by ultrasonication using a combination of acetonitrile and McIlvaine buffer, followed by centrifugation and filtration prior to analysis. The method was validated according to Commission Decision 2002/657/EC for linearity, apparent recovery/trueness, repeatability, reproducibility, limit of quantification, limit of detection, specificity, matrix effect, and storage stability in matrix. To demonstrate the applicability of the method, an in vivo experiment was conducted. For each antimicrobial class, one registered drug was selected and administered in the drinking water to two laying hens. Excreta samples were collected every 12 h during and until 2 days after treatment and analyzed using the developed method. PMID:25633214

  6. Effects of top-dressing recycled broiler litter on litter production, litter characteristics, and nitrogen mass balance.

    PubMed

    Coufal, C D; Chavez, C; Niemeyer, P R; Carey, J B

    2006-03-01

    Top-dressing is a method of broiler litter management in which a thin layer of new, clean litter material is spread over the top of previously used litter prior to placement of a new flock. This fresh layer of bedding material increases the absorptive capacity of the litter and decreases litter caking. Although this practice has been widely used in the poultry industry for many years, no research has been conducted to quantify the effects the practice has on broiler performance, litter production rates, and nutrient content, or the ability of broiler litter to retain manure N and prevent volatilization. An experiment was conducted to quantify these parameters under simulated commercial conditions in a research facility. Nine consecutive flocks of broilers were reared on recycled broiler litter that had previously been used for 9 flocks. Control pens received no litter treatment whereas top-dressed pens received a thin layer of new rice hulls (1 to 2 cm) before the placement of each flock. Nitrogen loss was calculated using the mass balance method. Average broiler performance was not different between the top-dressed and control pens. Top-dressing of litter significantly (P < 0.05) reduced caked litter production compared with control pens in 6 of 9 flocks. However, average total litter production over all 9 flocks was not different between the 2 litter management strategies. In all flocks, litter N content was significantly reduced in top-dressed pens compared with control pens. As a result, litter C:N ratios were significantly higher for pens with top-dressed litter. Differences in N loss between the treatments were not consistent. Average N loss for all flocks was 10.61 and 11.92 g of N/kg of marketed broiler for control and top-dressed pens, respectively, or 20.1 and 22.5% of N inputs, respectively. Based on this experiment, top-dressing of recycled broiler litter would not be recommended as a strategy to reduce the volatilization of N from broiler rearing

  7. Verification of poultry carcass composting research through application during actual avian influenza outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Flory, Gary A; Peer, Robert W

    2010-01-01

    An avian influenza outbreak in 2002 affected 197 poultry farms in Virginia and cost an estimated $130 million in losses and cleanup. In 2004-2005, researchers initiated a project to investigate the feasibility and practicality of in-house composting of turkey mortalities (heavy hens and toms) as a method of disposal and disease containment. Occurrences of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) in West Virginia and Virginia in 2007 provided an opportunity for first responders to verify composting as an effective carcass disposal method. Many lessons learned from these experiences have led to improvements in the application of this technology. Market-weight turkeys, once thought too large for effective composting, were composted sufficiently for land application within 4 to 6 weeks. Additionally, fire-fighting foam, a new method of mass depopulation, proved to be compatible with composting. Knowledge gained from these incidents will be valuable not only for future responses to LPAI but also for outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza such as the H5N1 virus, which currently causes disease in both animals and humans in many parts of the world. Since three-quarters of all recent emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) have arisen from animals, control of disease in animals is the principal way to reduce human exposure and prevent EIDs. Many of the general approaches and specific techniques used to eradicate the avian influenza virus can also be used to control other EIDs such as H1N1, Nipah virus, Rift Valley Fever, and plague. PMID:20375437

  8. Nitrogen and P dynamics in a plant, soil and runoff system as influenced by broiler litter management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry litter contains multiple nutrients, including N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and micronutrients and can be considered as an excellent organic fertilizer if properly managed. Offsite movement of nutrients from land applied poultry litter into the water bodies is of national concern. Studies have shown that...

  9. 9 CFR 381.7 - Coverage of all poultry and poultry products processed in official establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage of all poultry and poultry... AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Administration; Application of Inspection and Other Requirements § 381.7 Coverage of all...

  10. 9 CFR 381.7 - Coverage of all poultry and poultry products processed in official establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coverage of all poultry and poultry... AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Administration; Application of Inspection and Other Requirements § 381.7 Coverage of all...

  11. 9 CFR 381.7 - Coverage of all poultry and poultry products processed in official establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Coverage of all poultry and poultry... AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Administration; Application of Inspection and Other Requirements § 381.7 Coverage of all...

  12. 9 CFR 381.7 - Coverage of all poultry and poultry products processed in official establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Coverage of all poultry and poultry... AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Administration; Application of Inspection and Other Requirements § 381.7 Coverage of all...

  13. 9 CFR 381.7 - Coverage of all poultry and poultry products processed in official establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Coverage of all poultry and poultry... AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Administration; Application of Inspection and Other Requirements § 381.7 Coverage of all...

  14. EFFECTS OF LARGE-SCALE POULTRY FARMS ON AQUATIC MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES: A MOLECULAR INVESTIGATION.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of large-scale poultry production operations on water quality and human health are largely unknown. Poultry litter is frequently applied as fertilizer to agricultural lands adjacent to large poultry farms. Run-off from the land introduces a variety of stressors into t...

  15. Poultry Plant Noise Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A demonstration conducted last winter at the Tip Top Poultry Plant intended to show poultry plant managers from all over the U.S. potential solutions to the problem of plant noise. Plastic covers used over sound absorbing materials need to meet cleanability requirements, high- pressure water cleaning and other harsh maintenance procedures peculiar to the poultry processing industry. For the demonstration, Fiber Flex, Inc. manufactured and donated 750 noise panels; Owens-Corning Fiberglas Corporation donated the fiberglas cores; and the cover material was purchased from Howe and Bainbridge. The Engineering Experiment Station (EES) conducted before and after noise surveys and is evaluating the effect of noise reduction on turnover and productivity in the demonstration plant. EES plans to conduct a noise abatement workshop and update a handbook to help poultry processors with noise problems. EES study and demonstration may be applicable to other food processing plants where similar sanitary constraints exist.

  16. Effect of in-house chicken litter composting on ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions and pathogen reduction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inhouse composting is a management practice to reduce pathogen in poultry litter. In between flocks, growers windrow the litter inside the broiler houses. This results in high temperatures that can reduce some pathogens in the litter. However, this practice is likely to increase emissions of NH3 and...

  17. Antibiotic resistance of bacterial litter isolates.

    PubMed

    Kelley, T R; Pancorbo, O C; Merka, W C; Barnhart, H M

    1998-02-01

    Use of antibiotics in subtherapeutic doses as growth-promoting feed additives for animal production is widespread in the U.S. and throughout the world. Previous studies by our research group concluded that size fractionation of poultry (broiler) litter followed by storage facilitated reutilization of litter as a soil amendment or bedding supplement. However, litter microbial contamination, including antibiotic-resistant populations, and accumulation of metals and other elements may limit litter reutilization. Litter from four broiler houses was separated into a fine fraction for use as a soil amendment, and a coarse fraction for reutilization as a bedding supplement in growing subsequent flocks of broilers. Fractions and whole litter were stored in indoor piles simulating farm storage conditions for 4 mo with periodic analysis for metals, other elements, and culturable bacteria (including total and fecal coliform, Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Yersinia enterocolitica, and Campylobacter jejuni). Representative bacterial isolates were tested for their sensitivity to 12 common antibiotics (ampicillin, bacitracin, cephalothin, erythromycin, gentamicin, kanamycin, nalidixic acid, neomycin, penicillin, streptomycin, sulfisoxazole, and tetracycline) using the Kirby-Bauer technique. Pathogens and indicator bacteria tested were found to be resistant to multiple antibiotics. Data suggest that microbial contamination of litter should be reduced or eliminated prior to reutilization to minimize environmental health risks related to transfer of antibiotic-resistant bacteria to humans or other animals. PMID:9495488

  18. Effects of broiler litter application on cotton growth, yield, and residual soil N in ultra narrow row and conventional row spacing systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using animal manure as fertilizer in row crop production has been encouraged. Substantial studies have been conducted to determine the effects of broiler litter application on cotton growth and yield under different soil and manure management systems. However, the response of cotton to broiler litte...

  19. Liming Poultry Manures to Kill Pathogens and Decrease Soluble Phosphorus

    SciTech Connect

    Maguire,R.; Hesterberg, D.; Gernat, A.; Anderson, K.; Wineland, M.; Grimes, J.

    2006-01-01

    Received for publication September 9, 2005. Stabilizing phosphorus (P) in poultry waste to reduce P losses from manured soils is important to protect surface waters, while pathogens in manures are an emerging issue. This study was conducted to evaluate CaO and Ca(OH){sub 2} for killing manure bacterial populations (pathogens) and stabilizing P in poultry wastes and to investigate the influence on soils following amendment with the treated wastes. Layer manure and broiler litter varying in moisture content were treated with CaO and Ca(OH){sub 2} at rates of 2.5, 5, 10, and 15% by weight. All treated wastes were analyzed for microbial plate counts, pH, and water-soluble phosphorus (WSP), while a few selected layer manures were analyzed by phosphorus X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES). A loamy sand and a silt loam were amended with broiler litter and layer manure treated with CaO at rates of 0, 2.5, 5, 10, and 15% and soil WSP and pH were measured at times 1, 8, and 29 d. Liming reduced bacterial populations, with greater rates of lime leading to greater reductions; for example 10% CaO applied to 20% solids broiler litter reduced the plate counts from 793 000 to 6500 mL{sup -1}. Liming also reduced the WSP in the manures by over 90% in all cases where at least 10% CaO was added. Liming the manures also reduced WSP in soils immediately following application and raised soil pH. The liming process used successfully reduced plate counts and concerns about P losses in runoff following land application of these limed products due to decreased WSP.

  20. Broiler Litter Application Method and Runoff Timing Effects on Nutrient and Escherichia coli Losses from Tall Fescue Pasture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    More than 85% of broiler (chicken, Gallus gallus domesticus) litter applied in the U.S. is being applied to pasture lands year-round. Runoff from litter-applied land has the potential to transport nutrients and pathogenic microorganisms to nearby surface water. Many studies have indicated the advant...

  1. A Survey of Carcass Condemnation at a Poultry Abattoir and its Application to Disease Management

    PubMed Central

    Ansong-Danquah, Joseph

    1987-01-01

    During a five year period, slaughter records were maintained on flocks of broiler chickens sent to a federally-inspected abattoir in New Brunswick. These records, including data regarding condemnation of both carcasses and portions of broilers, were maintained at the level of the individual producer. Annual meetings and ad hoc consultations with producers, a veterinary poultry specialist, and support groups in the poultry industry (feed mills, breeders, etc.) were used to relay to the various interested parties, information relating to disease conditions. Following the implementation of this system, condemnation rates dropped by one full percentage point during the first three years, with a slight increase observed during the last two years of the study. At the end of the survey, condemnation rates were 20% less than those of the national average. PMID:17422886

  2. Poultry Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheok, Adrian David

    Poultry are one of the most badly treated animals in the modern world. It has been shown that they have high levels of both cognition and feelings, and as a result there has been a recent trend of promoting poultry welfare. There is also a tradition of keeping poultry as pets in some parts of the world. However, in modern cities and societies, it is often difficult to maintain contact with pets, particularly for office workers. We propose and describe a novel cybernetics system to use mobile and Internet technology to improve human-pet interaction. It can also be used for people who are allergic to touching animals and thus cannot stroke them directly. This interaction encompasses both visualization and tactile sensation of real objects.

  3. Litter-Spinning Retarders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John C.

    1995-01-01

    Aerodynamic plates stop litter from spinning during hoisting by helicopter. Features of proposed litter-spinning retarders include convenience of deployment and independence from ground restraint. Retarder plate(s) folded flat against bottom of litter during storage or while litter is loaded. Plate(s) held in storage position by latch that releases manually or automatically as litter is hoisted. Upon release, springs move plates into deployed position.

  4. Corn grain yield and soil properties after 10 years of broiler litter amendment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Use of broiler litter nutrients for crop production benefits crops, soils, and aids in disposing manure. Understanding corn (Zea mays L.) grain production and soil properties resulting from long-term poultry litter amendment helps establish a sustainable animal manure based corn production with low ...

  5. Corn grain yield and soil properties under decade-long broiler litter amendment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Use of broiler litter nutrients for crop production benefits crops, soils, and aids in disposing manure. Understanding corn (Zea mays L.) grain production and soil properties resulting from long-term poultry litter amendment helps establish a sustainable animal manure based corn production with low ...

  6. Fertilizing cotton with broiler litter is superior to inorganic fertilizers in Mississippi soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry litter, a mixture of mainly manure and bedding material, is well known as a source of mineral plant nutrients and as a soil conditioner. It has been shown to be an effective fertilizer for row crops, forage and pasture crops, and even for forest trees. The effectiveness of litter as a fert...

  7. Effects of broiler litter ash, layer manure ash and calcium phosphate on corn, wheat and soybean growth, phosphorus and arsenic uptake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry litter is being incinerated in order to reduce excess litter and to increase the percentage of renewable fuel used to generate electricity. Ash from incinerated litter has been effective in increasing crop growth. However, there is no current literature comparing phosphorus availability fr...

  8. Evaluation of broiler litter transportation in northern Alabama, USA.

    PubMed

    Paudel, Krishna P; Adhikari, Murali; Martin, Neil R

    2004-10-01

    The profitability of using broiler litter as a source of crop nutrients was calculated using a phosphorus-consistent litter application rule. A ton of litter can cost effectively be transported up to 164 miles from the production facility. A cost-minimizing phosphorus-consistent transportation model developed to meet the nutrient needs of 29 counties in northern Alabama revealed that not all of the litter can be utilized in the region. The total cost increased when transportation of the litter out of the heavily surplus counties was prioritized. Total litter use was minimally affected by changes in chemical fertilizer prices. Shadow prices indicated the robustness of the model. PMID:15327843

  9. Effects of tillage and poultry manure application rates on Salmonella and fecal indicator bacteria concentrations in tiles draining Des Moines Lobe soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Application of poultry manure (PM) to cropland as fertilizer is a common practice in artificially drained regions of the Upper Midwest. To assess the potential for PM to contribute pathogenic bacteria to downstream waters, information is needed on the impacts of manure management and tillage practi...

  10. Effects of tillage and poultry manure application rate on Salmonella and fecal indicator bacteria concentrations in tiles draining Des Moines Lobe soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Application of poultry manure (PM) to cropland as fertilizer is a common practice in artificially drained regions of the Upper Midwest. To assess the potential for PM to contribute pathogenic bacteria to downstream waters, information is needed on the impacts of manure management and tillage practi...

  11. Characterization of Candida famata Isolated from Poultry Feces for Possible Probiotic Applications.

    PubMed

    Al-Seraih, Alaa; Flahaut, Christophe; Krier, François; Cudennec, Benoit; Drider, Djamel

    2015-12-01

    We studied here the yeast content of poultry feces, collected randomly from a French farm located in the north of the country. Thus, 81 yeast colonies were isolated and clustered into 22 distinct groups using the rep-PCR method. A single colony was taken from each group and identified using biochemical (ID 32C system) and molecular (sequencing of the D1/D2 domain of 26S rDNA and ITS1-5.8-ITS2 rDNA region) methods. Both methods led to the identification of Candida famata species. One isolate of C. famata strains, named strain Y5, was further studied for its cytotoxicity, adhesion, and surface properties, hemolytic activity, and its survival in simulated gastric and intestine environments. The data obtained advocate the probiotic potential of this isolate. PMID:26459296

  12. Laboratory study of methane production from broiler-chicken litter

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, J.C.H.; Huang, J.J.H.

    1980-01-01

    North Carolina is one of the largest poultry-production states in the United States. Although a considerable amount of work has been done on methane production from livestock, brewery, and municipal wastes, little is known concerning poultry waste. Consequently, a laboratory study was conducted to delineate the potential for thermophilic (60/sup 0/C) methane generation from broiler litter. Broiler litter was chosen as the substrate for the following reasons: first, it is the most abundant waste of poultry production in North Carolina; second, wood chips which are used as the bedding material could be a potential source of carbon for methane biosynthesis; and third, it has a desirable nitrogen content of 3 to 4%, a level similar to that of the cattle waste..

