Science.gov

Sample records for poultry litter application

  1. Subsurface band application of poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broiler litter is commonly used as a fertilizer on pastures and cropland. Poultry litter is typically land-applied by broadcasting the litter on the soil surface. Rain falling on soil to which poultry litter has been applied, may carry phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) nutrients from the soil into s...

  2. Repeated Poultry Litter Application Builds Cotton Soil Productivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry litter is a bulky mix of mainly chicken manure and bedding materials. It is generated in huge amounts on a continuous basis in the Mid South and southeastern US. This necessitates yearly application to crops as a way of managing the constant supply. Manures including poultry litter applied ...

  3. An implement for subsurface band application of poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broiler litter is commonly used as a fertilizer on pastures and cropland. Poultry litter is typically land-applied by broadcasting the litter on the soil surface. Rain falling on soil to which poultry litter has been applied, may carry phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) nutrients from the soil into s...

  4. SOIL PHOSPHOROUS SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION IN PASTURES RECEIVING POULTRY LITTER APPLICATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmentally-based P management strategies could be improved by delineating management zones incorporating the effects of landscape position on soil morphology, hydrology, and soil P distribution. Three farm pasture sites in SW Missouri receiving long-term poultry litter applications were sampled...

  5. Poultry litter application increases carbon sequestration and soil quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry litter, a cheap source of nutrients, is widely available in the southeastern U.S. because of a large-scale poultry industry. Disposal of poultry litter is causing an increasing environmental concern because of groundwater contamination of nitrogen and phosphorus through leaching and surface ...

  6. Poultry Litter Application Time Effect on Nutrient Availability and Corn Yield In Central Kentucky.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the growing interest in poultry litter use as nutrient sources, knowledge of whether application time is consequential to production is pertinent. This study investigated the effects of fall and spring application of two rates (9 and 18 mega grams per ha) of poultry litter and a 19-19-19 NPK b...

  7. Effects of subsurface poultry litter application technology on water quality, odor, and corn yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Impending rules in Maryland will require that poultry litter be incorporated into the soil upon application. For the past five years, we have tested various direct incorporation technologies for poultry litter on Maryland’s coastal plain. Most recently, the USDA-ARS “Subsurfer” has been the focus of...

  8. Injecting poultry litter into orchardgrass hay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traditional surface application of poultry litter leaves nutrients vulnerable to loss through volatilization and runoff. However, injection can increase capture of these nutrients in agricultural fields. Therefore, a field experiment was conducted to determine the effects of poultry litter injection...

  9. Legacy phosphorus in calcareous soils: effects of long-term poultry litter application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sequential fractionation techniques, coupled with phosphatase hydrolysis, have allowed for greater understanding of manure/litter effects on soil P distribution. We evaluated the effect of long-term (greater than 10 years) poultry litter (broiler and turkey litter) application at annual rates of 4.5...

  10. Legacy phosphorus in calcareous soils: effects of long-term poultry litter application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sequential fractionation techniques, coupled with phosphatase hydrolysis, have allowed for greater understanding of manure/litter effects on soil P distribution. We evaluated the effect of long-term (> 10 years) poultry litter (broiler and turkey litter) application at annual rates of 4.5, 6.7, 9.0,...

  11. Detection of pathogens, indicators and antibiotic resistance genes following land application of poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The United States (U.S.) is the world’s largest producer of poultry with over 18,000 kg of poultry litter (PL), a mixture of poultry manure, bedding, feathers, and spilled feed produced as a by-product. This PL is a valuable nutrient source for crop production however; land application of livestock ...

  12. Subsurface application of poultry litter in pasture and no-till soils.

    PubMed

    Pote, D H; Way, T R; Kleinman, P J A; Moore, P A; Meisinger, J J; Sistani, K R; Saporito, L S; Allen, A L; Feyereisen, G W

    2011-01-01

    Poultry litter provides a rich nutrient source for crops, but the usual practice of surface-applying litter can degrade water quality by allowing nutrients to be transported from fields in surface runoff while much of the ammonia (NH3)-N escapes into the atmosphere. Our goal was to improve on conventional titter application methods to decrease associated nutrient losses to air and water while increasing soil productivity. We developed and tested a knifing technique to directly apply dry poultry litter beneath the surface of pastures. Results showed that subsurface litter application decreased NH3-N volatilization and nutrient losses in runoff more than 90% (compared with surface-applied litter) to levels statistically as low as those from control (no litter) plots. Given this success, two advanced tractor-drawn prototypes were developed to subsurface apply poultry litter in field research. The two prototypes have been tested in pasture and no-till experiments and are both effective in improving nutrient-use efficiency compared with surface-applied litter, increasing crop yields (possibly by retaining more nitrogen in the soil), and decreasing nutrient losses, often to near background (control plot) levels. A paired-watershed study showed that cumulative phosphorus losses in runoff from continuously grazed perennial pastures were decreased by 55% over a 3-yr period if the annual poultry litter applications were subsurface applied rather than surface broadcast. Results highlight opportunities and challenges for commercial adoption of subsurface poultry litter application in pasture and no-till systems. PMID:21520747

  13. Prospects for phosphorus recovery from poultry litter.

    PubMed

    Szogi, A A; Vanotti, M B

    2009-11-01

    Land disposal of poultry litter is an environmental concern often associated to excess phosphorus (P) in soils and potential water pollution in regions with intense poultry production. Although poultry litter can be moved off the farm and traded as fertilizer, its transportation becomes less economical with increasing distances from the farm. Thus, new litter management alternatives are needed to reduce the environmental impact of P litter application to land. This paper summarizes established and emerging alternative technologies in the U.S. that facilitate handling, concentration, and transporting of litter P. Furthermore, it examines the potential integration of technologies into poultry litter management systems that could reduce poultry litter volume and increase P content in litter byproducts. The adoption of alternative technologies may encourage new opportunities to produce bio-energy, fertilizer, and other valuable P byproducts from poultry litter while reducing environmental impact and promoting sustainable poultry production. PMID:19394817

  14. Soluble calcium amendment: Co-Application with poultry litter to reduce P loss following surface application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper will discuss the utilization of gypsum (CaSO4 .2H2O) to reduce P losses from surface runoff when poultry litter is used as a fertilizer source in agriculture. Utilization of poultry litter as a fertilizer source is common in regions with intense poultry production. While poultry litter ha...

  15. Application of composted poultry litter as a fertilizer for landscape bedding plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Each year, over 16 million tons of poultry litter is produced in the U.S. Federal and state regulations now limit the amount of poultry litter that can be land-applied, making it difficult to store and dispose poultry litter. The objective of this study was to evaluate composted poultry litter (CPL)...

  16. A New Method of Poultry Litter Application to Perennial Pasture: Subsurface Banding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, incorporation of poultry litter by subsurface band application into pasture has been shown to dramatically reduce surface runoff transport of environmentally sensitive nutrients and pathogens. However, no data are currently available to evaluate the impact of this potential litter managem...

  17. Cotton lint yield improvement attributed to residual effect of repeated poultry litter application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The magnitude of any poultry litter carryover and the possibility to decrease the rate of litter applied to soils with only a few years of application history is not documented. The objective of this research was to determine and quantify the contribution of carryover effect of moderate rates of br...

  18. Antibiotic resistant and pathogenic bacteria associated with rain runoff following land application of poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry rearing in the United States is approximately a thirty million dollar per year industry. The land application of poultry litter as an organic fertilizer is an ideal choice for the disposal of this high nitrogen, high organic waste, however microbial runoff following rain events is a concern...

  19. Bacteria associated with rain runoff following land application of poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry rearing in the United States is approximately a thirty million dollar per year industry. Land application of poultry litter is an economical viable use of this manure byproduct. However the recent concern associated with organic food and pathogenic bacterial contamination has led to increa...

  20. Application of gypsum to control P runoff from poultry litter fertilization of pasture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper will discuss the utilization of gypsum (CaSO4 .2H2O) to reduce P losses from surface runoff when poultry litter is used as a fertilizer source in agriculture. Utilization of poultry litter as a fertilizer source is common in regions with intense poultry production. While poultry litter ...

  1. Influence of Poultry Litter Applications on Nematode Communities in Cotton Agroecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Koenning, S. R.; Barker, K. R.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of the application of poultry litter at 0.0, 6.7, 13.4, and 20.1 tons/ha on population changes during the growing season on nematode communities were evaluated in two cotton production fields in North Carolina. Numbers of bactivorous nematodes increased at midseason in response to the rate at which litter was applied but decreased with increasing litter application rates at cotton harvest. Numbers of fungivores at cotton harvest were related positively to the rate of litter applied, and this affected a positive increase in the fungivore-to-bacterivore ratio at this sampling date. The rate at which poultry litter was applied resulted in an increase in the bacterivore to plant-parasite ratio, and this corresponded with increased cotton lint yield. Trophic diversity was increased by litter application rate at cotton harvest at one location but not at another. The plant-parasite maturity index was greater consistently at one site than at a second site where the Hoplolaimus columbus population density was above the damage threshold for cotton. The population density of H. columbus was suppressed with increasing rates of poultry litter application, but other plant-parasitic nematodes were affected marginally. PMID:19262834

  2. Centrifugal spreader mass and nutrients distribution patterns for application of fresh and aged poultry litter.

    PubMed

    Temple, W D; Skowrońska, M; Bomke, A A

    2014-06-15

    A spin-type centrifugal spreader was evaluated using fresh and aged poultry litter upon dry mass, product nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K), incubation study soil available N and particle size distribution patterns. Relative to the aged litter (37% moisture content), the fresh litter (17% moisture content) had greater <1.00 mm particle size fraction weights and atmospheric particulate was launched, which posed as a potential fallout to adjacent fields, waterways and residences. Relative to the aged litter, the broadcast fresh litter resulted in higher coefficients of variation (CV) over its transverse distance, a narrower calculated space distance between passes for uniform spread and lower soil available N concentrations. For nitrogen application over the broadcast transverse distance the fresh litter displayed a high R(2) best fit 4th order polynomial distribution pattern, while the aged litter showed high R(2) best fit 6th order polynomial distribution pattern. A soil incubation study of the fresh and aged broadcast litter resulted in a more variable or lower R(2) best fit 2nd order polynomial distribution pattern. For both the fresh and aged litter, the calculated distance between passes to achieve a uniform mass distribution was greater than that required for the broadcast of soil available N. For the fresh litter, the soil available N and litter P concentration levels strongly correlated (relatively high p and R(2) values) with the <1.00 mm fraction weight, while for the aged litter this relationship was not as significant. In addition to reducing the health risk (i.e. pathogens, antibiotic residues and resistant bacteria) and/or environment issues (particulate fallout onto waterways, adjacent fields and/or residences) our study mass, particulate and N distribution patterns results suggest that poultry litter should be allowed to age before broadcast application is attempted. PMID:24705099

  3. Implement with adjustable band spacing for subsurface band application of poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broiler litter is commonly used as a fertilizer on pastures and cropland. Poultry litter is typically land-applied by broadcasting the litter on the soil surface. Rain falling on soil to which poultry litter has been applied, may carry phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) nutrients from the soil into s...

  4. Soil profile nutrient distribution following 10 years of poultry litter application in conventional and conservation tillage systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The distribution of pH, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn and Zn within the soil profile was determined following 10 years of poultry litter application to a Cecil sandy loam soil in the Southern Piedmont. During the 10 year period, 95 Mg ha-1 of poultry litter was applied to five cotton crops and five corn crops. ...

  5. Nitrogen and Phosphorus Accumulation in Pasture Soil from Repeated Poultry Litter Application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry litter is a traditionally inexpensive and effective fertilizer to improve soil quality and agricultural productivity. However, over application to soil has raised concern because excess nutrients in runoff could accelerate the eutrophication of fresh water. In this work, we determined the co...

  6. Corn response and soil nutrient concentration from subsurface application of poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen fertilizer management is vital to corn (Zea mays L.) production from financial and environmental perspectives. Poultry litter as a nutrient source in this cropping system is generally surface broadcast, potentially causing volatilization of NH3. Recently a new application method was devel...

  7. Legacy phosphorus in calcareous soils: effects of long-term poultry litter application on phosphorus distribution in Texas Blackland Vertisol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sequential fractionation techniques, coupled with phosphatase hydrolysis, have allowed for greater understanding of manure/litter effects on soil phosphorus (P) distribution. We evaluated the effect of long-term (> 10 years) poultry litter (broiler and turkey litter) application at rates of 4.5, 6.7...

  8. Carbon Dioxide Efflux from Soil with Poultry Litter Applications in Conventional and Conservation Tillage Systems in Northern Alabama

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased carbon dioxide release from soils resulting from agricultural practices such as tillage and application of poultry litter in cotton production systems has generated concerns about contributions to global warming which negatively impacts natural ecosystems, weather patterns, and food pro...

  9. Subsurface band application of poultry litter and its influence on Phosphorus concentration and retention after runoff from permanent pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Excessive P loss from agricultural fields has been identified as a major cause of eutrophication to river, lakes, and streams. To minimize and mitigate P loss from poultry litter (PL) applications, new technology is being developed for subsurface band application of litter below the soil surface. Th...

  10. Phosphatase activities in soil after repeated untreated and alum-treated poultry litter applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Repeated additions of untreated and aluminum sulfate (alum)-treated poultry litter to soil affect ecology and consequent nutrient dynamics. The objective of this study was to determine how repeated annual poultry litter additions affected phosphatase activities in concert with changes in soil phosph...

  11. Application of Composted Poultry Litter as a Fertilizer for Landscape Annual Bedding Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years there has been a major expansion in the poultry industry, leading to waste disposal problems in many of areas. A study was conducted to determine if the use of poultry litter in the landscape industry could provide an environmentally sound means of disposal for poultry producers as ...

  12. Detection of pathogens, indicators, and antibiotic resistance genes following land application of poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The United States (U.S.) is the world’s largest producer of poultry with over eight billion broilers produced yearly. Poultry litter (PL) is a mixture of manure, bedding, feathers, and spilled feed that is a by-product of broiler production. In 2009, the U.S. produced more than 50 million tons of PL...

  13. Long-term applications of untreated and alum-treated poultry litter drive soil nitrogen concentrations and associated microbial community dynamics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aluminum sulfate (alum)-treatment retains ammonia in poultry litter, potentially altering nitrogen cycling after application to soil. The objective of this research was to assess if eight and nine years of annual application of untreated or alum-treated poultry litters or ammonium nitrate have resul...

  14. Photodegradation of roxarsone in poultry litter leachates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bednar, A.J.; Garbarino, J.R.; Ferrer, I.; Rutherford, D.W.; Wershaw, R. L.; Ranville, J.F.; Wildeman, T.R.

    2003-01-01

    Arsenic compounds have been used extensively in agriculture in the US for applications ranging from cotton herbicides to animal feed supplements. Roxarsone (3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid), in particular, is used widely in poultry production to control coccidial intestinal parasites. It is excreted unchanged in the manure and introduced into the environment when litter is applied to farmland as fertilizer. Although the toxicity of roxarsone is less than that of inorganic arsenic, roxarsone can degrade, biotically and abiotically, to produce more toxic inorganic forms of arsenic, such as arsenite and arsenate. Experiments were conducted on aqueous litter leachates to test the stability of roxarsone under different conditions. Laboratory experiments have shown that arsenite can be cleaved photolytically from the roxarsone moiety at pH 4-8 and that the degradation rate increases with increasing pH. Furthermore, the rate of photodegradation increases with nitrate and natural organic matter concentration, reactants that are commonly found in poultry-litter-water leachates. Additional photochemical reactions rapidly oxidize the cleaved arsenite to arsenate. The formation of arsenate is not entirely undesirable, because it is less mobile in soil systems and less toxic than arsenite. A possible mechanism for the degradation of roxarsone in poultry litter leachates is proposed. The results suggest that poultry litter storage and field application practices could affect the degradation of roxarsone and subsequent mobilization of inorganic arsenic species. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Salmonella and fecal indicator bacteria in tile waters draining poultry litter application fields in central Iowa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hruby, C.; Soupir, M.

    2012-12-01

    E. coli and enterococci are commonly used as pathogen indicators in surface waters. Along with these indicators, pathogenic Salmonella are prevalent in poultry litter, and have the potential to be transported from land-application areas to tile waters and ultimately to impact waters that are used for drinking-water and recreation. The fate and transport of these bacteria to drainage tiles from application fields, and the correlation of fecal indicator bacteria to pathogens in this setting, is poorly understood. In this field study, samples were obtained from poultry litter, soil, and drainage tile waters below chisel-plowed and no-till cornfields in central Iowa where poultry litter was applied each year in late spring prior to planting. Litter was applied at three different rates; commercial fertilizer with no litter, a low application rate based on the nitrogen requirements of the corn (PL1), and double the low rate (PL2). This site is characterized by low sloping (0-9%) Clarion and Nicollet soils, which are derived from glacial till. Samples were collected from April to September for three years (2010-12) when tiles were flowing. Record high precipitation fell during the sampling period in 2010, while 2011 and 2012 were exceptionally dry years at this location. Grab samples were taken directly from flowing tiles after every rainfall event (>2 cm in less than 24 hours) and samples were collected hourly throughout selected events using an automatic sampling device. Concentrations of E. coli, enterococci and Salmonella spp. were quantified by membrane filtration and growth on selective agars. Peak bacteria concentrations following rainfall events were often one order of magnitude higher in tile waters discharging from no-till plots, despite the smaller size and lower tile flow rates at these plots compared to the chisel-plowed plots. Bacteria concentrations regularly varied by two orders of magnitude in response to rainfall events. Bacteria transport via macropores

  16. Environmental fate of roxarsone in poultry litter. Part II. Mobility of arsenic in soils amended with poultry litter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rutherford, D.W.; Bednar, A.J.; Garbarino, J.R.; Needham, R.; Staver, K.W.; Wershaw, R. L.

    2003-01-01

    Poultry litter often contains arsenic as a result of organo-arsenical feed additives. When the poultry litter is applied to agricultural fields, the arsenic is released to the environment and may result in increased arsenic in surface and groundwater and increased uptake by plants. The release of arsenic from poultry litter, litter-amended soils, and soils without litter amendment was examined by extraction with water and strong acids (HCI and HN03). The extracts were analyzed for As, C, P, Cu, Zn, and Fe. Copper, zinc, and iron are also poultry feed additives. Soils with a known history of litter application and controlled application rate of arsenic-containing poultry litter were obtained from the University of Maryland Agricultural Experiment Station. Soils from fields with long-term application of poultry litter were obtained from a tilled field on the Delmarva Peninsula (MD) and an untilled Oklahoma pasture. Samples from an adjacent forest or nearby pasture that had no history of litter application were used as controls. Depth profiles were sampled for the Oklahoma pasture soils. Analysis of the poultry litter showed that 75% of the arsenic was readily soluble in water. Extraction of soils shows that weakly bound arsenic mobilized by water correlates positively with C, P, Cu, and Zn in amended fields and appears to come primarily from the litter. Strongly bound arsenic correlates positively with Fe in amended fields and suggests sorption or coprecipitation of As and Fe in the soil column.

  17. Transport of dissolved trace elements in surface runoff and leachate from a coastal plain soil after poultry litter application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The application of poultry (Gallus gallus domesticus) litter to agricultural soils may exacerbate losses of trace elements in runoff water, an emerging concern to water quality. We evaluated trace elements (arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, manganese, mercury, selenium and zinc) in surface runoff and ...

  18. Total phosphorous, calcium, aluminum and iron levels in Cecil soil after ten years of poultry litter application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry litter (PL) is a traditionally inexpensive and effective organic fertilizer to improve soil quality and agricultural productivity. However, there is concern with over application as this can lead to excess releases of nutrients, especially phosphorus, and metals into fresh water bodies resul...

  19. Subsurface application of dry poultry litter: Impacts on common bermudagrass and other no-till crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry manure provides a rich organic nutrient source to fertilize crops and help neutralize soil acidity. However, the usual practice of broadcasting litter on the surface of pastures and other no-till systems can degrade water quality by allowing nutrients to be transported from fields in surfac...

  20. Long-term dynamics of labile and stable phosphorus following poultry litter application to pasture soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nonpoint-source agricultural P runoff can accelerate eutrophication of surface water ecosystems. Land-applied animal manure is sometimes identified as a source of runoff P from agricultural soils. We evaluated the quantities and forms of P from pasture soils in Alabama receiving poultry litter (PL...

  1. No-till corn response to subsurface application of poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen fertilizer management is vital to no-till corn (Zea mays) production from financial and environmental perspectives. Poultry litter as a nutrient source in this cropping system is generally land applied by surface broadcast, potentially causing volatilization of ammonia (NH3)-N. Recently a...

  2. Changes in poultry litter toxicity with simulated acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, G.; Krishnamurthy, S. )

    1991-01-01

    The Delmarva Peninsula on the Eastern Shore of Maryland ranks 4th in the nation in poultry production and generates 9,500 metric tons of poultry manure/litter per day. The poultry litter contains many macro and micro nutrients and is an excellent source of fertilizer. The litter also contains antibiotics, heavy metals, hormones and many microorganisms. Land application of this litter has been the only means of its utilization and disposal. With rainfall, surface water run-off (leachate), from land on which litter has been applied, reaches the Cheasapeake Bay from this region. This leachate with its high organic and inorganic salt contents and high biochemical oxygen demand can severely disrupt the aquatic life and cause fish kills. The objective of this research was to study the effect of simulated acid rain (pH 3, 4 and 5) on the toxicity of poultry litter extracts.

  3. Impact of Soil Type and Application Rate on the Availability of P Applied as Alum-Treated Poultry Litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this laboratory incubation study was to assess the solubility of P in alum-treated poultry litter (ATPL) when applied to three Virginia soils at equivalent P-based rates. Three poultry litter sources; one that had received no alum additions and two that had received alum additions we...

  4. Establishment of Rabbiteye Blueberries in Poultry Litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry litter is abundant in the Southeast where there is also a growing blueberry production. Poultry litter has been used for fertilization of other crops such as cotton and grass with increased yields and growth. This study was conducted to determine if rabbiteye blueberries ‘Tifblue’ and ‘Pre...

