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Sample records for poverty conventional wisdom

  1. Conventional wisdom about familial contributions to substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Blechman, E A

    1982-01-01

    Conventional social-science wisdom about the family background of substance abusers breaks down into three hypotheses. The broken home causes substance abuse; overprotective mothers with or without neglectful fathers cause substance abuse; substance abuse is reinforced by the changes it brings about in family interaction. The broke-home hypothesis attributes substance abuse to sheer absence of a parent, usually the father. The overprotective-mother hypothesis emphasizes the effect of indulgent, dominant mother behavior sometimes combined with ineffectual father behavior. The increased-control hypothesis emphasizes the effects of substance abuser, parents, and siblings on one another. Because investigations of these hypotheses are necessarily correlational, existing research on the family backgrounds of substance abusers suffers from methodological flaws characteristic of weak correlational designs. These hypotheses are logical extensions of Freudian theory, early social-learning theory, and revised social-learning theory respectively. Assumptions that pertinent aspects of the more general theories have been upheld by empirical investigation are not justified. PMID:7171072

  2. Population and development problems: a critical assessment of conventional wisdom. The case of Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Sibanda, A E

    1988-01-01

    Conventional wisdom, as reflected in reports by the World Bank and the Whitsun Foundation, maintains that control of population growth is the key strategy for stimulating socioeconomic development and ending widespread poverty. The Witsun Foundation has criticized the Government of Zimbabwe for failing to include specific policies for population control in its National Transitional Development Plan. the report further expressed alarm about future availability of land to contain Zimbabwe's growing population. Communal areas are designed for a maximum of 325,000 families yet presently contain 700-800,000 families. This Malthusian, deterministic emphasis on population growth as the source of social ills ignores the broader, complex set of socioeconomic, historical, and political factors that determine material life. Any analysis of population that fails to consider the class structure of society, the type of division of labor, and forms of property and production can produce only meaningless abstractions. For example, consideration of crowding in communal areas must include consideration of inequitable patterns of land ownership in sub-Saharan Africa. Unemployment must be viewed within the context of a capitalist economic structure that relies on an industrial reserve army of labor to ensure acceptance of low wages and labor-intensive conditions. While it is accepted that population growth is creating specific and real problems in Zimbabwe and other African countries, these problems could be ameliorated by land reform and restructuring of the export-oriented colonial economies. Similarly, birth control should not be promoted as the solution to social problems, yet family planning services should be available to raise the status of women. Literacy, agrarian reform, agricultural modernization, and industrialization campaigns free from the dominance of Western capitalism represent the true solutions to Zimbabwe's problems. PMID:12342943

  3. One-to-One Paraprofessionals for Students with Disabilities in Inclusive Classrooms: Is Conventional Wisdom Wrong?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giangreco, Michael F.

    2010-01-01

    Assigning one-to-one paraprofessionals has become an increasingly common response to support students with intellectual and other developmental disabilities in general education classrooms. This article challenges the conventional wisdom that such an approach to service provision is necessarily a desirable and supportive action. Five main reasons…

  4. The Motivational Relevance of Educational Plans: Questioning the Conventional Wisdom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Karl L.; Cook, Martha A.

    Using two complimentary data sets, the National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972 and the Study of Academic Prediction and Growth, the conventional interpretation of educational plans as motives and thus determinants of educational attainment is questioned. It was found that when questioned about their educational loans: (1) as…

  5. Aging human circadian rhythms: conventional wisdom may not always be right

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, Timothy H.

    2005-01-01

    This review discusses the ways in which the circadian rhythms of older people are different from those of younger adults. After a brief discussion of clinical issues, the review describes the conventional wisdom regarding age-related changes in circadian rhythms. These can be summarized as four assertions regarding what happens to people as they get older: 1) the amplitude of their circadian rhythms reduces, 2) the phase of their circadian rhythms becomes earlier, 3) their natural free-running period (tau) shortens, and 4) their ability to tolerate abrupt phase shifts (e.g., from jet travel or night work) worsens. The review then discusses the empirical evidence for and against these assertions and discusses some alternative explanations. The conclusions are that although older people undoubtedly have earlier circadian phases than younger adults, and have more trouble coping with shift work and jet lag, evidence for the assertions about rhythm amplitude and tau are, at best, mixed.

  6. The new conventional wisdom: an evaluation of the WHO report, Health Systems: Improving Performance.

    PubMed

    Navarro, V

    2001-01-01

    The World Health Organization's recent report, Health Systems: Improving Performance, has been highly visible in the professional and popular media. The report evaluates the world's health care systems according to three characteristics--effectiveness, responsiveness to users, and the progressivity of their funding--then uses these evaluations to rank countries by each of these characteristics and by an overall indicator of performance, a composite of all three characteristics. The ranking has been widely cited, but rarely subjected to scientific scrutiny. This article analyzes the concepts and methods used in the study and the assumptions and values inherent in the report. The author demonstrates how the report's uncritical acceptance of what has become the new conventional wisdom on health and medical care policies in the United States and other developed countries seriously limits its value. PMID:11271646

  7. Rejecting conventional wisdom: how academic medical centers can regain their leadership positions.

    PubMed

    Krauss, K; Smith, J

    1997-07-01

    Academic medical centers (i.e., medical schools and their principal hospitals) are following very similar strategies in attempts to secure their futures. It is likely that these undifferentiated strategies will fail, since most of them have been copied from the lower-cost, geographically better-positioned hospitals and health systems. Despite a wealth of innovative, entrepreneurial talent and the potential to reshape the world that AMCs live in, most AMCs are in reactive modes. Future directions and strategies are almost always shaped, forced, and justified by external pressures. The major problem with the strategic plans of most AMCs is that they are based on conventional industry wisdom. Strategic plans tend not to be analytically driven. The insight and understanding of those factors that drive the demand for AMCs' services and determine the performances of AMCs are lacking. The authors note some questions that are critical to the formulation of strategies for AMCs. For example, how can the research mission be changed from a cost-based to a value-based endeavor? Most AMCs cannot answer these questions, and if they do address them in the planning process, they do so superficially. Several examples of the factors that need to be understood are also given, such as patients' purposes and needs in seeking specialty care. Alternative strategies are listed, such as maintaining and exploiting the economic irrationality of the market rather than acting as if it were economically rational or forcing it to become so. Last, the authors outline the scope of the changes that are required and urge AMCs to reject conventional wisdom, determine their own unique situations, and work from there. PMID:9236466

  8. Beyond the conventional wisdom: USAID projects, interorganizational linkages, and institutional reform in Peru.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, G D

    1992-07-01

    The case study of the linkages between departmental-level and national organizations in Peru shows how linkages can play a significant role in national reform. A general overview of current articles on interorganizational linkages and decentralization pertinent to the Peruvian context of control oriented public sectors is provided. The Peruvian institutional context and the constraints faced by decentralized development agencies called departmental development corporations (CORDES) are identified. CORDES members were provincial mayors, representatives of private sector professional and economic organizations, and heads of ministerial field offices, autonomous agencies, and public enterprises. Microregional offices were established and received public funding. USAID channeled funding through the national organizations to the CORDES in the Integrated Regional Development Project (IRD) between 1979-86, and the Disaster Relief, Rehabilitation, and Reconstruction (DRR) Project between 1983-87. The IRD and the DRR are described in addition to the decentralized organization support network established by the 2 projects. There is an analysis of how these interorganizational linkages contributed to conventional uses of linkages and unconventional or institutional reform. Reforms were facilitated by direct persuasion of central agencies to change their administrative regulations, policies, and operating procedures, and extensive lobbying by the support network to pass budgetary reform favoring CORDES and bureaucratic reorientation. Conclusions were reached on 1) the importance of assistance linkages for hastening implementation, building capacity, and overcoming organizational weaknesses (conventional wisdom); 2) the usefulness of vertical linkages in resolving administrative or technical weaknesses (unconventional wisdom); and 3) the usefulness of reinforcing project related units within key national level agencies which increases access to power while specific objectives

  9. The Teaching-Family Model and Post-Treatment Recidivism: A Critical Review of the Conventional Wisdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingsley, David E.

    2006-01-01

    Conventional wisdom suggests that the Teaching-Family Model (TFM) approach to treating youthful offenders is not effective in reducing post-treatment recidivism. This article reviews two major studies referenced in support of this widespread perception. Data presented in one widely referenced study are treated with a Cochran-Mantel-Haensel test,…

  10. Schooling, Skills, and Self-Rated Health: A Test of Conventional Wisdom on the Relationship between Educational Attainment and Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke, Naomi; Macmillan, Ross

    2016-01-01

    Education is a key sociological variable in the explanation of health and health disparities. Conventional wisdom emphasizes a life course--human capital perspective with expectations of causal effects that are quasi-linear, large in magnitude for high levels of educational attainment, and reasonably robust in the face of measured and unmeasured…

  11. L2 Learning Opportunities in Different Academic Subjects in Content-Based Instruction -- Evidence in Favour of "Conventional Wisdom"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo, Yuen Yi

    2014-01-01

    Content-based instruction (CBI) adopts a second language (L2) as the medium of instruction for some or all academic subjects to facilitate L2 learning. There seem however, no uniform policies concerning which academic subjects should be taught in L2, in case only some subjects are involved. Conventional wisdom tends to favour Humanities subjects…

  12. Imaging Karst Aquifers with Multichannel Seismic Data in Biscayne Bay: Conventional Wisdom Defied

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, C.; Cunningham, K. J.

    2008-05-01

    Conventional wisdom reasons that acquisition of useful seismic data in shallow-marine carbonate environments is not possible because: (1) water-bottom multiples will dominate; (2) receiver offsets will be too short to image deep reflectors; (3) normal move out is too small to effectively calculate velocities; (4) air-gun source arrays are not appropriate or frequency band-limited; and (5) it is folly to over-sample the seismic data and process very large digital data sets. In 2007, about 108 km (17 individual profiles) of marine, multichannel, high-resolution, seismic data were acquired almost entirely inside Biscayne National Park in water depths ranging from 0.9 to 100 m. The data were collected using a 48-trace, towed-streamer array; an interdependent air-gun as the seismic source; and a proprietary 52-channel, 24-bit recording system. The seismic vessel was a fast, shallow-draft catamaran capable of continuously acquiring data in water as shallow as 0.7 m. The set of seismic images from 17 profiles show well-defined reflections from near surface to the Eocene Oldsmar Formation (including the karstic Boulder Zone in the Lower Floridan aquifer). The profiles also display distinctive geologic features that include karst, clinoformal prograding strata, unconformities, fractures, stratal truncation, and evidence for breaching of confining units.

  13. Effect of Poverty on Urban Preschool Children's Understanding of Conventional Time Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Roseanne L.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the understanding of conventional time concepts by urban preschool children reared in poverty with that of their peers not raised in poverty. The questionnaire used in this study was based on the original work of Ames. Thirty-six children ranging in age from three to five years of age participated in…

  14. Contrary To Conventional Wisdom, Physicians Abandoned A Breast Cancer Treatment After A Trial Concluded It Was Ineffective.

    PubMed

    Howard, David H; Soulos, Pamela R; Chagpar, Anees B; Mougalian, Sarah; Killelea, Brigid; Gross, Cary P

    2016-07-01

    Conventional wisdom holds that physicians are slow to abandon ineffective medical practices. We evaluated this theory in the case of axillary lymph node dissection, a procedure to remove the lymph nodes near the breast to prevent the spread of breast cancer following breast-conserving surgery. A major trial conducted from 1999 to 2004, with results presented in 2010 and published in 2011, found that patients who met certain criteria could forgo axillary lymph node dissection. Using cancer registry data, we estimated that the proportion of patients undergoing axillary dissection declined by 32.6 percentage points after the trial was published. The decline began immediately after the trial was presented at a medical conference. The rapid decline in the use of axillary dissection belies the common belief that practice patterns are slow to change in response to new evidence, and it highlights the value of trials of established medical practices to patients and the health system. PMID:27385249

  15. Ground Truthing the 'Conventional Wisdom' of Lead Corrosion Control Using Mineralogical Analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    For drinking water distribution systems (DWDS) with lead-bearing plumbing materials some form of corrosion control is typically necessary, with the goal of mitigating lead release by forming adherent, stable corrosion scales composed of low-solubility mineral phases. Conventional...

  16. Bucking Conventional Wisdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Marion

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses his contention that even the best of the best of American schools are not quality schools. He also observes that the curriculum that has been in place since 1892 was the main reason why schools cannot offer the best in quality education. He cites the ten problems that have plagued the American educational…

  17. Postsecondary Employment and Education Status of Inner City Youth: Conventional Wisdom Reconsidered. Publication Series 95-14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stull, William; Goetz, Michael

    This report provides statistical evidence that presents a picture at variance with the conventional portrayal of inner city youth. Using data from a national longitudinal study of high school students, the High School and Beyond survey, the study shows that young people display more resilience than they are usually given credit for. Comparison of…

  18. Wisdom and Religious Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Might there be education-in-wisdom? Firstly we need to identify and characterise what this "wisdom" would be. Towards this end comparisons and contrasts are attempted here between this wisdom, on the one hand, and intelligence, cleverness, knowledge, common sense, and trivial wisdom on the other. An Aristotelian account of wisdom emerges; and we…

  19. Unconventional Wisdom about Buying Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Michael F.

    2004-01-01

    Conventional wisdom says that people should not buy anything in education until research is seen. The following questions should be asked: (1) Does that particular technology enhance learning? (2) Does that piece of software increase test scores? and (3) Do those machines reduce absenteeism? Of course the answer is always yes. No vendor is going…

  20. Better Schooling for the Children of Poverty: Alternatives to Conventional Wisdom. Study of Academic Instruction for Disadvantaged Students. Volume II: Commissioned Papers and Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Michael S., Ed.; Shields, Patrick M., Ed.

    This document comprises nine commissioned papers and four literature review chapters that are part of the first report of the Study of Academic Instruction for Disadvantaged Students, a 3-year investigation of curriculum and instruction in elementary schools serving high concentrations of poor children. (A summary of this report is presented in…

  1. Wisdom in the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prewitt, Vana R.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the Data Information Knowledge Wisdom (DIKW) model of cognitive processes that human performance technology professionals can use to structure performance improvement efforts within a knowledge-intensive workforce. Discusses knowledge management and presents a summary of relevant wisdom studies and how they can be used for developing and…

  2. Shakespeare on Wisdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordstrom, Alan

    2007-01-01

    In universities and elsewhere, might we study Shakespeare to learn about wisdom and how to grow wiser? Assuming with Nicholas Maxwell that wisdom is the capacity to realize what is of value in life, for oneself and others, then I say yes. The testimony is long and strong that being wise goes against our grain, and that even if we can agree that…

  3. Individual differences in wisdom conceptions: relationships to gratitude and wisdom.

    PubMed

    König, Susanne; Glück, Judith

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown that most laypeople hold one of two typical conceptions of wisdom--a cognitive or an integrative conception. The current study extends previous research by including a qualitative assessment of people's views of what wisdom is and how it develops, and by relating wisdom conceptions are related to levels of wisdom and gratitude. A sample of 443 young adults rated the relevance of cognitive, reflective, and affective aspects for wisdom. Cluster analyses confirmed the two typical wisdom conceptions: a primarily cognitive view of wisdom and a view emphasizing the integration of cognition, reflection, and affect. The two groups also differed in freely-generated characteristics of wisdom and its development. Additionally, the integrative conception was more frequent in individuals with higher levels of gratitude and wisdom. In sum, laypeople's conceptions of wisdom vary along similar lines as those of wisdom psychologists. PMID:24416966

  4. Wisdom in medicine.

    PubMed

    Branch, William T; Mitchell, Gary A

    2011-01-01

    The pathway to wisdom is a crooked one. Doctors have many opportunities to become wiser, and may do so in different ways and to different degrees. We suggest several means to facilitate their passage. There remains an additional key step. Seeking wisdom should become embedded in the culture of medicine. This may follow from the types of activities discussed above. We believe that wisdom is underrecognized as a life goal for medical practitioners and teachers. It is the pinnacle that every doctor should strive to achieve. PMID:21877511

  5. Impacted wisdom teeth

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The incidence of impacted wisdom teeth (third molars) is high, with some 72% of Swedish people aged 20 to 30 years having at least one impacted wisdom tooth. Impacted wisdom teeth occur because of a lack of space, obstruction, or abnormal position. They can cause inflammatory dental disease manifested by pain and swelling of infected teeth and may destroy adjacent teeth and bone. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: Should asymptomatic, disease-free impacted wisdom teeth be removed prophylactically? What are the effects of different operative (surgical) techniques for removing impacted wisdom teeth? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to October 2013 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Results We found 11 studies that met our inclusion criteria. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: prophylactic extraction, active surveillance, and different operative (surgical) techniques for extracting impacted wisdom teeth. PMID:25170946

  6. Understanding and Teaching Practical Wisdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassett, Caroline L.

    2011-01-01

    Because wisdom is such a complex and multidimensional construct, it is difficult to study, much less to define. Based on the author's understanding, her definition of wisdom is as follows: "Wisdom is about human flourishing; it is having sufficient awareness in various situations and contexts to act in ways that enhance our common humanity." This…

  7. Wisdom, Intelligence & Creativity Synthesized

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    How is it that smart administrators who want to do a good job often find themselves in situations that degenerate into confrontation and, ultimately, termination? In this article, the author discusses why in terms of a model of leadership--which he refers to it as WICS, an acronym for wisdom, intelligence and creativity synthesized. He describes…

  8. Oklahoma Higher Education: Challenging the Conventional Wisdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denhart, Matthew; Matgouranis, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    A major headline in recent years has been that cash-strapped state governments are cutting back support for many services, including public higher education. Oklahoma is no different. Indeed, in the most recent state budget crafted by Oklahoma policymakers, Oklahoma's public colleges and universities received a 5.8 percent cut in state…

  9. Rethinking Conventional Wisdom about Higher Ed Finance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dennis P.; Wellman, Jane

    2009-01-01

    Clearly, changing postsecondary finance without a lot of new money to grease the skids will be difficult. The status quo is always easier than change, particularly change that will be objectionable to those who benefited most in the previous system. But political objections aren't the only barrier to changing funding in higher education; a…

  10. Using Data to Upend Conventional Wisdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Alan

    2006-01-01

    Many school districts are putting data to good use, although much of the data used in administrative decision making ultimately derives from standardized test scores, which raises a host of other related concerns. The author's purpose in this article is not to critique the types or sources of data that administrators use, but to suggest that there…

  11. Campus Interviews: Some Challenges to Conventional Wisdom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBell, Camille; Dinger, Timothy J.

    1997-01-01

    Examined the questions that 33 corporate recruiters asked during 128 campus screening interviews. Analyses revealed that most questions addressed college experience, work experience, strengths and weaknesses, and biographical background. Significant relationships were found among type of company, gender of recruiter, and type of question. Results…

  12. Educating Lives for Christian Wisdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Darin H.; Wadell, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    This article explores how educating lives for Christian wisdom might serve as an antidote to the vice of "acedia," a prominent feature of the culture of contemporary higher education. After suggesting that the capital vice of "acedia" seems to capture well various facets of our present age and how the pursuit of wisdom serves…

  13. Conventional Wisdom: Negotiating Conventions of Reference Enhances Category Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voiklis, John; Corter, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Collaborators generally coordinate their activities through communication, during which they readily negotiate a shared lexicon for activity-related objects. This social-pragmatic activity both recruits and affects cognitive and social-cognitive processes ranging from selective attention to perspective taking. We ask whether negotiating reference…

  14. Teaching for Wisdom: What Matters Is Not Just What Students Know, but How They Use It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert J.; Reznitskaya, Alina; Jarvin, Linda

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a balance theory of wisdom and applies the theory to the context of schooling. First the article discusses why cognitive skills as assessed by conventional tests are an important, but not a sufficient, basis for education. Second the article discusses the concept of wisdom and why it is important for schooling. Third the…

  15. The Wisdom Development Scale: Further Validity Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Jeffrey A.; Brown, Scott C.

    2009-01-01

    Researchers are gaining an interest in the concept of wisdom, a more holistic yet often ineffable educational outcome. Models of wisdom abound, but few have rigorously tested measures. This study looks at Brown's (2004a, 2004b) Model of Wisdom Development and its associated measure, the Wisdom Development Scale (WDS; Brown & Greene, 2006). The…

  16. Gender and the Development of Wisdom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orwoll, Lucinda; Achenbaum, W. Andrew

    1993-01-01

    Drawing on a model of wisdom that includes components in three domains (personality, cognition, and conation) and across three levels (intrapersonal, interpersonal, and transpersonal), highlights potential differences in the ways women and men attain and express wisdom; and examines interactive patterns across the components of wisdom. (BC)

  17. Realizing Wisdom Theory in Complex Learning Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kok, Ayse

    2009-01-01

    The word "wisdom" is rarely seen in contemporary technology and learning discourse. This conceptual paper aims to provide some clear principles that answer the question: How can we establish wisdom in complex learning networks? By considering the nature of contemporary calls for wisdom the paper provides a metatheoretial framework to evaluate the…

  18. Cultivating Wisdom through Digital Learning Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kok, Ayse

    2009-01-01

    The word "wisdom" is rarely seen in contemporary technology and learning discourse. This conceptual paper aims to provide some clear principles that answer the question: How can we establish wisdom in complex learning networks? By considering the nature of contemporary calls for wisdom the paper provides a metatheoretical framework to…

  19. Teaching, Learning, and the Human Quest: Wisdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvis, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Wisdom is a complex phenomenon: it finds its home primarily but not exclusively in theology, philosophy, psychology, education--that is, in the humanities--and in life itself. In a paradoxical manner, wisdom finds its home in the world of the unanswerable, where there are no empirical proofs and no obvious answers. Wisdom actually finds its place…

  20. Reading Poverty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shannon, Patrick

    The central purpose of this book is to challenge current social constructions of poverty, reading education, and the putative relationship between the two. It explores how official and popular representations of poverty are bound to specific historical, social, and economic conditions of their own production. The book offers four stances of…

  1. Wisdom, technology, and the good life.

    PubMed Central

    Markey, H T

    1979-01-01

    Wisdom lies in extraction of good from new and old. Wisdom alone produces a society of wise men unable to leave their caves. Technology alone produces a society ruled by cold, despotic facts. A proper combination of wisdom and technology can produce the good life. That requires recognition of our ambivalence toward technology, a move away from our superspecialization of technologists and nontechnologists and toward a clearer understanding of technology as a most important servant of man. PMID:396156

  2. Wisdom, technology, and the good life.

    PubMed

    Markey, H T

    1979-10-01

    Wisdom lies in extraction of good from new and old. Wisdom alone produces a society of wise men unable to leave their caves. Technology alone produces a society ruled by cold, despotic facts. A proper combination of wisdom and technology can produce the good life. That requires recognition of our ambivalence toward technology, a move away from our superspecialization of technologists and nontechnologists and toward a clearer understanding of technology as a most important servant of man. PMID:396156

  3. Wisdom.

    PubMed

    Apfel, Paul S

    2015-01-01

    Restorative dentists are often faced with the challenge of weighing best practice treatment plans against the treatment requests of their patients. I believe we all must ask ourselves prior to performing any dental procedure, "How do I know this restoration will be successful, given the multitude of physiological, pathological and anatomical limitations that can affect the prognosis?" There is no restorative dental procedure that is free of risk. The purpose of this article is to examine an interesting and somewhat controversial restorative case that illuminates perception and judgment and the consequences of risk assessment. PMID:26521323

  4. Real-Life Contextual Manifestations of Wisdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Shih-Ying

    2008-01-01

    Wisdom pertains to managing human affairs, and it arises in highly contextualized situations. The present study aims to investigate manifestations of wisdom in real-life contexts through semi-structured interviews with 66 individuals nominated as wise persons. All nominees were ethnic Chinese from Taiwan, an East Asian country which has…

  5. Wisdom in a Learning in Retirement Institute

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farquhar, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    Seven men and women with an average age of 77 were interviewed regarding the role of wisdom in their experience of attending a Learning in Retirement Institute (LRI) in southern Ontario, Canada. A finding is that for wisdom gains to be an outcome of LRI education, older adult students need outward expression of their acquired learnings. A…

  6. Assessing for Wisdom, Intelligence and Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses how to assess for wisdom, intelligence, and creativity. The author describes how he uses the model, Wisdom, Intelligence and Creativity Synthesized, or WICS, as a basis for admissions at Tufts University. Then, he presents actual essay topics that can be used for admissions to the Class of 2011.

  7. Reform Education: Teach Wisdom and Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Schools, more and more, have emphasized the acquisition of knowledge, which seems to have come at the expense of wisdom and positive ethical values, which have not been emphasized. Nonetheless, wisdom and ethical values are what's needed to be taught in schools. But acting wise, or ethically, is a complicated process involving eight sometimes…

  8. Real-life contextual manifestations of wisdom.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shih-Ying

    2008-01-01

    Wisdom pertains to managing human affairs, and it arises in highly contextualized situations. The present study aims to investigate manifestations of wisdom in real-life contexts through semi-structured interviews with 66 individuals nominated as wise persons. All nominees were ethnic Chinese from Taiwan, an East Asian country which has Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism as its predominant philosophies. Analysis of these interview transcripts yielded 220 wisdom incidents that fall into five categories of wisdom. Results of the present study suggests that in real life, wisdom most likely is manifested through: 1) striving for common good by helping others and contributing to society; 2) achieving and maintaining a satisfactory state of life; 3) deciding and developing life paths; 4) resolving difficult problems at work; and 5) insisting on doing the right thing when facing adversity. PMID:19266867

  9. Neurobiology of Wisdom?: A Literature Overview

    PubMed Central

    Meeks, Thomas W.; Jeste, Dilip V.

    2013-01-01

    Context Wisdom is a unique psychological trait noted since antiquity, long discussed in humanities disciplines, recently operationalized by psychology and sociology researchers, but largely unexamined in psychiatry or biology. Objective We discuss recent neurobiological studies related to subcomponents of wisdom identified from several published definitions/descriptions of wisdom by clinical investigators in the field – i.e., prosocial attitudes/behaviors, social decision-making/pragmatic knowledge of life, emotional homeostasis, reflection/self-understanding, value relativism/tolerance, and acknowledgement of and dealing effectively with uncertainty. Design Literature overview focusing primarily on neuroimaging/brain localization and secondarily on neurotransmitters, including their genetic determinants. Results Functional neuroimaging permits exploration of neural correlates of complex psychological attributes such as those proposed to comprise wisdom. The prefrontal cortex figures prominently in several wisdom subcomponents (e.g., emotional regulation, decision-making, value relativism), primarily via top-down regulation of limbic and striatal regions. The lateral prefrontal cortex facilitates calculated, reason-based decision-making, whereas the medial prefrontal cortex is implicated in emotional valence and prosocial attitudes/behaviors. Reward neurocircuitry (ventral striatum, nucleus accumbens) also appears important for promoting prosocial attitudes/behaviors. Monoaminergic activity (especially dopaminergic and serotonergic), influenced by several genetic polymorphisms, is critical to certain subcomponents of wisdom such as emotional regulation (including impulse control), decision-making, and prosocial behaviors. Conclusions We have proposed a speculative model of the neurobiology of wisdom involving fronto-striatal and fronto-limbic circuits and monoaminergic pathways. Wisdom may involve optimal balance between functions of phylogenetically more

  10. Wisdom: a goal of nursing education.

    PubMed

    D'Antonio, Jocelyn

    2014-02-01

    The attainment of wisdom is a goal of intellectual development manifested in an individual by a solid knowledge base, effective critical thinking skills, creative problem solving, and a sense of duty and altruism to humankind. Promoting the achievement of wisdom as a focal point in a nursing program can provide a unifying perspective in the development of a curriculum. Teaching strategies such as case studies, small group discussions, mentoring, reflective writing, and professional networking are effective ways to promote wisdom in nursing students. PMID:24308535

  11. Reverse osmosis reverses conventional wisdom with Superfund cleanup success

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, M. ); Miller, K. )

    1994-09-01

    Although widely recognized as the most efficient means of water purification, reverse osmosis has not been considered effective for remediating hazardous wastewater. Scaling and fouling, which can cause overruns and downtime, and require membrane replacement, have inhibited success in high-volume wastewater applications. Despite this background, a reverse osmosis technology developed in Europe recently was used successfully to treat large volumes of contaminated water at a major Superfund site in Texas. The technology's success there may increase the chances for reverse osmosis to find wider use in future cleanups and other waste treatment applications.

  12. Competing with the conventional wisdom: newspaper framing of medical overtreatment.

    PubMed

    Walsh-Childers, Kim; Braddock, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Overtreatment, defined as the use of medical tests, products, and services that are not medically necessary or beneficial to the patient, may account for as much as 30% of all U.S. health care expenditures. This article describes a study of the framing of this important health and economic issue in elite U.S. newspapers from January 1, 2007, through December 31, 2010. Within 98 articles providing some mention of overtreatment, analysis revealed three major frames: uncertainty, cost, and legal issues. Within the uncertainty frame, there was a remarkable emphasis on cancer testing and treatment as a driver of overutilization, which may suggest to readers that overtreatment does not occur or is not important in other types of medical care. Relatively few stories paid much attention to the financial costs of overtreatment. PMID:23537348

  13. Against Conventional Wisdom: Factors Influencing Hispanic Students' Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Percell, Jay C.; Kaufman, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    The researchers performed a variable analysis of the 2002 Educational Longitudinal Study data investigating factors that influence students' reading scores on standardized tests. Hispanic and non-Hispanic Scores were analyzed and controlling variables were compared to determine the effect of each on both populations. Certain variables commonly…

  14. Psychotherapy vs. Medication for Depression: Challenging the Conventional Wisdom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antonuccio, David; And Others

    Antidepressant medications are the most popular treatment for depression in the United States, despite the fact that there may be more effective and safer alternatives. This paper discusses alternative, effective psychological interventions for unipolar depression. Studies that compare and contrast psychological and pharmacological treatments for…

  15. 75 FR 51507 - WisdomTree Asset Management, Inc., and WisdomTree Trust; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ... COMMISSION WisdomTree Asset Management, Inc., and WisdomTree Trust; Notice of Application August 13, 2010... materially amend subadvisory agreements without shareholder approval. Applicants: WisdomTree Asset Management, Inc (``WTAM'' or ``Adviser'') and WisdomTree Trust (``Trust''). Filing Dates: The application...

  16. [The wisdom of the animal body].

    PubMed

    Preuss, F R

    1991-09-01

    In 1932 CANNON described the physiological wisdom of the body. This cannot exist without morphological wisdom. Since morphology is a formative process, both kinds of wisdom depend on the same formative forces. These forces are the forces of consciousness at all levels. Their existence is proved by the fact that they can be eliminated by narcosis. The wisdom of these forces is twofold: Firstly, the wisdom of need sensation which lasts only until the need is satisfied. This is the conscious intelligence of the body which is responsible for restraint in all living beings. Secondly, the wisdom, or better, the prudence of need satisfaction which requires knowledge and appropriate tools. The organs of the body are these tools. Knowledge belongs to the intellect which knows how to handle material. This is achieved in all prehuman species subconsciously and is demonstrated in all structures built by cells and animals. Only the human mind can be unwise and imprudent; but man, being free, is also able to be wise and prudent and so prevent the extinction of the earthly creation. PMID:1759726

  17. Wisdom and Psychosocial Functioning in Later Life.

    PubMed

    Wink, Paul; Staudinger, Ursula M

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the connection between wisdom-related performance, personality, and generativity to further the understanding of how they are interrelated. Our sample consisted of 163 men and women 68-77 years of age, mostly White, and predominantly middle class. Wisdom was assessed with the performance-based Berlin Wisdom Paradigm, with the remaining measures being mostly self-report. As hypothesized, on the zero-order level, wisdom-related performance (WRP) was positively associated with (a) growth, a personality component indexed by Openness to Experience, psychological mindedness, and a sense of well-being derived from growth, purpose in life, and autonomy; (b) adjustment, a personality component associated with life satisfaction, high levels of Agreeableness and Conscientiousness, low Neuroticism, a sense of well-being derived from positive relations with others, self-acceptance, and environmental mastery; and (c) a generative concern for the welfare of others. Latent path analysis indicated that the bivariate associations between adjustment and wisdom and between generativity and wisdom were mediated by growth. Wise individuals are characterized by their ability to balance different personal strengths and interests, an integration that occurs, however, within the context of a dominant personality style marked by the pursuit of maturity through personal growth. PMID:25546500

  18. Poverty reduction in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Collier, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Poverty in Africa has been rising for the last quarter-century, while it has been falling in the rest of the developing world. Africa's distinctive problem is that its economies have not been growing. This article attempts to synthesize a range of recent research to account for this failure of the growth process. I argue that the reasons lie not in African peculiarities but rather in geographic features that globally cause problems but that are disproportionately pronounced in Africa. These features interact to create three distinct challenges that are likely to require international interventions beyond the conventional reliance on aid. PMID:17942702

  19. The Wisdom of Experience: Autobiographical Narratives across Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gluck, Judith; Bluck, Susan; Baron, Jacqueline; McAdams, Dan P.

    2005-01-01

    This research uses an autobiographical approach to examine the relation of age to several aspects of wisdom. In Study 1 (N = 86), adolescents', young adults', and older adults' wisdom narratives were content-coded for the types of life situations mentioned and the forms that wisdom took. Types of life situations reported (e.g., life decisions)…

  20. Hope out of Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Roy F.; Tolbert, Marsha; Myers-Oliver, Donna; Brissett, Julia M.; Roland, Annissa J.

    2007-01-01

    In "A Framework of Poverty," Ruby Payne (1998) itemizes the things that characterize poverty-stricken people. She talks about how hard it is for a person to move out of poverty. To not pass poverty on to another generation, one must have a vision. One must have a desire to achieve a better life or a strong support system. Schools must become the…

  1. Implementing a computing architecture with WISDOM

    SciTech Connect

    Zebrowski, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    Over the past two years, the Savannah River Site (SRS) work force has expanded by more than 6000 employees. This large influx of personnel, in conjunction with the limited office space, has resulted in an overcrowding problem on site. To alleviate some of the overcrowding, Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) has been in the process of leasing space from several office buildings within Aiken, SC. Brookhaven, the latest off-site office building to be leased, is the starting point for a new direction in office automation which will eventually spread throughout SRS. The computing architecture in place at Brookhaven was designed to adhere to the SRS computer architecture guidelines as published by the WSRC Computer Architecture Standards Team (CAST). At the heart of the Brookhaven implementation is a Workstation Integration System for DOS, OS/2 and Macintosh (WISDOM). The key features of the WISDOM system include: it's utilization of a Local Area Network (LAN), it's Graphical User Interface (GUI), it's cross-platform capability, it's portable user interface, and the installation program. To begin, I will give an overview of the network architecture, then discuss WISDOM in detail, mention some platform integration problems that need to be addressed and conclude with a summary of the user benefits that WISDOM provides.