  13. Functional Properties of Filamentous Fungi Isolated from the Indonesian Fermented Dried Cassava, with Particular Application on Poultry

    PubMed Central

    Yudiarti, Turrini; Isroli, Isroli

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the probiotic properties, antioxidant activity and fermentative capacity of Acremonium charticola and Rhizopus oryzae isolated from the Indonesian fermented dried cassava, with particular application on poultry. A. charticola inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli and Aspergillus flavus. A. charticola and R. oryzae grew in potato dextrose agar (PDA) adjusted to pH 3 and 8 or in PDA supplemented with bile salt up to 0.8%. After soaking for 8 hr, the survival rate of A. charticola in the simulated gastric juice (pH 2) and bile solutions (2% bile salt) was lower than that of R. oryzae. A. charticola and R. oryzae exhibited strong antioxidant activities. Compared to unfermented cassava pulp (control), the fibre content of cassava pulp tended to be lower after fermentation with A. charticola for 14 days. The populations of A. charticola and R. oryzae were significantly higher in fermented cassava pulp than in unfermented one. Coliform was higher in cassava pulp fermented with R. oryzae or A. charticola + R. oryzae compared to control after 7 days of fermentation, however, the bacteria were not different between A. charticola-fermented cassava pulp and control. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were higher in A. charticola- and R. oryzae-fermented cassava pulp than those in control, however, no difference of LAB was observed between A. charticola + R. oryzae-fermented cassava pulp and control. In conclusion, A. charticola exhibited antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activity, gastrointestinal persistence and fermentative capacity that may be beneficial for poultry industry. PMID:26839501

  14. Functional Properties of Filamentous Fungi Isolated from the Indonesian Fermented Dried Cassava, with Particular Application on Poultry.

    PubMed

    Sugiharto, Sugiharto; Yudiarti, Turrini; Isroli, Isroli

    2015-12-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the probiotic properties, antioxidant activity and fermentative capacity of Acremonium charticola and Rhizopus oryzae isolated from the Indonesian fermented dried cassava, with particular application on poultry. A. charticola inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli and Aspergillus flavus. A. charticola and R. oryzae grew in potato dextrose agar (PDA) adjusted to pH 3 and 8 or in PDA supplemented with bile salt up to 0.8%. After soaking for 8 hr, the survival rate of A. charticola in the simulated gastric juice (pH 2) and bile solutions (2% bile salt) was lower than that of R. oryzae. A. charticola and R. oryzae exhibited strong antioxidant activities. Compared to unfermented cassava pulp (control), the fibre content of cassava pulp tended to be lower after fermentation with A. charticola for 14 days. The populations of A. charticola and R. oryzae were significantly higher in fermented cassava pulp than in unfermented one. Coliform was higher in cassava pulp fermented with R. oryzae or A. charticola + R. oryzae compared to control after 7 days of fermentation, however, the bacteria were not different between A. charticola-fermented cassava pulp and control. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were higher in A. charticola- and R. oryzae-fermented cassava pulp than those in control, however, no difference of LAB was observed between A. charticola + R. oryzae-fermented cassava pulp and control. In conclusion, A. charticola exhibited antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activity, gastrointestinal persistence and fermentative capacity that may be beneficial for poultry industry. PMID:26839501

  15. Effective poultry programming in the next century. Innovative applications of distance education: getting into the knowledge marketplace.

    PubMed

    Poley, J K; Bisbee, D

    1999-05-01

    The number of internet-based resources for use in poultry science distance education is growing. These new resources present opportunities as well as challenges to land grant university programs and traditions. This article includes an explanation of the emerging field of distance education and offers a rich assortment of web-based resources for poultry scientists. PMID:10228961

  16. Improving litter size by boar spermatozoa: application of combined H33258/CTC staining in field trial with artificial insemination.

    PubMed

    Kwon, W-S; Rahman, M S; Lee, J-S; You, Y-A; Pang, M-G

    2015-05-01

    Conventional semen analysis offers basic information on infertility; however, its clinical value in predicting fertility status is unclear. To establish an accurate diagnosis of male fertility, semen analysis under capacitation condition is necessary because only capacitated spermatozoa are capable of fertilizing oocytes. The objective of this study was to verify male fertility based on conventional semen analysis before and after capacitation, including the assessment of motility (%), motion kinematics, and capacitation status of spermatozoa. A computer-assisted sperm analysis system and chlortetracycline staining were applied to evaluate the motility parameters and capacitation status, respectively. To enable efficacy of the two methods for predicting fertility, correlation analysis was performed with the historic litter size. Our results showed that sperm motility (%), motion kinematics, and their variations before and after capacitation represented a statistical non-significant correlation with litter size. Litter size showed significant correlation with acrosome reaction (AR) after capacitation (r = 0.375), as well as differences (Δ) in AR (r = 0.333) and capacitated (B) pattern (r = -0.447) before and after capacitation. The overall accuracy of the assay for predicting litter sizes using the AR and differences (Δ) in the AR and B pattern was 70%. On the basis of these results, we propose that capacitation status of spermatozoa is a more reliable indicator for evaluating male fertility status compared to motility parameters. Therefore, we suggest that analysis of capacitation status in company with conventional semen analysis may accept to evaluate more accurate diagnosis or prognosis of male fertility. PMID:25767078

  17. No-till and conventional-till cotton response to broiler litter fertilization in an upland soil: lint yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effectiveness of poultry litter as cotton fertilizer is not well documented for upland soils in the southeastern USA where cotton may be grown under no-till and other soil conservation practices. The objective of this research was to measure the response of cotton to broiler litter fertilization...

  18. Availability of residual phosphorus from broiler litter ash and layer manure ash amended soil for Paspalum vaginatum uptake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been hypothesized by several scientists that poultry litter ash could be used as a slow releasing phosphorus fertilizer that will become available over time. To test this hypothesis, a greenhouse study was conducted using a broiler litter ash, layer manure ash and calcium phosphate to determ...

  19. 9 CFR 72.24 - Litter and manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.24 Litter and manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating required. The litter... premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating required. 72.24 Section 72.24 Animals and...

  20. 9 CFR 72.24 - Litter and manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.24 Litter and manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating required. The litter... premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating required. 72.24 Section 72.24 Animals and...

  1. 9 CFR 72.24 - Litter and manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.24 Litter and manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating required. The litter... premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating required. 72.24 Section 72.24 Animals and...

  2. Application of ISO22000 and Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (fmea) for Industrial Processing of Poultry Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varzakas, Theodoros H.; Arvanitoyannis, Ioannis S.

    Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) model has been applied for the risk assessment of poultry slaughtering and manufacturing. In this work comparison of ISO22000 analysis with HACCP is carried out over poultry slaughtering, processing and packaging. Critical Control points and Prerequisite programs (PrPs) have been identified and implemented in the cause and effect diagram (also known as Ishikawa, tree diagram and fishbone diagram).

  3. Xanthophylls in Poultry Feeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breithaupt, Diemar R.

    Since most consumers associate an intense colour of food with healthy animals and high food quality, xanthophylls are widely used as feed additives to generate products that meet consumers' demands. An important large-scale application is in poultry farming, where xanthophylls are added to feed to give the golden colour of egg yolk that is so much appreciated. Now, with numerous new applications in human food, in the pharmaceutical industry, and in cosmetic products, there is an increasing demand for xanthophylls on the international market (Volume 5, Chapter 4).

  4. Composting and gypsum amendment of broiler litter to reduce nutrient leaching loss.

    PubMed

    Adeli, Ardeshir; Sheng, J; Jenkins, J N; Feng, G

    2015-03-01

    The effect of composted litter relative to fresh litter on leaching losses of nutrients has not been well documented. Fresh and composted broiler litter was surface-applied to bermudagrass (hay) [ (L.) Pers.] established in undisturbed soil columns based on N need of the grass in the presence or absence of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum to evaluate an approach to reduce broiler litter nutrient leaching potential. Columns were periodically leached and biomass was harvested during the 60-d experiment. Total N applied to bermudagrass from broiler litter was 320 kg ha. Gypsum was mixed with fresh and composted litter at the rate based on 20% of litter weight. For composted broiler litter, NO-N, P, K, Cu, and Zn contents in the leachate obtained from the first leaching event were 58, 50, 40, 32, and 38% less than fresh broiler litter, respectively. Significant decreases in NO-N (13%), P (53%), Cu (17%), and Zn (28%) in leachate were obtained when gypsum was mixed with fresh broiler litter. Fresh broiler litter and composted broiler litter applications increased bermudagrass growth compared with the control and gypsum significantly increased yields when mixed with broiler litter. Composted broiler litter application significantly increased N and organic C in the soil compared with fresh litter. Results demonstrate that coapplication of composted broiler litter with FGD gypsum provide the most effective management option for minimizing leaching losses of nutrients while sustaining crop productivity. PMID:26023985

  5. LA35 Poultry Fecal Marker Persistence Is Correlated with That of Indicators and Pathogens in Environmental Waters

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Bina; Weidhaas, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Disposal of fecally contaminated poultry litter by land application can deliver pathogens and fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) into receiving waters via runoff. While water quality is regulated by FIB enumeration, FIB testing provides inadequate information about contamination source and health risk. This microbial source tracking (MST) study compared the persistence of the Brevibacterium sp. strain LA35 16S rRNA gene (marker) for poultry litter with that of pathogens and FIB under outdoor, environmentally relevant conditions in freshwater, marine water, and sediments over 7 days. Salmonella enterica, Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, Bacteroidales, and LA35 were enumerated by quantitative PCR (qPCR), and Enterococcus spp. and E. coli were quantified by culture and qPCR. Unlike the other bacteria, C. jejuni was not detectable after 48 h. Bacterial levels in the water column consistently declined over time and were highly correlated among species. Survival in sediments ranged from a slow decrease over time to growth, particularly in marine microcosms and for Bacteroidales. S. enterica also grew in marine sediments. Linear decay rates in water (k) ranged from −0.17 day−1 for LA35 to −3.12 day−1 for C. coli. LA35 levels correlated well with those of other bacteria in the water column but not in sediments. These observations suggest that, particularly in the water column, the fate of LA35 in aquatic environments is similar to that of FIB, C. coli, and Salmonella, supporting the hypothesis that the LA35 marker gene can be a useful tool for evaluating the impact of poultry litter on water quality and human health risk. PMID:25934617

  6. LA35 Poultry Fecal Marker Persistence Is Correlated with That of Indicators and Pathogens in Environmental Waters.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Bina; Weidhaas, Jennifer; Harwood, Valerie J

    2015-07-01

    Disposal of fecally contaminated poultry litter by land application can deliver pathogens and fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) into receiving waters via runoff. While water quality is regulated by FIB enumeration, FIB testing provides inadequate information about contamination source and health risk. This microbial source tracking (MST) study compared the persistence of the Brevibacterium sp. strain LA35 16S rRNA gene (marker) for poultry litter with that of pathogens and FIB under outdoor, environmentally relevant conditions in freshwater, marine water, and sediments over 7 days. Salmonella enterica, Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, Bacteroidales, and LA35 were enumerated by quantitative PCR (qPCR), and Enterococcus spp. and E. coli were quantified by culture and qPCR. Unlike the other bacteria, C. jejuni was not detectable after 48 h. Bacterial levels in the water column consistently declined over time and were highly correlated among species. Survival in sediments ranged from a slow decrease over time to growth, particularly in marine microcosms and for Bacteroidales. S. enterica also grew in marine sediments. Linear decay rates in water (k) ranged from -0.17 day(-1) for LA35 to -3.12 day(-1) for C. coli. LA35 levels correlated well with those of other bacteria in the water column but not in sediments. These observations suggest that, particularly in the water column, the fate of LA35 in aquatic environments is similar to that of FIB, C. coli, and Salmonella, supporting the hypothesis that the LA35 marker gene can be a useful tool for evaluating the impact of poultry litter on water quality and human health risk. PMID:25934617

  7. Determination of some important emissions of poultry waste co-combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topal, Huseyin; Amirabedin, Ehsan

    2012-11-01

    Poultry Wastes (PW) are rich biomass types which can be utilized as renewable energy sources in energy conversion systems. The PW is a mixture of poultry litter and organic materials spread on the poultry houses ground. In this paper, combustion of the poultry waste alone and mixed with coal in a combustor set up are implemented, and emissions are monitored. Experimental results reveal that, co-combustion of PW in an existing combustor firing coal can be considered as the best environment-friendly remedy to dispose the facility wastes while reducing the combustion emissions of the system.

  8. Soil microbial biomass nitrogen and Beta-Glucosaminidase activity response to compaction, poultry litter application and cropping in a claypan soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Compaction-induced changes in soil physical properties may significantly affect soil microbial activity, especially nitrogen-cycling processes, in many agroecosystems. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of soil compaction on soil microbiological properties related to N in a clay...

  9. Role of a pond in reducing the threat of pathogen contamination from livestock and poultry litter applications in an agricultural watershed of the Southern Piedmont

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several outbreaks of gastrointestinal illness from exposure to recreational and municipal drinking waters have focused public attention on animal agriculture as a potential source of pathogens contaminating surface and ground water. Recent observations by researchers in Georgia have indicated that ...

  10. Environmentally friendly animal litter

    DOEpatents

    Chett, Boxley; McKelvie, Jessica

    2013-08-20

    A method of making an animal litter that includes geopolymerized ash, wherein, the animal litter is made from a quantity of a pozzolanic ash mixed with a sufficient quantity of water and an alkaline activator to initiate a geopolymerization reaction that forms geopolymerized ash. After the geopolymerized ash is formed, it is dried, broken into particulates, and sieved to a desired size. These geopolymerized ash particulates are used to make a non-clumping or clumping animal litter. Odor control may be accomplished with the addition of a urease inhibitor, pH buffer, an odor eliminating agent, and/or fragrance.

  11. Littering Behavior in Public Places

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Stuart N.

    1976-01-01

    This review summarizes the present state of knowledge concerning littering behavior. Available studies are categorized according to the variables that influence littering--individual and environmental. Theoretical issues of attitude-behavior consistency and incentive effectiveness are analyzed with respect to littering and litter control. Results…

  12. Field Experiments in Litter Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finnie, William C.

    1973-01-01

    A series of urban and highway litter experiments in Richmond (Virginia), St. Louis, and Philadelphia indicated well-designed litter cans reduced littering about 15 percent along city streets and nearly 30 percent along highways. Also, the propensity to litter is critically affected by the characteristics of the individual and environmental…

  13. Litter ammonia generation: moisture content and organic versus inorganic bedding materials.

    PubMed

    Miles, D M; Rowe, D E; Cathcart, T C

    2011-06-01

    Negative impacts on the environment, bird well-being, and farm worker health indicate the need for abatement strategies for poultry litter NH(3) generation. Type of bedding affects many parameters related to poultry production including NH(3) losses. In a randomized complete block design, 3 trials compared the cumulative NH(3) volatilization for laboratory-prepared litter (4 bedding types mixed with excreta) and commercial litter (sampled from a broiler house during the second flock on reused pine wood chips). Litters were assessed at the original moisture content and 2 higher moisture contents. Broiler excrement was mixed with pine wood shavings, rice hulls, sand, and vermiculite to create litter samples. Volumetrically uniform litter samples were placed in chambers receiving humidified air where the exhaust passed through H(3)BO(3) solution, trapping litter-emitted NH(3). At the original moisture content, sand and vermiculite litters generated the most NH(3) (5.3 and 9.1 mg of N, respectively) whereas wood shavings, commercial, and rice hull litters emitted the least NH(3) (0.9-2.6 mg of N). For reducing NH(3) emissions, the results support recommendations for using wood shavings and rice hulls, already popular bedding choices in the United States and worldwide. In this research, the organic bedding materials generated the least NH(3) at the original moisture content when compared with the inorganic materials. For each bedding type, incremental increases in litter moisture content increased NH(3) volatilization. However, the effects of bedding material on NH(3) volatilization at the increased moisture levels were not clearly differentiated across the treatments. Vermiculite generated the most NH(3) (26.3 mg of N) at the highest moisture content. Vermiculite was a novel bedding choice that has a high water absorption capacity, but because of high NH(3) generation, it is not recommended for further study as broiler bedding material. Controlling unnecessary moisture

  14. Arsenic Metabolites, Including N-Acetyl-4-hydroxy-m-arsanilic Acid, in Chicken Litter from a Roxarsone-Feeding Study Involving 1600 Chickens.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zonglin; Peng, Hanyong; Lu, Xiufen; Liu, Qingqing; Huang, Rongfu; Hu, Bin; Kachanoski, Gary; Zuidhof, Martin J; Le, X Chris

    2016-07-01

    The poultry industry has used organoarsenicals, such as 3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid (Roxarsone, ROX), to prevent disease and to promote growth. Although previous studies have analyzed arsenic species in chicken litter after composting or after application to agricultural lands, it is not clear what arsenic species were excreted by chickens before biotransformation of arsenic species during composting. We describe here the identification and quantitation of arsenic species in chicken litter repeatedly collected on days 14, 24, 28, 30, and 35 of a Roxarsone-feeding study involving 1600 chickens of two strains. High performance liquid chromatography separation with simultaneous detection by both inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry provided complementary information necessary for the identification and quantitation of arsenic species. A new metabolite, N-acetyl-4-hydroxy-m-arsanilic acid (N-AHAA), was identified, and it accounted for 3-12% of total arsenic. Speciation analyses of litter samples collected from ROX-fed chickens on days 14, 24, 28, 30, and 35 showed the presence of N-AHAA, 3-amino-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid (3-AHPAA), inorganic arsenite (As(III)), arsenate (As(V)), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA(V)), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA(V)), and ROX. 3-AHPAA accounted for 3-19% of the total arsenic. Inorganic arsenicals (the sum of As(III) and As(V)) comprised 2-6% (mean 3.5%) of total arsenic. Our results on the detection of inorganic arsenicals, methylarsenicals, 3-AHPAA, and N-AHAA in the chicken litter support recent findings that ROX is actually metabolized by the chicken or its gut microbiome. The presence of the toxic metabolites in chicken litter is environmentally relevant as chicken litter is commonly used as fertilizer. PMID:26876684

  15. Effect of Poultry Litter on Biomethanation from Swine Slurry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal wastes can serve as the feedstock for biogas production (mainly methane) that could be used as alternative energy source. The green energy derived from animal wastes is considered to be carbon neutral and offsetting those generated from fossil fuels. In this study, an evaluation of methane p...

