Science.gov

Sample records for poverty conventional wisdom

  1. Conventional wisdom about familial contributions to substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Blechman, E A

    1982-01-01

    Conventional social-science wisdom about the family background of substance abusers breaks down into three hypotheses. The broken home causes substance abuse; overprotective mothers with or without neglectful fathers cause substance abuse; substance abuse is reinforced by the changes it brings about in family interaction. The broke-home hypothesis attributes substance abuse to sheer absence of a parent, usually the father. The overprotective-mother hypothesis emphasizes the effect of indulgent, dominant mother behavior sometimes combined with ineffectual father behavior. The increased-control hypothesis emphasizes the effects of substance abuser, parents, and siblings on one another. Because investigations of these hypotheses are necessarily correlational, existing research on the family backgrounds of substance abusers suffers from methodological flaws characteristic of weak correlational designs. These hypotheses are logical extensions of Freudian theory, early social-learning theory, and revised social-learning theory respectively. Assumptions that pertinent aspects of the more general theories have been upheld by empirical investigation are not justified. PMID:7171072

  2. Population and development problems: a critical assessment of conventional wisdom. The case of Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Sibanda, A E

    1988-01-01

    Conventional wisdom, as reflected in reports by the World Bank and the Whitsun Foundation, maintains that control of population growth is the key strategy for stimulating socioeconomic development and ending widespread poverty. The Witsun Foundation has criticized the Government of Zimbabwe for failing to include specific policies for population control in its National Transitional Development Plan. the report further expressed alarm about future availability of land to contain Zimbabwe's growing population. Communal areas are designed for a maximum of 325,000 families yet presently contain 700-800,000 families. This Malthusian, deterministic emphasis on population growth as the source of social ills ignores the broader, complex set of socioeconomic, historical, and political factors that determine material life. Any analysis of population that fails to consider the class structure of society, the type of division of labor, and forms of property and production can produce only meaningless abstractions. For example, consideration of crowding in communal areas must include consideration of inequitable patterns of land ownership in sub-Saharan Africa. Unemployment must be viewed within the context of a capitalist economic structure that relies on an industrial reserve army of labor to ensure acceptance of low wages and labor-intensive conditions. While it is accepted that population growth is creating specific and real problems in Zimbabwe and other African countries, these problems could be ameliorated by land reform and restructuring of the export-oriented colonial economies. Similarly, birth control should not be promoted as the solution to social problems, yet family planning services should be available to raise the status of women. Literacy, agrarian reform, agricultural modernization, and industrialization campaigns free from the dominance of Western capitalism represent the true solutions to Zimbabwe's problems. PMID:12342943

  3. One-to-One Paraprofessionals for Students with Disabilities in Inclusive Classrooms: Is Conventional Wisdom Wrong?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giangreco, Michael F.

    2010-01-01

    Assigning one-to-one paraprofessionals has become an increasingly common response to support students with intellectual and other developmental disabilities in general education classrooms. This article challenges the conventional wisdom that such an approach to service provision is necessarily a desirable and supportive action. Five main reasons…

  4. The Motivational Relevance of Educational Plans: Questioning the Conventional Wisdom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Karl L.; Cook, Martha A.

    Using two complimentary data sets, the National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972 and the Study of Academic Prediction and Growth, the conventional interpretation of educational plans as motives and thus determinants of educational attainment is questioned. It was found that when questioned about their educational loans: (1) as…

  5. The new conventional wisdom: an evaluation of the WHO report, Health Systems: Improving Performance.

    PubMed

    Navarro, V

    2001-01-01

    The World Health Organization's recent report, Health Systems: Improving Performance, has been highly visible in the professional and popular media. The report evaluates the world's health care systems according to three characteristics--effectiveness, responsiveness to users, and the progressivity of their funding--then uses these evaluations to rank countries by each of these characteristics and by an overall indicator of performance, a composite of all three characteristics. The ranking has been widely cited, but rarely subjected to scientific scrutiny. This article analyzes the concepts and methods used in the study and the assumptions and values inherent in the report. The author demonstrates how the report's uncritical acceptance of what has become the new conventional wisdom on health and medical care policies in the United States and other developed countries seriously limits its value. PMID:11271646

  6. Aging human circadian rhythms: conventional wisdom may not always be right

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, Timothy H.

    2005-01-01

    This review discusses the ways in which the circadian rhythms of older people are different from those of younger adults. After a brief discussion of clinical issues, the review describes the conventional wisdom regarding age-related changes in circadian rhythms. These can be summarized as four assertions regarding what happens to people as they get older: 1) the amplitude of their circadian rhythms reduces, 2) the phase of their circadian rhythms becomes earlier, 3) their natural free-running period (tau) shortens, and 4) their ability to tolerate abrupt phase shifts (e.g., from jet travel or night work) worsens. The review then discusses the empirical evidence for and against these assertions and discusses some alternative explanations. The conclusions are that although older people undoubtedly have earlier circadian phases than younger adults, and have more trouble coping with shift work and jet lag, evidence for the assertions about rhythm amplitude and tau are, at best, mixed.

  7. Rejecting conventional wisdom: how academic medical centers can regain their leadership positions.

    PubMed

    Krauss, K; Smith, J

    1997-07-01

    Academic medical centers (i.e., medical schools and their principal hospitals) are following very similar strategies in attempts to secure their futures. It is likely that these undifferentiated strategies will fail, since most of them have been copied from the lower-cost, geographically better-positioned hospitals and health systems. Despite a wealth of innovative, entrepreneurial talent and the potential to reshape the world that AMCs live in, most AMCs are in reactive modes. Future directions and strategies are almost always shaped, forced, and justified by external pressures. The major problem with the strategic plans of most AMCs is that they are based on conventional industry wisdom. Strategic plans tend not to be analytically driven. The insight and understanding of those factors that drive the demand for AMCs' services and determine the performances of AMCs are lacking. The authors note some questions that are critical to the formulation of strategies for AMCs. For example, how can the research mission be changed from a cost-based to a value-based endeavor? Most AMCs cannot answer these questions, and if they do address them in the planning process, they do so superficially. Several examples of the factors that need to be understood are also given, such as patients' purposes and needs in seeking specialty care. Alternative strategies are listed, such as maintaining and exploiting the economic irrationality of the market rather than acting as if it were economically rational or forcing it to become so. Last, the authors outline the scope of the changes that are required and urge AMCs to reject conventional wisdom, determine their own unique situations, and work from there. PMID:9236466

  8. Beyond the conventional wisdom: USAID projects, interorganizational linkages, and institutional reform in Peru.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, G D

    1992-07-01

    The case study of the linkages between departmental-level and national organizations in Peru shows how linkages can play a significant role in national reform. A general overview of current articles on interorganizational linkages and decentralization pertinent to the Peruvian context of control oriented public sectors is provided. The Peruvian institutional context and the constraints faced by decentralized development agencies called departmental development corporations (CORDES) are identified. CORDES members were provincial mayors, representatives of private sector professional and economic organizations, and heads of ministerial field offices, autonomous agencies, and public enterprises. Microregional offices were established and received public funding. USAID channeled funding through the national organizations to the CORDES in the Integrated Regional Development Project (IRD) between 1979-86, and the Disaster Relief, Rehabilitation, and Reconstruction (DRR) Project between 1983-87. The IRD and the DRR are described in addition to the decentralized organization support network established by the 2 projects. There is an analysis of how these interorganizational linkages contributed to conventional uses of linkages and unconventional or institutional reform. Reforms were facilitated by direct persuasion of central agencies to change their administrative regulations, policies, and operating procedures, and extensive lobbying by the support network to pass budgetary reform favoring CORDES and bureaucratic reorientation. Conclusions were reached on 1) the importance of assistance linkages for hastening implementation, building capacity, and overcoming organizational weaknesses (conventional wisdom); 2) the usefulness of vertical linkages in resolving administrative or technical weaknesses (unconventional wisdom); and 3) the usefulness of reinforcing project related units within key national level agencies which increases access to power while specific objectives

  9. The Teaching-Family Model and Post-Treatment Recidivism: A Critical Review of the Conventional Wisdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingsley, David E.

    2006-01-01

    Conventional wisdom suggests that the Teaching-Family Model (TFM) approach to treating youthful offenders is not effective in reducing post-treatment recidivism. This article reviews two major studies referenced in support of this widespread perception. Data presented in one widely referenced study are treated with a Cochran-Mantel-Haensel test,…

  10. Schooling, Skills, and Self-Rated Health: A Test of Conventional Wisdom on the Relationship between Educational Attainment and Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke, Naomi; Macmillan, Ross

    2016-01-01

    Education is a key sociological variable in the explanation of health and health disparities. Conventional wisdom emphasizes a life course--human capital perspective with expectations of causal effects that are quasi-linear, large in magnitude for high levels of educational attainment, and reasonably robust in the face of measured and unmeasured…

  11. L2 Learning Opportunities in Different Academic Subjects in Content-Based Instruction -- Evidence in Favour of "Conventional Wisdom"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo, Yuen Yi

    2014-01-01

    Content-based instruction (CBI) adopts a second language (L2) as the medium of instruction for some or all academic subjects to facilitate L2 learning. There seem however, no uniform policies concerning which academic subjects should be taught in L2, in case only some subjects are involved. Conventional wisdom tends to favour Humanities subjects…

  12. Imaging Karst Aquifers with Multichannel Seismic Data in Biscayne Bay: Conventional Wisdom Defied

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, C.; Cunningham, K. J.

    2008-05-01

    Conventional wisdom reasons that acquisition of useful seismic data in shallow-marine carbonate environments is not possible because: (1) water-bottom multiples will dominate; (2) receiver offsets will be too short to image deep reflectors; (3) normal move out is too small to effectively calculate velocities; (4) air-gun source arrays are not appropriate or frequency band-limited; and (5) it is folly to over-sample the seismic data and process very large digital data sets. In 2007, about 108 km (17 individual profiles) of marine, multichannel, high-resolution, seismic data were acquired almost entirely inside Biscayne National Park in water depths ranging from 0.9 to 100 m. The data were collected using a 48-trace, towed-streamer array; an interdependent air-gun as the seismic source; and a proprietary 52-channel, 24-bit recording system. The seismic vessel was a fast, shallow-draft catamaran capable of continuously acquiring data in water as shallow as 0.7 m. The set of seismic images from 17 profiles show well-defined reflections from near surface to the Eocene Oldsmar Formation (including the karstic Boulder Zone in the Lower Floridan aquifer). The profiles also display distinctive geologic features that include karst, clinoformal prograding strata, unconformities, fractures, stratal truncation, and evidence for breaching of confining units.

  13. Effect of Poverty on Urban Preschool Children's Understanding of Conventional Time Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Roseanne L.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the understanding of conventional time concepts by urban preschool children reared in poverty with that of their peers not raised in poverty. The questionnaire used in this study was based on the original work of Ames. Thirty-six children ranging in age from three to five years of age participated in…

  14. Contrary To Conventional Wisdom, Physicians Abandoned A Breast Cancer Treatment After A Trial Concluded It Was Ineffective.

    PubMed

    Howard, David H; Soulos, Pamela R; Chagpar, Anees B; Mougalian, Sarah; Killelea, Brigid; Gross, Cary P

    2016-07-01

    Conventional wisdom holds that physicians are slow to abandon ineffective medical practices. We evaluated this theory in the case of axillary lymph node dissection, a procedure to remove the lymph nodes near the breast to prevent the spread of breast cancer following breast-conserving surgery. A major trial conducted from 1999 to 2004, with results presented in 2010 and published in 2011, found that patients who met certain criteria could forgo axillary lymph node dissection. Using cancer registry data, we estimated that the proportion of patients undergoing axillary dissection declined by 32.6 percentage points after the trial was published. The decline began immediately after the trial was presented at a medical conference. The rapid decline in the use of axillary dissection belies the common belief that practice patterns are slow to change in response to new evidence, and it highlights the value of trials of established medical practices to patients and the health system. PMID:27385249

  15. Ground Truthing the 'Conventional Wisdom' of Lead Corrosion Control Using Mineralogical Analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    For drinking water distribution systems (DWDS) with lead-bearing plumbing materials some form of corrosion control is typically necessary, with the goal of mitigating lead release by forming adherent, stable corrosion scales composed of low-solubility mineral phases. Conventional...

  16. Bucking Conventional Wisdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Marion

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses his contention that even the best of the best of American schools are not quality schools. He also observes that the curriculum that has been in place since 1892 was the main reason why schools cannot offer the best in quality education. He cites the ten problems that have plagued the American educational…

  17. Postsecondary Employment and Education Status of Inner City Youth: Conventional Wisdom Reconsidered. Publication Series 95-14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stull, William; Goetz, Michael

    This report provides statistical evidence that presents a picture at variance with the conventional portrayal of inner city youth. Using data from a national longitudinal study of high school students, the High School and Beyond survey, the study shows that young people display more resilience than they are usually given credit for. Comparison of…

  18. Wisdom and Religious Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Might there be education-in-wisdom? Firstly we need to identify and characterise what this "wisdom" would be. Towards this end comparisons and contrasts are attempted here between this wisdom, on the one hand, and intelligence, cleverness, knowledge, common sense, and trivial wisdom on the other. An Aristotelian account of wisdom emerges; and we…

  19. Unconventional Wisdom about Buying Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Michael F.

    2004-01-01

    Conventional wisdom says that people should not buy anything in education until research is seen. The following questions should be asked: (1) Does that particular technology enhance learning? (2) Does that piece of software increase test scores? and (3) Do those machines reduce absenteeism? Of course the answer is always yes. No vendor is going…

  20. Better Schooling for the Children of Poverty: Alternatives to Conventional Wisdom. Study of Academic Instruction for Disadvantaged Students. Volume II: Commissioned Papers and Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Michael S., Ed.; Shields, Patrick M., Ed.

    This document comprises nine commissioned papers and four literature review chapters that are part of the first report of the Study of Academic Instruction for Disadvantaged Students, a 3-year investigation of curriculum and instruction in elementary schools serving high concentrations of poor children. (A summary of this report is presented in…

  1. Wisdom in the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prewitt, Vana R.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the Data Information Knowledge Wisdom (DIKW) model of cognitive processes that human performance technology professionals can use to structure performance improvement efforts within a knowledge-intensive workforce. Discusses knowledge management and presents a summary of relevant wisdom studies and how they can be used for developing and…

  2. Shakespeare on Wisdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordstrom, Alan

    2007-01-01

    In universities and elsewhere, might we study Shakespeare to learn about wisdom and how to grow wiser? Assuming with Nicholas Maxwell that wisdom is the capacity to realize what is of value in life, for oneself and others, then I say yes. The testimony is long and strong that being wise goes against our grain, and that even if we can agree that…

  3. Individual differences in wisdom conceptions: relationships to gratitude and wisdom.

    PubMed

    König, Susanne; Glück, Judith

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown that most laypeople hold one of two typical conceptions of wisdom--a cognitive or an integrative conception. The current study extends previous research by including a qualitative assessment of people's views of what wisdom is and how it develops, and by relating wisdom conceptions are related to levels of wisdom and gratitude. A sample of 443 young adults rated the relevance of cognitive, reflective, and affective aspects for wisdom. Cluster analyses confirmed the two typical wisdom conceptions: a primarily cognitive view of wisdom and a view emphasizing the integration of cognition, reflection, and affect. The two groups also differed in freely-generated characteristics of wisdom and its development. Additionally, the integrative conception was more frequent in individuals with higher levels of gratitude and wisdom. In sum, laypeople's conceptions of wisdom vary along similar lines as those of wisdom psychologists. PMID:24416966

  4. Wisdom in medicine.

    PubMed

    Branch, William T; Mitchell, Gary A

    2011-01-01

    The pathway to wisdom is a crooked one. Doctors have many opportunities to become wiser, and may do so in different ways and to different degrees. We suggest several means to facilitate their passage. There remains an additional key step. Seeking wisdom should become embedded in the culture of medicine. This may follow from the types of activities discussed above. We believe that wisdom is underrecognized as a life goal for medical practitioners and teachers. It is the pinnacle that every doctor should strive to achieve. PMID:21877511

  5. Impacted wisdom teeth

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The incidence of impacted wisdom teeth (third molars) is high, with some 72% of Swedish people aged 20 to 30 years having at least one impacted wisdom tooth. Impacted wisdom teeth occur because of a lack of space, obstruction, or abnormal position. They can cause inflammatory dental disease manifested by pain and swelling of infected teeth and may destroy adjacent teeth and bone. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: Should asymptomatic, disease-free impacted wisdom teeth be removed prophylactically? What are the effects of different operative (surgical) techniques for removing impacted wisdom teeth? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to October 2013 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Results We found 11 studies that met our inclusion criteria. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: prophylactic extraction, active surveillance, and different operative (surgical) techniques for extracting impacted wisdom teeth. PMID:25170946

  6. Understanding and Teaching Practical Wisdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassett, Caroline L.

    2011-01-01

    Because wisdom is such a complex and multidimensional construct, it is difficult to study, much less to define. Based on the author's understanding, her definition of wisdom is as follows: "Wisdom is about human flourishing; it is having sufficient awareness in various situations and contexts to act in ways that enhance our common humanity." This…

  7. Wisdom, Intelligence & Creativity Synthesized

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    How is it that smart administrators who want to do a good job often find themselves in situations that degenerate into confrontation and, ultimately, termination? In this article, the author discusses why in terms of a model of leadership--which he refers to it as WICS, an acronym for wisdom, intelligence and creativity synthesized. He describes…

  8. Oklahoma Higher Education: Challenging the Conventional Wisdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denhart, Matthew; Matgouranis, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    A major headline in recent years has been that cash-strapped state governments are cutting back support for many services, including public higher education. Oklahoma is no different. Indeed, in the most recent state budget crafted by Oklahoma policymakers, Oklahoma's public colleges and universities received a 5.8 percent cut in state…

  9. Rethinking Conventional Wisdom about Higher Ed Finance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dennis P.; Wellman, Jane

    2009-01-01

    Clearly, changing postsecondary finance without a lot of new money to grease the skids will be difficult. The status quo is always easier than change, particularly change that will be objectionable to those who benefited most in the previous system. But political objections aren't the only barrier to changing funding in higher education; a…

  10. Using Data to Upend Conventional Wisdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Alan

    2006-01-01

    Many school districts are putting data to good use, although much of the data used in administrative decision making ultimately derives from standardized test scores, which raises a host of other related concerns. The author's purpose in this article is not to critique the types or sources of data that administrators use, but to suggest that there…

  11. Campus Interviews: Some Challenges to Conventional Wisdom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBell, Camille; Dinger, Timothy J.