  2. Implementing a computing architecture with WISDOM

    SciTech Connect

    Zebrowski, J.R.

    1991-12-31

    Over the past two years, the Savannah River Site (SRS) work force has expanded by more than 6000 employees. This large influx of personnel, in conjunction with the limited office space, has resulted in an overcrowding problem on site. To alleviate some of the overcrowding, Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) has been in the process of leasing space from several office buildings within Aiken, SC. Brookhaven, the latest off-site office building to be leased, is the starting point for a new direction in office automation which will eventually spread throughout SRS. The computing architecture in place at Brookhaven was designed to adhere to the SRS computer architecture guidelines as published by the WSRC Computer Architecture Standards Team (CAST). At the heart of the Brookhaven implementation is a Workstation Integration System for DOS, OS/2 and Macintosh (WISDOM). The key features of the WISDOM system include: it`s utilization of a Local Area Network (LAN), it`s Graphical User Interface (GUI), it`s cross-platform capability, it`s portable user interface, and the installation program. To begin, I will give an overview of the network architecture, then discuss WISDOM in detail, mention some platform integration problems that need to be addressed and conclude with a summary of the user benefits that WISDOM provides.

  3. Embodied Wisdom: Meditations on Memoir and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryer, Alison

    2010-01-01

    "Embodied Wisdom: Meditations on Memoir and Education" by Alison Pryer, Ph.D. explores the interconnectedness of body, mind and spirit within diverse educational contexts. Evocative, sensual prose carries the reader on a journey through the personal and the remembered in a layered series of autobiographical essays, each one affording deeper…

  4. Commercial Influences on the Pursuit of Wisdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHenry, Leemon B.

    2007-01-01

    This essay examines the effects of commercialization on education with particular focus on corporatization of academic research. This trend results from a business model of education, which I identify as profit-based inquiry. I contrast profit-based inquiry with Nicholas Maxwell's conception of wisdom-based inquiry and conclude that the business…

  5. Giambattista Vico and the Wisdom of Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper offers a rehabilitation of the neglected eighteenth-century thinker and philosopher, Giambattista Vico (1668-1744), and defends the contemporary relevance of his construction of the wisdom of teaching. Reinventing the ancient traditions of European rhetoric, and reacting with great critical hostility to the pervasive educational…

  6. Leadership Wisdom: Balancing on the High Wire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Helen

    Emerging technologies and unstable financial issues are placing increasing demands on college administrators to provide visionary leadership. While numerous management frameworks have emerged in the past two decades, from Total Quality Management to transformational leadership, leaders should consider the concept of leadership wisdom in guiding…

  7. Practical Wisdom and the Workplace Researcher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Paul

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses the form of enquiry appropriate for the workplace researcher. The first part of the paper is used to introduce the main themes of "phronesis" and relies heavily on Aristotle and Heidegger. It is argued that practical wisdom developed through experience of practical judgements offers a form of enquiry appropriate for the…

  8. Cultural Values, Life Experiences, and Wisdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le, Thao N.

    2008-01-01

    Wisdom is considered one ideal endpoint of human development across cultures. Studies have provided evidence for certain facilitating conditions such as challenging and stressful life events because they increase differentiation through accommodative changes, resulting in greater tolerance for uncertainty, and less projection tendencies and…

  9. Measuring the Character Strength of Wisdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Jeffrey Dean

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the psychosocial correlates and psychometric properties of the Self-Assessed Wisdom Scale (SAWS) (Webster, 2003a). Seventy-three men and 98 women ranging in age from 17-92 years (Mean age = 42.77) completed an expanded, 40-item version of the SAWS, the Loyola Generativity Scale, and the Experiences in Close Relationships Scale.…

  10. Collective Wisdom, Clones, and New Creations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villadsen, Alice W.

    2002-01-01

    Concerned with the impending community college leadership deficit, the author articulates a vision for reinventing leadership development programs that balance the collective wisdom of experience with the innovation essential for addressing the cultural and technological challenges of the future. Presents three model leadership programs that…

  11. The Relationship between Mental and Somatic Practices and Wisdom

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Patrick B.; Mangelsdorf, Heather H.; Kontra, Carly; Nusbaum, Howard C.; Hoeckner, Berthold

    2016-01-01

    In this study we sought to explore how experience with specific mental and somatic practices is associated with wisdom, using self-report measures of experience and wisdom. We administered standard surveys to measure wisdom and experience among four groups of practitioners of mental and somatic practices, namely, meditators, practitioners of the Alexander Technique, practitioners of the Feldenkrais Method, and classical ballet dancers. We additionally administered surveys of trait anxiety and empathy to all participants to explore possible mediating relationships of experience and wisdom by characteristics thought to be components of wisdom. Wisdom was higher on average among meditation practitioners, and lowest among ballet dancers, and this difference held when controlling for differences in age between practices, supporting the view that meditation is linked to wisdom and that ballet is not. However, we found that increased experience with meditation and ballet were both positively associated with wisdom, and that lowered trait anxiety mediated this positive association among meditation practitioners, and, non-significantly, among ballet dancers. These results suggest that not all practices that are purported to affect mental processing are related to wisdom to the same degree and different kinds of experience appear to relate to wisdom in different ways, suggesting different mechanisms that might underlie the development of wisdom with experience. PMID:26890493

  12. The Relationship between Mental and Somatic Practices and Wisdom.

    PubMed

    Williams, Patrick B; Mangelsdorf, Heather H; Kontra, Carly; Nusbaum, Howard C; Hoeckner, Berthold

    2016-01-01

    In this study we sought to explore how experience with specific mental and somatic practices is associated with wisdom, using self-report measures of experience and wisdom. We administered standard surveys to measure wisdom and experience among four groups of practitioners of mental and somatic practices, namely, meditators, practitioners of the Alexander Technique, practitioners of the Feldenkrais Method, and classical ballet dancers. We additionally administered surveys of trait anxiety and empathy to all participants to explore possible mediating relationships of experience and wisdom by characteristics thought to be components of wisdom. Wisdom was higher on average among meditation practitioners, and lowest among ballet dancers, and this difference held when controlling for differences in age between practices, supporting the view that meditation is linked to wisdom and that ballet is not. However, we found that increased experience with meditation and ballet were both positively associated with wisdom, and that lowered trait anxiety mediated this positive association among meditation practitioners, and, non-significantly, among ballet dancers. These results suggest that not all practices that are purported to affect mental processing are related to wisdom to the same degree and different kinds of experience appear to relate to wisdom in different ways, suggesting different mechanisms that might underlie the development of wisdom with experience. PMID:26890493

  13. Clustering of Blog Sites Using Collective Wisdom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Nitin; Galan, Magdiel; Liu, Huan; Subramanya, Shankar

    The blogosphere is expanding at an unprecedented speed. A better understanding of the blogosphere can greatly facilitate the development of the social Web to serve the needs of users, service providers, and advertisers. One important task in this process is the clustering of blog sites. Although a good number of traditional clustering methods exist, they are not designed to take into account the blogosphere's unique characteristics. Clustering blog sites presents new challenges. A prominent feature of the social Web is that many enthusiastic bloggers voluntarily write, tag, and catalog their posts in order to reach the widest possible audience who will share their thoughts and appreciate their ideas. In the process, a new kind of collective wisdom is generated. The objective of this work is to make use of this collective wisdom in the clustering of blog sites. As such, we study how clustering with collective wisdom can be achieved and compare its performance with respect to representative traditional clustering methods. Here contain, we will present statistical and visual results, report findings, opportunities for future research work, and estimated timeline, extending this work to many real-world applications.

  14. Psycho-oncology: Searching for practical wisdom?

    PubMed

    Butlin, Helen

    2015-10-01

    The debate is vigorous in psycho-oncology about whether spiritual, existential, and psychosocial are the most comprehensive terms for academic research discourses investigating meaning and purpose. A call-to-action email from the International Society of Psycho-Oncology included the term soul. The current essay highlights the historical and contemporary uses of "soul" to suggest that the re-emergent soul signifies a tacit quest for an "intangible" that seems missing in current constructs of clinical domains reflected in the vigor of the debates. It is suggested that the re-emergence of the pre-Medieval meaning(s) of the notion of soul affirms a growing need for integrative paradigms on "being human" to guide psycho-oncology practitioners and their research. As a paradigmatic example, a clinical support group entitled Soul Medicine is described as employing the term soul to open up the more marginal discourses about experiences of illness arising from philosophical reflection, arts, humanities, and spirituality within a clinical oncology context. A link between soul and wisdom is suggested for further exploration with the view that phronesis ("the virtue of practical wisdom"), an emerging concept in health professional education research, is of ultimate value to the people psycho-oncology seeks to serve. This group holds that garnering wisdom from the expertise of those living with cancer should be a central aim of our field. PMID:26399749

  15. The wisdom of deliberate mistakes.

    PubMed

    Schoemaker, Paul J H; Gunther, Robert E

    2006-06-01

    Before the breakup of the Bell System, U.S. telephone companies were permitted by law to ask for security deposits from a small percentage of subscribers. The companies used statistical models to decide which customers were most likely to pay their bills late and thus should be charged a deposit, but no one knew whether the models were right. So the Bell companies made a deliberate mistake. They asked for no deposit from nearly 100,000 new customers randomly selected from among those who were considered high risks. Surprisingly, quite a few paid their bills on time. As a result, the companies instituted a smarter screening strategy, which added millions to the Bell System's bottom line. Usually, individuals and organizations go to great lengths to avoid errors. Companies are designed for optimum performance rather than for learning, and mistakes are seen as defects. But as the Bell System example shows, making mistakes--correctly--is a powerful way to accelerate learning and increase competitiveness. If one of a company's fundamental assumptions is wrong, the firm can achieve success more quickly by deliberately making errors than by considering only data that support the assumption. Moreover, executives who apply a conventional, systematic approach to solving a pattern recognition problem are often slower to find a solution than those who test their assumptions by knowingly making mistakes. How do you distinguish between smart mistakes and dumb ones? The authors' consulting firm has developed, and currently uses, a five-step process for identifying constructive mistakes. In one test, the firm assumed that a mistake it was planning to make would cost a significant amount of money, but the opposite happened. By turning assumptions on their heads, the firm created more than dollar 1 million in new business. PMID:16770898

  16. Poverty in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greever, Sadie

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to provide a comprehensive summary of the topic of poverty and its effects upon student behavior and academic performance. Presented in this chapter of the review of the related literature will be: (a) description of poverty and the role of education, (b) effects of poverty on student behavior, (c) effects…

  17. Adolescents and Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wight, Vanessa R.

    2011-01-01

    More youth live in poverty and poor youth comprise a larger share of the youth population than was the case a decade ago. This article first provides a descriptive analysis of children in poverty; examining the incidence of poverty among children by selected demographic, socioeconomic, and geographic characteristics with a particular focus on…

  18. Reducing Poverty among Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Current Population Reports, 1985

    1985-01-01

    In response to the highest poverty rate among children since the 1960s, this report examines existing Federal policies to assist poor families with children and analyzes over 40 policy alternatives. Chapter 1 discusses how poverty is measured, recent trends and current patterns of childhood poverty as officially measured, and the effects of using…

  19. Poverty Profile USA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Procopio, Mariellen; Perella, Frederick J., Jr.

    This second edition of "Poverty Profile", published by the Missionary Society of St. Paul the Apostle as part of their Campaign for Human Development, updates the data examined in the earlier (1972) edition and examines some of the current social welfare programs designed to alleviate the affects of poverty. The extent to which poverty affects…

  20. The Wisdom of Sages: Nuclear Physics Education, Knowledge-Inquiry, and Wisdom-Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottey, Alan

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses the difference between knowledge-inquiry and wisdom-inquiry in nuclear physics education. In the spirit of an earlier study of 57 senior-level textbooks for first-degree physics students, this work focuses here on a remarkable use of literary quotations in one such book. "Particles and Nuclei: an introduction to the physical…

  1. Children and Poverty in South Africa: The Right to Social Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du Plessis, Pierre; Conley, Lloyd

    2007-01-01

    Poverty is one of the major threats to the realization of children's rights worldwide and in South Africa. Currently, 66% of South African children live in severe poverty. This places all other rights at risk; the rights guaranteed by the South African Constitution and by the UN Convention. Poverty and inequality in South Africa continue to…

  2. Freeing Speech: Proverbial Wisdom and Faith Formation as Liberation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willhauck, Susan

    2013-01-01

    It is crucial to recover the practice of seeking and refining ways to speak of faith. Certain sayings, idioms, maxims, and proverbs constituting wisdom from various cultures help shape a faith that is liberative, particularly evident in undervalued and dominated cultures. This article examines proverbial wisdom and the patois of the street to…

  3. The Constructs of Wisdom in Human Development and Consciousness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prewitt, Vana R.

    Classical and contemporary research studies were examined to develop a definition of wisdom and explore its constructs in human development and consciousness. First, wisdom was defined as an emergent characteristic of mature adults that is built upon intelligence, experience, and reflection and includes metaphysical and cognitive components.…

  4. Practitioners' Concepts: An Inquiry into the Wisdom of Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchmann, Margaret

    This paper makes a case for the existence and study of the wisdom of practice by looking at educational practitioners' concepts as its locus and source. (These concepts may also be described as the accumulated "folk wisdom" of the teaching community). These communal concepts, part of an accumulated lore regarding teaching and education in general,…

  5. On Defining "Wisdom": Baltes, Ardelt, Ryan, and Whitehead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gugerell, Stefan H.; Riffert, Franz

    2011-01-01

    Wisdom has been a topic of religion and philosophy since the dawning of human civilization. But only during the last two or three decades wisdom has become a topic of empirical research in developmental psychology, adult and old age education, as well as in management and leadership studies. The aim of this paper is to elaborate a new definition…

  6. Expert Consensus on Characteristics of Wisdom: A Delphi Method Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeste, Dilip V.; Ardelt, Monika; Blazer, Dan; Kraemer, Helena C.; Vaillant, George; Meeks, Thomas W.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Wisdom has received increasing attention in empirical research in recent years, especially in gerontology and psychology, but consistent definitions of wisdom remain elusive. We sought to better characterize this concept via an expert consensus panel using a 2-phase Delphi method. Design and Methods: A survey questionnaire comprised 53…

  7. Wikipedia and the Wisdom of Crowds: A Student Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnhisel, Greg; Rapchak, Marcia

    2014-01-01

    Students in a senior English class examined the question of whether the "wisdom of experts" or "the wisdom of crowds" is more reliable and useful in a writing course by engaging in a parallel Wikipedia project. Each student either created a new entry or made significant changes to an existing Wikipedia entry, tracked changes to…

  8. Alternative Conceptions of Wisdom: An Onion-Peeling Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchard-Fields, Fredda; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Discusses contextualistic and integrative approaches to the concept of wisdom, and the evolution of the concept from an independent construct of intelligence to a component of intelligence, i.e., practical intelligence. Suggests operationalization of wisdom as the ability to integrate cognition and affect. Illustrates the integrative approach with…

  9. The Wisdom of the Crowd in Combinatorial Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yi, Sheng Kung Michael; Steyvers, Mark; Lee, Michael D.; Dry, Matthew J.

    2012-01-01

    The "wisdom of the crowd" phenomenon refers to the finding that the aggregate of a set of proposed solutions from a group of individuals performs better than the majority of individual solutions. Most often, wisdom of the crowd effects have been investigated for problems that require single numerical estimates. We investigate whether the effect…

  10. A New Theory of Wisdom: Integrating Intelligence and Morality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fengyan, Wang; Hong, Zheng

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a new concept of wisdom, which integrates intelligence and morality as its two constituent elements. According to our definition, wisdom is a mental capacity of combining intelligence with moral virtue in the process of gaining knowledge and acting. Possessing this integrated quality, an individual would be able to act wisely…

  11. Child Poverty and Child Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the evidence on the prevalence of child poverty in Britain including: (1) how child poverty has changed over the last 20 years; (2) how child poverty in Britain compares with that in other countries; (3) characteristics of poor children; (4) impact of poverty on child well-being; and (5) government attempts to abolish child poverty. (SD)

  12. [Wisdom teeth: which way to go?].

    PubMed

    Yitschaky, O; Segev-Neuhof, M; Laviv, A

    2016-01-01

    The debate regarding prophylactic extraction of mandibular third molar (Wisdom teeth) is not new. There is wide agreement among clinicians and researchers that an extraction in young age is easier and safer, but it may result in overtreatment, which means an unnecessary extraction of teeth that might have been functional and healthy. In order to avoid such overtreatment the clinician is obliged to be able to predict accurately the chances of third molar eruption, years before they are due to erupt. Additionally, the clinician has to estimate the chances for future pathology or infection that will force the patient to extract the tooth in years to come. In order to do so the clinician has to meticulously examine the teeth both clinically (including caries assessment of neighboring teeth, periodontal pocket depth measurements etc.) and radiographically. The purpose of this literature review is to present a balanced approach towards the issue of early prophylactic extraction of mandibular third molar. PMID:27295932

  13. Poverty and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Pat

    2015-01-01

    In this article the author discusses the multiple ways in which the enduring, and increasing, problems associated with child poverty blight young people's educational opportunities in the school system. Current policies, supported by a sympathetic media, blame individuals for their poverty, and blame teachers when they fail to "close the…

  14. Pathways from Poverty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Barbara, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Articles in this theme issue are based on presentations at the Pathways from Poverty Workshop held in Albuquerque, New Mexico, on May 18-25, 1995. The event aimed to foster development of a network to address rural poverty issues in the Western Rural Development Center (WRDC) region. Articles report on outcomes from the Pathways from Poverty…

  15. Poverty and Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamba, Nathalis, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    There is a mutual dependence between poverty and academic achievement, creative pedagogies for low-income pupils, school models that "beat the odds", and the resiliency of low-income families dedicated to the academic success of their children. This book examines the connection between poverty and literacy, looking at the potential roles and…

  16. Institutions and poverty.

    PubMed

    Tebaldi, Edinaldo; Mohan, Ramesh

    2010-01-01

    This study utilises eight alternative measures of institutions and the instrumental variable method to examine the impacts of institutions on poverty. The estimates show that an economy with a robust system to control corruption, an effective government, and a stable political system will create the conditions to promote economic growth, minimise income distribution conflicts, and reduce poverty. Corruption, ineffective governments, and political instability will not only hurt income levels through market inefficiencies, but also escalate poverty incidence via increased income inequality. The results also imply that the quality of the regulatory system, rule of law, voice and accountability, and expropriation risk are inversely related to poverty but their effect on poverty is via average income rather than income distribution. PMID:20645460

  17. Wisdom as Expert Knowledge System: A Critical Review of a Contemporary Operationalization of an Ancient Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ardelt, Monika

    2004-01-01

    Paul B. Baltes and his colleagues, who are among the most prominent contemporary wisdom researchers, define wisdom as "expert knowledge in the domain fundamental pragmatics of life." By contrast, this article argues that the definition, operationalization, and measurement of wisdom should not be reduced to expertise and that the term wisdom should…

  18. The function of wisdom dimensions in ego-identity development among Chinese university students.

    PubMed

    Bang, Hyeyoung; Zhou, Yuchun

    2014-12-01

    This study investigates the relationship between wisdom and ego-identity among university students in China. Using Marcia's ego-identity statuses and Ardelt's wisdom dimensions as the theoretical and conceptual framework, the study investigates 356 university students in China. After exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, four factors from wisdom and five factors from ego-identity were retrieved. A structural equation model was then conducted to analyse the relationships. The findings were: (1) among wisdom dimensions, cognitive, and reflective wisdom, especially perspective-taking best predicted achievement, (2) all three dimensions of wisdom predicted moratorium, but reflective wisdom was the most pronounced predictor, (3) all three dimensions of wisdom predicted diffusion, but resentment items from reflective wisdom were the most pronounced predictors, and (4) gender was a significant predictor of ego-identity achievement and diffusion. These findings suggest that efforts to build reflective wisdom might contribute to healthier ego-identity formation. PMID:25355666

  19. Transfer Wisdom Workshops: Coming to a NASA Center Near You

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Denise

    2003-01-01

    In november 2001, the APPL Knowledge Sharing Initiative introduced a new product, the transfer wisdom workshop. The idea was to give practitioners at each of the NASA centers the opportunity to engage in a knowledge sharing activity.

  20. Poverty Among Children and Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGranahan, David

    1985-01-01

    Overall poverty rate increased from 12.1% in 1969 to 15.2% in 1983. Nonmetropolitan rates were 17% in both years. While poverty among elderly decreased, especially in nonmetropolitan areas, poverty among children rose. In 1981, 60% of metropolitan and 39% of nonmetropolitan children in poverty were in families headed by women. (NEC)

  1. Defining and Assessing Wisdom: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Bangen, Katherine J.; Meeks, Thomas W.; Jeste, Dilip V.

    2013-01-01

    With increasing longevity and a growing focus on successful aging, there has been a recent growth of research designed to operationalize and assess wisdom. We aimed to (1) investigate the degree of overlap among empirical definitions of wisdom, (2) identify the most commonly cited wisdom subcomponents, (3) examine the psychometric properties of existing assessment instruments, and (4) investigate whether certain assessment procedures work particularly well in tapping the essence of subcomponents of the various empirical definitions. We searched PsychINFO-indexed articles published through May 2012 and their bibliographies. Studies were included if they were published in a peer-reviewed journal and (1) proposed a definition of wisdom or (2) discussed the development or validation of an instrument designed to assess wisdom. Thirty-one articles met inclusion criteria. Despite variability among the 24 reviewed definitions, there was significant overlap. Commonly cited subcomponents of wisdom included knowledge of life, prosocial values, self-understanding, acknowledgement of uncertainty, emotional homeostasis, tolerance, openness, spirituality, and sense of humor. Published reports describing the psychometric properties of nine instruments varied in comprehensiveness but most measures were examined for selected types of reliability and validity, which were generally acceptable. Given limitations of self-report procedures, an approach integrating multiple indices (e.g., self-report and performance-based measures) may better capture wisdom. Significant progress in the empirical study of wisdom has occurred over the past four decades; however, much needs to be done. Future studies with larger, more diverse samples are needed to determine the generalizability, usefulness, and clinical applicability of these definitions and assessment instruments. Such work will have relevance for the fields of geriatrics, psychiatry, psychology, sociology, education, and public health

  2. Wisdom won from illness: the psychoanalytic grasp of human being.

    PubMed

    Lear, Jonathan

    2014-08-01

    From its inception psychoanalysis claimed not merely to be an effective therapy for psychological suffering, but to shed light on the human condition. But what kind of insight does psychoanalysis offer? This paper locates psychoanalysis in the western philosophical tradition, arguing that psychoanalysis provides not only theoretical wisdom about the human, but practical wisdom of a peculiar kind. The human mind, through its self-conscious understanding can be immediately and directly efficacious in shaping its own structure. PMID:24724744

  3. [Research Biomedical Ethics and Practical Wisdom].

    PubMed

    Vergara, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    As is well known, in the field of Biomedical Ethics some methodological proposals have been put forward. They try to provide some guidelines in order to take proper decisions. These methodologies are quite useful insofar as they supply reasons for action, but they are essentially insufficient. In fact, taking a good decision requires a special skill that goes beyond sheer technique, and this skill is traditionally called practical wisdom. Not in the usual and more outlying sense of sheer caution, but in the more central one of phronesis or prudentia. Although it is not a new notion, it usually appears blurred in biomedical decision-making theory, playing the wrong role, or in a marginal or indefinite way. From this postulate, we will try to make a double analysis. First, we will try to show the need for a proper understanding of the core role that phronesis plays in decision making. Second, we will try to get the original meaning of Aristotelian phronesis back. For reasons of space, in this paper the second question will be just partially addressed. PMID:26378599

  4. The concept of poverty.

    PubMed

    Carney, P

    1992-06-01

    Although poverty is one of the most familiar and enduring conditions known to humanity, it is an extremely complicated concept to understand. Some researchers view it as a reaction to the stress of being poor, whereas others perceive it as a process of adapting to the condition of poverty. Historical definitions are numerous, but can be classified as relating to either lack of financial income or lower social status. Numerous factors contribute to the concept of poverty, including political, economic, social, and cultural forces. The one that has consistently had the greatest effect on the evolving concept is the passage of time, which encompasses all these forces in a very intricate manner. This author explored the evolution of the concept of poverty to identify relevant themes for consideration in the public health nursing domain. PMID:1508832

  5. Waging War on Poverty: Poverty Trends Using a Historical Supplemental Poverty Measure

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Liana E.; Wimer, Christopher; Garfinkel, Irwin; Kaushal, Neeraj; Waldfogel, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Using data from the Consumer Expenditure Survey and the March Current Population Survey, we provide poverty estimates for 1967 to 2012 based on a historical Supplemental Poverty Measure (SPM). During this period, poverty, as officially measured, has stagnated. However, the official poverty measure (OPM) does not account for the effect of near-cash transfers on the financial resources available to families, an important omission since such transfers have become an increasingly important part of government anti-poverty policy. Applying the historical SPM, which does count such transfers, we find that trends in poverty have been more favorable than the OPM suggests and that government policies have played an important and growing role in reducing poverty—a role that is not evident when the OPM is used to assess poverty. We also find that government programs have played a particularly important role in alleviating child poverty and deep poverty, especially during economic downturns. PMID:26347369

  6. Knowing within: practice wisdom of clinical nurse educators.

    PubMed

    Paton, Brenda I

    2007-11-01

    The challenges nurse educators encounter and respond to while teaching undergraduate students in the clinical area require a unique set of skills and teaching expertise, different from those acquired through classroom teaching. As these educators encounter, make sense of, and move beyond these interruptions, a unique set of understandings and wisdom is acquired. In explicating this wisdom, philosophical literature on practical wisdom, tacit knowledge, smooth activity, and Unready to Hand immersions was accessed. Two layers of interviews were conducted with 9 educators (32 total interviews). An interpretive analysis of these stories elucidated the metaphor of Unready to Hand as Adventure, revealing three domains of practice: Preserving the Ideal, Salvaging Learning, and Sustaining Self. These domains clarify the professional teaching knowledge these educators acquired and offer insight into how one may respond within the everyday encounters that characterize this area of teaching practice. PMID:18019106

  7. Children and Poverty: Issues in Contemporary Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huston, Aletha C.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Introduces a special journal issue on children and poverty, reviewing child poverty rates in the United States, the nature and dimensions of poverty, and the state of child poverty research. Also examines processes mediating the influences of poverty, contextual influences on children in poverty, and child outcomes, with reference to the remaining…

  8. Governance and poverty reduction in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Hyden, Goran

    2007-01-01

    A careful review of the literature in political science and neighboring social science disciplines shows that prevailing assumptions in the international development policy community about improved governance as a principal mechanism to reduce poverty in Africa rests more on faith than science. Conventional policy models for tackling poverty fail to take into account the peculiar socioeconomic and political conditions in Africa, where the vast majority of those living on one dollar a day or less are only marginally captured by market and state institutions and instead rely on solving their problems “outside the system.” Poverty reduction through formal institutions therefore becomes ineffective. Although political science and other neighboring social science disciplines offer insights into these peculiarities, these contributions have been largely ignored to date. One reason is that economists continue to dominate the international development policy agenda. Another is that political scientists have typically looked at how economic variables shape political ones, rather than the other way around, as implied in the current governance agenda. Governance remains an undertheorized area of research held back by two chasms, one between economists and other social scientists and another between the scientific and the policy communities, to the detriment of gaining a better understanding of how it may help reduce poverty in Africa. PMID:17942700

  9. Technology Helps Increase Poverty Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samaras, Anastasia P.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the importance of developing curricular initiatives that educate students on the major facts and issues associated with poverty in America. Provides key poverty statistics and highlights useful Internet resources that offer resource lists, success stories, relevant press releases, and curriculum guides. For example, the PovertyUSA Web…

  10. Social Structure and Child Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferriss, Abbott L.

    2006-01-01

    Child poverty, as a critical indicator of the QOL, is intricately related to the social structure of the community. This hypothesis is explored for the 159 counties of Georgia for the year 2000. The influence of demographic, economic, family and health factors upon child poverty are explored through models of total, black and white child poverty.…

  11. European Measures of Poverty and "Social Exclusion": Material Deprivation, Consumption, and Life Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Neil

    2009-01-01

    The conventional view of poverty in the European Union countries is based on a relative measure, which defines all those with incomes below 60 percent of the median as poor. In the U.S., poverty is defined according to an absolute measure--the federal poverty line computed by the Census Bureau--which was $21,200 for a family of four in 2008…

  12. Trends in Child Poverty Using an Improved Measure of Poverty.

    PubMed

    Wimer, Christopher; Nam, JaeHyun; Waldfogel, Jane; Fox, Liana

    2016-04-01

    The official measure of poverty has been used to assess trends in children's poverty rates for many decades. But because of flaws in official poverty statistics, these basic trends have the potential to be misleading. We use an augmented Current Population Survey data set that calculates an improved measure of poverty to reexamine child poverty rates between 1967 and 2012. This measure, the Anchored Supplemental Poverty Measure, is based partially on the US Census Bureau and Bureau of Labor Statistics' new Supplemental Poverty Measure. We focus on 3 age groups of children, those aged 0 to 5, 6 to 11, and 12 to 17 years. Young children have the highest poverty rates, both historically and today. However, among all age groups, long-term poverty trends have been more favorable than official statistics would suggest. This is entirely due to the effect of counting resources from government policies and programs, which have reduced poverty rates substantially for children of all ages. However, despite this progress, considerable disparities in the risk of poverty continue to exist by education level and family structure. PMID:27044704

  13. Poverty + Hunger = Global Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Richard H.

    1983-01-01

    Geography teachers can use mathematics to teach fourth, fifth, and sixth grade students about critical global issues. Five sample problems concerning population, poverty, waste, the arms race, and hunger are presented. The global issue related to each problem is discussed, and the solution and mathematical skill are provided. (RM)

  14. The neurology of poverty.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, G

    1982-01-01

    An intellectual deficit is known to exist in populations where extreme poverty is rife and is thus seen extensively in the lower socio-economic strata of underdeveloped nations. Poverty is a complex entity whose sociological and economic indicators often bear little relevance to the biological agents which can affect the central nervous system. An attempt is made to express poverty in terms of identifiable defects, physiological in nature. Thus adverse socio-economic factors are converted into specific biological entities which, though necessary for adequate development of the brain, are restricted where there is poverty. A number of causative deficiencies, including nutritional, visual, auditory, tactile, vestibular, affective, and other stimuli are postulated. These interact and potentiate one another. Each is capable of an independent action on the brain and examples are given of some sensory deprivations as well as malnutrition and their possible mechanism of action. If the various deficiencies can independently harm the brain, then a number of separate specific functions should be affected; examples are offered. The nature of this intellectual deficit is probably a non-fulfillment of genetic potential of certain specific functions of the brain, which may exhibit limited variations between one community and another, depending on cultural differences. The deleterious effect of this intellectual impairment is seen most clearly in figures of school desertion, for example in Latin America. Analogous data for adults is scarce. PMID:7112171

  15. Taxi, Jitneys and Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbloom, Sandi

    1970-01-01

    Version of the paper given at The Transportation and Poverty Conference of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Argues for revival of jitneys (12-14 capacity motor vehicles, operating on fixed routes, fares zone-rated) to serve ghetto residents and provide employment, too. Taxi company competition also discussed. (KG)

  16. Poverty and Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Percy; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Equity does not require that everyone have the same amount of resources to satisfy basic needs, but it does require that each of us be able to live decently. The articles in this issue focus on poverty and its effects on children, particularly with respect to education and the ability to learn. The following articles are included: (1) "Poor Kids…

  17. Poverty in School Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Carol A.; Kealy, William A.

    2013-01-01

    What are acute poverty challenges for culturally disadvantaged school communities across the United States? How do practicing teacher-researchers, pursuing advanced degrees, view this issue and the 21st century skills and dispositions classroom teachers need to foster change? Curious about this topic from the viewpoints of teachers who are…

  18. Child Poverty & Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chafel, Judith A., Ed.

    This collection documents how far we still are in the United States from putting our knowledge about child well being and policy into practice. It provides an overview of the changing nature of child poverty in the United States through the contributions of authors who use a number of qualitative and quantitative approaches to look at children in…

  19. Older Women and Poverty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferraro, Geraldine A.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the socioeconomic causes of the disproportionate level of poverty found among women aged 65 and over. Reasons why Social Security programs are essential for maintaining minimal standards of living for many older women are presented. Specific proposals for bringing about change are included. (AM)

  20. Educational Wisdom and Intellectual Teachers Are Called on by the Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tian, Huisheng

    2007-01-01

    Currently, there is lack of educational wisdom in classroom teaching. Educational wisdom is a kind of quality of good education, representing a free, harmonious, open and creative status of education. The educational wisdom of intellectual teachers is the outcome of the close integration of educational science and art. It is also the result of…

  1. Searching for Sophia: Adult Educators and Adult Learners as Wisdom Seekers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Wilma; Hyland-Russell, Tara

    2011-01-01

    This article invokes the spirit of "Sophia" as metaphorical guide for an ongoing reclamation of wisdom spaces and describes a path for educators and practitioners that can assist in the recovery of wisdom in the face of increasing pressures of measurable outcomes within the field of lifelong learning. The authors first examine wisdom within adult…

  2. East Meets West: Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Wisdom and Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Shih-ying

    2011-01-01

    Wisdom enables people to lead a good life. The pursuit of wisdom is an important goal for adult education, and adult education is important for developing wisdom in individuals and communities. The good life for humankind is threatened by global warming, shortages of natural resources, cultural and religious conflicts, and financial crises, and…

  3. A critique of Jeffrey D. Sachs's The end of poverty.

    PubMed

    Henwood, Doug

    2006-01-01

    Jeffrey Sachs's The End of Poverty is a manifesto and how-to guide on ending extreme poverty around the world; it promotes the U.N. Millennium Development Goals. Sachs achieved fame with his policy package for the "stabilization" of Bolivia (which did nothing to relieve Bolivia's poverty), and became advisor to the Yeltsin government in Russia and to Poland, Slovenia, and Estonia as they began their transitions to capitalism (the last three mixed successes; Russia a thorough disaster). Sachs later became more prominent as a critic of development orthodoxy, and was economic advisor to the Jubilee 2000 movement. The End of Poverty is full of sharp critiques of Western imperialism, but his views on the rest of the development business are more conventional. PMID:16524171