  16. Occurrence of arsenic and phosphorus in ditch flow from litter-amended soils and barn areas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known about the fate of arsenic (As) in land applied litter from chickens that have been fed roxarsone, an organic feed additive containing As. This study seeks to elucidate the transfer of As in runoff from ditch drained soils of the poultry producing region of the Delmarva Peninsula by t...

  17. Cotton response to chicken litter in rotation with corn in clayey soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry litter has proven to be an effective cotton fertilizer under conventional and no-till systems in silt loam soils in Mississippi. It may also prove to be a valuable fertilizer in heavier soils where cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is typically rotated with corn (Zea mays L.) or other crops. T...

  18. From waste to energy -- Catalytic steam gasification of broiler litter

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.A.; Sheth, A.C.

    1999-07-01

    In 1996, the production of broiler chickens in the US was approximately 7.60 billion head. The quantity of litter generated is enormous. In 1992, the Southeast region alone produced over five million tons of broiler litter. The litter removed from the broiler houses is rich in nutrients and often spread over land as a fertilizer. Without careful management, the associated agricultural runoff can cause severe environmental damage. With increasing broiler litter production, the implementation of alternative disposal technologies is essential to the sustainable development of the poultry industry. A process originally developed for the conversion of coals to clean gaseous fuel may provide an answer. Catalytic steam gasification utilities an alkali salt catalyst and steam to convert a carbonaceous feedstock to a gas mixture composed primarily of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, and methane. The low to medium energy content gas produced may be utilized as an energy source or chemical feedstock. Broiler litter is an attractive candidate for catalytic steam gasification due to its high potassium content. Experiments conducted in UTSI's bench-scale high-pressure fixed bed gasifier have provided data for technical and economic feasibility studies of the process. Experiments have also been performed to examine the effects of temperature, pressure, and additional catalysts on the gasification rate.

  19. The Experimental Control of Littering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Roger N.; And Others

    1972-01-01

    Behavior, incentives, and education programs were researched as factors relating to littering. Experiments in theaters, forest campgrounds, and hiking and dispersed car camping areas indicate incentive systems are necessary and feasible for curbing litter problems. (BL)

  20. Intestinal Microbiota of Broiler Chickens As Affected by Litter Management Regimens.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lingling; Lilburn, Mike; Yu, Zhongtang

    2016-01-01

    Poultry litter is a mixture of bedding materials and enteric bacteria excreted by chickens, and it is typically reused for multiple growth cycles in commercial broiler production. Thus, bacteria can be transmitted from one growth cycle to the next via litter. However, it remains poorly understood how litter reuse affects development and composition of chicken gut microbiota. In this study, the effect of litter reuse on the microbiota in litter and in chicken gut was investigated using 2 litter management regimens: fresh vs. reused litter. Samples of ileal mucosa and cecal digesta were collected from young chicks (10 days of age) and mature birds (35 days of age). Based on analysis using DGGE and pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicons, the microbiota of both the ileal mucosa and the cecal contents was affected by both litter management regimen and age of birds. Faecalibacterium, Oscillospira, Butyricicoccus, and one unclassified candidate genus closely related to Ruminococcus were most predominant in the cecal samples, while Lactobacillus was predominant in the ileal samples at both ages and in the cecal samples collected at day 10. At days 10 and 35, 8 and 3 genera, respectively, in the cecal luminal microbiota differed significantly in relative abundance between the 2 litter management regimens. Compared to the fresh litter, reused litter increased predominance of halotolerant/alkaliphilic bacteria and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, a butyrate-producing gut bacterium. This study suggests that litter management regimens affect the chicken GI microbiota, which may impact the host nutritional status and intestinal health. PMID:27242676

  1. Intestinal Microbiota of Broiler Chickens As Affected by Litter Management Regimens

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lingling; Lilburn, Mike; Yu, Zhongtang

    2016-01-01

    Poultry litter is a mixture of bedding materials and enteric bacteria excreted by chickens, and it is typically reused for multiple growth cycles in commercial broiler production. Thus, bacteria can be transmitted from one growth cycle to the next via litter. However, it remains poorly understood how litter reuse affects development and composition of chicken gut microbiota. In this study, the effect of litter reuse on the microbiota in litter and in chicken gut was investigated using 2 litter management regimens: fresh vs. reused litter. Samples of ileal mucosa and cecal digesta were collected from young chicks (10 days of age) and mature birds (35 days of age). Based on analysis using DGGE and pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicons, the microbiota of both the ileal mucosa and the cecal contents was affected by both litter management regimen and age of birds. Faecalibacterium, Oscillospira, Butyricicoccus, and one unclassified candidate genus closely related to Ruminococcus were most predominant in the cecal samples, while Lactobacillus was predominant in the ileal samples at both ages and in the cecal samples collected at day 10. At days 10 and 35, 8 and 3 genera, respectively, in the cecal luminal microbiota differed significantly in relative abundance between the 2 litter management regimens. Compared to the fresh litter, reused litter increased predominance of halotolerant/alkaliphilic bacteria and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, a butyrate-producing gut bacterium. This study suggests that litter management regimens affect the chicken GI microbiota, which may impact the host nutritional status and intestinal health. PMID:27242676

  2. Artificial insemination in poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Artificial insemination is a relative simple yet powerful tool geneticists can employ for the propagation of economically important traits in livestock and poultry. In this chapter, we address the fundamental methods of the artificial insemination of poultry, including semen collection, semen evalu...

  3. Phosphorus solubility in poultry litters and granulates: Influence of litter treatments and extraction ratios

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus (P) loss from soils receiving manure has been strongly correlated to the water extractable P (WEP) applied in the manure. Our main objective in this study was to assess the effects of different treatments (granulation alone and with urea, urea plus dicyandiamide, or hydrolyzed feathermea...

  4. Use of meta-analysis to combine candidate gene association studies: application to study the relationship between the ESR PvuII polymorphism and sow litter size

    PubMed Central

    Alfonso, Leopoldo

    2005-01-01

    This article investigates the application of meta-analysis on livestock candidate gene effects. The PvuII polymorphism of the ESR gene is used as an example. The association among ESR PvuII alleles with the number of piglets born alive and total born in the first (NBA1, TNB1) and later parities (NBA, TNB) is reviewed by conducting a meta-analysis of 15 published studies including 9329 sows. Under a fixed effects model, litter size values were significantly lower in the "AA" genotype groups when compared with "AB" and "BB" homozygotes. Under the random effects model, the results were similar although differences between "AA" and "AB" genotype groups were not clearly significant for NBA and TNB. Nevertheless, the most noticeable result was the high and significant heterogeneity estimated among studies. This heterogeneity could be assigned to error sampling, genotype by environment interaction, linkage or epistasis, as referred to in the literature, but also to the hypothesis of population admixture/stratification. It is concluded that meta-analysis can be considered as a helpful analytical tool to synthesise and discuss livestock candidate gene effects. The main difficulty found was the insufficient information on the standard errors of the estimated genotype effects in several publications. Consequently, the convenience of publishing the standard errors or the concrete P-values instead of the test significance level should be recommended to guarantee the quality of candidate gene effect meta-analyses. PMID:15943920

  5. Effect of aluminum sulfate on litter composition and ammonia emission in a single flock of broilers up to 42 days of age.

    PubMed

    Madrid, J; López, M J; Orengo, J; Martínez, S; Valverde, M; Megías, M D; Hernández, F

    2012-08-01

    New alternatives are necessary if the environmental impact linked to intensive poultry production is to be reduced, and different litter handling methods should be explored. Among these, acidifying amendments added to poultry litters has been suggested as a management practice to help reduce the potential environmental effect involved in multiple flock cycles. There have been several studies on the use of aluminum sulfate (alum) and its benefits, but almost no data are available under farm conditions in Europe. An experiment with Ross 308 broilers from 1 to 42 days of age was conducted to evaluate the effect of alum on litter composition, the solubility of some mineral elements and NH3 emission during a single flock-rearing period in commercial houses located in southeast Spain. Broilers were placed on clean wood shavings in four commercial houses, containing 20 000 broilers each. Before filling, alum was applied at a rate of 0.25 kg/m2 to the wood shavings of two poultry houses, whereas the remaining two were used as control. Litter from each poultry house was sampled every 3 to 5 days. Ammonia emissions from the poultry houses were monitored from 37 to 42 days of age. In comparison with the control group, alum treatment significantly reduced the pH level of the litter (P < 0.001) with an average difference of 1.32 ± 0.24 units. Alum-treated litter showed, on average, a higher electrical conductivity than the control litter (5.52 v. 3.63 dS/m). The dry matter (DM) and total N and P contents did not show differences between the treatments (P > 0.05). Regarding the NH4 +-N content, alum-treated litter showed a higher value than the untreated litter, with an average difference of 0.16 ± 0.07% (on a DM basis). On average, alum-treated litter had lower water-soluble P, Zn and Cu contents than the untreated litter. Alum noticeably reduced the in-house ammonia concentration (P < 0.001), with an average of 4.8 ppm at 42 days of age (62.9% lower than the control), and

  6. 40 CFR 412.4 - Best management practices (BMPs) for land application of manure, litter, and process wastewater.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... phosphorus has been removed from the field via harvest and crop removal. (c) Requirement to develop and... reaching surface waters. (3) Multi-year phosphorus application means phosphorus applied to a field in excess of the crop needs for that year. In multi-year phosphorus applications, no additional...

  7. 40 CFR 412.4 - Best management practices (BMPs) for land application of manure, litter, and process wastewater.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... phosphorus has been removed from the field via harvest and crop removal. (c) Requirement to develop and... reaching surface waters. (3) Multi-year phosphorus application means phosphorus applied to a field in excess of the crop needs for that year. In multi-year phosphorus applications, no additional...

  8. Lower Prevalence of Antibiotic-Resistant Enterococci on U.S. Conventional Poultry Farms that Transitioned to Organic Practices

    PubMed Central

    Hulet, R. Michael; Zhang, Guangyu; McDermott, Patrick; Kinney, Erinna L.; Schwab, Kellogg J.; Joseph, Sam W.

    2011-01-01

    Background: In U.S. conventional poultry production, antimicrobials are used for therapeutic, prophylactic, and nontherapeutic purposes. Researchers have shown that this can select for antibiotic-resistant commensal and pathogenic bacteria on poultry farms and in poultry-derived products. However, no U.S. studies have investigated on-farm changes in resistance as conventional poultry farms transition to organic practices and cease using antibiotics. Objective: We investigated the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Enterococcus on U.S. conventional poultry farms that transitioned to organic practices. Methods: Poultry litter, feed, and water samples were collected from 10 conventional and 10 newly organic poultry houses in 2008 and tested for Enterococcus. Enterococcus (n = 259) was identified using the Vitek® 2 Compact System and tested for susceptibility to 17 antimicrobials using the Sensititre™ microbroth dilution system. Data were analyzed using SAS software (version 9.2), and statistical associations were derived based on generalized linear mixed models. Results: Litter, feed, and water samples were Enterococcus positive. The percentages of resistant Enterococcus faecalis and resistant Enterococcus faecium were significantly lower (p < 0.05) among isolates from newly organic versus conventional poultry houses for two (erythromycin and tylosin) and five (ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, nitrofurantoin, penicillin, and tetracycline) antimicrobials, respectively. Forty-two percent of E. faecalis isolates from conventional poultry houses were multidrug resistant (MDR; resistant to three or more antimicrobial classes), compared with 10% of isolates from newly organic poultry houses (p = 0.02); 84% of E. faecium isolates from conventional poultry houses were MDR, compared with 17% of isolates from newly organic poultry houses (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the voluntary removal of antibiotics from large-scale U.S. poultry farms that transition to

  9. Antimicrobial resistance in Enterococcus spp. isolated from environmental samples in an area of intensive poultry production.

    PubMed

    Furtula, Vesna; Jackson, Charlene R; Farrell, Erin Gwenn; Barrett, John B; Hiott, Lari M; Chambers, Patricia A

    2013-03-01

    Enterococcus spp. from two poultry farms and proximate surface and ground water sites in an area of intensive poultry production were tested for resistance to 16 clinical antibiotics. Resistance patterns were compared to assess trends and possible correlations for specific antimicrobials and levels of resistance. Enterococci were detected at all 12 surface water sites and three of 28 ground water sites. Resistance to lincomycin, tetracycline, penicillin and ciprofloxacin in poultry litter isolates was high (80.3%, 65.3%, 61.1% and 49.6%, respectively). Resistance in the surface water to the same antibiotics was 87.1%, 24.1%, 7.6% and 12.9%, respectively. Overall, 86% of litter isolates, 58% of surface water isolates and 100% of ground water isolates were resistant to more than one antibiotic. Fifty-four different resistance patterns were recognised in isolates obtained from litter and environmental samples and several E. faecium and E. faecalis isolates from litter and environment samples shared the same resistance pattern. Multiple antibiotic resistant (MAR) indices calculated to assess health risks due to the presence of resistant enterococci suggested an increased presence of antibiotics in surface water, likely from poultry sources as no other wastewater contributions in the area were documented. PMID:23481592

  10. Radiation decontamination of poultry viscera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamdar, S. N.; Harikumar, P.

    2008-04-01

    Application of gamma radiation for decontamination of poultry viscera was examined. Exposure to a dose of 20 kGy rendered the viscera sterile (<1 CFU/10 g tissue), while 5 and 10 kGy reduced the total bacterial count by 4 and 6 log 10 cycles, respectively, eliminating the coliforms to <1 CFU/g of tissue. Analysis of organoleptic and biochemical parameters [proximate composition, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN), lipid peroxidation (TBARS value), and levels of TCA soluble peptides and proteolytic enzyme] showed that gamma irradiation (20 kGy) followed by storage at 4 °C for 62 days induced no significant change (except lipid peroxidation) in the acceptability of poultry viscera. However, storage at ambient temperature (26 °C) produced enhanced levels of TVBN and TCA soluble products accompanied by higher drip loss. Activities of proteolytic enzymes, except acid protease, did not show any significant change during post-irradiation storage at either temperature.

  11. Rainfall timing effect on concentrations of testosterone and estradiol in surface runoff from broiler litter applied to grassed plots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broiler litter contains the sex hormones testosterone and estradiol, which may contaminate surface runoff following litter application to grasslands. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of runoff occurring at different times after litter application and under different environmental con...

  12. Economic feasibility of recycling swine and poultry waste: A case study from Hong Kong

    SciTech Connect

    Hoshmand, A.R.