  5. Microbial biomass and soil carbon after 8 and 9 years of field applications of alum-treated and untreated poultry litter and inorganic nitrogen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Amendment with aluminum sulfate (alum) is considered a best management practice for its benefits in poultry production and increased retention of nutrients in the litter. However, little is known about how long-term applications of alum-treated litter to soil will affect the microbial community and ...

  6. Water addition, evaporation and water holding capacity of poultry litter.

    PubMed

    Dunlop, Mark W; Blackall, Patrick J; Stuetz, Richard M

    2015-12-15

    Litter moisture content has been related to ammonia, dust and odour emissions as well as bird health and welfare. Improved understanding of the water holding properties of poultry litter as well as water additions to litter and evaporation from litter will contribute to improved litter moisture management during the meat chicken grow-out. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how management and environmental conditions over the course of a grow-out affect the volume of water A) applied to litter, B) able to be stored in litter, and C) evaporated from litter on a daily basis. The same unit of measurement has been used to enable direct comparison-litres of water per square metre of poultry shed floor area, L/m(2), assuming a litter depth of 5cm. An equation was developed to estimate the amount of water added to litter from bird excretion and drinking spillage, which are sources of regular water application to the litter. Using this equation showed that water applied to litter from these sources changes over the course of a grow-out, and can be as much as 3.2L/m(2)/day. Over a 56day grow-out, the total quantity of water added to the litter was estimated to be 104L/m(2). Litter porosity, water holding capacity and water evaporation rates from litter were measured experimentally. Litter porosity decreased and water holding capacity increased over the course of a grow-out due to manure addition. Water evaporation rates at 25°C and 50% relative humidity ranged from 0.5 to 10L/m(2)/day. Evaporation rates increased with litter moisture content and air speed. Maintaining dry litter at the peak of a grow-out is likely to be challenging because evaporation rates from dry litter may be insufficient to remove the quantity of water added to the litter on a daily basis. PMID:26367067

  7. Poultry litter toxicity comparison from various bioassays

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, G.; Kelly, P. )

    1992-01-01

    Poultry litter contains many toxic chemicals including Cu, As, Pb, Cd, Hg, Se and PCBs. Poultry litter leachate has been shown to be more toxic to marine luminescent organisms (Photobacterium phosphoreum) than other farm animal manures. A comparison of toxicity of the poultry litter leachate was undertaken using various bioassays. The EC{sub 50} (or LC{sub 50}) value for the leachate with the Microtox and Daphnia bioassays was 2.9 g/L/ Nitrobacter and Pseudomonas bioassays were not useful in determining the leachate toxicity because of the nutritional properties of the litter. Poultry litter leachate was found to be mutagenic to strains TA 97, TA 98, TA 100 and TA 102 using the Ames Test.

  8. Small farm plots and application of simulated rain to determine the potential for bacterial runoff after poultry litter surface application to bermudagrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land application of poultry litter is an economical and environmentally viable use of this manure byproduct. Runoff following a rain event is one possible source of environmental contamination resulting from manure application. In this second part of a two-part study, a series of treatments involv...

  9. Carbon dioxide efflux from soil with poultry litter applications in conventional and conservation tillage systems in northern Alabama.

    PubMed

    Roberson, T; Reddy, K C; Reddy, S S; Nyakatawa, E Z; Raper, R L; Reeves, D W; Lemunyon, J

    2008-01-01

    Increased CO2 release from soils resulting from agricultural practices such as tillage has generated concerns about contributions to global warming. Maintaining current levels of soil C and/or sequestering additional C in soils are important mechanisms to reduce CO2 in the atmosphere through production agriculture. We conducted a study in northern Alabama from 2003 to 2006 to measure CO2 efflux and C storage in long-term tilled and non-tilled cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) plots receiving poultry litter or ammonium nitrate (AN). Treatments were established in 1996 on a Decatur silt loam (clayey, kaolinitic thermic, Typic Paleudults) and consisted of conventional-tillage (CT), mulch-tillage (MT), and no-tillage (NT) systems with winter rye [Secale cereale (L.)] cover cropping and AN and poultry litter (PL) as nitrogen sources. Cotton was planted in 2003, 2004, and 2006. Corn was planted in 2005 as a rotation crop using a no-till planter in all plots, and no fertilizer was applied. Poultry litter application resulted in higher CO2 emission from soil compared with AN application regardless of tillage system. In 2003 and 2006, CT (4.39 and 3.40 micromol m(-2) s(-1), respectively) and MT (4.17 and 3.39 micromol m(-2) s(-1), respectively) with PL at 100 kg N ha(-1) (100 PLN) recorded significantly higher CO2 efflux compared with NT with 100 PLN (2.84 and 2.47 micromol m(-2) s(-1), respectively). Total soil C at 0- to 15-cm depth was not affected by tillage but significantly increased with PL application and winter rye cover cropping. In general, cotton produced with NT conservation tillage in conjunction with PL and winter rye cover cropping reduced CO2 emissions and sequestered more soil C compared with control treatments. PMID:18396538

  10. Poultry industry trends for litter usage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broiler litter, a combination of primarily organic bedding material and excreta, has been routinely applied for decades as fertilizer. Poultry litter improves soil quality by adding organic material, an advantage over commercial fertilizers. Once a hindrance to be disposed, rising costs of commerc...

  11. The management of phosphorus in poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry litter provides an important source of plant nutrients including nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium and sulphur. The potential for phosphorus (P) surplus at the farm scale can increase when farming systems change from cropping to intensive poultry and animal production, as P...

  12. Prospects for phosphorus recovery from poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land disposal of poultry litter is an environmental concern in regions with intense poultry production because there is not enough land for crop utilization of its nutrients, especially phosphorus (P). This situation promotes soil P surplus and potential pollution of water resources. Although poultr...

  13. Poultry litter moisture management to reduce ammonia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia generation in poultry houses results from the natural breakdown of litter (bedding material mixed with deposits of feces, feathers, spilled feed and water). Good management practices can reduce ammonia concentrations in poultry houses. This factsheet relates findings from a recent publicat...

  14. Treating poultry litter with aluminum sulfate (alum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is a USDA/ARS factsheet on how to treat poultry litter with aluminum sulfate (alum) to reduce ammonia emissions. Over half of the nitrogen excreted from chickens is lost to the atmosphere as ammonia before the manure is removed from the poultry houses. Research has shown that additions of alu...

  15. Subsurface Band Application of Poultry Litter and Its Influence on Phosphorus Concentration and Retention after Runoff from Permanent Pastures.

    PubMed

    Watts, Dexter B; Way, Thomas R; Torbert, H Allen; Armstrong, Shalamar D

    2015-11-01

    Excessive phosphorus (P) loss from agricultural fields is a major cause of eutrophication to rivers, lakes, and streams. To mitigate P loss after poultry litter (PL) applications, technology is being developed to apply litter below the soil surface. Thus, research was conducted to evaluate the effects of subsurface PL banding on soil P under pasture management. Treatments consisted of surface-broadcasted or subsurface-banded PL (38 cm apart) at 9 Mg ha, surface-broadcasted commercial fertilizer (CF; urea and triple superphosphate blend) at N (330 kg N ha) and P (315 kg N ha) application rates equivalent to PL, and a nonfertilized control. Runoff events lasting 40 min were simulated in bermudagrass ( L.) pastures on common soil types of the Coastal Plain and Piedmont regions. One day later, Mehlich-1 and water-soluble P concentrations in soil were measured at depths of 0 to 5 cm and 5 to 10 cm to determine P distribution and movement. The greatest P concentrations were observed at the shallow depth for all treatments. Phosphorus measurements at the point of application for PL bands were greater than for the surface-applied treatments (PL and CF) and control. Measurements between subsurface PL bands were slightly higher than the control but were statistically similar, suggesting that this application method can abate short-term P movement. Results obtained from this study show that subsurface band applying PL could increase P retention and reduce movement by precluding contact between surface water and litter nutrients. PMID:26641345

  16. Factors affecting arsenic and copper runoff from fields fertilized with poultry litter.

    PubMed

    DeLaune, P B; Moore, P A

    2014-07-01

    Arsenic (As) and copper (Cu) runoff from fields fertilized with poultry litter has received increasing attention in recent years, although it is not known if heavy metal runoff from poultry litter poses a significant threat to the environment. The objective of this study was to determine the main factors affecting As and Cu concentrations in runoff water from pastures receiving poultry litter applications. Rainfall simulation studies were conducted to determine the effects of the following treatments on metal runoff: (i) aluminum sulfate (alum) additions, (ii) diet modification using phytase or high available phosphorus corn, (iii) fertilizer type, (iv) poultry litter application rate, and (v) time until the first runoff event occurs after poultry litter application. Results showed that alum additions to poultry litter significantly decreased As and Cu concentrations in runoff water. Copper concentrations were highest in runoff from poultry litter from birds fed phytase diets compared with other diets; however, this effect may have been a result of wet storage conditions rather than diet. Triple superphosphate applications resulted in the lowest heavy metal concentrations in runoff water among all fertilizer treatments, while normal poultry litter resulted in the highest concentrations. Arsenic and Cu concentrations increased in runoff water as poultry litter application rates increased and decreased with increasing time until the first runoff event. These data indicate that adding alum to poultry litter, a cost-effective best management practice, which also results in lower P runoff and ammonia emissions, may also be an effective tool in reducing metal runoff. PMID:25603088

  17. Bacterial content in runoff from simulated rainfall applied to plots amended with poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To evaluate potential bacterial runoff from poultry litter, litter was applied to test plots and exposed to simulated rainfall 1, 8 or 15 d after litter application. Runoff samples were tested for Salmonella and Campylobacter, two bacterial pathogens commonly associated with poultry, as well as com...

  18. Total copper, manganese, and zinc levels in a Cecil soil during ten years of poultry litter application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heavy metals in poultry litter (PL) can cause environmental problems despite the cost-effectiveness of PL as source of plant nutrients. We compared total Cu, Mn, and Zn levels in a Cecil soil near Watkinsville, GA, in a 5-yr of cotton and 5-yr of corn study under conventional tillage (CT) and no-til...

  19. Temporary Storage of Poultry Broiler Litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Row crop farmers have been reluctant to use broiler litter on their crops because of the difficulty getting it transported and spread at planting time in the spring. Temporary field storage near the site of spreading will help with this problem and encourage more row crop farmers to use poultry lit...

  20. Utilization of poultry litter for pesticide bioremediation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural chemical products such as pesticides have been used to increase crop production, especially in undeveloped countries. Poultry litter, the combination of feces and bedding materials, has also been used as an alternative to improve soil quality for crop production. However, information re...

  1. Temporary Storage of Poultry Broiler Litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transportation and storage of poultry broiler litter during the winter months is critical to implementing comprehensive nutrient/waste management plans, but acceptable temporary storage near the site of spreading can be difficult to arrange. Alternative, less expensive methods for temporary storage...

  2. Water-Quality Effects of a Mechanized Subsurface-Banding Technique for Applying Poultry Litter to Perennial Grassland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry litter is known to be an excellent organic fertilizer, but the common practice of spreading litter on the surface of pastures has raised serious water-quality concerns and may limit potential benefits of poultry litter applications. Because surface-applied litter is completely exposed to th...

  3. 17B-Estradiol and testosterone in drainage and runoff from poultry litter applications to tilled and no-till crop land under irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thirteen metric tons of poultry litter is produced annually by poultry producers in the U.S. Poultry litter contains the reproductive hormones estradiol and testosterone, endocrine disruptors that have been detected in surface waters. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential for p...

  4. On-farm evaluation of aluminum sulfate (alum) as a poultry litter amendment: effects on litter properties.

    PubMed

    Sims, J T; Luka-McCafferty, N J

    2002-01-01

    Aluminum sulfate [alum; Al2(SO4)3] amendment of poultry litters has been suggested as a best management practice to help reduce the potential environmental effects of poultry production. Past research has shown that alum treatment reduced NH3 emissions from litters, decreased the loss in runoff of P and trace metals from litter-amended soils, improved poultry health, and reduced the costs of poultry production. We conducted a large scale, "on-farm" evaluation of alum as a poultry (broiler) litter amendment on the Delmarva peninsula to determine the effect of alum on (i) litter properties and elemental composition and (ii) the solubility of several elements in litter that are of particular concern for water quality (Al, As, Cu, P, and Zn). Alum was applied over a 16-mo period to 97 poultry houses on working poultry farms; 97 houses on other farms served as controls (no alum). Litter samples were analyzed initially and after approximately seven alum applications. We found that alum decreased litter pH and the water solubility of P, As, Cu, and Zn. Alum-treated houses also had higher litter total N, NH4-N, and total S concentrations and thus a greater overall fertilizer value than litters from the control houses. Higher litter NH4-N values also suggest that alum reduced NH3 losses from litters. Thus, alum appears to have promise as a best management practice (BMP) for poultry production. Future research should focus on the long-term transformations of P, Al, As, Cu, and Zn in soils amended with alum-treated litters. PMID:12469858

  5. Poultry litter-based biochar: preparation, characterization, and utilization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Disposal of poultry litter (PL) by land application in concentrated bird production regions has resulted in severe water eutrophication issues. Given its high lignocelluosic content and low moisture, PL can be readily converted into agriculture-use biochar through farm-scale slow pyrolysis, with bio...

  6. Nitrous Oxide Emissions from a Bermudagrass Pasture: Interseeded Winter Rye and Poultry Litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact of poultry litter applications and interseeded winter rye on nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from pasture is not well documented. This study was conducted to estimate soil surface N2O fluxes as affect by poultry litter applications and interseeded winter rye as well as weather and soil vari...

  7. Demonstration of a Small Modular BioPower System Using Poultry Litter

    SciTech Connect

    John P. Reardon; Art Lilley; Jim Wimberly; Kingsbury Browne; Kelly Beard; Jack Avens

    2002-05-22

    The purpose of this project was to assess poultry grower residue, or litter (manure plus absorbent biomass), as a fuel source for Community Power Corporation's small modular biopower system (SMB). A second objective was to assess the poultry industry to identify potential ''on-site'' applications of the SMB system using poultry litter residue as a fuel source, and to adapt CPC's existing SMB to generate electricity and heat from the poultry litter biomass fuel. Bench-scale testing and pilot testing were used to gain design information for the SMB retrofit. System design approach for the Phase II application of the SMB was the goal of Phase I testing. Cost estimates for an onsite poultry litter SMB were prepared. Finally, a market estimate was prepared for implementation of the on-farm SMB using poultry litter.

  8. Decreasing phosphorus runoff losses from land-applied poultry litter with dietary modifications and alum addition.

    PubMed

    Smith, Douglas R; Moore, P A; Miles, D M; Haggard, B E; Daniel, T C

    2004-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) losses from pastures fertilized with poultry litter contribute to the degradation of surface water quality in the United States. Dietary modification and manure amendments may reduce potential P runoff losses from pastures. In the current study, broilers were fed a normal diet, phytase diet, high available phosphorus (HAP) corn diet, or HAP corn + phytase diet. Litter treatments were untreated control and alum added at 10% by weight between flocks. Phytase and HAP corn diets reduced litter dissolved P content in poultry litter by 10 and 35%, respectively, compared with the normal diet (789 mg P kg(-1)). Alum treatment of poultry litter reduced the amount of dissolved P by 47%, while a 74% reduction was noted after alum treatment of litter from the HAP corn + phytase diet. The P concentrations in runoff water were highest from plots receiving poultry litter from the normal diet, whereas plots receiving poultry litter from phytase and HAP corn diets had reduced P concentrations. The addition of alum to the various poultry litters reduced P runoff by 52 to 69%; the greatest reduction occurred when alum was used in conjunction with HAP corn and phytase. This study demonstrates the potential added benefits of using dietary modification in conjunction with manure amendments in poultry operations. Integrators and producers should consider the use of phytase, HAP corn, and alum to reduce potential P losses associated with poultry litter application to pastures. PMID:15537944

  9. Optimum poultry litter rates for maximum profit vs. yield in cotton production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton lint yield responds well to increasing rates of poultry litter fertilization, but little is known of how optimum rates for yield compare with optimum rates for profit. The objectives of this study were to analyze cotton lint yield response to poultry litter application rates, determine and co...

  10. Nutrition of cotton fertilized with poultry litter versus ammonium nitrate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry litter has proven to be an effective fertilizer for cotton in the upland soils of the southeastern US. Fertilizing with poultry litter often results in better lint yield than fertilizing with single-nutrient synthetic fertilizers. This superiority of litter to synthetic fertilizers for cot...

  11. Reducing Ammonia Emissions from Poultry Litter with Alum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aluminum sulfate (alum) additions to poultry litter have been shown to reduce ammonia (NH3) volatilization. The objectives of this paper were to present data on the effects of alum treatment of poultry litter on: (1) the efficacy of reducing ammonia loss, (2) poultry production parameters, and (3) ...

  12. Amino compounds in poultry litter, litter-amended pasture soils and grass shoots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic N accounts for 95-98% of total soil N contents with amino compounds (ACs) as major ingredients. But relatively little is known about the effects of poultry litter (PL) application on soil AC pools and turnover. In this work, we determined 21 AC contents in 23 PL samples, 15 soil samples with...

  13. Amino Compounds in Poultry Litter, Litter-Amended Soil and Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Amino acids and amino sugars generally constitute the bulk of N in soil, so understanding their cycling is critical for efficient N use in crop production. Although poultry litter (PL) is relatively rich in N, little is known about the effects of PL application on turnover and availability of amino...

  14. Does Proximity to Subsurface Poultry Litter Affect Corn Seedling Survival and Growth?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry litter provides a rich nutrient source for crops, but the usual practice of surface broadcasting litter can degrade water quality by allowing storm runoff to transport nutrients into streams and lakes, while much of the ammonia N escapes into the atmosphere. Subsurface application of litter...

  15. Arsenic speciation and reactivity in poultry litter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arai, Y.; Lanzirotti, A.; Sutton, S.; Davis, J.A.; Sparks, D.L.

    2003-01-01

    Recent U.S. government action to lower the maximum concentration levels (MCL) of total arsenic (As) (10 ppb) in drinking water has raised serious concerns about the agricultural use of As-containing biosolids such as poultry litter (PL). In this study, solid-state chemical speciation, desorbability, and total levels of As in PL and long-term amended soils were investigated using novel synchrotronbased probing techniques (microfocused (??) synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) and ??-X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopies) coupled with chemical digestion and batch experiments. The total As levels in the PL were as high as ???50 mg kg-1, and As(II/III and V) was always concentrated in abundant needle-shaped microscopic particles (???20/ ??m x 850 ??m) associated with Ca, Cu, and Fe and to a lesser extent with S, CI, and Zn. Postedge XANES features of litter particles are dissimilar to those of the organo-As(V) compound in poultry feed (i.e., roxarsone), suggesting possible degradation/transformation of roxarsone in the litter and/or in poultry digestive tracts. The extent of As desorption from the litter increased with increasing time and pH from 4.5 to 7, but at most 15% of the total As was released after 5 d at pH 7, indicating the presence of insoluble phases and/or strongly retained soluble compounds. No significant As accumulation (< 15 mg kg-1) was found in long-term PL-a mended agricultural surface soils. This suggests that As in the PL may have undergone surface and subsurface transport processes. Our research results raise concerns about long-term PL amendment effects on As contamination in surrounding soilwater environments.

  16. Poultry Litter Ash: A Potential Fertilizer Source for Agricultural Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Maryland Eastern Shore is densely populated with poultry houses. Over 65 million broilers are produced annually in this area. Stricter regulations of litter disposal on high P soils require that the 50 thousand tons of poultry litter produced annually be disposed of in ways that minimize envir...

  17. Alum affects ammonia-producing microorganisms in poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scientists at the USDA-ARS in Bowling Green, KY and in Fayetteville, AR are working to uncover the microbiology of ammonia production in poultry litter. Poultry litter is a valuable nutrient source for plants and microorganisms that contains high levels of protein, nitrogen, and other minerals. Howe...

  18. Survival and Transport of Campylobacter Jejuni from Poultry Litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of gastrointestinal illness worldwide. Although widely known to survive in refrigerated and undercooked poultry, less is known about its occurrence in poultry litter and the potential for transport from applied litter material into the subsurface. In this stud...

  19. Application of Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 to describe the syntrophic acetate oxidation of poultry litter in thermophilic anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Salvador, Víctor; López-Cruz, Irineo L; Espinosa-Solares, Teodoro; Aranda-Barradas, Juan S; Huber, David H; Sharma, Deepak; Toledo, J Ulises

    2014-09-01

    A molecular analysis found that poultry litter anaerobic digestion was dominated by hydrogenotrophic methanogens which suggests that bacterial acetate oxidation is the primary pathway in the thermophilic digestion of poultry litter. IWA Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) was modified to include the bacterial acetate oxidation process in the thermophilic anaerobic digestion (TAD). Two methods for ADM1 parameter estimation were applied: manual calibration with non-linear least squares (MC-NLLS) and an automatic calibration using differential evolution algorithms (DEA). In terms of kinetic parameters for acetate oxidizing bacteria, estimation by MC-NLLS and DEA were, respectively, km 1.12 and 3.25 ± 0.56 kg COD kg COD(-1)d(-1), KS 0.20 and 0.29 ± 0.018 kg COD m(-3) and Yac-st 0.14 and 0.10 ± 0.016 kg COD kg COD(-1). Experimental and predicted volatile fatty acids and biogas composition were in good agreement. Values of BIAS, MSE or INDEX demonstrate that both methods (MC-NLLS and DEA) increased ADM1 accuracy. PMID:25011081

  20. Carbon Dioxide Efflux From Poultry Litter Applied Soils under Conservation Tillage Systems in North Alabama

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased carbon dioxide release from soils resulting from agricultural practices such as tillage and application of poultry litter in cotton production systems has generated concerns about contributions to global warming which negatively impacts natural ecosystems, weather patterns, and food produc...

  1. Phosphorus runoff losses from a no-till coastal plain soil with surface and subsurface-applied poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The application of poultry litter to soils is a water quality concern on the Delmarva Peninsula, as runoff contributes phosphorus (P) to the eutrophic Chesapeake Bay. This study compared a new subsurface applicator for poultry litter with conventional surface application and tillage incorporation of...

  2. Legacy phosphorus in calcareous soils: Effects of long-term poultry litter application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of manure application on soil phosphorus has been intensively studied with modifications of the Hedley sequential fractionation procedure, X ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy, and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance. Modern sequential fractionation techniques, coupled with phosph...