  4. The dynamics of childhood poverty.

    PubMed

    Corcoran, M E; Chaudry, A

    1997-01-01

    Child poverty rates have remained high since the middle of the 1970s. While several trends, including declines in the number of children per family and increases in parental years of schooling, worked to reduce child poverty rates, several others, including show economic growth, widening economic inequality, and increases in the proportion of children living in mother-only families, had the opposite effect, pushing more children into poverty. Poverty is a common risk: One-third of all children will be poor for at least one year. For many, poverty lasts only a short while, but for a small percentage, poverty persists both throughout childhood and into the adult years. Poverty is not shared equally across different demographic groups. African-American children. Latino children, and children in mother-only families are disproportionately poor. Long-term poverty is even more concentrated than single-year poverty. In 1992, almost 90% of long-term poor children were African-American as compared to all poor children (single-year and long-term poor), of whom 60% were white. Both family structure and the labor market are implicated in long-term childhood poverty. Changes in employment of family members and changes in family composition are each strongly associated with transitions into and out of childhood poverty. Of these, changes in employment are the most important. PMID:9299836

  5. From Knowledge to Wisdom: Critical Evaluation in New Literacy Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Phil

    2012-01-01

    In an effort to expose students to a wide array of 21st century literacies, it is easy for teachers to forget the equally important role of leading students in critical inquiry regarding "when" and "why" particular media ought to be used. This results in students who possess knowledge of how to use a medium but lack the wisdom to truly understand…

  6. The soul's wisdom: stories of living and dying.

    PubMed

    Vachon, M L S

    2008-08-01

    Cancer can lead to spiritual transformation, which can be seen as a form of alchemy. During this process, patients, family members, and even professional caregivers can find themselves having spiritual experiences that go beyond any they had previously encountered. This paper provides qualitative descriptions of the "Field" or "Soul Wisdom" experienced by patients and caregivers. PMID:18769614

  7. Digital Natives Revisited: Developing Digital Wisdom in the Modern University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, David

    2012-01-01

    The seminal work of Prensky on "digital natives" and "digital wisdom" is used to launch a broader discussion on the relations between electronic communication, higher education, and popular and elite culture. Prensky's critics commonly contrast his polarisations and generational divisions with a more complex picture of types of engagement with…

  8. Building an Online Wisdom Community: A Transformational Design Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunawardena, Charlotte N.; Jennings, Barbara; Ortegano-Layne, Ludmila C.; Frechette, Casey; Carabajal, Kayleigh; Lindemann, Ken; Mummert, Julia

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of a new instructional design model based on socioconstructivist learning theories and distance education principles for the design of online wisdom communities and the efficacy of the model drawing on evaluation results from its implementation in Fall 2002. The model, Final Outcome Centered Around Learner…

  9. A Model of Educational Leadership: Wisdom, Intelligence, and Creativity, Synthesized

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a model of educational leadership--WICS--that encompasses "wisdom", "intelligence" and "creativity", "synthesized". The article opens with a general discussion of issues in models of leadership. Then it discusses the role of creativity in leadership, dividing the discussion into academic and practical aspects. Next it deals…

  10. The contribution of community wisdom to conservation ecology.

    PubMed

    Predavec, Martin; Lunney, Daniel; Hope, Ben; Stalenberg, Eleanor; Shannon, Ian; Crowther, Mathew S; Miller, Indrie

    2016-06-01

    Scientists have traditionally collected data on whether a population is increasing, decreasing, or staying the same, but such studies are often limited by geographic scale and time frame. This means that for many species, understanding of trends comes from only part of their ranges at particular periods. Working with citizen scientists has the potential to overcome these limits. Citizen science has the added benefit of exposing citizens to the scientific process and engaging them in management outcomes. We examined a different way of using citizen scientists (instead of data collection). We asked community members to answer a question directly and thus examined whether community wisdom can inform conservation. We reviewed the results of 3 mail-in surveys that asked community members to say whether they thought koala populations were increasing, decreasing, or staying the same. We then compared the survey results with population trends derived from more traditional research. Population trends identified through community wisdom were similar to the trends identified by traditional research. The community wisdom surveys, however, allowed the question to be addressed at much broader geographical scales and time frames. Studies that apply community wisdom have the benefit of engaging a broad section of the community in conservation research and education and therefore in the political process of conserving species. PMID:27110657

  11. On the psychology of poverty.

    PubMed

    Haushofer, Johannes; Fehr, Ernst

    2014-05-23

    Poverty remains one of the most pressing problems facing the world; the mechanisms through which poverty arises and perpetuates itself, however, are not well understood. Here, we examine the evidence for the hypothesis that poverty may have particular psychological consequences that can lead to economic behaviors that make it difficult to escape poverty. The evidence indicates that poverty causes stress and negative affective states which in turn may lead to short-sighted and risk-averse decision-making, possibly by limiting attention and favoring habitual behaviors at the expense of goal-directed ones. Together, these relationships may constitute a feedback loop that contributes to the perpetuation of poverty. We conclude by pointing toward specific gaps in our knowledge and outlining poverty alleviation programs that this mechanism suggests. PMID:24855262

  12. Combating Poverty and Social Exclusion in France. OECD Economics Department Working Papers No. 569

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamet, Stephanie

    2007-01-01

    Reducing poverty and social exclusion is an important objective for all French governments. Even though conventionally measured poverty is in fact lower than in most other countries, it is still higher than can be easily accepted. The current policy approach involves a large number of measures tailored to different circumstances. Some policies…

  13. Child Poverty: Definition and Measurement.

    PubMed

    Short, Kathleen S

    2016-04-01

    This article provides a discussion of what we mean when we refer to 'child poverty.' Many images come to mind when we discuss child poverty, but when we try to measure and quantify the extent of child poverty, we often use a very narrow concept. In this article a variety of poverty measures that are used in the United States are described and some of the differences between those measures are illustrated. In this article 3 measures are explored in detail: a relative measure of poverty that is used more often in an international context, the official US poverty measure, and a new supplemental poverty measure (SPM). The new measure differs from the other 2 because it takes into account noncash benefits that are provided to poor families. These include nutrition assistance such as food stamps, subsidized housing, and home energy assistance. The SPM also takes account of necessary expenses that families face, such as taxes and expenses related to work and health care. Comparing estimates for 2012, the SPM showed lower poverty rates for children than the other 2 measures. Because noncash benefits help those in extreme poverty, there were also lower percentages of children in extreme poverty with resources below half the SPM threshold. These results suggest that 2 important measures of poverty, the relative measure used in international comparisons, and the official poverty measure, are not able to gauge the effect of government programs on the alleviation of poverty, and the SPM illustrates that noncash benefits do help families meet their basic needs. PMID:27044701

  14. How to measure wisdom: content, reliability, and validity of five measures

    PubMed Central

    Glück, Judith; König, Susanne; Naschenweng, Katja; Redzanowski, Uwe; Dorner, Lara; Straßer, Irene; Wiedermann, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Wisdom is a field of growing interest both inside and outside academic psychology, and researchers are increasingly interested in using measures of wisdom in their work. However, wisdom is a highly complex construct, and its various operationalizations are based on quite different definitions. Which measure a researcher chooses for a particular research project may have a strong influence on the results. This study compares four well-established measures of wisdom—the Self-Assessed Wisdom Scale (Webster, 2003, 2007), the Three-Dimensional Wisdom Scale (Ardelt, 2003), the Adult Self-Transcendence Inventory (Levenson et al., 2005), and the Berlin Wisdom Paradigm (Baltes and Smith, 1990; Baltes and Staudinger, 2000)—with respect to content, reliability, factorial structure, and construct validity (relationships to wisdom nomination, interview-based wisdom ratings, and correlates of wisdom). The sample consisted of 47 wisdom nominees and 123 control participants. While none of the measures performed “better” than the others by absolute standards, recommendations are given for researchers to select the most suitable measure for their substantive interests. In addition, a “Brief Wisdom Screening Scale” is introduced that contains those 20 items from the three self-report scales that were most highly correlated with the common factor across the scales. PMID:23874310

  15. Social evils, poverty & health.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rajeev; Kumar, Praneet

    2007-10-01

    There is a close association between social circumstances and health. In India, there is a significant burden of both communicable and non communicable diseases. Risk factors responsible for these conditions are underweight, unsafe sex, unsafe water, poor sanitation and hygiene, indoor smoke pollution, zinc, iron and vitamin A deficiency, tobacco use, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol. All these risk factors are influenced by social factors and in India the more important factors are poverty and illiteracy. Changing lifestyles as a result of rising incomes are significant risk factors for non communicable diseases. The social evils that influence poverty and health are macrolevel national and regional issues such as physical geography, governance patterns and failures, geopolitics, economic policy, natural resources decline, population growth, the demographic trap and the fiscal trap. Household and microlevel factors include the poverty trap, cultural barriers, lack of innovation and saving, absence of trade or business, unemployment, technological reversal, adverse productivity shock, social issues related to females, and adolescent social issues. Social determinants important for non communicable diseases, defined by the World Health Organization include the social gradient, stress, early life events, social exclusion, improper work conditions, unemployment, lack of social support, addiction, food scarcity or excess and uneven distribution, lack of proper transport, and illiteracy or low educational status. There are multiple pathways through which social factors influence health, and pathophysiological mechanisms involve homeostatic and allostatic changes in response to stress, neuroendocrine changes and altered autonomic functions, and abnormal inflammatory and immune responses. A concerted action to eradicate these social evils shall have to focus on reducing poverty, improving educational status and providing equitable and accessible healthcare to all

  16. Poverty in the Rural United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dudenhefer, Paul

    1993-01-01

    The 1990 Rural Sociological Society's Task Force on Persistent Rural Poverty describes rural poverty, comparing it to urban poverty; rejects human-capital, economic-organization, and culture-of-poverty theories of rural poverty and proposes research on 10 other theories; and discusses rural policy and its inequitable emphasis on farmers. (KS)

  17. Improving the Measurement of Poverty

    PubMed Central

    Hutto, Nathan; Waldfogel, Jane; Kaushal, Neeraj; Garfinkel, Irwin

    2013-01-01

    This study estimates 2007 national poverty rates using an approach largely conceptualized by a 1995 National Academy of Sciences panel and similar to the supplemental poverty measure that will soon be produced by the U.S. Census Bureau. The study uses poverty thresholds based on expenditures for shelter, food, clothing, and utilities, as well as a measure of family income that includes earnings, cash transfers, near-cash benefits, tax credits, and tax payments. The measure also accounts for child care, work, and out-of-pocket medical expenses; variation in regional cost of living; and mortgage-free homeownership. Under this method, the rate of poverty is estimated to be higher than the rate calculated in the traditional manner, rising from 12.4 percent in the official measure to 16 percent in the new measure; the rate of child poverty is more than 3 percentage points higher, and elderly poverty is nearly 7 points higher. PMID:26316658

  18. Poverty nutrition linkages.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Prema

    2007-10-01

    At the time of independence majority of Indians were poor. In spite of spending over 80 per cent of their income on food, they could not get adequate food. Living in areas of poor environmental sanitation they had high morbidity due to infections; nutrition toll due to infections was high because of poor access to health care. As a result, majority of Indians especially children were undernourished. The country initiated programmes to improve economic growth, reduce poverty, improve household food security and nutritional status of its citizens, especially women and children. India defined poverty on the basis of calorie requirement and focused its attention on providing subsidized food and essential services to people below poverty line. After a period of slow but steady economic growth, the last decade witnessed acceleration of economic growth. India is now one of the fastest growing economies in the world with gross domestic product (GDP) growth over 8 per cent. There has been a steady but slow decline in poverty; but last decade's rapid economic growth did not translate in to rapid decline in poverty. In 1970s, country became self sufficient in food production; adequate buffer stocks have been built up. Poor had access to subsidized food through the public distribution system. As a result, famines have been eliminated, though pockets of food scarcity still existed. Over the years there has been a decline in household expenditure on food due to availability of food grains at low cost but energy intake has declined except among for the poor. In spite of unaltered/declining energy intake there has been some reduction in undernutrition and increase in overnutrition in adults. This is most probably due to reduction in physical activity. Under the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) programme food supplements are being provided to children, pregnant and lactating women in the entire country. In spite of these, low birth weight rates are still over 30 per

  19. Pearls of wisdom for clinical teaching: expert educators reflect.

    PubMed

    Lichtman, Ronnie; Varney Burst, Helen; Campau, Nancy; Carrington, Betty; Diegmann, Elaine K; Hsia, Lily; Thompson, Joyce E

    2003-01-01

    A group of expert educators, each with more than 20 years of experience in midwifery education, was asked to contribute a "pearl (or pearls) of wisdom" for clinical teaching. Despite minimal instructions regarding what type of wisdom was being solicited, remarkable similarities emerged from the educators' contributions. Themes included the need for self-evaluation to become a competent preceptor, the role-modeling function of the preceptor, the development of critical thinking in students, the need to appreciate students' varying learning styles and individual ways of functioning, and the use of positive reinforcement. Although these may seem like universally accepted concepts in clinical teaching, one contributor related stories she heard from students about "hazing" behaviors that have a negative impact on learning. This points to the need for ongoing education about being an educator, another theme echoed in several of the contributions. PMID:14660952

  20. Expertise, wisdom and moral philosophers: a response to Gesang.

    PubMed

    Cowley, Christopher

    2012-07-01

    In a recent issue of Bioethics, Bernard Gesang asks whether a moral philosopher possesses greater moral expertise than a non-philosopher, and his answer is a qualified yes, based not so much on his infallible access to the truth, but on the quality of his theoretically-informed moral justifications. I reject Gesang's claim that there is such a thing as moral expertise, although the moral philosopher may well make a valid contribution to the ethics committee as a concerned and educated citizen. I suggest that wisdom is a lot more interesting to examine than moral expertise. Again, however, moral philosophers have no monopoly on wisdom, and the study of philosophy may even impede its cultivation. PMID:21241345

  1. A Challenge to the Conventional Wisdom of Herzberg and Maslow Theories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellott, Fred K.; Tutor, F. Dexter

    This document assessment of the basic theories of A. Maslow and F. Herzberg and the populations from which their theories were derived. Herzberg used personal interviews to gather data with which to conduct his studies and to test his theories regarding motivation and job satisfaction. Herzberg identified five factors associated with job…

  2. From Conventional Wisdom to Higher Education Transformation: Does It Take a Crisis to Make Fundamental Change?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Roger

    2010-01-01

    With huge financial challenges being imposed on higher education, some react to crises to make changes and meet financial requirements. Changes are made that would be unthinkable without imposed demands. Two examples of universities that successfully responded to limited budgets to make major changes in organization, structure, and programs are…

  3. Very early onset trichotillomania presenting with recurrent trichobezoar: conventional wisdom questioned.

    PubMed

    Menon, Vikas; Shaik, Subahani; Mohan, Pazhanivel

    2015-01-01

    Trichotillomania (TTM), a disorder characterized by compulsive hair pulling, is undergoing a conceptual and nosological re-evaluation. Little long-term information is available about this condition when it strikes in early childhood. Trichobezoar, an ingestional foreign body lodged in the gastrointestinal tract composed of swallowed hair, is usually associated with underlying psychiatric and emotional disturbances. In this report, we describe a young girl who had her symptom onset at the age of 3, but presented again after more than a decade with recurrent symptomatic large trichobezoars needing surgical removal both times. Her clinical course and presentation challenged contemporary understanding of TTM. PMID:25878449

  4. Moving Beyond Conventional Wisdom: Advancements in Cross-Cultural Theories of Leadership, Conflict, and Teams.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Cristina B; McDaniel, Dana M

    2010-07-01

    In this article, we discuss the importance of a cross-cultural approach to organizational behavior. To do so, we illustrate how cross-cultural research in the past two decades has enabled us to reconceptualize constructs, revise models, and extend boundary conditions in traditional organizational behavior theories. We focus on three domains-teams, leadership, and conflict-and review cross-cultural empirical evidence that has extended several theories in each of these domains. We support the claim that even well-established organizational behavior theories vary in the extent to which they may be applied unilaterally across cultures, thus identifying the critical need to advance these theories via a cross-cultural research agenda. PMID:26162191

  5. Against conventional wisdom: when the public, the media, and medical practice collide

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In 2009, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force released new mammography screening guidelines that sparked a torrent of criticism. The subsequent conflict was significant and pitted the Task Force against other health organizations, advocacy groups, the media, and the public at large. We argue that this controversy was driven by the systematic removal of uncertainty from science communication. To increase comprehension and adherence, health information communicators remove caveats, limitations, and hedging so science appears simple and more certain. This streamlining process is, in many instances, initiated by researchers as they engage in dissemination of their findings, and it is facilitated by public relations professionals, journalists, public health practitioners, and others whose tasks involve using the results from research for specific purposes. Analysis Uncertainty is removed from public communication because many communicators believe that it is difficult for people to process and/or that it is something the audience wants to avoid. Uncertainty management theory posits that people can find meaning and value in uncertainty. We define key terms relevant to uncertainty management, describe research on the processing of uncertainty, identify directions for future research, and offer recommendations for scientists, practitioners, and media professionals confronted with uncertain findings. Conclusions Science is routinely simplified as it is prepared for public consumption. In line with the model of information overload, this practice may increase short-term adherence to recommendations at the expense of long-term message consistency and trust in science. PMID:24565173

  6. How social influence can undermine the wisdom of crowd effect

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Jan; Rauhut, Heiko; Schweitzer, Frank; Helbing, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    Social groups can be remarkably smart and knowledgeable when their averaged judgements are compared with the judgements of individuals. Already Galton [Galton F (1907) Nature 75:7] found evidence that the median estimate of a group can be more accurate than estimates of experts. This wisdom of crowd effect was recently supported by examples from stock markets, political elections, and quiz shows [Surowiecki J (2004) The Wisdom of Crowds]. In contrast, we demonstrate by experimental evidence (N = 144) that even mild social influence can undermine the wisdom of crowd effect in simple estimation tasks. In the experiment, subjects could reconsider their response to factual questions after having received average or full information of the responses of other subjects. We compare subjects’ convergence of estimates and improvements in accuracy over five consecutive estimation periods with a control condition, in which no information about others’ responses was provided. Although groups are initially “wise,” knowledge about estimates of others narrows the diversity of opinions to such an extent that it undermines the wisdom of crowd effect in three different ways. The “social influence effect” diminishes the diversity of the crowd without improvements of its collective error. The “range reduction effect” moves the position of the truth to peripheral regions of the range of estimates so that the crowd becomes less reliable in providing expertise for external observers. The “confidence effect” boosts individuals’ confidence after convergence of their estimates despite lack of improved accuracy. Examples of the revealed mechanism range from misled elites to the recent global financial crisis. PMID:21576485

  7. Christian Learner: Wisdom and Gaining Knowledge Equals Joy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagle, Bonne

    2012-01-01

    When a Christian learner gains insight that learning is needed and takes the appropriate action to learn the knowledge and apply it, there will be joy and satisfaction with learning. The premise for this paper is in the Bible verse Ecclesiastes 2:26: (NASB) "For to a person who is good in His sight He has given wisdom and knowledge and joy..."…

  8. The Literature of Poverty, the Poverty of Literature Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, John

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author focuses on the possibilities--and the limits--of undergraduate courses on the literature of poverty. He describes an undergraduate course he has taught on U.S. literature about poverty, but he also expresses doubt that such courses can help produce major social change. He argues that something about the literature of…

  9. Brain Drain: A Child's Brain on Poverty. Poverty Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damron, Neil

    2015-01-01

    "Brain Drain: A Child's Brain on Poverty," released in March 2015 and prepared by intern Neil Damron, explores the brain's basic anatomy and recent research findings suggesting that poverty affects the brain development of infants and young children and the potential lifelong effects of the changes. The sheet draws from a variety of…

  10. Protected areas and poverty

    PubMed Central

    Brockington, Daniel; Wilkie, David

    2015-01-01

    Protected areas are controversial because they are so important for conservation and because they distribute fortune and misfortune unevenly. The nature of that distribution, as well as the terrain of protected areas themselves, have been vigorously contested. In particular, the relationship between protected areas and poverty is a long-running debate in academic and policy circles. We review the origins of this debate and chart its key moments. We then outline the continuing flashpoints and ways in which further evaluation studies could improve the evidence base for policy-making and conservation practice. PMID:26460124

  11. Pathways from Poverty Educational Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northeast Regional Center for Rural Development, University Park, PA.

    Pathways from Poverty is a public policy education and research initiative organized by the Rural Sociological Society's Task Force on Persistent Rural Poverty and the four regional rural development centers. This publication focuses on project efforts in the Northeast and includes three sections. The first section describes the Pathways from…

  12. Neighborhood Poverty and Adolescent Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride Murry, Velma; Berkel, Cady; Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.; Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Nation, Maury

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a comprehensive review of studies conducted over the past decade on the effects of neighborhood and poverty on adolescent normative and nonnormative development. Our review includes a summary of studies examining the associations between neighborhood poverty and adolescent identity development followed by a review of studies…

  13. The Dynamics of Childhood Poverty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcoran, Mary E.; Chaudry, Ajay

    1997-01-01

    Reviews child poverty in the United States. Child poverty rates have been high since the 1970s, and it is expected that one-third of all children will be poor at some time. African American and Latino children and children in mother-only families are disproportionately poor. Both family structure and the labor market are implicated in child…

  14. Poverty Reduction Begins with Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY.

    This report describes how children bear the brunt of poverty and explains why they are central to poverty reduction in developing nations. The report also illustrates UNICEF's support for the process of improving access to, and quality of, health care, education, water and sanitation, and child protection. It describes how the participation of the…

  15. Simplifying the Water Poverty Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Danny I.; Ogwang, Tomson; Opio, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, principal components methodology is used to derive simplified and cost effective indexes of water poverty. Using a well known data set for 147 countries from which an earlier five-component water poverty index comprising of "Resources," "Access," "Capacity," "Use" and "Environment" was constructed, we find that a simplified…

  16. Illiteracy and Poverty. Literacy Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adiseshiah, Malcolm S.

    There is a close connection between illiteracy and poverty at all levels--global, national, and subnational; the countries with the lowest levels of literacy are also the poorest economically. Poverty breeds illiteracy by forcing children to drop out of school to work, and these illiterate people are forced to stay on the lowest levels of the work…

  17. Nebraska's Families: Poverty Despite Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazere, Edward B.; Ostrom, Kristin Anderson

    The high poverty rate (13.8 percent) among Nebraska's children is cause for concern, since there is strong evidence that poverty can hinder development and adversely affect children's ability to become productive adults. It is commonly assumed that poor children live in families where parents could work but do not. Yet in Nebraska, of poor…

  18. [Population trends and poverty].

    PubMed

    Olmedo, C

    1998-04-01

    Implications of population growth in Ecuador for the quality of life of the poor population are analyzed. It is argued that if the gross national product (GNP) were to grow at a sustained annual rate of 5% or more, demographic trends would not present a significant obstacle to reducing poverty. National economic projections are for growth of only 2.5-3.5% annually. The continuing rapid growth of the poor population despite general slowing of demographic growth, the young age structure, the need for increased formal education to enable the poor to overcome their poverty, and the effect of unemployment on the dependency ratio will tend to hamper improvements in average productivity and per capita GNP. The need for spending on education, health, basic services, and housing will divert funds away from productive investment, generating a direct negative impact on economic growth. Over half of Ecuadorian children suffer from some degree of malnutrition, indicating that food production is inadequate to meet demand. The export-oriented agricultural policy and poor weather have led to a chronic shortage of basic foods. Progressive increase and diversification of agricultural production, along with maintenance of low prices and substantial increases in income levels and agricultural productivity, will be required if the entire population is to be fed adequately. Intense efforts will be needed from all sectors to bring demographic growth into balance with economic and development needs. PMID:12178231

  19. Philosophical approaches to the nursing informatics data-information-knowledge-wisdom framework.

    PubMed

    Matney, Susan; Brewster, Philip J; Sward, Katherine A; Cloyes, Kristin G; Staggers, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Although informatics is an important area of nursing inquiry and practice, few scholars have articulated the philosophical foundations of the field or how these translate into practice including the often-cited data, information, knowledge, and wisdom (DIKW) framework. Data, information, and knowledge, often approached through postpositivism, can be exhibited in computer systems. Wisdom aligns with constructivist epistemological perspectives such as Gadamerian hermeneutics. Computer systems can support wisdom development. Wisdom is an important element of the DIKW framework and adds value to the role of nursing informaticists and nursing science. PMID:21150551

  20. Poverty eradication: a new paradigm.

    PubMed

    Pethe, V P

    1998-08-01

    This article offers a new paradigm for eradicating poverty in India. It was assumed incorrectly by Mahatma Gandhi that a good society without mass poverty would follow after independence. India copied Western models of development and developed giant factories, big dams, and megacities. Agriculture did not expand the number of jobs for people. The Western paradigm failed in India because of the false assumption of "trickle down" of income to the masses. The targeted programs to the poor did not directly benefit enough of the poor. Mega-industrialization led to reduced employment and higher skill needs. The model failed mainly because it was a proxy and relied on indirect ways of reaching the poor. The models failed to be adapted to conditions in India. The Swadeshi paradigm is a direct model for addressing mass poverty. Poverty is affected by immediate, intermediate, and ultimate determinants. Poverty begets social and economic problems, such as ignorance, ill health, high fertility, unemployment, and crime. In India and developing countries, mass poverty results from under use of human resources; lack of equal opportunities; and an outdated non-egalitarian social structure, an unjust global economic order, human cruelty, and erosion of ethical values. Indians are squandering their precious resources mimicking Western consumerism. Poverty leads to rapid population growth. People become productive assets with universal literacy, compulsory and free education, health services and sanitation, vocational training, and work ethics. India needs people-oriented policies with less emphasis on capital accumulation. PMID:12294462

  1. Vaccines against poverty

    PubMed Central

    MacLennan, Calman A.; Saul, Allan

    2014-01-01

    With the 2010s declared the Decade of Vaccines, and Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 focused on reducing diseases that are potentially vaccine preventable, now is an exciting time for vaccines against poverty, that is, vaccines against diseases that disproportionately affect low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 has helped better understand which vaccines are most needed. In 2012, US$1.3 billion was spent on research and development for new vaccines for neglected infectious diseases. However, the majority of this went to three diseases: HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis, and not neglected diseases. Much of it went to basic research rather than development, with an ongoing decline in funding for product development partnerships. Further investment in vaccines against diarrheal diseases, hepatitis C, and group A Streptococcus could lead to a major health impact in LMICs, along with vaccines to prevent sepsis, particularly among mothers and neonates. The Advanced Market Commitment strategy of the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation (GAVI) Alliance is helping to implement vaccines against rotavirus and pneumococcus in LMICs, and the roll out of the MenAfriVac meningococcal A vaccine in the African Meningitis Belt represents a paradigm shift in vaccines against poverty: the development of a vaccine primarily targeted at LMICs. Global health vaccine institutes and increasing capacity of vaccine manufacturers in emerging economies are helping drive forward new vaccines for LMICs. Above all, partnership is needed between those developing and manufacturing LMIC vaccines and the scientists, health care professionals, and policy makers in LMICs where such vaccines will be implemented. PMID:25136089

  2. 24 CFR 598.115 - Poverty rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Poverty rate. 598.115 Section 598... Requirements § 598.115 Poverty rate. (a) General. In order to be eligible for designation, an area's poverty... poverty rate must be not less than 20 percent; and (2) For at least 90 percent of the census tracts...

  3. 7 CFR 25.104 - Poverty rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poverty rate. 25.104 Section 25.104 Agriculture Office... § 25.104 Poverty rate. (a) General. Eligibility of an area on the basis of poverty shall be established in accordance with the following poverty rate criteria specific to Round I, Round II, Round IIS...

  4. 24 CFR 598.115 - Poverty rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Poverty rate. 598.115 Section 598... Requirements § 598.115 Poverty rate. (a) General. In order to be eligible for designation, an area's poverty... poverty rate must be not less than 20 percent; and (2) For at least 90 percent of the census tracts...

  5. 24 CFR 598.115 - Poverty rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Poverty rate. 598.115 Section 598... Requirements § 598.115 Poverty rate. (a) General. In order to be eligible for designation, an area's poverty... poverty rate must be not less than 20 percent; and (2) For at least 90 percent of the census tracts...

  6. 7 CFR 25.104 - Poverty rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Poverty rate. 25.104 Section 25.104 Agriculture Office... § 25.104 Poverty rate. (a) General. Eligibility of an area on the basis of poverty shall be established in accordance with the following poverty rate criteria specific to Round I, Round II, Round IIS...

  7. 7 CFR 25.104 - Poverty rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Poverty rate. 25.104 Section 25.104 Agriculture Office... § 25.104 Poverty rate. (a) General. Eligibility of an area on the basis of poverty shall be established in accordance with the following poverty rate criteria specific to Round I, Round II, Round IIS...

  8. 7 CFR 25.104 - Poverty rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Poverty rate. 25.104 Section 25.104 Agriculture Office... § 25.104 Poverty rate. (a) General. Eligibility of an area on the basis of poverty shall be established in accordance with the following poverty rate criteria specific to Round I, Round II, Round IIS...

  9. 24 CFR 598.115 - Poverty rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Poverty rate. 598.115 Section 598... Requirements § 598.115 Poverty rate. (a) General. In order to be eligible for designation, an area's poverty... poverty rate must be not less than 20 percent; and (2) For at least 90 percent of the census tracts...

  10. 7 CFR 25.104 - Poverty rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Poverty rate. 25.104 Section 25.104 Agriculture Office... § 25.104 Poverty rate. (a) General. Eligibility of an area on the basis of poverty shall be established in accordance with the following poverty rate criteria specific to Round I, Round II, Round IIS...

  11. 24 CFR 598.115 - Poverty rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Poverty rate. 598.115 Section 598... Requirements § 598.115 Poverty rate. (a) General. In order to be eligible for designation, an area's poverty... poverty rate must be not less than 20 percent; and (2) For at least 90 percent of the census tracts...

  12. Causal Relationships between Poverty and Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lustig, Daniel C.; Strauser, David R.

    2007-01-01

    Although research suggests why disability may cause poverty, it is not well understood why poverty may cause disability. This article presents the Poverty Disability Model, which includes four groups of factors that increase the risk that poverty will cause disability and chronic health problems. Rehabilitation interventions and counselor…

  13. Children in Poverty: The Fundamental Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busby, Wayne; Busby, Fran

    1996-01-01

    Documents the plight of children in poverty, examines the secondary effects of poverty upon the person and community, analyzes why the current subsidy approach has been ineffective, and seeks a holistic explanation for poverty. A universal, revenue-neutral approach to reducing poverty based on "supplementation" and "empowerment" is proposed. (GR)

  14. Poverty in Rural Areas of the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Alan R.

    The poverty problems in rural America are categorized and analyzed in terms of the extent and persistence of rural poverty, causes and costs of poverty, poverty characteristics of rural areas, and implications for anti-poverty programs. The report defines poverty and briefly traces the history of rural poverty over the past 20 years. Maps, charts,…

  15. Joining together to combat poverty.

    PubMed

    Heath, I; Haines, A; Malenica, Z; Oulton, J A; Leopando, Z; Kaseje, D; Addington, W W; Giscard D'Estaing, O; Tumwine, J K; Koivusalo, M; Biscoe, G; Nickson, P; Marusić, M; Vuk Pavlović, S

    2000-03-01

    The International Poverty and Health Network (IPHN) was created in December 1997 following a series of conferences organized by the World Health Organization, with the aim of integrating health into plans to eradicate poverty. Around 1.3 billion people live on less than US$1 per day. Of the 4.4 billion people in developing countries nearly 60% lack access to sanitation, 30% do not have clean water, 20% have no health care, and 20% do not have enough dietary energy and protein. Even among rich nations there are gross socioeconomic inequalities. Many children are robbed of their physical and mental potential through poverty. Expressed in constant 1963 US dollars, an average Croatian family needed the annual income of US$894 to meet the poverty line in 1960 and US$9,027 in 1995. Accordingly, 9-25% of Croatian households were below the poverty line between 1960 and 1995. The increase in the poverty rate after 1991 was compounded by the war that destroyed almost a third of industrial capacity and infrastructure. Dissipation of the communist economy and inadequate privatization have contributed to the increase in unemployment rate, corruption, and other social ills. IPHN invited Croatian Medical Journal to publish this editorial to help push the issue of poverty up political and medical agendas on a global level. We argue that a factor contributing to the failure of most large-scale programs against poverty to date is the excessive emphasis on material and infrastructure assistance at the expense of spiritual, moral, and intellectual development. PMID:10810165

  16. WISDOM GPR performance assessment in a cold artificial environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dechambre, M.; Ciarletti, V.; Biancheri-Astier, M.; Saintenoy, A.; Costard, F.; Hassen-Khodja, R.

    2012-04-01

    The WISDOM (Water Ice Subsurface Deposit Observation on Mars) GPR is one of the instruments that have been selected as part of the Pasteur payload of ESA's 2018 ExoMars Rover mission. WISDOM has been designed to obtain information about the nature of the subsurface along the rover path with the objective to explore the first ~ 3 m of the soil with a vertical resolution of a few centimetres. The sub-surface properties that can be addressed with WISDOM are variations in composition, texture, stratification (e.g., number, thickness and orientation of layers), the presence of unconformities and other structural characteristics (such as fractures and the deformation of strata). It is then essential to quantify the performances of WISDOM in controlled conditions, and several full polarimetric measurements have been carried out with the prototype in a cold artificial environment. The main objectives are the detection of different interface between homogeneous materials with WISDOM. The characterization of the material (porosity, % of water, dielectric properties, thickness and depth, temperature ...) is well-controlled. The cold room facility of IDES at Orsay (France) has been used, the ambient temperature ranged from -7° C to -10° C. A tank laying on the metallic floor (height: 0.5m, width: 0.80 m, length: 1.20m) in macrolon can contain liquid or frozen water or layers (dielectric contrasts) of home-maid permafrost (frozen saturated sand) with and without embedded objects or fractures. The temperature inside the medium (ice or permafrost) is controlled, the radar antennas are put on a sheet of polystyrene over the tank. Frequent measurements were performed (every 2cm) along a track from one side to the other side of the tank. The experimental conditions were: (1)dry cold sand (Fontainebleau sand) : porosity 35% density 2,67 (2) saturated wet sand : 35% of water (3) permafrost (frozen saturated sand) : 35% of ice content 1 layer: 3 consecutive experiments : 10cm dry

  17. New Model, New Strategies: Instructional Design for Building Online Wisdom Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunawardena, Charlotte N.; Ortegano-Layne, Ludmila; Carabajal, Kayleigh; Frechette, Casey; Lindemann, Ken; Jennings, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    We discuss the development of an instructional design model, WisCom (Wisdom Communities), based on socio-constructivist and sociocultural learning philosophies and distance education principles for the development of online wisdom communities, and the application and evaluation of the model in an online graduate course in the USA. The WisCom model…

  18. From Knowledge-Inquiry to Wisdom-Inquiry: Is the Revolution Underway?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iredale, Mathew

    2007-01-01

    In the final paragraph of his 1984 book "From knowledge to wisdom, a revolution in the aims and methods of science," the philosopher Nicholas Maxwell boldly declared that an intellectual revolution was underway in the aims and methods of science, and academic inquiry in general, from what he termed knowledge-inquiry to wisdom-inquiry. Twenty years…

  19. Captured Wisdom[TM]: Integrating Technology into Adult Literacy Instruction. [Booklet and CD-ROM Transcripts].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Central Regional Educational Lab., Oak Brook, IL. North Central Regional Tech. in Education Consortium.