    1995-12-31

    Increasing environmental problems from swine and poultry waste in Hong Kong call for alternative measures of disposing such waste that are effective not only ecologically, but also financially. This paper analyzes the benefit-cost ratio for adopting the pig-on-litter and dry-muckout method for poultry and swine farms. The results of the analyses indicate that adopting the pig-on-litter method is feasible in several scenarios except when the waste collection cost is borne by the farmer and the farmer does not receive any benefits from the sale of the spent sawdust. Dry muckout is feasible for both swine and poultry farms. It is recommended that, in the early stages of adopting pollution-abating strategies, the government should provide incentives to the farming community. Furthermore, a farm waste cooperative, and the establishment of a barter exchange where spent sawdust is exchanged for fresh sawdust, bacterial product, and labor for collection, are recommended.

  13. Reducing Children's Littering on a Nature Trail

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaHart, David E.; Bailey, Jon S.

    1975-01-01

    This study compared incentives and educational methods to motivate children to pick up litter and to prevent littering. Incentives did aid in getting litter picked up. One-sentence anti-litter statements, educational materials, and lectures reduced littering, but incentives did not. (MR)

  14. The Effects of Litter on Littering Behavior in a Forest Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crump, S. Larry; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The effects of littered and nonlittered areas on littering behavior were determined in picnic areas in the Uinta National Forest, Utah. Littered and nonlittered conditions were controlled by spreading or removing litter from specified areas. Observations revealed that in the nonlittered areas there was more litter than in the littered areas. (CS)

  15. Poultry Industry Energy Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The poultry industry, a multi-billion dollar business in the United States, uses great amounts of energy in such operations as broiler growing, feed manufacturing, poultry processing and packing. Higher costs and limited supply of fuels common to the industry are predicted, so poultry producers are seeking ways to reduce energy expenditure. NASA is providing assistance to Delmarva Poultry Industry, Inc., an association of some 4,000 growers and suppliers in one of the nation's largest poultry production areas. Delmarva is the East Coast peninsula that includes Delaware and parts of Maryland and Virginia. The upper right photo shows a weather station in the Delmarva area (wind indicator on the pole, other instruments in the elevated box). The station is located at the University of Maryland's Broiler Sub-station, Salisbury; Maryland, where the university conducts research on poultry production and processing. The sub-station is investigating ways of conserving energy in broiler production and also exploring the potential of solar collectors as an alternative energy source. For these studies, it is essential that researchers have continuous data on temperature, pressure, wind speed and direction, solar intensity and cloud cover. Equipment to acquire such data was loaned and installed by NASA's Wallops Flight Center, Wallops Island, Virginia.

  16. 9 CFR 72.19 - Interstate shipments and use of pine straw, grass, litter from quarantined area; prohibited until...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.19.... Pine straw, grass, or similar litter collected from tick-infested pastures, ranges, or premises may disseminate the contagion of splenetic, southern, or Texas fever; therefore pine straw, grass, or...

  17. 9 CFR 72.19 - Interstate shipments and use of pine straw, grass, litter from quarantined area; prohibited until...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.19.... Pine straw, grass, or similar litter collected from tick-infested pastures, ranges, or premises may disseminate the contagion of splenetic, southern, or Texas fever; therefore pine straw, grass, or...

  18. 9 CFR 72.19 - Interstate shipments and use of pine straw, grass, litter from quarantined area; prohibited until...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.19.... Pine straw, grass, or similar litter collected from tick-infested pastures, ranges, or premises may disseminate the contagion of splenetic, southern, or Texas fever; therefore pine straw, grass, or...

  19. In situ characterization of forest litter using ground-penetrating radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    André, Frédéric; Jonard, François; Jonard, Mathieu; Lambot, Sébastien

    2016-03-01

    Decomposing litter accumulated on the soil surface in forests plays a major role in several ecosystem processes; its detailed characterization is therefore essential for thorough understanding of ecosystem functioning. In addition, litter is known to affect remote sensing radar data over forested areas and their proper processing requires accurate quantification of litter scattering properties. In the present study, ultrawideband (0.8-2.2 GHz) ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data were collected in situ for a wide range of litter types to investigate the potential of the technique to reconstruct litter horizons in undisturbed natural conditions. Radar data were processed resorting to full-wave inversion. Good agreement was generally found between estimated and measured litter layer thicknesses, with root-mean-square error values around 1 cm for recently fallen litter (OL layer) and around 2 cm for fragmented litter in partial decomposition (OF layer) and total litter (OL + OF). Nevertheless, significant correlations between estimated and measured thicknesses were found for total litter only. Inaccuracies in the reconstruction of the individual litter horizons were mainly attributed to weak dielectric contrasts amongst litter layers, with absolute differences in relative dielectric permittivity values often lower than 2 between humus horizons, and to uncertainties in the ground truth values. Radar signal inversions also provided reliable estimates of litter electromagnetic properties, with average relative dielectric permittivity values around 2.9 and 6.3 for OL and OF litters, respectively. These results are encouraging for the use of GPR for noninvasive characterization and mapping of forest litter. Perspectives for the application of the technique in biogeosciences are discussed.

  20. Mower/Litter Removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Burg Corporation needed to get more power out of the suction system in their Vac 'N Bag grass mower/litter remover. The president submitted a problem statement to the Marshall Space Flight Center Technology Transfer Office, which devised a way to guide heavier items of trash to a point where suction was greatest, and made changes to the impeller and the exhaust port, based on rocket propulsion technology. The improved system is used by highway departments, city governments and park authorities, reducing work time by combining the tasks of grass cutting and vacuuming trash and grass clippings.

  1. Veterinary antibiotic resistance, residues, and ecological risks in environmental samples obtained from poultry farms, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Dahshan, Hesham; Abd-Elall, Amr Mohamed Mohamed; Megahed, Ayman Mohamed; Abd-El-Kader, Mahdy A; Nabawy, Ehab Elsayed

    2015-02-01

    In Egypt, poultry production constitutes one of the main sources of pollution with veterinary antibiotics (VAs) into the environment. About 80 % of meat production in Egypt is of poultry origin, and the potential environmental risks associated with the use of VAs in these farms have not yet been properly evaluated. Thus, the main purpose of this research was to evaluate the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant enteric key bacteria and the incidence of residual antibiotics in poultry farm environmental samples and to determine whether fertilizing soils with poultry litter from farms potentially brings ecological risks. From December 2011 to September 2012, a total of 225 litter, bird dropping, and water samples were collected from 75 randomly selected boiler poultry farms. A high prevalence of Escherichia coli (n = 179; 79.5 %) in contrast to the low prevalence of Salmonella spp. (n = 7; 3.1 %) was detected. Amongst E. coli isolates, serotypes O142:K86, O125:K70, O91:K, and O119:K69 were the most common. Meanwhile, Salmonella enterica serotypes emek and enteritidis were recovered. The antibiograms using the disc diffusion method revealed significantly more common resistant and multi-resistant isolates in broiler poultry farms. Residues of tetracycline and ciprofloxacin were detected at 2.125 and 1.401 mg kg(-1) mean levels, respectively, in environmental samples contaminated with E. coli-resistant strains by HPLC. The risk evaluations highlighted that tetracycline residues in poultry litter significantly display environmental risks with a hazard quotient value above 1 (1.64). Our study implies that ineffective implementation of veterinary laws which guide and guard against incorrect VA usage may potentially bring health and environmental risks. PMID:25600402

  2. Campylobacter infections in children exposed to infected backyard poultry in Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Tras, W F; Holt, H R; Tayel, A A; El-Kady, N N

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis is a zoonotic disease which has a worldwide public health impact. The disease is endemic in Egypt; however, the epidemiology in animals and humans has not been fully characterized. The objective of this study was to compare the risk of Campylobacter faecal carriage in children exposed to Campylobacter-infected vs. non-infected backyard poultry and to identify risk factors for a backyard being classified as infected. A total of 103 households which owned backyard poultry were sampled from a rural community in Egypt. Within these households 379 poultry and 106 children were tested for C. jejuni and C. coli; 23·5% and 5·5% of poultry were positive for C. jejuni and C. coli, respectively. In the studied households; 12·3% of children were positive for C. jejuni, and 2·8% were positive for C. coli. Using logistic regression, households with poultry positive for C. jejuni had 3·86 (95% confidence interval 1·0-15·0) times the odds of having children positive for C. jejuni compared to those housed with poultry which all tested negative. Backyard poultry may present a transmission route of C. jejuni to children. Backyards with poor cleaning and disinfection, wet litter and manure disposed of within the backyard had increased odds of being positive for C. jejuni. Enhancing biosecurity and management in poultry backyards may reduce the risk of the disease. PMID:24774694

  3. Runoff quality from no-till cotton fertilized with broiler litter in subsurface bands.

    PubMed

    Adeli, A; Tewolde, H; Shankle, M W; Way, T R; Brooks, J P; McLaughlin, M R

    2013-01-01

    Surface broadcast of broiler litter to no-till row crops exposes the litter and its nutrients to risks of loss in runoff water and volatilization and may limit the potential benefit of litter to the crops. Subsurface banding of litter could alleviate these risks. A field study was conducted in 2008 and 2009 on an upland Falkner silt loam soil to determine the effect of broiler litter placement on runoff nutrient losses from no-till cotton ( L.). Treatments included surface broadcast broiler litter applied manually, subsurface-banded litter applied by tractor-drawn equipment, and no broiler litter, all in combination with or without winter wheat ( L.) cover crop residue. Broiler litter rate was 5.6 Mg ha. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with a split-plot arrangement of treatments replicated three times. In 2008, simulated rainfall was used to generate runoff 27 d after litter application. Subsurface-banded litter reduced runoff total C, N, P, NH, NO, Cu, Zn and water-soluble P (WP) concentrations by 72, 64, 51, 49, 70, 36, 65, and 77%, respectively, compared with surface broadcast. The reductions were greater in 2009 where runoff occurred 1 d after litter application. Bacterial runoff was decreased by one log with subsurface-banded litter compared to surface broadcast. Except for C, NH, N, and WP, the presence of winter cover crop residue did not affect the load or runoff nutrient concentrations in either year. The results indicate that subsurface banding litter to no-till cotton substantially reduces nutrient and bacterial losses in runoff compared with surface broadcasting. PMID:23673763

  4. Broiler Litter Source, Placement and Timing on Corn Grain Yield, N Uptake and Recovery, and Soil Residual NO3-N

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Use of broiler litter as an economical alternative source of nutrients for no-till corn production has been increasing in southeastern states. Surface application of broiler litter to no-till system, however, exposes the litter and its nutrients to potential loss in runoff, volatilization, and wind ...

  5. 9 CFR 94.26 - Restrictions on importation of live poultry, poultry meat, and other poultry products from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... poultry, poultry meat, and other poultry products from specified regions. 94.26 Section 94.26 Animals and... poultry, poultry meat, and other poultry products from specified regions. Argentina and the Mexican States... Newcastle disease (END), supplement their meat supply by the importation of fresh (chilled or...

  6. 9 CFR 94.26 - Restrictions on importation of live poultry, poultry meat, and other poultry products from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... poultry, poultry meat, and other poultry products from specified regions. 94.26 Section 94.26 Animals and... poultry, poultry meat, and other poultry products from specified regions. Argentina and the Mexican States... Newcastle disease (END), supplement their meat supply by the importation of fresh (chilled or...

  7. 9 CFR 94.26 - Restrictions on importation of live poultry, poultry meat, and other poultry products from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... poultry, poultry meat, and other poultry products from specified regions. 94.26 Section 94.26 Animals and... poultry, poultry meat, and other poultry products from specified regions. Argentina and the Mexican States... Newcastle disease (END), supplement their meat supply by the importation of fresh (chilled or...

  8. 9 CFR 94.26 - Restrictions on importation of live poultry, poultry meat, and other poultry products from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... poultry, poultry meat, and other poultry products from specified regions. 94.26 Section 94.26 Animals and... poultry, poultry meat, and other poultry products from specified regions. Argentina and the Mexican States... Newcastle disease (END), supplement their meat supply by the importation of fresh (chilled or...

  9. Drinking water application of Denagard® Tiamulin for control of Brachyspira pilosicoli infection of laying poultry.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Martin J; Mappley, Luke; Le Roy, Caroline; Claus, Sandrine P; Davies, Paul; Thompson, Gavin; La Ragione, Roberto M

    2015-12-01

    Avian intestinal spirochaetosis (AIS) caused by Brachyspira spp., and notably Brachyspira pilosicoli, is common in layer flocks and reportedly of increasing incidence in broilers and broiler breeders. Disease manifests as diarrhoea, increased feed consumption, reduced growth rates and occasional mortality in broilers and these signs are shown in layers also associated with a delayed onset of lay, reduced egg weights, faecal staining of eggshells and non-productive ovaries. Treatment with Denagard® Tiamulin has been used to protect against B. pilosicoli colonisation, persistence and clinical presentation of AIS in commercial layers, but to date there has been no definitive study validating efficacy. Here, we used a poultry model of B. pilosicoli infection of layers to compare the impact of three doses of Denagard® Tiamulin. Four groups of thirty 17 week old commercial pre-lay birds were all challenged with B. pilosicoli strain B2904 with three oral doses two days apart. All birds were colonised within 2 days after the final oral challenge and mild onset of clinical signs were observed thereafter. A fifth group that was unchallenged and untreated was also included for comparison as healthy birds. Five days after the final oral Brachypira challenge three groups were given Denagard® Tiamulin in drinking water made up following the manufacturer's recommendations with doses verified as 58.7 ppm, 113 ppm and 225 ppm. Weight gain body condition and the level of diarrhoea of birds infected with B. pilosicoli were improved and shedding of the organism reduced significantly (p=0.001) following treatment with Denagard® Tiamulin irrespective of dose given. The level and duration of colonisation of organs of birds infected with B. pilosicoli was also reduced. Confirming previous findings we showed that the ileum, caeca, colon, and both liver and spleen were colonised and here we demonstrated that treatment with Denagard® Tiamulin resulted in significant reduction in the

  10. Alum and Rainfall Effects on Ionophores in Runoff from Surface-Applied Broiler Litter.

    PubMed

    Doydora, Sarah A; Franklin, Dorcas; Sun, Peizhe; Cabrera, Miguel; Thompson, Aaron; Love-Myers, Kimberly; Rema, John; Calvert, Vaughn; Pavlostathis, Spyros G; Huang, Ching-Hua

    2015-09-01

    Polyether ionophores, monensin, and salinomycin are commonly used as antiparasitic drugs in broiler production and may be present in broiler litter (bird excreta plus bedding material). Long-term application of broiler litter to pastures may lead to ionophore contamination of surface waters. Because polyether ionophores break down at low pH, we hypothesized that decreasing litter pH with an acidic material such as aluminum sulfate (alum) would reduce ionophore losses to runoff (i.e., monensin and salinomycin concentrations, loads, or amounts lost). We quantified ionophore loss to runoff in response to (i) addition of alum to broiler litter and (ii) length of time between litter application and the first simulated rainfall event. The factorial experiment consisted of unamended (∼pH 9) vs. alum-amended litters (∼pH 6), each combined with simulated rainfall at 0, 2, or 4 wk after litter application. Runoff from alum-amended broiler litter had 33% lower monensin concentration ( < 0.01), 57% lower monensin load ( < 0.01), 48% lower salinomycin concentration ( < 0.01), and 66% lower salinomycin load ( < 0.01) than runoff from unamended broiler litter when averaged across all events of rainfall. Ionophore losses to runoff were also less when rainfall was delayed for 2 or 4 wk after litter application relative to applying rainfall immediately after litter application. While the weather is difficult to predict, our data suggest that ionophore losses in runoff can be reduced if broiler litter applications are made to maximize dry time after application. PMID:26436282

  11. Development and application of novel SNP-based serotyping assays in targeting Salmonella enterica within the poultry production and processing continuum.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Enteriditis (S. Enteriditis) is the leading cause of salmonellosis worldwide. While some S. enterica serotypes are specific to birds, many represent human zoonotic pathogens, thus their presence and survival throughout the continuum of poultry production...

  12. Total and water-soluble phosphorus in broiler litter over three flocks with alum litter treatment and dietary inclusion of high available phosphorus corn and phytase supplementation.