  3. A method for subsurface-banding poultry litter in plots not accessible with conventional field equipment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Subsurface band application of poultry litter has been shown to be effective in reducing nutrients in runoff and leachate, relative to surface broadcast application of litter. Some field plot arrangements, such as plots having adjacent pits in the soil, prevent the use of conventional field equipme...

  4. Long-term tillage and poultry litter application impacts on crop production in northeastern Alabama

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conservation tillage, manure application, and crop rotations are thought to increase yields compared to conventional monoculture (continuous cropping system without rotation) tillage systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate cropping sequences of corn with a wheat cover crop and corn with...

  5. Legacy phosphorus in calcareous soils: Effects of long-term poultry litter application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of manure application on soil phosphorus (P) has been intensively studied with modifications of the Hedley sequential fractionation procedure, X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy, and 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance. Modern sequential fractionation techniques, coupled with ph...

  6. Microbial mineralization of organic nitrogen forms in poultry litters.

    PubMed

    Rothrock, Michael J; Cook, Kimberly L; Warren, Jason G; Eiteman, Mark A; Sistani, Karamat

    2010-01-01

    Ammonia volatilization from the mineralization of uric acid and urea has a major impact on the poultry industry and the environment. Dry acids are commonly used to reduce ammonia emissions from poultry houses; however, little is known about how acidification affects the litter biologically. The goal of this laboratory incubation was to compare the microbiological and physiochemical effects of dry acid amendments (Al+Clear, Poultry Litter Treatment, Poultry Guard) on poultry litter to an untreated control litter and to specifically correlate uric acid and urea contents of these litters to the microbes responsible for their mineralization. Although all three acidifiers eventually produced similar effects within the litter, there was at least a 2-wk delay in the microbiological responses using Poultry Litter Treatment. Acidification of the poultry litter resulted in >3 log increases in total fungal concentrations, with both uricolytic (uric acid degrading) and ureolytic (urea degrading) fungi increasing by >2 logs within the first 2 to 4 wk of the incubation. Conversely, total, uricolytic, and ureolytic bacterial populations all significantly declined during this same time period. While uric acid and urea mineralization occurred within the first 2 wk in the untreated control litter, acidification resulted in delayed mineralization events for both uric acid and urea (2 and 4 wk delay, respectively) once fungal cell concentrations exceeded a threshold level. Therefore, fungi, and especially uricolytic fungi, appear to have a vital role in the mineralization of organic N in low-pH, high-N environments, and the activity of these fungi should be considered in best management practices to reduce ammonia volatilization from acidified poultry litter. PMID:21043291

  7. Influence of Poultry Litter Application Methods on the Longevity of Nutrient and E. coli in Runoff from Tall Fescue Pasture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Significant quantities of the broiler (chicken, Gallus gallus domesticus) litter produced in the U.S. are being applied to pasture lands. The traditional surface- broadcast application of animal manure onto permanent pasture, however, may lead to high concentration of nutrients and pathogenic micro...

  8. The impact of alum addition on organic P transformations in poultry litter and litter-amended soil.

    PubMed

    Warren, Jason G; Penn, Chad J; McGrath, Joshua M; Sistani, Karamat

    2008-01-01

    Poultry litter treatment with alum (Al(2)(SO(4))(3) . 18H(2)O) lowers litter phosphorus (P) solubility and therefore can lower litter P release to runoff after land application. Lower P solubility in litter is generally attributed to aluminum-phosphate complex formation. However, recent studies suggest that alum additions to poultry litter may influence organic P mineralization. Therefore, alum-treated and untreated litters were incubated for 93 d to assess organic P transformations during simulated storage. A 62-d soil incubation was also conducted to determine the fate of incorporated litter organic P, which included alum-treated litter, untreated litter, KH(2)PO(4) applied at 60 mg P kg(-1) of soil, and an unamended control. Liquid-state (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance indicated that phytic acid was the only organic P compound present, accounting for 50 and 45% of the total P in untreated and alum-treated litters, respectively, before incubation and declined to 9 and 37% after 93 d of storage-simulating incubation. Sequential fractionation of litters showed that alum addition to litter transformed 30% of the organic P from the 1.0 mol L(-1) HCl to the 0.1 mol L(-1) NaOH extractable fraction and that both organic P fractions were more persistent in alum-treated litter compared with untreated litter. The soil incubation revealed that 0.1 mol L(-1) NaOH-extractable organic P was more recalcitrant after mixing than was the 1.0 mol L(-1) HCl-extractable organic P. Thus, adding alum to litter inhibits organic P mineralization during storage and promotes the formation of alkaline extractable organic P that sustains lower P solubility in the soil environment. PMID:18268310

  9. XANES Spectroscopic Analysis of Phosphorus Speciation in Alum-Amended Poultry Litter

    SciTech Connect

    Seiter,J.; Staats-Borda, K.; Ginder-Vogel, M.; Sparks, D.

    2008-01-01

    Aluminum sulfate (alum; Al2(SO4)3{center_dot}14H2O) is used as a chemical treatment of poultry litter to reduce the solubility and release of phosphate, thereby minimizing the impacts on adjacent aquatic ecosystems when poultry litter is land applied as a crop fertilizer. The objective of this study was to determine, through the use of X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy and sequential extraction, how alum amendments alter P distribution and solid-state speciation within the poultry litter system. Our results indicate that traditional sequential fractionation procedures may not account for variability in P speciation in heterogeneous animal manures. Analysis shows that NaOH-extracted P in alum amended litters is predominantly organic ({approx}80%), whereas in the control samples, >60% of NaOH-extracted P was inorganic P. Linear least squares fitting (LLSF) analysis of spectra collected of sequentially extracted litters showed that the P is present in inorganic (P sorbed on Al oxides, calcium phosphates) and organic forms (phytic acid, polyphosphates, and monoesters) in alum- and non-alum-amended poultry litter. When determining land application rates of poultry litter, all of these compounds must be considered, especially organic P. Results of the sequential extractions in conjunction with LLSF suggest that no P species is completely removed by a single extractant. Rather, there is a continuum of removal as extractant strength increases. Overall, alum-amended litters exhibited higher proportions of Al-bound P species and phytic acid, whereas untreated samples contained Ca-P minerals and organic P compounds. This study provides in situ information about P speciation in the poultry litter solid and about P availability in alum- and non-alum-treated poultry litter that will dictate P losses to ground and surface water systems.

  10. XANES spectroscopic analysis of phosphorus speciation in alum-amended poultry litter.

    PubMed

    Seiter, Jennifer M; Staats-Borda, Kristin E; Ginder-Vogel, Matthew; Sparks, Donald L

    2008-01-01

    Aluminum sulfate (alum; Al(2)(SO(4))(3).14H(2)O) is used as a chemical treatment of poultry litter to reduce the solubility and release of phosphate, thereby minimizing the impacts on adjacent aquatic ecosystems when poultry litter is land applied as a crop fertilizer. The objective of this study was to determine, through the use of X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy and sequential extraction, how alum amendments alter P distribution and solid-state speciation within the poultry litter system. Our results indicate that traditional sequential fractionation procedures may not account for variability in P speciation in heterogeneous animal manures. Analysis shows that NaOH-extracted P in alum amended litters is predominantly organic ( approximately 80%), whereas in the control samples, >60% of NaOH-extracted P was inorganic P. Linear least squares fitting (LLSF) analysis of spectra collected of sequentially extracted litters showed that the P is present in inorganic (P sorbed on Al oxides, calcium phosphates) and organic forms (phytic acid, polyphosphates, and monoesters) in alum- and non-alum-amended poultry litter. When determining land application rates of poultry litter, all of these compounds must be considered, especially organic P. Results of the sequential extractions in conjunction with LLSF suggest that no P species is completely removed by a single extractant. Rather, there is a continuum of removal as extractant strength increases. Overall, alum-amended litters exhibited higher proportions of Al-bound P species and phytic acid, whereas untreated samples contained Ca-P minerals and organic P compounds. This study provides in situ information about P speciation in the poultry litter solid and about P availability in alum- and non-alum-treated poultry litter that will dictate P losses to ground and surface water systems. PMID:18268311

  11. Long-Term Tillage and Poultry Litter Impacts Soil Carbon and Nitrogen Mineralization and Fertility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term tillage and manure application are thought to alter the ability of the soil to sequester plant nutrients and mineralize carbon and nitrogen. Thus, a laboratory incubation study was conducted under aerobic conditions to evaluate the residual effect of long-term poultry litter (litter) appli...

  12. Soil test nutrient changes induced by poultry litter under conventional tillage and no-tillage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry litter (PL) is applied to crops and pastures to provide N, P, and K in areas of intensive poultry production. Other plant nutrients, such as copper (Cu), manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn) are also available but may accumulate to excessive levels with over application of PL. Nutrient availability ...

  13. Effect of Litter Amendments on Poultry Litter Microbial Communities and the Subsequent Effect on Nitrogen Dynamics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia production in poultry houses has serious implications for flock health and performance, nutrient value of poultry litter, and energy costs for running poultry operations. Numerous amendments are available for reducing ammonia volatilization, with acidifier-types being the most prevalent due ...

  14. Reducing phosphorus runoff and leaching from poultry litter with alum: Twenty year small plot and paired-watershed studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Treating poultry litter with alum is a best management practice (BMP) for lowering ammonia (NH3) emissions and phosphorus (P) runoff losses. The objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term (20 year) effects of alum-treated and untreated poultry litter applications on P availability, leachi...

  15. Microbiological quality of litter from poultry houses in Mississippi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry concentrated animal feeding operations generate approximately 1 kg of litter per broiler put to market. The majority of this litter is applied as a fertilizer to either forage or row crops. Though much is known about the fertilizer nutrient value associated with this manure, little is actu...

  16. Management Options for Reducing Ammonia Emissions from Poultry Litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia emissions from poultry litter not only result in air pollution; high levels of ammonia in poultry houses cause poor bird performance, increase the susceptibility of birds to viral diseases, and negatively impact human health. Although ammonia emissions are a concern, few cost-effective best ...

  17. Dissipation of 17B-estradiol in composted poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of heated composting and ambient temperature poultry waste decomposition on the fate of 17ß-estradiol and testosterone were determined in separate experiments. A mixture of poultry litter, wood chips and straw was amended with [14C]17ß-estradiol or [14C]testosterone and allowed to under...

  18. Microbial mineralization of organic nitrogen forms in poultry litters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia volatilization from the mineralization of uric acid and urea has a major impact on the poultry industry and the environment. Dry acids are a common management practice to reduce ammonia emissions from poultry houses, however little is known about how acidification affects the litter biologic...

  19. Poultry Industry Trends for Litter Utilization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broiler litter utilization falls primarily into two broad categories, as fertilizer or in litter-to-energy processes. Without economic, environmentally sound litter uses, potential or real regional litigation may force alternative management that can be detrimental to the grower’s bottom line as wel...

  20. Subsurface application of poultry litter and its influence on nutrient losses in runoff water from permanent pastures.

    PubMed

    Watts, D B; Way, T R; Torbert, H A

    2011-01-01

    Environmental pressure to reduce nutrient losses from agricultural fields has increased in recent years. To abate this nutrient loss to the environment, better management practices and new technologies need to be developed. Thus, research was conducted to evaluate if subsurface banding poultry litter (PL) would reduce nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loss in surface water runoff using a four-row prototype implement. Rainfall simulations were conducted to create a 40-min runoff event in an established bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L.) pasture on soil types common to the Coastal Plain and Piedmont regions. The Coastal Plain soil type was a Marvyn loamy sand (fine-loamy, kaolinitic, thermic Typic Kanhapludults) and the Piedmont soil type was a Hard Labor loamy sand (fine, kaolinitic, thermic Oxyaquic Kanhapludults). Treatments consisted of surface- and subsurface-applied PL at a rate of 9 Mg ha(-1), surface broadcast-applied commercial fertilizer (CF; urea and triple superphosphate blend) at the equivalent N (330 kg N ha(-1)) and P (315 kg N ha(-1)) content of PL, and a nonfertilized control. The greatest loss for inorganic N, total N, dissolved reactive P (DRP), and total P occurred with the surface broadcast treatments, with CF contributing to the greatest loss. Nutrient losses from the subsurface banded treatment reduced N and P in surface water runoff to levels of the control. Subsurface banding of PL reduced concentrations of inorganic N 91%, total N 90%, DRP 86%, and total P 86% in runoff water compared with surface broadcasted PL. These results show that subsurface band-applied PL can greatly reduce the impact of N and P loss to the environment compared with conventional surface-applied PL and CF practices. PMID:21520749

  1. Impacts of Poultry House Environment on Poultry Litter Bacterial Community Composition

    PubMed Central

    Dumas, Michael D.; Polson, Shawn W.; Ritter, Don; Ravel, Jacques; Gelb, Jack; Morgan, Robin; Wommack, K. Eric

    2011-01-01

    Viral and bacterial pathogens are a significant economic concern to the US broiler industry and the ecological epicenter for poultry pathogens is the mixture of bedding material, chicken excrement and feathers that comprises the litter of a poultry house. This study used high-throughput sequencing to assess the richness and diversity of poultry litter bacterial communities, and to look for connections between these communities and the environmental characteristics of a poultry house including its history of gangrenous dermatitis (GD). Cluster analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed differences in the distribution of bacterial phylotypes between Wet and Dry litter samples and between houses. Wet litter contained greater diversity with 90% of total bacterial abundance occurring within the top 214 OTU clusters. In contrast, only 50 clusters accounted for 90% of Dry litter bacterial abundance. The sixth largest OTU cluster across all samples classified as an Arcobacter sp., an emerging human pathogen, occurring in only the Wet litter samples of a house with a modern evaporative cooling system. Ironically, the primary pathogenic clostridial and staphylococcal species associated with GD were not found in any house; however, there were thirteen 16S rRNA gene phylotypes of mostly Gram-positive phyla that were unique to GD-affected houses and primarily occurred in Wet litter samples. Overall, the poultry house environment appeared to substantially impact the composition of litter bacterial communities and may play a key role in the emergence of food-borne pathogens. PMID:21949751

  2. Phosphorus runoff losses from subsurface-applied poultry litter on coastal plain soils.

    PubMed

    Kibet, Leonard C; Allen, Arthur L; Kleinman, Peter J A; Feyereisen, Gary W; Church, Clinton; Saporito, Lou S; Way, Thomas R

    2011-01-01

    The application of poultry litter to soils is a water quality concern on the Delmarva Peninsula, as runoff contributes P to the eutrophic Chesapeake Bay. This study compared a new subsurface applicator for poultry litter with conventional surface application and tillage incorporation of litter on a Coastal Plain soil under no-till management. Monolith lysimeters (61 cm by 61 cm by 61 cm) were collected immediately after litter application and subjected to rainfall simulation (61 mm h(-1) 1 h) 15 and 42 d later. In the first rainfall event, subsurface application of litter significantly lowered total P losses in runoff (1.90 kg ha(-1)) compared with surface application (4.78 kg ha(-1)). Losses of P with subsurface application were not significantly different from disked litter or an unamended control. By the second event, total P losses did not differ significantly between surface and subsurface litter treatments but were at least twofold greater than losses from the disked and control treatments. A rising water table in the second event likely mobilized dissolved forms of P in subsurface-applied litter to the soil surface, enriching runoff water with P. Across both events, subsurface application of litter did not significantly decrease cumulative losses of P relative to surface-applied litter, whereas disking the litter into the soil did. Results confirm the short-term reduction of runoff P losses with subsurface litter application observed elsewhere but highlight the modifying effect of soil hydrology on this technology's ability to minimize P loss in runoff. PMID:21520748

  3. Effect of Fresh Poultry Litter and Compost on Soil Physical and Chemical Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, Stacy; Tsegaye, Teferi; Coleman, Tommy

    1998-01-01

    Application of poultry litter and compost as a substitute for fertilizer not only uses unwanted waste and decreases expenditures for commercial fertilizer, it adds nutrients to soil for plant uptake. The properties of soil affected by poultry litter were analyzed to determine the positive and negative aspects of using this substitute fertilizer. This study focused on changes associated with saturated hydraulic conductivity, bulk density, nitrate concentrations, and pH after application of varying concentrations of poultry litter and compost. Soil samples from Tennessee Valley Substation in Alabama were analyzed in a laboratory at Alabama A&M University. As a result of the application of fresh poultry litter and compost, we found that the saturated hydraulic conductivity increased and the bulk density decreased, while the pH was generally not affected. Using poultry litter and compost as an alternative commercial fertilizers could be adapted by the farming community to protect the sustainability of our environment. Unwanted waste is used productively and soil is enriched for farming.

  4. The uses and management of poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The poultry industry is one of the largest and fastest growing agro-based industries in the world. There is an increasing demand for poultry meat mainly due to its acceptance by most societies and its relatively low cholesterol content. The poultry industry is currently facing numerous environmental...

  5. Environmental concerns of roxarsone in broiler poultry feed and litter in Maryland, USA.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Daniel J; Yonkos, Lance T; Staver, Kenneth W

    2015-02-17

    Roxarsone has been used extensively in the broiler chicken industry. We reviewed the environmental concerns of this usage. To summarize, arsenic added to poultry feed as roxarsone ends up in poultry litter. Fresh litter contains predominately roxarsone, whereas aged litter contains predominately inorganic arsenic. Soil arsenic concentrations from long-term poultry litter applications can exceed Maryland arsenic soil background remediation standards. Due to continued soil accumulation, arsenic-amended litter use as fertilizer is thought to be unsustainable. Surface-applied roxarsone-amended litter does not influence deep aquifer arsenic concentrations but is transported as inorganic arsenic to receiving waters and very shallow groundwater after precipitation. Arsenic in some receiving waters and sediments from agriculturally dominated watersheds have levels above established criteria. Arsenic in fish and shellfish is mostly organic. Phosphorus-based nutrient management will tend to limit PL application rates in areas that have over-applied phosphorus relative to crop needs, resulting in decreased rates of arsenic application and accumulation. Despite most arsenic in surface soils being tightly bound, as surface soils become more enriched in arsenic, the potential for downward movement increases but is limited in most soils due to the high capacity for binding of arsenic to clay minerals and oxides of iron and aluminum in subsoil horizons. In 2012, Maryland passed a law banning the use of arsenic additives except nitarsone in poultry feed. In 2013, the USFDA withdrew approval of roxarsone, carbarsone, and arsanilic but is reviewing nitarsone. PMID:25608233

  6. Evidence for extraintestinal growth of bacteroidales originating from poultry litter.

    PubMed

    Weidhaas, Jennifer; Mantha, Sirisha; Hair, Elliott; Nayak, Bina; Harwood, Valerie J

    2015-01-01

    Water quality monitoring techniques that target microorganisms in the order Bacteroidales are potential alternatives to conventional methods for detection of fecal indicator bacteria. Bacteroidales and members of the genus Bacteroides have been the focus of microbial source tracking (MST) investigations for discriminating sources of fecal pollution (e.g., human or cattle feces) in environmental waters. For accurate source apportionment to occur, one needs to understand both the abundance of Bacteroides in host feces and the survival of these host-associated microbial markers after deposition in the environment. Studies were undertaken to evaluate the abundance, persistence, and potential for growth of Bacteroidales originating from poultry litter under oxic and anoxic environmental conditions. Bacteroidales abundance, as determined by quantitative PCR (qPCR) with GenBac primers and probe, increased 2 to 5 log gene copies ml(-1) and 2 log gene copies g litter(-1) under most conditions during incubation of poultry litter in a variety of laboratory microcosm and field mesocosm studies. DNA sequencing of the Bacteroidales organisms in the litter identified taxa with sequences corresponding exactly to the GenBac primer and probe sequences and that were closely related to Bacteroides uniformis, B. ovatus, and B. vulgatus. These results suggest that MST studies using qPCR methods targeting Bacteroidales in watersheds that are affected by poultry litter should be interpreted cautiously. Growth of Bacteroidales originating from poultry litter in environmental waters may occur while Bacteroidales growth from other fecal sources declines, thus confounding the interpretation of MST results. PMID:25326306

  7. Biocrude oils from the fast pyrolysis of poultry litter and hardwood

    SciTech Connect

    Agblevor, F.A.; Beis, S.; Kim, S.S.; Tarrant, R.; Mante, N.O.

    2010-02-15

    The safe and economical disposal of poultry litter is becoming a major problem for the USA poultry industry. Current disposal methods such as land application and feeding to cattle are now under pressure because of pollution of water resources due to leaching, runoffs and concern for mad cow disease contamination of the food chain. Incineration or combustion is potentially applicable to large scale operations, but for small scale growers and EPA non-attainment areas, this is not a suitable option because of the high cost of operation. Thus, there is a need for developing appropriate technologies to dispose poultry litter. Poultry litters from broiler chicken and turkey houses, as well as bedding material were converted into biocrude oil in a fast pyrolysis fluidized bed reactor. The biocrude oil yields were relatively low ranging from 36 wt% to 50 wt% depending on the age and bedding material content of the litter. The bedding material (which was mostly hardwood shavings) biocrude oil yield was 63 wt%. The higher heating value (HHV) of the poultry litter biocrude oils ranged from 26 MJ/kg to 29 MJ/kg while that of the bedding material was 24 MJ/kg. The oils had relatively high nitrogen content ranging from 4 wt% to 8 wt%, very low sulfur (<1 wt%) content and high viscosity. The viscosities of the oils appeared to be a function of both the source of litter and the pyrolysis temperature. The biochar yield ranged from 27 wt% to 40 wt% depending on the source, age and composition of the poultry litter. The biochar ash content ranged from 24 wt% to 54 wt% and was very rich in inorganic components such as potassium and phosphorous.