    This document consists of a booklet describing the Captured Wisdom project and transcripts of videos from the two CD-ROM disks. The booklet details how to get the most from the CD-ROMs with suggestions directed toward teachers, professional development providers, and administrators. Six Captured Wisdom learning sites are listed. The Captured…

  20. Situations in Which I Was Wise: Autobiographical Wisdom Memories of Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konig, Susanne; Gluck, Judith

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies with adults have shown that age has an important influence on laypeople's wisdom theories. However, children's and adolescents' understanding of the concept of wisdom has hardly been investigated. In the current study, 80 children and adolescents completed a questionnaire concerning an event where they had been wise and an event…

  1. Child poverty can be reduced.

    PubMed

    Plotnick, R D

    1997-01-01

    Child poverty can be reduced by policies that help families earn more and supplement earned income with other sources of cash. A comprehensive antipoverty strategy could use a combination of these approaches. This article reviews recent U.S. experience with these broad approaches to reducing child poverty and discusses lessons from abroad for U.S. policymakers. The evidence reviewed suggests that, although policies to increase earned incomes among low-wage workers can help, these earnings gains will not be sufficient to reduce child poverty substantially. Government income support programs, tax policy, and child support payments from absent parents can be used to supplement earned incomes of poor families with children. Until recently, Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) was the main government assistance program for low-income families with children. Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) has recently replaced AFDC. This article explains why TANF benefits are likely to be less than AFDC benefits. The article also examines the effects of Social Security and Supplemental Security Income on child poverty. The most encouraging recent development in antipoverty policy has been the decline in the federal tax burden on poor families, primarily as a result of the expansion of the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC), now the largest cash assistance program for families with children. In 1995, government transfer programs (including the value of cash, food, housing, medical care, and taxes) decreased child poverty by 38% (from 24.2% to 14.2% of children under 18). Child poverty may also be reduced by policies that increase contributions from absent single parents to support their children. Overall, evidence from the United States and other developed countries suggests that a variety of approaches to reducing child poverty are feasible. Implementation of effective programs will depend, however, on the nation's political willingness to devote more resources to

  2. [Poverty and population growth].

    PubMed

    1983-07-01

    In the mid-1970s, some 120 million Latin Americans were unable to satisfy their most basic material needs. 55 million of them were in extreme indigency, unable to satisfy their minimal food needs even by using their entire incomes for that purpose. The rapid rate of demographic growth in Latin America influences the growth of the poor strata, who in absolute and relative terms show the highest rates of population growth. Despite heterogeneity in the manifestations of poverty, the poor have certain traits in common: employment outside the modern sector, with low productivity and little hope of generating stable incomes, low consumption capability, and lack of political power. 1 of the great problems of economic development in Latin America is the exclusion of the poorest strata from employment in better paid jobs. The high rate of fertility and rapid population growth provoke a negative interaction between population and development, in which the poorest strata reproduce most rapidly, becoming even poorer. A program of family planning within a development effort providing employment and income is needed to mitigate the problem, and no avenue or effort of implementation should be neglected on ideological grounds. Between 1960-70, the share of the poorest 20% of the population declined from 3.1% to 2.5% of the toal income of the region, while that of the poorest 1/2 increased slightly from 13.4% to 13.9%. In 1970 the poorest 20% had a per capita income of about US $70/year. It has been estimated that the proportion of the poor in Latin America declined from 51% in 1960 to 40% in 1970 and 33% at present, but the absolute number of persons affected continues to increase. PMID:12339314

  3. [An end to poverty

    PubMed

    Engelhard, P

    1994-10-01

    The African continent is distinguished by a much higher fertility rate than other regions. Fertility in Africa has remained almost constant at slightly over six children per woman on average, while important declines have occurred elsewhere over the past 25 years. High fertility in Africa is often attributed to poor diffusion of family planning, early marriage, and low female educational attainment, but other cultural and economic factors are involved. The significant decline of infant mortality over the past several decades has produced growth rates never before observed. Africa's very young populations may be at the origin of uncontrollable political disorder, as young persons with bleak prospects fall easy prey to ethnic, religious, and political extremism. Demographic growth has become an additional barrier to development. High fertility is tolerated or encouraged as constituting a cultural trait, but the resulting population growth is not a cultural trait. Demographic pressure has increased environmental problems in many regions. It is estimated that over ten million rural residents of the Sahel have been affected by soil degradation. The per capita availability of arable land fell from one-half to one-third hectare between 1965 and 1987. Shortages of firewood and water have become more common. The relationship between demographic growth, environmental crisis, and poverty in the countryside depends on other factors such as production techniques, modes of access to land and water, and the degree of security of land tenure. Population pressure was not the initial factor that disturbed the balance of the traditional societies, but it exacerbated the effects of other forces such as the introduction of cash crops and monetarization of the economy. Rural exodus and accelerated urban migration have been prompted in large part by the higher incomes and greater availability of services of all types in the cities. Achieving control of fertility in Africa will require

  4. Risk assessment of capability requirements using WISDOM-II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ang; Abbass, Hussein A.; Sarker, Ruhul

    2005-12-01

    The analysis of capability requirements is very important for military operational decision. It assists defence analysts to make decisions at all strategic, operational and tactical levels. However it tends to be extremely expensive and time-consuming because of the complexity under the military command, control and communication environment. Information technologies, such as red teaming, complex adaptive systems and agent based systems, can facilitate such analysis in a well-structured and systematic way through computer simulations. Based on these technologies, a promising agent-based combat simulation system - WISDOM-II is built. In this paper, we conduct a series of analysis to evaluate the effect of different capability configurations on the performance of different force compositions.

  5. Wisdom of groups promotes cooperation in evolutionary social dilemmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szolnoki, Attila; Wang, Zhen; Perc, Matjaž

    2012-08-01

    Whether or not to change strategy depends not only on the personal success of each individual, but also on the success of others. Using this as motivation, we study the evolution of cooperation in games that describe social dilemmas, where the propensity to adopt a different strategy depends both on individual fitness as well as on the strategies of neighbors. Regardless of whether the evolutionary process is governed by pairwise or group interactions, we show that plugging into the ``wisdom of groups'' strongly promotes cooperative behavior. The more the wider knowledge is taken into account the more the evolution of defectors is impaired. We explain this by revealing a dynamically decelerated invasion process, by means of which interfaces separating different domains remain smooth and defectors therefore become unable to efficiently invade cooperators. This in turn invigorates spatial reciprocity and establishes decentralized decision making as very beneficial for resolving social dilemmas.

  6. Comparison of the Conceptualization of Wisdom in Ancient Indian Literature with Modern Views

    PubMed Central

    Jeste, Dilip V.; Vahia, Ipsit V.

    2008-01-01

    The study of wisdom has recently become a subject of growing scientific interest, although the concept of wisdom is ancient. This article focuses on conceptualization of wisdom in the Bhagavad Gita, arguably the most influential of all ancient Hindu philosophical/religious texts. Our review, using mixed qualitative/quantitative methodology with the help of Textalyser and NVivo software, found the following components to be associated with the concept of wisdom in the Gita: Knowledge of life, Emotional Regulation, Control over Desires, Decisiveness, Love of God, Duty and Work, Self-Contentedness, Compassion/Sacrifice, Insight/Humility, and Yoga (Integration of personality). A comparison of the conceptualization of wisdom in the Gita with that in modern scientific literature shows several similarities, such as rich knowledge about life, emotional regulation, insight, and a focus on common good (compassion). Apparent differences include an emphasis in the Gita on control over desires and renunciation of materialistic pleasures. Importantly, the Gita suggests that at least certain components of wisdom can be taught and learned. We believe that the concepts of wisdom in the Gita are relevant to modern psychiatry in helping develop psychotherapeutic interventions that could be more individualistic and more holistic than those commonly practiced today, and aimed at improving personal well-being rather than just psychiatric symptoms. PMID:18834271

  7. We-ness and the Cultivation of Wisdom in Couple Therapy.

    PubMed

    Skerrett, Karen

    2016-03-01

    Wisdom has played a key role in the attempt to understand the positive nature of human behavior since the time of Aristotle. In the past decade, psychology and related fields have experienced an expanding interest in the empirical and theoretical pursuit of wisdom. The relational dimension of wisdom has received less attention, although it may be viewed as embedded in the practice of all couple therapists. This article integrates previous work on resilience and positive functioning in committed partnerships and proposes relational wisdom to be a master virtue of relationship development, one that can be cultivated across the lifespan of the partnership. The aspects of relational wisdom such as self-reflection, attunement to self and other, balancing conflicting partner aims, the interpretation of rules and principles in light of the uniqueness of each situation and the capacity to learn from experience point to couples therapy as an ideal context for such skill building. Wisdom is built through dialog and the resulting individual and couple stories can serve as touchstones to what is most precious and vital in the relationship as well as guides for action through challenges and conflict. A clinical case is described to illustrate selected aspects of relational wisdom and implications for therapeutic practice. PMID:26123251

  8. Subjective Poverty and Its Relation to Objective Poverty Concepts in Hungary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nandori, Eszter Siposne

    2011-01-01

    The paper analyzes subjective poverty in Hungary and compares it to the objective poverty concepts. Subjective poverty is defined by examining who people consider to be poor. Based on the Easterlin paradox, the initial hypothesis states that subjective and absolute poverty concepts are highly correlated. Taking into account that Hungary is a…

  9. Gender as a Moderator of the Relation Between Age Cohort and Three-Dimensional Wisdom in Iranian Culture.

    PubMed

    Cheraghi, Fereshte; Kadivar, Parvin; Ardelt, Monika; Asgari, Ali; Farzad, Valiollah

    2015-07-01

    This study examined whether gender moderated the association between age cohort and the cognitive, reflective, and compassionate dimensions of wisdom, using an Iranian sample of 439 adults from three age cohorts: young (18-34), middle-aged (35-54), and older (55 and above). Results indicated that the interaction effect between gender and age cohort was significant for three-dimensional wisdom and all three wisdom dimensions. Compared with younger women and older men, older women tended to have less education and to score lower on the cognitive wisdom dimension, but they had similar average scores as older men on the compassionate wisdom dimension. Overall, the association between age and wisdom was only positive for men, due mainly to the positive relation between age and the reflective and compassionate wisdom dimensions for men after adjusting for education. The results are interpreted with reference to generation gaps, socialization of men versus women, and life experiences and opportunities. PMID:26610721

  10. Poverty in Rural America: A National Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Kathryn H.

    Popular notions of poverty in America overlook the rural poor or assume that their problems are the same as those of the inner-city poor. This report, the first in a series on rural poverty, describes the characteristics of the rural poor and examines rural-urban differences in poverty. In 1987, the poverty rate was 16.9% in nonmetropolitan areas,…

  11. Examining the Culture of Poverty: Promising Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuthrell, Kristen; Stapleton, Joy; Ledford, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    Spurred by preservice teachers' perceptions that diversity issues such as poverty would not affect their teaching, professors in 1 southeastern U.S. elementary teacher-preparation program took action, which resulted in this examination of the culture of poverty and the identification of strategies to best serve children living in poverty. The…

  12. The Effects of Poverty on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacour, Misty; Tissington, Laura D.

    2011-01-01

    Poverty, which forms a specific culture and way of life, is a growing issue in the United States. The number of Americans living in poverty is continually increasing. Poverty indicates the extent to which an individual does without resources. Resources can include financial, emotional, mental, spiritual, and physical resources as well as support…

  13. 24 CFR 597.103 - Poverty rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Poverty rate. 597.103 Section 597... Area Requirements § 597.103 Poverty rate. (a) General. The poverty rate shall be established in accordance with the following criteria: (1) In each census tract within a nominated urban area, the...

  14. The Effect of Marriage on Child Poverty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rector, Robert; Johnson, Kirk A.; Fagan, Patrick F.

    This report examines what share of the current level of child poverty in the United States can be attributed to the growth of single parenthood since the 1960s, focusing on what the child poverty rate would be today if single parent families had remained at the levels that existed before the beginning of the war on poverty. Researchers simulated…

  15. 24 CFR 597.103 - Poverty rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Poverty rate. 597.103 Section 597... Area Requirements § 597.103 Poverty rate. (a) General. The poverty rate shall be established in accordance with the following criteria: (1) In each census tract within a nominated urban area, the...

  16. 24 CFR 597.103 - Poverty rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Poverty rate. 597.103 Section 597... Area Requirements § 597.103 Poverty rate. (a) General. The poverty rate shall be established in accordance with the following criteria: (1) In each census tract within a nominated urban area, the...

  17. 24 CFR 597.103 - Poverty rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Poverty rate. 597.103 Section 597... Area Requirements § 597.103 Poverty rate. (a) General. The poverty rate shall be established in accordance with the following criteria: (1) In each census tract within a nominated urban area, the...

  18. Poverty and People with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emerson, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have consistently reported a significant association between poverty and the prevalence of intellectual disabilities. The available evidence suggests that this association reflects two distinct processes. First, poverty causes intellectual disabilities, an effect mediated through the association between poverty and exposure…

  19. Child Poverty in Portugal: Dimensions and Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastos, Amelia; Nunes, Francisco

    2009-01-01

    This article analyses the extent and persistence of child poverty in Portugal between 1995 and 2001. Data from the Portuguese component of the European Community Household Panel Survey (ECHP) are used to estimate child poverty rates and children's flows in and out of poverty. The article focuses upon an analysis based on family income and on a set…

  20. Children in Poverty and Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huston, Aletha C.

    Almost one quarter of American children live in poverty, and the effects of poverty on these children are mediated by many family and social conditions. Poverty affects parenting practices and the home environment, with consequential effects on child adjustment and functioning. Changes in income cause changes in parenting and the quality of the…

  1. Gender and Poverty Reduction: A Kenyan Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimani, Elishiba Njambi; Kombo, Donald Kisilu

    2010-01-01

    Poverty is a dehumanising condition for every one. It erodes human rights of the affected whether women or men. Poverty subjects an individual to a state of powerlessness, hopelessness, and lack of self-esteem, confidence, and integrity, leading to a situation of multidimensional vulnerability. Poverty has a gender dimension since women and men…

  2. Divided Opportunities: Minorities, Poverty, and Social Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandefur, Gary D., Ed.; Tienda, Marta, Ed.

    A healthy economy is the best offense against poverty, but economic growth alone cannot close the wide gap between the poverty rates of minorities and whites. This collection examines the socioeconomic status of racial and ethnic minorities, their experiences with poverty, and the effects of federal social policies toward minority groups from 1787…

  3. Family Poverty, Welfare Reform, and Child Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Greg J.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2000-01-01

    Examines consequences of family poverty for child development, noting evidence that deep or persistent poverty early in childhood adversely affects children's ability and achievement. Argues that although the 1996 welfare reforms spurred many welfare-to-work transitions, their time limits and sanctions are likely to deepen poverty among some…

  4. Poverty among Elderly in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srivastava, Akanksha; Mohanty, Sanjay K.

    2012-01-01

    Using consumption expenditure data of the National Sample Survey 2004-2005, this paper estimates the size of elderly poor and tests the hypotheses that elderly households are not economically better-off compared to non-elderly households in India. Poverty estimates are derived under three scenarios--by applying the official cut-off point of the…

  5. Public Employment and Urban Poverty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Bennett

    Improvements in the quality of national--and particularly of urban--life will require even greater expenditures than at present on the delivery of crucial services as education, health protection, recreation, waste disposal, and police and fire protection. Simultaneously, the problem of poverty continues to plague millions, even many who are in…

  6. Rural Organization and Poverty Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockdale, Jerry D.

    The deprivations of poverty seriously restrict the ability of millions of rural Americans to develop their potential and obtain "quality of life". If development of potential is to be maximized and if deprivations are to be reduced, structural changes are needed. The 4 change approaches that encompass much purposive social change at the locality…

  7. How Poverty Affects Classroom Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Eric

    2013-01-01

    "Poverty" is an uncomfortable word. Teachers are often unsure what to expect from kids from low-income households and what to do differently as a result. Well-known author and educator Eric Jensen points to seven differences that show up in school between low- and middle-income children. By understanding what they are and how to address…

  8. The Three Types of Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingue, Michel Doo

    1975-01-01

    Poverty in Africa can be attributed to colonial conquest and exploitation. The African economy was organized to meet the needs of the colonizing country, not the needs of the native population. Political independence did not bring about economic independence. A new economic order is needed between developed and developing nations. (MR)

  9. Complicating Discontinuity: What about Poverty?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermes, Mary

    2005-01-01

    In this article, two white science teachers at tribal schools in the Upper Midwest of the United States, who were identified by community members and school administrators as successful teachers, describe experiences of how they wrestle with the daily effects of generations of oppression. Most vividly, they talk about poverty. This article…

  10. Reducing Poverty through Preschool Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Greg J.; Ludwig, Jens; Magnuson, Katherine A.

    2007-01-01

    Greg Duncan, Jens Ludwig, and Katherine Magnuson explain how providing high-quality care to disadvantaged preschool children can help reduce poverty. In early childhood, they note, children's cognitive and socioemotional skills develop rapidly and are sensitive to "inputs" from parents, home learning environments, child care settings, and the…

  11. Maine's Families: Poverty Despite Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazere, Edward B.

    Children are among the poorest of Maine's residents. Nearly 1 in 5 children under the age of 18, 19.3%, lived in families below the federal poverty line in the early 1990s. Most of these poor children lived in working families. The working poor are often missing from policy debates, but their numbers are likely to increase with welfare reform…

  12. Individual and Societal Wisdom: Explaining the Paradox of Human Aging and High Well-Being.

    PubMed

    Jeste, Dilip V; Oswald, Andrew J

    2014-03-26

    Objective: Although human aging is characterized by loss of fertility and progressive decline in physical abilities, later life is associated with better psychological health and well-being. Furthermore, there has been an unprecedented increase in average lifespan over the past century without corresponding extensions of fertile and healthy age spans. We propose a possible explanation for these paradoxical phenomena. Method: We reviewed the relevant literature on aging, well-being, and wisdom. Results: An increase in specific components of individual wisdom in later life may make up for the loss of fertility as well as declining physical health. However, current data on the relationship between aging and individual wisdom are not consistent and do not explain increased longevity in the general population during the past century. We propose that greater societal wisdom (including compassion) may account for the notable increase in average lifespan over the last century. Data in older adults with serious mental illnesses are limited, but suggest that many of them too experience improved psychosocial functioning, although their longevity has not yet increased, suggesting persistent stigma against mental illness and inadequate societal compassion. Conclusions: The proposed construct of societal wisdom needs more investigation. Research should also focus on the reasons for discrepant findings related to age-associated changes in different components of individual wisdom. Studies of wisdom and well-being are warranted in older people with serious mental illnesses, along with campaigns to enhance societal compassion for these disenfranchised individuals. Finally, effective interventions to enhance wisdom need to be developed and tested. PMID:24670225

  13. Inequality, income, and poverty: comparative global evidence.

    PubMed

    Fosu, Augustin Kwasi

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. The study seeks to provide comparative global evidence on the role of income inequality, relative to income growth, in poverty reduction.Methods. An analysis-of-covariance model is estimated using a large global sample of 1980–2004 unbalanced panel data, with the headcount measure of poverty as the dependent variable, and the Gini coefficient and PPP-adjusted mean income as explanatory variables. Both random-effects and fixed-effects methods are employed in the estimation.Results. The responsiveness of poverty to income is a decreasing function of inequality, and the inequality elasticity of poverty is actually larger than the income elasticity of poverty. Furthermore, there is a large variation across regions (and countries) in the relative effects of inequality on poverty.Conclusion. Income distribution plays a more important role than might be traditionally acknowledged in poverty reduction, though this importance varies widely across regions and countries. PMID:21125764

  14. Spatial determinants of poverty in rural Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Okwi, Paul O.; Ndeng'e, Godfrey; Kristjanson, Patti; Arunga, Mike; Notenbaert, An; Omolo, Abisalom; Henninger, Norbert; Benson, Todd; Kariuki, Patrick; Owuor, John

    2007-01-01

    This article investigates the link between poverty incidence and geographical conditions within rural locations in Kenya. Evidence from poverty maps for Kenya and other developing countries suggests that poverty and income distribution are not homogenous. We use spatial regression techniques to explore the effects of geographic factors on poverty. Slope, soil type, distance/travel time to public resources, elevation, type of land use, and demographic variables prove to be significant in explaining spatial patterns of poverty. However, differential influence of these and other factors at the location level shows that provinces in Kenya are highly heterogeneous; hence different spatial factors are important in explaining welfare levels in different areas within provinces, suggesting that targeted propoor policies are needed. Policy simulations are conducted to explore the impact of various interventions on location-level poverty levels. Investments in roads and improvements in soil fertility are shown to potentially reduce poverty rates, with differential impacts in different regions. PMID:17942704

  15. Biological science learning model based on Turgo's local wisdom on managing biodiversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anwari, Nahdi, Maizer Said; Sulistyowati, Eka

    2016-02-01

    Local wisdom as product of local knowledge has been giving a local context in science development. Local wisdom is important to connect scientific theories and local conditions; hence science could be accessed by common people. Using local wisdom as a model for learning science enables students to build contextual learning, hence learning science becomes more meaningful and becomes more accessible for students in a local community. Based on this consideration, therefore, this research developed a model for learning biology based on Turgo's local wisdom on managing biodiversity. For this purpose, Turgo's biodiversity was mapped, and any local values that are co-existing with the biodiversity were recorded. All of these informations were, then, used as a hypohetical model for developing materials for teaching biology in a senior high school adjacent to Turgo. This research employed a qualitative method. We combined questionnaries, interviews and observation to gather the data. We found that Turgo community has been practicing local wisdom on using traditional plants for many uses, including land management and practicing rituals and traditional ceremonies. There were local values that they embrace which enable them to manage the nature wisely. After being cross-referenced with literature regarding educational philoshophy, educational theories and teachings, and biology curriculum for Indonesia's senior high school, we concluded that Turgo's local wisdom on managing biodiversity can be recommended to be used as learning materials and sources for biological learning in schools.

  16. Poverty is Not Just an Indicator: The Relationship Between Income, Poverty, and Child Well-Being.

    PubMed

    Chaudry, Ajay; Wimer, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    In this article, we review the evidence on the effects of poverty and low income on children's development and well-being. We argue that poverty is an important indicator of societal and child well-being, but that poverty is more than just an indicator. Poverty and low income are causally related to worse child development outcomes, particularly cognitive developmental and educational outcomes. Mechanisms through which poverty affects these outcomes include material hardship, family stress, parental and cognitive inputs, and the developmental context to which children are exposed. The timing, duration, and community context of poverty also appear to matter for children's outcomes-with early experiences of poverty, longer durations of poverty, and higher concentrations of poverty in the community leading to worse child outcomes. PMID:27044698

  17. After Beijing: emphasis on poverty eradication.

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    In March 1996, during its first meeting since the Fourth World Conference on Women, the UN Commission on the Status of Women (CSW), called for a gender perspective to be integrated into policies and programs dealing with poverty, child and dependent care, and the media. Three expert panels examined each of these areas through a format which encouraged dialogue and led to the adoption of 17 resolutions, decisions, and agreed conclusions as well as a recommendation that the UN adopt a multi-year work program for the CSW to allow it to review progress in elimination of the 12 main obstacles to women's advancement identified at Beijing. Among the resolutions adopted by the CSW were calls to 1) take a broad and integrated approach to poverty eradication, 2) enhance women's empowerment and autonomy, 3) promote equity and equality in the public domain, 4) promote women's employment, 5) give women social and economic protection when they are unable to work, 6) counteract negative images of women and sex-stereotyping in the media, 7) reduce the representation of violence against women in the media, 8) strengthen the role of women in global communications, 9) encourage the participation of men in child and dependent care, and 10) recognize women's double burden of work. The CSW also agreed to pursue further discussions about drafting an optional protocol to the 1979 Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women. Among its other actions, the CSW called for mechanisms to protect the rights of women migrant workers, to protect women and children during armed conflicts, to include gender-based human rights violations in UN activities, and to address the root factors which lead to social ills such as trafficking in women and girls. In addition, the CSW submitted a draft resolution demanding that Israel protect the rights of Palestinian women and their families. PMID:12291684

  18. Dynamics of Economic Well-Being: Poverty 1996-1999. Current Population Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iceland, John

    This report examines patterns of poverty using seven different measures: average monthly poverty, episodic poverty, chronic poverty, annual poverty, poverty spells, poverty entry rates, and poverty exit rates. Data come from the 1996 panel of the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) and reflect the dynamics of poverty from 1996-1999.…

  19. Poverty and health sector inequalities.

    PubMed Central

    Wagstaff, Adam

    2002-01-01

    Poverty and ill-health are intertwined. Poor countries tend to have worse health outcomes than better-off countries. Within countries, poor people have worse health outcomes than better-off people. This association reflects causality running in both directions: poverty breeds ill-health, and ill-health keeps poor people poor. The evidence on inequalities in health between the poor and non-poor and on the consequences for impoverishment and income inequality associated with health care expenses is discussed in this article. An outline is given of what is known about the causes of inequalities and about the effectiveness of policies intended to combat them. It is argued that too little is known about the impacts of such policies, notwithstanding a wealth of measurement techniques and considerable evidence on the extent and causes of inequalities. PMID:11953787

  20. Stories of Growth and Wisdom: A Mixed-Methods Study of People Living Well With Pain.

    PubMed

    Owens, Justine E; Menard, Martha; Plews-Ogan, Margaret; Calhoun, Lawrence G; Ardelt, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Chronic pain remains a daunting clinical challenge, affecting 30% of people in the United States and 20% of the global population. People meeting this challenge by achieving wellbeing while living with pain are a virtually untapped source of wisdom about this persistent problem. Employing a concurrent mixed-methods design, we studied 80 people living with chronic pain with "positive stories to tell" using semi-structured interviews and standardized questionnaires. In-depth interviews focused on what helped, what hindered, how they changed, and advice for others in similar circumstances. Major qualitative themes included acceptance, openness, self-efficacy, hope, perseverance, self-regulation, kinesthetic awareness, holistic approaches and integrative therapies, self-care, spirituality, social support, and therapeutic lifestyle behaviors such as music, writing, art, gardening, and spending time in nature. Themes of growth and wisdom included enhanced relationships, perspective, clarity, strength, gratitude, compassion, new directions, and spiritual change. Based on narrative analysis of the interviews and Ardelt's Three-Dimensional Wisdom Model, participants were divided into 2 groups: 59 wisdom exemplars and 21 nonexemplars. Non-exemplar themes were largely negative and in direct contrast to the exemplar themes. Quantitatively, wisdom exemplars scored significantly higher in Openness and Agreeableness and lower in Neuroticism compared to non-exemplars. Wisdom exemplars also scored higher in Wisdom, Gratitude, Forgiveness, and Posttraumatic Growth than nonexemplars, and more exemplars used integrative therapies compared to the non-exemplars. As a whole, the exemplar narratives illustrate a Positive Approach Model (PAM) for living well with pain, which allows for a more expansive pain narrative, provides positive role models for patients and clinicians, and contributes to a broader theoretical perspective on persistent pain. PMID:26937311

  1. Stories of Growth and Wisdom: A Mixed-Methods Study of People Living Well With Pain

    PubMed Central

    Menard, Martha; Plews-Ogan, Margaret; Calhoun, Lawrence G.; Ardelt, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Chronic pain remains a daunting clinical challenge, affecting 30% of people in the United States and 20% of the global population. People meeting this challenge by achieving wellbeing while living with pain are a virtually untapped source of wisdom about this persistent problem. Employing a concurrent mixed-methods design, we studied 80 people living with chronic pain with “positive stories to tell” using semi-structured interviews and standardized questionnaires. In-depth interviews focused on what helped, what hindered, how they changed, and advice for others in similar circumstances. Major qualitative themes included acceptance, openness, self-efficacy, hope, perseverance, self-regulation, kinesthetic awareness, holistic approaches and integrative therapies, self-care, spirituality, social support, and therapeutic lifestyle behaviors such as music, writing, art, gardening, and spending time in nature. Themes of growth and wisdom included enhanced relationships, perspective, clarity, strength, gratitude, compassion, new directions, and spiritual change. Based on narrative analysis of the interviews and Ardelt's Three-Dimensional Wisdom Model, participants were divided into 2 groups: 59 wisdom exemplars and 21 nonexemplars. Non-exemplar themes were largely negative and in direct contrast to the exemplar themes. Quantitatively, wisdom exemplars scored significantly higher in Openness and Agreeableness and lower in Neuroticism compared to non-exemplars. Wisdom exemplars also scored higher in Wisdom, Gratitude, Forgiveness, and Posttraumatic Growth than nonexemplars, and more exemplars used integrative therapies compared to the non-exemplars. As a whole, the exemplar narratives illustrate a Positive Approach Model (PAM) for living well with pain, which allows for a more expansive pain narrative, provides positive role models for patients and clinicians, and contributes to a broader theoretical perspective on persistent pain. PMID:26937311

  2. Childhood pulmonary tuberculosis: old wisdom and new challenges.

    PubMed

    Marais, Ben J; Gie, Robert P; Schaaf, H Simon; Beyers, Nulda; Donald, Peter R; Starke, Jeff R

    2006-05-15

    Childhood tuberculosis is neglected in endemic areas with resource constraints, as children are considered to develop mild forms of disease and to contribute little to the maintenance of the tuberculosis epidemic. However, children contribute a significant proportion of the disease burden and suffer severe tuberculosis-related morbidity and mortality, particularly in endemic areas. This review provides an overview of well-documented concepts and principles, and demonstrates how this "old wisdom" applies to current and future challenges in the field of childhood tuberculosis; the aim was to articulate some of the most pressing issues, to provide a rational framework for discussion, and to stimulate thought and further scientific study. The prechemotherapy literature that described the natural history of disease in children identified three central concepts: (1) the need for accurate case definitions, (2) the importance of risk stratification, and (3) the diverse spectrum of disease pathology, which necessitates accurate disease classification. The relevance of these concepts and their application to pertinent issues such as the diagnosis of childhood tuberculosis are discussed. The concepts are also linked to the basic principles of antituberculosis treatment, providing a simplified approach to the diagnosis and treatment of childhood tuberculosis that is independent of resource constraints. The main challenges for future research are highlighted and in conclusion it is emphasized that the infrastructure provided by the directly observed therapy, short-course strategy, combined with well-targeted interventions, slightly improved resources, and greatly improved political commitment, may lead to a dramatic reduction in tuberculosis-related morbidity and mortality among children. PMID:16484674

  3. On biodiversity conservation and poverty traps

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Christopher B.; Travis, Alexander J.; Dasgupta, Partha

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a special feature on biodiversity conservation and poverty traps. We define and explain the core concepts and then identify four distinct classes of mechanisms that define important interlinkages between biodiversity and poverty. The multiplicity of candidate mechanisms underscores a major challenge in designing policy appropriate across settings. This framework is then used to introduce the ensuing set of papers, which empirically explore these various mechanisms linking poverty traps and biodiversity conservation. PMID:21873176

  4. Poverty PhDs: Funds of Knowledge, Poverty, and Professional Identity in Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutri, Ramona Maile; Manning, Jill Michelle; Chun, Marc

    2011-01-01

    In contrast to the common deficit approach, this self-study explores the relationship between the funds of knowledge possessed by people of poverty and their development of professional identity in academia. All three authors have moved beyond conditions of financial poverty, but all find that the mental conditions of poverty persist. We conclude…

  5. Poverty dynamics in Germany: Evidence on the relationship between persistent poverty and health behavior.

    PubMed

    Aue, Katja; Roosen, Jutta; Jensen, Helen H

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies have found poverty to be related to lower levels of health due to poor health behavior such as unhealthy eating, smoking or less physical activity. Longer periods of poverty seem to be especially harmful for individual health behavior. Studies have shown that poverty has a dynamic character. Moreover, poverty is increasingly regarded as being a multidimensional construct and one that considers more aspects than income alone. Against this background this paper analyzes the relationship between health behavior and persistent spells of income poverty as well as a combined poverty indicator using data of the German Socio-Economic Panel (2000-2010). Next to cross-sectional logistic regression models we estimate fixed-effects models to analyze the effect of persistent poverty on dietary behavior, tobacco consumption, and physical activity. Cross-sectional results suggest that persistent poverty is related to poor health behavior, particularly regarding tobacco consumption and physical activity. Results also show that multidimensional and dynamic aspects of poverty matter. Complementary panel analyses reveal negative effects for the combined poverty indicator only for dietary behavior in the total sample. However, by analyzing the sample by gender we identify further effects of persistent poverty on health behavior. The analyses show that not only do individuals in poverty but also those in precarious situations show health-damaging behavior more often. PMID:26874825

  6. Growth, Distribution, and Poverty in Africa: Messages from the 1990s. Poverty Dynamics in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christiaensen, Luc; Demery, Lionel; Paternostro, Stefano

    This book reviews trends in household well-being in Africa during the 1990s. Using the better data sets now available, the main factors behind observed poverty changes are examined in eight countries: Ethiopia, Ghana, Madagascar, Mauritania, Nigeria, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. A broad view of poverty is taken, which includes income poverty and…

  7. Child Poverty as Public Policy: Direct Provision and Asylum Seeker Children in the Republic of Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fanning, Bryan; Veale, Angela

    2004-01-01

    This paper evaluates responses to asylum seeker children in Ireland from a child poverty perspective and from that of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. It draws upon research undertaken in early 2001 on behalf of the Irish Refugee Council among asylum seeker families with children in Cork, Limerick and Ennis on their…