    PubMed

    Miles, D M; Moore, P A; Smith, D R; Rice, D W; Stilborn, H L; Rowe, D R; Lott, B D; Branton, S L; Simmons, J D

    2003-10-01

    Three pen trials were conducted to determine the main effect of alum addition to litter on form of poultry litter P using a 2 x 2 factorial structure of the subunit treatments: diets including high available phosphorus/low phytate corn (HAPC) and phytase (PHYT). Male broilers (1,760 per flock) were grown to 42 d having starter diets with 0.45% available P and grower diets with 0.35% available P. In the first trial, total litter P (tP) was greatest for the yellow dent corn (YDC) diet (12 g/kg) and least for the HAPC and PHYT combination (H&P) diet (6.9 g/kg) with the individual PHYT and HAPC diets falling in between at 9.1 g/kg and 9.4 g/kg tP. Also in the first trial, the litter water-soluble P (wP) was highest for PHYT (2.8 g/kg), least for the HAPC and H&P diets (1.5 g/kg) with the YDC diet falling between (2.2 g/kg). Alum was added to the litter after the first experiment. In the second and third experiments, alum inclusion significantly reduced the wP when compared with the treatments with no alum. In the third trial, the least wP was present in the alum-HAPC treatment. Phytase, YDC, and HAPC diets with no alum litter treatment generated the most wP. Since these diets appear to have little or no difference with respect to quantity of wP, this work suggests that form of litter P generated by alternative diets should be considered as criteria when attempting to reduce P in broiler litter applied to land. PMID:14601730

  13. Aspergillus fumigatus in Poultry

    PubMed Central

    Arné, Pascal; Thierry, Simon; Wang, Dongying; Deville, Manjula; Le Loc'h, Guillaume; Desoutter, Anaïs; Féménia, Françoise; Nieguitsila, Adélaïde; Huang, Weiyi; Chermette, René; Guillot, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus remains a major respiratory pathogen in birds. In poultry, infection by A. fumigatus may induce significant economic losses particularly in turkey production. A. fumigatus develops and sporulates easily in poor quality bedding or contaminated feedstuffs in indoor farm environments. Inadequate ventilation and dusty conditions increase the risk of bird exposure to aerosolized spores. Acute cases are seen in young animals following inhalation of spores, causing high morbidity and mortality. The chronic form affects older birds and looks more sporadic. The respiratory tract is the primary site of A. fumigatus development leading to severe respiratory distress and associated granulomatous airsacculitis and pneumonia. Treatments for infected poultry are nonexistent; therefore, prevention is the only way to protect poultry. Development of avian models of aspergillosis may improve our understanding of its pathogenesis, which remains poorly understood. PMID:21826144

  14. Application of the Taguchi method in poultry science: estimation of the in vitro optimum intrinsic phytase activity of rye, wheat and barley.

    PubMed

    Sedghi, M; Golian, A; Esmaeilipour, O; Van Krimpen, M M

    2014-01-01

    1. In poultry investigations, the main interest is often to study the effects of many factors simultaneously. Two or three level factorial designs are the most commonly used for this type of investigation. However, it is often too costly to perform when number of factors increase. So a fractional factorial design, which is a subset or a fraction of a full factorial design, is an alternative. The Taguchi method has been proposed for simplifying and standardising fractional factorial designs. 2. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the applicability of the Taguchi method to optimise in vitro intrinsic phytase activity (IPA) of rye, wheat and barley under different culture conditions. 3. In order to have a solid base for judging the suitability of the Taguchi method, the results of the Taguchi method were compared with those of an experiment that was conducted as a 3(4) full factorial arrangement with three feed ingredients (rye, wheat and barley), three temperatures (20°C, 38°C and 55°C), three pH values (3.0, 5.5 and 8.0) and three incubation times (30, 60 and 120 min), with two replicates per treatment. 4. After data collection, a Taguchi L 9 (3(4)) orthogonal array was used to estimate the effects of different factors on the IPA, based on a subset of only 9 instead of 81 treatments. The data were analysed with both Taguchi and full factorial methods and the main effects and the optimal combinations of these 4 factors were obtained for each method. 5. The results indicated that according to both the full factorial experimental design and the Taguchi method, the optimal culture conditions were obtained with the following combination: rye, pH = 3, temperature = 20 °C and time of incubation = 30 min. The comparison between the Taguchi and full factorial results showed that the Taguchi method is a sufficient and resource saving alternative to the full factorial design in poultry science. PMID:24437370

  15. Microbiological pathogens: Live poultry considerations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry products continue to be implicated as the predominate source of food-borne pathogens worldwide. Most food-borne pathogen contamination from poultry originates from ante mortem poultry infections. This book section will address several potential areas of concern regarding the microbial ecolog...

  16. Effects of Chicken Litter Storage Time and Ammonia Content on Thermal Resistance of Desiccation-Adapted Salmonella spp.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhao; Wang, Hongye; Ionita, Claudia; Luo, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Broiler chicken litter was kept as a stacked heap on a poultry farm, and samples were collected up to 9 months of storage. Chicken litter inoculated with desiccation-adapted Salmonella cells was heat-treated at 75, 80, 85, and 150°C. Salmonella populations decreased in all these samples during heat treatment, and the inactivation rates became lower in chicken litter when storage time was extended from 0 to 6 months. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in thermal resistance of Salmonella in 6- and 9-month litter samples, indicating that a threshold for thermal resistance was reached after 6 months. Overall, the thermal resistance of Salmonella in chicken litter was affected by the storage time of the litter. The changes in some chemical, physical, and microbiological properties during storage could possibly contribute to this difference. Moisture and ammonia could be two of the most significant factors influencing the thermal resistance of Salmonella cells in chicken litter. Our results emphasize the importance of adjusting time and temperature conditions for heat processing chicken litter when it is removed from the chicken house at different time intervals. PMID:26209673

  17. Distribution of paratyphoids on Saudi Arabian poultry farms and pathogenicity studies of predominant serotypes.

    PubMed

    Barbour, E K; Nabbut, N H; Hinners, S W

    1983-01-01

    A total of 412 feed samples and 632 litter samples from 15 poultry farms (2 breeding farms and 13 rearing farms) were examined for salmonella. Twelve of these farms had salmonella in litter, five farms had salmonella in the feed and four had salmonella in both feed and litter. Seventeen feed samples (4.13%) and 121 litter samples (19.15%) were contaminated with salmonella. Sixteen salmonella serotypes were encountered, of which six were found in both feed and litter. Salmonella concord and S. livingstone were present in the litter of one breeding farm and its progeny farms. The five most frequently isolated salmonella serotypes in feed and litter were S. concord (17.39%), S. coeln (15.94%), S. livingstone (15.22%), S. manhattan (11.59%), and S. paratyphi B var. java (8.69%). The pathogenicities of those serotypes were determined by calculating their median lethal doses (LD50) 24 and 48 hr postinjection of 1,050 one-day-old broiler chicks via the navel into the yolk sac. The composite 48-hr LD50s (viable cells) were: S. concord, less than 8.8 X 10(3); S. livingstone, 1.1 X 10(5); S. manhattan, 3.5 X 10(5); S. coeln, 1.25 X 10(7); and S. paratyphi B var. java, 1.73 X 10(7). PMID:6416248

  18. Distribution of paratyphoids on Saudi Arabian poultry farms and pathogenicity studies of predominant serotypes

    SciTech Connect

    Barbour, E.K.; Nabbut, N.H.; Hinners, S.W.

    1983-07-01

    A total of 412 feed samples and 632 litter samples from 15 poultry farms (2 breeding farms and 13 rearing farms) were examined for Salmonella. Twelve of these farms had Salmonella in litter, five farms had Salmonella in the feed and four had Salmonella in both feed and litter. Seventeen feed samples (4.13%) and 121 litter samples (19.15%) were contaminated with Salmonella. Sixteen Salmonella serotypes were encountered, of which six were found in both feed and litter. Salmonella concord and S. livingstone were present in the litter of one breeding farm and its progeny farms. The five most frequently isolated Salmonella serotypes in feed and litter were S. concord (17.39%), S. coeln (15.94%), S. livingstone (15.22%), S. manhattan (11.59%), and S. paratyphi B var. java (8.69%). The pathogenicities of those serotypes were determined by calculating their median lethal doses (LD50) 24 and 48 hr postinjection of 1,050 one-day-old broiler chicks via the navel into the yolk sac. The composite 48-hr LD50s (viable cells) were: S. concord, less than 8.8 X 10(3); S. livingstone, 1.1 X 10(5); S. manhattan, 3.5 X 10(5); S. coeln, 1.25 X 10(7); and S. paratyphi B var. java, 1.73 X 10(7).

  19. Sporulation dynamics of poultry Eimeria oocysts in Chennai.

    PubMed

    Venkateswara Rao, P; Raman, M; Gomathinayagam, S

    2015-12-01

    The infective form of Eimeria is the highly resistant oocyst, which is shed in the faeces of infected animals. Present study was carried out to understand the sporulation dynamics of six Eimeria oocysts viz. E. acervulina, E. brunetti, E. maxima, E. mitis, E. necatrix and E. tenella in Chennai. Faecal samples of poultry were collected from various poultry farms located in and around Tamil Nadu. Oocysts of various Eimeria species were examined microscopically for sporulation on a 6 h interval basis till complete sporulation is acheived. The sporulation time recorded was 168, 120, 216, 192, 96 and 96 h for E. acervulina, E. brunetti, E. maxima, E. mitis, E. necatrix and E. tenella respectively. It can be concluded on comparison with previous studies that humid weather conditions delay the sporulation time and dry weather and wet litter is the ideal condition for rapid sporulation. PMID:26688635

  20. Microbiological study of methane generation from poultry wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, J.J.H.

    1982-01-01

    Studies have been conducted to investigate the biological potential of methane generation from two types of poultry waste: broiler chicken litter and laying hen manure. Through the systematic study, thermophilic bacterial cultures were initiated and established to produce methane at their highest rates. It was found that different kinds of waste with different chemical compositions required different operational conditions to reach the individual maximal potential. The microbiology of the methane-producing bacteria in the poultry waste-based anaerobic digester was studied. An enriched thermophilic methane-producing culture was isolated. The methanogenic culture can use acetate, ethanol, methylamine, propionate, and H/sub 2/-CO/sub 2/, but not formate and methanol, for growth and methanogenesis. The methanogenic culture was found to be a mixed culture from which a thermophilic Methanococcus sp. and an unidentified rod-shaped microorganism were isolated. The two organisms produced methane symbiotically in the acetate medium.

  1. Use of Enterococcus, BST and sterols as indicators for poultry pollution source tracking in surface and groundwater

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study has applied Enterococcus, Bacterial Source Tracking (BST) and sterol analysis for pollution source identification from poultry sources. Fecal contamination was detected in 100% of surface water and 15% of groundwater sites tested. E. faecium was the dominant species in aged litter sampl...

  2. Environmentally-friendly animal litter

    DOEpatents

    Boxley, Chett; McKelvie, Jessica

    2013-09-03

    An animal litter composition that includes geopolymerized ash particulates having a network of repeating aluminum-silicon units is described herein. Generally, the animal litter is made from a quantity of a pozzolanic ash mixed with an alkaline activator to initiate a geopolymerization reaction that forms geopolymerized ash. This geopolymerization reaction may occur within a pelletizer. After the geopolymerized ash is formed, it may be dried and sieved to a desired size. These geopolymerized ash particulates may be used to make a non-clumping or clumping animal litter or other absorbing material. Aluminum sulfate, clinoptilolite, silica gel, sodium alginate and mineral oil may be added as additional ingredients.

  3. Environmentally-friendly animal litter

    DOEpatents

    Boxley, Chett; McKelvie, Jessica

    2012-08-28

    An animal litter composition including geopolymerized ash particulates having a network of repeating aluminum-silicon units is described herein. Generally, the animal litter is made from a quantity of a pozzolanic ash mixed with a sufficient quantity of water and an alkaline activator to initiate a geopolymerization reaction that forms geopolymerized ash. After the geopolymerized ash is formed, it is dried, broken into particulates, and sieved to a desired size. These geopolymerized ash particulates are used to make a non-clumping or clumping animal litter. Odor control is accomplished with the addition of a urease inhibitor, pH buffer, an odor eliminating agent, and/or fragrance.

  4. Laboratory and field evaluation of formulated Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis as a feed additive and using topical applications for control of Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) larvae in caged-poultry manure.

    PubMed

    Mwamburi, L A; Laing, M D; Miller, R

    2011-02-01

    Infestations of house flies, Musca domestica L., are a continual problem around poultry establishments. Acute toxicity of two commercial Bacillus thuringiensis variety israelensis (Bti) formulations (water-dispersible granules and bran formulation) was evaluated against larvae in the laboratory and against natural populations of M. domestica larvae in the field applied in feed to chickens and as topical applications in the poultry houses. Bioassay data showed that susceptibility of M. domestica larvae increased to a given concentration of Bti as the duration of exposure increased. In the laboratory studies, the LC(50) values of Bti for the larvae ranged between 65 and 77.4 μg/ml. In the field, a concentration of 10 g Bti/kg of feed resulted in 90% reduction of larvae at 4 wk after treatment. A higher concentration (2 g/liter) of Bti in spray applications was not significantly more effective than the lower concentration of 1 g/liter. Adding Bti to chicken feed is potentially an efficient measure for the management and control of house flies in caged-poultry facilities. PMID:22182611

  5. INFLUENZA VIRUS IN POULTRY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) is normally found in wild birds, particularly in ducks and shorebirds, where it does not cause any perceptible clinical disease. However, poultry, including chickens and turkeys, are not normal hosts for avian influenza, but if the virus is introduced it can result in mi...

  6. Respiratory Diseases of Poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new Respiratory Diseases of Poultry CRIS will be established effective October 1, 2006. Initially, the disease agents to be studied will include Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT), Bordetella avium (BART) and Pasteurella multocida. The research will focus on development of more effective vacc...

  7. Poultry housing emissions perspective

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concerns for climate change are expanding interest in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from all agricultural sectors; animal production systems are no exception. The focus of this overview is to compare emission factors among egg and meat bird poultry operations, specifically layer and broiler chicke...

  8. Agriculture. Poultry Livestock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for poultry, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task list.…

  9. Enteric viruses of poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite the economic importance of the poultry gut, very little is known about the complex gut microbial community. Enteric disease syndromes such as Runting-Stunting Syndrome (RSS) in broiler chickens and Poult Enteritis Complex (PEC) in young turkeys are difficult to characterize and reproduce in ...

  10. Stunning Systems for Poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry are stunned immediately prior to slaughter to facilitate automated processing, to minimize the subsequent death struggle and thereby minimize carcass damage and down grades, and to render the bird unconscious and incapable to perceive pain. A stunning method for slaughter should be consider...

  11. Phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy transect study of poultry operations on the Delmarva Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Hill, Jane E; Cade-Menun, Barbara J

    2009-01-01

    Nonpoint source phosphorus (P) pollution into the Chesapeake Bay watershed from poultry operations contributes to the algal blooms, hypoxia, anoxia, and fish kill events that occur there most years. A major source of soluble, bioavailable P species is poultry litter, which is used as a crop fertilizer on fields adjacent to the tributaries of the Bay. A potentially significant source of orthophosphate in the litter is the heavily phosphorylated compound myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (phytate), which is indigestible by poultry and thus becomes a major component of their excreta. Phytate evaluation in environmental samples is expensive; hence, its impact is not captured in standard farmer-friendly eutrophication potential guides, like Delaware's Phosphorus Site Index. In this transect study of two poultry operations on the Delmarva Peninsula, we measured the incidence of all P compounds using solution 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and extracts, relating them to relevant geochemical properties. The contribution of phytate to the overall pool of P declined from around 50% in manures to between 2 and 13% in down-gradient soils and sediments, corresponding to a rise in the relative proportion of orthophosphate (increasing from 39% to 65-88%). The results show that the large pool of phytate P spread onto croplands during standard operating practice at poultry farms on the Delmarva Peninsula does not appear to accumulate; rather, phytate decreases in down-gradient locations, most likely due to transport off-site and/or through in situ biological activity. PMID:19141802

  12. Populational fluctuation and spatial distribution of Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) (Coleoptera; Tenebrionidae) in a poultry house, Cascavel, Parana state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Chernaki-Leffer, A M; Almeida, L M; Sosa-Gómez, D R; Anjos, A; Vogado, K M

    2007-05-01

    Knowledge of the population fluctuation and spatial distribution of pests is fundamental for establishing an appropriate control method. The population fluctuation and spatial distribution of the Alphitobius diaperinus in a poultry house in Cascavel, in the state of Parana, Brazil, was studied between October, 2001 and October 2002. Larvae and adults of the lesser mealworm were sampled weekly using Arends tube traps (n = 22) for six consecutive flock grow-outs. The temperature of the litter and of the poultry house was measured at the same locations of the tube traps. Beetle numbers increased continuously throughout all the sampling dates (average 5,137 in the first week and 18,494 insects on the sixth week). Significantly greater numbers of larvae were collected than adults (1 to 20 times in 95% of the sampling points). There was no correlation between temperature and the number of larvae and adults collected, therefore no fluctuation was observed during the sampling period. The population growth was correlated to litter re-use. The highest temperatures were observed in deep litter. The spatial distribution of larvae and adults in the poultry house was heterogeneous during the whole period of evaluation. Results suggest that monitoring in poultry houses is necessary prior to adopting and evaluating control measures due to the great variability of the insect distribution in the poultry house. PMID:17876430

  13. Effects of chemically amended litter on broiler performances, atmospheric ammonia concentration, and phosphorus solubility in litter.