    1997-01-01

    Examined the questions that 33 corporate recruiters asked during 128 campus screening interviews. Analyses revealed that most questions addressed college experience, work experience, strengths and weaknesses, and biographical background. Significant relationships were found among type of company, gender of recruiter, and type of question. Results…

  12. Educating Lives for Christian Wisdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Darin H.; Wadell, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    This article explores how educating lives for Christian wisdom might serve as an antidote to the vice of "acedia," a prominent feature of the culture of contemporary higher education. After suggesting that the capital vice of "acedia" seems to capture well various facets of our present age and how the pursuit of wisdom serves…

  13. Conventional Wisdom: Negotiating Conventions of Reference Enhances Category Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voiklis, John; Corter, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Collaborators generally coordinate their activities through communication, during which they readily negotiate a shared lexicon for activity-related objects. This social-pragmatic activity both recruits and affects cognitive and social-cognitive processes ranging from selective attention to perspective taking. We ask whether negotiating reference…

  14. Teaching for Wisdom: What Matters Is Not Just What Students Know, but How They Use It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert J.; Reznitskaya, Alina; Jarvin, Linda

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a balance theory of wisdom and applies the theory to the context of schooling. First the article discusses why cognitive skills as assessed by conventional tests are an important, but not a sufficient, basis for education. Second the article discusses the concept of wisdom and why it is important for schooling. Third the…

  15. The Wisdom Development Scale: Further Validity Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Jeffrey A.; Brown, Scott C.

    2009-01-01

    Researchers are gaining an interest in the concept of wisdom, a more holistic yet often ineffable educational outcome. Models of wisdom abound, but few have rigorously tested measures. This study looks at Brown's (2004a, 2004b) Model of Wisdom Development and its associated measure, the Wisdom Development Scale (WDS; Brown & Greene, 2006). The…

  16. Realizing Wisdom Theory in Complex Learning Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kok, Ayse

    2009-01-01

    The word "wisdom" is rarely seen in contemporary technology and learning discourse. This conceptual paper aims to provide some clear principles that answer the question: How can we establish wisdom in complex learning networks? By considering the nature of contemporary calls for wisdom the paper provides a metatheoretial framework to evaluate the…

  17. Cultivating Wisdom through Digital Learning Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kok, Ayse

    2009-01-01

    The word "wisdom" is rarely seen in contemporary technology and learning discourse. This conceptual paper aims to provide some clear principles that answer the question: How can we establish wisdom in complex learning networks? By considering the nature of contemporary calls for wisdom the paper provides a metatheoretical framework to…

  18. Gender and the Development of Wisdom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orwoll, Lucinda; Achenbaum, W. Andrew

    1993-01-01

    Drawing on a model of wisdom that includes components in three domains (personality, cognition, and conation) and across three levels (intrapersonal, interpersonal, and transpersonal), highlights potential differences in the ways women and men attain and express wisdom; and examines interactive patterns across the components of wisdom. (BC)

  19. Teaching, Learning, and the Human Quest: Wisdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvis, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Wisdom is a complex phenomenon: it finds its home primarily but not exclusively in theology, philosophy, psychology, education--that is, in the humanities--and in life itself. In a paradoxical manner, wisdom finds its home in the world of the unanswerable, where there are no empirical proofs and no obvious answers. Wisdom actually finds its place…

  20. Reading Poverty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shannon, Patrick

    The central purpose of this book is to challenge current social constructions of poverty, reading education, and the putative relationship between the two. It explores how official and popular representations of poverty are bound to specific historical, social, and economic conditions of their own production. The book offers four stances of…

  1. Wisdom, technology, and the good life.

    PubMed Central

    Markey, H T

    1979-01-01

    Wisdom lies in extraction of good from new and old. Wisdom alone produces a society of wise men unable to leave their caves. Technology alone produces a society ruled by cold, despotic facts. A proper combination of wisdom and technology can produce the good life. That requires recognition of our ambivalence toward technology, a move away from our superspecialization of technologists and nontechnologists and toward a clearer understanding of technology as a most important servant of man. PMID:396156

  2. Wisdom, technology, and the good life.

    PubMed

    Markey, H T

    1979-10-01

    Wisdom lies in extraction of good from new and old. Wisdom alone produces a society of wise men unable to leave their caves. Technology alone produces a society ruled by cold, despotic facts. A proper combination of wisdom and technology can produce the good life. That requires recognition of our ambivalence toward technology, a move away from our superspecialization of technologists and nontechnologists and toward a clearer understanding of technology as a most important servant of man. PMID:396156

  3. Wisdom.

    PubMed

    Apfel, Paul S

    2015-01-01

    Restorative dentists are often faced with the challenge of weighing best practice treatment plans against the treatment requests of their patients. I believe we all must ask ourselves prior to performing any dental procedure, "How do I know this restoration will be successful, given the multitude of physiological, pathological and anatomical limitations that can affect the prognosis?" There is no restorative dental procedure that is free of risk. The purpose of this article is to examine an interesting and somewhat controversial restorative case that illuminates perception and judgment and the consequences of risk assessment. PMID:26521323

  4. Wisdom in a Learning in Retirement Institute

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farquhar, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    Seven men and women with an average age of 77 were interviewed regarding the role of wisdom in their experience of attending a Learning in Retirement Institute (LRI) in southern Ontario, Canada. A finding is that for wisdom gains to be an outcome of LRI education, older adult students need outward expression of their acquired learnings. A…

  5. Real-Life Contextual Manifestations of Wisdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Shih-Ying

    2008-01-01

    Wisdom pertains to managing human affairs, and it arises in highly contextualized situations. The present study aims to investigate manifestations of wisdom in real-life contexts through semi-structured interviews with 66 individuals nominated as wise persons. All nominees were ethnic Chinese from Taiwan, an East Asian country which has…

  6. Assessing for Wisdom, Intelligence and Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses how to assess for wisdom, intelligence, and creativity. The author describes how he uses the model, Wisdom, Intelligence and Creativity Synthesized, or WICS, as a basis for admissions at Tufts University. Then, he presents actual essay topics that can be used for admissions to the Class of 2011.

  7. Reform Education: Teach Wisdom and Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Schools, more and more, have emphasized the acquisition of knowledge, which seems to have come at the expense of wisdom and positive ethical values, which have not been emphasized. Nonetheless, wisdom and ethical values are what's needed to be taught in schools. But acting wise, or ethically, is a complicated process involving eight sometimes…

  8. Real-life contextual manifestations of wisdom.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shih-Ying

    2008-01-01

    Wisdom pertains to managing human affairs, and it arises in highly contextualized situations. The present study aims to investigate manifestations of wisdom in real-life contexts through semi-structured interviews with 66 individuals nominated as wise persons. All nominees were ethnic Chinese from Taiwan, an East Asian country which has Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism as its predominant philosophies. Analysis of these interview transcripts yielded 220 wisdom incidents that fall into five categories of wisdom. Results of the present study suggests that in real life, wisdom most likely is manifested through: 1) striving for common good by helping others and contributing to society; 2) achieving and maintaining a satisfactory state of life; 3) deciding and developing life paths; 4) resolving difficult problems at work; and 5) insisting on doing the right thing when facing adversity. PMID:19266867

  9. Neurobiology of Wisdom?: A Literature Overview

    PubMed Central

    Meeks, Thomas W.; Jeste, Dilip V.

    2013-01-01

    Context Wisdom is a unique psychological trait noted since antiquity, long discussed in humanities disciplines, recently operationalized by psychology and sociology researchers, but largely unexamined in psychiatry or biology. Objective We discuss recent neurobiological studies related to subcomponents of wisdom identified from several published definitions/descriptions of wisdom by clinical investigators in the field – i.e., prosocial attitudes/behaviors, social decision-making/pragmatic knowledge of life, emotional homeostasis, reflection/self-understanding, value relativism/tolerance, and acknowledgement of and dealing effectively with uncertainty. Design Literature overview focusing primarily on neuroimaging/brain localization and secondarily on neurotransmitters, including their genetic determinants. Results Functional neuroimaging permits exploration of neural correlates of complex psychological attributes such as those proposed to comprise wisdom. The prefrontal cortex figures prominently in several wisdom subcomponents (e.g., emotional regulation, decision-making, value relativism), primarily via top-down regulation of limbic and striatal regions. The lateral prefrontal cortex facilitates calculated, reason-based decision-making, whereas the medial prefrontal cortex is implicated in emotional valence and prosocial attitudes/behaviors. Reward neurocircuitry (ventral striatum, nucleus accumbens) also appears important for promoting prosocial attitudes/behaviors. Monoaminergic activity (especially dopaminergic and serotonergic), influenced by several genetic polymorphisms, is critical to certain subcomponents of wisdom such as emotional regulation (including impulse control), decision-making, and prosocial behaviors. Conclusions We have proposed a speculative model of the neurobiology of wisdom involving fronto-striatal and fronto-limbic circuits and monoaminergic pathways. Wisdom may involve optimal balance between functions of phylogenetically more

  10. Wisdom: a goal of nursing education.

    PubMed

    D'Antonio, Jocelyn

    2014-02-01

    The attainment of wisdom is a goal of intellectual development manifested in an individual by a solid knowledge base, effective critical thinking skills, creative problem solving, and a sense of duty and altruism to humankind. Promoting the achievement of wisdom as a focal point in a nursing program can provide a unifying perspective in the development of a curriculum. Teaching strategies such as case studies, small group discussions, mentoring, reflective writing, and professional networking are effective ways to promote wisdom in nursing students. PMID:24308535

  11. Reverse osmosis reverses conventional wisdom with Superfund cleanup success

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, M. ); Miller, K. )

    1994-09-01

    Although widely recognized as the most efficient means of water purification, reverse osmosis has not been considered effective for remediating hazardous wastewater. Scaling and fouling, which can cause overruns and downtime, and require membrane replacement, have inhibited success in high-volume wastewater applications. Despite this background, a reverse osmosis technology developed in Europe recently was used successfully to treat large volumes of contaminated water at a major Superfund site in Texas. The technology's success there may increase the chances for reverse osmosis to find wider use in future cleanups and other waste treatment applications.

  12. Competing with the conventional wisdom: newspaper framing of medical overtreatment.

    PubMed

    Walsh-Childers, Kim; Braddock, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Overtreatment, defined as the use of medical tests, products, and services that are not medically necessary or beneficial to the patient, may account for as much as 30% of all U.S. health care expenditures. This article describes a study of the framing of this important health and economic issue in elite U.S. newspapers from January 1, 2007, through December 31, 2010. Within 98 articles providing some mention of overtreatment, analysis revealed three major frames: uncertainty, cost, and legal issues. Within the uncertainty frame, there was a remarkable emphasis on cancer testing and treatment as a driver of overutilization, which may suggest to readers that overtreatment does not occur or is not important in other types of medical care. Relatively few stories paid much attention to the financial costs of overtreatment. PMID:23537348

  13. Against Conventional Wisdom: Factors Influencing Hispanic Students' Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Percell, Jay C.; Kaufman, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    The researchers performed a variable analysis of the 2002 Educational Longitudinal Study data investigating factors that influence students' reading scores on standardized tests. Hispanic and non-Hispanic Scores were analyzed and controlling variables were compared to determine the effect of each on both populations. Certain variables commonly…

  14. Psychotherapy vs. Medication for Depression: Challenging the Conventional Wisdom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antonuccio, David; And Others

    Antidepressant medications are the most popular treatment for depression in the United States, despite the fact that there may be more effective and safer alternatives. This paper discusses alternative, effective psychological interventions for unipolar depression. Studies that compare and contrast psychological and pharmacological treatments for…

  15. 75 FR 51507 - WisdomTree Asset Management, Inc., and WisdomTree Trust; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ... COMMISSION WisdomTree Asset Management, Inc., and WisdomTree Trust; Notice of Application August 13, 2010... materially amend subadvisory agreements without shareholder approval. Applicants: WisdomTree Asset Management, Inc (``WTAM'' or ``Adviser'') and WisdomTree Trust (``Trust''). Filing Dates: The application...

  16. [The wisdom of the animal body].

    PubMed

    Preuss, F R

    1991-09-01

    In 1932 CANNON described the physiological wisdom of the body. This cannot exist without morphological wisdom. Since morphology is a formative process, both kinds of wisdom depend on the same formative forces. These forces are the forces of consciousness at all levels. Their existence is proved by the fact that they can be eliminated by narcosis. The wisdom of these forces is twofold: Firstly, the wisdom of need sensation which lasts only until the need is satisfied. This is the conscious intelligence of the body which is responsible for restraint in all living beings. Secondly, the wisdom, or better, the prudence of need satisfaction which requires knowledge and appropriate tools. The organs of the body are these tools. Knowledge belongs to the intellect which knows how to handle material. This is achieved in all prehuman species subconsciously and is demonstrated in all structures built by cells and animals. Only the human mind can be unwise and imprudent; but man, being free, is also able to be wise and prudent and so prevent the extinction of the earthly creation. PMID:1759726

  17. Wisdom and Psychosocial Functioning in Later Life.

    PubMed

    Wink, Paul; Staudinger, Ursula M

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the connection between wisdom-related performance, personality, and generativity to further the understanding of how they are interrelated. Our sample consisted of 163 men and women 68-77 years of age, mostly White, and predominantly middle class. Wisdom was assessed with the performance-based Berlin Wisdom Paradigm, with the remaining measures being mostly self-report. As hypothesized, on the zero-order level, wisdom-related performance (WRP) was positively associated with (a) growth, a personality component indexed by Openness to Experience, psychological mindedness, and a sense of well-being derived from growth, purpose in life, and autonomy; (b) adjustment, a personality component associated with life satisfaction, high levels of Agreeableness and Conscientiousness, low Neuroticism, a sense of well-being derived from positive relations with others, self-acceptance, and environmental mastery; and (c) a generative concern for the welfare of others. Latent path analysis indicated that the bivariate associations between adjustment and wisdom and between generativity and wisdom were mediated by growth. Wise individuals are characterized by their ability to balance different personal strengths and interests, an integration that occurs, however, within the context of a dominant personality style marked by the pursuit of maturity through personal growth. PMID:25546500

  18. Poverty reduction in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Collier, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Poverty in Africa has been rising for the last quarter-century, while it has been falling in the rest of the developing world. Africa's distinctive problem is that its economies have not been growing. This article attempts to synthesize a range of recent research to account for this failure of the growth process. I argue that the reasons lie not in African peculiarities but rather in geographic features that globally cause problems but that are disproportionately pronounced in Africa. These features interact to create three distinct challenges that are likely to require international interventions beyond the conventional reliance on aid. PMID:17942702

  19. Hope out of Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Roy F.; Tolbert, Marsha; Myers-Oliver, Donna; Brissett, Julia M.; Roland, Annissa J.

    2007-01-01

    In "A Framework of Poverty," Ruby Payne (1998) itemizes the things that characterize poverty-stricken people. She talks about how hard it is for a person to move out of poverty. To not pass poverty on to another generation, one must have a vision. One must have a desire to achieve a better life or a strong support system. Schools must become the…

  20. The Wisdom of Experience: Autobiographical Narratives across Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gluck, Judith; Bluck, Susan; Baron, Jacqueline; McAdams, Dan P.

    2005-01-01

    This research uses an autobiographical approach to examine the relation of age to several aspects of wisdom. In Study 1 (N = 86), adolescents', young adults', and older adults' wisdom narratives were content-coded for the types of life situations mentioned and the forms that wisdom took. Types of life situations reported (e.g., life decisions)…

  1. Measuring the Character Strength of Wisdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Jeffrey Dean

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the psychosocial correlates and psychometric properties of the Self-Assessed Wisdom Scale (SAWS) (Webster, 2003a). Seventy-three men and 98 women ranging in age from 17-92 years (Mean age = 42.77) completed an expanded, 40-item version of the SAWS, the Loyola Generativity Scale, and the Experiences in Close Relationships Scale.…

  2. Giambattista Vico and the Wisdom of Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper offers a rehabilitation of the neglected eighteenth-century thinker and philosopher, Giambattista Vico (1668-1744), and defends the contemporary relevance of his construction of the wisdom of teaching. Reinventing the ancient traditions of European rhetoric, and reacting with great critical hostility to the pervasive educational…

  3. Leadership Wisdom: Balancing on the High Wire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Helen

    Emerging technologies and unstable financial issues are placing increasing demands on college administrators to provide visionary leadership. While numerous management frameworks have emerged in the past two decades, from Total Quality Management to transformational leadership, leaders should consider the concept of leadership wisdom in guiding…

  4. Practical Wisdom and the Workplace Researcher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Paul

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses the form of enquiry appropriate for the workplace researcher. The first part of the paper is used to introduce the main themes of "phronesis" and relies heavily on Aristotle and Heidegger. It is argued that practical wisdom developed through experience of practical judgements offers a form of enquiry appropriate for the…

  5. Cultural Values, Life Experiences, and Wisdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le, Thao N.

    2008-01-01

    Wisdom is considered one ideal endpoint of human development across cultures. Studies have provided evidence for certain facilitating conditions such as challenging and stressful life events because they increase differentiation through accommodative changes, resulting in greater tolerance for uncertainty, and less projection tendencies and…

  6. Implementing a computing architecture with WISDOM

    SciTech Connect

    Zebrowski, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    Over the past two years, the Savannah River Site (SRS) work force has expanded by more than 6000 employees. This large influx of personnel, in conjunction with the limited office space, has resulted in an overcrowding problem on site. To alleviate some of the overcrowding, Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) has been in the process of leasing space from several office buildings within Aiken, SC. Brookhaven, the latest off-site office building to be leased, is the starting point for a new direction in office automation which will eventually spread throughout SRS. The computing architecture in place at Brookhaven was designed to adhere to the SRS computer architecture guidelines as published by the WSRC Computer Architecture Standards Team (CAST). At the heart of the Brookhaven implementation is a Workstation Integration System for DOS, OS/2 and Macintosh (WISDOM). The key features of the WISDOM system include: it's utilization of a Local Area Network (LAN), it's Graphical User Interface (GUI), it's cross-platform capability, it's portable user interface, and the installation program. To begin, I will give an overview of the network architecture, then discuss WISDOM in detail, mention some platform integration problems that need to be addressed and conclude with a summary of the user benefits that WISDOM provides.

  7. Implementing a computing architecture with WISDOM

    SciTech Connect

    Zebrowski, J.R.

    1991-12-31

    Over the past two years, the Savannah River Site (SRS) work force has expanded by more than 6000 employees. This large influx of personnel, in conjunction with the limited office space, has resulted in an overcrowding problem on site. To alleviate some of the overcrowding, Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) has been in the process of leasing space from several office buildings within Aiken, SC. Brookhaven, the latest off-site office building to be leased, is the starting point for a new direction in office automation which will eventually spread throughout SRS. The computing architecture in place at Brookhaven was designed to adhere to the SRS computer architecture guidelines as published by the WSRC Computer Architecture Standards Team (CAST). At the heart of the Brookhaven implementation is a Workstation Integration System for DOS, OS/2 and Macintosh (WISDOM). The key features of the WISDOM system include: it`s utilization of a Local Area Network (LAN), it`s Graphical User Interface (GUI), it`s cross-platform capability, it`s portable user interface, and the installation program. To begin, I will give an overview of the network architecture, then discuss WISDOM in detail, mention some platform integration problems that need to be addressed and conclude with a summary of the user benefits that WISDOM provides.