  8. Applying Erikson's wisdom to self-management practices of older adults: findings from two field studies.

    PubMed

    Perry, Tam E; Ruggiano, Nicole; Shtompel, Natalia; Hassevoort, Luke

    2015-04-01

    According to Erik Erikson's theory on the stages of human development, achieving wisdom later in life involves revisiting previous crises and renewing psychosocial accomplishments. However, few studies have used Erikson's theory as a framework for examining how older adults self-manage physical and mental health changes that commonly occur later in life. This article presents findings from two qualitative studies that demonstrate how older adults apply wisdom in new domains. Specifically, it was found that older adults (1) reasserted autonomy by initiating creative problem solving and (2) applied skills gained from productive activities earlier in life to new health-related problems that arise later in life. These findings highlight the importance of engaging older adults to repurpose their life skills and thus reapply wisdom to new areas of their lives. Implications for practice are discussed. PMID:25651571

  9. Using Asset Poverty Measures to Understand Poverty Dynamics, Poverty Traps and Farmer Behavior in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Focus on Rural Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liverpool, Lenis Saweda

    2009-01-01

    Effective poverty reduction programs require careful measurement of poverty status. Commonly used consumption or income-based classifications of poverty aggregate together households that are persistently poor with those who are only in poverty due to passing conditions. They also classify as non-poor households that are at risk of falling into…

  10. Overcoming Persistent Poverty--and Sinking into It. Income Trends in Persistent-Poverty and Other High-Poverty Rural Counties, 1989-94.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nord, Mark

    In 1989, 31.6 percent of the rural poor lived in persistent-poverty counties (those with poverty rates exceeding 20 percent for every decennial census year since 1960), and an additional 12.6 percent lived in "new" high-poverty counties. While this represents less than half the rural poor, high and persistent poverty is of particular concern to…

  11. WISDOM GPR subsurface investigations in the Atacama desert during the SAFER rover operation simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorizon, Sophie; Ciarletti, Valérie; Vieau, André-Jean; Plettemeier, Dirk; Benedix, Wolf-Stefan; Mütze, Marco; Hassen-Kodja, Rafik; Humeau, Olivier

    2014-05-01

    SAFER (Sample Acquisition Field Experiment with a Rover) is a field trial that occured from 7th to 13th October 2013 in the Atacama desert, Chile. This trial was designed to gather together scientists and engineers in a context of a real spatial mission with a rover. This is ESA's opportunity to validate operations procedures for the ExoMars 2018 mission, since a rover, provided by Astrium, was equipped with three ExoMars payload instruments, namely the WISDOM (Water Ice Subsurface Deposits Observations on Mars) Ground Penetrating Radar, PANCAM (Panoramic Camera) and CLUPI (Close-UP Imager), and was used to experiment the real context of a Martian rover mission. The test site was located close to the Paranal ESO's Observatory (European Southern Observatorys) while the operations were conducted in the Satellite Applications Catapult remote Center in Harwell, UK. The location was chosen for its well-known resemblance with Mars' surface and its arid dryness. To provide the best from this trial, geologists, engineers and instrumentation scientists teams collaborated by processing and analyzing the data, planning in real time the next trajectories for the Bridget rover, as well as the sites of interest for WISDOM subsurface investigations. This WISDOM GPR has been designed to define the geological context of the ExoMars 2018 landing site by characterizing the shallow subsurface in terms of electromagnetic properties and structures. It will allow to lead the drill to locations of potential exobiologocal interest. WISDOM is a polarimetric step frequency radar operating from 0.5GHz to 3GHz, which allows a vertical resolution of a few centimeters over a few meters depth. Provided with a DEM (Digital Elevation Model) and a low-resolution map to assist the team with the rover's operations, several soudings with WISDOM were done over the area. The WISDOM data allowed, in collaboration with the SCISCYS team, to map the electromagnetic contrasts into the subsurface underneath

  12. What is the common thread of creativity? Its dialectical relation to intelligence and wisdom.

    PubMed

    Sternberg, R J

    2001-04-01

    Creativity refers to the potential to produce novel ideas that are task-appropriate and high in quality. Creativity in a societal context is best understood in terms of a dialectical relation to intelligence and wisdom. In particular, intelligence forms the thesis of such a dialectic. Intelligence largely is used to advance existing societal agendas. Creativity forms the antithesis of the dialectic, questioning and often opposing societal agendas, as well as proposing new ones. Wisdom forms the synthesis of the dialectic, balancing the old with the new. Wise people recognize the need to balance intelligence with creativity to achieve both stability and change within a societal context. PMID:11330237

  13. Assessing Poverty and Related Factors in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Saatci, Esra; Akpinar, Ersin

    2007-01-01

    Poverty, a complex, multidimensional, and universal problem, has been conceptualized as income and material deprivation. In this article, we discuss poverty and related factors in Turkey. The absolute poverty line for Turkey was US $4 per capita per day. Turkey was ranked 92nd out of 177 countries with moderate human development in the 2006 Human Development Report. The individual food poverty rate was 1.35% and the non-food poverty rate was 25.6%. The highest poverty rate was among primary school graduates (42.5%; 38.5% for women and 46.8% for men). The rate for this group was higher in urban than in rural areas. Among poor people, 57.2% were married. The highest poverty rate was among agricultural workers (46.6%) and in Eastern and Southeastern Anatolia. Factors related to poverty were crowded households, unemployment, immigration, working for a daily wage in the agricultural and construction sector, low educational status, female sex or married status, lacking social insurance, and living in rural areas or in Eastern and Southeastern Anatolia. PMID:17948949

  14. Agricultural Change, Community Change, and Rural Poverty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitchen, Janet M.

    1988-01-01

    Examines the collapse of the rural community attendant on the demise of agriculture. Reports results of interviews of dairy farmers and their families in rural New York which suggest that farm problems exacerbate problems of rural poverty. Recommends effective intervention to prevent increasing rural economic poverty and social marginality. (DHP)

  15. High-Flying High-Poverty Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Educator, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In discussing socioeconomic integration before audiences, the author is frequently asked: What about high-poverty schools that do work? Don't they suggest that economic segregation isn't much of a problem after all? High-poverty public schools that beat the odds paint a heartening story that often attracts considerable media attention. In 2000,…

  16. Poverty: Teaching Mathematics and Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Leah P.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents three mathematics lessons in a social justice setting of learning about poverty. Student activities include budgeting, graphic data representation, and linear regression, all in the context of connecting, communicating, and reasoning about poverty. (Contains 1 table, 5 figures and 6 online resources.)

  17. Poverty, Education and Work: Some Introductory Thoughts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agostino, Ana

    2007-01-01

    The article argues that poverty must be understood within a human rights approach, moving beyond a narrow economic definition. Recognising the multidimensional character of poverty also leads to acknowledge that there are no universal answers. Solutions must be culturally determined and this poses one of the major challenges for adult education…

  18. Arizona Women in Poverty Hearings. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coudroglou, Aliki

    Prepared at the request of Arizona Governor Bruce Babbit, this report documents the state of poverty among women in Arizona and recommends an action plan that will alleviate their poor economic status. Discussion focuses on three factors identified as influencing conditions of poverty experienced by women: changing family structure, the labor…

  19. 24 CFR 597.103 - Poverty rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... rate shall be not less than 20 percent; (2) For at least 90 percent of the population census tracts... 50 percent of the population census tracts within the nominated urban area, the poverty rate shall be... tracts with no population. Census tracts with no population shall be treated as having a poverty...

  20. The Influence of Poverty on Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tienken, Christopher H.

    2012-01-01

    Without a doubt, poverty has a negative influence on student achievement, especially when achievement is measured by state-mandated standardized tests. However, some bureaucrats, such as state commissioners of education and even state governors, continue to downplay the influence of poverty on student achievement. New Jersey's Governor Chris…

  1. High Poverty, High Performing Schools. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1997

    1997-01-01

    This theme issue includes four articles on high performance by poor Texas schools. In "Principal of National Blue Ribbon School Says High Poverty Schools Can Excel" (interview with Robert Zarate by Christie L. Goodman), the principal of Mary Hull Elementary School (San Antonio, Texas) describes how the high-poverty, high-minority school…

  2. Child Poverty: The United Kingdom Experience.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Jane G; Curran, Megan A

    2016-04-01

    The United States has long struggled with high levels of child poverty. In 2014, 2 of 5 (42.9%) of all American children lived in economically insecure households and just over 1 in 5 children lived below the official absolute poverty line. These rates are high, but not intractable. Evidence from the US Census Bureau's Supplemental Poverty Measure, among other sources, shows the effect that public investments in cash and noncash transfers can have in reducing child poverty and improving child well-being. However, with significant disparities in services and supports for children across states and the projected decline of current federal spending on children, the United States is an international outlier in terms of public investments in children, particularly compared with other high-income nations. One such country, the United Kingdom (UK), faced similar child poverty challenges in recent decades. At the end of the 20th century, the British Prime Minister pledged to halve child poverty in a decade and eradicate it 'within a generation.' The Labour Government then set targets and dedicated resources in the form of income supplements, employment, child care, and education support. Child poverty levels nearly halved against an absolute measure by the end of the first decade. Subsequent changes in government and the economy slowed progress and have resulted in a very different approach. However, the UK child poverty target experience, 15 years in and spanning multiple changes in government, still offers a useful comparative example for US social policy moving forward. PMID:27044706

  3. Participatory Child Poverty Assessment in Rural Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harpham, Trudy; Huong, Nguyen Thu; Long, Tran Thap; Tuan, Tran

    2005-01-01

    There are increasing calls for more child specific measures of poverty in developing countries and the need for such measures to be multi-dimensional (that is not just based on income) has been recognised. Participatory Poverty Assessments (PPAs) are now common in international development research. Most PPAs have been undertaken with adults and…

  4. Ninez y Pobreza (Childhood and Poverty).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Didonet, Vital

    1992-01-01

    Reviews data on child poverty worldwide, providing statistics on 20 poverty-related problems. Examines effects of economic factors (i.e., unemployment, wage stagnation, inflation, and internal migration) and political policies (i.e., military spending over health and education) on child well-being, arguing that families and children themselves…

  5. Lessening the impact of poverty on children

    PubMed Central

    Offord, David R; Lipman, Ellen L

    1999-01-01

    The present paper is divided into three sections. The first section deals with two issues: the impact of poverty on children and the hypothesized mechanisms by which poverty affects children. The second section discusses four guiding principles for programs that aim to reduce deficits in the quality of life and life chances of poor children. The third section describes promising intervention programs. PMID:20212998

  6. Information and Communication Technology for Poverty Reduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharama, Motilal

    2005-01-01

    It has been estimated that over 700 million of the world's poor live in Asia-Pacifiui region i.e., those who earn $1 or less a day. Nearly one of three Asians is poor. It is claimed by multilateral agencies that the incidence of poverty (proportion of people below the poverty line) is slightly declining. Others question this claim and argue that…

  7. Poverty and the Child: A Canadian Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Thomas J.

    Contents of this study include the following essays: (1) "Economic Considerations of Poverty," Harry Lacombe; (2) "Physical Growth and Development: Some Socioeconomic Factors During Prenatal and Postnatal Life," Geoffrey C. Robinson, (3) "Language, Cognition and Poverty," Alan R. Moffit; (4) "Personality Development," Elizabeth J. Davis; (5) "The…

  8. General Music and Children Living in Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAnally, Elizabeth Ann

    2013-01-01

    A review of recent writing makes the case that children living in poverty (urban, rural, or other) are more in jeopardy now than ever. As teachers attest and research asserts, poverty affects children in profound, complicated, and lasting ways. However, the general music program is uniquely positioned to meet children’s needs, especially those…

  9. Adolescent Coping with Poverty-Related Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadsworth, Martha E.; Wolff, Brian; Santiago, Catherine DeCarlo; Moran, Erica G.

    2008-01-01

    Adolescents living in poverty face numerous stressors that are toxic for their mental health and well-being. There are effective strategies for coping with poverty-related stress that have been shown to reduce psychological symptoms in the face of this stress. However, stress itself weakens an adolescent's ability to use these cognitively…

  10. The Impact of Mass Incarceration on Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeFina, Robert; Hannon, Lance

    2013-01-01

    During the past 30 years, U.S. poverty has remained high despite overall economic growth. At the same time, incarceration rates have risen by more than 300%, a phenomenon that many analysts have referred to as mass incarceration. This article explores whether the mass incarceration of the past few decades impeded progress toward poverty reduction.…

  11. Asset-Based Measurement of Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandolini, Andrea; Magri, Silvia; Smeeding, Timothy M.

    2010-01-01

    Poverty is generally defined as income or expenditure insufficiency, but the economic condition of a household also depends on its real and financial asset holdings. This paper investigates measures of poverty that rely on indicators of household net worth. We review and assess two main approaches followed in the literature: income-net worth…

  12. Cultural Diversity and Anti-Poverty Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamont, Michele; Small, Mario Luis

    2010-01-01

    This article examines how anti-poverty policy has considered the role of culture and how it ought to do so. While some have explained poverty as a function of the presumed cultural deficiency or distinctiveness of the poor, we suggest that these explanations have not been convincing and that policy requires a broader and more sophisticated…

  13. Women Principals Leading Learning at "Poverty's Edge"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyman, Linda L.

    2008-01-01

    The author profiles two women principals of color who have successfully enhanced student learning in high-poverty schools. In their leadership narratives, the principals address how the complexity of poverty affects their work, how they affirm the worth and dignity of all, how they influence beliefs and attitudes of staff, why they think their…

  14. The Measurement and Meaning of Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, John B.; Hyer, Kathryn M.

    1975-01-01

    Reviews the alternative meanings of the term "poverty" implied in the various ways in which it has been measured. Conclusion is drawn that it is not safe to assume different indicators of poverty are more or less equivalent. (Author/AM)

  15. The Economic Demography of Mass Poverty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abegaz, Berhanu, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    The four papers in this volume discuss various facets of the poverty-demography interaction: the rationale for the desired family size of the poor, the problems of attaining such size, the effect of family size/structure on household economy, and the future well-being of the children of the poor. "Mass Poverty, Demography, and Development…

  16. Rural Poverty Resource Directory. 2nd Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summers, Gene F., Comp.; And Others

    This directory contains names and contact information for over 50 social scientists who are available for consultation on policy issues related to poverty in rural America. Part I is organized by topics that are relevant to rural poverty policies and legislation. Under each topic heading are the names; university affiliations; addresses; and…

  17. Rural Poverty & Education: A Foundational Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Books, Sue

    In 1991, after 25 workers died in a fire in a rural North Carolina poultry-processing plant, reporters exposed the exploitation that workers had endured and the company's callous disregard for workers' safety. This paper draws on the story of the fire and its victims to challenge some popular assumptions about poverty in general; rural poverty in…

  18. Multidimensional Poverty and Child Survival in India

    PubMed Central

    Mohanty, Sanjay K.

    2011-01-01

    Background Though the concept of multidimensional poverty has been acknowledged cutting across the disciplines (among economists, public health professionals, development thinkers, social scientists, policy makers and international organizations) and included in the development agenda, its measurement and application are still limited. Objectives and Methodology Using unit data from the National Family and Health Survey 3, India, this paper measures poverty in multidimensional space and examine the linkages of multidimensional poverty with child survival. The multidimensional poverty is measured in the dimension of knowledge, health and wealth and the child survival is measured with respect to infant mortality and under-five mortality. Descriptive statistics, principal component analyses and the life table methods are used in the analyses. Results The estimates of multidimensional poverty are robust and the inter-state differentials are large. While infant mortality rate and under-five mortality rate are disproportionately higher among the abject poor compared to the non-poor, there are no significant differences in child survival among educationally, economically and health poor at the national level. State pattern in child survival among the education, economical and health poor are mixed. Conclusion Use of multidimensional poverty measures help to identify abject poor who are unlikely to come out of poverty trap. The child survival is significantly lower among abject poor compared to moderate poor and non-poor. We urge to popularize the concept of multiple deprivations in research and program so as to reduce poverty and inequality in the population. PMID:22046384

  19. Education Looks at Poverty: Conceptions and Misconceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Benjamin

    Poverty is one of the most important influences on educational attainment in Canada. Using Statistics Canada definitions, the overall poverty rate in Canada in 1991 was 16 percent; 4.2 million people fell below low income thresholds, and most poor families fell well below the cutoff ($21,000 for an urban family of four). The most notable change in…

  20. A Health Plan to Reduce Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weil, Alan

    2007-01-01

    Noting that the failures of the U.S. health care system are compounding the problems faced by low-income Americans, Alan Weil argues that any strategy to reduce poverty must provide access to health care for all low-income families. Although nearly all children in families with incomes under 200 percent of poverty are eligible for either Medicaid…

  1. Poverty in Ireland in Comparative European Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whelan, Christopher T.; Maitre, Bertrand

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we seek to put Irish poverty rates in a comparative European context. We do so in a context whereby the Irish economic boom and EU enlargement have led to increasing reservations being expressed regarding rates deriving from the EU "at risk of poverty" indicator. Our comparative analysis reports findings for both overall levels of…

  2. Assessing poverty and related factors in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Saatci, Esra; Akpinar, Ersin

    2007-10-01

    Poverty, a complex, multidimensional, and universal problem, has been conceptualized as income and material deprivation. In this article, we discuss poverty and related factors in Turkey. The absolute poverty line for Turkey was US$ 4 per capita per day. Turkey was ranked 92nd out of 177 countries with moderate human development in the 2006 Human Development Report. The individual food poverty rate was 1.35% and the non-food poverty rate was 25.6%. The highest poverty rate was among primary school graduates (42.5%; 38.5% for women and 46.8% for men). The rate for this group was higher in urban than in rural areas. Among poor people, 57.2% were married. The highest poverty rate was among agricultural workers (46.6%) and in Eastern and Southeastern Anatolia. Factors related to poverty were crowded households, unemployment, immigration, working for a daily wage in the agricultural and construction sector, low educational status, female sex or married status, lacking social insurance, and living in rural areas or in Eastern and Southeastern Anatolia. PMID:17948949

  3. The Insertion of Local Wisdom into Instructional Materials of Bahasa Indonesia for 10th Grade Students in Senior High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anggraini, Purwati; Kusniarti, Tuti

    2015-01-01

    This current study aimed at investigating Bahasa Indonesia textbooks with regards to local wisdom issues. The preliminary study was utilized as the basis for developing instructional materials of Bahasa Indonesia that are rich of characters. Bahasa Indonesia instructional materials containing local wisdoms not only equip students with broad…

  4. Development of the Inner Wisdom Development Programs with Buddhist Doctrines to Improvement of Self-Mindedness for Bachelor Educational Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phusopha, Janphen; Sathapornwong, Patananusorn; Saenubon, Khanchit

    2015-01-01

    To investigate inner wisdom development programs with Buddhist doctrines of 508 educational students and 104 lecturers, a wisdom test, diary short note, interview, and observation were used. The principle of Specific Conditionality; the 5-Aggregates, Rule of 3-Characteristics, and practice of 4- Foundations of Insight Meditation were needed. Inner…

  5. The Wisdom of Webs A-Weaving: Adult Education and the Paradoxes of Complexity in Changing Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tisdell, Elizabeth J.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author begins by providing an overview of the literature on wisdom itself and then considers what some of its insights might suggest for dealing with a few current challenges facing the field of adult education. This article is grounded in two basic assumptions: (1) that there is an integration quality to wisdom that attends…

  6. Why epidemiologists cannot afford to ignore poverty.

    PubMed

    Krieger, Nancy

    2007-11-01

    Epidemiologists cannot afford to ignore poverty. To do so would, first, wrongly obscure the devastating impact of poverty on population health, and, second, undercut our commitment to scientific rigor. At issue is doing correct science, not "politically correct" science. Blot poverty and inequity from view, and not only will we contribute to making suffering invisible but our understanding of disease etiology and distribution will be marred. To make this case, I address current debates about the causal relationships between poverty and health, and provide examples of how failing to consider the impact of socioeconomic position has biased epidemiologic knowledge and harmed the public's health. By definition, the people we study are simultaneously social beings and biologic organisms-and we cannot study the latter without taking into account the former. It is the responsibility of all epidemiologists, and not only social epidemiologists, to keep in mind the connections between poverty and health. PMID:18049180

  7. Tuskegee University Experience Challenges Conventional Wisdom: Is Integrative Bioethics Practice the New Ethics for the Public's Health?

    PubMed Central

    Sodeke, Stephen Olufemi

    2013-01-01

    The Tuskegee University National Center for Bioethics in Research and Health Care was established in 1999 in partial response to the Presidential Apology for the United States Public Health Service's Study of Untreated Syphilis in the Negro Male conducted in Macon County, Alabama, from 1932 to 1972. The Center's mission of promoting equity and justice in health and health care for African Americans and other underserved populations employs an integrative bioethics approach informed by moral vision. Etymological and historical analyses are used to delineate the meaning and evolution of bioethics and to provide a basis for Tuskegee's integrative bioethics niche. Unlike mainstream bioethics, integrative bioethics practice is holistic in orientation, and more robust for understanding the epistemic realities of minority life, health disparities, and population health. The conclusion is that integrative bioethics is relevant to the survival of all people, not just a privileged few; it could be the new ethics for the public's health. PMID:23124497

  8. Challenging Conventional Wisdom: Building an Adult-Centered Degree Completion Program at a Traditional University's Satellite Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkinson Norton, Susan; Pickus, Keith

    2011-01-01

    This essay will discuss the creation of adult-learner degree programs at Wichita State University's satellite campuses with a particular focus on how such programs complement the mission of a traditional urban-serving research institution. It will assess the decision-making process that led to the transformation of satellite campuses into…

  9. Larks and owls and health, wealth, and wisdom

    PubMed Central

    Gale, Catharine; Martyn, Christopher

    1998-01-01

    support Franklin’s claim. A “late to bed and late to rise” lifestyle does not seem to lead to socioeconomic, cognitive, or health disadvantage, but a longer time spent in bed may be associated with increased mortality. Key messagesProverbial advice about lifestyle has the authority of tradition and the merit of brevity, but it is rarely based on systematically collected evidenceIn a nationally representative cohort of elderly people there was no indication that those who lived by the maxim “early to bed and early to rise” were advantaged as regards state of health, material circumstances, or wisdomSleeping for more than 8 hours a night was associated with increased mortality, but it mattered little whether sleep was taken in the early or late part of the nightThere is no justification for early risers to affect moral superiority PMID:9857121

  10. Wisdom, Intelligence, and Creativity Synthesized: A New Model for Liberal Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    WICS (Wisdom, Intelligence, and Creativity Synthesized) provides a unified model of liberal education for admissions, instruction, and assessment that can be used at any level and for any subject matter. One advantage of WICS is that it goes beyond more traditional models that emphasize memory and analytical learning and, as a result, enables all…

  11. Learning That Matters: Discovery of Meaning and Development of Wisdom in Undergraduate Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mengel, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    This paper makes the case for a shift of undergraduate education towards the development of meaningful life skills that are of value to the graduates as well as to the communities they live in. First, relevant connections between student learning, meaning, and wisdom will be made. Second, the article will explore how undergraduate education can…

  12. Thought for Application and Application with Thought: Issues in Theoretical Thinking and Practical Wisdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Sandra K.; Thomas, Mary Beth

    2005-01-01

    Both theoretical thinking and practical wisdom are used by health professionals in their clinical practice. Lately, discussion has centered on the abstract phrase "theory-practice gap." The health profession is not the only discipline that seeks unity in theory and practice issues. Education is also building bridges in this arena. One reoccurring…

  13. Woodland Wisdom: Tribal Colleges Take Action to Improve Community Health Across America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tribal College Journal, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Woodlands Wisdom Project, a collaborative effort of six tribal colleges and the University of Minnesota that addresses the special health and nutrition issues faced by Native Americans, who suffer from a high incidence diet-related diseases. The project's goals include creating more American Indian dieticians and developing new…

  14. Teaching for Wisdom in an Intergenerational High-School-English Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMichelis, Carey; Ferrari, Michel; Rozin, Tanya; Stern, Bianca

    2015-01-01

    Although the psychological benefits of intergenerational learning environments have been well documented, no study has yet investigated wisdom as an outcome of intergenerational classroom engagement. In this study, Elders between the age 60-89 were recruited to participate in a high-school English classroom. We hypothesized that participating in…

  15. What Would Cleopatra Do? Applying the Wisdom of the Past to Today's World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarnowski, Myra

    2007-01-01

    Literature provides abundant examples of how to apply the wisdom of the past to today's problems. But literary examples are not enough. If children are to take an active part in questioning the past, they need to understand how to read history the way historians and even amateur historians do. In this article, the author provides examples of how…

  16. Practice Wisdom on Custodial Parenting with Mental Illness: A Strengths View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeman, Laura Dreuth; Buila, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    Social work principles of strengths, empowerment, and consumer-centered care for persons with mental illness are currently being adapted to broader contexts. This article presents study findings on practice wisdom about custodial parents with mental illness, a potentially increasing group of consumers in light of mental health reform. The research…

  17. WICS: A Model of Positive Educational Leadership Comprising Wisdom, Intelligence, and Creativity Synthesized

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2005-01-01

    Who are the people who become positive educational leaders? This essay presents WICS as a model of positive educational leadership. WICS stands for "w"isdom, "i"ntelligence, "c"reativity, "s"ynthesized. Each of these elements is asserted to constitute one of the elements of educational leadership. Regrettably, our society is organized around a…

  18. In Search of "Phronesis": Recognizing Practical Wisdom in the Recognition (Assessment) of Prior Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breier, Mignonne; Ralphs, Alan

    2009-01-01

    This article argues that greater understanding of the Aristotelian concept of "phronesis" or practical wisdom would make an important contribution to the conceptualization and implementation of Recognition (Assessment) of Prior Learning (RPL/APL) in formal education contexts. However, there is a need to identify "phronesis" empirically so that RPL…

  19. Sustaining the Heart of Education: Finding Space for Wisdom and Compassion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClain, Leslie; Ylimaki, Rose; Ford, Michael P.

    2010-01-01

    How is it possible for those of us involved in education to bring to life the language and ways of being together in schools that sustain the heart of education, cultivating wisdom and compassion in ourselves and those in our midst, while tending to our educational responsibilities associated with standards and assessment? This inquiry led us to…

  20. 78 FR 70359 - WisdomTree Trust, et al.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION WisdomTree Trust, et al.; Notice of Application November 20, 2013. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission (``Commission''). ACTION: Notice of an application for an order under section 6(c) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 (the...

  1. Aging and wisdom: age-related changes in economic and social decision making

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Kenneth Teck Kiat; Yu, Rongjun

    2015-01-01

    World life expectancy is increasing and many populations will begin to age rapidly. The impeding prevalence of a greater number of older people living longer lives will have significant social and economic implications. It is important to understand how older people make economic and social decisions. Aging can be associated with a “phenomenon of decline” and also greater wisdom. This paper seeks to examine the relationship between wisdom and aging. It reviews and connects the behavioral sciences and neuroscience literature on age differences in the following social and economic decision making domains that represent subcomponents of wisdom: (1) prosocial behavior in experimental economic games and competitive situations; (2) resolving social conflicts; (3) emotional homeostasis; (4) self-reflection; (5) dealing effectively with uncertainty in the domains of risk, ambiguity and intertemporal choice. Overall, we find a lack of research into how older people make economic and social decisions. There is, however, some evidence that older adults outperform young adults on certain subcomponents of wisdom, but the exact relationship between old age and each subcomponent remains unclear. A better understanding of these relationships holds the potential to alleviate a wide range of mental health problems, and has broad implications for social policies aimed at the elderly. PMID:26150788

  2. Professional Wisdom and Writing for Publication: Qualitative Interviews with Editors and Authors in Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jalongo, Mary Renck

    2013-01-01

    College and university faculty members specializing in early childhood education face some unique challenges in scholarly writing. The purpose of this research was to use open-ended interviews as a way to gather the collective wisdom of a group of key informants about academic writing and publishing in the field. Twenty-two editors and/or authors,…

  3. Evidence-Based Special Education and Professional Wisdom: Putting It All Together

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Bryan G.; Tankersley, Melody; Harjusola-Webb, Sanna

    2008-01-01

    There has been an increasing focus on evidence-based practices in special education with efforts underway to authoritatively identify those practices that are evidence based. However, the identification of evidence-based practices is only the beginning of the process of implementing evidence-based special education. The professional wisdom of…

  4. A Cross-Comparative International Study on the Concept of Wisdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sánchez-Escobedo, Pedro; Park, Kyubin; Hollingworth, Liz; Misiuniene, Jurga; Ivanova, Liena

    2014-01-01

    The article aims to depict the most common ideas regarding wisdom from young people across different countries: Latvia, Lithuania, Mexico, Republic of Korea and the United States. A questionnaire was administered to nearly 800 adolescents from these countries and comparisons by country and gender were made regarding participants' perceptions…

  5. Local Knowledge and Wisdom in Higher Education. Issues in Higher Education Series, Volume 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teasdale, G. R., Ed.; Rhea, Zane Ma, Ed.

    Papers in this collection, derived from several sessions of the Commission for Indigenous Education, contain insightful accounts of the role of indigenous knowledge in higher education institutions across a variety of societies. The contributors examine the move to reaffirm the significance of local knowledge and wisdom and the resulting…

  6. Intergenerational Relations in the West of Ireland and Sociocultural Approaches to Wisdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmondson, Ricca

    2012-01-01

    Discussion of intergenerational relationships has perennially questioned how life experience can be transmitted effectively. This article revisits that debate, focusing on the intergenerational role of wisdom in the West of Ireland. Ethnographic reconstructions of wise interaction within families and communities, especially in regions of Irish…

  7. H. Sapiens Digital: From Digital Immigrants and Digital Natives to Digital Wisdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prensky, Marc

    2009-01-01

    As we move further into the 21st century, the digital native/digital immigrant paradigm created by Marc Prensky in 2001 is becoming less relevant. In this article, Prensky suggests that we should focus instead on the development of what he calls "digital wisdom." Arguing that digital technology can make us not just smarter but truly wiser, Prensky…

  8. The Wisdom of the Inner Life: Meeting Oneself through Meditation and Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sussman, Abraham; Kossak, Mitchell

    2011-01-01

    Educating adults to tap into the wisdom of their inner life can happen in many contexts: (1) higher education classrooms; (2) workshop and retreat settings; and (3) psychotherapy settings. Adults can also facilitate the development of their inner life through various self-directed learning efforts, by learning from life experience, and through…

  9. A Learning Framework for Knowledge Building and Collective Wisdom Advancement in Virtual Learning Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gan, Yongcheng; Zhu, Zhiting

    2007-01-01

    This study represents an effort to construct a learning framework for knowledge building and collective wisdom advancement in a virtual learning community (VLC) from the perspectives of system wholeness, intelligence wholeness and dynamics, learning models, and knowledge management. It also tries to construct the zone of proximal development (ZPD)…

  10. The Use of Social Networks to Employ the Wisdom of Crowds for Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klieger, Aviva

    2016-01-01

    The "Wisdom of Crowds" hypothesis has been introduced into many fields, but not into education. Groups with diverse knowledge and skills make better decisions than homogenous groups or expert groups. Diversity adds different points of view, which improve the problem solving ability of the group. The increased use of social networks makes…

  11. Population, poverty and economic development.

    PubMed

    Sinding, Steven W

    2009-10-27

    Economists, demographers and other social scientists have long debated the relationship between demographic change and economic outcomes. In recent years, general agreement has emerged to the effect that improving economic conditions for individuals generally lead to lower birth rates. But, there is much less agreement about the proposition that lower birth rates contribute to economic development and help individuals and families to escape from poverty. The paper examines recent evidence on this aspect of the debate, concludes that the burden of evidence now increasingly supports a positive conclusion, examines recent trends in demographic change and economic development and argues that the countries representing the last development frontier, those of Sub-Saharan Africa, would be well advised to incorporate policies and programmes to reduce high fertility in their economic development strategies. PMID:19770153

  12. Population, poverty and economic development

    PubMed Central

    Sinding, Steven W.

    2009-01-01

    Economists, demographers and other social scientists have long debated the relationship between demographic change and economic outcomes. In recent years, general agreement has emerged to the effect that improving economic conditions for individuals generally lead to lower birth rates. But, there is much less agreement about the proposition that lower birth rates contribute to economic development and help individuals and families to escape from poverty. The paper examines recent evidence on this aspect of the debate, concludes that the burden of evidence now increasingly supports a positive conclusion, examines recent trends in demographic change and economic development and argues that the countries representing the last development frontier, those of Sub-Saharan Africa, would be well advised to incorporate policies and programmes to reduce high fertility in their economic development strategies. PMID:19770153

  13. Poverty of the stimulus revisited.

    PubMed

    Berwick, Robert C; Pietroski, Paul; Yankama, Beracah; Chomsky, Noam

    2011-01-01

    A central goal of modern generative grammar has been to discover invariant properties of human languages that reflect "the innate schematism of mind that is applied to the data of experience" and that "might reasonably be attributed to the organism itself as its contribution to the task of the acquisition of knowledge" (Chomsky, 1971). Candidates for such invariances include the structure dependence of grammatical rules, and in particular, certain constraints on question formation. Various "poverty of stimulus" (POS) arguments suggest that these invariances reflect an innate human endowment, as opposed to common experience: Such experience warrants selection of the grammars acquired only if humans assume, a priori, that selectable grammars respect substantive constraints. Recently, several researchers have tried to rebut these POS arguments. In response, we illustrate why POS arguments remain an important source of support for appeal to a priori structure-dependent constraints on the grammars that humans naturally acquire. PMID:21824178

  14. Darwin, artificial selection, and poverty.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Luis

    2010-03-01

    This paper argues that the processes of evolutionary selection are becoming increasingly artificial, a trend that goes against the belief in a purely natural selection process claimed by Darwin's natural selection theory. Artificial selection is mentioned by Darwin, but it was ignored by Social Darwinists, and it is all but absent in neo-Darwinian thinking. This omission results in an underestimation of probable impacts of artificial selection upon assumed evolutionary processes, and has implications for the ideological uses of Darwin's language, particularly in relation to poverty and other social inequalities. The influence of artificial selection on genotypic and phenotypic adaptations arguably represents a substantial shift in the presumed path of evolution, a shift laden with both biological and political implications. PMID:20812798

  15. Response to "Learning through Life": Thematic Area of Poverty Reduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preece, Julia

    2010-01-01

    This paper responds to the NIACE report "Learning through Life" in relation to the report's thematic area of poverty reduction. The paper draws on the thematic working papers that informed the report as well as wider literature on poverty. It takes a multidimensional perspective of poverty, drawing on Sen's concept of poverty as "unfreedom" and…

  16. Access to Education and Employment Opportunities: Implications for Poverty Reduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adewale, T. M.