    PubMed

    Do, J C; Choi, I H; Nahm, K H

    2005-05-01

    The effects of 6 different litter amendments on broiler performance, level of atmospheric ammonia (NH3) concentration, and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) in litter was determined. Through 3 experiments conducted on 2 different commercial farms, one chemical amendment was added to the litter and then was compared with a control. Broiler performance was not affected by any of the amendments except the ferrous sulfate amendment for which mortality was 25.5%. Application of aluminum chloride (AlCl3 x 6H2O) to the litter lowered atmospheric ammonia concentrations at 42 d by 97.2%, whereas ferrous sulfate (FeSO4 x 7H2O) lowered it by 90.77%. Ammonia concentrations were reduced by 86.18, 78.66, 75.52, and 69.00% by aluminum sulfate [alum or Al2(SO4)3 x 14H2O)], alum + CaCO3, aluminum chloride + CaCO3, and potassium permanganate (KMnO4), respectively, when compared with each control at 42 d. Each amendment except KMnO4 significantly reduced SRP contents. Alum and aluminum chloride were the effective compounds evaluated on the commercial farms with respect to reducing ammonia contents, phosphorus solubility, and mortality. PMID:15913178

  14. Effects of tillage and poultry manure application rates on Salmonella and fecal indicator bacteria concentrations in tiles draining Des Moines Lobe soils.

    PubMed

    Hruby, C E; Soupir, M L; Moorman, T B; Shelley, M; Kanwar, R S

    2016-04-15

    Application of poultry manure (PM) to cropland as fertilizer is a common practice in artificially drained regions of the Upper Midwest United States. Tile-waters have the potential to contribute pathogenic bacteria to downstream waters. This 3-year study (2010-2012) was designed to evaluate the impacts of manure management and tillage practices on bacteria losses to drainage tiles under a wide range of field conditions. PM was applied annually in spring, prior to planting corn, at application rates ranging from 5 to 40 kg/ha to achieve target rates of 112 and 224 kg/ha nitrogen (PM1 and PM2). Control plots received no manure (PM0). Each treatment was replicated on three chisel-plowed (CP) plots and one no-till (NT) plot. Tile-water grab samples were collected weekly when tiles were flowing beginning 30 days before manure application to 100 days post application, and additional grab samples were obtained to target the full spectrum of flow conditions. Manure and tile-water samples were analyzed for the pathogen, Salmonella spp. (SALM), and fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), Escherichia coli (EC), and enterococci (ENT). All three bacterial genera were detected more frequently, and at significantly higher concentrations, in tile-waters draining NT plots compared to CP plots. Transport of bacteria to NT tiles was most likely facilitated by macropores, which were significantly more numerous above tiles in NT plots in 2012 as determined by smoke-testing. While post-manure samples contained higher concentrations of bacteria than pre-manure samples, significant differences were not seen between low (PM1) and high (PM2) rates of PM application. The highest concentrations were observed under the NT PM2 plot in 2010 (6.6 × 10(3) cfu/100 mL EC, 6.6 × 10(5) cfu/100 mL ENT, and 2.8 × 10(3) cfu/100 mL SALM). Individual and 30-day geometric mean ENT concentrations correlated more strongly to SALM than EC; however, SALM were present in samples with little or no FIB

  15. Monitoring wood shaving litter and animal products for polychlorophenols residues, Ontario, Canada 1978-1986

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, R.; Stonefield, K.I.; Luyken, H.

    1988-03-01

    Timber is extensively treated with the wood preservative pesticides collectively called the polychlorophenols (PxCP) which include tri-(T3CP), tetra-(T4CP), and pentachlorophenol (P5CP). These treatments are intended to protect lumber against the attacks of wood eating or boring insects and the wood decaying and staining fungi. Wood shavings are a by-product of the lumber industry that have been utilized widely in agriculture for many years as a major bedding litter for poultry, swine, and cattle and a minor litter for other domestic animals. Complaints were lodged within the Province of Ontario of off-flavors in locally produced poultry meat. Many local poultry producers reported having difficulties with (1) the fertility of their breeding flocks and (2) the ineffectiveness of vaccines among poultry raised on wood shavings but which disappeared when raised on cereal straw. An Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food service was offered whereby producers could have their wood shavings analyzed and receive guidance on the advisability of use. This paper reports on this service started in 1978 for wood shavings, and on a follow-up monitoring program to determine residues of PxCP in domestic animal products.

  16. Interactions of tissue and fertilizer nitrogen on decomposition dynamics of lignin-rich conifer litter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perakis, Steven S.; Matkins, Joselin J.; Hibbs, David E.

    2012-01-01

    High tissue nitrogen (N) accelerates decomposition of high-quality leaf litter in the early phases of mass loss, but the influence of initial tissue N variation on the decomposition of lignin-rich litter is less resolved. Because environmental changes such as atmospheric N deposition and elevated CO2 can alter tissue N levels within species more rapidly than they alter the species composition of ecosystems, it is important to consider how within-species variation in tissue N may shape litter decomposition and associated N dynamics. Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii ) is a widespread lignin-rich conifer that dominates forests of high carbon (C) storage across western North America, and displays wide variation in tissue and litter N that reflects landscape variation in soil N. We collected eight unique Douglas-fir litter sources that spanned a two-fold range in initial N concentrations (0.67–1.31%) with a narrow range of lignin (29–35%), and examined relationships between initial litter chemistry, decomposition, and N dynamics in both ambient and N fertilized plots at four sites over 3 yr. High initial litter N slowed decomposition rates in both early (0.67 yr) and late (3 yr) stages in unfertilized plots. Applications of N fertilizer to litters accelerated early-stage decomposition, but slowed late-stage decomposition, and most strongly affected low-N litters, which equalized decomposition rates across litters regardless of initial N concentrations. Decomposition of N-fertilized litters correlated positively with initial litter manganese (Mn) concentrations, with litter Mn variation reflecting faster turnover of canopy foliage in high N sites, producing younger litterfall with high N and low Mn. Although both internal and external N inhibited decomposition at 3 yr, most litters exhibited net N immobilization, with strongest immobilization in low-N litter and in N-fertilized plots. Our observation for lignin-rich litter that high initial N can slow decomposition

  17. Comparison of ammonia emission rates from three types of broiler litters.

    PubMed

    Atapattu, N S B M; Senaratna, D; Belpagodagamage, U D

    2008-12-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the emission of NH(3) from 3 types of broiler litters. Three litter materials (refused tea, RT; sawdust, SDT; and paddy husk, PH) were randomly assigned into 18 cages. Twenty-day-old broiler chicks (n = 216) were randomly allocated into cages and were fed a commercial broiler finisher diet from 21 to 42 d. Three litter samples were taken from each cage on 36 and 42 d. Three subsamples taken from each cage were pooled and analyzed for moisture, pH, and N. Litter samples were incubated for 5 h, and the emitted NH(3) was trapped with boric acid and then titrated with HCl to determine the NH(3) emissions. The emission of NH(3) from RT litter (13.2 mg/kg of litter per h) on d 36 was 61% less than that from SDT and PH. The NH(3) emission rate of RT litter on d 42 (13.0 mg/kg per h) was very similar to that on d 36 (13.2 mg/kg per h). However, emission rates of SDT and PH on d 36 increased by 57.8 and 33%, respectively, when determined on d 42. Emission of NH(3) from RT litter on d 42 (13.0 mg/kg per h) was significantly (P < 0.05) less than that from SDT (54 mg/kg per h) and PH (44 mg/kg per h) litters. When the emission rate was computed as grams of NH(3)/hour/animal unit (AU), the emission rates of RT litter on d 36 (3.4 g/h per AU) and 42 (5.1 g/h per AU) were significantly (P < 0.05) less than that of SDT and PH. The N contents of the RT litter on 36 and 42 d were 6.6 and 6.7%, respectively, and were significantly (P < 0.001) greater than the respective values of SDT and PH. It was concluded that emission of NH(3) from poultry houses could be reduced substantially by using RT as a litter material. PMID:19038797

  18. Litter chemistry prevails over litter consumers in mediating effects of past steel industry activities on leaf litter decomposition.

    PubMed

    Lucisine, Pierre; Lecerf, Antoine; Danger, Michaël; Felten, Vincent; Aran, Delphine; Auclerc, Apolline; Gross, Elisabeth M; Huot, Hermine; Morel, Jean-Louis; Muller, Serge; Nahmani, Johanne; Maunoury-Danger, Florence

    2015-12-15

    Soil pollution has adverse effects on the performance and life history traits of microorganisms, plants, and animals, yet evidence indicates that even the most polluted sites can support structurally-complex and dynamic ecosystems. The present study aims at determining whether and how litter decomposition, one of the most important soil ecological processes leaf, is affected in a highly trace-metal polluted site. We postulated that past steel mill activities resulting in soil pollution and associated changes in soil characteristics would influence the rate of litter decomposition through two non-exclusive pathways: altered litter chemistry and responses of decomposers to lethal and sub-lethal toxic stress. We carried out a litter-bag experiment using Populus tremula L. leaf litter collected at, and allowed to decompose in, a trace metal polluted site and in three unpolluted sites used as controls. We designed a fully-factorial transplant experimental design to assess effects of litter origin and exposure site on the rate of litter decomposition. We further determined initial litter chemistry, fungal biomass, mesofauna abundance in litter bags, and the soil macrofauna community. Irrespective of the site of litter exposure, litter originating from the polluted site had a two-fold faster decomposition than litter from the unpolluted sites. Litter chemistry, notably the lignin content, seemed most important in explaining the degradation rate of the leaf litter. Abundance of meso and macro-detritivores was higher at the polluted site than at the unpolluted sites. However, litter decomposition proceeded at similar rates in polluted and unpolluted sites. Our results show that trace metal pollution and associated soil and litter changes do not necessarily weaken consumer control on litter decomposition through lethal and sub-lethal toxic stress. PMID:26282755

  19. Cover Crop Use for Managing Broiler Litter Applied to Cotton in the Fall

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Timing of broiler litter applications and cropping system have critical effect on both availability and leaching losses of N contained in broiler litter and should significantly influence cotton growth and yield. A 2-yr study was conducted in 2007 and 2008 on Leeper silty clay loam soil to evaluate ...

  20. WHAT CONTROLS WATER SOLUBLE PHOSPHORUS IN BROILER LITTER: AVAILABLE PHOSPHORUS, PHYTASE OR CALCIUM?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soluble phosphorus (P) in litter and manure is important from an environmental perspective as it is related to potential off site P losses following land application. The effects of amending dietary P, calcium (Ca), and phytase on manure and litter P excretion in broilers were investigated. A 3 x 3 ...

  1. BROILER LITTER AS A SUBSTITUTE N SOURCE FOR COTTON IN MISSISSIPPI UPLANDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mississippi broiler industry produces about one million tons of broiler litter annually. Producers are responsible for disposing of the litter in an environmental safe manner. Most of the liter is disposed of through land application and must comply with federal, state, and local laws. The upland...

  2. Inorganic fertilizers after broiler litter amendment reduce surplus nutrients in orchardgrass soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The common producer practice to dispose of broiler litter at high rates to forage crops allow excessive accumulation of soil nutrients. A remediation study was developed to examine if inorganic fertilizer application over the residual fertility of broiler litter would reduce surplus soil nutrients i...

  3. Effects of broiler litter rate, timing and cover crop on cotton yield and residual soil N

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Timing of broiler litter applications has critical effect on the availability of litter-derived nutrients and should affect cotton (Gossypium spp.) growth and yield. This experiment was conducted on a Leeper silty clay loam (fine, montmorillionitic, nonacid, thermic Vertic Haplaquepts) soil at Missi...

  4. A total quasi-steady-state formulation of substrate uptake kinetics in complex networks and an example application to microbial litter decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, J. Y.; Riley, W. J.

    2013-12-01

    substrates. We then applied the EC and ECA kinetics to a guild based C-only microbial litter decomposition model and found that both approaches successfully simulated the commonly observed (i) two-phase temporal evolution of the decomposition dynamics; (ii) final asymptotic convergence of the lignocellulose index to a constant that depends on initial litter chemistry and microbial community structure; and (iii) microbial biomass proportion of total organic biomass (litter plus microbes). In contrast, the MM kinetics failed to realistically predict these metrics. We therefore conclude that the ECA kinetics are more robust than the MM kinetics in representing complex microbial, C substrate, and mineral surface interactions. Finally, we discuss how these concepts can be applied to other consumer-substrate networks.

  5. A total quasi-steady-state formulation of substrate uptake kinetics in complex networks and an example application to microbial litter decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, J. Y.; Riley, W. J.

    2013-06-01

    substrates. We then applied the EC and ECA kinetics to a guild based C-only microbial litter decomposition model and found that both approaches successfully simulated the commonly observed (i) two-phase temporal evolution of the decomposition dynamics; (ii) final asymptotic convergence of the lignocellulose index to a constant that depends on initial litter chemistry and microbial community structure; and (iii) microbial biomass proportion of total organic biomass (litter plus microbes). In contrast, the MM kinetics failed to realistically predict these metrics. We therefore conclude that the ECA kinetics is more robust than the MM kinetics in representing complex microbial, C substrate, and mineral surface interactions. Finally, we discuss how these concepts can be applied to other consumer-substrate networks.

  6. Effect of Bacillus subtilis-based direct-fed microbials on immune status in broiler chickens raised on fresh or used litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The type of dietary direct-fed microbials (DFMs) or poultry litter could directly influence the composition of gut microbiota. Gut microbiota play an important role in shaping the developing immune system and maintaining homeostasis of the mature immune system in mammal and chickens. The present stu...

  7. Combustion Of Poultry-Derived Fuel in a CFBC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Lufei; Anthony, Edward J.

    Poultry farming generates large quantities of waste. Current disposal practice is to spread the poultry wastes onto farmland as fertilizer. However, as the factory farms for poultry grow both in numbers and size, the amount of poultry wastes generated has increased significandy in recent years. In consequence, excessive application of poultry wastes on farmland is resulting in more and more contaminants entering the surface water. One of the options being considered is the use of poultry waste as power plant fuel. Since poultry-derived fuel (PDF) is biomass, its co-firing will have the added advantage of reducing greenhouse gas emissions from power generation. To evaluate the combustion characteristics of co-firing PDF with coal, combustion tests of mixtures of coal and PDF were conducted in CanmetENERGY's pilot-scale CFBC. The goal of the tests was to verify that PDF can be co-fired with coal and, more importantly, that emissions from the combustion process are not adversely affected by the presence of PDF in the fuel feed. The test results were very promising and support the view that co-firing in an existing coal-fired CFBC is an effective method of utilizing this potential fuel, both resolving a potential waste disposal problem and reducing the amount of CO2 released by the boiler.

  8. Effect of Leaf Litter Diversity on Dissolved Organic Matter Export in a Deciduous Forest Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheibe*, A.; Eißfeller, V.; Langenbruch, C.; Seven, J.; Gleixner, G.