  8. Embodied Wisdom: Meditations on Memoir and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryer, Alison

    2010-01-01

    "Embodied Wisdom: Meditations on Memoir and Education" by Alison Pryer, Ph.D. explores the interconnectedness of body, mind and spirit within diverse educational contexts. Evocative, sensual prose carries the reader on a journey through the personal and the remembered in a layered series of autobiographical essays, each one affording deeper…

  9. Commercial Influences on the Pursuit of Wisdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHenry, Leemon B.

    2007-01-01

    This essay examines the effects of commercialization on education with particular focus on corporatization of academic research. This trend results from a business model of education, which I identify as profit-based inquiry. I contrast profit-based inquiry with Nicholas Maxwell's conception of wisdom-based inquiry and conclude that the business…

  10. Collective Wisdom, Clones, and New Creations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villadsen, Alice W.

    2002-01-01

    Concerned with the impending community college leadership deficit, the author articulates a vision for reinventing leadership development programs that balance the collective wisdom of experience with the innovation essential for addressing the cultural and technological challenges of the future. Presents three model leadership programs that…

  11. The Relationship between Mental and Somatic Practices and Wisdom

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Patrick B.; Mangelsdorf, Heather H.; Kontra, Carly; Nusbaum, Howard C.; Hoeckner, Berthold

    2016-01-01

    In this study we sought to explore how experience with specific mental and somatic practices is associated with wisdom, using self-report measures of experience and wisdom. We administered standard surveys to measure wisdom and experience among four groups of practitioners of mental and somatic practices, namely, meditators, practitioners of the Alexander Technique, practitioners of the Feldenkrais Method, and classical ballet dancers. We additionally administered surveys of trait anxiety and empathy to all participants to explore possible mediating relationships of experience and wisdom by characteristics thought to be components of wisdom. Wisdom was higher on average among meditation practitioners, and lowest among ballet dancers, and this difference held when controlling for differences in age between practices, supporting the view that meditation is linked to wisdom and that ballet is not. However, we found that increased experience with meditation and ballet were both positively associated with wisdom, and that lowered trait anxiety mediated this positive association among meditation practitioners, and, non-significantly, among ballet dancers. These results suggest that not all practices that are purported to affect mental processing are related to wisdom to the same degree and different kinds of experience appear to relate to wisdom in different ways, suggesting different mechanisms that might underlie the development of wisdom with experience. PMID:26890493

  12. The Relationship between Mental and Somatic Practices and Wisdom.

    PubMed

    Williams, Patrick B; Mangelsdorf, Heather H; Kontra, Carly; Nusbaum, Howard C; Hoeckner, Berthold

    2016-01-01

    In this study we sought to explore how experience with specific mental and somatic practices is associated with wisdom, using self-report measures of experience and wisdom. We administered standard surveys to measure wisdom and experience among four groups of practitioners of mental and somatic practices, namely, meditators, practitioners of the Alexander Technique, practitioners of the Feldenkrais Method, and classical ballet dancers. We additionally administered surveys of trait anxiety and empathy to all participants to explore possible mediating relationships of experience and wisdom by characteristics thought to be components of wisdom. Wisdom was higher on average among meditation practitioners, and lowest among ballet dancers, and this difference held when controlling for differences in age between practices, supporting the view that meditation is linked to wisdom and that ballet is not. However, we found that increased experience with meditation and ballet were both positively associated with wisdom, and that lowered trait anxiety mediated this positive association among meditation practitioners, and, non-significantly, among ballet dancers. These results suggest that not all practices that are purported to affect mental processing are related to wisdom to the same degree and different kinds of experience appear to relate to wisdom in different ways, suggesting different mechanisms that might underlie the development of wisdom with experience. PMID:26890493

  13. Clustering of Blog Sites Using Collective Wisdom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Nitin; Galan, Magdiel; Liu, Huan; Subramanya, Shankar

    The blogosphere is expanding at an unprecedented speed. A better understanding of the blogosphere can greatly facilitate the development of the social Web to serve the needs of users, service providers, and advertisers. One important task in this process is the clustering of blog sites. Although a good number of traditional clustering methods exist, they are not designed to take into account the blogosphere's unique characteristics. Clustering blog sites presents new challenges. A prominent feature of the social Web is that many enthusiastic bloggers voluntarily write, tag, and catalog their posts in order to reach the widest possible audience who will share their thoughts and appreciate their ideas. In the process, a new kind of collective wisdom is generated. The objective of this work is to make use of this collective wisdom in the clustering of blog sites. As such, we study how clustering with collective wisdom can be achieved and compare its performance with respect to representative traditional clustering methods. Here contain, we will present statistical and visual results, report findings, opportunities for future research work, and estimated timeline, extending this work to many real-world applications.

  14. Psycho-oncology: Searching for practical wisdom?

    PubMed

    Butlin, Helen

    2015-10-01

    The debate is vigorous in psycho-oncology about whether spiritual, existential, and psychosocial are the most comprehensive terms for academic research discourses investigating meaning and purpose. A call-to-action email from the International Society of Psycho-Oncology included the term soul. The current essay highlights the historical and contemporary uses of "soul" to suggest that the re-emergent soul signifies a tacit quest for an "intangible" that seems missing in current constructs of clinical domains reflected in the vigor of the debates. It is suggested that the re-emergence of the pre-Medieval meaning(s) of the notion of soul affirms a growing need for integrative paradigms on "being human" to guide psycho-oncology practitioners and their research. As a paradigmatic example, a clinical support group entitled Soul Medicine is described as employing the term soul to open up the more marginal discourses about experiences of illness arising from philosophical reflection, arts, humanities, and spirituality within a clinical oncology context. A link between soul and wisdom is suggested for further exploration with the view that phronesis ("the virtue of practical wisdom"), an emerging concept in health professional education research, is of ultimate value to the people psycho-oncology seeks to serve. This group holds that garnering wisdom from the expertise of those living with cancer should be a central aim of our field. PMID:26399749

  15. The wisdom of deliberate mistakes.

    PubMed

    Schoemaker, Paul J H; Gunther, Robert E

    2006-06-01

    Before the breakup of the Bell System, U.S. telephone companies were permitted by law to ask for security deposits from a small percentage of subscribers. The companies used statistical models to decide which customers were most likely to pay their bills late and thus should be charged a deposit, but no one knew whether the models were right. So the Bell companies made a deliberate mistake. They asked for no deposit from nearly 100,000 new customers randomly selected from among those who were considered high risks. Surprisingly, quite a few paid their bills on time. As a result, the companies instituted a smarter screening strategy, which added millions to the Bell System's bottom line. Usually, individuals and organizations go to great lengths to avoid errors. Companies are designed for optimum performance rather than for learning, and mistakes are seen as defects. But as the Bell System example shows, making mistakes--correctly--is a powerful way to accelerate learning and increase competitiveness. If one of a company's fundamental assumptions is wrong, the firm can achieve success more quickly by deliberately making errors than by considering only data that support the assumption. Moreover, executives who apply a conventional, systematic approach to solving a pattern recognition problem are often slower to find a solution than those who test their assumptions by knowingly making mistakes. How do you distinguish between smart mistakes and dumb ones? The authors' consulting firm has developed, and currently uses, a five-step process for identifying constructive mistakes. In one test, the firm assumed that a mistake it was planning to make would cost a significant amount of money, but the opposite happened. By turning assumptions on their heads, the firm created more than dollar 1 million in new business. PMID:16770898

  16. Poverty in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greever, Sadie

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to provide a comprehensive summary of the topic of poverty and its effects upon student behavior and academic performance. Presented in this chapter of the review of the related literature will be: (a) description of poverty and the role of education, (b) effects of poverty on student behavior, (c) effects…

  17. Adolescents and Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wight, Vanessa R.

    2011-01-01

    More youth live in poverty and poor youth comprise a larger share of the youth population than was the case a decade ago. This article first provides a descriptive analysis of children in poverty; examining the incidence of poverty among children by selected demographic, socioeconomic, and geographic characteristics with a particular focus on…

  18. Reducing Poverty among Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Current Population Reports, 1985

    1985-01-01

    In response to the highest poverty rate among children since the 1960s, this report examines existing Federal policies to assist poor families with children and analyzes over 40 policy alternatives. Chapter 1 discusses how poverty is measured, recent trends and current patterns of childhood poverty as officially measured, and the effects of using…

  19. Poverty Profile USA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Procopio, Mariellen; Perella, Frederick J., Jr.

    This second edition of "Poverty Profile", published by the Missionary Society of St. Paul the Apostle as part of their Campaign for Human Development, updates the data examined in the earlier (1972) edition and examines some of the current social welfare programs designed to alleviate the affects of poverty. The extent to which poverty affects…

  20. The Wisdom of Sages: Nuclear Physics Education, Knowledge-Inquiry, and Wisdom-Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottey, Alan

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses the difference between knowledge-inquiry and wisdom-inquiry in nuclear physics education. In the spirit of an earlier study of 57 senior-level textbooks for first-degree physics students, this work focuses here on a remarkable use of literary quotations in one such book. "Particles and Nuclei: an introduction to the physical…

  1. Children and Poverty in South Africa: The Right to Social Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du Plessis, Pierre; Conley, Lloyd

    2007-01-01

    Poverty is one of the major threats to the realization of children's rights worldwide and in South Africa. Currently, 66% of South African children live in severe poverty. This places all other rights at risk; the rights guaranteed by the South African Constitution and by the UN Convention. Poverty and inequality in South Africa continue to…

  2. The Wisdom of the Crowd in Combinatorial Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yi, Sheng Kung Michael; Steyvers, Mark; Lee, Michael D.; Dry, Matthew J.

    2012-01-01

    The "wisdom of the crowd" phenomenon refers to the finding that the aggregate of a set of proposed solutions from a group of individuals performs better than the majority of individual solutions. Most often, wisdom of the crowd effects have been investigated for problems that require single numerical estimates. We investigate whether the effect…

  3. Practitioners' Concepts: An Inquiry into the Wisdom of Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchmann, Margaret

    This paper makes a case for the existence and study of the wisdom of practice by looking at educational practitioners' concepts as its locus and source. (These concepts may also be described as the accumulated "folk wisdom" of the teaching community). These communal concepts, part of an accumulated lore regarding teaching and education in general,…

  4. On Defining "Wisdom": Baltes, Ardelt, Ryan, and Whitehead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gugerell, Stefan H.; Riffert, Franz

    2011-01-01

    Wisdom has been a topic of religion and philosophy since the dawning of human civilization. But only during the last two or three decades wisdom has become a topic of empirical research in developmental psychology, adult and old age education, as well as in management and leadership studies. The aim of this paper is to elaborate a new definition…

  5. Expert Consensus on Characteristics of Wisdom: A Delphi Method Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeste, Dilip V.; Ardelt, Monika; Blazer, Dan; Kraemer, Helena C.; Vaillant, George; Meeks, Thomas W.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Wisdom has received increasing attention in empirical research in recent years, especially in gerontology and psychology, but consistent definitions of wisdom remain elusive. We sought to better characterize this concept via an expert consensus panel using a 2-phase Delphi method. Design and Methods: A survey questionnaire comprised 53…

  6. A New Theory of Wisdom: Integrating Intelligence and Morality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fengyan, Wang; Hong, Zheng

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a new concept of wisdom, which integrates intelligence and morality as its two constituent elements. According to our definition, wisdom is a mental capacity of combining intelligence with moral virtue in the process of gaining knowledge and acting. Possessing this integrated quality, an individual would be able to act wisely…

  7. Freeing Speech: Proverbial Wisdom and Faith Formation as Liberation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willhauck, Susan

    2013-01-01

    It is crucial to recover the practice of seeking and refining ways to speak of faith. Certain sayings, idioms, maxims, and proverbs constituting wisdom from various cultures help shape a faith that is liberative, particularly evident in undervalued and dominated cultures. This article examines proverbial wisdom and the patois of the street to…

  8. The Constructs of Wisdom in Human Development and Consciousness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prewitt, Vana R.

    Classical and contemporary research studies were examined to develop a definition of wisdom and explore its constructs in human development and consciousness. First, wisdom was defined as an emergent characteristic of mature adults that is built upon intelligence, experience, and reflection and includes metaphysical and cognitive components.…

  9. Alternative Conceptions of Wisdom: An Onion-Peeling Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchard-Fields, Fredda; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Discusses contextualistic and integrative approaches to the concept of wisdom, and the evolution of the concept from an independent construct of intelligence to a component of intelligence, i.e., practical intelligence. Suggests operationalization of wisdom as the ability to integrate cognition and affect. Illustrates the integrative approach with…

  10. Wikipedia and the Wisdom of Crowds: A Student Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnhisel, Greg; Rapchak, Marcia

    2014-01-01

    Students in a senior English class examined the question of whether the "wisdom of experts" or "the wisdom of crowds" is more reliable and useful in a writing course by engaging in a parallel Wikipedia project. Each student either created a new entry or made significant changes to an existing Wikipedia entry, tracked changes to…

  11. Child Poverty and Child Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the evidence on the prevalence of child poverty in Britain including: (1) how child poverty has changed over the last 20 years; (2) how child poverty in Britain compares with that in other countries; (3) characteristics of poor children; (4) impact of poverty on child well-being; and (5) government attempts to abolish child poverty. (SD)

  12. [Wisdom teeth: which way to go?].

    PubMed

    Yitschaky, O; Segev-Neuhof, M; Laviv, A

    2016-01-01

    The debate regarding prophylactic extraction of mandibular third molar (Wisdom teeth) is not new. There is wide agreement among clinicians and researchers that an extraction in young age is easier and safer, but it may result in overtreatment, which means an unnecessary extraction of teeth that might have been functional and healthy. In order to avoid such overtreatment the clinician is obliged to be able to predict accurately the chances of third molar eruption, years before they are due to erupt. Additionally, the clinician has to estimate the chances for future pathology or infection that will force the patient to extract the tooth in years to come. In order to do so the clinician has to meticulously examine the teeth both clinically (including caries assessment of neighboring teeth, periodontal pocket depth measurements etc.) and radiographically. The purpose of this literature review is to present a balanced approach towards the issue of early prophylactic extraction of mandibular third molar. PMID:27295932

  13. Pathways from Poverty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Barbara, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Articles in this theme issue are based on presentations at the Pathways from Poverty Workshop held in Albuquerque, New Mexico, on May 18-25, 1995. The event aimed to foster development of a network to address rural poverty issues in the Western Rural Development Center (WRDC) region. Articles report on outcomes from the Pathways from Poverty…

  14. Poverty and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Pat

    2015-01-01

    In this article the author discusses the multiple ways in which the enduring, and increasing, problems associated with child poverty blight young people's educational opportunities in the school system. Current policies, supported by a sympathetic media, blame individuals for their poverty, and blame teachers when they fail to "close the…

  15. Poverty and Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamba, Nathalis, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    There is a mutual dependence between poverty and academic achievement, creative pedagogies for low-income pupils, school models that "beat the odds", and the resiliency of low-income families dedicated to the academic success of their children. This book examines the connection between poverty and literacy, looking at the potential roles and…

  16. Institutions and poverty.

    PubMed

    Tebaldi, Edinaldo; Mohan, Ramesh

    2010-01-01

    This study utilises eight alternative measures of institutions and the instrumental variable method to examine the impacts of institutions on poverty. The estimates show that an economy with a robust system to control corruption, an effective government, and a stable political system will create the conditions to promote economic growth, minimise income distribution conflicts, and reduce poverty. Corruption, ineffective governments, and political instability will not only hurt income levels through market inefficiencies, but also escalate poverty incidence via increased income inequality. The results also imply that the quality of the regulatory system, rule of law, voice and accountability, and expropriation risk are inversely related to poverty but their effect on poverty is via average income rather than income distribution. PMID:20645460

  17. Wisdom as Expert Knowledge System: A Critical Review of a Contemporary Operationalization of an Ancient Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ardelt, Monika

    2004-01-01

    Paul B. Baltes and his colleagues, who are among the most prominent contemporary wisdom researchers, define wisdom as "expert knowledge in the domain fundamental pragmatics of life." By contrast, this article argues that the definition, operationalization, and measurement of wisdom should not be reduced to expertise and that the term wisdom should…

  18. The function of wisdom dimensions in ego-identity development among Chinese university students.

    PubMed

    Bang, Hyeyoung; Zhou, Yuchun

    2014-12-01

    This study investigates the relationship between wisdom and ego-identity among university students in China. Using Marcia's ego-identity statuses and Ardelt's wisdom dimensions as the theoretical and conceptual framework, the study investigates 356 university students in China. After exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, four factors from wisdom and five factors from ego-identity were retrieved. A structural equation model was then conducted to analyse the relationships. The findings were: (1) among wisdom dimensions, cognitive, and reflective wisdom, especially perspective-taking best predicted achievement, (2) all three dimensions of wisdom predicted moratorium, but reflective wisdom was the most pronounced predictor, (3) all three dimensions of wisdom predicted diffusion, but resentment items from reflective wisdom were the most pronounced predictors, and (4) gender was a significant predictor of ego-identity achievement and diffusion. These findings suggest that efforts to build reflective wisdom might contribute to healthier ego-identity formation. PMID:25355666

  19. Transfer Wisdom Workshops: Coming to a NASA Center Near You

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Denise

    2003-01-01

    In november 2001, the APPL Knowledge Sharing Initiative introduced a new product, the transfer wisdom workshop. The idea was to give practitioners at each of the NASA centers the opportunity to engage in a knowledge sharing activity.

  20. Poverty Among Children and Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGranahan, David

    1985-01-01

    Overall poverty rate increased from 12.1% in 1969 to 15.2% in 1983. Nonmetropolitan rates were 17% in both years. While poverty among elderly decreased, especially in nonmetropolitan areas, poverty among children rose. In 1981, 60% of metropolitan and 39% of nonmetropolitan children in poverty were in families headed by women. (NEC)

  1. Defining and Assessing Wisdom: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Bangen, Katherine J.; Meeks, Thomas W.; Jeste, Dilip V.

    2013-01-01

    With increasing longevity and a growing focus on successful aging, there has been a recent growth of research designed to operationalize and assess wisdom. We aimed to (1) investigate the degree of overlap among empirical definitions of wisdom, (2) identify the most commonly cited wisdom subcomponents, (3) examine the psychometric properties of existing assessment instruments, and (4) investigate whether certain assessment procedures work particularly well in tapping the essence of subcomponents of the various empirical definitions. We searched PsychINFO-indexed articles published through May 2012 and their bibliographies. Studies were included if they were published in a peer-reviewed journal and (1) proposed a definition of wisdom or (2) discussed the development or validation of an instrument designed to assess wisdom. Thirty-one articles met inclusion criteria. Despite variability among the 24 reviewed definitions, there was significant overlap. Commonly cited subcomponents of wisdom included knowledge of life, prosocial values, self-understanding, acknowledgement of uncertainty, emotional homeostasis, tolerance, openness, spirituality, and sense of humor. Published reports describing the psychometric properties of nine instruments varied in comprehensiveness but most measures were examined for selected types of reliability and validity, which were generally acceptable. Given limitations of self-report procedures, an approach integrating multiple indices (e.g., self-report and performance-based measures) may better capture wisdom. Significant progress in the empirical study of wisdom has occurred over the past four decades; however, much needs to be done. Future studies with larger, more diverse samples are needed to determine the generalizability, usefulness, and clinical applicability of these definitions and assessment instruments. Such work will have relevance for the fields of geriatrics, psychiatry, psychology, sociology, education, and public health

  2. Wisdom won from illness: the psychoanalytic grasp of human being.

    PubMed

    Lear, Jonathan

    2014-08-01

    From its inception psychoanalysis claimed not merely to be an effective therapy for psychological suffering, but to shed light on the human condition. But what kind of insight does psychoanalysis offer? This paper locates psychoanalysis in the western philosophical tradition, arguing that psychoanalysis provides not only theoretical wisdom about the human, but practical wisdom of a peculiar kind. The human mind, through its self-conscious understanding can be immediately and directly efficacious in shaping its own structure. PMID:24724744

  3. [Research Biomedical Ethics and Practical Wisdom].