    2011-01-01

    The study examined the linkages between Education and poverty and the possibility of poverty reduction through access to education and better employment opportunities. The paper also stressed that poverty acts as both cause and effect on lack of education. In particular the paper examined whether education is contributing to poverty reduction…

  17. Poverty in Albania: A Qualitative Assessment. World Bank Technical Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Soto, Hermine; Gordon, Peter; Gedeshi, Ilir; Sinoimeri, Zamira

    This World Bank qualitative assessment of poverty in Albania outlines five objectives: (1) it seeks to develop the understanding of poverty in the country by involving poor Albanians in a process of exploring the causes, nature, extent of poverty and its effects; (2) it is intended to support the Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (GPRS),…

  18. Poverty in the United States: Where Do We Stand Now?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uhr, E.; Evanson, Elizabeth

    1984-01-01

    This report summarizes some of the testimony presented during Congressional hearings in October 1983 to examine the reasons for increased poverty in this country since 1979. Terms used in measuring poverty are defined, and data relating to the amount of poverty that currently exists, who the poor are, and how long they remain in poverty are…

  19. Education Solutions for Child Poverty: New Modalities from New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Airini

    2015-01-01

    This article describes education solutions to child poverty. Through a focus on New Zealand, the article explores the meaning of child poverty, children's perspectives on child poverty and solutions, and modalities in citizenship, social and economics education to help address child poverty. Four modalities are proposed: centre our work in…

  20. Child Poverty Was Lower at End of 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Carolyn C.

    2001-01-01

    Poverty rates increased in the early 1990s, but between 1994 and 1999 the metro child poverty rate declined 6 percentage points and the nonmetro rate declined 4 percent. In 1999, the poverty rate for nonmetro Black children was about double that of nonmetro White children, but the Black-White gap in poverty narrowed between 1985 and 1999. (TD)

  1. Workfare: The Poverty/Dependence Trade-Off.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Michael; Williamson, John B.

    1987-01-01

    Society's preference for dependency reduction over poverty reduction in dealing with the lower classes stands in the way of greater anti-poverty impact of social policy. Discusses four approaches to poverty policy, their effectiveness, and the poverty assumptions they are based on. Examines why a workfare strategy could be effective. (PS)

  2. Poverty and Population Density: Implications for Economic Development Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinsley, Karen; Bishop, Matt

    2006-01-01

    Poverty measurements based on geopolitical boundaries may not accurately reflect the concentration of poverty in a given area. Building upon the findings of the Study on Persistent Poverty in the South that identified 91 persistent poverty counties in Georgia, this article argues that a new unit of analysis is needed to understand the conditions…

  3. Comparison of the conceptualization of wisdom in ancient Indian literature with modern views: focus on the Bhagavad Gita.

    PubMed

    Jeste, Dilip V; Vahia, Ipsit V

    2008-01-01

    The study of wisdom has recently become a subject of growing scientific interest, although the concept of wisdom is ancient. This article focuses on conceptualization of wisdom in the Bhagavad Gita, arguably the most influential of all ancient Hindu philosophical/religious texts. Our review, using mixed qualitative/quantitative methodology with the help of Textalyser and NVivo software, found the following components to be associated with the concept of wisdom in the Gita: Knowledge of life, Emotional Regulation, Control over Desires, Decisiveness, Love of God, Duty and Work, Self-Contentedness, Compassion/Sacrifice, Insight/Humility, and Yoga (Integration of Personality). A comparison of the conceptualization of wisdom in the Gita with that in modern scientific literature shows several similarities, such as rich knowledge about life, emotional regulation, insight, and a focus on common good (compassion). Apparent differences include an emphasis on control over desires and renunciation of materialistic pleasures. Importantly, the Gita suggests that at least certain components of wisdom can be taught and learned. We believe that the concepts of wisdom in the Gita are relevant to modern psychiatry in helping develop psychotherapeutic interventions that could be more individualistic and more holistic than those commonly practiced today, and they aim at improving personal well-being rather than just psychiatric symptoms. PMID:18834271

  4. Collected Papers on Poverty Issues. Volume 4: International Poverty and Social Welfare Policies: A Studey of Seven Counties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yokelson, Doris, Ed.; Karsten, Peter, Ed.

    The final and fourth volume in a collection of papers on poverty issues, this document deals with studies of poverty and social welfare programs in five Western European countries, Canada, and Japan. Eight sections constitute the document: some cross-national characteristics of poverty; poverty and antipoverty in Britain (characteristics of…

  5. Poverty Linked to Asthma, Allergy Treatment Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_157642.html Poverty Linked to Asthma, Allergy Treatment Failure Patients from low-income households more ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- People with asthma or food allergies who are poor have worse treatment outcomes, two ...

  6. Poverty among widows of Kinshasa, Congo.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, S

    2000-09-01

    The linkages between poverty and death in the family in a sector of the city of Kinshasa, capital of the Democratic Republic of Congo (previously Zaire) were studied. The poor people have been identified using 3 convergent norms, described in the Methods of Materials section, based on total expenditure, calorie consumption in food, and proportion of expenditure for food. Family histories were recorded to understand the difficult situation of widow-headed households identified within the sample area. The relationship between death in the family and poverty was bi-directional: on the one hand, death of the breadwinner can accelerate the level of poverty; and on the other, poverty conditions can result in further deaths in the family. PMID:11057062

  7. Poverty and program participation among immigrant children.

    PubMed

    Borjas, George J

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have long known that poverty in childhood is linked with a range of negative adult socioeconomic outcomes, from lower educational achievement and behavioral problems to lower earnings in the labor market. But few researchers have explored whether exposure to a disadvantaged background affects immigrant children and native children differently. George Borjas uses Current Population Survey (CPS) data on two specific indicators of poverty-the poverty rate and the rate of participation in public assistance programs-to begin answering that question. He finds that immigrant children have significantly higher rates both of poverty and of program participation than do native children. Nearly half of immigrant children are being raised in households that receive some type of public assistance, compared with roughly one-third of native children. Although the shares of immigrant and native children living in poverty are lower, the rate for immigrant children is nonetheless about 15 percentage points higher than that for native children-about the same as the gap in public assistance. Poverty and program participation rates among different groups of immigrant children also vary widely, depending in part on place of birth (foreign- or U.S.-born), parents (immigrant or native), and national origin. According to the CPS data, these native-immigrant differences persist into young adulthood. In particular, the program participation and poverty status of immigrant children is strongly correlated with their program participation and poverty status when they become young adults. But it is not possible, says Borjas, to tell whether the link results from a set of permanent factors associated with specific individuals or groups that tends to lead to "good" or "bad" outcomes systematically over time or from exposure during childhood to adverse socioeconomic outcomes, such as poverty or welfare dependency. Future research must explore the causal impact of childhood poverty on

  8. Poverty, equity, human rights and health.

    PubMed Central

    Braveman, Paula; Gruskin, Sofia

    2003-01-01

    Those concerned with poverty and health have sometimes viewed equity and human rights as abstract concepts with little practical application, and links between health, equity and human rights have not been examined systematically. Examination of the concepts of poverty, equity, and human rights in relation to health and to each other demonstrates that they are closely linked conceptually and operationally and that each provides valuable, unique guidance for health institutions' work. Equity and human rights perspectives can contribute concretely to health institutions' efforts to tackle poverty and health, and focusing on poverty is essential to operationalizing those commitments. Both equity and human rights principles dictate the necessity to strive for equal opportunity for health for groups of people who have suffered marginalization or discrimination. Health institutions can deal with poverty and health within a framework encompassing equity and human rights concerns in five general ways: (1) institutionalizing the systematic and routine application of equity and human rights perspectives to all health sector actions; (2) strengthening and extending the public health functions, other than health care, that create the conditions necessary for health; (3) implementing equitable health care financing, which should help reduce poverty while increasing access for the poor; (4) ensuring that health services respond effectively to the major causes of preventable ill-health among the poor and disadvantaged; and (5) monitoring, advocating and taking action to address the potential health equity and human rights implications of policies in all sectors affecting health, not only the health sector. PMID:12973647

  9. [Poverty, social exclusion, social capital and health].

    PubMed

    Del Rey Calero, Juan

    2004-01-01

    Social capital is the social structure which facilitates the actions of individuals, stimulates production and allows for success. Poverty maintains basic needs unmet (food, health, autonomy) over time and unvoluntarily. Social exclusion does not allow individuals to participate in society. The following dimensions are assessed: financial poverty, social inclusion, employment, health and education. Social participation, work integration, empowerment, self-esteem, and personal achievement should be promoted. In Europe 15% of people is exposed to poverty; in Spain corresponding figures are 13.4%, while for the elderly reached 21%. Extreme poverty affects 6.2% population and severe poverty 14.2%. Women and those living in Andalusia, Canary Islands and Extremadura are particularly affected, health inequality are for elderly, immigration, gender, social class, and should be reduced 10% for 2010. The Gini indez measures the income distribution; in the European Union (EU) it is 0.29 while in Spain is 0.33. Poverty and health are inversely correlated, health care expenditure in Spain is 7.5% og GDP. Life expectancy in U.E. is 75.5 years for men and 81.6 years for women, while in Spain it is 78 and 83.1 respectively. Infant mortality in EU is 4.5/1000, 4.1 per thousand in Spain. Lastly, the number of children per women in EU is 1.47 and in Spain 1.3. PMID:15553403

  10. [Poverty in Mexico. I. Methodology and evolution].

    PubMed

    Boltvinik, J

    1995-01-01

    This article is the first of two parts of a research report on the evolution and magnitude of poverty in Mexico. Herein are presented the methodologies used in both parts and the evolution of poverty. The Poverty Line methodology (PL), in its Standard Basket of Essential Satisfiers version, is succinctly explained. Two problems on the definition of normative requirements are emphasized: the foundations of such requirements and the access route by which needs are to be met (private consumption or public transfers). Identification of six household welfare sources allows for criticism of PL and Unsatisfied Basic Needs methodologies which the Integrated Poverty Measurement Method (IPMM) brings together. IPMM is used to estimate the magnitude of poverty in 1989. The results are presented in the second part of this report. Results analyzed in the last section of this article show that while poverty in Mexico decreased steadily from 77.5% in 1963 to 48.5% in 1981, it increased since 1982, reaching 66% in 1992. PMID:7502150

  11. Poverty, tobacco, and health: an Indian scenario.

    PubMed

    Majra, J P; Gur, A

    2009-06-01

    Poverty and health have a two-way relationship. Poverty increases the vulnerability of people to disease, and sickness affects their income leading to poverty. Tobacco has been identified as a major avoidable cause of illness and premature death. In India, more than half of men and one-tenth of women use one or more forms of tobacco. Tobacco-use shows a clear and continual increase with decreasing wealth quintiles. Poor smokers, who are at a greater risk of illness, are also at a greater risk of not being treated or of falling into greater poverty if they seek treatment. Poor people spend money on tobacco that could be spent on food, shelter, education, and healthcare. These decisions can entrench families in an ongoing cycle of poverty and ill-health. The direct and indirect costs of tobacco-use are immense for national economy. This has positioned control of tobacco relevant in India's per suite to achieve the goals of poverty eradication and health for all. PMID:19507746

  12. The WISDOM Radar onboard the Rover of the ExoMars mission (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciarletti, V.; Corbel, C.; Plettemeier, D.; Clifford, S. M.; Cais, P.; Hamran, S.

    2009-12-01

    The most fundamental and basic aspect of the geologic characterization of any environment is understanding its stratigraphy and structure - which provides invaluable insights into its origin, the processes and events by which it evolved, and (through the examination of superpositional and cross-cutting relationships) their relative timing. The WISDOM GPR onboard the Rover of the ESA ExoMars mission (2016) has the ability to investigate and characterize the nature of the subsurface remotely, providing high-resolution (several cm-scale) data on subsurface stratigraphy, structure, and the magnitude and scale of spatial heterogeneity, to depths in excess of 3 m. Unlike traditional imaging systems or spectrometers, which are limited to characterization of the visible surface, WISDOM can access what lies beneath - providing an understanding of the 3-dimensional geologic context of the landing site along the Rover path. WISDOM will address a variety of high-priority scientific objectives: (1) Understand the geology and geologic evolution of the landing site, including local lithology, stratigraphy and structure. (2) Characterize the 3-D electromagnetic properties of the Landing Site - including the scale and magnitude of spatial heterogeneity - for comparison with those measured at larger scales by MARSIS, SHARAD and any future orbital radars. (3) Understand the local distribution and state of shallow subsurface H2O and other volatiles, including the potential presence of segregated ground ice (as ice lenses and wedges), the persistent or transient occurrence of liquid water/brine, and deposits of methane hydrate and (4) identify the most promising locations for drilling that combine targets of high scientific interest. In addition to these objectives, there are also clear scientific and operational benefits when WISDOM is operated in concert with the rover’s drill and its associated analytical instruments, which will determine the compositional and physical properties

  13. Flourishing and Posttraumatic Growth. An Empirical Take on Ancient Wisdoms.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Hugh

    2016-06-01

    Considerations of well-being or flourishing include Maslow's and Rogers' concepts of self-actualisation and actualising tendency. Recent empirical findings suggest that only a modest proportion of the population might be considered to be flourishing. Separate findings focused upon the nature and determinants of post-traumatic growth identify it as comparable to flourishing, and facilitated by supported accommodation to the trauma. This can be understood as reflecting self-actualisation. Empirical findings such as these provide ontological stability to a set of phenomena that share much with ancient teachings extolling redemption through suffering. This framework challenges conventional healthcare policies and practices, but in ways that offer insights into how patient-centred approaches to chronic illness and disability might be better conceived and enabled. It also throws into doubt the rectitude of an economic model built around services and products designed to provide easy access to sources of immediate gratification. PMID:27015998

  14. The Effects of Poverty Simulation, an Experiential Learning Modality, on Students' Understanding of Life in Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandsburger, Etty; Duncan-Daston, Rana; Akerson, Emily; Dillon, Tom

    2010-01-01

    This research examines the impact of the Poverty Simulation Project, an experiential learning modality, on students' understanding of life in poverty. A total of 101 students representing 5 undergraduate majors in the College of Health and Human Services completed measures of critical thinking, understanding of others, and the active learning…

  15. Poverty Reduction in Zambia: A Conceptual Analysis of the Zambian Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imboela, Bruce Lubinda

    2005-01-01

    Poverty reduction strategy papers (PRSPs) present a recipient country's program of intent for the utilization of World Bank loans and grants to alleviate debt under the bank's programs of action for poverty reduction in highly indebted poor countries (HIPCs). This article argues that structural transformation is a prerequisite for poverty…

  16. The Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers: An Analysis of a Hegemonic Link between Education and Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarabini, Aina; Jacovkis, Judith

    2012-01-01

    This paper has two main objectives. First, it aims to analyse the connections between education and poverty established by the Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs), a central policy tool for the articulation of the Post Washington Consensus. Second, it intends to study how the PRSPs have been consolidated and expanded through different…

  17. Chinese Adolescents' Explanations of Poverty: The Perceived Causes of Poverty Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2002-01-01

    The Chinese Perceived Causes of Poverty Scale (CPCPS), constructed to assess how Chinese people explain poverty, covers four areas of explanations: personal problems, lack of opportunities, exploitation, and bad fate. Chinese secondary school students were administered the CPCPS. Four subscales were abstracted from their responses and found to be…

  18. What Makes Poverty So Intractable in High-Poverty Nonmetro Counties?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrissey, Elizabeth S.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses characteristics of counties with high poverty rates--sparser population, larger proportion of poor and most poverty-prone populations, less educated population, greater reliance on transfer payments, and higher proportions of income from farming. Suggests that government assistance in the form of income transfers could help alleviate…

  19. Kentucky Child Poverty, 2000: One in Four Children Is Poor. Census Brief: Child Poverty in Kentucky.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graycarek, Rick; Hoye, Kathleen

    This census brief examines changes in the child poverty rate during the 1990s for the state of Kentucky. The brief notes that more than one in four children in Kentucky is living in poverty, with nearly half of Kentucky's children living in families that are not financially self-sufficient. The majority of poor children live in urban areas, most…

  20. Yoga and mental health: A dialogue between ancient wisdom and modern psychology

    PubMed Central

    Vorkapic, Camila Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many yoga texts make reference to the importance of mental health and the use of specific techniques in the treatment of mental disorders. Different concepts utilized in modern psychology may not come with contemporary ideas, instead, they seem to share a common root with ancient wisdom. Aims: The goal of this perspective article is to correlate modern techniques used in psychology and psychiatry with yogic practices, in the treatment of mental disorders. Materials and Methods: The current article presented a dialogue between the yogic approach for the treatment of mental disorder and concepts used in modern psychology, such as meta-cognition, disidentification, deconditioning and interoceptive exposure. Conclusions: Contemplative research found out that modern interventions in psychology might not come from modern concepts after all, but share great similarity with ancient yogic knowledge, giving us the opportunity to integrate the psychological wisdom of both East and West. PMID:26865774

  1. Performance validation of the ExoMars 2018 WISDOM GPR in ice caves, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorizon, S.; Ciarletti, V.; Plettemeier, D.; Benedix, W. S.

    2016-01-01

    The WISDOM (Water Ice Subsurface Deposits Observations on Mars) Ground Penetrating Radar has been selected to be part of the ExoMars 2018 exobiological rover mission. A prototype has been tested during the Mars Simulation organized by the Austrian Space Forum in Alpine ice caves in Dachstein, Austria. This campaign provided the opportunity to validate methods developed to process WISDOM's data in a well-documented environment and to retrieve geometrical and quantitative information about the 3D structure and the electromagnetic properties of the subsurface. We estimate the ice thickness in different locations inside the ice caves, and show that this ice is formed of fine strata with different properties. Data analysis allows reconstructing the bedrock in a 3D environment where a complete survey was performed.

  2. Pitfalls and Pearls of Wisdom in 18F-FDG PET Imaging of Tumors.

    PubMed

    Britton, Tracey; Robinson, Nicholas

    2016-06-01

    (18)F-FDG PET imaging of tumors has pitfalls and pearls of wisdom that begin at the point of scheduling and continue through the patient interview, the resting phase, the scan itself, and the image review. Interviewing the patient at the time of scheduling, followed by placing a reminder phone call shortly before the appointment, can save a nuclear medicine department the financial loss of wasted doses and missed appointment slots in the schedule. The pitfalls and pearls of wisdom in tumor imaging are ever changing, and the technologist is in a constant state of inquiry about the patient's disease process and ability to comply. Consideration of each item on the worksheets in this article affects every scan. On completing this article, the reader will be able to identify questions that should be asked in the scheduling and preinjection patient interviews, interpret the answers to those questions, determine how the images may be affected, and adapt the scan. PMID:27102663

  3. Best Practices Case Study: Rural Development, Inc., Wisdom Way Solar Village, Greenfield, MA

    SciTech Connect

    2010-12-01

    Wisdom Way Solar Village is an appropriate moniker for the 20-unit community of energy-efficient duplexes in Greenfield, MA. The homes meet the requirements of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Builders Challenge, achieving HERS scores of 8 to 18 by packing energy efficiency features into the compact, heavily insulated homes and adding solar water heating and photovoltaics on top, to net home owners energy cost savings of at least $2,500 per year per home.

  4. Wisdom Way Solar Village: Design, Construction, and Analysis of a Low Energy Community

    SciTech Connect

    Aldrich, R.

    2012-08-01

    This report describes work conducted at the Wisdom Way Solar Village (WWSV), a community of 10 high performance duplexes (20 homes) in Greenfield, MA, constructed by Rural Development, Inc. (RDI). Building America's CARB team monitored temperatures and comfort in several homes during the winter of 2009-2010, and tracked utility bill information from 13 occupied homes. Because of efficient lights, appliances, and conscientious home occupants, the energy generated by the solar electric systems exceeded the electric energy used in most homes.

  5. Biostimulative laser therapy in difficult dentition of a lower wisdom tooth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grzesiak-Janas, Grazyna

    1996-03-01

    In a group of 66 patients treated for difficult dentition of the lower wisdom tooth, 33 were subjected to biostimulative laser therapy. In this group 20 persons were treated conservatively together with laser therapy and 13 underwent surgical treatment together with exposure to laser irradiation. During the treatment a positive influence of the laser was found, i.e. a decrease in pain, edema, and trismus.

  6. Abnormal Condition Monitoring of Workpieces Based on RFID for Wisdom Manufacturing Workshops

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Cunji; Yao, Xifan; Zhang, Jianming

    2015-01-01

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology has been widely used in many fields. However, previous studies have mainly focused on product life cycle tracking, and there are few studies on real-time status monitoring of workpieces in manufacturing workshops. In this paper, a wisdom manufacturing model is introduced, a sensing-aware environment for a wisdom manufacturing workshop is constructed, and RFID event models are defined. A synthetic data cleaning method is applied to clean the raw RFID data. The Complex Event Processing (CEP) technology is adopted to monitor abnormal conditions of workpieces in real time. The RFID data cleaning method and data mining technology are examined by simulation and physical experiments. The results show that the synthetic data cleaning method preprocesses data well. The CEP based on the Rifidi® Edge Server technology completed abnormal condition monitoring of workpieces in real time. This paper reveals the importance of RFID spatial and temporal data analysis in real-time status monitoring of workpieces in wisdom manufacturing workshops. PMID:26633418

  7. Abnormal Condition Monitoring of Workpieces Based on RFID for Wisdom Manufacturing Workshops.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cunji; Yao, Xifan; Zhang, Jianming

    2015-01-01

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology has been widely used in many fields. However, previous studies have mainly focused on product life cycle tracking, and there are few studies on real-time status monitoring of workpieces in manufacturing workshops. In this paper, a wisdom manufacturing model is introduced, a sensing-aware environment for a wisdom manufacturing workshop is constructed, and RFID event models are defined. A synthetic data cleaning method is applied to clean the raw RFID data. The Complex Event Processing (CEP) technology is adopted to monitor abnormal conditions of workpieces in real time. The RFID data cleaning method and data mining technology are examined by simulation and physical experiments. The results show that the synthetic data cleaning method preprocesses data well. The CEP based on the Rifidi(®) Edge Server technology completed abnormal condition monitoring of workpieces in real time. This paper reveals the importance of RFID spatial and temporal data analysis in real-time status monitoring of workpieces in wisdom manufacturing workshops. PMID:26633418

  8. Cross-cultural comparison of self-transcendent wisdom between the United States and Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sulim; Choun, Soyoung; Aldwin, Carolyn M; Levenson, Michael R

    2015-06-01

    Whether wisdom is a culturally-specific or universal construct is a matter of some debate (see Curnow 1999; Grossman et al. Psychological Science, 2012). This study compared similarities and differences in the factor structure of a measure of wisdom focused on self-transcendence in U.S. (n = 305, M(age) = 33.99) and Korean samples (n = 838, M(age) = 30.28), with ages ranging from 20 to 73). The Adult Self-Transcendence Inventory (ASTI; Levenson et al. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 60, 127-143, 2005) has two factors, self-transcendence and alienation, the latter of which was included to differentiate between social withdrawals due to contemplative practices versus that due to depression. Confirmatory factor analyses found a partial scalar factorial invariance model fit the data best, indicating that the factor structure of the ASTI is largely equivalent and that the construct is comparable across the two cultures. Regression analyses showed that age and religiousness were related to self-transcendence and alienation. Education was related to self-transcendence only. The interaction between age and culture was significant on alienation; alienation was higher in mid-life Koreans but not in Americans, which may reflect either age or cohort effects. Thus, self-transcendence may be a more universal measure of wisdom than those based on pragmatics or cognitive functioning. PMID:25904386

  9. IWRM and poverty reduction in Malawi: A socio-economic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulwafu, Wapulumuka O.; Msosa, Hendrina K.

    Like most other countries in the SADC region, Malawi has swiftly endorsed the United Nations Millennium Development Goals. In the water sector, these principles are reflected in the National Water Policy (2004) and in the Malawi Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) (2002) which emphasize three key aspects. First, the articulation of a vision and policy objectives that address development and management of water for productive purposes, conservation and poverty reduction. Second, the recognition of international and regional conventions and agreements on water resources to which Malawi is a signatory, thereby promoting global partnership for development. Third, the provision of mechanisms for monitoring, assessment and development related to watershed management, conservation and the mitigation of floods and droughts. Both the Malawi Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper and the National Water Policy seek to reduce poverty by increasing access to water for domestic and productive purposes. In particular, the MPRSP will focus on constructing and rehabilitating water facilities, extend water supply capacity, promote community-based management and improve water resources conservation and management. In this paper, we examine the challenges of implementing these goals against the background of various institutional reforms in the water sector. We argue that although Malawi has come up with very clear strategies and guidelines for promoting MDGs, a combination of human and financial resources, bedevil the successful implementation of these ideas. In addition, the strategies do not articulate water as a medium for poverty alleviation in a holistic manner. The paper further demonstrates ways in which the promotion of IWRM can facilitate in reducing poverty.

  10. Papal policy, poverty, and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Morley, D

    1990-06-30

    Papal "pronouncements" have been a major cause of the Philippines' increasing poverty, and of its failure to promote the only method proved to limit the spread of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Kenya has a growth rate of 3-4% and will double its population in 17 years. The UK has an average family size of 1.8 children. This is due to contraceptive usage. The poor lack knowledge and funds to ignore the rulings of the Catholic Church. Families will have 7 or more children without access to modern contraceptives. The Philippine elite are 90% Catholic, and disregard church policy and use contraceptives. Therefore, they have small families. Abortion is widely used in Latin America. It is the leading cause of death of women aged 15-39. The Philippines is industrializing rapidly; businessmen, however, do not see a future in producing condoms here. Widespread availability of condoms would limit the spread of AIDS. Mainly surveys show that in 1989 only 5 to 10/1000 prostitutes were positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Other Asian countries have shown large increases in HIV infection occurrence in 2-3 years. Pope John Paul has been telling young people in Burkina Faso that they "must face the plagues of modern times." He did not identify these plaques. However, Monsignore Carlo Cafara, dean of John Paul II's Institute for Marriage and Family Studies at the Vatican, told a recent conference that when 1 partner of a married couple is positive for AIDS, it is preferable to risk catching the AIDS virus than to use condoms. St. Paul would have approved the use of modern contraceptive methods. PMID:2390554

  11. Can Earth Sciences Help Alleviate Global Poverty?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutter, J. C.

    2004-12-01

    Poverty is not properly described solely in terms of economics. Certainly the billion people living on less than a dollar a day are the extreme poor and the two billion people who are living today on two dollars a day or less are poor also. One third of all humans live in poverty today. But poverty concerns deprivation - of good health, adequate nutrition, adequate education, properly paid employment, clean water, adequate housing and good sanitation. It is a fundamental denial of opportunity and a violation of basic human rights. Despite its prevalence and persistence of poverty and the attention given it by many scholars, the causes of poverty are not well understood and hence interventions to bring poor societies out of their condition often fail. One commonly missed component in the search for solutions to poverty is the fundamental co-dependence between the state of the Earth and the state of human well-being. These relationships, are compelling but often indirect and non-linear and sometimes deeply nuanced. They are also largely empirical in nature, lacking theory or models that describe the nature of the relationships. So while it is quite apparent that the poorest people are much more vulnerable than the rich to the Earths excesses and even to relatively small natural variations in places where the base conditions are poor, we do not presently know whether the recognized vulnerability is both an outcome of poverty and a contributing cause. Are societies poor, or held from development out of poverty because of their particular relationship to Earth's natural systems? Does how we live depend on where we live? Providing answers to these questions is one of the most fundamental research challenges of our time. That research lies in a domain squarely at the boundary between the natural and social sciences and cannot be answered by studies in either domain alone. What is clear even now, is that an understanding of the Earth gained from the natural sciences is

  12. Urban poverty and infant mortality rate disparities.

    PubMed Central

    Sims, Mario; Sims, Tammy L.; Bruce, Marino A.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined whether the relationship between high poverty and infant mortality rates (IMRs) varied across race- and ethnic-specific populations in large urban areas. Data were drawn from 1990 Census and 1992-1994 Vital Statistics for selected U.S. metropolitan areas. High-poverty areas were defined as neighborhoods in which > or = 40% of the families had incomes below the federal poverty threshold. Bivariate models showed that high poverty was a significant predictor of IMR for each group; however, multivariate analyses demonstrate that maternal health and regional factors explained most of the variance in the group-specific models of IMR. Additional analysis revealed that high poverty was significantly associated with minority-white IMR disparities, and country of origin is an important consideration for ethnic birth outcomes. Findings from this study provide a glimpse into the complexity associated with infant mortality in metropolitan areas because they suggest that the factors associated with infant mortality in urban areas vary by race and ethnicity. PMID:17444423

  13. Application of experimental poverty measures to the aged.

    PubMed

    Olsen, K A

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Census Bureau recently released new, experimental measures of poverty based on a National Academy of Sciences (NAS) panel's recommendations. This article examines the effects of the experimental measures on poverty rates among persons aged 65 or older in order to help inform policy debate. Policymakers and analysts use poverty rates to measure the successes and failures of existing programs and to create and defend new policy initiatives. The Census Bureau computes the official rates of poverty using poverty thresholds and definitions of countable income that have changed little since the official poverty measure was adopted in 1965. Amid growing concerns about the adequacy of the official poverty measure, a NAS panel undertook a study of the concepts, methodology, and data needed to measure poverty. The panel concluded in its 1995 report that the current measure no longer provides an accurate picture of relative rates of poverty for different groups in the population or of changes in poverty over time. The panel recommended changes in establishing the poverty thresholds, defining family resources, and obtaining the required data. The Census Bureau report shows how estimated levels of poverty would differ from the official level as specific recommendations of the NAS panel are implemented individually and how estimated trends would differ when many recommendations are implemented simultaneously. It computes nonstandardized and standardized poverty rates. (The latter constrains the overall poverty rate under the experimental measures to match the official rate.) This article reports poverty rates that have not been standardized and provides considerably more detail than the Census report about the effects of the experimental measures on poverty among the aged. It examines the effects of changing the poverty thresholds and the items included or excluded from the definition of available resources. It also explores the effects of the experimental measures on

  14. Poverty in America: trends and new patterns.

    PubMed

    O'hare, W P

    1985-06-01

    Poverty trends in the US between 1959-83, as revealed by census data, are described, 1984 government expenditures on social programs are delineated, contrasting explanations put forth to explain the increase in poverty between 1978-83 are critically examined, and some practical suggestions for reducing poverty levels are made. Between 1959-73, the absolute number and the proportion of individuals below the poverty line decreased respectively from 39.5-23.0 million and from 22.4%-11.1%. Between 1973-78, poverty rates fluctuated somewhat. Between 1978-83, the absolute number and proportion of poor increased respectively from 24.5-35.3 million and from 11.4%-15.2%. Between 1978-83, the depth of poverty also increased. The proportion of families with incomes below US$5000 increased from 3.9%-5.7%, and the median income for poor families declined. Some experts, such as Charles Murray, attribute the increase in poverty to federal poverty programs. Murray maintains that poverty programs undermine the work ethic and encourage the creation of female headed households. Others, including Michael Harrington, attribute the increase in poverty to structural changes in the economy and to changes in the composition of the population. Harrington maintains that the decline in the number of manufacturing jobs, the lack of employment opportunities for unskilled workers, and the entry of the baby boom generation into the working age population makes it increasingly difficult for young males, and especially for black males, to find jobs offering financial security. The present analysis provided more support for the latter explanation than for the former explanation. Numerous studies indicate that there is considerable movement in and out of poverty and that most individuals are poor because they cannot find jobs. The American public has a mistaken impression about the amount of money expended by the government to provide assistance to the poor. The bulk of the government's social

  15. Poverty, Socioeconomic Change, Institutional Anomie, and Homicide*

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang-Weon; Pridemore, William Alex

    2006-01-01

    Objective. This study examined institutional anomie theory in the context of transitional Russia. Methods. We employed an index of negative socioeconomic change and measures of family, education, and polity to test the hypothesis that institutional strength conditions the effects of poverty and socioeconomic change on homicide rates. Results. As expected, the results of models estimated using negative binomial regression show direct positive effects of poverty and socioeconomic change and direct negative effects of family strength and polity on regional homicide rates. There was no support, however, for the hypothesis that stronger social institutions reduce the effects of poverty and socioeconomic change on violence. Conclusions. We interpret these results in the Russia-specific setting, concluding that Russia is a rich laboratory for examining the effects of social change on crime and that empirical research in other nations is important when assessing the generalizability of theories developed to explain crime and violence in the United States. PMID:16900262

  16. Poverty and Environmental Degradation Challenges within the Global Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mabogunje, Akin L.

    2002-01-01

    Since the end of the second World War, the link between deepening poverty and environmental degradation has increased in visibility despite the efforts of the United Nations and other international agencies. Focuses on globalization, poverty, and the environment. (DDR)

  17. Why Did Poverty Feminize When Women Have Always Been Poor?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marciano, Teresa D.