  8. Biocrude oils from the fast pyrolysis of poultry litter and hardwood.

    PubMed

    Agblevor, F A; Beis, S; Kim, S S; Tarrant, R; Mante, N O

    2010-02-01

    The safe and economical disposal of poultry litter is becoming a major problem for the USA poultry industry. Current disposal methods such as land application and feeding to cattle are now under pressure because of pollution of water resources due to leaching, runoffs and concern for mad cow disease contamination of the food chain. Incineration or combustion is potentially applicable to large scale operations, but for small scale growers and EPA non-attainment areas, this is not a suitable option because of the high cost of operation. Thus, there is a need for developing appropriate technologies to dispose poultry litter. Poultry litters from broiler chicken and turkey houses, as well as bedding material were converted into biocrude oil in a fast pyrolysis fluidized bed reactor. The biocrude oil yields were relatively low ranging from 36 wt% to 50 wt% depending on the age and bedding material content of the litter. The bedding material (which was mostly hardwood shavings) biocrude oil yield was 63 wt%. The higher heating value (HHV) of the poultry litter biocrude oils ranged from 26 MJ/kg to 29 MJ/kg while that of the bedding material was 24 MJ/kg. The oils had relatively high nitrogen content ranging from 4 wt% to 8 wt%, very low sulfur (<1 wt%) content and high viscosity. The viscosities of the oils appeared to be a function of both the source of litter and the pyrolysis temperature. The biochar yield ranged from 27 wt% to 40 wt% depending on the source, age and composition of the poultry litter. The biochar ash content ranged from 24 wt% to 54 wt% and was very rich in inorganic components such as potassium and phosphorous. PMID:19880302

  9. Evidence for Extraintestinal Growth of Bacteroidales Originating from Poultry Litter

    PubMed Central

    Mantha, Sirisha; Hair, Elliott; Nayak, Bina; Harwood, Valerie J.

    2014-01-01

    Water quality monitoring techniques that target microorganisms in the order Bacteroidales are potential alternatives to conventional methods for detection of fecal indicator bacteria. Bacteroidales and members of the genus Bacteroides have been the focus of microbial source tracking (MST) investigations for discriminating sources of fecal pollution (e.g., human or cattle feces) in environmental waters. For accurate source apportionment to occur, one needs to understand both the abundance of Bacteroides in host feces and the survival of these host-associated microbial markers after deposition in the environment. Studies were undertaken to evaluate the abundance, persistence, and potential for growth of Bacteroidales originating from poultry litter under oxic and anoxic environmental conditions. Bacteroidales abundance, as determined by quantitative PCR (qPCR) with GenBac primers and probe, increased 2 to 5 log gene copies ml−1 and 2 log gene copies g litter−1 under most conditions during incubation of poultry litter in a variety of laboratory microcosm and field mesocosm studies. DNA sequencing of the Bacteroidales organisms in the litter identified taxa with sequences corresponding exactly to the GenBac primer and probe sequences and that were closely related to Bacteroides uniformis, B. ovatus, and B. vulgatus. These results suggest that MST studies using qPCR methods targeting Bacteroidales in watersheds that are affected by poultry litter should be interpreted cautiously. Growth of Bacteroidales originating from poultry litter in environmental waters may occur while Bacteroidales growth from other fecal sources declines, thus confounding the interpretation of MST results. PMID:25326306

  10. Converting poultry litter to activated carbon: optimal carbonization conditions and product sorption for benzene.

    PubMed

    Guo, Mingxin; Song, Weiping

    2011-12-01

    To promote utilization of poultry litter as a source material for manufacturing low-cost activated carbon (AC) that can be used in wastewater treatment, this study investigated optimal production conditions and water-borne organic sorption potential of poultry litter-based AC. Pelletized broiler litter was carbonized at different temperatures for varied time periods and activated with steam at a range of flow rate and time. The AC products were examined for quality characteristics using standard methods and for organic sorption potentials using batch benzene sorption techniques. The study shows that the yield and quality of litter AC varied with production conditions. The optimal production conditions for poultry litter-based AC were carbonization at 700 degrees C for 45 min followed by activation with 2.5 ml min(-1) steam for another 45 min. The resulting AC possessed an iodine number of 454 mg g(-1) and a specific surface area of 403 m2 g(-1). It sorbed benzene in water following sigmoidal kinetic and isothermal patterns. The sorption capacity for benzene was 23.70 mg g(-1), lower than that of top-class commercial AC. The results, together with other reported research findings, suggest that poultry litter is a reasonable feedstock for low-cost AC applicable to pre-treat wastewater contaminated by organic pollutants and heavy metals. PMID:22439566

  11. Impact on Soil Utilizing Poultry Litter as a Fertilizer Source in Conservation Tillage Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term tillage and manure application are thought to alter soil’s ability to sequester plant nutrients and mineralize C and N. Thus, an aerobic laboratory incubation study (C and N mineralization) was conducted to evaluate the impact of long-term poultry litter (PL) application (>10 years) as aff...

  12. Residual impact of raw and composted poultry litter on soil carbon pools

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Application of animal manures or composts to soils increases soil carbon levels and improves soil physical properties. However, there is little information on the duration of these effects after manure or compost applications cease. We evaluated the residual effects of applying poultry litter (PL)...

  13. Poultry litter as a source of gastrointestinal helminth infections.

    PubMed

    Maurer, V; Amsler, Z; Perler, E; Heckendorn, F

    2009-05-12

    worm burdens in tracer animals were low compared to a similar study with tracers kept in poultry runs. The reasons for this may be that poultry litter negatively affects viability and infectiousness of helminth eggs. However, underlying mechanisms need to be clarified. PMID:19251370

  14. Subsurface banding poultry litter impacts greenhouse gas emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact subsurface banding poultry litter (PL) has on greenhouse gas emissions is limited. Thus, a study was conducted in established bermudagrass pastures located in Coastal Plain and Piedmont regions to determine the effects subsurface applying PL has on soil flux using two different band spaci...

  15. Evaluation of poultry litter fertilization practices on greenhouse gas emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere have been increasing since preindustrial times. Integrating poultry litter use into conservation agricultural systems could be a management practice for sequestering atmospheric C in soil. However, consideration for the best method for this...

  16. Soybean response to poultry litter in a rotation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean yield response to annual poultry litter rates (0, 1.0 and 3.4 tons/acre) on a Leeper silty clay loam soil in corn (M), cotton (C) and soybean (B) rotation system were evaluated. The rotation systems from 2010-2014 were: CMBBMR; CMCBM and CCMMB. This study site had high levels of soil test Ph...

  17. Water quality benefits of subsurface-banded poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broiler chicken production is an important industry in Alabama and several other states. Broiler litter is commonly used as a fertilizer on pastures and cropland. This litter has commonly been land-applied near the broiler houses and this has resulted in long-term repeated application of litter to...

  18. Adsorption of trace elements from poultry litter by montmorillonite clay.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Bhaskaran; Gupta, Gian

    2006-01-16

    Poultry litter (PL) is used as fertilizer on agricultural lands because of its high nutrient content. However, the litter also contains trace elements such as As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn. On land application of PL, these trace elements may be absorbed by crops, leach into groundwater, or enter the aquatic system as run-off. The objective of this research was to study the effect of the addition of montmorillonite clay-mineral (CM) in reducing the release of trace elements from PL. Cd, Cu, and Zn showed significant decreases of 29, 34, and 22%, respectively, in PL aqueous leachate (compared with the control-PL without CM) on mixing with 0.05 g CM but no change in As, Co, and Cr concentrations was observed. Lead showed a significant increase in PL aqueous leachate on mixing with 0.2 g CM but Pb concentration was two orders of magnitude less than in CM aqueous leachate alone. On washing, the settled precipitate (PL+CM) in the centrifuge tubes with water (desorption study) most of the adsorbed metals (Cd 85%, Cu 61%, and Zn 100%) were released. The results of this study show that the addition of CM resulted in significant adsorption of Cd and Cu from PL. PMID:16298051

  19. Seasonal changes in phosphorus and phosphatase compositions in soils enriched with poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Season and soil depth may play an important role in phosphorus (P) dynamics and mineralization in soil because of changes in soil moisture, temperature and microbial activity. This study was conducted to quantify P fractions and enzymatic activity from poultry litter (PL) application as affected by ...

  20. Cover crop and poultry litter management influence spatiotemporal availability of topsoil nitrogen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Green and animal manures provide plant-available nitrogen (N) in annual cropping systems and contribute to improved soil quality. Our objectives were to determine the effects of cover crop residue type and pelletized poultry litter (PPL) application method on: 1) the spatiotemporal distribution of s...

  1. Accumulation of N and P in Pasture Soil by Repeated Poultry Litter Accumulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry litter is a traditionally inexpensive and effective fertilizer to improve soil quality and agricultural productivity. However, over application to soil has raised concern because excess nutrients in runoff could accelerate the eutrophication of fresh water. In this work, we determined the co...

  2. Impacts of Long-Term Land Applied Poultry Litter on Soil Properties and Macro Cations Status

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry litter (PL) is a traditionally inexpensive and effective fertilizer to improve soil quality and agricultural productivity. However, over application to soils has raised concern because excess nutrients in runoff could accelerate eutrophication of fresh water. A long-term field experiment usi...

  3. Nutrient cycling in an agroforestry alley cropping system receiving poultry litter or nitrogen fertilizer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Optimal utilization of animal manures as a plant nutrient source should also prevent adverse impacts on water quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate long-term poultry litter and N fertilizer application on nutrient cycling following establishment of an alley cropping system with easter...

  4. Double-cropping annual ryegrass and bermudagrass to reduce phosphorus levels in soil with history of poultry litter application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Double-cropping forages may help to ameliorate excess soil nutrients in manure-impacted fields. Studies were conducted on Savannah soil with a 30+ yr history of broiler litter to determine the yield of biomass and P in bermudagrass (summer) and ryegrass-bermudagrass (year-round) forage systems. Duri...

  5. Subsurface application of poultry litter and its influence on nutrient losses in runoff water from permanent pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmental pressure to reduce nutrient losses from agricultural fields has increased in recent years. To abate this nutrient loss to the environment, better management practices and new technologies need to be developed. Thus, research was conducted to evaluate if subsurface banding poultry lit...

  6. The management of phosphorus in poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potential for phosphorus (P) surplus at the farm scale can increase when farming systems change from cropping to intensive poultry and animal production, as P inputs become dominated by animal feed rather than fertilizer. Cost-effective and innovative solutions are needed to expand the range of ...

  7. Rainfall simulation in greenhouse microcosms to assess bacterial-associated runoff from land-applied poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land application of poultry litter is an economically and environmentally viable use of this poultry-rearing byproduct. However the recent concern associated with food and surface water contamination with pathogenic and fecal indicator bacteria, nutrients, and colloidal particles has led to increas...

  8. The Impact of Alum Additions on Organic P Transformations in Poultry Litter and Litter Amended Soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The treatment of poultry litter with alum (Al2(SO4)3•18H2O) has been shown to reduce P solubility. This decreased P solubility results in reduced risk of P in surface water runoff. Generally this decrease in P solubility is attributed to the formation of insoluble Al-P compounds after alum additio...

  9. Availability of Nitrogen in Poultry litter: Influence of Bedding Material and Litter Age

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the influence of bedding material on the availability of N in poultry to crop production. Experiments included two corn grain trials in which litter sources were applied at a rate of 125 lbs N acre-1 and inorganic fertilizer was applied at 0, 50, 100, 1...

  10. Nutrient dynamics and tree growth of silvopastoral systems: impact of poultry litter.

    PubMed

    Blazier, Michael A; Gaston, Lewis A; Clason, Terry R; Farrish, Kenneth W; Oswald, Brian P; Evans, Hayden A

    2008-01-01

    Fertilizing pastures with poultry litter has led to an increased incidence of nutrient-saturated soils, particularly on highly fertilized, well drained soils. Applying litter to silvopastures, in which loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) and bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum) production are integrated, may be an ecologically desirable alternative for upland soils of the southeastern USA. Integrating subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum) into silvopastures may enhance nutrient retention potential. This study evaluated soil nutrient dynamics, loblolly pine nutrient composition, and loblolly pine growth of an annually fertilized silvopasture on a well drained soil in response to fertilizer type, litter application rate, and subterranean clover. Three fertilizer treatments were applied annually for 4 yr: (i) 5 Mg litter ha(-1) (5LIT), (ii) 10 Mg litter ha(-1) (10LIT), and (iii) an inorganic N, P, K pasture blend (INO). Litter stimulated loblolly pine growth, and neither litter treatment produced soil test P concentrations above runoff potential threshold ranges. However, both litter treatments led to accumulation of several nutrients (notably P) in upper soil horizons relative to INO and unfertilized control treatments. The 10LIT treatment may have increased N and P leaching potential. Subterranean clover kept more P sequestered in the upper soil horizon and conferred some growth benefits to loblolly pine. Thus, although these silvopasture systems had a relatively high capacity for nutrient use and retention at this site, litter should be applied less frequently than in this study to reduce environmental risks. PMID:18574187

  11. Effects of pelletized and non-pelletized poultry litter and nutrient immobilizing agent on surface runoff water quality from a forage based system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry litter is recognized as a desirable organic fertilizer that improves soil fertility by adding essential plant nutrients and organic matter. Poultry litter is pelletized to improve the economics and handling and transport from production areas to land application sites. Compared to non-pell...

  12. Correlation of quantitative PCR for a poultry-specific brevibacterium marker gene with bacterial and chemical indicators of water pollution in a watershed impacted by land application of poultry litter.

    PubMed

    Weidhaas, Jennifer L; Macbeth, Tamzen W; Olsen, Roger L; Harwood, Valerie J

    2011-03-01

    The impact of fecal contamination from human and agricultural animal waste on water quality is a major public health concern. Identification of the dominant source(s) of fecal pollution in a watershed is necessary for assessing the safety of recreational water and protecting water resources. A field study was conducted using quantitative PCR (qPCR) for the 16S rRNA gene of Brevibacterium sp. LA35 to track feces-contaminated poultry litter in environmental samples. Based on sensitivity and specificity characteristics of the qPCR method, the Bayesian conditional probability that detection of the LA35 marker gene in a water sample represented a true-positive result was 93%. The marker's covariance with fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and metals associated with poultry litter was also assessed in litter, runoff, surface water, and groundwater samples. LA35 was detected in water and soil samples collected throughout the watershed, and its concentration covaried with concentrations of Escherichia coli, enterococci, As, Cu, P, and Zn. Significantly greater concentrations of FIB, As, Cu, P, and Zn were observed in edge-of-field runoff samples in which LA35 was detected, compared to samples in which it was not detected. Furthermore, As, Cu, P, and Zn concentrations covaried in environmental samples in which LA35 was detected and typically did not in samples in which the marker gene was not detected. The covariance of the poultry-specific LA35 marker gene with these known contaminants from poultry feces provides further evidence that it is a useful tool for assessing the impact of poultry-derived fecal pollution in environmental waters. PMID:21278274

  13. Impact of amendments on microbial communities associated with nitrogen mineralization in poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As energy costs increase poultry litter is an ever more valuable commodity. Reducing ammonia volatilization from poultry litter becomes important not only to reduce ventilation costs and improve bird performance but also to retain the nutrient value of the litter as a fertilizer. The goal of this r...

  14. Effect of Alum Amendment on the Bacterial and Fungal Populations in Poultry Litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alum (Al2 (SO4)3•14H2O) is a commonly used ammonia reducing poultry litter amendment that acidifies the litter to convert the volatile NH3-N to the mineralized NH4-N form. The effect of alum addition on the chemical makeup of the poultry litter has been previously studied, but very little work has ...

  15. A microbial approach to understanding the production of ammonia in poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As fertilizer costs increase, poultry litter has become an increasingly valuable commodity. Reducing ammonia (NH3) volatilization from poultry litter is therefore important not only to reduce ventilation costs and improve bird performance but also to retain the fertilizer value of the litter. The g...

  16. Bioremediation of gasoline-contaminated soil using poultry litter

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, G; Tao, J.

    1996-10-01

    Contaminated soil, excavated from around a leaking underground gasoline storage tank, is commonly subjected to thermal degradation to remove the gasoline. Bioremediation as an alternative treatment technology is now becoming popular. The important hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria include Pseudomonas, Arthrobacter, and Flavobacterium. Poultry litter contains a large number of microorganisms, including Pseudomonas, as well as many inorganic nutrients and organic biomass that may assist in biodegrading gasoline in contaminated soil. During bioremediation of contaminated soil, microbial densities are known to increase by 2-3 orders of magnitude. However, bioremediation may result in a increase in the toxic characteristics of the soil due to the production of potentially toxic degradation intermediates. The objective of this research was to study the influence of the addition of poultry litter on the bioremediation of gasoline-contaminated soil by quantifying the changes in the densities of microorganisms and by monitoring the toxicity of the degradation products. 25 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Acidification delays the microbial mineralization of organic N forms in poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry litter is a valuable nutrient source for plants which contains high levels of protein, nitrogen and other minerals. While many agronomic benefits of poultry litter exist, one of the largest environmental concerns associated with confined poultry production is the creation and volatilization ...

  18. The Role of Organic Phosphorus in Alum ability to Reduce Phosphorus Solubility in Poultry Litter and Litter Amended Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alum (Al2[SO4]3) addition to litter in poultry houses is an effective strategy for reducing phosphorus (P) solubility in the litter and litter-amended soils, thereby reducing the potential for soluble P losses in runoff. Although there has been much research on the subject, there is still uncertaint...

  19. Cotton response to poultry litter applied by subsurface banding relative to surface broadcasting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dry poultry litter is typically land-applied by surface broadcasting, a practice that exposes certain litter nutrients to volatilization loss. Applying litter with a new, experimental implement that places the litter in narrow bands below the soil surface may reduce or eliminate such losses but has...

  20. Soil-incorporating Poultry Litter Increases Cotton Tissue Nitrogen Concentration and Uptake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Applying poultry litter to fertilize no-till cotton implies the litter is left on the surface without soil-incorporation which exposes the litter and its nutrients to risks of loss in runoff water and volatilization. This research was conducted to test if light soil-incorporation of litter increases...

  1. Nutrient and Bacterial Levels in Common Contiguous Soils With and Without Poultry Litter Fertilization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the Mid-South US, poultry litter is a valuable resource traditionally used to fertilize hay fields and pastures, but also used for small grains and row crops. Levels of nutrients and bacteria in litter, and nutrients in litter-fertilized (LF) soil are well documented, but less is known of litter...

  2. Release of Nitrogen and Phosphorus from Poultry Litter Amended with Acidified Biochar

    PubMed Central

    Doydora, Sarah A.; Cabrera, Miguel L.; Das, Keshav C.; Gaskin, Julia W.; Sonon, Leticia S.; Miller, William P.

    2011-01-01

    Application of poultry litter (PL) to soil may lead to nitrogen (N) losses through ammonia (NH3) volatilization and to potential contamination of surface runoff with PL-derived phosphorus (P). Amending litter with acidified biochar may minimize these problems by decreasing litter pH and by retaining litter-derived P, respectively. This study evaluated the effect of acidified biochars from pine chips (PC) and peanut hulls (PH) on NH3 losses and inorganic N and P released from surface-applied or incorporated PL. Poultry litter with or without acidified biochars was surface-applied or incorporated into the soil and incubated for 21 d. Volatilized NH3 was determined by trapping it in acid. Inorganic N and P were determined by leaching the soil with 0.01 M of CaCl2 during the study and by extracting it with 1 M KCl after incubation. Acidified biochars reduced NH3 losses by 58 to 63% with surface-applied PL, and by 56 to 60% with incorporated PL. Except for PH biochar, which caused a small increase in leached NH4 +-N with incorporated PL, acidified biochars had no effect on leached or KCl-extractable inorganic N and P from surface-applied or incorporated PL. These results suggest that acidified biochars may decrease NH3 losses from PL but may not reduce the potential for P loss in surface runoff from soils receiving PL. PMID:21655132

  3. Phosphorus and nitrogen losses via leaching and surface runoff from stacking of poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The practice of stacking poultry litter in fields prior to spreading provides important logistical benefits to farmers but is controversial due to its potential to serve as a source of nutrients to leachate and runoff. We evaluated nutrient fate under stacked poultry litter to assess differences in ...

  4. Effect of direct incorporation of poultry litter on phosphorus leaching from coastal plain soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Management of poultry litter on the Delmarva Peninsula is critical to reducing phosphorus loads to the Chesapeake Bay. New poultry litter incorporation technologies have shown promise at reducing phosphorus losses, but their effectiveness has not been tested in this environmentally-sensitive region...

  5. The effect of alum addition on microbial communities in poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alum (Al2(SO4)3 • 14 H2O) is a common poultry litter amendment used to decrease water soluble phosphorus and/or reduce ammonia volatilization. While the physiochemical effects of alum addition has been well researched, little attention has been given to the poultry litter microbial communities. Th...

  6. Factors affecting arsenic and copper runoff from pastures fertilized with poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heavy metal runoff from soils fertilized with poultry litter has received increasing attention in recent years, although it is not really known if heavy runoff from poultry litter poses a significant threat to the environment. The objective of this study was to evaluate arsenic (As) and copper (Cu)...

  7. Spatial Shifts in Microbial Population Structure Within Poultry Litter Associated with Physicochemical Properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microbial populations within poultry litter have been largely ignored with the exception of potential human or livestock pathogens. A better understanding of the community structure and identity of the microbial populations within poultry litter could aid in the development of management practices t...

  8. Phosphorus and nitrogen losses from poultry litter stacks and leaching through soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The practice of stacking poultry litter in fields prior to spreading provides important logistical benefits to farmers but is controversial due to its potential to serve as a source of nutrients to leachate and runoff. We evaluated nutrient fate under stacked poultry litter to assess differences in ...

  9. Nitrogen and Phosphorus Loads in an Agricultural Watershed Affected by Poultry Litter Application and Wastewater Effluent, Northeastern Oklahoma and Northwestern Arkansas, 2002-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esralew, R.; Tortorelli, R. L.