    PubMed

    Vergara, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    As is well known, in the field of Biomedical Ethics some methodological proposals have been put forward. They try to provide some guidelines in order to take proper decisions. These methodologies are quite useful insofar as they supply reasons for action, but they are essentially insufficient. In fact, taking a good decision requires a special skill that goes beyond sheer technique, and this skill is traditionally called practical wisdom. Not in the usual and more outlying sense of sheer caution, but in the more central one of phronesis or prudentia. Although it is not a new notion, it usually appears blurred in biomedical decision-making theory, playing the wrong role, or in a marginal or indefinite way. From this postulate, we will try to make a double analysis. First, we will try to show the need for a proper understanding of the core role that phronesis plays in decision making. Second, we will try to get the original meaning of Aristotelian phronesis back. For reasons of space, in this paper the second question will be just partially addressed. PMID:26378599

  4. The concept of poverty.

    PubMed

    Carney, P

    1992-06-01

    Although poverty is one of the most familiar and enduring conditions known to humanity, it is an extremely complicated concept to understand. Some researchers view it as a reaction to the stress of being poor, whereas others perceive it as a process of adapting to the condition of poverty. Historical definitions are numerous, but can be classified as relating to either lack of financial income or lower social status. Numerous factors contribute to the concept of poverty, including political, economic, social, and cultural forces. The one that has consistently had the greatest effect on the evolving concept is the passage of time, which encompasses all these forces in a very intricate manner. This author explored the evolution of the concept of poverty to identify relevant themes for consideration in the public health nursing domain. PMID:1508832

  5. Waging War on Poverty: Poverty Trends Using a Historical Supplemental Poverty Measure

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Liana E.; Wimer, Christopher; Garfinkel, Irwin; Kaushal, Neeraj; Waldfogel, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Using data from the Consumer Expenditure Survey and the March Current Population Survey, we provide poverty estimates for 1967 to 2012 based on a historical Supplemental Poverty Measure (SPM). During this period, poverty, as officially measured, has stagnated. However, the official poverty measure (OPM) does not account for the effect of near-cash transfers on the financial resources available to families, an important omission since such transfers have become an increasingly important part of government anti-poverty policy. Applying the historical SPM, which does count such transfers, we find that trends in poverty have been more favorable than the OPM suggests and that government policies have played an important and growing role in reducing poverty—a role that is not evident when the OPM is used to assess poverty. We also find that government programs have played a particularly important role in alleviating child poverty and deep poverty, especially during economic downturns. PMID:26347369

  6. Knowing within: practice wisdom of clinical nurse educators.

    PubMed

    Paton, Brenda I

    2007-11-01

    The challenges nurse educators encounter and respond to while teaching undergraduate students in the clinical area require a unique set of skills and teaching expertise, different from those acquired through classroom teaching. As these educators encounter, make sense of, and move beyond these interruptions, a unique set of understandings and wisdom is acquired. In explicating this wisdom, philosophical literature on practical wisdom, tacit knowledge, smooth activity, and Unready to Hand immersions was accessed. Two layers of interviews were conducted with 9 educators (32 total interviews). An interpretive analysis of these stories elucidated the metaphor of Unready to Hand as Adventure, revealing three domains of practice: Preserving the Ideal, Salvaging Learning, and Sustaining Self. These domains clarify the professional teaching knowledge these educators acquired and offer insight into how one may respond within the everyday encounters that characterize this area of teaching practice. PMID:18019106

  7. Children and Poverty: Issues in Contemporary Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huston, Aletha C.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Introduces a special journal issue on children and poverty, reviewing child poverty rates in the United States, the nature and dimensions of poverty, and the state of child poverty research. Also examines processes mediating the influences of poverty, contextual influences on children in poverty, and child outcomes, with reference to the remaining…

  8. Governance and poverty reduction in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Hyden, Goran

    2007-01-01

    A careful review of the literature in political science and neighboring social science disciplines shows that prevailing assumptions in the international development policy community about improved governance as a principal mechanism to reduce poverty in Africa rests more on faith than science. Conventional policy models for tackling poverty fail to take into account the peculiar socioeconomic and political conditions in Africa, where the vast majority of those living on one dollar a day or less are only marginally captured by market and state institutions and instead rely on solving their problems “outside the system.” Poverty reduction through formal institutions therefore becomes ineffective. Although political science and other neighboring social science disciplines offer insights into these peculiarities, these contributions have been largely ignored to date. One reason is that economists continue to dominate the international development policy agenda. Another is that political scientists have typically looked at how economic variables shape political ones, rather than the other way around, as implied in the current governance agenda. Governance remains an undertheorized area of research held back by two chasms, one between economists and other social scientists and another between the scientific and the policy communities, to the detriment of gaining a better understanding of how it may help reduce poverty in Africa. PMID:17942700

  9. Technology Helps Increase Poverty Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samaras, Anastasia P.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the importance of developing curricular initiatives that educate students on the major facts and issues associated with poverty in America. Provides key poverty statistics and highlights useful Internet resources that offer resource lists, success stories, relevant press releases, and curriculum guides. For example, the PovertyUSA Web…

  10. Social Structure and Child Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferriss, Abbott L.

    2006-01-01

    Child poverty, as a critical indicator of the QOL, is intricately related to the social structure of the community. This hypothesis is explored for the 159 counties of Georgia for the year 2000. The influence of demographic, economic, family and health factors upon child poverty are explored through models of total, black and white child poverty.…

  11. European Measures of Poverty and "Social Exclusion": Material Deprivation, Consumption, and Life Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Neil

    2009-01-01

    The conventional view of poverty in the European Union countries is based on a relative measure, which defines all those with incomes below 60 percent of the median as poor. In the U.S., poverty is defined according to an absolute measure--the federal poverty line computed by the Census Bureau--which was $21,200 for a family of four in 2008…

  12. Trends in Child Poverty Using an Improved Measure of Poverty.

    PubMed

    Wimer, Christopher; Nam, JaeHyun; Waldfogel, Jane; Fox, Liana

    2016-04-01

    The official measure of poverty has been used to assess trends in children's poverty rates for many decades. But because of flaws in official poverty statistics, these basic trends have the potential to be misleading. We use an augmented Current Population Survey data set that calculates an improved measure of poverty to reexamine child poverty rates between 1967 and 2012. This measure, the Anchored Supplemental Poverty Measure, is based partially on the US Census Bureau and Bureau of Labor Statistics' new Supplemental Poverty Measure. We focus on 3 age groups of children, those aged 0 to 5, 6 to 11, and 12 to 17 years. Young children have the highest poverty rates, both historically and today. However, among all age groups, long-term poverty trends have been more favorable than official statistics would suggest. This is entirely due to the effect of counting resources from government policies and programs, which have reduced poverty rates substantially for children of all ages. However, despite this progress, considerable disparities in the risk of poverty continue to exist by education level and family structure. PMID:27044704

  13. Taxi, Jitneys and Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbloom, Sandi

    1970-01-01

    Version of the paper given at The Transportation and Poverty Conference of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Argues for revival of jitneys (12-14 capacity motor vehicles, operating on fixed routes, fares zone-rated) to serve ghetto residents and provide employment, too. Taxi company competition also discussed. (KG)

  14. Poverty and Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Percy; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Equity does not require that everyone have the same amount of resources to satisfy basic needs, but it does require that each of us be able to live decently. The articles in this issue focus on poverty and its effects on children, particularly with respect to education and the ability to learn. The following articles are included: (1) "Poor Kids…

  15. Poverty in School Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Carol A.; Kealy, William A.

    2013-01-01

    What are acute poverty challenges for culturally disadvantaged school communities across the United States? How do practicing teacher-researchers, pursuing advanced degrees, view this issue and the 21st century skills and dispositions classroom teachers need to foster change? Curious about this topic from the viewpoints of teachers who are…

  16. Child Poverty & Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chafel, Judith A., Ed.

    This collection documents how far we still are in the United States from putting our knowledge about child well being and policy into practice. It provides an overview of the changing nature of child poverty in the United States through the contributions of authors who use a number of qualitative and quantitative approaches to look at children in…

  17. Poverty + Hunger = Global Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Richard H.

    1983-01-01

    Geography teachers can use mathematics to teach fourth, fifth, and sixth grade students about critical global issues. Five sample problems concerning population, poverty, waste, the arms race, and hunger are presented. The global issue related to each problem is discussed, and the solution and mathematical skill are provided. (RM)

  18. The neurology of poverty.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, G

    1982-01-01

    An intellectual deficit is known to exist in populations where extreme poverty is rife and is thus seen extensively in the lower socio-economic strata of underdeveloped nations. Poverty is a complex entity whose sociological and economic indicators often bear little relevance to the biological agents which can affect the central nervous system. An attempt is made to express poverty in terms of identifiable defects, physiological in nature. Thus adverse socio-economic factors are converted into specific biological entities which, though necessary for adequate development of the brain, are restricted where there is poverty. A number of causative deficiencies, including nutritional, visual, auditory, tactile, vestibular, affective, and other stimuli are postulated. These interact and potentiate one another. Each is capable of an independent action on the brain and examples are given of some sensory deprivations as well as malnutrition and their possible mechanism of action. If the various deficiencies can independently harm the brain, then a number of separate specific functions should be affected; examples are offered. The nature of this intellectual deficit is probably a non-fulfillment of genetic potential of certain specific functions of the brain, which may exhibit limited variations between one community and another, depending on cultural differences. The deleterious effect of this intellectual impairment is seen most clearly in figures of school desertion, for example in Latin America. Analogous data for adults is scarce. PMID:7112171

  19. Older Women and Poverty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferraro, Geraldine A.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the socioeconomic causes of the disproportionate level of poverty found among women aged 65 and over. Reasons why Social Security programs are essential for maintaining minimal standards of living for many older women are presented. Specific proposals for bringing about change are included. (AM)

  20. East Meets West: Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Wisdom and Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Shih-ying

    2011-01-01

    Wisdom enables people to lead a good life. The pursuit of wisdom is an important goal for adult education, and adult education is important for developing wisdom in individuals and communities. The good life for humankind is threatened by global warming, shortages of natural resources, cultural and religious conflicts, and financial crises, and…

  1. Educational Wisdom and Intellectual Teachers Are Called on by the Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tian, Huisheng

    2007-01-01

    Currently, there is lack of educational wisdom in classroom teaching. Educational wisdom is a kind of quality of good education, representing a free, harmonious, open and creative status of education. The educational wisdom of intellectual teachers is the outcome of the close integration of educational science and art. It is also the result of…

  2. Searching for Sophia: Adult Educators and Adult Learners as Wisdom Seekers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Wilma; Hyland-Russell, Tara

    2011-01-01

    This article invokes the spirit of "Sophia" as metaphorical guide for an ongoing reclamation of wisdom spaces and describes a path for educators and practitioners that can assist in the recovery of wisdom in the face of increasing pressures of measurable outcomes within the field of lifelong learning. The authors first examine wisdom within adult…

  3. The dynamics of childhood poverty.

    PubMed

    Corcoran, M E; Chaudry, A

    1997-01-01

    Child poverty rates have remained high since the middle of the 1970s. While several trends, including declines in the number of children per family and increases in parental years of schooling, worked to reduce child poverty rates, several others, including show economic growth, widening economic inequality, and increases in the proportion of children living in mother-only families, had the opposite effect, pushing more children into poverty. Poverty is a common risk: One-third of all children will be poor for at least one year. For many, poverty lasts only a short while, but for a small percentage, poverty persists both throughout childhood and into the adult years. Poverty is not shared equally across different demographic groups. African-American children. Latino children, and children in mother-only families are disproportionately poor. Long-term poverty is even more concentrated than single-year poverty. In 1992, almost 90% of long-term poor children were African-American as compared to all poor children (single-year and long-term poor), of whom 60% were white. Both family structure and the labor market are implicated in long-term childhood poverty. Changes in employment of family members and changes in family composition are each strongly associated with transitions into and out of childhood poverty. Of these, changes in employment are the most important. PMID:9299836

  4. A critique of Jeffrey D. Sachs's The end of poverty.

    PubMed

    Henwood, Doug

    2006-01-01

    Jeffrey Sachs's The End of Poverty is a manifesto and how-to guide on ending extreme poverty around the world; it promotes the U.N. Millennium Development Goals. Sachs achieved fame with his policy package for the "stabilization" of Bolivia (which did nothing to relieve Bolivia's poverty), and became advisor to the Yeltsin government in Russia and to Poland, Slovenia, and Estonia as they began their transitions to capitalism (the last three mixed successes; Russia a thorough disaster). Sachs later became more prominent as a critic of development orthodoxy, and was economic advisor to the Jubilee 2000 movement. The End of Poverty is full of sharp critiques of Western imperialism, but his views on the rest of the development business are more conventional. PMID:16524171

  5. On the psychology of poverty.

    PubMed

    Haushofer, Johannes; Fehr, Ernst

    2014-05-23

    Poverty remains one of the most pressing problems facing the world; the mechanisms through which poverty arises and perpetuates itself, however, are not well understood. Here, we examine the evidence for the hypothesis that poverty may have particular psychological consequences that can lead to economic behaviors that make it difficult to escape poverty. The evidence indicates that poverty causes stress and negative affective states which in turn may lead to short-sighted and risk-averse decision-making, possibly by limiting attention and favoring habitual behaviors at the expense of goal-directed ones. Together, these relationships may constitute a feedback loop that contributes to the perpetuation of poverty. We conclude by pointing toward specific gaps in our knowledge and outlining poverty alleviation programs that this mechanism suggests. PMID:24855262

  6. A Model of Educational Leadership: Wisdom, Intelligence, and Creativity, Synthesized

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a model of educational leadership--WICS--that encompasses "wisdom", "intelligence" and "creativity", "synthesized". The article opens with a general discussion of issues in models of leadership. Then it discusses the role of creativity in leadership, dividing the discussion into academic and practical aspects. Next it deals…

  7. The contribution of community wisdom to conservation ecology.

    PubMed

    Predavec, Martin; Lunney, Daniel; Hope, Ben; Stalenberg, Eleanor; Shannon, Ian; Crowther, Mathew S; Miller, Indrie

    2016-06-01

    Scientists have traditionally collected data on whether a population is increasing, decreasing, or staying the same, but such studies are often limited by geographic scale and time frame. This means that for many species, understanding of trends comes from only part of their ranges at particular periods. Working with citizen scientists has the potential to overcome these limits. Citizen science has the added benefit of exposing citizens to the scientific process and engaging them in management outcomes. We examined a different way of using citizen scientists (instead of data collection). We asked community members to answer a question directly and thus examined whether community wisdom can inform conservation. We reviewed the results of 3 mail-in surveys that asked community members to say whether they thought koala populations were increasing, decreasing, or staying the same. We then compared the survey results with population trends derived from more traditional research. Population trends identified through community wisdom were similar to the trends identified by traditional research. The community wisdom surveys, however, allowed the question to be addressed at much broader geographical scales and time frames. Studies that apply community wisdom have the benefit of engaging a broad section of the community in conservation research and education and therefore in the political process of conserving species. PMID:27110657

  8. From Knowledge to Wisdom: Critical Evaluation in New Literacy Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Phil

    2012-01-01

    In an effort to expose students to a wide array of 21st century literacies, it is easy for teachers to forget the equally important role of leading students in critical inquiry regarding "when" and "why" particular media ought to be used. This results in students who possess knowledge of how to use a medium but lack the wisdom to truly understand…

  9. The soul's wisdom: stories of living and dying.

    PubMed

    Vachon, M L S

    2008-08-01

    Cancer can lead to spiritual transformation, which can be seen as a form of alchemy. During this process, patients, family members, and even professional caregivers can find themselves having spiritual experiences that go beyond any they had previously encountered. This paper provides qualitative descriptions of the "Field" or "Soul Wisdom" experienced by patients and caregivers. PMID:18769614

  10. Digital Natives Revisited: Developing Digital Wisdom in the Modern University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, David

    2012-01-01

    The seminal work of Prensky on "digital natives" and "digital wisdom" is used to launch a broader discussion on the relations between electronic communication, higher education, and popular and elite culture. Prensky's critics commonly contrast his polarisations and generational divisions with a more complex picture of types of engagement with…

  11. Building an Online Wisdom Community: A Transformational Design Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunawardena, Charlotte N.; Jennings, Barbara; Ortegano-Layne, Ludmila C.; Frechette, Casey; Carabajal, Kayleigh; Lindemann, Ken; Mummert, Julia

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of a new instructional design model based on socioconstructivist learning theories and distance education principles for the design of online wisdom communities and the efficacy of the model drawing on evaluation results from its implementation in Fall 2002. The model, Final Outcome Centered Around Learner…

  12. Combating Poverty and Social Exclusion in France. OECD Economics Department Working Papers No. 569

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamet, Stephanie

    2007-01-01

    Reducing poverty and social exclusion is an important objective for all French governments. Even though conventionally measured poverty is in fact lower than in most other countries, it is still higher than can be easily accepted. The current policy approach involves a large number of measures tailored to different circumstances. Some policies…

  13. Child Poverty: Definition and Measurement.

    PubMed

    Short, Kathleen S

    2016-04-01

    This article provides a discussion of what we mean when we refer to 'child poverty.' Many images come to mind when we discuss child poverty, but when we try to measure and quantify the extent of child poverty, we often use a very narrow concept. In this article a variety of poverty measures that are used in the United States are described and some of the differences between those measures are illustrated. In this article 3 measures are explored in detail: a relative measure of poverty that is used more often in an international context, the official US poverty measure, and a new supplemental poverty measure (SPM). The new measure differs from the other 2 because it takes into account noncash benefits that are provided to poor families. These include nutrition assistance such as food stamps, subsidized housing, and home energy assistance. The SPM also takes account of necessary expenses that families face, such as taxes and expenses related to work and health care. Comparing estimates for 2012, the SPM showed lower poverty rates for children than the other 2 measures. Because noncash benefits help those in extreme poverty, there were also lower percentages of children in extreme poverty with resources below half the SPM threshold. These results suggest that 2 important measures of poverty, the relative measure used in international comparisons, and the official poverty measure, are not able to gauge the effect of government programs on the alleviation of poverty, and the SPM illustrates that noncash benefits do help families meet their basic needs. PMID:27044701