    1986-01-01

    Contends that women have always been disproportionately represented among those in poverty and that recent attempts to promote the view of a feminization of poverty masks and promotes sexist and racist public policy agendas. (JDH)

  18. Age at first childbirth and later poverty.

    PubMed

    Moore, K A; Myers, D E; Morrison, D R; Nord, C W; Brown, B; Edmonston, B

    1993-01-01

    A linear structural equation model is used in this research study in order to estimate the simultaneous effects of age at first birth on a woman's subsequent socioeconomic conditions and related outcomes after the age of 27 years. Estimation was accomplished with a variant of Amemiya's principle and a feasible generalized least squares estimator. Analysis involved examination of the bivariate relationship between age at first birth and poverty at age 27 years for Blacks, Hispanics, and Whites, followed by structural equation models for each racial group and then analysis of the total and indirect effects of age at first birth on poverty. Poverty is measured as the ratio of family income to the poverty threshold. Findings indicate that the association between early childbearing and poverty at the age of 27 years is very strong. Young women with educated parents and women with reading materials in their home before the age of 14 years achieved more schooling. When these effects were controlled, being raised by both parents and having more siblings were only associated with more schooling among Whites. Rural Blacks and Whites completed more schooling than rural Hispanics. Blacks in poor states had lower educational attainment. Age at first birth was only significant among Hispanics. First birth was delayed by 1.26 years among Blacks, 0.88 years among Whites, and 0.98 years among Hispanics for having an additional year of schooling. Delaying marriage had the strongest effect among Whites. Delayed childbearing among Blacks was predicted by having fewer siblings, being raised by both parents, and later menstruation. Earlier White childbearing was associated with women from larger families and women with larger ideal family sizes. Hispanic women raised by both parents was associated with delayed childbearing. Findings confirm that age at first birth was associated for all racial groups with poverty. Age at first birth affected educational attainment of Hispanics and age

  19. Women and poverty: a demographic overview.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J B

    1987-01-01

    In the current debate about causes and cures for poverty, much attention is given to women. Women are more likely than men to be poor, and once impoverished, to remain poor for longer periods of time than do men. In addition, a much greater responsibility for raising the next generation of adults belongs to poor women than to poor men. No individual policy response will alleviate poverty among women. Rather, a multi-faceted policy response that recognizes the wide diversity of their situations is necessary. This paper describes the diversity among poor women and suggests a series of appropriate policies. PMID:3448820

  20. U.S. ratification of the CRC and reducing child poverty: can we get there from here?

    PubMed

    Aber, J Lawrence; Hammond, Andrew S; Thompson, Scott M

    2010-01-01

    If the United States finally ratifies the United Nations Convention of the Rights of the Child (CRC), will it improve the country's to effectively combat child poverty and thereby improve child well-being? This article addresses this and related questions in two ways. First, the authors examine how ratification of the CRC has influenced the efforts of other wealthy Anglophone countries to reduce child poverty. Second, they draw on lessons learned from these other countries' efforts to generate predictions about America's postratification future. The authors conclude that, while the CRC is a compelling, practical tool, a communications strategy and business plan are necessary complements to achieve desired results. PMID:21361163

  1. Poverty in Appalachia. Appalachian Data Bank Report #5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tickamyer, Ann R.; Tickamyer, Cecil

    This report examines the causes and effects of Appalachian poverty, focusing on education, unemployment, social services, and economic development. The data in the report were extracted from the 1980 U.S. Census. Although there has been a steady decline in Appalachian poverty rates since the landmark 1964 declaration of a War on Poverty,…

  2. Using the Consumer Expenditure Survey to Teach Poverty Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diduch, Amy McCormick

    2012-01-01

    Poverty measurement is often controversial, but good public policy relies crucially on a broadly supported and understood poverty measure. In 2010, the U.S. Census Bureau announced it would begin regular reporting of a new supplemental poverty measure in October 2011. The present article provides background information for a student exercise…

  3. The Relationships between School Poverty and Student Achievement in Maine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silvernail, David L.; Sloan, James E.; Paul, Chelsea R.; Johnson, Amy F.; Stump, Erika K.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the relationships between school level poverty found in Maine schools and student academic performance. The evidence clearly shows that there is a relationship. As the percent of poverty increases in a school, student performance declines. But the poverty level alone does not explain the wide variations in…

  4. Development and Validation of the Poverty Attributions Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Robert M.; Raiz, Lisa; Davis, Tamara S.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the process of developing and testing the Poverty Attribution Survey (PAS), a measure of poverty attributions. The PAS is theory based and includes original items as well as items from previously tested poverty attribution instruments. The PAS was electronically administered to a sample of state-licensed professional social…

  5. The Relationship of Child Poverty to School Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Child poverty is a global issue that affects around half the children in the world; it is inextricably bound to the poverty experienced by their parents and families and has been identified by the United Nations as a human rights issue. Child poverty can be a barrier to children and young people accessing school education or achieving any form of…

  6. Remediating Child Poverty via Preschool: Exploring Practitioners' Perspectives in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Donald

    2013-01-01

    Within developed countries child poverty is a social problem with significant negative effects. With a backdrop of austerity, the UK's first child poverty strategy was released in 2011. Pervaded by neo-liberal ideology this strategy identifies preschool services as key to remediating the negative effects of child poverty on children and families…

  7. 75 FR 29513 - Developing a Supplemental Poverty Measure

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ... Bureau of the Census Developing a Supplemental Poverty Measure AGENCY: Bureau of the Census, Department... Bureau) issues this notice to request comments on the approach to developing a Supplemental Poverty... on Developing a Supplemental Poverty Measure,'' which was recently released by the...

  8. Neighborhood Poverty and Nonmarital Fertility: Spatial and Temporal Dimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South, Scott J.; Crowder, Kyle

    2010-01-01

    Data from 4,855 respondents to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics were used to examine spatial and temporal dimensions of the effect of neighborhood poverty on teenage premarital childbearing. Although high poverty in the immediate neighborhood increased the risk of becoming an unmarried parent, high poverty in surrounding neighborhoods reduced…

  9. 76 FR 3637 - Annual Update of the HHS Poverty Guidelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ... was delayed, as described at 75 FR 45628. However, the level of the 2011 poverty guidelines presented... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Annual Update of the HHS Poverty Guidelines AGENCY: Department of... Health and Human Services (HHS) poverty guidelines to account for last calendar year's increase in...

  10. Addressing Child Maltreatment in New Zealand: Is Poverty Reduction Enough?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dare, Tim; Vaithianathan, Rhema; De Haan, Irene

    2014-01-01

    Jonathan Boston provides an insightful analysis of the emergence and persistence of child poverty in New Zealand (Boston, 2014, "Educational Philosophy and Theory"). His remarks on why child poverty matters are brief but, as he reports, "there is a large and robust body of research on the harmful consequences of child poverty"…

  11. Monitoring Perceptions of the Causes of Poverty in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davids, Yul Derek; Gouws, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    This study explored how people perceive the causes of poverty. Literature revealed that there are three broad theoretical explanations of perceptions of the causes of poverty, namely individualistic explanations, where blame is placed squarely on the poor themselves; structural explanations, where poverty is blamed on external social and economic…

  12. Has Poverty Really Increased among Children since 1970? Working Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Susan E.; Jencks, Christopher

    After a century of fairly steady decline, the official poverty rate among American children increased from 14.0% in 1969 to 19.6% in 1989, suggesting that the United States is losing the war on poverty. However, once various defects in the official poverty measure are corrected, it appears that the proportion of children in households with income…

  13. Education, Cognitive Development, and Poverty: Implications for School Finance Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BenDavid-Hadar, Iris

    2014-01-01

    Child poverty is a growing problem that adversely affects both future society and the poor children themselves. This paper's purpose is to investigate the intergenerational links between education and poverty. Israel serves as an interesting case study because it has exhibited an incremental trend in child poverty between 1980 and 2010 (from 5% to…

  14. Education: A Solution for Rural Poverty? Staff Paper 350.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clouser, Rodney L.

    This paper presents an overview of poverty in rural America, and examines the ways in which improved education could alleviate rural poverty. The question of education as a mechanism to reduce poverty includes issues of economic demand and supply. On the demand side, labor market projections indicate that the service sector will continue to grow,…

  15. Shortchanged: Recent Developments in Hispanic Poverty, Income, and Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenstein, Robert; And Others

    Despite a fifth year of economic recovery in 1987, the poverty rate for Hispanic Americans remained at nearly the same level in 1987 as during the severe recession of the early 1980s. Among non-Hispanics, by contrast, poverty rates have declined during the recovery, making Hispanics the only racial or ethnic group whose poverty rates remain at or…

  16. Incidence, Depth and Severity of Children in Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delamonica, Enrique Ernesto; Minujin, Alberto

    2007-01-01

    Recently, the first ever estimate of the number of children living poverty in developing countries was undertaken. The incidence of child poverty was estimated by establishing how many children suffer severe deprivation in at least one out of seven indicators which are internationally recognized as their rights as well as constitutive of poverty.…

  17. Fighting Poverty: Attentive Policy Can Make a Huge Difference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smeeding, Timothy M.; Waldfogel, Jane

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the implication of the implementation of anti-poverty policy in both the United Kingdom and the United States. International studies of child poverty usually find that the United States and United Kingdom are at the bottom of the league table in terms of child poverty. Indeed, the U.S. and U.K do not fare well in…

  18. Online Resources for Developing an Awareness of Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Kathy R.

    2008-01-01

    In the elementary school, poverty, hunger, and homelessness are most often discussed in terms of a canned food drive conducted during a holiday season, but there are other options for activities in which children can learn about poverty, and to do something about it. This article describes ways to develop students awareness of poverty. Some print…

  19. Turning High-Poverty Schools into High-Performing Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrett, William H.; Budge, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    If some schools can overcome the powerful and pervasive effects of poverty to become high performing, shouldn't any school be able to do the same? Shouldn't we be compelled to learn from those schools? Although schools alone will never systemically eliminate poverty, high-poverty, high-performing (HP/HP) schools take control of what they can to…

  20. Attacking Poverty. World Development Report, 2000/2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    This report seeks to expand the understanding of poverty and its causes and sets out actions to create to create a world free of poverty in all its dimensions. The report both builds on past thinking and strategy and substantially broadens and deepens what is judged to be necessary to meet the challenge of reducing poverty. It argues that major…

  1. Poverty in Latin America: A Critical Analysis of Three Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boltvinik, Julio

    1996-01-01

    Critically evaluates the methodologies used in three recent studies on poverty in Latin America. Maintains that some studies measure the relative nature of nutritional poverty while others record the absolute nature of nutritional poverty (physical survival). Includes a comparative analysis of the studies' results. (MJP)

  2. Poverty, Literacy, and Politics: Living in the USA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shannon, Patrick

    1996-01-01

    Offers an extended discussion of poverty and class in America. Explores definitions of class and the government's role in the maintenance of poverty and wealth. Presents alternative explanations for the causes of poverty in the United States. Brings into question the functionalist axiom that literacy is a tool for school and economic success. (RS)

  3. Neighborhood Poverty. Policy Implications in Studying Neighborhoods. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne, Ed.; Duncan, Greg J., Ed.; Aber, J. Lawrence, Ed.

    Volume 2 of the "Neighborhood Poverty" series incorporates empirical data on neighborhood poverty into discussions of policy and program development. The chapters are: (1) "Ecological Perspectives on the Neighborhood Context of Urban Poverty: Past and Present" (Robert J. Sampson and Jeffrey D. Morenoff); (2) "The Influence of Neighborhoods on…

  4. The Multidimensionality of Child Poverty: Evidence from Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trani, Jean-Francois; Biggeri, Mario; Mauro, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines multidimensional poverty among children in Afghanistan using the Alkire-Foster method. Several previous studies have underlined the need to separate children from their adult nexus when studying poverty and treat them according to their own specificities. From the capability approach, child poverty is understood to be the lack…

  5. The Pennsylvania Panel on Rural Poverty. Final Summary Report, 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Community Affairs, Harrisburg.

    An analysis of the facts and opinions on rural poverty presented in over 1,000 pages of testimony to the Pennsylvania Panel on Rural Poverty is presented in this report. The problem of poverty is discussed in general and also as it specifically relates to Pennsylvania in terms of conditions, causes, proposals for improvement, comments, and the…

  6. International-local remuneration differences across six countries: do they undermine poverty reduction work?

    PubMed

    Carr, Stuart C; McWha, Ishbel; Maclachlan, Malcolm; Furnham, Adrian

    2010-10-01

    Despite the rhetoric of a single global economy, professionals in poorer countries continue to be remunerated differently depending on whether they are compensated at a local vs. international rate. Project ADDUP (Are Development Discrepancies Undermining Performance?) surveyed 1290 expatriate and local professionals (response rate = 47%) from aid, education, government, and business sectors in (1) Island Nations (Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands), (2) landlocked economies (Malaŵi, Uganda), and (3) emerging economies (India, China). Difference in pay was estimated using purchasing power parity, from the World Bank's World Development Indicators 2007. Psychological measures included self-reported pay and benefits (remuneration), self-attributed ability, remuneration comparison, sense of justice in remuneration, remuneration-related motivation, thoughts of turnover and thoughts about international mobility. We included control measures of candour, culture shock, cultural values (horizontal/vertical individualism/collectivism), personality (from the "big five"), job satisfaction and work engagement. Controlling for these and country (small effects) and organization effects (medium), (a) pay ratios between international and local workers exceeded what were perceived to be acceptable pay thresholds among respondents remunerated locally; who also reported a combination of a sense of relative (b) injustice and demotivation; which (c) together with job satisfaction/work engagement predicted turnover and international mobility. These findings question the wisdom of dual salary systems in general, expose and challenge a major contradiction between contemporary development policy and practice, and have a range of practical, organizational, and theoretical implications for poverty reduction work. PMID:22044054

  7. Hunger, Poverty, and Malnutrition in Rural Mississippi.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storer, John H.; Frate, Dennis A.

    1990-01-01

    Defining hunger on the basis of poverty or other nonphysiological criteria is misleading. With nutritional data used by human-service agencies, suggests programs with such conception of hunger hurt the efforts at nutritional change. Uses central Mississippi as an example to propose objective nutritional definition and assessment. (TES)

  8. Educating Students of Poverty: One School's Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallenstein, Roger

    2012-01-01

    The focus of the achievement gap seems to be less about racial and ethnic distinctions and more about disparities in socioeconomic status. Students from affluent and secure backgrounds have a running head start on students mired in poverty. Few young people in the United States live in more challenging conditions than the children of the eastern…

  9. The Culture of Poverty: A Critique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leacock, Eleanor Burke, Ed.

    This book, originating as a series of papers given in a critical symposium on the "culture of poverty" concept, comprises chapters written expressly for the book, with a couple of exceptions, and embodying reports on the original research or direct experience of the individual writers. The authors vary in their emphases and interests, but share…

  10. Education and Poverty Reduction in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wedgwood, Ruth

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews research on the returns to education in Tanzania, both financial and non-financial, and considers whether these returns translate into poverty reduction. It looks at reasons why achievement of high primary enrolment rates in the past did not lead to the realisation of the associated developmental outcomes, considering factors…

  11. Life and Poverty in the Maritimes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pepin, Pierre-Yves

    Five areas in the Maritime Provinces of Canada were subjected to intensive geographical, economic, and sociological surveys in an attempt to determine and define poverty illustratively rather than statistically. Information was obtained by in-residence researchers on bio-physical setting, settlement, population, labor and economic activity,…

  12. Teacher Resilience: Theorizing Resilience and Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebersöhn, Liesel

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I hope to provide some novel insights into teacher resilience and poverty on the basis of ten-year long-term ethnographic participatory reflection and action data obtained from teachers (n?=?87) in rural (n?=?6) and urban (n?=?8) schools (n?=?14, high schools?=?4, primary schools?=?10) in three South African provinces. In…

  13. Poverty in the Developing Countries--1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clausen, A. W.

    Although the number of people in developing nations who are too poor to provide themselves with an adequate diet is rising, this is not reason to assume that such poverty is inevitable. Strategies that foster economic growth and include poor people in the growth process can be found in countries with such diverse political and economic systems as…

  14. An inside Look at Education and Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swain, Carol M.

    2006-01-01

    Behind this discussion of minority achievement is a story of one who transcended poverty and rose to the top of American education. Carol Swain advises that a student from a poor family should not be penalized because her parents are not able to involve themselves in school. This and other recommendations on policy reflect a profoundly personal…

  15. Education and Poverty in Rural China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Philip H.; Park, Albert

    2002-01-01

    Analyzes household and school survey data from poor counties in six Chinese provinces to examine the effects of poverty, intra-household decision-making, and school quality on educational investments and learning outcomes. Finds, for example, that being poor and credit-constrained does not significantly affect learning in school (as measured by…

  16. Myths of Poverty--Realities for Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Alice

    2010-01-01

    A full stomach and clear mind are prerequisites for learning. Many children who live in poverty have neither. And the number of children who might be considered "food challenged" is growing at an alarming rate. This economic reality translates into ever-growing challenges for the public education system, which already struggles to provide all the…

  17. Illiteracy, Poverty and Racism: Their Interconnexion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harman, David

    1978-01-01

    Illiteracy, racism, and poverty are clearly interrelated, with perhaps even some elements of cause and effect. But education is not the only factor, according to the author. He notes that it is necessary to approach each cultural group through its own sociocultural and educative mechanisms. (MF)

  18. Integrating Global Poverty into Mainstream Business Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paton, Bruce; Harris-Boundy, Jason; Melhus, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Most of the products and services discussed in business curricula serve a small portion of humanity. But the great majority of economic growth over the next few decades is expected to occur in emerging and frontier markets. This emerging reality increases the urgency for including topics related to global poverty, unmet human needs, and emergence…

  19. The Poverty of the Mayan Stimulus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pye, Clifton

    2012-01-01

    Poverty of the stimulus (POS) arguments have instigated considerable debate in the recent linguistics literature. This article uses the comparative method to challenge the logic of POS arguments. Rather than question the premises of POS arguments, the article demonstrates how POS arguments for individual languages lead to a "reductio ad absurdum"…

  20. The Nonculture of Poverty among Black Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruber, Murray

    1972-01-01

    Although the culture of poverty may be applicable to the barrios of South America, this study of the aspirations, expectations, and attitudes toward protest of Negro youths in Cleveland refutes the validity of this theory for lower-class urban Americans. (Author)

  1. Addressing Energy Poverty through Smarter Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oldfield, Eddie

    2011-01-01

    Energy poverty is a key detriment to labor productivity, economic growth, and social well-being. This article presents a qualitative review of literature on the potential role of intelligent communication technology, web-based standards, and smart grid technology to alleviate energy costs and improve access to clean distributed energy in developed…

  2. Child Development and the Cycle of Poverty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Irving B.

    The incidence of child abuse, child neglect, parental drug abuse, and other child-related problems is increasing rapidly. More children are coming to school at risk of failure. What can be done to prevent the cycle of poverty and poor education that results? Head Start is a good program, but even Head Start cannot help a third of its participants:…

  3. Breaking out of the Circle of Poverty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, J. D. Ekundayo

    1996-01-01

    Poverty in Africa is related to numerous factors: history of slavery, colonial and neocolonial rule, political and economic dependence, foreign debt, government corruption, high illiteracy, gender insensitivity, civil wars that create refugees, and unemployment. Solutions must take into account the political, economic, and social factors that…

  4. The Other Poor: Rural Poverty and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Books, Sue

    1997-01-01

    This paper argues that rural poverty remains relatively invisible because, although shameful, it is profitable, and the rural poor pose little threat to their suburban neighbors. This is illustrated via interrogation concerning a rural poultry plant fire. The paper examines implications of this case for foundations scholars and educational…

  5. Health systems perspectives - infectious diseases of poverty.

    PubMed

    Huntington, Dale

    2012-01-01

    The right to health as a fundamental human right is enshrined in the World Health Organization's charter and has been reaffirmed in international agreements spanning decades. This new journal reminds us of the essential characteristic of poverty as a violent abuse of human rights. The context of poverty - its social, political and economic dimensions - remain in the reader's mind as evidence is provided on technical solutions to managing the infectious diseases that afflict poor populations world-wide. Applying a health systems framework to a discussion on infectious diseases of poverty emerges from the papers in this journal's first edition. Many of the articles discuss treatments, indicating the importance of pharmaceuticals for neglected diseases. Delivery strategies to reach impoverished populations also figure within this first round of papers. Innovative programs that provide diagnostics and treatment for infectious diseases to hard-to-reach rural and urban communities are needed clearly needed, and some good examples are discussed here. Future editions will explore other health system components, broadening the evidence base to increase understanding of effective and sustainable interventions to reduce the burden of infectious disease among the poor. The editors are to be congratulated on the release of this inaugural issue of the journal Infectious Diseases of Poverty. We look forward to reading subsequent editions. PMID:23848993

  6. Education, Democracy and Poverty Reduction in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harber, Clive

    2002-01-01

    Authoritarian rule in Africa has exacerbated poverty levels in six ways. Achievement of greater democracy depends upon political culture and civil society in Africa becoming more democratic; education must play a part in teaching democratic values and behaviors. Examples show how education has not furthered democracy in Botswana, Zimbabwe, and…

  7. Young Children in Poverty: A Statistical Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jiali; Bennett, Neil

    The highlights of this statistical update include a new profile of the extremely poor, poor, and near poor population of young children; the use of an alternative measure of young child poverty that provides new insights into the impact of programs and policies on the economic well-being of young children; and a brief examination of why the…

  8. Poverty, Trauma, and Infant Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Alicia F.; Osofsky, Joy D.

    2009-01-01

    Young children growing up in poverty face chronic risk factors, including abuse and neglect, severe maternal depression, parental substance abuse, harsh parenting, and family and community violence as well as greater exposure to physical risks, including substandard housing, lack of access to resources, and environmental toxins. The authors offer…

  9. Poverty and Program Participation among Immigrant Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borjas, George J.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have long known that poverty in childhood is linked with a range of negative adult socioeconomic outcomes, from lower educational achievement and behavioral problems to lower earnings in the labor market. But few researchers have explored whether exposure to a disadvantaged background affects immigrant children and native children…

  10. Poverty and Mental Retardation: A Causal Relationship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurley, Rodger L.

    The incidence of mental retardation among the poor and the reasons for such high prevalence are the focus of the text which is based largely on the state of New Jersey. Mental retardation is viewed as a social pathology which thrives in the ghetto; the effects of poverty and racial prejudice are explored as are the assessment of intelligence and…

  11. Poverty, Food Programs, and Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofferth, Sandra L.; Curtin, Sally

    2005-01-01

    Sixteen percent of children 6-11 years of age were classified as overweight in 1999-2002, four times the percentage in 1965. Although poverty has traditionally been associated with underweight as a result of poor diet, researchers have recently pointed to a paradox in the U.S., which is that low income and obesity can coexist in the same…

  12. Obesity and Poverty: A Growing Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Dianne Yow; Queen, J. Allen; Schumacher, Donald

    2007-01-01

    This research study addresses the childhood obesity epidemic, which has seen the number of overweight children from the ages of 6 to 11 triple since the mid-1970s. The authors note that there are more than twice as many poor and obese adolescents compared with more affluent youths, and examine a number of factors linking obesity and poverty.…

  13. The Constraints of Poverty on High Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burney, Virginia H.; Beilke, Jayne R.

    2008-01-01

    Research studies on school success often focus on the impact of discrete elements such as race, culture, ethnicity, gender, language, or school location on high achievement. The condition of poverty, however, may be the most important of all student differences in relation to high achievement; although not all schools have racial diversity, nearly…

  14. The Importance of Early Childhood Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Greg J.; Magnuson, Katherine; Kalil, Ariel; Ziol-Guest, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    Most poor children achieve less, exhibit more problem behaviors and are less healthy than children reared in more affluent families. We look beyond correlations such as these to a recent set of studies that attempt to assess the causal impact of childhood poverty on adult well-being. We pay particular attention to the potentially harmful effects…

  15. CHILDREN OF POVERTY--CHILDREN OF AFFLUENCE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LEWIS, HYLAN; AND OTHERS

    THE CONTRIBUTORS TO THIS PUBLICATION EXAMINE HYPOTHESES ABOUT FAMILY LIFE AND SOCIETAL PRESSURES AND THEIR EFFECTS ON THE CHILDREN OF THE RICH AND POOR. PROFESSOR HYLAN LEWIS FOCUSES HIS ATTENTION ON THE INTERRELATION OF ETHNICITY, RACE, AND POVERTY, PARTICULARLY THE RELATED ISSUES OF ONE-PARENT FAMILIES, FAMILY PLANNING, AND THE GUARANTEED…

  16. Educational Relationships and Their Impact on Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wikeley, Felicity; Bullock, Kate; Muschamp, Yolande; Ridge, Tess

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the premise that children in poverty are disadvantaged in their potential to learn by the extent and quality of their social networks and educational relationships. The research examines the quality and sustainability of educational relationships between children and adults in out-of-school activities. We build a theoretical…

  17. Exploring Differences in National and International Poverty Estimates: Is Uganda on Track to Halve Poverty by 2015?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores causes of differences in estimates of poverty incidence in Uganda since the early 1990s as measured by the Uganda Bureau of Statistics and the World Bank. While both sets of estimates from the two organisations show a declining trend in poverty incidence there are important differences in the levels of poverty, the speed of the…

  18. The Effects of the Recession on Child Poverty: Poverty Statistics for 2008 and Growth in Need during 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaacs, Julia B.

    2009-01-01

    Nearly one in five children under age 18 lived in poor families in 2008, according to poverty statistics released by the Census Bureau in September 2009. Though high, this statistic does not capture the full impact of the economic downturn, which is expected to drive poverty even higher in 2009. However, updated poverty statistics will not be…

  19. An Indirect Effects Model of the Association between Poverty and Child Functioning: The Role of Children's Poverty-Related Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadsworth, Martha E.; Raviv, Tali; Reinhard, Christine; Wolff, Brian; Santiago, Catherine DeCarlo; Einhorn, Lindsey

    2008-01-01

    The authors tested a theoretical model positing that poverty has an indirect effect on child and adolescent functioning through children's poverty-related stress. Path analyses with a multiethnic sample of 164 children aged 6 to 18 revealed that the stress associated with poverty, such as economic strain, family conflict, violence/trauma, and…

  20. Child Poverty in the States: Levels and Trends from 1979 to 1998. Childhood Poverty Research Brief 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Neil G.; Lu, Hsien-Hen

    This research brief uses the official measure of poverty and the most recent data available from the U.S. Census Bureau to document poverty rates for children under age 18 in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. The brief examines long-term trends in child poverty between 1979 and 1998 in each state. Further, the brief examines components…

  1. Putting Poverty in Political Context: A Multi-Level Analysis of Adult Poverty across 18 Affluent Democracies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, David; Fullerton, Andrew S.; Cross, Jennifer Moren

    2009-01-01

    Our study analyzes how political context, embodied by the welfare state and Leftist political actors, shapes individual poverty. Using the Luxembourg Income Study, we conduct a multi-level analysis of working-aged adult poverty across 18 affluent Western democracies. Our index of welfare generosity has a negative effect on poverty net of…

  2. Decomposing Composing Conventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beers, Terry

    Recent research has invited critiques of the authoritative descriptions of composing found in many rhetoric textbooks. The concept of "convention" may be especially useful in rethinking the teleological basis of these textbook descriptions. Conventions found in composition textbooks need to be unmasked as arbitrary concepts which serve to…

  3. Can AIDS stigma be reduced to poverty stigma? Exploring Zimbabwean children's representations of poverty and AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, C; Skovdal, M; Mupambireyi, Z; Madanhire, C; Robertson, L; Nyamukapa, C A; Gregson, S

    2012-01-01

    Objective We use children's drawings to investigate social stigmatization of AIDS-affected and poverty-affected children by their peers, in the light of suggestions that the stigmatization of AIDS-affected children might derive more from the poverty experienced by these children than from their association with AIDS. Methods A qualitative study, in rural Zimbabwe, used draw-and-write techniques to elicit children's (10–12 years) representations of AIDS-affected children (n= 30) and poverty-affected children (n= 33) in 2009 and 2010 respectively. Results Representations of children affected by AIDS and by poverty differed significantly. The main problems facing AIDS-affected children were said to be the psychosocial humiliations of AIDS stigma and children's distress about sick relatives. Contrastingly, poverty-affected children were depicted as suffering from physical and material neglect and deprivation. Children affected by AIDS were described as caregivers of parents whom illness prevented from working. This translated into admiration and respect for children's active contribution to household survival. Poverty-affected children were often portrayed as more passive victims of their guardians' inability or unwillingness to work or to prioritize their children's needs, with these children having fewer opportunities to exercise agency in response to their plight. Conclusions The nature of children's stigmatization of their AIDS-affected peers may often be quite distinct from poverty stigma, in relation to the nature of suffering (primarily psychosocial and material respectively), the opportunities for agency offered by each affliction, and the opportunities each condition offers for affected children to earn the respect of their peers and community. We conclude that the particular nature of AIDS stigma offers greater opportunities for stigma reduction than poverty stigma. PMID:21985490

  4. Rural poverty and development in West Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Peacock, F

    1981-07-01

    Rural poverty in West Malaysia during the 1957-1970 period is examined. The period covered was 1 of a high rate of growth combined with an increasing inequality of income and worsening poverty. During the 1955-1970 period, a large amount of development funds, manpower, and expertise was directed towards a reduction of West Malaysia's rural poverty. Despite these efforts, rural poverty increased. Over the period under review, the share of income going to the richest 20% of the population increased from 50% to 56%; the share going to the middle 20% of the population remained constant at 20%; the poorest 60% of the population saw their share of income decline from 30% to 24%. The poorest 40% of the population received only 11.6% of income in 1970. They were predominantly rural, with this sector accounting for 87% of all poverty. The 3 development plans of this period set high aggregate growth rates as the primary targets and emphasized productivity and income in the rural sector. Rural development has not been sold short; the total funding figure of $2,209.46 million represents 40% of all development spending between 1956 and 1970. The money funded 3 broad areas of rural development: replanting of smallholder rubber with high-yielding clones; increasing rice production; and opening new land. The strategy has been to concentrate upon raising the yields from existing farmland and expanding into new areas of settlement. The problem of dealing with poverty in West Malaysia was made worse by the rapid rate of population increase. The population increase of 1,657,000 was absorbed into the traditional smallholder sector, very largely in exisitng areas of settlement. Over the same period, the modern sector of agriculture, the rubber estates, reduced their labor force by 30,000 as they moved into the cultivation of oil palm, a crop requiring less labor. Some of the additional agricultural workers were placed on new land under government land-development and resettlement

  5. Melatonin premedication versus placebo in wisdom teeth extraction: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Seet, Edwin; Liaw, Chen Mei; Tay, Sylvia; Su, Chang

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Pain after wisdom teeth surgery can be moderate in severity and is compounded by preoperative anxiety in young patients. We studied the effect of melatonin premedication on postoperative pain and preoperative anxiety in patients undergoing wisdom teeth extractions. METHODS This randomised controlled trial recruited 76 patients at Khoo Teck Puat Hospital who were American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I and II, aged 21 to 65 and scheduled to undergo elective extraction of all four wisdom teeth under general anaesthesia. Patients with a history of long-term use or allergy to melatonin were excluded. The patients received either 6 mg melatonin or a placebo 90 minutes before surgery. Visual analogue scale (VAS) scores at multiple time intervals for postoperative pain and preoperative anxiety, patient satisfaction and first-night sleep quality scores were obtained. Mixed-effects regression models were used for longitudinal analysis of VAS pain, anxiety and satisfaction scores. RESULTS Maximum VAS scores for pain and anxiety were 18.6 ± 19.1 mm at 60 minutes postoperatively and 26.2 ± 23.4 mm at 90 minutes preoperatively, respectively. After adjusting for gender, female patients who received melatonin had a faster rate of reduction of VAS pain (p = 0.020) and anxiety scores (p = 0.003) over time compared to the placebo group. No such effect was demonstrated in male patients. There was no significant difference in sleep quality or satisfaction scores. CONCLUSION Melatonin use did not consistently contribute to pain and anxiety amelioration in all patients. Our study demonstrated a positive effect in female patients, suggestive of sexual dimorphism. PMID:26702161

  6. Seminars may increase recruitment to randomised controlled trials: lessons learned from WISDOM

    PubMed Central

    Paine, Bronwen J; Stocks, Nigel P; MacLennan, Alastair H

    2008-01-01

    Background Recruiting patients to large randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in the primary care setting can be challenging. Research teams need to identify and utilise strategies that both maximise the efficiency of recruitment and minimise the burden on general practitioners. Purpose To describe our methods for identifying, approaching and recruiting female patients aged 50–69 years to a long-term double-blind RCT of hormone therapy (HT) – the Women's International Study of long Duration Oestrogen after Menopause (WISDOM). The effectiveness of conducting group seminars with patients prior to one-to-one screening is discussed. Methods Female patients aged between 50 and 69 years were sent letters from participating general practitioners in Adelaide inviting them to participate in WISDOM and attend an initial seminar providing information about HT and the trial prior to a screening interview with a trial nurse. Recruitment rates for those who did or did not attend group seminars were compared. Results Women who attended a group seminar conducted by the research team were twice as likely to attend an initial screening visit and enrol to participate in WISDOM than women who did not attend a seminar (p < 0.001). In addition, it was estimated that the time required to randomise a woman in the trial, and the number and duration of telephone calls to screen out uninterested women, was reduced for the seminar group. Conclusion Conducting group seminars with potential participants may be a useful strategy for maximising recruitment from general practice, by increasing patient information and reducing a research team's workload. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN63718836 PMID:18226264

  7. Do poverty programs alleviate poverty? The case of the Mexican National Solidarity Program.

    PubMed

    Laurell, A C; Wences, M I

    1994-01-01

    In recent years, compensatory poverty programs have been adopted in several countries in response to the social and political effects of structural adjustment programs implemented by most Latin American and African countries. The authors analyze the Mexican National Solidarity Program "Pronasol," often cited as an exemplary social compensation program, by inquiring into its impact on poverty. The authors first investigate the relationship between structural adjustment and the process of impoverishment, in order to establish the dynamics and magnitude of poverty in Mexico. They find that the structural adjustment program has considerably increased poverty, mainly through a sustained wage decrease and job losses. The authors next discuss whether Pronasol complies with the requisites of a program that warrants a social minimum for the poor, and whether the resource allocation complies with objective criteria of the sociogeographic distribution of poverty. The data suggest that Pronasol cannot be considered to guarantee a social minimum for the poor, given the magnitude of poverty, the scarce resources allocated, the orientation of the subprograms, and the regional distribution of funds. Nor does it qualify as a social compensation program of any importance. Finally, an alternative interpretation of Pronasol is offered in the field of legitimation and political control. PMID:7928007

  8. Imogene M. King's scholars reflect on her wisdom and influence on nursing science.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Pamela N; Killeen, Mary B; Messmer, Patricia R; Leibold Sieloff, Christina

    2009-04-01

    Reflections on the impact of the work of great leaders are vital for both scientists and practitioners to gain important perspectives on the progress of the evolution of the discipline. Recognizing the influence of a particular theorist's impact is particularly important at the time of death, which is the time where the development of a particular theory moves from the originator to the followers. This column serves as a tribute to Imogene M. King, and is dedicated to her wisdom in promoting the conceptual system she developed. PMID:19342711

  9. The Evolution of Data-Information-Knowledge-Wisdom in Nursing Informatics.

    PubMed

    Ronquillo, Charlene; Currie, Leanne M; Rodney, Paddy

    2016-01-01

    The data-information-knowledge-wisdom (DIKW) model has been widely adopted in nursing informatics. In this article, we examine the evolution of DIKW in nursing informatics while incorporating critiques from other disciplines. This includes examination of assumptions of linearity and hierarchy and an exploration of the implicit philosophical grounding of the model. Two guiding questions are considered: (1) Does DIKW serve clinical information systems, nurses, or both? and (2) What level of theory does DIKW occupy? The DIKW model has been valuable in advancing the independent field of nursing informatics. We offer that if the model is to continue to move forward, its role and functions must be explicitly addressed. PMID:26836997

  10. Design and Performance of the WISDOM Antenna System aboard the ExoMars Rover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plettemeier, D.; Ciarletti, V.; Hamran, S.; Corbel, C.; Linke, S.; Benedix, W.