    2010-12-01

    The Eucha-Spavinaw Basin in Northeastern Oklahoma and Northwestern Arkansas is the source of water for Lake Eucha and Spavinaw Lake, which are part of the water supply for the city of Tulsa, Oklahoma. Lake Eucha and Spavinaw Lakes have experienced deteriorating water quality largely due to growth of algae, notably cyanobacteria, from the excess input of nutrients. As a result, the city of Tulsa has spent millions of dollars to eliminate taste and odor problems resulting from production of algal and bacterial byproducts. To evaluate changes in nutrient loading resulting from a reduction in land application of poultry litter, installation of best management practices, and reductions in the phosphorus concentrations in wastewater effluent, the U.S. Geological Survey investigated nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations from samples collected during baseflow and runoff and used regression models to estimate nitrogen and phosphorus loads, yields, and flow-weighted concentrations in two major tributaries to Lake Eucha, Spavinaw and Beaty Creeks, for the period 2002-2009. Estimated mean flow-weighted total unfiltered nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations in the basin were about 5 to 10 times greater than the 75th percentile of flow-weighted nutrient concentrations in other mostly undeveloped basins of the United States. Spavinaw and Beaty Creeks contributed an estimated mean annual total load of about 762,500 kilograms of nitrogen and 49,200 kilograms of phosphorus per year, 76 to 91 percent of which was transported to Lake Eucha by runoff. Thirty-four percent of the nitrogen load and 48 percent of the phosphorus load to Lake Eucha occurred during the year 2008 which was the wettest year on record for the Eucha-Spavinaw Basin. The results of this analysis indicate that although efforts were made to control nutrient loading, nutrient concentrations, especially phosphorus, were substantially augmented by non-point sources and that most loading occurs during runoff events

  10. Trace element losses in runoff due to subsurface-applied poultry litter on a coastal plain soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Delmarva’s four poultry companies and 1,800 growers generated roughly 9 million tons of poultry litter in 2008. This litter is primarily used to fertilize farmland and support crop production (e.g., corn, soybeans and wheat). In this study, three poultry litter amendment treatments – broadcast (conv...

  11. Controlling phosphate releasing from poultry litter using stabilized Fe-Mn binary oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wenbo; Zhao, Dongye

    2016-01-15

    Animal wastes contain high concentrations of phosphorus (P), most of which is lost into the environment due to uncontrolled release rates. Polysaccharide stabilized Fe-Mn binary oxide nanoparticles were prepared and tested for phosphate adsorption from water and for controlling leachability of P from poultry litter. A water soluble starch and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) were used as a stabilizer. Both the Freundlich and Langmuir models were able to adequately interpret the isotherm data. The Langmuir maximum capacity was determined at 252, 298 and 313 mg-P/g for bare, CMC- and starch-stabilized nanoparticles, respectively. The presence of the stabilizers not only enhanced the sorption capacity, but facilitated delivery and dispersion of the nanoparticles in poultry litter (PL) and in soil. High phosphate sorption capacity was observed over a broad pH range of 4-9. FTIR analyses indicated that inner sphere surface complexation (Fe-O-P) was the key mechanism for the enhanced uptake of P. When applied to poultry litter, the stabilized nanoparticles reduced water leachable phosphate by >86% at a dose of 0.2 g/L as Fe, and simultaneously, water leachable arsenic by >87-95%. Under conditions of simulated land application of PL, the nanoparticle amendment of PL reduced the water soluble P from 66% (for untreated PL) to 4.4%, and lowered the peak soluble P concentration from 300 to <20 mg/L. By transferring the peak soluble P to the nanoparticle-bound P, the nanoparticles not only greatly reduce the potential runoff loss of P from PL, but also provide a long-term slow-releasing nutrient source. Fortuitously, the nanoparticle treatment was able to immobilize arsenic from PL. With excellent adsorption capacity, easy deliverability, low cost and environmental innocuousness, the stabilized Fe-Mn nanoparticles appear promising for controlling P releases from poultry litter or other animal wastes and for phosphate recovery from water. PMID:26442720

  12. Chemical property of poultry litter amended with selected industrial and agricultural byproducts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The bulk of poultry litter consists of chicken manure and bedding materials. When applied to the soil, litter supplies all essential plant nutrients and serves as a source of organic matter that improves several important soil properties. Litter breaks down in the soil and its soil conditioning ef...

  13. Cover crop enhances the benefit of fall-applied poultry litter as cotton fertilizer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effectiveness of poultry litter as cotton fertilizer in regions with warm fall or winter months is reduced if applied in the fall or winter. A 3-yr study was conducted in northern Mississippi to test whether litter applied in the fall can be as effective as litter applied in the spring for no-t...

  14. Impact of poultry litter cake, cleanout, and bedding following chemical amendments on soil C and N mineralization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry litter is a great alternative N source for crop production. However, recent poultry litter management changes and increased chemical amendment use may impact litter plant N availability. Thus, research was initiated to evaluate the effect that broiler house cake and total cleanout litter ame...

  15. Quantification of a Novel Group of Ammonia Producing Bacteria Found in Poultry Litter by Quantitative Real-Time PCR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia production in poultry houses has serious implications for flock health and performance, nutrient value of poultry litter, and energy costs for running poultry operations. The microbial enzyme responsible for final step in the conversion of uric acid (~70% of total N in poultry litter) to am...

  16. Ammonia emissions factors from broiler litter in barns, storage, and after land application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia (NH3) emissions from poultry litter can cause high levels of NH3 in poultry rearing facilities, as well as atmospheric pollution. The objectives of this study were to: (1) measure NH3 emissions from litter in broiler houses, during storage and following land application, and (2) conduct a m...

  17. Water activity of poultry litter: Relationship to moisture content during a grow-out.

    PubMed

    Dunlop, Mark W; McAuley, Jim; Blackall, Patrick J; Stuetz, Richard M

    2016-05-01

    Poultry grown on litter floors are in contact with their own waste products. The waste material needs to be carefully managed to reduce food safety risks and to provide conditions that are comfortable and safe for the birds. Water activity (Aw) is an important thermodynamic property that has been shown to be more closely related to microbial, chemical and physical properties of natural products than moisture content. In poultry litter, Aw is relevant for understanding microbial activity; litter handling and rheological properties; and relationships between in-shed relative humidity and litter moisture content. We measured the Aw of poultry litter collected throughout a meat chicken grow-out (from fresh pine shavings bedding material to day 52) and over a range of litter moisture content (10-60%). The Aw increased non-linearly from 0.71 to 1.0, and reached a value of 0.95 when litter moisture content was only 22-33%. Accumulation of manure during the grow-out reduced Aw for the same moisture content. These results are relevant for making decisions regarding litter re-use in multiple grow-outs as well as setting targets for litter moisture content to minimise odour, microbial risks and to ensure necessary litter physical conditions are maintained during a grow-out. Methods to predict Aw in poultry litter from moisture content are proposed. PMID:26946169

  18. Alum amendment effects on phosphorus release and distribution in poultry litter-amended sandy soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Staats, K.E.; Arai, Y.; Sparks, D.L.

    2004-01-01

    Increased poultry production has contributed to excess nutrient problems in Atlantic Coastal Plain soils due to land application of poultry litter (PL). Aluminum sulfate [alum, Al2(SO4)3?? 14H2O] amendment of PL effectively reduces soluble phosphorus (P) in the PL; however, the effects of these litters when added to acidic, sandy soils are not well understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of alum-amended poultry litter in reducing P release from three Delaware Coastal Plain soils: Evesboro loamy sand (Ev; excessively drained, mesic, coated Typic Quartzipsamments), Rumford loamy sand (Ru; well drained, coarse-loamy, siliceous, subactive, thermic Typic Hapludults), and Pocomoke sandy loam (Pm; very poorly drained, coarse-loamy, siliceous, active, thermic Typic Umbraquults). Long-term (25 d) and short-term (24 h) desorption studies were conducted, in addition to chemical extractions and kinetic modeling, to observe the changes that alum-amended versus unamended PL caused in the soils. The Ev, Ru, and Pm soils were incubated with 9 Mg ha-1 of alum-amended or unamended PL. Long-term desorption (25 d) of the incubated material resulted in approximately 13.5% (Ev), 12.7% (Ru), and 13.3% (Pm) reductions in cumulative P desorbed when comparing soil treated with unamended and alum-amended PL. In addition, the P release from the soil treated with alum-amended litter was not significantly different from the control (soil alone). Short-term desorption (24 h) showed 7.3% (Ev), 15.4% (Ru), and 20% (Pm) reductions. The overall implication from this study is that the use of alum as a PL amendment is useful in coarse-textured soils of the Coastal Plain. With increased application of alum-amended PL, more significant decreases may be possible with little or no effect on soil quality.

  19. Water-quality effects of incorporating poultry litter into perennial grassland soils.

    PubMed

    Pote, D H; Kingery, W L; Aiken, G E; Han, F X; Moore, P A; Buddington, K

    2003-01-01

    Poultry litter provides a rich source of nutrients for perennial forages, but the usual practice of surface-applying litter to pastures can degrade water quality by allowing nutrients to be transported from fields in surface runoff, while much of the NH4-N volatilizes. Incorporating litter into the soil can minimize such problems in tilled systems, but has not been used for perennial forage systems. In this study, we minimized disturbance of the crop, thatch, and soil structure by using a knifing technique to move litter into the root zone. Our objective was to determine effects of poultry litter incorporation on quantity and quality of runoff water. Field plots were constructed on a silt loam soil with well-established bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] and mixed grass forage. Each plot had 8 to 10% slopes, borders to isolate runoff, and a downslope trough with sampling pit. Poultry litter was applied (5.6 Mg ha(-1)) by one of three methods: surface-applied, incorporated, or surface-applied on soil-aeration cuts. There were six treatment replications and three controls (no litter). Nutrient concentrations and mass losses in runoff from incorporated litter were significantly lower (generally 80-95% less) than in runoff from surface-applied litter. By the second year of treatment, litter-incorporated soils had greater rain infiltration rates, water-holding capacities, and sediment retention than soils receiving surface-applied litter. Litter incorporation also showed a strong tendency to increase forage yield. PMID:14674565

  20. Poultry Littler Application Increases Nitrogen Cycling Compared with Inorganic Nitrogen Fertilization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry litter, an inexpensive source of nutrients and available in abundant amounts in the southeastern USA, may increase N cycling and reduce N losses compared with inorganic N fertilization if applied in crop production. We evaluated the effect of long-term application of poultry litter and inorg...

  1. Effect of alum additions to poultry litter on in-house ammonia and greenhouse gas concentrations and emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alum (Al2(SO4)3 •14H2O) additions to poultry litter have been shown to reduce ammonia (NH3) concentrations in poultry houses and NH3 fluxes from litter; however, continuous, accurate measurements of in-house NH3 concentrations and emissions from alum-treated and untreated commercial poultry houses i...

  2. Formations of hydroxyapatite and inositol hexakisphosphate in poultry litter during the composting period: sequential fractionation, P K-edge XANES and solution (31)P NMR investigations.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Yohey; Takamoto, Akira; Kikkawa, Ren; Murakami, Keiichi; Yamaguchi, Noriko

    2014-05-20

    Little is known about how the solubility and chemical speciation of phosphorus (P) in poultry litters are altered during the composting period. This study investigated the quantitative and qualitative changes in organic P (Po) and inorganic P (Pi) compositions in poultry litters during the seven-day composting period using sequential extraction in combination with P K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and solution (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The result of sequential extraction illustrated that the significant decrease of H2O-P by 55% in poultry litters occurred concomitantly with the increase of HCl-Pi and HCl-Po during the composting period (p < 0.05). X-ray diffraction results for poultry litter samples showed three distinct peaks indicative of hydroxyapatite. Phosphorus K-edge XANES confirmed the increase of hydroxyapatite during the composting period, corresponding to the increase of HCl-Pi determined by the sequential extraction. The NaOH-EDTA extraction for solution (31)P NMR revealed that myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (IHP) constituted about 80% of phosphate monoesters and was increased from 16 to 28% in the poultry litter during the composting period. The combined applications of chemical extraction and molecular-spectroscopic techniques determined that water-soluble P in poultry litter was transformed into less soluble phases, primarily hydroxyapatite and IHP, during the composting period. PMID:24735189

  3. Combining nitrogen fertilizer with poultry litter in a binary mixture of tall fescue and bermudagrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A common problem when poultry litter is applied to pastures in the southeastern USA is the buildup of soil P because of the difference in N-P-K ratio of the litter and plant requirements. This 2-yr study tested the theory that if the N requirement of a tall fescue-bermudagrass binary mixture is only...

  4. Effects of Subsurface Applying Poultry Litter in Pasture and No-Till Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry litter provides a rich nutrient source for crops, but the usual practice of surface-broadcasting litter can degrade water quality by allowing storm runoff to transport nutrients into streams and lakes, while much of the ammonia-N escapes into the atmosphere. We developed and tested a knifin...

  5. Effect of Alum Treatment on the Concentration of Total and Ureolytic Microorganisms in Poultry Litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The microbial mineralization of urea and uric acid results in the production of ammonia, which can lead to decreased poultry performance, malodorous emissions, and loss of poultry litter value as a fertilizer. Despite the fact that this is a microbial process, little is known about how the microbia...

  6. Evaluation of Poultry Litter for Biocontrol of Sclerotia of Sclerotium rolfsii in Soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry litter (PL), a major byproduct produced in large quantities on corporate poultry farms for which new uses are needed, was evaluated for potential use as a biocontrol material against sclerotia of Sclerotium rolfsii in soil. Survival of sclerotia was evaluated following their incubation with...

  7. Development of a new manure amendment for reducing ammonia volatilization and phosphorus runoff from poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Treating poultry litter with alum (Al2(SO4)3.14H2O) is a best management practice (BMP) that reduces phosphorus (P) runoff and ammonia (NH3) emissions. Due to the environmental benefits, improvements in poultry production, and lower energy costs over one billion broiler chickens are grown with alum...

  8. Evaluation of amendments to manage nitrogen loss and microbiological quality in poultry litter.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry litter is a valuable nutrient source for crop production that requires proper management to garner environmentally and financially sustainable benefits. Successful management to reduce ammonia (NH3-N) and its harmful side-effects for poultry and the environment can be aided by the use of lit...

  9. Hormone and pathogen content in soil after litter applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry litter applications at agronomic rates established for a crop’s P or N requirements may contain as much as 385 mg estradiol ha-1, 605 mg testosterone ha-1, 4.4(10)12 Escherichia coli cells ha-1, and 4.4(10)13 fecal enterococci cells ha-1. Field experiments from small plot- to small watershed...

  10. Poultry litter and the environment: Physiochemical properties of litter and soil during successive flock rotations and after remote site deposition.

    PubMed

    Crippen, Tawni L; Sheffield, Cynthia L; Byrd, J Allen; Esquivel, Jesus F; Beier, Ross C; Yeater, Kathleen

    2016-05-15

    The U.S. broiler meat market has grown over the past 16 years and destinations for U.S. broiler meat exports expanded to over 150 countries. This market opportunity has spurred a corresponding increase in industrialized poultry production, which due to the confined space in which high numbers of animals are housed, risks accumulating nutrients and pollutants. The purpose of this research was to determine the level of pollutants within poultry litter and the underlying soil within a production facility; and to explore the impact of spent litter deposition into the environment. The study follows a production facility for the first 2.5 years of production. It monitors the effects of successive flocks and management practices on 15 physiochemical parameters: Ca, Cu, electrical conductivity, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, moisture, Na, NO3(-)/N, organic matter, P, pH, S, and Zn. Litter samples were collected in-house, after clean-outs and during stockpiling. The soil before house placement, after the clean-outs and following litter stockpiling was monitored. Management practices markedly altered the physiochemical profiles of the litter in-house. A canonical discriminant analysis was used to describe the relationship between the parameters and sampling times. The litter profiles grouped into five clusters corresponding to time and management practices. The soil in-house exhibited mean increases in all physiochemical parameters (2-297 fold) except Fe, Mg, %M, and pH. The spent litter was followed after deposition onto a field for use as fertilizer. After 20 weeks, the soil beneath the litter exhibited increases in EC, Cu, K, Na, NO3(-)/N, %OM, P, S and Zn; while %M decreased. Understanding the impacts of industrialized poultry farms on the environment is vital as the cumulative ecological impact of this land usage could be substantial if not properly managed to reduce the risk of potential pollutant infiltration into the environment. PMID:26990075

  11. The effect of composting on the persistence of four ionophores in dairy manure and poultry litter.

    PubMed

    Arikan, Osman A; Mulbry, Walter; Rice, Clifford

    2016-08-01

    Manure composting is a well-described approach for stabilization of nutrients and reduction of pathogens and odors. Although composting studies have shown that thermophilic temperatures and aerobic conditions can increase removal rates of selected antibiotics, comparable information is lacking for many other compounds in untreated or composted manure. The objective of this study was to determine the relative effectiveness of composting conditions to reduce concentrations of four widely used ionophore feed supplements in dairy manure and poultry litter. Replicate aliquots of fresh poultry litter and dairy manure were amended with monensin, lasalocid, salinomycin, or amprolium to 10mgkg(-1)DW. Non-amended and amended dairy manure and poultry litter aliquots were incubated at 22, 45, 55, or 65°C under moist, aerobic conditions. Residue concentrations were determined from aliquots removed after 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12weeks. Results suggest that the effectiveness of composting for contaminant reduction is compound and matrix specific. Composting temperatures were not any more effective than ambient temperature in increasing the rate or extent of monensin removal in either poultry litter or dairy manure. Composting was effective for lasalocid removal in poultry litter, but is likely to be too slow to be useful in practice (8-12weeks at 65°C for >90% residue removal). Composting was effective for amprolium removal from poultry litter and salinomycin in dairy manure but both required 4-6weeks for >90% removal. However, composting did not increase the removal rates or salinomycin in poultry litter or the removal rates of lasalocid or amprolium in dairy manure. PMID:27189139

  12. Effects of Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate against pathogen populations in poultry litters

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Tae Ho; Park, Chul; Choi, In Hag

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate as litter amendments on ammonia, soluble reactive phosphorus, and pathogen populations in poultry litters. Methods Increasing levels of Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate were applied onto the surface of rice hull as a top-dress application; untreated rice hulls served as controls. Results: Treatment with Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate or aluminum sulfate alone resulted in lower litter pH (p < 0.05), as compared with that of the controls. There were some differences (p < 0.05) between treatments with Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate or aluminum sulfate alone and controls at 2–4 wk (not at 1 wk). Ammonia levels reduced on an average by 29%, 30%, and 32% for 10 g, 20 g Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate, and aluminum sulfate alone, respectively, as compared with controls at 4 wk. During the experiment, Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate or aluminum sulfate treatment had an effect (p < 0.05) on soluble reactive phosphorus content, as compared with the controls (not at 4 wk). A decrease in Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli was observed (p < 0.05) in litter amended with both Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate and aluminum sulfate alone, as compared with the control, except at 1–3 wk for Salmonella enterica and 1 wk and 4 wk for Escherichia coli, respectively. Conclusion The results showed that using Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate (blends), which act as acidifying agents by reducing the pH of the litter, was equally effective as aluminum sulfate in reducing the environmental impact. PMID:26869836

  13. Distribution of Bacteria at Different Poultry Litter Depths

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A common practice in the commercial broiler industry is to reuse litter over multiple broiler flocks. Morbidity, mortality, and condemnation have been attributed to pathogenic bacteria which reside in used litter. Information that describes how bacteria are distributed throughout the litter bed is...

  14. Effects of liquid aluminum chloride additions to poultry litter on broiler performance, ammonia emissions, soluble phosphorus, total volatile Fatty acids, and nitrogen contents of litter.

    PubMed

    Choi, I H; Moore, P A

    2008-10-01

    Recent studies have shown that the use of aluminum sulfate [alum, Al2(SO4)3.14H2O] and aluminum chloride (AlCl3) additions to animal manures are more effective than other chemicals in reducing ammonia (NH3) emissions and P solubility. Although the use of Al2(SO4)3.14H2O has been intensively used in the poultry industry for many years, no research has been conducted to evaluate the effect of liquid AlCl3 on these parameters. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of applying liquid AlCl3 to poultry litter on 1) broiler performance, 2) NH3 fluxes, and 3) litter chemical characteristics, including soluble reactive P, total volatile fatty acids, and N content. Eight hundred broiler chicks were placed into 16 floor pens (50 birds/pen) in a single house for 6 wk. Liquid AlCl3 treatments were sprayed on the litter surface at rates of 100, 200, and 300 g of liquid AlCl3/kg of litter; un-treated litter served as controls. At the 2 lower rates, liquid AlCl3 treatments tended to improve weight gain and feed intake but had no effect on feed conversion or mortality, whereas the higher rate (300 g/kg of litter) had a negative effect on intake. Application of 100, 200, and 300 g of liquid AlCl3 reduced NH3 fluxes by 63, 76, and 76% during the 6-wk period, respectively, compared with the controls. Liquid AlCl3 additions reduced litter soluble reactive P contents by 24, 30, and 36%, respectively, at the low, medium, and high rates. Total volatile fatty acid contents (odor precursors) in litter were reduced by 20, 50, and 51%, respectively, with 100, 200, and 300 g of liquid AlCl3/kg of litter. Liquid AlCl3 additions increased total N, inorganic N, and plant available N contents in litter. These results indicate that liquid AlCl3 additions at the lower rates can provide significant positive environmental benefits to broiler operations. PMID:18809856

  15. Development of a New Manure Amendment for Reducing Ammonia Volatilization and Phosphorus Runoff from Poultry Litter.

    PubMed

    Moore, Philip A

    2016-07-01

    Treating poultry litter with alum is a best management practice that reduces phosphorus (P) runoff and ammonia (NH) emissions. However, alum prices have increased substantially during the past decade. The goal of this research was to develop inexpensive manure amendments that are as effective as alum in reducing NH volatilization and P runoff. Sixteen amendments were developed using mixtures of alum mud, bauxite ore, sulfuric acid, liquid alum, and water. Alum mud is the residual left over from alum manufacture when produced by reacting bauxite with sulfuric acid. A laboratory NH volatilization study was conducted using 11 treatments: untreated poultry litter, poultry litter treated with liquid or dry alum, or eight new mixtures. All of the litter amendments tested resulted in significantly lower NH volatilization than untreated litter. Dry and liquid alum reduced NH losses by 86 and 75%, respectively. The eight new litter amendments reduced NH losses from 62 to 73% compared with untreated litter, which was not significantly different from liquid alum; the three most effective mixtures were not significantly different from dry alum. Water-extractable P (WEP) was significantly reduced by all of the amendments, three of which resulted in significantly lower WEP than dry alum. The most promising new amendments were mixtures of alum mud, bauxite, and sulfuric acid. The potential impact of these amendments could be enormous because they could be produced for less than half the price of alum while being as effective in reducing NH emissions and P runoff. PMID:27380093

  16. Thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion of poultry litter and thin stillage.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Deepak; Espinosa-Solares, Teodoro; Huber, David H

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to test whether the performance of a thermophilic CSTR digester that has been stabilized on poultry litter will be enhanced or diminished by the addition of thin stillage as co-substrate. Replicate laboratory digesters, derived from a stable pilot-scale digester, were operated with increasing ratios (w/w) of thin stillage/poultry litter feedstock. After a period of adaptation to 20% and 40% thin stillage, digester performance showed increases in biogas, percent methane and COD removal, as well as a decrease in volatile acids. Peak performance occurred with 60% thin stillage. However, 80% thin stillage caused significant reduction of performance, including declines of methanogenic activity and COD removal. In conclusion, supplementing the thermophilic digestion of poultry litter with thin stillage improved the bioenergy (methane) output, but thin stillage became inhibitory at high concentrations. PMID:23567688

  17. Soil and foliar nutrient and nitrogen isotope composition (δ(15)N) at 5 years after poultry litter and green waste biochar amendment in a macadamia orchard.