  14. Social evils, poverty & health.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rajeev; Kumar, Praneet

    2007-10-01

    There is a close association between social circumstances and health. In India, there is a significant burden of both communicable and non communicable diseases. Risk factors responsible for these conditions are underweight, unsafe sex, unsafe water, poor sanitation and hygiene, indoor smoke pollution, zinc, iron and vitamin A deficiency, tobacco use, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol. All these risk factors are influenced by social factors and in India the more important factors are poverty and illiteracy. Changing lifestyles as a result of rising incomes are significant risk factors for non communicable diseases. The social evils that influence poverty and health are macrolevel national and regional issues such as physical geography, governance patterns and failures, geopolitics, economic policy, natural resources decline, population growth, the demographic trap and the fiscal trap. Household and microlevel factors include the poverty trap, cultural barriers, lack of innovation and saving, absence of trade or business, unemployment, technological reversal, adverse productivity shock, social issues related to females, and adolescent social issues. Social determinants important for non communicable diseases, defined by the World Health Organization include the social gradient, stress, early life events, social exclusion, improper work conditions, unemployment, lack of social support, addiction, food scarcity or excess and uneven distribution, lack of proper transport, and illiteracy or low educational status. There are multiple pathways through which social factors influence health, and pathophysiological mechanisms involve homeostatic and allostatic changes in response to stress, neuroendocrine changes and altered autonomic functions, and abnormal inflammatory and immune responses. A concerted action to eradicate these social evils shall have to focus on reducing poverty, improving educational status and providing equitable and accessible healthcare to all

  15. How to measure wisdom: content, reliability, and validity of five measures

    PubMed Central

    Glück, Judith; König, Susanne; Naschenweng, Katja; Redzanowski, Uwe; Dorner, Lara; Straßer, Irene; Wiedermann, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Wisdom is a field of growing interest both inside and outside academic psychology, and researchers are increasingly interested in using measures of wisdom in their work. However, wisdom is a highly complex construct, and its various operationalizations are based on quite different definitions. Which measure a researcher chooses for a particular research project may have a strong influence on the results. This study compares four well-established measures of wisdom—the Self-Assessed Wisdom Scale (Webster, 2003, 2007), the Three-Dimensional Wisdom Scale (Ardelt, 2003), the Adult Self-Transcendence Inventory (Levenson et al., 2005), and the Berlin Wisdom Paradigm (Baltes and Smith, 1990; Baltes and Staudinger, 2000)—with respect to content, reliability, factorial structure, and construct validity (relationships to wisdom nomination, interview-based wisdom ratings, and correlates of wisdom). The sample consisted of 47 wisdom nominees and 123 control participants. While none of the measures performed “better” than the others by absolute standards, recommendations are given for researchers to select the most suitable measure for their substantive interests. In addition, a “Brief Wisdom Screening Scale” is introduced that contains those 20 items from the three self-report scales that were most highly correlated with the common factor across the scales. PMID:23874310

  16. Poverty in the Rural United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dudenhefer, Paul

    1993-01-01

    The 1990 Rural Sociological Society's Task Force on Persistent Rural Poverty describes rural poverty, comparing it to urban poverty; rejects human-capital, economic-organization, and culture-of-poverty theories of rural poverty and proposes research on 10 other theories; and discusses rural policy and its inequitable emphasis on farmers. (KS)

  17. Improving the Measurement of Poverty

    PubMed Central

    Hutto, Nathan; Waldfogel, Jane; Kaushal, Neeraj; Garfinkel, Irwin

    2013-01-01

    This study estimates 2007 national poverty rates using an approach largely conceptualized by a 1995 National Academy of Sciences panel and similar to the supplemental poverty measure that will soon be produced by the U.S. Census Bureau. The study uses poverty thresholds based on expenditures for shelter, food, clothing, and utilities, as well as a measure of family income that includes earnings, cash transfers, near-cash benefits, tax credits, and tax payments. The measure also accounts for child care, work, and out-of-pocket medical expenses; variation in regional cost of living; and mortgage-free homeownership. Under this method, the rate of poverty is estimated to be higher than the rate calculated in the traditional manner, rising from 12.4 percent in the official measure to 16 percent in the new measure; the rate of child poverty is more than 3 percentage points higher, and elderly poverty is nearly 7 points higher. PMID:26316658

  18. Poverty nutrition linkages.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Prema

    2007-10-01

    At the time of independence majority of Indians were poor. In spite of spending over 80 per cent of their income on food, they could not get adequate food. Living in areas of poor environmental sanitation they had high morbidity due to infections; nutrition toll due to infections was high because of poor access to health care. As a result, majority of Indians especially children were undernourished. The country initiated programmes to improve economic growth, reduce poverty, improve household food security and nutritional status of its citizens, especially women and children. India defined poverty on the basis of calorie requirement and focused its attention on providing subsidized food and essential services to people below poverty line. After a period of slow but steady economic growth, the last decade witnessed acceleration of economic growth. India is now one of the fastest growing economies in the world with gross domestic product (GDP) growth over 8 per cent. There has been a steady but slow decline in poverty; but last decade's rapid economic growth did not translate in to rapid decline in poverty. In 1970s, country became self sufficient in food production; adequate buffer stocks have been built up. Poor had access to subsidized food through the public distribution system. As a result, famines have been eliminated, though pockets of food scarcity still existed. Over the years there has been a decline in household expenditure on food due to availability of food grains at low cost but energy intake has declined except among for the poor. In spite of unaltered/declining energy intake there has been some reduction in undernutrition and increase in overnutrition in adults. This is most probably due to reduction in physical activity. Under the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) programme food supplements are being provided to children, pregnant and lactating women in the entire country. In spite of these, low birth weight rates are still over 30 per

  19. Expertise, wisdom and moral philosophers: a response to Gesang.

    PubMed

    Cowley, Christopher

    2012-07-01

    In a recent issue of Bioethics, Bernard Gesang asks whether a moral philosopher possesses greater moral expertise than a non-philosopher, and his answer is a qualified yes, based not so much on his infallible access to the truth, but on the quality of his theoretically-informed moral justifications. I reject Gesang's claim that there is such a thing as moral expertise, although the moral philosopher may well make a valid contribution to the ethics committee as a concerned and educated citizen. I suggest that wisdom is a lot more interesting to examine than moral expertise. Again, however, moral philosophers have no monopoly on wisdom, and the study of philosophy may even impede its cultivation. PMID:21241345

  20. Pearls of wisdom for clinical teaching: expert educators reflect.

    PubMed

    Lichtman, Ronnie; Varney Burst, Helen; Campau, Nancy; Carrington, Betty; Diegmann, Elaine K; Hsia, Lily; Thompson, Joyce E

    2003-01-01

    A group of expert educators, each with more than 20 years of experience in midwifery education, was asked to contribute a "pearl (or pearls) of wisdom" for clinical teaching. Despite minimal instructions regarding what type of wisdom was being solicited, remarkable similarities emerged from the educators' contributions. Themes included the need for self-evaluation to become a competent preceptor, the role-modeling function of the preceptor, the development of critical thinking in students, the need to appreciate students' varying learning styles and individual ways of functioning, and the use of positive reinforcement. Although these may seem like universally accepted concepts in clinical teaching, one contributor related stories she heard from students about "hazing" behaviors that have a negative impact on learning. This points to the need for ongoing education about being an educator, another theme echoed in several of the contributions. PMID:14660952

  1. Against conventional wisdom: when the public, the media, and medical practice collide

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In 2009, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force released new mammography screening guidelines that sparked a torrent of criticism. The subsequent conflict was significant and pitted the Task Force against other health organizations, advocacy groups, the media, and the public at large. We argue that this controversy was driven by the systematic removal of uncertainty from science communication. To increase comprehension and adherence, health information communicators remove caveats, limitations, and hedging so science appears simple and more certain. This streamlining process is, in many instances, initiated by researchers as they engage in dissemination of their findings, and it is facilitated by public relations professionals, journalists, public health practitioners, and others whose tasks involve using the results from research for specific purposes. Analysis Uncertainty is removed from public communication because many communicators believe that it is difficult for people to process and/or that it is something the audience wants to avoid. Uncertainty management theory posits that people can find meaning and value in uncertainty. We define key terms relevant to uncertainty management, describe research on the processing of uncertainty, identify directions for future research, and offer recommendations for scientists, practitioners, and media professionals confronted with uncertain findings. Conclusions Science is routinely simplified as it is prepared for public consumption. In line with the model of information overload, this practice may increase short-term adherence to recommendations at the expense of long-term message consistency and trust in science. PMID:24565173

  2. Very early onset trichotillomania presenting with recurrent trichobezoar: conventional wisdom questioned.

    PubMed

    Menon, Vikas; Shaik, Subahani; Mohan, Pazhanivel

    2015-01-01

    Trichotillomania (TTM), a disorder characterized by compulsive hair pulling, is undergoing a conceptual and nosological re-evaluation. Little long-term information is available about this condition when it strikes in early childhood. Trichobezoar, an ingestional foreign body lodged in the gastrointestinal tract composed of swallowed hair, is usually associated with underlying psychiatric and emotional disturbances. In this report, we describe a young girl who had her symptom onset at the age of 3, but presented again after more than a decade with recurrent symptomatic large trichobezoars needing surgical removal both times. Her clinical course and presentation challenged contemporary understanding of TTM. PMID:25878449

  3. A Challenge to the Conventional Wisdom of Herzberg and Maslow Theories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellott, Fred K.; Tutor, F. Dexter

    This document assessment of the basic theories of A. Maslow and F. Herzberg and the populations from which their theories were derived. Herzberg used personal interviews to gather data with which to conduct his studies and to test his theories regarding motivation and job satisfaction. Herzberg identified five factors associated with job…

  4. From Conventional Wisdom to Higher Education Transformation: Does It Take a Crisis to Make Fundamental Change?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Roger

    2010-01-01

    With huge financial challenges being imposed on higher education, some react to crises to make changes and meet financial requirements. Changes are made that would be unthinkable without imposed demands. Two examples of universities that successfully responded to limited budgets to make major changes in organization, structure, and programs are…

  5. Moving Beyond Conventional Wisdom: Advancements in Cross-Cultural Theories of Leadership, Conflict, and Teams.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Cristina B; McDaniel, Dana M

    2010-07-01

    In this article, we discuss the importance of a cross-cultural approach to organizational behavior. To do so, we illustrate how cross-cultural research in the past two decades has enabled us to reconceptualize constructs, revise models, and extend boundary conditions in traditional organizational behavior theories. We focus on three domains-teams, leadership, and conflict-and review cross-cultural empirical evidence that has extended several theories in each of these domains. We support the claim that even well-established organizational behavior theories vary in the extent to which they may be applied unilaterally across cultures, thus identifying the critical need to advance these theories via a cross-cultural research agenda. PMID:26162191

  6. Christian Learner: Wisdom and Gaining Knowledge Equals Joy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagle, Bonne

    2012-01-01

    When a Christian learner gains insight that learning is needed and takes the appropriate action to learn the knowledge and apply it, there will be joy and satisfaction with learning. The premise for this paper is in the Bible verse Ecclesiastes 2:26: (NASB) "For to a person who is good in His sight He has given wisdom and knowledge and joy..."…

  7. How social influence can undermine the wisdom of crowd effect

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Jan; Rauhut, Heiko; Schweitzer, Frank; Helbing, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    Social groups can be remarkably smart and knowledgeable when their averaged judgements are compared with the judgements of individuals. Already Galton [Galton F (1907) Nature 75:7] found evidence that the median estimate of a group can be more accurate than estimates of experts. This wisdom of crowd effect was recently supported by examples from stock markets, political elections, and quiz shows [Surowiecki J (2004) The Wisdom of Crowds]. In contrast, we demonstrate by experimental evidence (N = 144) that even mild social influence can undermine the wisdom of crowd effect in simple estimation tasks. In the experiment, subjects could reconsider their response to factual questions after having received average or full information of the responses of other subjects. We compare subjects’ convergence of estimates and improvements in accuracy over five consecutive estimation periods with a control condition, in which no information about others’ responses was provided. Although groups are initially “wise,” knowledge about estimates of others narrows the diversity of opinions to such an extent that it undermines the wisdom of crowd effect in three different ways. The “social influence effect” diminishes the diversity of the crowd without improvements of its collective error. The “range reduction effect” moves the position of the truth to peripheral regions of the range of estimates so that the crowd becomes less reliable in providing expertise for external observers. The “confidence effect” boosts individuals’ confidence after convergence of their estimates despite lack of improved accuracy. Examples of the revealed mechanism range from misled elites to the recent global financial crisis. PMID:21576485

  8. Brain Drain: A Child's Brain on Poverty. Poverty Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damron, Neil

    2015-01-01

    "Brain Drain: A Child's Brain on Poverty," released in March 2015 and prepared by intern Neil Damron, explores the brain's basic anatomy and recent research findings suggesting that poverty affects the brain development of infants and young children and the potential lifelong effects of the changes. The sheet draws from a variety of…

  9. The Literature of Poverty, the Poverty of Literature Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, John

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author focuses on the possibilities--and the limits--of undergraduate courses on the literature of poverty. He describes an undergraduate course he has taught on U.S. literature about poverty, but he also expresses doubt that such courses can help produce major social change. He argues that something about the literature of…

  10. Protected areas and poverty

    PubMed Central

    Brockington, Daniel; Wilkie, David

    2015-01-01

    Protected areas are controversial because they are so important for conservation and because they distribute fortune and misfortune unevenly. The nature of that distribution, as well as the terrain of protected areas themselves, have been vigorously contested. In particular, the relationship between protected areas and poverty is a long-running debate in academic and policy circles. We review the origins of this debate and chart its key moments. We then outline the continuing flashpoints and ways in which further evaluation studies could improve the evidence base for policy-making and conservation practice. PMID:26460124

  11. Neighborhood Poverty and Adolescent Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride Murry, Velma; Berkel, Cady; Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.; Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Nation, Maury

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a comprehensive review of studies conducted over the past decade on the effects of neighborhood and poverty on adolescent normative and nonnormative development. Our review includes a summary of studies examining the associations between neighborhood poverty and adolescent identity development followed by a review of studies…

  12. The Dynamics of Childhood Poverty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcoran, Mary E.; Chaudry, Ajay

    1997-01-01

    Reviews child poverty in the United States. Child poverty rates have been high since the 1970s, and it is expected that one-third of all children will be poor at some time. African American and Latino children and children in mother-only families are disproportionately poor. Both family structure and the labor market are implicated in child…

  13. Poverty Reduction Begins with Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY.

    This report describes how children bear the brunt of poverty and explains why they are central to poverty reduction in developing nations. The report also illustrates UNICEF's support for the process of improving access to, and quality of, health care, education, water and sanitation, and child protection. It describes how the participation of the…

  14. Pathways from Poverty Educational Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northeast Regional Center for Rural Development, University Park, PA.

    Pathways from Poverty is a public policy education and research initiative organized by the Rural Sociological Society's Task Force on Persistent Rural Poverty and the four regional rural development centers. This publication focuses on project efforts in the Northeast and includes three sections. The first section describes the Pathways from…

  15. Simplifying the Water Poverty Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Danny I.; Ogwang, Tomson; Opio, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, principal components methodology is used to derive simplified and cost effective indexes of water poverty. Using a well known data set for 147 countries from which an earlier five-component water poverty index comprising of "Resources," "Access," "Capacity," "Use" and "Environment" was constructed, we find that a simplified…

  16. Illiteracy and Poverty. Literacy Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adiseshiah, Malcolm S.

    There is a close connection between illiteracy and poverty at all levels--global, national, and subnational; the countries with the lowest levels of literacy are also the poorest economically. Poverty breeds illiteracy by forcing children to drop out of school to work, and these illiterate people are forced to stay on the lowest levels of the work…

  17. Nebraska's Families: Poverty Despite Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazere, Edward B.; Ostrom, Kristin Anderson

    The high poverty rate (13.8 percent) among Nebraska's children is cause for concern, since there is strong evidence that poverty can hinder development and adversely affect children's ability to become productive adults. It is commonly assumed that poor children live in families where parents could work but do not. Yet in Nebraska, of poor…

  18. [Population trends and poverty].

    PubMed

    Olmedo, C

    1998-04-01

    Implications of population growth in Ecuador for the quality of life of the poor population are analyzed. It is argued that if the gross national product (GNP) were to grow at a sustained annual rate of 5% or more, demographic trends would not present a significant obstacle to reducing poverty. National economic projections are for growth of only 2.5-3.5% annually. The continuing rapid growth of the poor population despite general slowing of demographic growth, the young age structure, the need for increased formal education to enable the poor to overcome their poverty, and the effect of unemployment on the dependency ratio will tend to hamper improvements in average productivity and per capita GNP. The need for spending on education, health, basic services, and housing will divert funds away from productive investment, generating a direct negative impact on economic growth. Over half of Ecuadorian children suffer from some degree of malnutrition, indicating that food production is inadequate to meet demand. The export-oriented agricultural policy and poor weather have led to a chronic shortage of basic foods. Progressive increase and diversification of agricultural production, along with maintenance of low prices and substantial increases in income levels and agricultural productivity, will be required if the entire population is to be fed adequately. Intense efforts will be needed from all sectors to bring demographic growth into balance with economic and development needs. PMID:12178231

  19. Philosophical approaches to the nursing informatics data-information-knowledge-wisdom framework.

    PubMed

    Matney, Susan; Brewster, Philip J; Sward, Katherine A; Cloyes, Kristin G; Staggers, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Although informatics is an important area of nursing inquiry and practice, few scholars have articulated the philosophical foundations of the field or how these translate into practice including the often-cited data, information, knowledge, and wisdom (DIKW) framework. Data, information, and knowledge, often approached through postpositivism, can be exhibited in computer systems. Wisdom aligns with constructivist epistemological perspectives such as Gadamerian hermeneutics. Computer systems can support wisdom development. Wisdom is an important element of the DIKW framework and adds value to the role of nursing informaticists and nursing science. PMID:21150551

  20. Poverty eradication: a new paradigm.

    PubMed

    Pethe, V P

    1998-08-01

    This article offers a new paradigm for eradicating poverty in India. It was assumed incorrectly by Mahatma Gandhi that a good society without mass poverty would follow after independence. India copied Western models of development and developed giant factories, big dams, and megacities. Agriculture did not expand the number of jobs for people. The Western paradigm failed in India because of the false assumption of "trickle down" of income to the masses. The targeted programs to the poor did not directly benefit enough of the poor. Mega-industrialization led to reduced employment and higher skill needs. The model failed mainly because it was a proxy and relied on indirect ways of reaching the poor. The models failed to be adapted to conditions in India. The Swadeshi paradigm is a direct model for addressing mass poverty. Poverty is affected by immediate, intermediate, and ultimate determinants. Poverty begets social and economic problems, such as ignorance, ill health, high fertility, unemployment, and crime. In India and developing countries, mass poverty results from under use of human resources; lack of equal opportunities; and an outdated non-egalitarian social structure, an unjust global economic order, human cruelty, and erosion of ethical values. Indians are squandering their precious resources mimicking Western consumerism. Poverty leads to rapid population growth. People become productive assets with universal literacy, compulsory and free education, health services and sanitation, vocational training, and work ethics. India needs people-oriented policies with less emphasis on capital accumulation. PMID:12294462

  1. Vaccines against poverty

    PubMed Central

    MacLennan, Calman A.; Saul, Allan

    2014-01-01

    With the 2010s declared the Decade of Vaccines, and Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 focused on reducing diseases that are potentially vaccine preventable, now is an exciting time for vaccines against poverty, that is, vaccines against diseases that disproportionately affect low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 has helped better understand which vaccines are most needed. In 2012, US$1.3 billion was spent on research and development for new vaccines for neglected infectious diseases. However, the majority of this went to three diseases: HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis, and not neglected diseases. Much of it went to basic research rather than development, with an ongoing decline in funding for product development partnerships. Further investment in vaccines against diarrheal diseases, hepatitis C, and group A Streptococcus could lead to a major health impact in LMICs, along with vaccines to prevent sepsis, particularly among mothers and neonates. The Advanced Market Commitment strategy of the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation (GAVI) Alliance is helping to implement vaccines against rotavirus and pneumococcus in LMICs, and the roll out of the MenAfriVac meningococcal A vaccine in the African Meningitis Belt represents a paradigm shift in vaccines against poverty: the development of a vaccine primarily targeted at LMICs. Global health vaccine institutes and increasing capacity of vaccine manufacturers in emerging economies are helping drive forward new vaccines for LMICs. Above all, partnership is needed between those developing and manufacturing LMIC vaccines and the scientists, health care professionals, and policy makers in LMICs where such vaccines will be implemented. PMID:25136089

  2. Causal Relationships between Poverty and Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lustig, Daniel C.; Strauser, David R.