    2012-04-01

    We investigated sources and fate of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in soils in order to understand the effect of tree diversity on below ground processes. We established a leaf litter exchange experiment in the National Park Hainich (Thuringia, Germany) in December 2008. Labeled (13C) and unlabeled leaf litter of beach (Fagus sylvatica) and ash (Fraxinus excelsior) were exposed to study the decomposition process. Soil water was collected biweekly with glass suction plates (1 μm pore size, UMS, Munich, Germany) in 5 cm soil depth and pH, conductivity, DOC and anions (Cl-, NO3-, NO2-, PO43-, SO42-, F-) were determined. The 13DOC values were measured using high performance liquid chromatography - isotope ratio mass spectrometry (HPLC-IRMS). The values of conductivity and pH in the soil water indicate slower decomposition processes for leaf litter of beech in comparison to ash leaf litter. The conductivity was correlated with the Cl- ion during the first spring, which suggests the export of carbon due to leaching processes. However during the summer the conductivity correlated with the NO3- ions, which indicates mineralization as driving process. Surprisingly, the contribution of litter 13C into the dissolved carbon pool was very low. The highest contribution with up to 8.6% DOC labeled by ash litter derived carbon was found in the first 3 month of application. However, in the mean only 1.2% and 2.6% of DOC was labeled by carbon of the beech and ash litter, respectively. This represents in total only up to 0.41% of labeled litter carbon that was added. The higher percentages of ash litter derived 13C in DOM of soil water compared to beech indicates a positive effect of litter quality on decomposition. However, we did not find a faster decomposition or higher ash litter derived carbon export in mixed (ash and beech litter) treatments, which would indicate food selection or biodiversity effects.

  9. Spring and Baby Poultry are Here!

    MedlinePlus

    ... Button Past Emails CDC Features Spring and Baby Poultry are Here! Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... do people get Salmonella infections from live baby poultry? Live poultry may have Salmonella germs in their ...

  10. 7 CFR 701.56 - Poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... losses in calendar year 2005 to a poultry house in an eligible county due to a 2005 hurricane. (b... hurricane. (f) Assistance is limited to poultry houses used to house poultry for commercial enterprises....

  11. Veterinary involvement in poultry production.

    PubMed

    Parker, Daniel

    2016-01-16

    The worldwide poultry sector is expected to grow substantially over the next few decades, as the world looks to feed a rapidly expanding population. In a further article in Veterinary Record's series looking at the state of different sectors of the veterinary profession, Daniel Parker looks at veterinary involvement in the poultry sector. PMID:26769809

  12. Microbiological pathogens: Live poultry considerations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food-borne illness is a significant worldwide public health problem. Salmonella is the predominate food-borne pathogen worldwide, and poultry and poultry products are, reportedly, a prevailing vehicle for salmonellosis. More recently, population-based active surveillance by investigators of the Fo...

  13. 46 CFR 108.709 - Litter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Litter. 108.709 Section 108.709 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous Equipment § 108.709 Litter. Each unit must have a litter that is— (a) Stowed in a location that...

  14. Assessing the risks to water bodies from nitrogen vs. phosphorus based broiler litter strategy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The large amounts of poultry manure in localized areas and the high cost of implementing effective Best Management Practices (BMP’s) often favor disposal rather than utilization of manure. Continual application of poultry manure at rates providing more N and P than removed by crops can increase soil...

  15. Geochemical fate of arsenic in swine litter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quazi, S.; Makris, K.; Sarkar, D.; Datta, R.; Punamiya, P.

    2007-12-01

    Swine diet is often supplemented by organoarsenicals, such as roxarsone to treat diseases and to promote growth. Recent data reported roxarsone degradation under anaerobic conditions in poultry litter, but no such data exist for swine wastes typically stored in unprotected lagoons in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs). However, serious environmental health risk may arise upon significant arsenic (As) release into solution. The problem may be exacerbated under certain environmental conditions where organoarsenicals, such as roxarsone transform into the more toxic inorganic As, posing serious health risk to the surrounding ecosystem. The objective of this study were to analyze swine wastes collected from 19 randomly selected CAFOs in the USA for As concentrations, and to determine the geochemical fate of As in the swine waste suspensions. Swine wastes were analyzed for total-recoverable, total soluble, and water-extractable As, which were measured by ICP-MS. Speciation of As was performed following a well-established hyphenated technique using HPLC- ICPMS. Swine waste suspensions differed in solids contents; thus, the particulate matters with varying As concentrations were spiked with roxarsone and incubated under dark/light and aerobic/anaerobic conditions. Findings show the prevalence of inorganic As [As(V)] in swine waste suspension solutions. Roxarsone underwent degradation to both organoarsenicals, such as p-ASA, as well as inorganic arsenate and to a number of unidentified metabolites. Roxarsone degradation kinetics was influenced by the solids content and the air conditions (anaerobic/aerobic) of the swine waste suspensions. Maximum degradation rates were observed under anaerobic conditions, in suspensions which were low in solids content. Roxarsone degradation was primarily microbially-mediated, but in certain cases abiotic degradation was also observed, which were significantly slower.

  16. Broiler litter effects on forage quality in tall fescue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land application of broiler chicken (Gallus gallus) litter to forage crops is one of the most obvious methods of recycling nutrients. However, manure management remains one of the greatest challenges for livestock producers, particularly where animals are produced on relatively small land areas. Tal...

  17. [A portable sternal compressor for cardiac massage on a patient carried by a litter--Part 3: Applicability of the device tested by a recording manikin].

    PubMed

    Yoshitake, Atsushi; Nishi, Masaaki; Maeda, Asako; Okamoto, Taisuke; Morioka, Tohru; Terasaki, Hidenori

    2002-10-01

    Effects of a portable sternal compressor developed by us was examined by 43 medical students (28 males and 15 females) and 9 anesthesia residents using a recording manikin. Compression over a depth of 3.5 to 5.0 cm was classified as adequate. First, the examinee held the device affixed in front of the chest with a belt hanged over the shoulder and pulled the other handle back and forth at a rate of 100 per minute. The male students could perform adequate compression in 92% of the total number of compression in the first one minute, while female students could in 65%. Though the anesthesia residents accomplished 99% of success rate in the first one minute, the rate fell to nearly 80% in the next minute and about 50% thereafter due to fatigue. When one handle was sustained on the floor with its fold-in stand and held between the knees of the examinee sitting on a chair, adequate compression was performed with the success rate of over 80% for 5 minutes. We conclude this device will be useful for cardiac massage on a patient either transported on a litter or lying on a soft bed. PMID:12428330

  18. Climate and litter quality differently modulate the effects of soil fauna on litter decomposition across biomes

    PubMed Central

    García-Palacios, Pablo; Maestre, Fernando T.; Kattge, Jens; Wall, Diana H.

    2015-01-01

    Climate and litter quality have been identified as major drivers of litter decomposition at large spatial scales. However, the role played by soil fauna remains largely unknown, despite its importance for litter fragmentation and microbial activity. We synthesized litterbag studies to quantify the effect sizes of soil fauna on litter decomposition rates at the global and biome scales, and to assess how climate, litter quality and soil fauna interact to determine such rates. Soil fauna consistently enhanced litter decomposition at both global and biome scales (average increment ~27%). However, climate and litter quality differently modulated the effects of soil fauna on decomposition rates between biomes, from climate-driven biomes to those where climate effects were mediated by changes in litter quality. Our results advocate for the inclusion of biome-specific soil fauna effects on litter decomposition as a mean to reduce the unexplained variation in large-scale decomposition models. PMID:23763716

  19. Mechanisms of regulation of litter size in pigs on the genome level.

    PubMed

    Distl, O

    2007-09-01

    Improvement in litter size has become of great interest in pig industry as good fecundity is directly related to a sow's productive life. Genetic regulation of litter size is complex and the main component traits so far defined are ovulation rate, embryonic survival, uterus capacity, foetal survival and pre-weaning losses. Improvements using concepts of the quantitative genetics let expect only slow genetic progress due to its low heritability of approximately 0.09 for number of piglets born alive. Marker assisted selection allows to dissect litter size in its component traits and using molecular genetic markers for the components of litter size traits promises more progress and advantages in optimum balancing of the different physiological mechanisms influencing litter size. In this review, efforts being made to unravel the genetic determinants of litter size are accounted and discussed. For litter size traits, more than 50 quantitative trait loci (QTL) were mapped and in more than 12 candidate genes associations confirmed. The number of useful candidate genes is much larger as shown by expression profiles and in addition, much more QTL can be assumed. These functional genomic approaches, both QTL mapping and candidate gene analysis, have to be merged for a better understanding of a wider application across different pig breeds and lines. Newly developed tools based on microarray techniques comprising DNA variants or expressed tags of many genes or even the whole genome appear useful for in depth understanding of the genetics of litter size in pigs. PMID:17688597

  20. Benthic marine litter in four Gulfs in Greece, Eastern Mediterranean; abundance, composition and source identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutsodendris, Andreas; Papatheodorou, George; Kougiourouki, Ourania; Georgiadis, Michalis

    2008-04-01

    The types, abundance, distribution and sources of benthic marine litter found in four Greek Gulfs (Patras, Corinth, Echinades and Lakonikos) were studied using bottom trawl nets. Mean distribution and weight densities range between 72-437 Item/km 2 and 6.7-47.4 kg/km 2. Litter items were sorted into material and usage categories. Plastic litter (56%) is the most dominant material category followed by metal (17%) and glass (11%). Beverage packaging (32%) is the dominant usage category followed by general packaging (28%) and food packaging (21%). Based on the typological results three dominant litter sources were identified; land-based, vessel-based and fishery-based. Application of factor analysis (R- and Q-mode) conducted on both material and usage litter datasets confirmed the existence of the three dominant litter sources. Q-mode analysis further resulted in the quantification of the litter sources; land-based ones provided the majority (69%) of the total litter items followed by vessel-based (26%) and fishery-based (5%) sources. Diverse environmental parameters influence significantly these amounts among the four Gulfs.

  1. Low contribution of litter derived carbon to dissolved organic matter in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheibe, A.; Krantz, L.; Gleixner, G.

    2010-12-01

    This study investigates the contribution of litter derived carbon to dissolved organic matter (DOM) pool because our knowledge on sources of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is still very controversial. Here, a labeled litter exchange experiment was started in the National Park Hainich, Germany, in November 2008. In this experiment the native litter was exchanged with 13C and 15N labeled litter of ash (Fraxinus excelsior) and beech (Fagus sylvatica). Soil water was collected biweekly with glass suction plates (1 µm pore size, UMS, Munich, Germany), installed in a depth of 5 cm. The amount and isotopic content of the DOC in natural samples was measured using a newly developed method: a high pressure liquid chromatography which was on-line coupled to isotope ratio mass spectrometry (HPLC-IRMS) via wet chemical combustion. Reference measurements proved the excellent performance of the method. Unexpected was the very low contribution of litter 13C into the dissolved carbon pool. The highest contribution with up to 5% DOC labeled by ash litter derived carbon was found in the first month of application. Furthermore we found that only 1.1% and 2.8% (mean values) of DOC was labeled by carbon of the beech and ash litter, respectively. These results suggest that litter derived carbon is of low importance for DOM formation and consequently root / rhizosphere and soil derived carbon drives the DOM loss.

  2. Ecology and management of arthropod pests of poultry.

    PubMed

    Axtell, R C; Arends, J J

    1990-01-01

    The worldwide spread of modern, high-density confined poultry production systems under the direction of integrators has intensified the importance of a select number of arthropod ectoparasites and habitat pests. This concentrated production of poultry provides artificial ecosystems that are sometimes ideal for the development of large populations of arthropod pests. At the same time the systems are amenable to integrated pest management involving a multipest and multimethod approach to reducing or eliminating arthropod pests. Since rodents are major pests, they should be included in an integrated pest management program to make the program most cost-effective and attractive to the integrators and producers (5). Quantitative data are scarce on economic effects, and the concept of economic thresholds is difficult to apply either to ectoparasites or to habitat pests. The risk of transporting ectoparasites among flocks is difficult to evaluate and necessitates treatment after early detection of the arthropods. Flies and litter beetles present a threat of disease transmission and the potential for lawsuits from neighbors or public health agencies that are factors not subject to easy cost estimates. The monetary losses of a flock devastated by disease or a farm forced to close are so great that the risks are unacceptable. Production losses from lowered feed conversion ratios and insulation damage are likely to be detected by the sophisticated record-keeping of the integrators. Minimal use of pesticides and other chemicals on poultry and in poultry housing is an objective of the integrators and, consequently, an integrated pest management (IPM) approach that reduces the need for pesticides is attractive. The key to further development of effective arthropod management programs for poultry is the implementation of pest and disease monitoring programs for the complete system. Improvements in arthropod sampling methods and more attention to monitoring the biosecurity systems

  3. Bacteriocins to control Campylobacter spp. in poultry--A review.

    PubMed

    Svetoch, E A; Stern, N J

    2010-08-01

    The unacceptably high frequency of Campylobacter jejuni transmission from poultry to humans encourages scientists to consider and create alternative intervention strategies to control the pathogen in poultry production. Extremely high numbers of Campylobacter (often >10(8) cfu/g of poultry intestinal material) potentiate high numbers of the organism on the processed broiler carcass with increasing consequent human health risk. Many scientists believe interventions during poultry production portend the greatest opportunity for reducing risk of disease. Over the past 10 yr, we have focused our studies on nonantibiotic bacteriocin application to intervene during animal production and this is the subject of the current review. The application of therapeutic bacteriocin treatments to reduce poultry colonization diminishes Campylobacter from >10(8) cfu/g of cecal materials to nondetectable or very low levels in treated birds. Further, the review provides scientists with a useful starting point for the further development of industry-applicable interventions leading to reduced transmission of this agent in human disease. PMID:20634535

  4. Responses of litter invertebrate communities to litter manipulation in a Japanese conifer plantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Tomohiro; Takito, Yuki; Soga, Masashi; Hijii, Naoki

    2013-08-01

    We examined how the litter invertebrate communities were affected by the temporal changes in the mass and structural complexity of the litter resources by adding and removing litter on the forest floor of a temperate conifer plantation (Cryptomeria japonica) in Japan. We showed that litter mass and depth in the litter-addition (L+) plots changed rapidly into a steady-state condition similar to those in the control plots, mainly due to accelerated decomposition processes during the rainy season. Higher area-based densities of litter invertebrates in the L+ plots, similar mass-based densities between the L+ and control plots, and significant positive correlations between litter mass and the number of individuals implied that the abundance of litter invertebrates would be governed by litter mass rather than by the litter depth. Many litter invertebrates including detritivores were collected even in the litter-removal (L-) area. The relative abundances of invertebrate predators collecting pitfall traps were higher in the L- plots and lower in the L+ plots compared to those in the control plots, whereas those collecting Tullgren funnels were higher in the L+ plots than in the control plots. In the L+ plots, the range of variation in the community compositions among the samples decreased significantly over time in response to a drastic decrease in litter mass, in contrast to the control plots, which showed a relatively constant community composition during the study period. Our litter manipulation experiment reveals some of the mechanisms responsible for maintaining an equilibrium state of forest-floor litter mass and for the responses of litter invertebrate communities to temporal changes in the litter.

  5. Tetracycline Resistance in the Subsurface of a Poultry Farm: Influence of Poultry Wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Y.; Ball, W. P.; Ward, M. J.; Hilpert, M.

    2007-12-01

    Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) are considered to be important man-made reservoir of antibiotic resistant bacteria. Using the electromagnetic induction (EMI) method of geophysical characterization, we measured the apparent subsurface electrical conductivity (ECa) at a CAFO site in order to assess the movement of pollutants associated with animal waste. The map of ECa and other available data suggest that (1) soil surrounding a poultry litter storage shed is contaminated by poultry waste, (2) a contamination plume in the subsurface emanates from that shed, and (3) the development of that plume is due to groundwater flow. We focused on understanding the spread of tetracycline resistance (Tc\\tiny R), because tetracycline is one of the most frequently used antibiotics in food animal production and therefore probably used at our field site. Microbiological experiments show the presence of Tc\\tiny R bacteria in the subsurface and indicate higher concentrations in the top soil than in the aquifer. Environmental DNA was extracted to identify CAFO- associated Tc\\tiny R genes and to explore a link between the presence of Tc\\tiny R and CAFO practices. A "shot-gun" cloning approach is under development to target the most prevalent Tc\\tiny R gene. This gene will be monitored in future experiments, in which we will study the transmission of Tc\\tiny R to naive E.~coli under selective pressure of Tc. Experimental results will be used to develop a mathematical/numerical model in order to describe the transmission process and to subsequently make estimates regarding the large-scale spread of antibiotic resistance.

  6. The impact of deposition site on vaccination efficiency of a bacterial-based poultry vaccine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccines are utilized within the poultry industry to minimize disease-associated losses and spray vaccination is a commonly-utilized means for the mass application of poultry vaccines. During this process, vaccine-laden particles are deposited upon target areas (e.g. eyes, nares, oral cavity) resul...