    PubMed

    Bai, Shahla Hosseini; Xu, Cheng-Yuan; Xu, Zhihong; Blumfield, Timothy J; Zhao, Haitao; Wallace, Helen; Reverchon, Frédérique; Van Zwieten, Lukas

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the improvement in soil fertility and plant nutrient use in a macadamia orchard following biochar application. The main objectives of this study were to assess the effects of poultry litter and green waste biochar applications on nitrogen (N) cycling using N isotope composition (δ(15)N) and nutrient availability in a soil-plant system at a macadamia orchard, 5 years following application. Biochar was applied at 10 t ha(-1) dry weight but concentrated within a 3-m diameter zone when trees were planted in 2007. Soil and leaf samples were collected in 2012, and both soil and foliar N isotope composition (δ(15)N) and nutrient concentrations were assessed. Both soil and foliar δ(15)N increased significantly in the poultry litter biochar plots compared to the green waste biochar and control plots. A significant relationship was observed between soil and plant δ(15)N. There was no influence of either biochars on foliar total N concentrations or soil NH4 (+)-N and NO3 (-)-N, which suggested that biochar application did not pose any restriction for plant N uptake. Plant bioavailable phosphorus (P) was significantly higher in the poultry litter biochar treatment compared to the green waste biochar treatment and control. We hypothesised that the bioavailability of N and P content of poultry litter biochar may play an important role in increasing soil and plant δ(15)N and P concentrations. Biochar application affected soil-plant N cycling and there is potential to use soil and plant δ(15)N to investigate N cycling in a soil-biochar-tree crop system. The poultry litter biochar significantly increased soil fertility compared to the green waste biochar at 5 years following biochar application which makes the poultry litter a better feedstock to produce biochar compared to green waste for the tree crops. PMID:25266060

  18. Effect of heating and aging of poultry litter on the persistence of enteric bacteria.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, K G; Tee, E; Tomkins, R B; Hepworth, G; Premier, R

    2011-01-01

    Food-borne illnesses have rarely been associated with the reuse of poultry litter as an organic fertilizer and soil amendment in agriculture. Yet farming practices in many countries have come under increased scrutiny because of heightened consumer awareness of food safety and environmental issues. This study was conducted to determine whether simple on-farm management practices could improve the microbiological safety of poultry litter. First, the effects of heat and moisture on the survival of Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in poultry litter were investigated under laboratory conditions. Second, the persistence and regrowth of enteric bacteria were examined in poultry litter that had been aged for up to 12 wk in either a turned or static (unturned) windrow. Escherichia coli and Salmonella counts in poultry litter were reduced by >99% in 1 h at 55 or 65°C under laboratory conditions. At 35°C, both persisted longer under moist (65% wt/wt, wet basis) than dry (30% wt/wt) conditions. Poultry litter aged for 3 wk in a turned windrow, and up to 6 wk in a static windrow, supported increased E. coli densities when incubated in the laboratory at 37°C for 21 d. Peak temperatures >65°C were observed in both windrows within the first 3 wk of aging; after this point, the turned windrow was more consistently exposed to temperatures >45°C than the static windrow. By 12 wk, however, E. coli counts were very similar (3 to 3.6 log(10)) in the outside edge of both windrows. This study highlights the need for a better understanding of the interrelationship between spontaneous heating in organic waste streams, organic matter stabilization, and pathogen reduction. PMID:21177438

  19. Relationships between Chemical Characteristics and Phytotoxicity of Biochar from Poultry Litter Pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Rombolà, Alessandro G; Marisi, Giovanni; Torri, Cristian; Fabbri, Daniele; Buscaroli, Alessandro; Ghidotti, Michele; Hornung, Andreas

    2015-08-01

    Three biochars were prepared by intermediate pyrolysis from poultry litter at different temperatures (400, 500, and 600 °C with decreasing residence times) and compared with biochars from corn stalk prepared under the same pyrolysis conditions. The phytotoxicity of these biochars was estimated by means of seed germination tests on cress (Lepidium sativum L.) conducted in water suspensions (at 2, 5, and 40 g/L) and on biochars wetted according to their water-holding capacity. Whereas the seeds germinated after 72 h in water suspensions with corn stalk biochar were similar to the control (water only), significant inhibition was observed with poultry litter biochars. In comparison to corn stalk, poultry litter generated biochars with higher contents of ash, ammonium, nitrogen, and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and a similar concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Results from analytical pyrolysis (Py-GC-MS) indicated that nitrogen-containing organic compounds (NCCs) and aliphatic components were distinctive constituents of the thermally labile fraction of poultry litter biochar. The inhibition of germination due to poultry litter biochar produced at 400 °C (PL400) was suppressed after solvent extraction or treatment with active sludge. A novel method based on solid-phase microextraction (SPME) enabled the identification of mobile organic compounds in PL400 capable of being released in air and water, including VFAs and NCCs. The higher phytotoxicity of poultry litter than corn biochars was tentatively attributed to hydrophilic biodegradable substances derived from lipids or proteins removable by water leaching or microbial treatments. PMID:26151387

  20. Transformation of Organic P Forms of Poultry Litter in Soil Identified by Enzymatic Hydrolysis and P-31 NMR Spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Identification of the various phosphorus (P) forms in poultry litter coupled with knowledge of their transformations once added to soil will improve our understanding of long-term P roles in eutrophication. In this study, P in a poultry litter (PL) and a pasture soil with a 20-year history of PL app...

  1. New technology for ammonia recovery from poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abatement of gaseous ammonia in poultry houses is beneficial to both improve health/productivity of the birds and to reduce emissions into the environment surrounding the production facility. Current ammonia abatement technologies from poultry houses can be classified into four broad categories: 1) ...

  2. Optimum Broiler litter application timing on coastal bermudagrass in southeastern U.S.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry growers in general produce 5 to 6 flocks of birds yearly resulting in 5 to 6 litter/cake collection and application events following each sell out. Presently, most of the boiler litter is applied to pasture land year-round. This practice results in nutrient losses and potentially unfavorable...

  3. Fall- and spring-applied poultry litter effectiveness as corn fertilizer in the mid-southern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effectiveness of fall- or winter-applied poultry litter, relative to spring-applied litter, as row crop fertilizer in the southern and southeastern US has not been well researched. A 3-yr field research was conducted in northern Mississippi to determine the effectiveness of litter as corn fertil...

  4. Effect of fractionation and pyrolysis on fuel properties of poultry litter.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kaushlendra; Risse, L Mark; Das, K C; Worley, John; Thompson, Sidney

    2010-07-01

    Raw poultry litter has certain drawbacks for energy production such as high ash and moisture content, a corrosive nature, and low heating values. A combined solution to utilization of raw poultry litter may involve fractionation and pyrolysis. Fractionation divides poultry litter into a fine, nutrient-rich fraction and a coarse, carbon-dense fraction. Pyrolysis of the coarse fraction would remove the corrosive volatiles as bio-oil, leaving clean char. This paper presents the effect of fractionation and pyrolysis process parameters on the calorific value of char and on the characterization of bio-oil. Poultry litter samples collected from three commercial poultry farms were divided into 10 treatments that included 2 controls (raw poultry litter and its coarse fraction having particle size greater than 0.85 mm) and 8 other treatments that were combinations of three factors: type (raw poultry litter or its coarse fraction), heating rate (30 or 10 degrees C/min), and pyrolysis temperature (300 or 500 degrees C). After the screening process, the poultry litter samples were dried and pyrolyzed in a batch reactor under nitrogen atmosphere and char and condensate yields were recorded. The condensate was separated into three fractions on the basis of their density: heavy, medium, and light phase. Calorific value and proximate and nutrient analysis were performed for char, condensate, and feedstock. Results show that the char with the highest calorific value (17.39 +/- 1.37 MJ/kg) was made from the coarse fraction at 300 degrees C, which captured 68.71 +/- 9.37% of the feedstock energy. The char produced at 300 degrees C had 42 +/- 11 mg/kg arsenic content but no mercury. Almost all of the Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na, and P remained in the char. The pyrolysis process reduced ammoniacal-nitrogen (NH4-N) in char by 99.14 +/- 0.47% and nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) by 95.79 +/- 5.45% at 500 degrees C. PMID:20681435

  5. Evaluation of chemical amendments to reduce ammonia volatilization from poultry litter.

    PubMed

    Moore, P A; Daniel, T C; Edwards, D R; Miller, D M

    1996-03-01

    Ammonia volatilization from poultry litter often causes high levels of atmospheric ammonia in poultry houses, which is detrimental to both farm workers and birds. Ammonia emissions from houses also aggravate environmental problems, such as acid rain, and result in a loss of fertilizer nitrogen. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of litter amendments on ammonia volatilization and to determine the effect of these amendments on nitrogen and phosphorus content in litter. The results of this research indicate that alum [Al2(SO4)3.18H2O], ferrous sulfate (FeSO4.7H2O), and phosphoric acid (H3PO4) dramatically reduce ammonia volatilization form litter. The amount of ammonia lost from litter treated with sodium bisulfate (NaHSO4) and a proprietory product made of Ca-Fe silicate with a phosphoric acid coating was not different from the control (untreated litter). Aluminum sulfate (alum) and ferrous sulfate also reduced water soluble P concentrations in litter, whereas phosphoric acid greatly increased water-soluble P levels. The most effective compound evaluated with respect to reducing both ammonia loss and P solubility was alum. PMID:8778722

  6. Alternative poultry litter storage for improved transportation and use as a soil amendment.

    PubMed

    Penn, Chad J; Vitale, Jeffery; Fine, Scott; Payne, Joshua; Warren, Jason G; Zhang, Hailin; Eastman, Margaret; Herron, Sheri L

    2011-01-01

    Transportation of poultry litter out of nutrient limited watersheds such as the Illinois River basin (eastern Oklahoma) is a logical solution for minimizing phosphorus (P) losses from soils to surface waters. Transportation costs are basedon mass of load and distance transported. This study investigated an alternative litter storage technique designed to promote carbon (C) degradation, thereby concentrating nutrients for the purpose of decreasing transportation costs through decreased mass. Poultry litter was stored in 0.90-Mg conical piles under semipermeable tarps and adjusted to 40% moisture content, tested with and without addition of alum (aluminum sulfate). additional study was conducted using 3.6-Mg piles under the same conditions, except tested with and without use of aeration pipes. Samples were analyzed before and after (8 wk) storage. Litter mass degradation (i.e., loss in mass due to organic matter decomposition) was estimated on the basis of changes in litter total P contents. Additional characterization included pH, total nutrients, moisture content, total C, and degree of humification. Litter storage significantly decreased litter mass (16 to 27%), concentrated nutrients such as P and potassium (K) and increased proportion of fulvic and humic acids. The addition of aeration pipes increased mass degradationrelative to piles without aeration pipes. Nitrogen volatilization losses were minimized with alum additions. Increases in P and K concentrations resulted in greater monetary value per unit mass compared with fresh litter. Such increases translate to increased litter shipping distance and cost savings of $17.2 million over 25 yr for litter movement out of eastern Oklahoma. PMID:21488512

  7. Mineral nutrition of cotton fertilized with poultry litter versus ammonium nitrate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry litter is a superior fertilizer for cotton production in some soils, but whether this superiority is related with its ability to supply multiple mineral nutrients has not been well investigated in the field. The objective of this research was to describe the mineral nutrient profile of litte...

  8. Inorganic fertilizer and poultry-litter manure amendments alter the soil microbial communities in agricultural systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of agricultural land management practices on soil prokaryotic diversity are not well described. We investigated three land usage systems (row cropped, ungrazed pasture, and cattle-grazed pasture) and two fertilizer systems (inorganic fertilizer or IF and poultry-litter or PL) and compare...

  9. Inactivation of avian influenza virus in chicken litter as a potential method to decontaminate poultry houses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Full cleaning and disinfection of a poultry house after an avian influenza virus (AIV) outbreak is expensive and labor intensive. An alternative to full house cleaning and disinfection is to inactivate the virus with high temperatures within the house. Litter in the house normally has a high virus...

  10. Applying Poultry Litter in the Fall to Fertilize Corn May not be Advisable Under Warm Climate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Row crop farmers prefer to apply poultry litter in the fall or winter but whether this practice is safe environmentally and effective for production in regions with warm fall and winter months is not well researched and documented. Research in Mississippi tested the effectiveness of fall- versus spr...

  11. Pathogens, indicators and antibiotic resistance genes in soils with land applied poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry litter (PL) is a by-product of broiler production most of which is land applied where it is a valuable nutrient source for crop production. PL can also be a route of contamination with manure-borne bacteria; in fact, two of the top causes of foodborne illness, Campylobacter sp. and Salmonell...

  12. Composted Poultry Litter as an Amendment for Substrates with High Wood Content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whole Tree (WT) and Clean Chip Residual (CCR) are potential new nursery substrates that are by-products of the forestry industry containing high wood content. Initial immobilization of nitrogen is one limitation of these new substrates, however the addition of composted poultry litter (CPL) to subs...

  13. SOIL COMPACTION AND POULTRY LITTER EFFECTS ON FACTORS AFFECTING NITROGEN AVAILABILITY IN A CLAYPAN SOIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil compaction may affect N mineralization and the subsequent fate of N in agroecosystems. Laboratory incubation and field experiments were conducted to determine the effects of surface soil compaction on soil N mineralization in a claypan soil amended with poultry litter (i.e., turkey excrement mi...

  14. No-till corn response and soil nutrient concentrations from subsurface banding of poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen fertilizer management is vital to no-till corn (Zea mays) production from financial and environmental perspectives. Poultry litter as a nutrient source in this cropping system is generally land applied by surface broadcast, potentially causing volatilization of ammonia (NH3)-N. Recently a...

  15. Trace metal enrichment and distribution in a poultry litter-amended soil under different tillage practices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant nutrients and minor elements contamination resulting from enrichment due to agronomic practices such as poultry litter amendment of soils, tillage practices, and crop rotation patterns that have long been investigated to determine their impacts on yield, as well as soil and environmental susta...

  16. Demonstration of a Small Modular Biopower System Using Poultry Litter-Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    John Reardon; Art Lilley

    2004-06-15

    On-farm conversion of poultry litter into energy is a unique market connected opportunity for commercialization of small modular bioenergy systems. The United States Department of Energy recognized the need in the poultry industry for alternative litter management as an opportunity for bioenergy. The DOE created a relevant topic in the December 2000 release of the small business innovative research (SBIR) grant solicitation. Community Power Corporation responded to this solicitation by proposing the development of a small modular gasification and gas cleanup system to produce separate value streams of clean producer gas and mineral rich solids. This phase II report describes our progress in the development of an on-farm litter to energy system.

  17. Rainfall simulation in greenhouse microcosms to assess bacterial-associated runoff from land-applied poultry litter.

    PubMed

    Brooks, John P; Adeli, Ardeshir; Read, John J; McLaughlin, Michael R

    2009-01-01

    Runoff water following a rain event is one possible source of environmental contamination after a manure application. This greenhouse study used a rainfall simulator to determine bacterial-associated runoff from troughs of common bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] that were treated with P-based, N-based, and N plus lime rates of poultry (Gallus gallus) litter, recommended inorganic fertilizer, and control. Total heterotrophic plate count (HPC) bacteria, total and thermotolerant coliforms, enterococci, staphylococci, Clostridium perfringens, Salmonella, and Campylobacter, as well as antibiotic resistance profiles for the staphylococci and enterococci isolates were all monitored in runoff waters. Analysis following five rainfall events indicated that staphylococci, enterococci, and clostridia levels were related to manure application rate. Runoff release of staphylococci, enterococci, and C. perfringens were approximately 3 to 6 log10 greater in litter vs. control treatment. In addition, traditional indicators such as thermotolerant and total coliforms performed poorly as fecal indicators. Some isolated enterococci demonstrated increased antibiotic resistance to polymixin b and/or select aminoglyocosides, while many staphylococci were susceptible to most antimicrobials tested. Results indicated poultry litter application can lead to microbial runoff following simulated rain events. Future studies should focus on the use of staphylococci, enterococci, and C. perfringens as indicators. PMID:19141812

  18. Sequential P Extracts in Cecil soil during ten years of conventional and conservation tillage cropping management with and without poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil phosphorus (P) buildup from long-term applications of poultry litter presents a potential environmental problem. Knowledge of soil P distribution among its chemical forms is useful for assessing risk levels. We measured sequentially-fractioned H2O, NaHCO3, NaOH, and HCl extractable P in a Cecil...

  19. Long-term effects of poultry litter and conservation 1 tillage on crop 2 yields and soil phosphorus in cotton-cotton-corn rotation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term field experiments are needed to fully realize positive and negative impacts of conservation tillage and poultry litter application. A study was initiated on a Decatur silt loam soil at the Tennessee Valley Research and Extension Center, Belle Mina, AL, USA in 1996 to evaluate cotton (Gossy...

  20. Spatial variability of heating profiles in windrowed poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In-house windrow composting of broiler litter has been suggested as a means to reduce microbial populations between flocks. Published time-temperature goals are used to determine the success of the composting process for microbial reductions. Spatial and temporal density of temperature measurement ...

  1. Subsurface banding, placement of pelletized poultry litter in cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternative management of broiler (Gallus gallus domesticus ) litter in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) production is needed to effectively capture nutrients in the root zone and enable greater crop utilization of land-applied nutrients and hence yield . This four-year study compared the growth, lin...

  2. Effect of various litter amendments on ammonia volatilization and nitrogen content of poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia (NH3) volatilization from poultry manure contributes to atmospheric nitrogen (N) pollution, negatively effects poultry performance and reduces the fertilizer value of manure. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of alum (Al2(SO4)3.14H2O), liquid alum, high acid alum (A7), ...

  3. Environmental fate of roxarsone in poultry litter. I. Degradation of roxarsone during composting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garbarino, J.R.; Bednar, A.J.; Rutherford, D.W.; Beyer, R.S.; Wershaw, R. L.

    2003-01-01

    Roxarsone, 3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid, is an organoarsenic compound that is used extensively in the feed of broiler poultryto control coccidial intestinal parasites, improve feed efficiency, and promote rapid growth. Nearly all the roxarsone in the feed is excreted unchanged in the manure. Poultry litter composed of the manure and bedding material has a high nutrient content and is used routinely as a fertilizer on cropland and pasture. Investigations were conducted to determine the fate of poultrylitter roxarsone in the environment. Experiments indicated that roxarsone was stable in fresh dried litter; the primary arsenic species extracted with water from dried litter was roxarsone. However, when water was added to litter at about 50 wt % and the mixture was allowed to compost at 40 ??C, the speciation of arsenic shifted from roxarsone to primarily arsenate in about 30 days. Increasing the amount of water increased the rate of degradation. Experiments also suggested that the degradation process most likely was biotic in nature. The rate of degradation was directly proportional to the incubation temperature; heat sterilization eliminated the degradation. Biotic degradation also was supported by results from enterobacteriaceae growth media that were inoculated with litter slurry to enhance the biotic processes and to reduce the concomitant abiotic effects from the complex litter solution. Samples collected from a variety of litter windrows in Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Maryland also showed that roxarsone originally present had been converted to arsenate.

  4. Transformation of ionophore antimicrobials in poultry litter during pilot-scale composting.

    PubMed

    Munaretto, Juliana S; Yonkos, Lance; Aga, Diana S

    2016-05-01

    Ionophores are the second top selling class of antimicrobials used in food-producing animals in the United States. In chickens, ionophores are used as feed additives to control coccidiosis; up to 80% of administered ionophores are excreted in the litter. Because poultry litter is commonly used to fertilize agricultural fields, ionophore residues in litter have become contaminants of emerging concern. This study aims to develop a liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to quantify ionophores, and identify their transformation products (TPs) in poultry litter after on-farm pilot-scale composting. The validation parameters of the optimized method showed good accuracy, ranging from 71 to 119% recovery and relative standard deviation (precision) of ≤19% at three different concentration levels (10, 50 and 100 μg/kg). Monensin, salinomycin and narasin, were detected in the poultry litter samples prior to composting at 290.0 ± 40, 426 ± 46, and 3113 ± 318 μg kg(-1), respectively. This study also aims to investigate the effect of different composting conditions on the removal of ionophores, such as the effect of turning or aeration. Results revealed a 13-68% reduction in ionophore concentrations after 150 d of composting, depending on whether the compost was aerated, turned, or subjected to a combination of both aeration and turning. Three transformation products and one metabolite of ionophores were identified in the composted litter using high-resolution liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QToF/MS). PMID:26874321

  5. Reducing Phosphorus Runoff and Leaching from Poultry Litter with Alum: Twenty-Year Small Plot and Paired-Watershed Studies.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lidong; Moore, Philip A; Kleinman, Peter J A; Elkin, Kyle R; Savin, Mary C; Pote, Daniel H; Edwards, Dwayne R

    2016-07-01

    Treating poultry litter with alum has been shown to lower ammonia (NH) emissions and phosphorus (P) runoff losses. Two long-term studies were conducted to assess the effects of alum-treated poultry litter on P availability, leaching, and runoff under pasture conditions. From 1995 to 2015, litter was applied annually in a paired watershed study comparing alum-treated and untreated litter and in a small plot study comparing 13 treatments (an unfertilized control, four rates of alum-treated litter, four rates of untreated litter, and four rates of NHNO). In the paired watershed study, total P loads in runoff were 231% higher from pasture receiving untreated litter (1.96 kg P ha) than from that receiving alum-treated litter (0.85 kg P ha). In both studies, alum-treated litter resulted in significantly higher Mehlich III P (M3-P) and lower water-extractable P at the soil surface, reflecting greater retention of applied P and lesser availability of that P to runoff or leaching. In soils fertilized with alum-treated litter, M3-P was much higher when analyzed by inductively coupled argon plasma emission spectrometry than by colorimetry, possibly due to the formation of aluminum phytate. Indeed, alum-treated poultry litter leached less P over the 20-yr study: M3-P at 10 to 50 cm was 266% greater in plots fertilized with untreated litter (331 kg M3-P ha) than with alum-treated litter (124 kg M3-P ha). This research provides compelling evidence that treating poultry litter with alum provides short-term and long-term benefits to P conservation and water quality. PMID:27380092

  6. Determination of veterinary pharmaceuticals in poultry litter and soil by methanol extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Furtula, Vesna; Huang, Lee; Chambers, Patricia A

    2009-09-01

    Pharmaceuticals are emerging contaminants with potential risks to the environment and human health. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) method was developed for determination of the antimicrobials virginiamycin, monensin, salinomycin, narasin and nicarbazin in poultry litter and soil. This method involves methanol extraction and clean-up of extracts through glass microfibre filters, introduction of the extracts and separation of compounds on a Zorbax Eclipse XDB C8 column, and compound detection in a Quattro Micro Micromass spectrometer. For litter samples, Method Detection Limits ranged from 0.1-0.6 microg Kg(-1), while Limits of Quantitation (LOQs) were 2, 1, 0.4, 1 and 2 microg Kg(-1) for virginiamycin, monensin, salinomycin, narasin and nicarbazin, respectively. For soil samples calculated LOQs were 2, 3, 1, 1, and 1 microg Kg(-1) for virginiamycin, monensin, salinomycin, narasin and nicarbazin, respectively. Application of the LC-MS-MS method for detection of veterinary pharmaceuticals in litter collected from commercial poultry farms showed that compounds were present at concentrations ranging from 10-11,000 microg Kg(-1). PMID:20183082

  7. Influence of poultry litter on the toxicity of cadmium to aquatic organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosal, T.K.; Kaviraj, A.