    2007-01-01

    Although research suggests why disability may cause poverty, it is not well understood why poverty may cause disability. This article presents the Poverty Disability Model, which includes four groups of factors that increase the risk that poverty will cause disability and chronic health problems. Rehabilitation interventions and counselor…

  3. 24 CFR 598.115 - Poverty rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Poverty rate. 598.115 Section 598... Requirements § 598.115 Poverty rate. (a) General. In order to be eligible for designation, an area's poverty... poverty rate must be not less than 20 percent; and (2) For at least 90 percent of the census tracts...

  4. 7 CFR 25.104 - Poverty rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poverty rate. 25.104 Section 25.104 Agriculture Office... § 25.104 Poverty rate. (a) General. Eligibility of an area on the basis of poverty shall be established in accordance with the following poverty rate criteria specific to Round I, Round II, Round IIS...

  5. 24 CFR 598.115 - Poverty rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Poverty rate. 598.115 Section 598... Requirements § 598.115 Poverty rate. (a) General. In order to be eligible for designation, an area's poverty... poverty rate must be not less than 20 percent; and (2) For at least 90 percent of the census tracts...

  6. 24 CFR 598.115 - Poverty rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Poverty rate. 598.115 Section 598... Requirements § 598.115 Poverty rate. (a) General. In order to be eligible for designation, an area's poverty... poverty rate must be not less than 20 percent; and (2) For at least 90 percent of the census tracts...

  7. 7 CFR 25.104 - Poverty rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Poverty rate. 25.104 Section 25.104 Agriculture Office... § 25.104 Poverty rate. (a) General. Eligibility of an area on the basis of poverty shall be established in accordance with the following poverty rate criteria specific to Round I, Round II, Round IIS...

  8. 7 CFR 25.104 - Poverty rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Poverty rate. 25.104 Section 25.104 Agriculture Office... § 25.104 Poverty rate. (a) General. Eligibility of an area on the basis of poverty shall be established in accordance with the following poverty rate criteria specific to Round I, Round II, Round IIS...

  9. 7 CFR 25.104 - Poverty rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Poverty rate. 25.104 Section 25.104 Agriculture Office... § 25.104 Poverty rate. (a) General. Eligibility of an area on the basis of poverty shall be established in accordance with the following poverty rate criteria specific to Round I, Round II, Round IIS...

  10. 24 CFR 598.115 - Poverty rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Poverty rate. 598.115 Section 598... Requirements § 598.115 Poverty rate. (a) General. In order to be eligible for designation, an area's poverty... poverty rate must be not less than 20 percent; and (2) For at least 90 percent of the census tracts...

  11. 7 CFR 25.104 - Poverty rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Poverty rate. 25.104 Section 25.104 Agriculture Office... § 25.104 Poverty rate. (a) General. Eligibility of an area on the basis of poverty shall be established in accordance with the following poverty rate criteria specific to Round I, Round II, Round IIS...

  12. 24 CFR 598.115 - Poverty rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Poverty rate. 598.115 Section 598... Requirements § 598.115 Poverty rate. (a) General. In order to be eligible for designation, an area's poverty... poverty rate must be not less than 20 percent; and (2) For at least 90 percent of the census tracts...

  13. Children in Poverty: The Fundamental Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busby, Wayne; Busby, Fran

    1996-01-01

    Documents the plight of children in poverty, examines the secondary effects of poverty upon the person and community, analyzes why the current subsidy approach has been ineffective, and seeks a holistic explanation for poverty. A universal, revenue-neutral approach to reducing poverty based on "supplementation" and "empowerment" is proposed. (GR)

  14. Poverty in Rural Areas of the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Alan R.

    The poverty problems in rural America are categorized and analyzed in terms of the extent and persistence of rural poverty, causes and costs of poverty, poverty characteristics of rural areas, and implications for anti-poverty programs. The report defines poverty and briefly traces the history of rural poverty over the past 20 years. Maps, charts,…

  15. Joining together to combat poverty.

    PubMed

    Heath, I; Haines, A; Malenica, Z; Oulton, J A; Leopando, Z; Kaseje, D; Addington, W W; Giscard D'Estaing, O; Tumwine, J K; Koivusalo, M; Biscoe, G; Nickson, P; Marusić, M; Vuk Pavlović, S

    2000-03-01

    The International Poverty and Health Network (IPHN) was created in December 1997 following a series of conferences organized by the World Health Organization, with the aim of integrating health into plans to eradicate poverty. Around 1.3 billion people live on less than US$1 per day. Of the 4.4 billion people in developing countries nearly 60% lack access to sanitation, 30% do not have clean water, 20% have no health care, and 20% do not have enough dietary energy and protein. Even among rich nations there are gross socioeconomic inequalities. Many children are robbed of their physical and mental potential through poverty. Expressed in constant 1963 US dollars, an average Croatian family needed the annual income of US$894 to meet the poverty line in 1960 and US$9,027 in 1995. Accordingly, 9-25% of Croatian households were below the poverty line between 1960 and 1995. The increase in the poverty rate after 1991 was compounded by the war that destroyed almost a third of industrial capacity and infrastructure. Dissipation of the communist economy and inadequate privatization have contributed to the increase in unemployment rate, corruption, and other social ills. IPHN invited Croatian Medical Journal to publish this editorial to help push the issue of poverty up political and medical agendas on a global level. We argue that a factor contributing to the failure of most large-scale programs against poverty to date is the excessive emphasis on material and infrastructure assistance at the expense of spiritual, moral, and intellectual development. PMID:10810165

  16. WISDOM GPR performance assessment in a cold artificial environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dechambre, M.; Ciarletti, V.; Biancheri-Astier, M.; Saintenoy, A.; Costard, F.; Hassen-Khodja, R.

    2012-04-01

    The WISDOM (Water Ice Subsurface Deposit Observation on Mars) GPR is one of the instruments that have been selected as part of the Pasteur payload of ESA's 2018 ExoMars Rover mission. WISDOM has been designed to obtain information about the nature of the subsurface along the rover path with the objective to explore the first ~ 3 m of the soil with a vertical resolution of a few centimetres. The sub-surface properties that can be addressed with WISDOM are variations in composition, texture, stratification (e.g., number, thickness and orientation of layers), the presence of unconformities and other structural characteristics (such as fractures and the deformation of strata). It is then essential to quantify the performances of WISDOM in controlled conditions, and several full polarimetric measurements have been carried out with the prototype in a cold artificial environment. The main objectives are the detection of different interface between homogeneous materials with WISDOM. The characterization of the material (porosity, % of water, dielectric properties, thickness and depth, temperature ...) is well-controlled. The cold room facility of IDES at Orsay (France) has been used, the ambient temperature ranged from -7° C to -10° C. A tank laying on the metallic floor (height: 0.5m, width: 0.80 m, length: 1.20m) in macrolon can contain liquid or frozen water or layers (dielectric contrasts) of home-maid permafrost (frozen saturated sand) with and without embedded objects or fractures. The temperature inside the medium (ice or permafrost) is controlled, the radar antennas are put on a sheet of polystyrene over the tank. Frequent measurements were performed (every 2cm) along a track from one side to the other side of the tank. The experimental conditions were: (1)dry cold sand (Fontainebleau sand) : porosity 35% density 2,67 (2) saturated wet sand : 35% of water (3) permafrost (frozen saturated sand) : 35% of ice content 1 layer: 3 consecutive experiments : 10cm dry

  17. From Knowledge-Inquiry to Wisdom-Inquiry: Is the Revolution Underway?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iredale, Mathew

    2007-01-01

    In the final paragraph of his 1984 book "From knowledge to wisdom, a revolution in the aims and methods of science," the philosopher Nicholas Maxwell boldly declared that an intellectual revolution was underway in the aims and methods of science, and academic inquiry in general, from what he termed knowledge-inquiry to wisdom-inquiry. Twenty years…

  18. Captured Wisdom[TM]: Integrating Technology into Adult Literacy Instruction. [Booklet and CD-ROM Transcripts].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Central Regional Educational Lab., Oak Brook, IL. North Central Regional Tech. in Education Consortium.

    This document consists of a booklet describing the Captured Wisdom project and transcripts of videos from the two CD-ROM disks. The booklet details how to get the most from the CD-ROMs with suggestions directed toward teachers, professional development providers, and administrators. Six Captured Wisdom learning sites are listed. The Captured…

  19. New Model, New Strategies: Instructional Design for Building Online Wisdom Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunawardena, Charlotte N.; Ortegano-Layne, Ludmila; Carabajal, Kayleigh; Frechette, Casey; Lindemann, Ken; Jennings, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    We discuss the development of an instructional design model, WisCom (Wisdom Communities), based on socio-constructivist and sociocultural learning philosophies and distance education principles for the development of online wisdom communities, and the application and evaluation of the model in an online graduate course in the USA. The WisCom model…

  20. Situations in Which I Was Wise: Autobiographical Wisdom Memories of Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konig, Susanne; Gluck, Judith

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies with adults have shown that age has an important influence on laypeople's wisdom theories. However, children's and adolescents' understanding of the concept of wisdom has hardly been investigated. In the current study, 80 children and adolescents completed a questionnaire concerning an event where they had been wise and an event…

  1. Child poverty can be reduced.

    PubMed

    Plotnick, R D

    1997-01-01

    Child poverty can be reduced by policies that help families earn more and supplement earned income with other sources of cash. A comprehensive antipoverty strategy could use a combination of these approaches. This article reviews recent U.S. experience with these broad approaches to reducing child poverty and discusses lessons from abroad for U.S. policymakers. The evidence reviewed suggests that, although policies to increase earned incomes among low-wage workers can help, these earnings gains will not be sufficient to reduce child poverty substantially. Government income support programs, tax policy, and child support payments from absent parents can be used to supplement earned incomes of poor families with children. Until recently, Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) was the main government assistance program for low-income families with children. Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) has recently replaced AFDC. This article explains why TANF benefits are likely to be less than AFDC benefits. The article also examines the effects of Social Security and Supplemental Security Income on child poverty. The most encouraging recent development in antipoverty policy has been the decline in the federal tax burden on poor families, primarily as a result of the expansion of the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC), now the largest cash assistance program for families with children. In 1995, government transfer programs (including the value of cash, food, housing, medical care, and taxes) decreased child poverty by 38% (from 24.2% to 14.2% of children under 18). Child poverty may also be reduced by policies that increase contributions from absent single parents to support their children. Overall, evidence from the United States and other developed countries suggests that a variety of approaches to reducing child poverty are feasible. Implementation of effective programs will depend, however, on the nation's political willingness to devote more resources to

  2. [Poverty and population growth].

    PubMed

    1983-07-01

    In the mid-1970s, some 120 million Latin Americans were unable to satisfy their most basic material needs. 55 million of them were in extreme indigency, unable to satisfy their minimal food needs even by using their entire incomes for that purpose. The rapid rate of demographic growth in Latin America influences the growth of the poor strata, who in absolute and relative terms show the highest rates of population growth. Despite heterogeneity in the manifestations of poverty, the poor have certain traits in common: employment outside the modern sector, with low productivity and little hope of generating stable incomes, low consumption capability, and lack of political power. 1 of the great problems of economic development in Latin America is the exclusion of the poorest strata from employment in better paid jobs. The high rate of fertility and rapid population growth provoke a negative interaction between population and development, in which the poorest strata reproduce most rapidly, becoming even poorer. A program of family planning within a development effort providing employment and income is needed to mitigate the problem, and no avenue or effort of implementation should be neglected on ideological grounds. Between 1960-70, the share of the poorest 20% of the population declined from 3.1% to 2.5% of the toal income of the region, while that of the poorest 1/2 increased slightly from 13.4% to 13.9%. In 1970 the poorest 20% had a per capita income of about US $70/year. It has been estimated that the proportion of the poor in Latin America declined from 51% in 1960 to 40% in 1970 and 33% at present, but the absolute number of persons affected continues to increase. PMID:12339314

  3. [An end to poverty

    PubMed

    Engelhard, P

    1994-10-01

    The African continent is distinguished by a much higher fertility rate than other regions. Fertility in Africa has remained almost constant at slightly over six children per woman on average, while important declines have occurred elsewhere over the past 25 years. High fertility in Africa is often attributed to poor diffusion of family planning, early marriage, and low female educational attainment, but other cultural and economic factors are involved. The significant decline of infant mortality over the past several decades has produced growth rates never before observed. Africa's very young populations may be at the origin of uncontrollable political disorder, as young persons with bleak prospects fall easy prey to ethnic, religious, and political extremism. Demographic growth has become an additional barrier to development. High fertility is tolerated or encouraged as constituting a cultural trait, but the resulting population growth is not a cultural trait. Demographic pressure has increased environmental problems in many regions. It is estimated that over ten million rural residents of the Sahel have been affected by soil degradation. The per capita availability of arable land fell from one-half to one-third hectare between 1965 and 1987. Shortages of firewood and water have become more common. The relationship between demographic growth, environmental crisis, and poverty in the countryside depends on other factors such as production techniques, modes of access to land and water, and the degree of security of land tenure. Population pressure was not the initial factor that disturbed the balance of the traditional societies, but it exacerbated the effects of other forces such as the introduction of cash crops and monetarization of the economy. Rural exodus and accelerated urban migration have been prompted in large part by the higher incomes and greater availability of services of all types in the cities. Achieving control of fertility in Africa will require

  4. Risk assessment of capability requirements using WISDOM-II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ang; Abbass, Hussein A.; Sarker, Ruhul

    2005-12-01

    The analysis of capability requirements is very important for military operational decision. It assists defence analysts to make decisions at all strategic, operational and tactical levels. However it tends to be extremely expensive and time-consuming because of the complexity under the military command, control and communication environment. Information technologies, such as red teaming, complex adaptive systems and agent based systems, can facilitate such analysis in a well-structured and systematic way through computer simulations. Based on these technologies, a promising agent-based combat simulation system - WISDOM-II is built. In this paper, we conduct a series of analysis to evaluate the effect of different capability configurations on the performance of different force compositions.

  5. Wisdom of groups promotes cooperation in evolutionary social dilemmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szolnoki, Attila; Wang, Zhen; Perc, Matjaž

    2012-08-01

    Whether or not to change strategy depends not only on the personal success of each individual, but also on the success of others. Using this as motivation, we study the evolution of cooperation in games that describe social dilemmas, where the propensity to adopt a different strategy depends both on individual fitness as well as on the strategies of neighbors. Regardless of whether the evolutionary process is governed by pairwise or group interactions, we show that plugging into the ``wisdom of groups'' strongly promotes cooperative behavior. The more the wider knowledge is taken into account the more the evolution of defectors is impaired. We explain this by revealing a dynamically decelerated invasion process, by means of which interfaces separating different domains remain smooth and defectors therefore become unable to efficiently invade cooperators. This in turn invigorates spatial reciprocity and establishes decentralized decision making as very beneficial for resolving social dilemmas.

  6. We-ness and the Cultivation of Wisdom in Couple Therapy.

    PubMed

    Skerrett, Karen

    2016-03-01

    Wisdom has played a key role in the attempt to understand the positive nature of human behavior since the time of Aristotle. In the past decade, psychology and related fields have experienced an expanding interest in the empirical and theoretical pursuit of wisdom. The relational dimension of wisdom has received less attention, although it may be viewed as embedded in the practice of all couple therapists. This article integrates previous work on resilience and positive functioning in committed partnerships and proposes relational wisdom to be a master virtue of relationship development, one that can be cultivated across the lifespan of the partnership. The aspects of relational wisdom such as self-reflection, attunement to self and other, balancing conflicting partner aims, the interpretation of rules and principles in light of the uniqueness of each situation and the capacity to learn from experience point to couples therapy as an ideal context for such skill building. Wisdom is built through dialog and the resulting individual and couple stories can serve as touchstones to what is most precious and vital in the relationship as well as guides for action through challenges and conflict. A clinical case is described to illustrate selected aspects of relational wisdom and implications for therapeutic practice. PMID:26123251

  7. Comparison of the Conceptualization of Wisdom in Ancient Indian Literature with Modern Views

    PubMed Central

    Jeste, Dilip V.; Vahia, Ipsit V.