  7. Sequential monitoring of beach litter using webcams.

    PubMed

    Kako, Shin'ichiro; Isobe, Atsuhiko; Magome, Shinya

    2010-05-01

    This study attempts to establish a system for the sequential monitoring of beach litter using webcams placed at the Ookushi beach, Goto Islands, Japan, to establish the temporal variability in the quantities of beach litter every 90 min over a one and a half year period. The time series of the quantities of beach litter, computed by counting pixels with a greater lightness than a threshold value in photographs, shows that litter does not increase monotonically on the beach, but fluctuates mainly on a monthly time scale or less. To investigate what factors influence this variability, the time derivative of the quantity of beach litter is compared with satellite-derived wind speeds. It is found that the beach litter quantities vary largely with winds, but there may be other influencing factors. PMID:20392465

  8. Field application of a combined pig and poultry market chain and risk pathway analysis within the Pacific Islands region as a tool for targeted disease surveillance and biosecurity.

    PubMed

    Brioudes, Aurélie; Gummow, Bruce

    2016-07-01

    Limited resources are one of the major constraints in effective disease monitoring and control in developing countries. This paper examines the pig and poultry market chains of four targeted Pacific Island countries and territories (PICTs): Fiji, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands and Vanuatu and combines them with a risk pathway analysis to identify the highest risk areas (risk hotspots) and risky practices and behaviours (risk factors) of animal disease introduction and/or spread, using highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) and foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) as model diseases because of their importance in the region. The results show that combining a market chain analysis with risk pathways is a practical way of communicating risk to animal health officials and improving biosecurity. It provides a participatory approach that helps officials to better understand the trading regulations in place in their country and to better evaluate their role as part of the control system. Common risk patterns were found to play a role in all four PICTs. Legal trade pathways rely essentially on preventive measures put in place in the exporting countries while no or only limited control measures are undertaken by the importing countries. Legal importations of animals and animal products are done mainly by commercial farms which then supply local smallholders. Targeting surveillance on these potential hotspots would limit the risk of introduction and spread of animal diseases within the pig and poultry industry and better rationalize use of skilled manpower. Swill feeding is identified as a common practice in the region that represents a recognized risk factor for dissemination of pathogens to susceptible species. Illegal introduction of animals and animal products is suspected, but appears restricted to small holder farms in remote areas, limiting the risk of spread of transboundary animal diseases along the market chain. Introduction of undeclared goods hidden within a legal

  9. Can probiotics improve the environmental microbiome and resistome of commercial poultry production?

    PubMed

    Pedroso, Adriana A; Hurley-Bacon, Anne L; Zedek, Andrea S; Kwan, Tiffany W; Jordan, Andrea P O; Avellaneda, Gloria; Hofacre, Charles L; Oakley, Brian B; Collett, Stephen R; Maurer, John J; Lee, Margie D

    2013-10-01

    Food animal production systems have become more consolidated and integrated, producing large, concentrated animal populations and significant amounts of fecal waste. Increasing use of manure and litter as a more "natural" and affordable source of fertilizer may be contributing to contamination of fruits and vegetables with foodborne pathogens. In addition, human and animal manure have been identified as a significant source of antibiotic resistance genes thereby serving as a disseminator of resistance to soil and waterways. Therefore, identifying methods to remediate human and animal waste is critical in developing strategies to improve food safety and minimize the dissemination of antibiotic resistant bacteria. In this study, we sought to determine whether withdrawing antibiotic growth promoters or using alternatives to antibiotics would reduce the abundance of antibiotic resistance genes or prevalence of pathogens in poultry litter. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) paired with high throughput sequencing was used to evaluate the bacterial community composition of litter from broiler chickens that were treated with streptogramin growth-promoting antibiotics, probiotics, or prebiotics. The prevalence of resistance genes and pathogens was determined from sequencing results or PCR screens of litter community DNA. Streptogramin antibiotic usage did not elicit statistically significant differences in Shannon diversity indices or correlation coefficients among the flocks. However, T-RFLP revealed that there were inter-farm differences in the litter composition that was independent of antibiotic usage. The litter from all farms, regardless of antibiotic usage, contained streptogramin resistance genes (vatA, vatB, and vatE), macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance genes (ermA and ermB), the tetracycline resistance gene tetM and class 1 integrons. There was inter-farm variability in the distribution of vatA and vatE with no statistically

  10. Cigarette Litter: Smokers’ Attitudes and Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Rath, Jessica M.; Rubenstein, Rebecca A.; Curry, Laurel E.; Shank, Sarah E.; Cartwright, Julia C.

    2012-01-01

    Cigarette butts are consistently the most collected items in litter clean-up efforts, which are a costly burden to local economies. In addition, tobacco waste may be detrimental to our natural environment. The tobacco industry has conducted or funded numerous studies on smokers’ littering knowledge and behavior, however, non-industry sponsored research is rare. We sought to examine whether demographics and smokers’ knowledge and beliefs toward cigarette waste as litter predicts littering behavior. Smokers aged 18 and older (n = 1,000) were interviewed about their knowledge and beliefs towards cigarette waste as litter. Respondents were members of the Research Now panel, an online panel of over three million respondents in the United States. Multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to determine factors significantly predictive of ever having littered cigarette butts or having littered cigarette butts within the past month (p-value < 0.05). The majority (74.1%) of smokers reported having littered cigarette butts at least once in their life, by disposing of them on the ground or throwing them out of a car window. Over half (55.7%) reported disposing of cigarette butts on the ground, in a sewer/gutter, or down a drain in the past month. Those who did not consider cigarette butts to be litter were over three and half times as likely to report having ever littered cigarette butts (OR = 3.68, 95%CI = 2.04, 6.66) and four times as likely to have littered cigarette butts in the past month (OR = 4.00, 95%CI = 2.53, 6.32). Males were significantly more likely to have littered cigarette butts in the past month compared to females (OR = 1.49, 95%CI = 1.14, 1.94). Holding the belief that cigarette butts are not litter was the only belief in this study that predicted ever or past-month littering of cigarette waste. Messages in anti-cigarette-litter campaigns should emphasize that cigarette butts are not just litter but are toxic waste and are harmful when disposed of

  11. Cigarette litter: smokers' attitudes and behaviors.

    PubMed

    Rath, Jessica M; Rubenstein, Rebecca A; Curry, Laurel E; Shank, Sarah E; Cartwright, Julia C

    2012-06-01

    Cigarette butts are consistently the most collected items in litter clean-up efforts, which are a costly burden to local economies. In addition, tobacco waste may be detrimental to our natural environment. The tobacco industry has conducted or funded numerous studies on smokers' littering knowledge and behavior, however, non-industry sponsored research is rare. We sought to examine whether demographics and smokers' knowledge and beliefs toward cigarette waste as litter predicts littering behavior. Smokers aged 18 and older (n = 1,000) were interviewed about their knowledge and beliefs towards cigarette waste as litter. Respondents were members of the Research Now panel, an online panel of over three million respondents in the United States. Multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to determine factors significantly predictive of ever having littered cigarette butts or having littered cigarette butts within the past month (p-value < 0.05). The majority (74.1%) of smokers reported having littered cigarette butts at least once in their life, by disposing of them on the ground or throwing them out of a car window. Over half (55.7%) reported disposing of cigarette butts on the ground, in a sewer/gutter, or down a drain in the past month. Those who did not consider cigarette butts to be litter were over three and half times as likely to report having ever littered cigarette butts (OR = 3.68, 95%CI = 2.04, 6.66) and four times as likely to have littered cigarette butts in the past month (OR = 4.00, 95%CI = 2.53, 6.32). Males were significantly more likely to have littered cigarette butts in the past month compared to females (OR = 1.49, 95%CI = 1.14, 1.94). Holding the belief that cigarette butts are not litter was the only belief in this study that predicted ever or past-month littering of cigarette waste. Messages in anti-cigarette-litter campaigns should emphasize that cigarette butts are not just litter but are toxic waste and are harmful when disposed of

  12. Litter composition effects on decomposition across the litter-soil interface

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background/Question/Methods Many studies have investigated the influence of plant litter species composition on decomposition dynamics, but given the variety of communities and environments around the world, a variety of consequences of litter-mixing have been reported. Litter ...

  13. McDonald's Litter Hunt: A Community Litter Control System for Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNees, M. Patrick; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Describes a community litter control program. Special adhesive stickers were randomly placed on existing litter throughout a community and youth were rewarded with special prizes for participating in the program. Litter was reduced 32 percent across the city. (Author/MA)

  14. Stability of a Lipase Extracted from Seeds of Pachira aquatica in Commercial Detergents and Application Tests in Poultry Wastewater Pretreatment and Fat Particle Hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Polizelli, Patrícia Peres; Facchini, Fernanda Dell Antonio; Bonilla-Rodriguez, Gustavo Orlando

    2013-01-01

    A protein extract containing a plant lipase from oleaginous seeds of Pachira aquatica was tested using soybean oil, wastewater from a poultry processing plant, and beef fat particles as substrate. The hydrolysis experiments were carried out at a temperature of 40°C, an incubation time of 90 minutes, and pH 8.0-9.0. The enzyme had the best stability at pH 9.0 and showed good stability in the alkaline range. It was found that P. aquatica lipase was stable in the presence of some commercial laundry detergent formulations, and it retained full activity up to 0.35% in hydrogen peroxide, despite losing activity at higher concentrations. Concerning wastewater, the lipase increased free fatty acids release by 7.4 times and promoted the hydrolysis of approximately 10% of the fats, suggesting that it could be included in a pretreatment stage, especially for vegetable oil degradation. PMID:24455209

  15. Stability of a Lipase Extracted from Seeds of Pachira aquatica in Commercial Detergents and Application Tests in Poultry Wastewater Pretreatment and Fat Particle Hydrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Polizelli, Patrícia Peres; Facchini, Fernanda Dell Antonio

    2013-01-01

    A protein extract containing a plant lipase from oleaginous seeds of Pachira aquatica was tested using soybean oil, wastewater from a poultry processing plant, and beef fat particles as substrate. The hydrolysis experiments were carried out at a temperature of 40°C, an incubation time of 90 minutes, and pH 8.0-9.0. The enzyme had the best stability at pH 9.0 and showed good stability in the alkaline range. It was found that P. aquatica lipase was stable in the presence of some commercial laundry detergent formulations, and it retained full activity up to 0.35% in hydrogen peroxide, despite losing activity at higher concentrations. Concerning wastewater, the lipase increased free fatty acids release by 7.4 times and promoted the hydrolysis of approximately 10% of the fats, suggesting that it could be included in a pretreatment stage, especially for vegetable oil degradation. PMID:24455209

  16. Evaluating carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide flux from N- and P-based broiler litter fertilization of bermudagrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Escalating costs of commercial fertilizers have resulted in a renewed interest in the use of broiler litter and other manure nutrient sources for crops and forages. In recent years, research has been conducted using different application rates of broiler litter, particularly nitrogen (N) based or ph...

  17. Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths in different poultry production systems.

    PubMed

    Permin, A; Bisgaard, M; Frandsen, F; Pearman, M; Kold, J; Nansen, P

    1999-09-01

    A cross-sectional prevalence study of gastrointestinal helminths in Danish poultry production systems was conducted on 268 adult chickens selected at random from 16 farms in Denmark from October 1994 to October 1995. The trachea and the gastrointestinal tract of each bird was examined for the presence of helminths. In the free-range/organic systems the following helminths were found: Ascaridia galli (63.8%), Heterakis gallinarum (72.5%), Capillaria obsignata (53.6%), Capillaria anatis (31.9%) and Capillaria caudinflata (1.5%). In the deep-litter systems: A. galli (41.9%), H. gallinarum (19.4%) and C. obsignata (51.6%). In the battery cages: A. galli (5%) and Raillietina cesticillus or Choanotaenia infundibulum (3.3%). Exact identification of the cestodes was not possible because of missing scolexices. In the broiler/parent system: C. obsignata (1.6%), and finally for the backyard system: A. galli (37.5%) H. gallinarum (68.8%), C. obsignata (50.0%), C. anatis (56.3%) and C. caudinflata (6.3%). The results confirm the higher risk of helminth infections in free-range and backyard systems but prevalence may also be high in deep litter systems. PMID:10579399

  18. Biological potential of methane generation from poultry wastes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, J.C.H.

    1981-06-20

    Anaerobic digestion of animal waste is an attractive process because it degrades organic matter for pollution control and simultaneously produces methane gas for an alternate energy source. The biological potentials of methane generation from the two major kinds of poultry wastes, the litter of broiler chickens and the manure of laying hens have been systematically investigated. Using these wastes to prepare media for bacterial growth, thermophilic anaerobic cultures were initiated by inoculations of bacteria from different natural environments. After a period of acclimation, they were then challenged with various combinations of operational variables such as retention times, volatile solid concentrations, temperatures, and pH values. The most efficient culture and conditions were selected based on the highest gas rate. The results have demonstrated that the broiler litter is a substrate of very low potential. This seems due to the high content of wood shavings resistant to bacterial degradation. On the other hand, the layer manure is a high-potential substrate, which supported both a high methane rate (3.5 1/1/day) and a high methane yield (250 1/kg VS) under the selected conditions. Compared with other types of animal wastes, the manure of laying hens is one of the best substrates for methane production. Based on the data obtained in the laboratory, an anaerobic digester is under construction on the University research farm. A large digester will help answer other questions such as energy balance, economic evaluation and engineering design.

  19. Effects of litter manipulation on litter decomposition in a successional gradients of tropical forests in southern China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao; Gurmesa, Geshere A; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Tao; Fu, Shenglei; Liu, Zhanfeng; Dong, Shaofeng; Ma, Chuan; Mo, Jiangming

    2014-01-01

    Global changes such as increasing CO2, rising temperature, and land-use change are likely to drive shifts in litter inputs to forest floors, but the effects of such changes on litter decomposition remain largely unknown. We initiated a litter manipulation experiment to test the response of litter decomposition to litter removal/addition in three successional forests in southern China, namely masson pine forest (MPF), mixed coniferous and broadleaved forest (MF) and monsoon evergreen broadleaved forest (MEBF). Results showed that litter removal decreased litter decomposition rates by 27%, 10% and 8% and litter addition increased litter decomposition rates by 55%, 36% and 14% in MEBF, MF and MPF, respectively. The magnitudes of changes in litter decomposition were more significant in MEBF forest and less significant in MF, but not significant in MPF. Our results suggest that change in litter quantity can affect litter decomposition, and this impact may become stronger with forest succession in tropical forest ecosystem. PMID:24901698

  20. Comparative efficacy of three epigeic earthworms under different deciduous forest litters decomposition.

    PubMed

    Manna, M C; Jha, S; Ghosh, P K; Acharya, C L

    2003-07-01

    An experiment was conducted during 1998-1999, in a deciduous forest located in the semi-arid tropics of central India, to evaluate the suitability of different forest litters as food material for the tropical epigeic earthworms i.e. Eisenia fetida (Savigny), Perionyx excavatus (Perrier) and Dicogaster bolaui (michaelsen). The aim was to examine the influence of these earthworms on the decomposition processes of three types of forest litters i.e. Tectona grandis (teak), Madhuca indica (mahua) and Butea monosperma (palas), on the maintenance of quality in a vermicomposting system, and to assess the effect of applications of in situ prepared vermicomposts on the growth of forest trees. The results indicated that T. grandis litter was the most suitable food material for the earthworms possibly because it contained high reserves of mineral nutrients. Comparisons of the survival and reproduction rates of the three epigeic earthworm species indicated that a higher reproduction rate was maintained for E. fetida compared to P. excavatus and D. bolaui in the decomposition of these forest litters. The rates of growth and population increases of E. fetida approximately doubled after 12 weeks of litter decomposition. The litter decomposition process was associated strongly with the quality of the materials and their chemical composition. Irrespective of earthworm inoculations, the levels of available nutrient such as NH(4)-N, NO(3)-N, available P and K increased significantly (plitter compost>M. indica litter compost>B. monosperma litter compost. The mature decomposed litter had lower C/N ratios (11.3-24.8:1), water-soluble carbon (0.30-0.58%), water-soluble carbohydrates (0.35-0.71%) and larger cation exchange capacity/total organic carbon ratios than the values in the parent forest litter. The lignin content increased with maturation with a concomitant decrease in cellulose resulting in higher lignin/cellulose ratios. Application of all three