    1996-12-01

    Increased deposition of cadmium in impounded water through atmospheric fallout and runoff water is a growing concern for aquaculture. In India, pisciculture practices are threatened by frequent low to moderate deposition of Cd in ponds. Although several studies have been conducted on Cd toxicity to freshwater organisms, little is known about the interaction of Cd with other chemicals present in the receiving water system. There is evidence that Cd, in the presence of other chemicals, may produce synergistic, additive or antagonistic effect on aquatic organisms. Aquatic ecosystems, heavily enriched by nitrogen and phosphorus, have reduced the stress imposed by Cd. In contrast, chemicals such as KMnO{sub 4} and CoCl{sub 2} used in aquaculture increase Cd toxicity to fish and plankton. Poultry litter is frequently used in pisciculture ponds to enrich nutrients. However, interaction of poultry litter with Cd is not known. 17 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  8. Phases' characteristics of poultry litter hydrothermal carbonization under a range of process parameters.

    PubMed

    Mau, Vivian; Quance, Julie; Posmanik, Roy; Gross, Amit

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this work was to study the hydrothermal carbonization of poultry litter under a range of process parameters. Experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of HTC of poultry litter under a range of operational parameters (temperature, reaction time, and solids concentration) on the formation and characteristics of its phases. Results showed production of a hydrochar with caloric value of 24.4MJ/kg, similar to sub-bituminous coal. The gaseous phase consisted mainly of CO2. However, significant amounts of H2S dictate the need for (further) treatment. The process also produced an aqueous phase with chemical characteristics suggesting its possible use as a liquid fertilizer. Temperature had the most significant effect on processes and product formation. Solids concentration was not a significant factor once dilution effects were considered. PMID:27544913

  9. Long Term Effects of Poultry Litter on Soil Physical and Chemical Properties in Cotton Plots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surrency, J.; Tsegaye, T.; Coleman, T.; Fahsi, A.; Reddy, C.

    1998-01-01

    Poultry litter and compost can alter the moisture holding capacity of a soil. These organic materials can also increase the nutrient status of a soil during the decomposition process by microbial actions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of poultry litter and compost on the dielectric constant and moisture holding capacity of soil. The Delta-T theta-probe was used to measure volumetric soil water content and the apparent dielectric constant of the upper 6-cm of the soil profile. Soil texture, pH, and organic matter were also determined for each plot. Results of these analyses indicated that the pH of the soil ranged from 6.4 to 7.7 and the volumetric soil moisture content ranged from 0.06 to 0.18 cu m/cu m for the upper 6-cm of the soil profile. The effect of poultry litter and compost on soil properties resulted in an increase in the volumetric moisture content and dielectric constant of the soil due to the improvement of the soil structure.

  10. Enhancing management of fall-applied poultry litter with cover crop and subsurface band placement in no-till cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whether yield reduction risk of cotton fertilized with fall-applied poultry litter in regions with warm fall or winter months can be minimized by applying the litter in subsurface bands in conjunction with winter cover crop is unknown. A field study was conducted in Mississippi to test whether litte...

  11. Arsenic in Soils and Forages from Poultry Litter-Amended Pastures

    PubMed Central

    Ashjaei, Shadi; Miller, William P.; Cabrera, Miguel L.; Hassan, Sayed M.

    2011-01-01

    In regions of concentrated poultry production, poultry litter (PL) that contains significant quantities of trace elements is commonly surface-applied to pastures at high levels over multiple years. This study examined the effect of long-term applications of PL on soil concentrations of arsenic (As), copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), and the uptake of these elements by bermuda grass grown on Cecil (well-drained) and Sedgefield (somewhat poorly-drained) soils. The results showed that concentrations of As, Cu, and Zn in soils that had received surface-applied PL over a 14-year period were significantly greater than untreated soil at 0–2.5 and 2.5–7.5 cm depths. However, the levels were well below the USEPA loading limits established for municipal biosolids. Arsenic fractionation showed that concentrations of all As fractions were significantly greater in PL-amended soils compared to untreated soils at 0–2.5 and 2.5–7.5 cm depths. The residual fraction was the predominant form of As in all soils. The water-soluble and NaHCO3-associated As were only 2% of the total As. Significant differences were found in concentrations of these trace elements and phosphorus (P) in forage from PL-amended soils compared to that in untreated plots. The concentrations of Cu, Zn, As, and P were significantly greater in forage from Sedgefield amended soil compared to Cecil soil, but were in all cases below levels of environmental concern. PMID:21655135

  12. Occurrence and sorption of fluoroquinolones in poultry litters and soils from São Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Leal, Rafael Marques Pereira; Figueira, Rafael Fernandes; Tornisielo, Valdemar Luiz; Regitano, Jussara Borges

    2012-08-15

    Animal production is one of the most expressive sectors of Brazilian agro-economy. Although antibiotics are routinely used in this activity, their occurrence, fate, and potential impacts to the local environment are largely unknown. This research evaluated sorption-desorption and occurrence of four commonly used fluoroquinolones (norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, danofloxacin, and enrofloxacin) in poultry litter and soil samples from São Paulo State, Brazil. The sorption-desorption studies involved batch equilibration technique and followed the OECD guideline for pesticides. All compounds were analyzed by HPLC, using fluorescence detector. Fluoroquinolones' sorption potential to the poultry litters (K(d) ≤65 L kg(-1)) was lower than to the soil (K(d) ~40,000 L kg(-1)), but was always high (≥69% of applied amount) indicating a higher specificity of fluoroquinolones interaction with soils. The addition of poultry litter (5%) to the soil had not affected sorption or desorption of these compounds. Desorption was negligible in the soil (≤0.5% of sorbed amount), but not in the poultry litters (up to 42% of sorbed amount). Fluoroquinolones' mean concentrations found in the poultry litters (1.37 to 6.68 mg kg(-1)) and soils (22.93 μg kg(-1)) were compatible to those found elsewhere (Austria, China, and Turkey). Enrofloxacin was the most often detected compound (30% of poultry litters and 27% of soils) at the highest mean concentrations (6.68 mg kg(-1) for poultry litters and 22.93 μg kg(-1) for soils). These results show that antibiotics are routinely used in poultry production and might represent one potential source of pollution to the environment that has been largely ignored and should be further investigated in Brazil. PMID:22750180

  13. Microbial Communities and Enzymatic Activities as Affected by Various Poultry Litter Application Rates to Pasture and Cultivated Soils of the Texas Blackland Prairies Ecosystem

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land application is the most common and usually most desirable method of utilizing manure because of nutrient and organic matter addition to soils. In recent years, as a result of the shift to fewer and larger confined animal operations, environmental and economic issues associated with utilization...

  14. Organoarsenicals in poultry litter: detection, fate, and toxicity.

    PubMed

    P Mangalgiri, Kiranmayi; Adak, Asok; Blaney, Lee

    2015-02-01

    Arsenic contamination in groundwater has endangered the health and safety of millions of people around the world. One less studied mechanism for arsenic introduction into the environment is the use of organoarsenicals in animal feed. Four organoarsenicals are commonly employed as feed additives: arsanilic acid, carbarsone, nitarsone, and roxarsone. Organoarsenicals are composed of a phenylarsonic acid molecule with substituted functional groups. This review documents the use of organoarsenicals in the poultry industry, reports analytical methods available for quantifying organic arsenic, discusses the fate and transport of organoarsenicals in environmental systems, and identifies toxicological concerns associated with these chemicals. In reviewing the literature on organoarsenicals, several research needs were highlighted: advanced analytical instrumentation that allows for identification and quantification of organoarsenical degradation products; a greater research emphasis on arsanilic acid, carbarsone, and nitarsone; identification of degradation pathways, products, and kinetics; and testing/development of agricultural wastewater and solid treatment technologies for organoarsenical-laden waste. PMID:25461415

  15. Role of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in modulating the efficiency of poultry litter composting with rock phosphate and its effect on growth and yield of wheat.

    PubMed

    Billah, Motsim; Bano, Asghari

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the role of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) in P solubilisation from rock phosphate through composting with poultry litter, and further to study the effects of prepared enriched composts on growth, yield, and phosphorus uptake of wheat crop. Various phosphorus-enriched composts were prepared from rock phosphate and poultry litter (1:10) with and without inoculation of plant growth promoting rhizobacterias (Pseudomonas sp. and Proteus sp.). Results showed that the rock-phosphate-added poultry litter had higher total phosphorus, available (Mehlic-3 extracted) phosphorus, microbial biomass (carbon and phosphorus), and lower total organic carbon, total nitrogen, and carbon/nitrogen ratio over poultry litter alone. Inoculation of Pseudomonas sp. with rock phosphate-added poultry litter showed maximum increase in available phosphorus (41% of total phosphorus) followed by Proteus sp. inoculation (30% of total phosphorus) over uninoculated treatment (23% of total phosphorus) on the 120th day of composting. Microbial biomass (carbon and phosphorus) increased up to Day 45 and tended to decrease till the 120th day of composting, irrespective of the treatments. However, in pot experiments, wheat seeds receiving inoculation with plant growth promoting rhizobacterias, subsequently treated with rock phosphate-enriched compost proved highly stimulatory to plant height, phosphorus uptake, grain yield, and seed phosphorus content over uninoculated untreated control. The plant growth promoting rhizobacterias inoculation can be a sustainable source releasing phosphorus from low grade rock phosphate through composting and application of rock phosphate-enriched compost can be an alternative to chemical fertilisers for better crop production. PMID:25423956

  16. The effect of poultry manure application rate and AlCl3 treatment on bacterial fecal indicators in runoff

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The land application of poultry litter was once considered to be the disposal of a ‘waste’ byproduct of the poultry industry, however, now due to increasing costs associated with inorganic fertilizer the application of this residual is becoming more desirable. Proper land application is paramount t...

  17. Extractability and leachability of Pb in a shooting range soil amended with poultry litter ash: investigations for immobilization potentials.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Yohey; Taki, Tomohiro; Sato, Takeshi

    2009-05-01

    The use of agricultural and industrial by-products as a metal immobilizing agent is cost effective for remediation of vast amounts of contaminated soil. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of an amendment (poultry litter ash) on immobilizing Pb in a shooting range soil. For a contaminant transport study, the soil admixed with amendment at the rate of 0 (control), 0.5, 1, 3 and 6%(w/w) was packed into soil columns and eluted solutions were collected through 40 pore volumes. The amendment application significantly reduced the concentrations of water-extractable and toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP)-extractable Pb by > 96% and > 97% of control, respectively. The contaminant transport study demonstrated that increasing amendment additions up to 3% decreased eluted Pb concentration below 0.5 mg L(-1). The X-ray diffraction peaks indicative of chloropyromorphite were observed in the soil of the 1 and 3% treatments, but were less intense in the 0.5 and 6% treatments. The 6% treatment had an eluted Pb concentration of 13 mg L(-1) at the first pore volume and significantly increased the total Pb elution (38 mg kg(-1)), mainly due to a drastic increase of organically complexed Pb as a result of soil alkalinization. These results suggest that poultry litter ash may have potential for immobilizing Pb in shooting range sites, if the soil pH is properly managed. PMID:19337921

  18. Phosphorus release behaviors of poultry litter biochar as a soil amendment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue; Lin, Yingxin; Chiu, Pei C; Imhoff, Paul T; Guo, Mingxin

    2015-04-15

    Phosphorus (P) may be immobilized and consequently the runoff loss risks be reduced if poultry litter (PL) is converted into biochar prior to land application. Laboratory studies were conducted to examine the water extractability of P in PL biochar and its release kinetics in amended soils. Raw PL and its biochar produced through 400°C pyrolysis were extracted with deionized water under various programs and measured for water extractable P species and contents. The materials were further incubated with a sandy loam at 20 g kg(-1) soil and intermittently leached with water for 30 days. The P release kinetics were determined from the P recovery patterns in the water phase. Pyrolysis elevated the total P content from 13.7 g kg(-1) in raw PL to 27.1 g kg(-1) in PL biochar while reduced the water-soluble P level from 2.95 g kg(-1) in the former to 0.17 g kg(-1) in the latter. The thermal treatment transformed labile P in raw PL to putatively Mg/Ca phosphate minerals in biochar that were water-unextractable yet proton-releasable. Orthophosphate was the predominant form of water-soluble P in PL biochar, with condensed phosphate (e.g., pyrophosphate) as a minor form and organic phosphate in null. Release of P from PL biochar in both water and neutral soils was at a slower and steadier rate over a longer time period than from raw PL. Nevertheless, release of P from biochar was acid-driven and could be greatly promoted by the media acidity. Land application of PL biochar at soil pH-incorporated rates and frequency will potentially reduce P losses to runoffs and minimize the adverse impact of waste application on aquatic environments. PMID:25644841

  19. Slow pyrolysis of poultry litter and pine woody biomass: impact of chars and bio-oils on microbial growth.

    PubMed

    Das, K C; Garcia-Perez, M; Bibens, B; Melear, N

    2008-06-01

    Accidental or prescribed fires in forests and in cultivated fields, as well as primitive charcoal production practices, are responsible for the release of large amounts of gases, char and condensable organic molecules into the environment. This paper describes the impact of condensable organic molecules and chars resulting from the slow pyrolysis of poultry litter, pine chips and pine pellets on the growth of microbial populations in soil and water. The proximate and elemental analyses as well as the content of proteins, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and ash for each of these bio-materials are reported. The yields and some properties of char and condensable liquids are also documented. The behavior of microbial populations in soil and water is followed through respiration studies. It was found that biological activity was highest when aqueous fractions from poultry litter were applied in water. Cumulative oxygen consumption over a 120-h period was highest in the aqueous phases from poultry litter coarse fraction (1.82 mg/g). On average the oxygen consumption when oily fractions from poultry litter were applied represented 44 to 62% of that when aqueous fractions were applied. Pine chip and pine pellet derived liquids and chars produced respiration activity that were an order of magnitude lower than that of poultry litter liquid fractions. These results suggest that the growth observed is due to the effect of protein-derived molecules. PMID:18444073

  20. Direct Speciation of Phosphorus in Alum-Amended Poultry Litter: Solid-State 31P NMR Investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Hunger, Stefan; Cho, Herman M.; Sims, James T.; Sparks, Donald L.

    2004-02-01

    Amending poultry litter (PL) with aluminum sulfate (alum) has proven to be effective in reducing water-soluble phosphorus (P) in the litter and in runoff from fields that have received PL applications; it has therefore been suggested as a best management practice. Although its effectiveness has been demonstrated on a macroscopic scale in the field, little is known about P speciation in either alumamended or unamended litter. This knowledge is important for the evaluation of the long-term stability and bioavailability of P, which is a necessary prerequisite for the assessment of the sustainability of intensive poultry operations. Both solid state MAS and CP-MAS {sup 31}P NMR as well as {sup 31}P({sup 27}Al) TRAPDOR were used to investigate P speciation in alumamended and unamended PL. The results indicate the presence of a complex mixture of organic and inorganic orthophosphate phases. A calcium phosphate phase, probably a surface precipitate on calcium carbonate, could be identified in both unamended and alum-amended PL, as well as physically bound HPO{sub 4}{sup 2-}. Phosphate associated with Al was found in the alum-amended PL, most probably a mixture of a poorly ordered wavellite and phosphate surface complexes on aluminum hydroxide that had been formed by the hydrolysis of alum. However, a complex mixture of organic and inorganic phosphate species could not be resolved. Phosphate associated with Al comprised on average 40{+-}14% of the total P in alum-amended PL, whereas calcium phosphate phases comprised on average 7{+-}4% in the alum-amended PL and 14{+-}5% in the unamended PL.

  1. Poultry litter and switchgrass blending for biochar production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biochars for both soil improvement and bioenergy applications are affected by the choice of both the parent feedstock and pyrolysis temperature. As such, controlling these two variables may yield an ideal product with engineered properties—“A Designer Biochar.” The potential for a designer biochar c...

  2. Assessing changes in the composition of broiler litters from commercial poultry units in Northern Ireland following the adoption of phytase in diets.

    PubMed

    Foy, R H; Ball, M E E; George, J

    2014-11-01

    Microbial phytases increase the bioavailability of phytate P in poultry diets, and a survey was undertaken to determine if their use had lowered the P composition of broiler litter in Northern Ireland compared with standard values of litter composition listed in the current United Kingdom fertilizer recommendations. Litter samples were collected from a total of 20 units across Northern Ireland in 2010 and analyzed for DM, N, phosphate (P2O5), potash (K2O), magnesium oxide (MgO), water-soluble P (WSP), ammonium N (NH4N), and uric acid N. Dry matter of litter was positively correlated (P < 0.001) with N (r(2) = 0.65), P2O5 (r(2) = 0.63), K2O (r(2) = 0.56), and MgO (r(2) = 0.58). Negative correlations were observed between litter DM and WSP (r(2) = 0.45, P < 0.001) and NH4N (r(2) = 0.22, P = 0.038) contents. A standardized litter composition with a 60% DM gave a phosphate content of 13.7 kg/t that was 45% lower than the fertilizer book value (RB209), but there were only slight differences (<3%) between book values and DM standardized values for N and potash contents. Uric acid and NH4 contents were similar to published values. Mean N:P ratio (by weight) of litter increased from 3.7 in 2004 to 5.0 in 2010, lowering the risk of oversupply of P if land applications are targeted to meet N supply. Using the standard RB209 values to plan land applications of broiler litter to meet crop P demands risks undersupplying P, and there is a need for the regulatory values to be modified in light of the changing composition of broiler litter. PMID:25260527

  3. Phosphate reactivity in long-term poultry litter-amended southern Delaware sandy soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arai, Y.; Livi, K.J.T.; Sparks, D.L.

    2005-01-01

    Eutrophication caused by dissolved P from poultry litter (PL)-amended agricultural soils has been a serious environmental concern in the Delaware-Maryland-Virginia Peninsula (Delmarva), USA. To evaluate state and federal nutrient management strategies for reducing the environmental impact of soluble P from long-term PL-amended Delaware (DE) soils, we investigated (i) inorganic P speciation; (ii) P adsorption capacity; and (iii) the extent of P desorption. Although the electron microprobe (EMP) analyses showed a strong correlation between P and Al/Fe, crystalline Al/Fe-P precipitates were not detected by x-ray diffraction (XRD). Instead, the inorganic P fractionation analyses showed high levels of oxalate extractable P, Al, and Fe fractions (615-858, 1215-1478, and 337-752 mg kg-1, respectively), which were susceptible to slow release during the long-term (30-d) P desorption experiments at a moderately acidic soil pHwater. The labile P in the short-term (24-h) desorption studies was significantly associated with oxalate and F extractable Fe and Al, respectively. This was evident in an 80% reduction maximum in total desorbable P from NH4 oxalate/F pretreated soils. In the adsorption experiments, P was strongly retained in soils at near targeted pH of lime (???6.0), but P adsorption gradually decreased with decreasing pH near the soil pHwater (???5.0). The overall findings suggest that P losses from the can be suppressed by an increase in the P retention capacity of soils via (i) an increase in the number of lime applications to maintain soil pHwater at near targeted pH values, and/or (ii) alum/iron sulfate amendments to provide additional Al- and Fe-based adsorbents. ?? Soil Science Society of America.

  4. Soil solution chemistry of a fly ash-, poultry litter-, and sewage sludge-amended soil

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, B.P.; Miller, W.P.

    2000-04-01

    Mixing coal fly ash (FA) with organic wastes to provide balanced soil amendments offers a potential viable use of this industrial by-product. When such materials are land-applied to supply nutrients for agronomic crops, trace element contaminant solubility must be evaluated. In this study, major and trace element soil solution concentrations arising from application of fly ash, organic wastes, and mixtures of the two were compared in a laboratory incubation. Two fly ashes, broiler poultry litter (PL), municipal sewage sludge (SS), and mixtures of FA with either PL or SS were mixed with a Cecil sandy loam (fine, kaolinitic, thermic Typic Kanhapludult) at rates of 32.3, 8.1, and 16.1 g kg{sup {minus}1} soil for FA, PL, and SS, respectively. Treatments were incubated at 22 C at 17% moisture content and soil solution was periodically extracted by centrifugation over 33 d. Initial soil solution concentrations of As, Mo, Se, and Cu were significantly greater in FA/OL treatments than the respective FA-only treatments. For Cu, increased solution concentrations were attributable to increased loading rates in FA/PL mixtures. Solution Cu concentrations were strongly correlated with dissolved C (R{sup 2} > 0.96) in all PL treatments. Significant interactive effects for solution Mo and Se concentrations were observed for the FA/PL and may have resulted from the increased pH and competing anion concentrations of these treatments. Solution As concentrations showed a significant interactive effect for one FA/PL mixture. For the individual treatments, As was more soluble in the Pl treatment than either FA treatment. Except for soluble Se from on FA/SS mixture, trace element solubility in the FA/SS mixtures was not significantly different than the respective FA-only treatment.