    2008-01-01

    The study of wisdom has recently become a subject of growing scientific interest, although the concept of wisdom is ancient. This article focuses on conceptualization of wisdom in the Bhagavad Gita, arguably the most influential of all ancient Hindu philosophical/religious texts. Our review, using mixed qualitative/quantitative methodology with the help of Textalyser and NVivo software, found the following components to be associated with the concept of wisdom in the Gita: Knowledge of life, Emotional Regulation, Control over Desires, Decisiveness, Love of God, Duty and Work, Self-Contentedness, Compassion/Sacrifice, Insight/Humility, and Yoga (Integration of personality). A comparison of the conceptualization of wisdom in the Gita with that in modern scientific literature shows several similarities, such as rich knowledge about life, emotional regulation, insight, and a focus on common good (compassion). Apparent differences include an emphasis in the Gita on control over desires and renunciation of materialistic pleasures. Importantly, the Gita suggests that at least certain components of wisdom can be taught and learned. We believe that the concepts of wisdom in the Gita are relevant to modern psychiatry in helping develop psychotherapeutic interventions that could be more individualistic and more holistic than those commonly practiced today, and aimed at improving personal well-being rather than just psychiatric symptoms. PMID:18834271

  8. Subjective Poverty and Its Relation to Objective Poverty Concepts in Hungary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nandori, Eszter Siposne

    2011-01-01

    The paper analyzes subjective poverty in Hungary and compares it to the objective poverty concepts. Subjective poverty is defined by examining who people consider to be poor. Based on the Easterlin paradox, the initial hypothesis states that subjective and absolute poverty concepts are highly correlated. Taking into account that Hungary is a…

  9. Gender as a Moderator of the Relation Between Age Cohort and Three-Dimensional Wisdom in Iranian Culture.

    PubMed

    Cheraghi, Fereshte; Kadivar, Parvin; Ardelt, Monika; Asgari, Ali; Farzad, Valiollah

    2015-07-01

    This study examined whether gender moderated the association between age cohort and the cognitive, reflective, and compassionate dimensions of wisdom, using an Iranian sample of 439 adults from three age cohorts: young (18-34), middle-aged (35-54), and older (55 and above). Results indicated that the interaction effect between gender and age cohort was significant for three-dimensional wisdom and all three wisdom dimensions. Compared with younger women and older men, older women tended to have less education and to score lower on the cognitive wisdom dimension, but they had similar average scores as older men on the compassionate wisdom dimension. Overall, the association between age and wisdom was only positive for men, due mainly to the positive relation between age and the reflective and compassionate wisdom dimensions for men after adjusting for education. The results are interpreted with reference to generation gaps, socialization of men versus women, and life experiences and opportunities. PMID:26610721

  10. Poverty in Rural America: A National Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Kathryn H.

    Popular notions of poverty in America overlook the rural poor or assume that their problems are the same as those of the inner-city poor. This report, the first in a series on rural poverty, describes the characteristics of the rural poor and examines rural-urban differences in poverty. In 1987, the poverty rate was 16.9% in nonmetropolitan areas,…

  11. Child Poverty in Portugal: Dimensions and Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastos, Amelia; Nunes, Francisco

    2009-01-01

    This article analyses the extent and persistence of child poverty in Portugal between 1995 and 2001. Data from the Portuguese component of the European Community Household Panel Survey (ECHP) are used to estimate child poverty rates and children's flows in and out of poverty. The article focuses upon an analysis based on family income and on a set…

  12. Children in Poverty and Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huston, Aletha C.

    Almost one quarter of American children live in poverty, and the effects of poverty on these children are mediated by many family and social conditions. Poverty affects parenting practices and the home environment, with consequential effects on child adjustment and functioning. Changes in income cause changes in parenting and the quality of the…

  13. Gender and Poverty Reduction: A Kenyan Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimani, Elishiba Njambi; Kombo, Donald Kisilu

    2010-01-01

    Poverty is a dehumanising condition for every one. It erodes human rights of the affected whether women or men. Poverty subjects an individual to a state of powerlessness, hopelessness, and lack of self-esteem, confidence, and integrity, leading to a situation of multidimensional vulnerability. Poverty has a gender dimension since women and men…

  14. Examining the Culture of Poverty: Promising Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuthrell, Kristen; Stapleton, Joy; Ledford, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    Spurred by preservice teachers' perceptions that diversity issues such as poverty would not affect their teaching, professors in 1 southeastern U.S. elementary teacher-preparation program took action, which resulted in this examination of the culture of poverty and the identification of strategies to best serve children living in poverty. The…

  15. The Effects of Poverty on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacour, Misty; Tissington, Laura D.

    2011-01-01

    Poverty, which forms a specific culture and way of life, is a growing issue in the United States. The number of Americans living in poverty is continually increasing. Poverty indicates the extent to which an individual does without resources. Resources can include financial, emotional, mental, spiritual, and physical resources as well as support…

  16. 24 CFR 597.103 - Poverty rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Poverty rate. 597.103 Section 597... Area Requirements § 597.103 Poverty rate. (a) General. The poverty rate shall be established in accordance with the following criteria: (1) In each census tract within a nominated urban area, the...

  17. The Effect of Marriage on Child Poverty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rector, Robert; Johnson, Kirk A.; Fagan, Patrick F.

    This report examines what share of the current level of child poverty in the United States can be attributed to the growth of single parenthood since the 1960s, focusing on what the child poverty rate would be today if single parent families had remained at the levels that existed before the beginning of the war on poverty. Researchers simulated…

  18. 24 CFR 597.103 - Poverty rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Poverty rate. 597.103 Section 597... Area Requirements § 597.103 Poverty rate. (a) General. The poverty rate shall be established in accordance with the following criteria: (1) In each census tract within a nominated urban area, the...

  19. 24 CFR 597.103 - Poverty rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Poverty rate. 597.103 Section 597... Area Requirements § 597.103 Poverty rate. (a) General. The poverty rate shall be established in accordance with the following criteria: (1) In each census tract within a nominated urban area, the...

  20. 24 CFR 597.103 - Poverty rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Poverty rate. 597.103 Section 597... Area Requirements § 597.103 Poverty rate. (a) General. The poverty rate shall be established in accordance with the following criteria: (1) In each census tract within a nominated urban area, the...

  1. Poverty and People with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emerson, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have consistently reported a significant association between poverty and the prevalence of intellectual disabilities. The available evidence suggests that this association reflects two distinct processes. First, poverty causes intellectual disabilities, an effect mediated through the association between poverty and exposure…

  2. Divided Opportunities: Minorities, Poverty, and Social Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandefur, Gary D., Ed.; Tienda, Marta, Ed.

    A healthy economy is the best offense against poverty, but economic growth alone cannot close the wide gap between the poverty rates of minorities and whites. This collection examines the socioeconomic status of racial and ethnic minorities, their experiences with poverty, and the effects of federal social policies toward minority groups from 1787…

  3. Family Poverty, Welfare Reform, and Child Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Greg J.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2000-01-01

    Examines consequences of family poverty for child development, noting evidence that deep or persistent poverty early in childhood adversely affects children's ability and achievement. Argues that although the 1996 welfare reforms spurred many welfare-to-work transitions, their time limits and sanctions are likely to deepen poverty among some…

  4. Complicating Discontinuity: What about Poverty?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermes, Mary

    2005-01-01

    In this article, two white science teachers at tribal schools in the Upper Midwest of the United States, who were identified by community members and school administrators as successful teachers, describe experiences of how they wrestle with the daily effects of generations of oppression. Most vividly, they talk about poverty. This article…

  5. Poverty among Elderly in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srivastava, Akanksha; Mohanty, Sanjay K.

    2012-01-01

    Using consumption expenditure data of the National Sample Survey 2004-2005, this paper estimates the size of elderly poor and tests the hypotheses that elderly households are not economically better-off compared to non-elderly households in India. Poverty estimates are derived under three scenarios--by applying the official cut-off point of the…

  6. Public Employment and Urban Poverty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Bennett

    Improvements in the quality of national--and particularly of urban--life will require even greater expenditures than at present on the delivery of crucial services as education, health protection, recreation, waste disposal, and police and fire protection. Simultaneously, the problem of poverty continues to plague millions, even many who are in…

  7. Rural Organization and Poverty Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockdale, Jerry D.

    The deprivations of poverty seriously restrict the ability of millions of rural Americans to develop their potential and obtain "quality of life". If development of potential is to be maximized and if deprivations are to be reduced, structural changes are needed. The 4 change approaches that encompass much purposive social change at the locality…

  8. How Poverty Affects Classroom Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Eric

    2013-01-01

    "Poverty" is an uncomfortable word. Teachers are often unsure what to expect from kids from low-income households and what to do differently as a result. Well-known author and educator Eric Jensen points to seven differences that show up in school between low- and middle-income children. By understanding what they are and how to address…

  9. The Three Types of Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingue, Michel Doo

    1975-01-01

    Poverty in Africa can be attributed to colonial conquest and exploitation. The African economy was organized to meet the needs of the colonizing country, not the needs of the native population. Political independence did not bring about economic independence. A new economic order is needed between developed and developing nations. (MR)

  10. Reducing Poverty through Preschool Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Greg J.; Ludwig, Jens; Magnuson, Katherine A.

    2007-01-01

    Greg Duncan, Jens Ludwig, and Katherine Magnuson explain how providing high-quality care to disadvantaged preschool children can help reduce poverty. In early childhood, they note, children's cognitive and socioemotional skills develop rapidly and are sensitive to "inputs" from parents, home learning environments, child care settings, and the…

  11. Maine's Families: Poverty Despite Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazere, Edward B.

    Children are among the poorest of Maine's residents. Nearly 1 in 5 children under the age of 18, 19.3%, lived in families below the federal poverty line in the early 1990s. Most of these poor children lived in working families. The working poor are often missing from policy debates, but their numbers are likely to increase with welfare reform…

  12. Individual and Societal Wisdom: Explaining the Paradox of Human Aging and High Well-Being.

    PubMed

    Jeste, Dilip V; Oswald, Andrew J

    2014-03-26

    Objective: Although human aging is characterized by loss of fertility and progressive decline in physical abilities, later life is associated with better psychological health and well-being. Furthermore, there has been an unprecedented increase in average lifespan over the past century without corresponding extensions of fertile and healthy age spans. We propose a possible explanation for these paradoxical phenomena. Method: We reviewed the relevant literature on aging, well-being, and wisdom. Results: An increase in specific components of individual wisdom in later life may make up for the loss of fertility as well as declining physical health. However, current data on the relationship between aging and individual wisdom are not consistent and do not explain increased longevity in the general population during the past century. We propose that greater societal wisdom (including compassion) may account for the notable increase in average lifespan over the last century. Data in older adults with serious mental illnesses are limited, but suggest that many of them too experience improved psychosocial functioning, although their longevity has not yet increased, suggesting persistent stigma against mental illness and inadequate societal compassion. Conclusions: The proposed construct of societal wisdom needs more investigation. Research should also focus on the reasons for discrepant findings related to age-associated changes in different components of individual wisdom. Studies of wisdom and well-being are warranted in older people with serious mental illnesses, along with campaigns to enhance societal compassion for these disenfranchised individuals. Finally, effective interventions to enhance wisdom need to be developed and tested. PMID:24670225

  13. Inequality, income, and poverty: comparative global evidence.

    PubMed

    Fosu, Augustin Kwasi

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. The study seeks to provide comparative global evidence on the role of income inequality, relative to income growth, in poverty reduction.Methods. An analysis-of-covariance model is estimated using a large global sample of 1980–2004 unbalanced panel data, with the headcount measure of poverty as the dependent variable, and the Gini coefficient and PPP-adjusted mean income as explanatory variables. Both random-effects and fixed-effects methods are employed in the estimation.Results. The responsiveness of poverty to income is a decreasing function of inequality, and the inequality elasticity of poverty is actually larger than the income elasticity of poverty. Furthermore, there is a large variation across regions (and countries) in the relative effects of inequality on poverty.Conclusion. Income distribution plays a more important role than might be traditionally acknowledged in poverty reduction, though this importance varies widely across regions and countries. PMID:21125764

  14. Spatial determinants of poverty in rural Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Okwi, Paul O.; Ndeng'e, Godfrey; Kristjanson, Patti; Arunga, Mike; Notenbaert, An; Omolo, Abisalom; Henninger, Norbert; Benson, Todd; Kariuki, Patrick; Owuor, John

    2007-01-01

    This article investigates the link between poverty incidence and geographical conditions within rural locations in Kenya. Evidence from poverty maps for Kenya and other developing countries suggests that poverty and income distribution are not homogenous. We use spatial regression techniques to explore the effects of geographic factors on poverty. Slope, soil type, distance/travel time to public resources, elevation, type of land use, and demographic variables prove to be significant in explaining spatial patterns of poverty. However, differential influence of these and other factors at the location level shows that provinces in Kenya are highly heterogeneous; hence different spatial factors are important in explaining welfare levels in different areas within provinces, suggesting that targeted propoor policies are needed. Policy simulations are conducted to explore the impact of various interventions on location-level poverty levels. Investments in roads and improvements in soil fertility are shown to potentially reduce poverty rates, with differential impacts in different regions. PMID:17942704

  15. Biological science learning model based on Turgo's local wisdom on managing biodiversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anwari, Nahdi, Maizer Said; Sulistyowati, Eka

    2016-02-01

    Local wisdom as product of local knowledge has been giving a local context in science development. Local wisdom is important to connect scientific theories and local conditions; hence science could be accessed by common people. Using local wisdom as a model for learning science enables students to build contextual learning, hence learning science becomes more meaningful and becomes more accessible for students in a local community. Based on this consideration, therefore, this research developed a model for learning biology based on Turgo's local wisdom on managing biodiversity. For this purpose, Turgo's biodiversity was mapped, and any local values that are co-existing with the biodiversity were recorded. All of these informations were, then, used as a hypohetical model for developing materials for teaching biology in a senior high school adjacent to Turgo. This research employed a qualitative method. We combined questionnaries, interviews and observation to gather the data. We found that Turgo community has been practicing local wisdom on using traditional plants for many uses, including land management and practicing rituals and traditional ceremonies. There were local values that they embrace which enable them to manage the nature wisely. After being cross-referenced with literature regarding educational philoshophy, educational theories and teachings, and biology curriculum for Indonesia's senior high school, we concluded that Turgo's local wisdom on managing biodiversity can be recommended to be used as learning materials and sources for biological learning in schools.

  16. Poverty is Not Just an Indicator: The Relationship Between Income, Poverty, and Child Well-Being.

    PubMed

    Chaudry, Ajay; Wimer, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    In this article, we review the evidence on the effects of poverty and low income on children's development and well-being. We argue that poverty is an important indicator of societal and child well-being, but that poverty is more than just an indicator. Poverty and low income are causally related to worse child development outcomes, particularly cognitive developmental and educational outcomes. Mechanisms through which poverty affects these outcomes include material hardship, family stress, parental and cognitive inputs, and the developmental context to which children are exposed. The timing, duration, and community context of poverty also appear to matter for children's outcomes-with early experiences of poverty, longer durations of poverty, and higher concentrations of poverty in the community leading to worse child outcomes. PMID:27044698

  17. After Beijing: emphasis on poverty eradication.

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    In March 1996, during its first meeting since the Fourth World Conference on Women, the UN Commission on the Status of Women (CSW), called for a gender perspective to be integrated into policies and programs dealing with poverty, child and dependent care, and the media. Three expert panels examined each of these areas through a format which encouraged dialogue and led to the adoption of 17 resolutions, decisions, and agreed conclusions as well as a recommendation that the UN adopt a multi-year work program for the CSW to allow it to review progress in elimination of the 12 main obstacles to women's advancement identified at Beijing. Among the resolutions adopted by the CSW were calls to 1) take a broad and integrated approach to poverty eradication, 2) enhance women's empowerment and autonomy, 3) promote equity and equality in the public domain, 4) promote women's employment, 5) give women social and economic protection when they are unable to work, 6) counteract negative images of women and sex-stereotyping in the media, 7) reduce the representation of violence against women in the media, 8) strengthen the role of women in global communications, 9) encourage the participation of men in child and dependent care, and 10) recognize women's double burden of work. The CSW also agreed to pursue further discussions about drafting an optional protocol to the 1979 Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women. Among its other actions, the CSW called for mechanisms to protect the rights of women migrant workers, to protect women and children during armed conflicts, to include gender-based human rights violations in UN activities, and to address the root factors which lead to social ills such as trafficking in women and girls. In addition, the CSW submitted a draft resolution demanding that Israel protect the rights of Palestinian women and their families. PMID:12291684

  18. Dynamics of Economic Well-Being: Poverty 1996-1999. Current Population Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iceland, John

    This report examines patterns of poverty using seven different measures: average monthly poverty, episodic poverty, chronic poverty, annual poverty, poverty spells, poverty entry rates, and poverty exit rates. Data come from the 1996 panel of the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) and reflect the dynamics of poverty from 1996-1999.…

  19. Poverty and health sector inequalities.

    PubMed Central

    Wagstaff, Adam

    2002-01-01

    Poverty and ill-health are intertwined. Poor countries tend to have worse health outcomes than better-off countries. Within countries, poor people have worse health outcomes than better-off people. This association reflects causality running in both directions: poverty breeds ill-health, and ill-health keeps poor people poor. The evidence on inequalities in health between the poor and non-poor and on the consequences for impoverishment and income inequality associated with health care expenses is discussed in this article. An outline is given of what is known about the causes of inequalities and about the effectiveness of policies intended to combat them. It is argued that too little is known about the impacts of such policies, notwithstanding a wealth of measurement techniques and considerable evidence on the extent and causes of inequalities. PMID:11953787

  20. Stories of Growth and Wisdom: A Mixed-Methods Study of People Living Well With Pain.

    PubMed

    Owens, Justine E; Menard, Martha; Plews-Ogan, Margaret; Calhoun, Lawrence G; Ardelt, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Chronic pain remains a daunting clinical challenge, affecting 30% of people in the United States and 20% of the global population. People meeting this challenge by achieving wellbeing while living with pain are a virtually untapped source of wisdom about this persistent problem. Employing a concurrent mixed-methods design, we studied 80 people living with chronic pain with "positive stories to tell" using semi-structured interviews and standardized questionnaires. In-depth interviews focused on what helped, what hindered, how they changed, and advice for others in similar circumstances. Major qualitative themes included acceptance, openness, self-efficacy, hope, perseverance, self-regulation, kinesthetic awareness, holistic approaches and integrative therapies, self-care, spirituality, social support, and therapeutic lifestyle behaviors such as music, writing, art, gardening, and spending time in nature. Themes of growth and wisdom included enhanced relationships, perspective, clarity, strength, gratitude, compassion, new directions, and spiritual change. Based on narrative analysis of the interviews and Ardelt's Three-Dimensional Wisdom Model, participants were divided into 2 groups: 59 wisdom exemplars and 21 nonexemplars. Non-exemplar themes were largely negative and in direct contrast to the exemplar themes. Quantitatively, wisdom exemplars scored significantly higher in Openness and Agreeableness and lower in Neuroticism compared to non-exemplars. Wisdom exemplars also scored higher in Wisdom, Gratitude, Forgiveness, and Posttraumatic Growth than nonexemplars, and more exemplars used integrative therapies compared to the non-exemplars. As a whole, the exemplar narratives illustrate a Positive Approach Model (PAM) for living well with pain, which allows for a more expansive pain narrative, provides positive role models for patients and clinicians, and contributes to a broader theoretical perspective on persistent pain. PMID:26937311