  5. Lime and Micronutrient Use in Clean Chip Residual Substrate Amended with Composted Poultry Litter or Peat for Use in Annual Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Clean Chip Residual (CCR) has been identified as possible replacement for pine bark (PB) in nursery and greenhouse production. Poultry litter is a major waste problem in Alabama for which alternative uses need to be explored. Pine bark, CCR, Composted poultry litter (CPL) CPL and peat were tested i...

  6. Greenhouse gas (CO2, CH4, N2O) flux associated with agricultural fields with residual poultry litter applied as banded and surface applied treatments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tillage and fertilization practices used in row crop production are thought to alter greenhouse gas emissions from soil. One fertilization practice that can have long lasting impacts in greenhouse gas emissions is poultry litter. Poultry litter is increasingly being used as a source of fertilizer i...

  7. Poultry manure application time impact on corn grain production in a crider silt loam

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the growing interest in poultry litter (PL) use as nutrient sources, whether fall versus spring application timing is consequential to production, is pertinent. This study investigated the effects of fall and spring application of two rates of PL (9.0 Mg-ha-1 and 18.0 Mg-ha-1) and a 19-19-19 (...

  8. In vivo and in vitro estrogenicity and GC/MS/MS and LC/MS/MS quantification of estrogens in aqueous mixtures of raw and pelletized poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abundance, degradation, and bio-activity of estrogens were examined in aqueous solutions of poultry litter from three Delmarva broiler integrators, a pelletized litter sample, a biosolids sample from a regional WWTP, and an estrone (E1) positive control allowed to stand static for 28 days. Litter an...

  9. Development of a Quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay to Target a Novel Group of Ammonia-Producing Bacteria Found in Poultry Litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia production in poultry houses has serious implications for flock health and performance, nutrient value of poultry litter, and energy costs for running poultry operations. The urease enzyme is responsible for the final step in the conversion of organic N (specifically uric acid and urea) to ...

  10. Evaluation of Poultry Litter Amendment to Agricultural Soils: Leaching Losses and Partitioning of Trace Elements in Collard Greens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leaching of trace metals and greenhouse plant growth (Collard greens; Brassica oleracea var. acephala) response studies were conducted in two types of soils with contrasting characteristics amended with varying rates (0 to 24.70 Mg ha-1) of poultry litter (PL) or 1:1 mixture of PL and fly ash (FA). ...

  11. Consequences of Aluminum or Ferrous Sulfate Amended Poultry Litter on Concentrations of Aluminum in Plants and Soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Amending poultry litter with aluminum sulfate (alum) reduces phosphorous (P) runoff and ammonia volatilization but its effects on soil pH are not completely researched. Greenhouse pot experiments with cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and soybean (Glycine max. L. Merr) as test crops were conducted with...

  12. Effect of poultry litter biochar on Saccharomyces cerevisiae growth and ethanol production from steam-exploded poplar and corn stover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diallo, Oumou

    The use of ethanol produced from lignocellulosic biomass for transportation fuel offers solutions in reducing environmental emission and the use of non-renewable fuels. However, lignocellulosic ethanol production is still hampered by economic and technical obstacles. For instance, the inhibitory effect of toxic compounds produced during biomass pretreatment was reported to inhibit the fermenting microorganisms, hence there was a decrease in ethanol yield and productivity. Thus, there is a need to improve the bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol in order to promote its commercialization. The research reported here investigated the use of poultry litter biochar to improve the ethanol production from steam-exploded poplar and corn stover. The effect of poultry litter biochar was first studied on Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 204508/S288C growth, and second on the enzyme hydrolysis and fermentation of two steam-exploded biomasses: (poplar and corn stover). The third part of the study investigated optimal process parameters (biochar loading, biomass loading, and enzyme loading) on the reducing sugars production, and ethanol yield from steam-exploded corn stover. In this study, it has been shown that poultry litter biochar improved the S. cerevisiae growth and ethanol productivity; therefore poultry litter biochar could potentially be used to improve the ethanol production from steam-exploded lignocellulosic biomass.

  13. Identification and Molecular Characterization of Class 1 Integrons in Multiresistant Escherichia coli Isolates from Poultry Litter

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Márquez, María-Enriqueta; Khan, Ashraf A.

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the prevalence of arrays of class 1 integron cassettes and Qnr determinants (A, B, and S) in 19 fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli isolates from chicken litter. qnrS and qnrA were the predominant genes in these fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates, and an uncommon array of aacA4-catB3-dfrA1 gene cassettes from a class1 integron was found. Additionally, aadA1 and dfrA1 gene cassettes, encoding resistance to streptomycin and trimethoprim, constituted the most common genes identified and was located on megaplasmids as well on the chromosome. Antibiotic resistance, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and plasmid data suggest a genetically diverse origin of poultry E. coli isolates. PMID:22635994

  14. On-farm agro-economic effects of fertilizing cropland with poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As animal feeding operations increase in size, public and regulatory pressure is being exerted on the animal industry to develop and implement appropriate by-product utilization practices. One such practice is offsite application of litter and manure as fertilizer for cultivated crop production. How...

  15. Poultry litter incineration as a source of energy: reviewing the potential for impacts on environmental health and justice.

    PubMed

    Stingone, Jeanette A; Wing, Steve

    2011-01-01

    Legislation in North Carolina has mandated obtaining renewable energy from the incineration of poultry waste, resulting in proposals for three poultry-litter-fueled power plants statewide. This article summarizes environmental health and environmental justice issues associated with incineration of poultry waste for the generation of electric power. Emissions from poultry waste incineration include particulate matter, dioxins, arsenic, bioaerosols and other toxins; various components are associated with cardiovascular disease, cancer, respiratory illness, and other diseases. Industrial farm animal production tends to be concentrated in low-income, rural communities, where residents may be more vulnerable to air pollutants due to pre-existing diseases, other exposures and stressors, and poor access to medical services. These communities lack the political clout to prevent citing of polluting facilities or to pressure industry and government to follow and enforce regulations. Policies intended to reduce reliance on fossil fuels have the potential to increase environmental injustices and threats to environmental health. PMID:21411424

  16. Develop an alternate energy source thru use of a poultry litter pelletizer and a combustion chamber to heat poultry houses. Final technical project report

    SciTech Connect

    Gonthier, M.W.; Mercier, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    Poultry litter in a pelletized form is an acceptable energy source. The machinery and mechanism to process the litter, the combustion chamber with supporting controls and equipment, is practical and marketable. The controlling factor is economic demand. With the price of fossil fuel diminishing and with the labor cost and energy cost to process the litter, it is not economically desirable to pay the equivalent of $1.50 per gallon. It would not be economically competitive with present heating power plants because of its high initial cost, the cost of labor to maintain a pellet supply and the undesirable feature of solid fuel versus liquid fuel. This system could not be fully competitive with present systems until fuel pric

  17. Environmental impacts of in-house windrow composting of broiler litter prior to land application in subtropical/semi-arid conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land application to crop and pasture land is a common and effective method of utilizing the resource value of poultry litter. In-house windrow composting of litter is an emerging management practice with the potential to mitigate water quality and nuisance odor concerns associated with land applica...

  18. Odour emissions from poultry litter - A review litter properties, odour formation and odorant emissions from porous materials.

    PubMed

    Dunlop, Mark W; Blackall, Patrick J; Stuetz, Richard M

    2016-07-15

    Odour emissions from meat chicken sheds can at times cause odour impacts on surrounding communities. Litter is seen as the primary source of this odour. Formation and emission of odour from meat chicken litter during the grow-out period are influenced by various factors such as litter conditions, the environment, microbial activity, properties of the odorous gases and management practices. Odour emissions vary spatially and temporally. This variability has made it challenging to understand how specific litter conditions contribute to odour emissions from the litter and production sheds. Existing knowledge on odorants, odour formation mechanisms and emission processes that contribute to odour emissions from litter are reviewed. Litter moisture content and water thermodynamics (i.e. water activity, Aw) are also examined as factors that contribute to microbial odour formation, physical litter conditions and the exchange of individual odorant gases at the air-water interface. Substantial opportunities exist for future research on litter conditions and litter formation mechanisms and how these contribute to odour emissions. Closing this knowledge gap will improve management strategies that intercept and interfere with odour formation and emission processes leading to an overall reduction in the potential to cause community impacts. PMID:27111649

  19. Veterinary pharmaceuticals and antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli isolates in poultry litter from commercial farms and controlled feeding trials.

    PubMed

    Furtula, V; Farrell, E G; Diarrassouba, F; Rempel, H; Pritchard, J; Diarra, M S

    2010-01-01

    Veterinary pharmaceuticals are commonly used in poultry farming to prevent and treat microbial infections as well as to increase feed efficiency, but their use has created public and environmental health concerns. Poultry litter contains antimicrobial residues and resistant bacteria; when applied as fertilizer, the level and effects of these pharmaceuticals and antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in the environment are of concern. The purpose of this study was to investigate poultry litter for veterinary pharmaceuticals and resistance patterns of Escherichia coli. Litter samples were collected from controlled feeding trials and from commercial farms. Feed additives bacitracin, chlortetracycline, monensin, narasin, nicarbazin, penicillin, salinomycin, and virginiamycin, which were present in the feed on commercial farms and added to the feed in the controlled trials, were extracted in methanol and analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry techniques. Sixty-nine E. coli were isolated and identified by API 20E. The susceptibility of the isolates to antibiotics was determined using Avian plates and the Sensititer automated system. This study confirmed the presence of antimicrobial residues in broiler litter from controlled environments as well as commercial farms, ranging from 0.07 to 66 mg/L depending on the compound. Concentrations of individual residues were higher in litter from controlled feeding trials than those from commercial farms. All E. coli isolates from commercial farms were multiresistant to at least 7 antibiotics. Resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics (amoxicillin, ceftiofur), tetracyclines, and sulfonamides was the most prevalent. This study concluded that broiler litter is a source of antimicrobial residues and represents a reservoir of multiple antibiotic-resistant E. coli. PMID:20008817

  20. An assessment of the effectiveness of four in-house treatments to reduce the bacterial levels in poultry litter.

    PubMed

    Lopes, M; Leite, F L; Valente, B S; Heres, T; Dai Prá, M A; Xavier, E G; Roll, V F B

    2015-09-01

    Although the use of quicklime (CaO) and tarping are common handling practices aimed at the reuse of litter in the Brazilian poultry industry, few scientific studies have proven the effectiveness of these methods in reducing the pathogenic microbial load during fallowing. The objective of this study was to evaluate the following litter treatments: T1 no treatment (control), T2 quicklime (300 g m(-2)), T3 tarping, T4 tarping+quicklime (300 g m(-2)). The litter samples were collected on day zero and on the sixth and twelfth days after the start of fallowing. The use of quicklime alone or quicklime+tarping was more effective (P<0.05) in reducing bacteria when compared to litter tarping. Except for the control group, all treatments resulted in a more than 84% reduction in the count of colony-forming units (CFUs) at the end of fallowing. It is concluded that the use of quicklime alone in practical terms is the most indicated treatment for the reduction of the bacterial load of poultry litter. PMID:26217027

  1. Effects of in ovo vaccination and anticoccidials on the distribution of Eimeria spp. in poultry litter and serum antibody titers against coccidia in broiler chickens raised on the used litters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study reports the effects of various field anticoccidial programs on the distribution of Eimeria spp. in poultry litter and serum antibody titers against coccidia in broiler chickens raised on the used litters. The programs included in ovo vaccination and various medications with either ...

  2. Effect of in ovo vaccination and anticoccidials on the distribution of Eimeria spp. in poultry litter and serum antibody titers against coccidia in broiler chickens raised on used litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study reports the effects of various field anticoccidial programs on the distribution of Eimeria spp. in poultry litter and serum antibody titers against coccidia in broiler chickens raised on used litter. The programs included in ovo vaccination and various medications with either chemi...

  3. Agronomic and environmental soil test phosphorus method comparisons and diet modification impacts on poultry litter phosphorus composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eugene, Branly

    account for extractable Al and Fe, the primary P sorbents in most soils. Although Bray P1 is an appropriate soil test based on the data generated in this study, it would not be the most practical soil test as it is not considered a multi-element extraction in most states. Since PM3 was strongly correlated with Bray P1 and the benefit of using PM3as a multi-element extractant from which the PSRM3 can be calculated, it is probably the most practical test to use for both agronomic and environmental soil P assessment. We also evaluated the impacts of diets containing different amounts of DDGS and dietary fumeric acid on P excretion and P transformations during litter storage. Total P and phytate P were significantly (p< 0.0001) affected by dietary inclusion of DDGS; where DDGS inclusion of 20% decreased TP by 16, 15, and 16% for day 0, 7, and 14 of storage, respectively compared to commercial diets. Phytate P, on the other hand, was reduced by 38, 37, and 47% for day 0, 7, and 14 of storage, respectively. Overall, DDGS influenced the forms of P in poultry litter with phytate P being the most impacted. The inclusion of DDGS in poultry diets seems promising as it can potentially decrease the levels of phytate P in poultry litters, which is of may be of environmental significance as phytate P can desorb inorganic P in soils.

  4. Nutrient release and ammonium sorption by poultry litter and wood biochars in stormwater treatment.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jing; Miller, Valentina; Chiu, Pei C; Maresca, Julia A; Guo, Mingxin; Imhoff, Paul T

    2016-05-15

    The feasibility of using biochar as a filter medium in stormwater treatment facilities was evaluated with a focus on ammonium retention. Successive batch extractions and batch ammonium sorption experiments were conducted in both deionized (DI) water and artificial stormwater using poultry litter (PL) and hardwood (HW) biochars pyrolyzed at 400°C and 500°C. No measureable nitrogen leached from HW biochars except 0.07 μmol/g of org-N from 400°C HW biochar. PL biochar pyrolyzed at 400°C leached 120-127 μmol/g of nitrogen but only 7.1-8.6 μmol/g of nitrogen when pyrolyzed at 500°C. Ammonium sorption was significant for all biochars. At a typical ammonium concentration of 2mg/L in stormwater, the maximum sorption was 150 mg/kg for PL biochar pryolyzed at 400°C. In stormwater, ion competition (e.g. Ca(2+)) suppressed ammonium sorption compared to DI water. Surprisingly, ammonium sorption was negatively correlated to the BET surface area of the tested biochars, but increased linearly with cation exchange capacity. Cation exchange capacity was the primary mechanism controlling ammonium sorption and was enhanced by pyrolysis at 400°C, while BET surface area was enhanced by pyrolysis at 500°C. The optimal properties (BET surface area, CEC, etc.) of biochar as a sorbent are not fixed but depend on the target pollutant. Stormwater infiltration column experiments in sand with 10% biochar removed over 90% of ammonium with influent ammonium concentration of 2mg/L, compared to only 1.7% removal in a sand-only column, indicating that kinetic limitations on sorption were minor for the storm conditions studied. Hardwood and poultry litter biochar pyrolyzed at 500°C and presumably higher temperature may be viable filter media for stormwater treatment facilities, as they showed limited release of organic and inorganic nutrients and acceptable ammonium sorption. PMID:26938322

  5. Updraft gasification of poultry litter at farm-scale--A case study.

    PubMed

    Taupe, N C; Lynch, D; Wnetrzak, R; Kwapinska, M; Kwapinski, W; Leahy, J J

    2016-04-01

    Farm and animal wastes are increasingly being investigated for thermochemical conversion, such as gasification, due to the urgent necessity of finding new waste treatment options. We report on an investigation of the use of a farm-scale, auto-thermal gasification system for the production of a heating gas using poultry litter (PL) as a feedstock. The gasification process was robust and reliable. The PL's ash melting temperature was 639°C, therefore the reactor temperature was kept around this value. As a result of the low reactor temperature the process performance parameters were low, with a cold gas efficiency (CGE) of 0.26 and a carbon conversion efficiency (CCE) of 0.44. The calorific value of the clean product gas was 3.39 MJ m(-3)N (LHV). The tar was collected as an emulsion containing 87 wt.% water and the extracted organic compounds were identified. The residual char exceeds thresholds for Zn and Cu to obtain European biochar certification; however, has potential to be classified as a pyrogenic carbonaceous material (PCM), which resembles a high nutrient biochar. PMID:26948170

  6. Poultry litter and the environment: Physiochemical properties of litter and soil during successive flock rotations and after remote site deposition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The U.S. broiler meat market has grown over the past 16 years and destinations for U.S. broiler meat exports expanded to over 150 countries. This market opportunity has spurred a corresponding increase in industrialized poultry production, which due to the confined space in which high numbers of an...

  7. Hydrothermal carbonisation of poultry litter: Effects of treatment temperature and residence time on yields and chemical properties of hydrochars.

    PubMed

    Ghanim, Bashir M; Pandey, Daya Shankar; Kwapinski, Witold; Leahy, James J

    2016-09-01

    In this study, hydrochars were prepared by hydrothermal carbonisation (HTC) of poultry litter (PL) at temperatures between 150-300°C with residence times of 30, 120 and 480min. The effects of treatment temperature and residence time on the yield and composition of hydrochar were investigated. Both treatment temperature and residence time effects were observed however, the effect of residence time was lower. The results indicated that the HHV was improved by up to 25.17% and the overall ash in hydrochar was significantly lower compared to PL, however this coincided with a lower hydrochar yield. PMID:27262091

  8. Engineering and economic feasibility of using poultry litter as a fuel to generate electric power at Maryland`s Eastern Correctional Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Estomin, S.L.; Walters, G.; Prasad, A.; Ross, J.

    1998-02-16

    This report presents an analysis of the engineering, environmental, and economic feasibility of the Eastern Correctional Institute (ECI) meeting its electric power and thermal requirements by relying on poultry litter as a fuel. In addition to satisfying all or a portion of the utility requirements of ECI, a maximum/medium security prison located in Princess Anne, Maryland, the use of poultry litter as a fuel would reduce the amount of poultry waste currently used on the Eastern Shore as fertilizer. Based on the engineering and environmental assessments conducted, three alternative scenarios to satisfy ECI`s electric power supply and thermal requirements using poutlry litter as a fuel were developed. For all scenarios, as well as a base case defined by current operations at ECI, 20-year life-cycle costs were estimated based on projections of usage, capital costs, fuel costs, labor costs, and other relevant factors.

  9. Comparison of two poultry litter qPCR assays targeting the 16S rRNA gene of Brevibacterium sp.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Hodon; Elk, Michael; Khan, Izhar U H; Harwood, Valerie J; Molina, Marirosa; Edge, Thomas A; Domingo, Jorge Santo

    2014-01-01

    Chicken feces commonly contain human pathogens and are also important sources of fecal pollution in environmental waters. Consequently, methods that can detect chicken fecal pollution are needed in public health and environmental monitoring studies. In this study, we compared a previously developed SYBR green qPCR assay (LA35) to a novel TaqMan qPCR assay (CL) for the environmental detection of poultry-associated fecal pollution. We tested both assays against chicken litter (n = 40), chicken fecal samples (n = 186), non-chicken fecal sources (n = 484), and environmental water samples (n = 323). Most chicken litter samples (i.e., ≥ 98%) were positive for both assays with relatively high signal intensities, whereas only 23% and 12% of poultry fecal samples (n = 186) were positive with the LA35 and the CL assays, respectively. Data using fecal samples from non-target animal species showed that the assays are highly host-associated (≥ 95%). Bayesian statistical models showed that the two assays are associated with relatively low probability of false-positive and false-negative signals in water samples. The CL marker had a lower prevalence than the LA35 assay when tested against environmental water samples (i.e., 21% vs. 31% positive signals). However, by combining the results from the two assays the detection levels increased to 41%, suggesting that using multiple assays can improve the detection of chicken-fecal pollution in environmental waters. PMID:24169514

  10. Rainfall and tillage effects on transport of fecal bacteria and sex hormones 17beta-estradiol and testosterone from broiler litter applications to a Georgia Piedmont Ultisol.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Michael B; Truman, Clint C; Siragusa, Gregory; Line, Eric; Bailey, J Stan; Frye, Jonathan; Endale, Dinku M; Franklin, Dorcas H; Schomberg, Harry H; Fisher, Dwight S; Sharpe, Ronald R

    2008-09-15

    Poultry litter provides nutrients for crop and pasture production; however, it also contains fecal bacteria, sex hormones (17beta-estradiol and testosterone) and antibiotic residues that may contaminate surface waters. Our objective was to quantify transport of fecal bacteria, estradiol, testosterone and antibiotic residues from a Cecil sandy loam managed since 1991 under no-till (NT) and conventional tillage (CT) to which either poultry litter (PL) or conventional fertilizer (CF) was applied based on the nitrogen needs of corn (Zea mays L) in the Southern Piedmont of NE Georgia. Simulated rainfall was applied for 60 min to 2 by 3-m field plots at a constant rate in 2004 and variable rate in 2005. Runoff was continuously measured and subsamples taken for determining flow-weighted concentrations of fecal bacteria, hormones, and antibiotic residues. Neither Salmonella, nor Campylobacter, nor antimicrobial residues were detected in litter, soil, or runoff. Differences in soil concentrations of fecal bacteria before and after rainfall simulations were observed only for Escherichia coli in the constant rainfall intensity experiment. Differences in flow-weighted concentrations were observed only for testosterone in both constant and variable intensity rainfall experiments, and were greatest for treatments that received poultry litter. Total loads of E. coli and fecal enterococci, were largest for both tillage treatments receiving poultry litter for the variable rainfall intensity. Load of testosterone was greatest for no-till plots receiving poultry litter under variable rainfall intensity. Poultry litter application rates commensurate for corn appeared to enhance only soil concentrations of E. coli, and runoff concentrations of testosterone above background levels. PMID:18571694