  1. Stories of Growth and Wisdom: A Mixed-Methods Study of People Living Well With Pain

    PubMed Central

    Menard, Martha; Plews-Ogan, Margaret; Calhoun, Lawrence G.; Ardelt, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Chronic pain remains a daunting clinical challenge, affecting 30% of people in the United States and 20% of the global population. People meeting this challenge by achieving wellbeing while living with pain are a virtually untapped source of wisdom about this persistent problem. Employing a concurrent mixed-methods design, we studied 80 people living with chronic pain with “positive stories to tell” using semi-structured interviews and standardized questionnaires. In-depth interviews focused on what helped, what hindered, how they changed, and advice for others in similar circumstances. Major qualitative themes included acceptance, openness, self-efficacy, hope, perseverance, self-regulation, kinesthetic awareness, holistic approaches and integrative therapies, self-care, spirituality, social support, and therapeutic lifestyle behaviors such as music, writing, art, gardening, and spending time in nature. Themes of growth and wisdom included enhanced relationships, perspective, clarity, strength, gratitude, compassion, new directions, and spiritual change. Based on narrative analysis of the interviews and Ardelt's Three-Dimensional Wisdom Model, participants were divided into 2 groups: 59 wisdom exemplars and 21 nonexemplars. Non-exemplar themes were largely negative and in direct contrast to the exemplar themes. Quantitatively, wisdom exemplars scored significantly higher in Openness and Agreeableness and lower in Neuroticism compared to non-exemplars. Wisdom exemplars also scored higher in Wisdom, Gratitude, Forgiveness, and Posttraumatic Growth than nonexemplars, and more exemplars used integrative therapies compared to the non-exemplars. As a whole, the exemplar narratives illustrate a Positive Approach Model (PAM) for living well with pain, which allows for a more expansive pain narrative, provides positive role models for patients and clinicians, and contributes to a broader theoretical perspective on persistent pain. PMID:26937311

  2. Childhood pulmonary tuberculosis: old wisdom and new challenges.

    PubMed

    Marais, Ben J; Gie, Robert P; Schaaf, H Simon; Beyers, Nulda; Donald, Peter R; Starke, Jeff R

    2006-05-15

    Childhood tuberculosis is neglected in endemic areas with resource constraints, as children are considered to develop mild forms of disease and to contribute little to the maintenance of the tuberculosis epidemic. However, children contribute a significant proportion of the disease burden and suffer severe tuberculosis-related morbidity and mortality, particularly in endemic areas. This review provides an overview of well-documented concepts and principles, and demonstrates how this "old wisdom" applies to current and future challenges in the field of childhood tuberculosis; the aim was to articulate some of the most pressing issues, to provide a rational framework for discussion, and to stimulate thought and further scientific study. The prechemotherapy literature that described the natural history of disease in children identified three central concepts: (1) the need for accurate case definitions, (2) the importance of risk stratification, and (3) the diverse spectrum of disease pathology, which necessitates accurate disease classification. The relevance of these concepts and their application to pertinent issues such as the diagnosis of childhood tuberculosis are discussed. The concepts are also linked to the basic principles of antituberculosis treatment, providing a simplified approach to the diagnosis and treatment of childhood tuberculosis that is independent of resource constraints. The main challenges for future research are highlighted and in conclusion it is emphasized that the infrastructure provided by the directly observed therapy, short-course strategy, combined with well-targeted interventions, slightly improved resources, and greatly improved political commitment, may lead to a dramatic reduction in tuberculosis-related morbidity and mortality among children. PMID:16484674

  3. On biodiversity conservation and poverty traps

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Christopher B.; Travis, Alexander J.; Dasgupta, Partha

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a special feature on biodiversity conservation and poverty traps. We define and explain the core concepts and then identify four distinct classes of mechanisms that define important interlinkages between biodiversity and poverty. The multiplicity of candidate mechanisms underscores a major challenge in designing policy appropriate across settings. This framework is then used to introduce the ensuing set of papers, which empirically explore these various mechanisms linking poverty traps and biodiversity conservation. PMID:21873176

  4. Poverty PhDs: Funds of Knowledge, Poverty, and Professional Identity in Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutri, Ramona Maile; Manning, Jill Michelle; Chun, Marc

    2011-01-01

    In contrast to the common deficit approach, this self-study explores the relationship between the funds of knowledge possessed by people of poverty and their development of professional identity in academia. All three authors have moved beyond conditions of financial poverty, but all find that the mental conditions of poverty persist. We conclude…

  5. Growth, Distribution, and Poverty in Africa: Messages from the 1990s. Poverty Dynamics in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christiaensen, Luc; Demery, Lionel; Paternostro, Stefano

    This book reviews trends in household well-being in Africa during the 1990s. Using the better data sets now available, the main factors behind observed poverty changes are examined in eight countries: Ethiopia, Ghana, Madagascar, Mauritania, Nigeria, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. A broad view of poverty is taken, which includes income poverty and…

  6. Poverty dynamics in Germany: Evidence on the relationship between persistent poverty and health behavior.

    PubMed

    Aue, Katja; Roosen, Jutta; Jensen, Helen H

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies have found poverty to be related to lower levels of health due to poor health behavior such as unhealthy eating, smoking or less physical activity. Longer periods of poverty seem to be especially harmful for individual health behavior. Studies have shown that poverty has a dynamic character. Moreover, poverty is increasingly regarded as being a multidimensional construct and one that considers more aspects than income alone. Against this background this paper analyzes the relationship between health behavior and persistent spells of income poverty as well as a combined poverty indicator using data of the German Socio-Economic Panel (2000-2010). Next to cross-sectional logistic regression models we estimate fixed-effects models to analyze the effect of persistent poverty on dietary behavior, tobacco consumption, and physical activity. Cross-sectional results suggest that persistent poverty is related to poor health behavior, particularly regarding tobacco consumption and physical activity. Results also show that multidimensional and dynamic aspects of poverty matter. Complementary panel analyses reveal negative effects for the combined poverty indicator only for dietary behavior in the total sample. However, by analyzing the sample by gender we identify further effects of persistent poverty on health behavior. The analyses show that not only do individuals in poverty but also those in precarious situations show health-damaging behavior more often. PMID:26874825

  7. Child Poverty as Public Policy: Direct Provision and Asylum Seeker Children in the Republic of Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fanning, Bryan; Veale, Angela

    2004-01-01

    This paper evaluates responses to asylum seeker children in Ireland from a child poverty perspective and from that of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. It draws upon research undertaken in early 2001 on behalf of the Irish Refugee Council among asylum seeker families with children in Cork, Limerick and Ennis on their…

  8. Applying Erikson's wisdom to self-management practices of older adults: findings from two field studies.

    PubMed

    Perry, Tam E; Ruggiano, Nicole; Shtompel, Natalia; Hassevoort, Luke

    2015-04-01

    According to Erik Erikson's theory on the stages of human development, achieving wisdom later in life involves revisiting previous crises and renewing psychosocial accomplishments. However, few studies have used Erikson's theory as a framework for examining how older adults self-manage physical and mental health changes that commonly occur later in life. This article presents findings from two qualitative studies that demonstrate how older adults apply wisdom in new domains. Specifically, it was found that older adults (1) reasserted autonomy by initiating creative problem solving and (2) applied skills gained from productive activities earlier in life to new health-related problems that arise later in life. These findings highlight the importance of engaging older adults to repurpose their life skills and thus reapply wisdom to new areas of their lives. Implications for practice are discussed. PMID:25651571

  9. Using Asset Poverty Measures to Understand Poverty Dynamics, Poverty Traps and Farmer Behavior in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Focus on Rural Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liverpool, Lenis Saweda

    2009-01-01

    Effective poverty reduction programs require careful measurement of poverty status. Commonly used consumption or income-based classifications of poverty aggregate together households that are persistently poor with those who are only in poverty due to passing conditions. They also classify as non-poor households that are at risk of falling into…

  10. Overcoming Persistent Poverty--and Sinking into It. Income Trends in Persistent-Poverty and Other High-Poverty Rural Counties, 1989-94.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nord, Mark

    In 1989, 31.6 percent of the rural poor lived in persistent-poverty counties (those with poverty rates exceeding 20 percent for every decennial census year since 1960), and an additional 12.6 percent lived in "new" high-poverty counties. While this represents less than half the rural poor, high and persistent poverty is of particular concern to…

  11. What is the common thread of creativity? Its dialectical relation to intelligence and wisdom.

    PubMed

    Sternberg, R J

    2001-04-01

    Creativity refers to the potential to produce novel ideas that are task-appropriate and high in quality. Creativity in a societal context is best understood in terms of a dialectical relation to intelligence and wisdom. In particular, intelligence forms the thesis of such a dialectic. Intelligence largely is used to advance existing societal agendas. Creativity forms the antithesis of the dialectic, questioning and often opposing societal agendas, as well as proposing new ones. Wisdom forms the synthesis of the dialectic, balancing the old with the new. Wise people recognize the need to balance intelligence with creativity to achieve both stability and change within a societal context. PMID:11330237

  12. WISDOM GPR subsurface investigations in the Atacama desert during the SAFER rover operation simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorizon, Sophie; Ciarletti, Valérie; Vieau, André-Jean; Plettemeier, Dirk; Benedix, Wolf-Stefan; Mütze, Marco; Hassen-Kodja, Rafik; Humeau, Olivier

    2014-05-01

    SAFER (Sample Acquisition Field Experiment with a Rover) is a field trial that occured from 7th to 13th October 2013 in the Atacama desert, Chile. This trial was designed to gather together scientists and engineers in a context of a real spatial mission with a rover. This is ESA's opportunity to validate operations procedures for the ExoMars 2018 mission, since a rover, provided by Astrium, was equipped with three ExoMars payload instruments, namely the WISDOM (Water Ice Subsurface Deposits Observations on Mars) Ground Penetrating Radar, PANCAM (Panoramic Camera) and CLUPI (Close-UP Imager), and was used to experiment the real context of a Martian rover mission. The test site was located close to the Paranal ESO's Observatory (European Southern Observatorys) while the operations were conducted in the Satellite Applications Catapult remote Center in Harwell, UK. The location was chosen for its well-known resemblance with Mars' surface and its arid dryness. To provide the best from this trial, geologists, engineers and instrumentation scientists teams collaborated by processing and analyzing the data, planning in real time the next trajectories for the Bridget rover, as well as the sites of interest for WISDOM subsurface investigations. This WISDOM GPR has been designed to define the geological context of the ExoMars 2018 landing site by characterizing the shallow subsurface in terms of electromagnetic properties and structures. It will allow to lead the drill to locations of potential exobiologocal interest. WISDOM is a polarimetric step frequency radar operating from 0.5GHz to 3GHz, which allows a vertical resolution of a few centimeters over a few meters depth. Provided with a DEM (Digital Elevation Model) and a low-resolution map to assist the team with the rover's operations, several soudings with WISDOM were done over the area. The WISDOM data allowed, in collaboration with the SCISCYS team, to map the electromagnetic contrasts into the subsurface underneath

  13. Multidimensional Poverty and Child Survival in India

    PubMed Central

    Mohanty, Sanjay K.

    2011-01-01

    Background Though the concept of multidimensional poverty has been acknowledged cutting across the disciplines (among economists, public health professionals, development thinkers, social scientists, policy makers and international organizations) and included in the development agenda, its measurement and application are still limited. Objectives and Methodology Using unit data from the National Family and Health Survey 3, India, this paper measures poverty in multidimensional space and examine the linkages of multidimensional poverty with child survival. The multidimensional poverty is measured in the dimension of knowledge, health and wealth and the child survival is measured with respect to infant mortality and under-five mortality. Descriptive statistics, principal component analyses and the life table methods are used in the analyses. Results The estimates of multidimensional poverty are robust and the inter-state differentials are large. While infant mortality rate and under-five mortality rate are disproportionately higher among the abject poor compared to the non-poor, there are no significant differences in child survival among educationally, economically and health poor at the national level. State pattern in child survival among the education, economical and health poor are mixed. Conclusion Use of multidimensional poverty measures help to identify abject poor who are unlikely to come out of poverty trap. The child survival is significantly lower among abject poor compared to moderate poor and non-poor. We urge to popularize the concept of multiple deprivations in research and program so as to reduce poverty and inequality in the population. PMID:22046384

  14. The Influence of Poverty on Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tienken, Christopher H.

    2012-01-01

    Without a doubt, poverty has a negative influence on student achievement, especially when achievement is measured by state-mandated standardized tests. However, some bureaucrats, such as state commissioners of education and even state governors, continue to downplay the influence of poverty on student achievement. New Jersey's Governor Chris…

  15. High Poverty, High Performing Schools. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1997

    1997-01-01

    This theme issue includes four articles on high performance by poor Texas schools. In "Principal of National Blue Ribbon School Says High Poverty Schools Can Excel" (interview with Robert Zarate by Christie L. Goodman), the principal of Mary Hull Elementary School (San Antonio, Texas) describes how the high-poverty, high-minority school…

  16. Child Poverty: The United Kingdom Experience.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Jane G; Curran, Megan A

    2016-04-01

    The United States has long struggled with high levels of child poverty. In 2014, 2 of 5 (42.9%) of all American children lived in economically insecure households and just over 1 in 5 children lived below the official absolute poverty line. These rates are high, but not intractable. Evidence from the US Census Bureau's Supplemental Poverty Measure, among other sources, shows the effect that public investments in cash and noncash transfers can have in reducing child poverty and improving child well-being. However, with significant disparities in services and supports for children across states and the projected decline of current federal spending on children, the United States is an international outlier in terms of public investments in children, particularly compared with other high-income nations. One such country, the United Kingdom (UK), faced similar child poverty challenges in recent decades. At the end of the 20th century, the British Prime Minister pledged to halve child poverty in a decade and eradicate it 'within a generation.' The Labour Government then set targets and dedicated resources in the form of income supplements, employment, child care, and education support. Child poverty levels nearly halved against an absolute measure by the end of the first decade. Subsequent changes in government and the economy slowed progress and have resulted in a very different approach. However, the UK child poverty target experience, 15 years in and spanning multiple changes in government, still offers a useful comparative example for US social policy moving forward. PMID:27044706

  17. Participatory Child Poverty Assessment in Rural Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harpham, Trudy; Huong, Nguyen Thu; Long, Tran Thap; Tuan, Tran

    2005-01-01

    There are increasing calls for more child specific measures of poverty in developing countries and the need for such measures to be multi-dimensional (that is not just based on income) has been recognised. Participatory Poverty Assessments (PPAs) are now common in international development research. Most PPAs have been undertaken with adults and…

  18. Ninez y Pobreza (Childhood and Poverty).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Didonet, Vital

    1992-01-01

    Reviews data on child poverty worldwide, providing statistics on 20 poverty-related problems. Examines effects of economic factors (i.e., unemployment, wage stagnation, inflation, and internal migration) and political policies (i.e., military spending over health and education) on child well-being, arguing that families and children themselves…

  19. Lessening the impact of poverty on children

    PubMed Central

    Offord, David R; Lipman, Ellen L

    1999-01-01

    The present paper is divided into three sections. The first section deals with two issues: the impact of poverty on children and the hypothesized mechanisms by which poverty affects children. The second section discusses four guiding principles for programs that aim to reduce deficits in the quality of life and life chances of poor children. The third section describes promising intervention programs. PMID:20212998

  20. Information and Communication Technology for Poverty Reduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharama, Motilal

    2005-01-01

    It has been estimated that over 700 million of the world's poor live in Asia-Pacifiui region i.e., those who earn $1 or less a day. Nearly one of three Asians is poor. It is claimed by multilateral agencies that the incidence of poverty (proportion of people below the poverty line) is slightly declining. Others question this claim and argue that…

  1. Poverty and the Child: A Canadian Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Thomas J.

    Contents of this study include the following essays: (1) "Economic Considerations of Poverty," Harry Lacombe; (2) "Physical Growth and Development: Some Socioeconomic Factors During Prenatal and Postnatal Life," Geoffrey C. Robinson, (3) "Language, Cognition and Poverty," Alan R. Moffit; (4) "Personality Development," Elizabeth J. Davis; (5) "The…

  2. General Music and Children Living in Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAnally, Elizabeth Ann

    2013-01-01

    A review of recent writing makes the case that children living in poverty (urban, rural, or other) are more in jeopardy now than ever. As teachers attest and research asserts, poverty affects children in profound, complicated, and lasting ways. However, the general music program is uniquely positioned to meet children’s needs, especially those…

  3. Adolescent Coping with Poverty-Related Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadsworth, Martha E.; Wolff, Brian; Santiago, Catherine DeCarlo; Moran, Erica G.

    2008-01-01

    Adolescents living in poverty face numerous stressors that are toxic for their mental health and well-being. There are effective strategies for coping with poverty-related stress that have been shown to reduce psychological symptoms in the face of this stress. However, stress itself weakens an adolescent's ability to use these cognitively…

  4. The Impact of Mass Incarceration on Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeFina, Robert; Hannon, Lance

    2013-01-01

    During the past 30 years, U.S. poverty has remained high despite overall economic growth. At the same time, incarceration rates have risen by more than 300%, a phenomenon that many analysts have referred to as mass incarceration. This article explores whether the mass incarceration of the past few decades impeded progress toward poverty reduction.…

  5. Asset-Based Measurement of Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandolini, Andrea; Magri, Silvia; Smeeding, Timothy M.

    2010-01-01

    Poverty is generally defined as income or expenditure insufficiency, but the economic condition of a household also depends on its real and financial asset holdings. This paper investigates measures of poverty that rely on indicators of household net worth. We review and assess two main approaches followed in the literature: income-net worth…

  6. Cultural Diversity and Anti-Poverty Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamont, Michele; Small, Mario Luis

    2010-01-01

    This article examines how anti-poverty policy has considered the role of culture and how it ought to do so. While some have explained poverty as a function of the presumed cultural deficiency or distinctiveness of the poor, we suggest that these explanations have not been convincing and that policy requires a broader and more sophisticated…

  7. Assessing Poverty and Related Factors in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Saatci, Esra; Akpinar, Ersin

    2007-01-01

    Poverty, a complex, multidimensional, and universal problem, has been conceptualized as income and material deprivation. In this article, we discuss poverty and related factors in Turkey. The absolute poverty line for Turkey was US $4 per capita per day. Turkey was ranked 92nd out of 177 countries with moderate human development in the 2006 Human Development Report. The individual food poverty rate was 1.35% and the non-food poverty rate was 25.6%. The highest poverty rate was among primary school graduates (42.5%; 38.5% for women and 46.8% for men). The rate for this group was higher in urban than in rural areas. Among poor people, 57.2% were married. The highest poverty rate was among agricultural workers (46.6%) and in Eastern and Southeastern Anatolia. Factors related to poverty were crowded households, unemployment, immigration, working for a daily wage in the agricultural and construction sector, low educational status, female sex or married status, lacking social insurance, and living in rural areas or in Eastern and Southeastern Anatolia. PMID:17948949

  8. Agricultural Change, Community Change, and Rural Poverty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitchen, Janet M.

    1988-01-01

    Examines the collapse of the rural community attendant on the demise of agriculture. Reports results of interviews of dairy farmers and their families in rural New York which suggest that farm problems exacerbate problems of rural poverty. Recommends effective intervention to prevent increasing rural economic poverty and social marginality. (DHP)

  9. High-Flying High-Poverty Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Educator, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In discussing socioeconomic integration before audiences, the author is frequently asked: What about high-poverty schools that do work? Don't they suggest that economic segregation isn't much of a problem after all? High-poverty public schools that beat the odds paint a heartening story that often attracts considerable media attention. In 2000,…

  10. Poverty: Teaching Mathematics and Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Leah P.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents three mathematics lessons in a social justice setting of learning about poverty. Student activities include budgeting, graphic data representation, and linear regression, all in the context of connecting, communicating, and reasoning about poverty. (Contains 1 table, 5 figures and 6 online resources.)