    2009-04-01

    A full polarimetric antenna system on board the ExoMars rover is part of the Experiment "Water Ice and Subsurface Deposit Observations on Mars" (WISDOM). The WISDOM-Experiment is a Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) selected to be part of the Pasteur payload aboard the rover of the ExoMars mission. The Pasteur Panoramic Instruments (wide angle camera PANCAM, infrared spectrometer MIMA and WISDOM) will perform large-scale scientific investigations at the sites the Rover will visit. Among these instruments, WISDOM is the only one that can provide a view of the subsurface structure prior to drilling. WISDOM is the first space borne GPR aboard a rover and has been designed to characterize the shallow subsurface structure of Mars. WISDOM will give for the first time access to the geological structure, electromagnetic nature, and, possibly, of hydrological state of the shallow subsurface by retrieving the layering and properties of the buried reflectors. It will address some important related science questions regarding the planet present state and past evolution. The measured data will also be used to determine the most promising locations at which to obtain underground samples with the drilling system mounted on board the rover. The instrument objective for WISDOM is to get high-resolution measurements down to 2-meters depth in the Martian crust. The radar is a gated step frequency system covering the frequency range from 500 MHz to 3 GHz. The radar is fully polarimetric and makes use of four ultra wideband Vivaldi antennas. This poster describes the requirements, the design and the realization of the WISDOM antenna system accommodated on the ExoMars rover. Simulated antenna performance and measured antenna parameters as well as preliminary antenna test measurements performed in the lab and in permafrost regions on earth will be discussed in this poster presentation. The main design requirements of the WISDOM antenna system are driven one hand by the required science

  11. A Global Poverty Map Derived from Satellite Data

    SciTech Connect

    Elvidge, Christopher D.; Sutton, Paul S.; Ghosh, Tilottama; Tuttle, Benjamin T.; Baugh, Kimberly E.; Bhaduri, Budhendra L; Bright, Eddie A

    2009-01-01

    A global poverty map has been produced at 30 arc sec resolution using a poverty index calculated by dividing population count (LandScan2004) by the brightness of satellite observed lighting (DMSP nighttimelights). Inputs to the LandScan product include satellite-derived landcover and topography, plus human settlement outlines derived from high-resolution imagery. The poverty estimates have been calibrated using national level poverty data from the World Development Indicators (WDI) 2006 edition. The total estimate of the numbers of individuals living in poverty is 2.2billion, slightly under the WDI estimate of 2.6 billion. We have demonstrated a new class of poverty map that should improve over time through the inclusion of new reference data for calibration of poverty estimates and as improvements are made in the satellite observation of human activities related to economic activity and technology access.

  12. Tokamak coordinate conventions: COCOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauter, O.; Medvedev, S. Yu.

    2013-02-01

    Dealing with electromagnetic fields, in particular current and related magnetic fields, yields "natural" physical vector relations in 3-D. However, when it comes to choosing local coordinate systems, the "usual" right-handed systems are not necessarily the best choices, which means that there are several options being chosen. In the magnetic fusion community such a difficulty exists for the choices of the cylindrical and of the toroidal coordinate systems. In addition many codes depend on knowledge of an equilibrium. In particular, the Grad-Shafranov axisymmetric equilibrium solution for tokamak plasmas, ψ, does not depend on the sign of the plasma current Ip nor that of the magnetic field B0. This often results in ill-defined conventions. Moreover the sign, amplitude and offset of ψ are of less importance, since the free sources in the equation depend on the normalized radial coordinate. The signs of the free sources, dp/dψ and dF2/dψ (p being the pressure, ψ the poloidal magnetic flux and F=RBφ), must be consistent to generate the current density profile. For example, RF and CD calculations (Radio Frequency heating and Current Drive) require an exact sign convention in order to calculate a co- or counter-CD component. It is shown that there are over 16 different coordinate conventions. This paper proposes a unique identifier, the COCOS convention, to distinguish between the 16 most-commonly used options. Given the present worldwide efforts towards code integration, the proposed new index COCOS defining uniquely the COordinate COnventionS required as input by a given code or module is particularly useful. As codes use different conventions, it is useful to allow different sign conventions for equilibrium code input and output, equilibrium being at the core of any calculations in magnetic fusion. Additionally, given two different COCOS conventions, it becomes simple to transform between them. The relevant transformations are described in detail.

  13. Lingual nerve injury subsequent to wisdom teeth removal--a 5-year retrospective audit from a high street dental practice.

    PubMed

    Malden, N J; Maidment, Y G

    2002-08-24

    Lingual nerve damage subsequent to lower wisdom tooth removal affects a small number of patients, sometimes producing permanent sensory loss or impairment. A number of surgical techniques have been described which are associated with low incidences of this distressing post-operative complication. When a technique is adopted by an individual clinician then a personal audit may be prudent to establish how effective it is in relation to established nerve injury rates. This audit looks at a technique involving the minimal interference of lingual soft tissues during lower wisdom tooth removal in a high street practice situation for patients having mild to moderate impacted wisdom teeth removed under local anaesthetic. It was concluded that the technique employed was associated with a low incidence of lingual nerve trauma, comparable with that reported elsewhere. PMID:12222906

  14. Applying Erikson’s Wisdom to Self-Management Practices of Older Adults: Findings from Two Field Studies

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Tam E.; Hassevoort, Luke; Ruggiano, Nicole; Shtompel, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    According to Erik Erikson’s theory on the stages of human development, achieving wisdom later in life involves revisiting previous crises and renewing psychosocial accomplishments. However, few studies have used Erikson’s theory as a framework for examining how older adults self-manage physical and mental health changes that commonly occur later in life. This paper presents findings from two qualitative studies that demonstrate how older adults apply wisdom in new domains. Specifically, it was found that older adults (1) reasserted autonomy by initiating creative problem solving; and 2) applied skills gained from productive activities earlier in life to new health-related problems that arise later in life. These findings highlight the importance of engaging older adults to repurpose their life skills, and thus reapply wisdom to new areas of their lives. Implications for practice are discussed. PMID:25651571

  15. Negotiating the labyrinth of modernity's promise a paradigm analysis of energy poverty in peri-urban Kumasi, Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odarno, Lily Ameley

    Energy poverty in developing countries has been conventionally attributed to a lack of access to sufficient, sustainable and modern forms of energy (ESMAP 2001; Modi et al. 2006). Per this definition, Sub--Saharan Africa is the most energy poor region in the world today. In line with this, efforts at addressing energy poverty in the region have concentrated on the expansion of access to modern energy sources, particularly electricity. In spite of the implementation of diverse energy development interventions, access to modern energy services remains limited. That energy poverty remains one of the most pressing challenges in Sub--Saharan Africa today in spite of the many decades of energy development necessitates a candid and thorough re--evaluation of the questions that have been traditionally asked about this issue and the solutions that have been offered in response to it. Based on theoretical analyses and empirical studies in peri--urban Kumasi, Ghana, this study attempts to offer some of the much needed re--evaluations. Using Kuhn's paradigm approach as a conceptual tool, this dissertation identifies peri--urban energy poverty as a paradigm--scale conflict in the modern arrangement of energy--development relations. By emphasizing the importance of context and political economy in understanding energy poverty, the study proposes strategies for an alternative paradigm in which energy--development relations are fundamentally redefined; one which enlists appropriate knowledge, technologies, and institutions in addressing the needs of the energy poor in ways which promote environmental values, social equity and sustainable livelihoods.

  16. Earth Wisdom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Matre, Steve

    1985-01-01

    In our human-centered ignorance and arrogance we are rapidly destroying the earth. We must start helping people understand the big picture of ecological concepts. What these concepts mean for our own lives and how we must begin to change our lifestyles in order to live more harmoniously with the earth. (JHZ)

  17. Leadership wisdom.

    PubMed

    Melanson, Mark A

    2009-01-01

    Becoming a good leader starts with effectively leading yourself. Good leadership flows from good followership. While leaders need to be adaptive, they need to make sure that change is actually necessary and not merely the illusion of progress. Effective juggling of leadership responsibilities requires identifying the glass balls and making sure that they do not drop. Leaders need to be visible and be out front, especially when things get rough or when they are the most perilous. Anger should never be allowed to reign and cloud a leader's judgment. Leadership is not "one size fits all," those being led are unique and, consequently, different approaches will be necessary to properly motivate followers. When considering important leadership decisions, it is advisable to seek out your own Napoleon's Corporal to be sure that your plan is sound and those who will implement it do in fact fully understand it. Genuine belief in your Soldiers is the most powerful and lasting thing that you can express as a leader. Lastly, mentoring is a solemn responsibility of leaders that must never be eclipsed by the many literal and figurative battles of the day. PMID:20073357

  18. Duration and Timing of Exposure to Neighborhood Poverty and the Risk of Adolescent Parenthood

    PubMed Central

    Wodtke, Geoffrey T.

    2013-01-01

    Theory suggests that the impact of neighborhood poverty depends on both the duration and timing of exposure. Previous research, however, does not properly analyze the sequence of neighborhoods to which children are exposed throughout the early life course. This study investigates the effects of different longitudinal patterns of exposure to disadvantaged neighborhoods on the risk of adolescent parenthood. It follows a cohort of children in the PSID from age 4 to 19 and uses novel methods for time-varying exposures that overcome critical limitations of conventional regression when selection processes are dynamic. Results indicate that sustained exposure to poor neighborhoods substantially increases the risk of becoming a teen parent and that exposure to neighborhood poverty during adolescence may be more consequential than exposure earlier during childhood. PMID:23720166

  19. Duration and timing of exposure to neighborhood poverty and the risk of adolescent parenthood.

    PubMed

    Wodtke, Geoffrey T

    2013-10-01

    Theory suggests that the impact of neighborhood poverty depends on both the duration and timing of exposure. Previous research, however, has not properly analyzed the sequence of neighborhoods to which children are exposed throughout the early life course. This study investigates the effects of different longitudinal patterns of exposure to disadvantaged neighborhoods on the risk of adolescent parenthood. It follows a cohort of children in the PSID from age 4 to 19 and uses novel methods for time-varying exposures that overcome critical limitations of conventional regression when selection processes are dynamic. Results indicate that sustained exposure to poor neighborhoods substantially increases the risk of becoming a teen parent and that exposure to neighborhood poverty during adolescence may be more consequential than exposure earlier during childhood. PMID:23720166

  20. A Quiet Convention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suggs, Welch

    2003-01-01

    Describes how discussion of governance and academic standards dominated the proceedings at the first NCAA convention of Myles Brand's presidency. The new president also offered a qualified endorsement of Title IX. (EV)

  1. Cincinnati; Our Convention City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borchin, Anna

    1970-01-01

    During Easter week, 1971, Cincinnati will be the hostess of the 50th anniversary convention of the Catholic Library Association. Items of historical interest concerning the city are briefly described. (NH)

  2. Child poverty. Ways forward for the paediatrician: A comprehensive overview of poverty reduction strategies requiring paediatric support

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Suparna; Ford-Jones, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The harmful effects of child poverty are well documented. Despite this, progress in poverty reduction in Canada has been slow. A significant gap exists between what is known about eradicating poverty and its implementation. Paediatricians can play an important role in bridging this gap by understanding and advancing child poverty reduction. Establishment of a comprehensive national poverty reduction plan is essential to improving progress. The present review identifies the key components of an effective poverty reduction strategy. These elements include effective poverty screening, promoting healthy child development and readiness to learn, ensuring food and housing security, providing extended health care coverage for the uninsured and using place-based solutions and team-level interventions. Specific economic interventions are also reviewed. Addressing the social determinants of health in these ways is crucial to narrowing disparities in wealth and health so that all children in Canada reach their full potential. PMID:26038640

  3. Child poverty. Ways forward for the paediatrician: A comprehensive overview of poverty reduction strategies requiring paediatric support.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Suparna; Ford-Jones, Elizabeth

    2015-05-01

    The harmful effects of child poverty are well documented. Despite this, progress in poverty reduction in Canada has been slow. A significant gap exists between what is known about eradicating poverty and its implementation. Paediatricians can play an important role in bridging this gap by understanding and advancing child poverty reduction. Establishment of a comprehensive national poverty reduction plan is essential to improving progress. The present review identifies the key components of an effective poverty reduction strategy. These elements include effective poverty screening, promoting healthy child development and readiness to learn, ensuring food and housing security, providing extended health care coverage for the uninsured and using place-based solutions and team-level interventions. Specific economic interventions are also reviewed. Addressing the social determinants of health in these ways is crucial to narrowing disparities in wealth and health so that all children in Canada reach their full potential. PMID:26038640

  4. HEPS challenges the wisdom of the crowds: the PEAK-Box Game. Try it yourself!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zappa, Massimiliano; Liechti, Kaethi; Pappenberger, Florian; van Andel, Schalk Jan; Ramos, Maria-Helena

    2014-05-01

    In many situations the wisdom of the crowds (Galton, 1907) demonstrated to be superior to the estimation of single individuals. This is maybe one of the reasons why operational hydrometeorological services are more and more recognizing the added value given by ensemble prediction systems. A crowd of members has more wisdom than a single model output. Following a recent tradition, this year a game will also be played during the session on "Ensemble hydro-meteorological forecasting". During this presentation, the crowd attending the session will be asked to estimate the outcome of a probabilistic prediction system and to perform better than the Peak-Box approach. The "Peak-Box" is a novel visual support that can be communicated alongside with ensemble discharge forecasts (Zappa et al., 2013). This visual solution should provide support in the assessment of actions relying on accurate estimation of peak-timings and peak-flows. Results will be presented and discussed together with the participants of the session. Furthermore a blog post will appear later on www.hepex.org. References: Galton F. 1907.Vox populi. Nature 75: 450-451. Zappa M, Fundel F, Jaun S. 2013. A "Peak-Flow Box" Approach for Supporting Interpretation and Evaluation of Operational Ensemble Flood Forecasts. Hydrological processes. 27: 117-131. doi:/10.1002/hyp.9521

  5. Wisdom and counselling: A note on advising people with HIV/AIDS in Ghana.

    PubMed

    van der Geest, Sjaak

    2015-01-01

    This article raises the question of whether the practice of HIV/AIDS counselling in Ghana can be linked to the wisdom that older people are said to have and use when they give advice to younger family members. Older people believe they have wisdom and life experience that young people should listen to; counsellors hold an opposite view about their work, insisting that it is they who listen to people with HIV/AIDS to help them make their own decisions. In actual practice, however, HIV/AIDS counsellors predominantly give information and advice, for at least three reasons. Firstly, clients urgently need a substantial amount of medical information about the causes and prevention of HIV in order to assess their situation and make decisions. Secondly, the traditional hierarchy between nurse and patient is difficult to reverse when the two meet during counselling. Thirdly, encouraging the client not to lose hope often takes the form of a pep-talk, which leaves little room for listening by the counsellor. This paper pleads for peer counselling, as a format that combines a relative equality between counselling partners with the authoritative knowledge of the counsellor. This article is based on anthropological fieldwork among older people in a rural community and counsellors in a hospital in the Kwahu region of southern Ghana. PMID:26291557

  6. The quest for wisdom: lessons from 17 tsunamis, 2004-2014.

    PubMed

    Okal, Emile A

    2015-10-28

    Since the catastrophic Sumatra-Andaman tsunami took place in 2004, 16 other tsunamis have resulted in significant damage and 14 in casualties. We review the fundamental changes that have affected our command of tsunami issues as scientists, engineers and decision-makers, in the quest for improved wisdom in this respect. While several scientific paradigms have had to be altered or abandoned, new algorithms, e.g. the W seismic phase and real-time processing of fast-arriving seismic P waves, give us more powerful tools to estimate in real time the tsunamigenic character of an earthquake. We assign to each event a 'wisdom index' based on the warning issued (or not) during the event, and on the response of the population. While this approach is admittedly subjective, it clearly shows several robust trends: (i) we have made significant progress in our command of far-field warning, with only three casualties in the past 10 years; (ii) self-evacuation by educated populations in the near field is a key element of successful tsunami mitigation; (iii) there remains a significant cacophony between the scientific community and decision-makers in industry and government as documented during the 2010 Maule and 2011 Tohoku events; and (iv) the so-called 'tsunami earthquakes' generating larger tsunamis than expected from the size of their seismic source persist as a fundamental challenge, despite scientific progress towards characterizing these events in real time. PMID:26392621

  7. Social externalities, overlap and the poverty trap

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Chul; Loury, Glenn C.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies find that some social groups are stuck in poverty traps because of network effects. However, these studies do not carefully analyze how these groups overcome low human capital investment activities. Unlike previous studies, the model in this paper includes network externalities in both the human capital investment stage and the subsequent career stages. This implies that not only the current network quality, but also the expectations about future network quality affect the current investment decision. Consequently, the coordinated expectation among the group members can play a crucial role in the determination of the final state. We define “overlap” for some initial skill ranges, whereby the economic performance of a group can be improved simply by increasing expectations of a brighter future. We also define “poverty trap” for some ranges, wherein a disadvantaged group is constrained by its history, and we explore the egalitarian policies to mobilize the group out of the trap. PMID:25484637

  8. PARASITES AND POVERTY: THE CASE OF SCHISTOSOMIASIS

    PubMed Central

    King, Charles H.

    2009-01-01

    Simultaneous and sequential transmission of multiple parasites, and their resultant overlapping chronic infections, are facts of life in many underdeveloped rural areas. These represent significant but often poorly-measured health and economic burdens for affected populations. For example, the chronic inflammatory process associated with long-term schistosomiasis contributes to anaemia and undernutrition, which, in turn, can lead to growth stunting, poor school performance, poor work productivity, and continued poverty. To date, most national and international programs aimed at parasite control have not considered the varied economic and ecological factors underlying multi-parasite transmission, but some are beginning to provide a coordinated approach to control. In addition, interest is emerging in new studies for the re-evaluation and recalibration of the health burden of helminthic parasite infection. Their results should highlight the strong potential of integrated parasite control in efforts for poverty reduction. PMID:19962954

  9. Is globalization reducing poverty and inequality?

    PubMed

    Wade, Robert Hunter

    2004-01-01

    Over the past 20 years or so, India, China, and the rest of East Asia experienced fast economic growth and falls in the poverty rate, Latin America stagnated, and the former Soviet Union, Central and Eastern Europe, and sub-Saharan Africa regressed. But what are the net trends? The neoliberal argument says that world poverty and income inequality fell over the past two decades for the first time in more than a century and a half, thanks to the rising density of economic integration across national borders. The evidence therefore confirms that globalization in the context of the world economic regime in place since the end of Bretton Woods generates more "mutual benefit" than "conflicting interests." This article questions the empirical basis of the neoliberal argument. PMID:15346677

  10. Parasites and poverty: the case of schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    King, Charles H

    2010-02-01

    Simultaneous and sequential transmission of multiple parasites, and their resultant overlapping chronic infections, are facts of life in many underdeveloped rural areas. These represent significant but often poorly measured health and economic burdens for affected populations. For example, the chronic inflammatory process associated with long-term schistosomiasis contributes to anaemia and undernutrition, which, in turn, can lead to growth stunting, poor school performance, poor work productivity, and continued poverty. To date, most national and international programs aimed at parasite control have not considered the varied economic and ecological factors underlying multi-parasite transmission, but some are beginning to provide a coordinated approach to control. In addition, interest is emerging in new studies for the re-evaluation and recalibration of the health burden of helminthic parasite infection. Their results should highlight the strong potential of integrated parasite control in efforts for poverty reduction. PMID:19962954

  11. AIDS and the cycle of poverty.

    PubMed

    Evian, C

    1993-01-01

    The comments presented are a summary from a presentation on poverty and AIDS made at the CHASA conference in Johannesburg, South Africa. AIDS is a complex and malignant disease in epidemic proportions; poverty and AIDS are linked with biological features such as a long, silent, latent period as HIV infection, the paralysis of the bodies immune system. The prevention of natural or herd immunity, the vertical perinatal transmission, and the links with sexually transmitted diseases. South Africa has been one of the last to be affected by AIDS/HIV. The impact is expected to be devastating because of the history of apartheid and its destructive impact on people and traditions of family life, and the contribution to poverty. The industrial base promotes migration, mobility, and exploitation. Leaving home breaks down the communities of departure and places the migrant in a vulnerable position as a nobody. The consequence of this status is multipartner sexual practices and prostitution as a means of economic support. Gender inequalities are further exacerbated by family disruption and instability. Women become less able to take control over their own sexual lives. The elite control scarce resources and wealth and have ample opportunity to exploit the poor. The poor also have less access to health care and condoms, and thus treatment of sexually transmitted diseases or prevention of HIV infections. Poor educational experiences can prevent their understanding of the issues, if they reach a health clinic. The silent nature of AIDS transmission is a difficult concept to grasp. Leisure and entertainment opportunities are limited, which leaves alcohol and sex as the preferred means of attaining pleasure, comfort, and intimacy. Urban violence and crime breed fatalism and despondency, which hurts prevention effort. AIDS also increases poverty through job loss, rejection, and discrimination. PMID:8487851

  12. Maternal mental health and parenting in poverty.

    PubMed

    Beeber, Linda S; Miles, Margaret Shandor

    2003-01-01

    Maternal mental health is a key factor affecting the quality of parenting and, ultimately, a child's developmental outcomes. Thus, the persistence of mental health problems such as chronic depressive symptoms or addiction in low-income mother-child dyads may be the critical determinant of their collective future. This review examines the research conducted by nurses that focuses on maternal mental health, mothering, and child outcomes in the context of rearing children in poverty. Multiple methods were used for the search. Four programs showed evidence of sustained, related studies focused on the mental health of low-income mothers and their parenting. Two of these programs included intervention studies aimed at improving the mental health of mothers and developmental outcomes for their children. There were four newer programs of research in which the research teams had begun to focus on mothers rearing children in poverty and five other researchers who conducted single studies of maternal mental health. Additionally, two investigators focused on mothers who were prisoners, one team focused on homeless mothers, and another on mothers with HIV. Studies were critiqued using a developmental science framework. Studies varied widely in the degree to which they used developmentally based conceptual frameworks, designs, and measures. While nurse scientists have made progress in conducting research with mothers rearing children in poverty, there is an urgent need for more developmentally sensitive research aimed at strengthening maternal mental health and assisting mothers to be more effective parents in the midst of the challenges of poverty and welfare reform. By doing so, nursing interventions can improve the child's developmental outcomes. PMID:12858701

  13. Food poverty and its causes in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, S; Sheikh, K H; Mahmood, T

    1991-01-01

    Economists and a demographer analyzed data from the 1984-1985 Household and Income Expenditure Survey using the Foster and Thorbeke model to measure the poverty level in Pakistan. This model considers the minimum level of food expenditure/adult equivalent required to purchase the required daily allowance of energy intake. The analysts calculated the poverty lines to be Rs 246.00 for urban areas and Rs 149.00 for rural areas. They learned that the real poor and less poor households did not rank expenditures on food as a top priority despite deficient food intake. Thus traditional diet pattern did not differentiate the real poor from the less power, but rather lower purchasing power. They defined real poor households as those who had a negative or O relationship between income and food and less poor households as those who had a positive relationship even though the magnitude of the slope coefficient was extremely small (.024 for urban areas and .082 for rural areas). The larger the family size the more likely a household was poor and the members malnourished. This was especially true if the family size grew because of the addition of more dependents. On the other hand, the more education the head of the household and his wife the less likely the household was poor and the members malnourished. In fact, the negative effect of education on poverty and malnutrition was strongest for the wife. 2% of all urban households and 3% of all rural households ranked as real poor households. 59% and 35% respectively ranked as less poor households. Even though the difference in food poverty between extended and nuclear families was insignificant, extended families fared better than nuclear families. These findings showed that Pakistan should design its food policy to target the real poor by improving their nutritional status without forsaking that of the less poor. PMID:12285313

  14. Child Poverty and the Health Care System.

    PubMed

    Racine, Andrew D

    2016-04-01

    The persistence of child poverty in the United States and the pervasive health consequences it engenders present unique challenges to the health care system. Human capital theory and empirical observation suggest that the increased disease burden experienced by poor children originates from social conditions that provide suboptimal educational, nutritional, environmental, and parental inputs to good health. Faced with the resultant excess rates of pediatric morbidity, the US health care system has developed a variety of compensatory strategies. In the first instance, Medicaid, the federal-state governmental finance system designed to assure health insurance coverage for poor children, has increased its eligibility thresholds and expanded its benefits to allow greater access to health services for this vulnerable population. A second arm of response involves a gradual reengineering of health care delivery at the practice level, including the dissemination of patient-centered medical homes, the use of team-based approaches to care, and the expansion of care management beyond the practice to reach deep into the community. Third is a series of recent experiments involving the federal government and state Medicaid programs that includes payment reforms of various kinds, enhanced reporting, concentration on high-risk populations, and intensive case management. Fourth, pediatric practices have begun to make use of specific tools that permit the identification and referral of children facing social stresses arising from poverty. Finally, constituencies within the health care system participate in enhanced advocacy efforts to raise awareness of poverty as a distinct threat to child health and to press for public policy responses such as minimum wage increases, expansion of tax credits, paid family leave, universal preschool education, and other priorities focused on child poverty. PMID:27044708

  15. Poverty, underdevelopment and infant mental health.

    PubMed

    Richter, L M

    2003-01-01

    Very great advances have occurred in disciplinary and professional knowledge of infant development and its influence on subsequent development. This expertise includes the ways in which early experiences affect the capacity of mature individuals for social adjustment and productive competence, and promising methods of intervention to promote infant mental health and prevent adverse sequelae of risk conditions. However, very little of this knowledge has been applied in work among infants and children living in conditions of poverty and underdevelopment. This lack of application continues despite the enormous threats to the well-being of infants and young children brought about by the combined effects of poverty and the AIDS pandemic, especially in southern Africa. Protein-energy malnutrition, maternal depression, and institutional care of infants and small children are cited as illustrative of areas in which interventions, and their evaluation, are desperately needed in resource-poor countries. An argument is made for the critical importance of considering and addressing psychological factors in care givers and children in conditions of extreme material need. An example is provided of a simple intervention model based on sound developmental principles that can be implemented by trained non-professionals in conditions of poverty and underdevelopment. PMID:12755927

  16. Quantifying and Mapping Global Data Poverty

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Digital information technologies, such as the Internet, mobile phones and social media, provide vast amounts of data for decision-making and resource management. However, access to these technologies, as well as their associated software and training materials, is not evenly distributed: since the 1990s there has been concern about a "Digital Divide" between the data-rich and the data-poor. We present an innovative metric for evaluating international variations in access to digital data: the Data Poverty Index (DPI). The DPI is based on Internet speeds, numbers of computer owners and Internet users, mobile phone ownership and network coverage, as well as provision of higher education. The datasets used to produce the DPI are provided annually for almost all the countries of the world and can be freely downloaded. The index that we present in this ‘proof of concept’ study is the first to quantify and visualise the problem of global data poverty, using the most recent datasets, for 2013. The effects of severe data poverty, particularly limited access to geoinformatic data, free software and online training materials, are discussed in the context of sustainable development and disaster risk reduction. The DPI highlights countries where support is needed for improving access to the Internet and for the provision of training in geoinfomatics. We conclude that the DPI is of value as a potential metric for monitoring the Sustainable Development Goals of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction. PMID:26560884

  17. Patient poverty and workload in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Muldoon, Laura; Rayner, Jennifer; Dahrouge, Simone

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine if patient poverty is associated with increased workload for primary care providers (PCPs). Design Linkage of administrative data identifying patient poverty and comorbidity with survey data about the organizational structure of community health centres (CHCs). Setting Ontario’s 73 CHCs. Participants A total of 64 CHC sites (N = 63 included in the analysis). Main outcome measures Patient poverty was determined in 2 different ways: based on receipt of Ontario Drug Benefits (identifying recipients of welfare, provincial disability support, and low-income seniors’ benefits) or residence in low-income neighbourhoods. Patient comorbidities were determined through administrative diagnostic data from the CHCs and the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences. Primary care workload was determined by examining PCP panel size (the number of patients cared for by a full-time-equivalent PCP during a 2-year interval). Results The CHCs with higher proportions of poor patients had smaller panel sizes. The smaller panel sizes were entirely explained by the medical comorbidity profile of the poor patients. Conclusion Poor patients generate a higher workload for PCPs in CHCs; however, this is principally because they are sicker than higher-income patients are. Further information is required about the spectrum of services used by poor patients in CHCs. PMID:23585609

  18. Poverty, race, and hospitalization for childhood asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Wissow, L S; Gittelsohn, A M; Szklo, M; Starfield, B; Mussman, M

    1988-01-01

    This study uses Maryland hospital discharge data for the period 1979-82 to determine whether Black children are more likely to be hospitalized for asthma and whether this difference persists after adjustment for poverty. The average annual asthma discharge rate was 1.95/1000 children aged 1-19; 3.75/1000 for Black children, and 1.25/1000 for White. Medicaid-enrolled children of both races had increased discharge rates for asthma compared to those whose care was paid for by other sources: 5.68/1000 vs 2.99/1000 for Blacks, and 3.10/1000 vs 1.11/1000 for Whites. When ecologic analyses were performed, populations of Black and White children had nearly equal asthma discharge rates after adjustment for poverty. The statewide adjusted rate was 2.70/1000 (95% CL = 1.93, 3.78) for Black children and 2.10/1000 (1.66, 2.66) for White children. Among Maryland counties and health planning districts, variation in asthma discharge rates was not associated with the supply of hospital beds or the population to primary-care physician ratio. We conclude that Black children are at increased risk of hospitalization for asthma, but that some or all of this increase is related to poverty rather than to race. PMID:3381951

  19. Quantifying and Mapping Global Data Poverty.

    PubMed

    Leidig, Mathias; Teeuw, Richard M

    2015-01-01

    Digital information technologies, such as the Internet, mobile phones and social media, provide vast amounts of data for decision-making and resource management. However, access to these technologies, as well as their associated software and training materials, is not evenly distributed: since the 1990s there has been concern about a "Digital Divide" between the data-rich and the data-poor. We present an innovative metric for evaluating international variations in access to digital data: the Data Poverty Index (DPI). The DPI is based on Internet speeds, numbers of computer owners and Internet users, mobile phone ownership and network coverage, as well as provision of higher education. The datasets used to produce the DPI are provided annually for almost all the countries of the world and can be freely downloaded. The index that we present in this 'proof of concept' study is the first to quantify and visualise the problem of global data poverty, using the most recent datasets, for 2013. The effects of severe data poverty, particularly limited access to geoinformatic data, free software and online training materials, are discussed in the context of sustainable development and disaster risk reduction. The DPI highlights countries where support is needed for improving access to the Internet and for the provision of training in geoinfomatics. We conclude that the DPI is of value as a potential metric for monitoring the Sustainable Development Goals of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction. PMID:26560884

  20. Understanding the Link between Poverty and Food Insecurity among Children: Does the Definition of Poverty Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Wight, Vanessa; Kaushal, Neeraj; Waldfogel, Jane; Garfinkel, Irv

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the association between poverty and food insecurity among children, using two different definitions of poverty—the official poverty measure (OPM) and the new supplemental poverty measure (SPM) of the Census Bureau, which is based on a more inclusive definition of family resources and needs. Our analysis is based on data from the 2001–11 Current Population Survey and shows that food insecurity and very low food security among children decline as income-to-needs ratio increases. The point estimates show that the associations are stronger as measured by the new supplemental measure of income-to-needs ratio than when estimated through the official measure. Statistical tests reject the hypothesis that poor households’ odds of experiencing low food security are the same whether the SPM or OPM measure is used; but the tests do not reject the hypothesis when very low food security is the outcome. PMID:25045244

  1. Amerindian Livelihoods, Outside Interventions, and Poverty Traps in the Ecuadorian Amazon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudel, Thomas K.; Katan, Tuntiak; Horowitz, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Recent efforts to explain the persistence of rural poverty have made frequent use of the concept of poverty traps, understood as self-reinforcing poverty. The dynamic dimension of the poverty trap concept makes it a potentially useful tool for understanding conditions of persistent poverty, especially in circumstances where outside interventions…

  2. Children in Poverty: A Citizen's Guide. A Special Report by Arkansas Kids Count.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huddleston, Rich

    Noting that child poverty has been a persistent problem for Arkansas children despite improvements in the economy, this Kids Count special report focuses on child poverty in Arkansas. The report examines how child poverty is measured and notes the limitation of existing poverty data; it also discusses the causes and consequences of poverty and…

  3. Nexus of Poverty, Energy Balance and Health

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, C. P.

    2012-01-01

    Since the inception of planning process in India, health planning was an integral component of socio-economic planning. Recommendations of several committees, policy documents and Millennium development goals were instrumental in development of impressive health infrastructure. Several anti-poverty and employment generation programmes were instituted to remove poverty. Spectacular achievements took place in terms of maternal and child health indicators and expectancy of life at birth. However, communicable diseases and undernutrition remain cause of serious concern and non-communicable diseases are imposing unprecedented challenge to planners and policy makers. Estimates of poverty based on different criteria point that it has remained a sustained problem in the country and emphasizes on revisiting anti-poverty programmes, economic policies and social reforms. Poverty affects purchasing power and thereby, food consumption. Energy intake data has inherent limitations. It must be assessed in terms of energy expenditure. Energy balance has been least explored area of research. The studies conducted in three different representative population group of Eastern Uttar Pradesh revealed that 69.63% rural adolescent girls (10-19 years), 79.9% rural reproductive age group females and 62.3% rural geriatric subjects were in negative energy balance. Negative energy balance was significantly less in adolescent girls belonging to high SES (51.37%), having main occupation of family as business (55.3%), and highest per capita income group (57.1%) with respect to their corresponding sub-categories. In case of rural reproductive age groups, this was maximum (93.0%) in SC/ST category and least (65.7%) in upper caste group. In case of geriatric group, higher adjusted Odd's Ratio for negative energy balance for subjects not cared by family members (AOR 23.43, CI 3.93-139.56), not kept money (AOR 5.27, CI 1.58-17.56), belonging to lower and upper middle SES by Udai Pareekh Classification

  4. Persistent exposure to poverty during childhood limits later leader emergence.

    PubMed

    Barling, Julian; Weatherhead, Julie G

    2016-09-01

    Increasing attention is being paid to the question of why some people emerge as leaders, and we investigated the effects of persistent exposure to poverty during childhood on later leadership role occupancy. We hypothesized that exposure to poverty would limit later leadership role occupancy through the indirect effects of the quality of schooling and personal mastery, and that gender would moderate the effects of exposure to poverty and personal mastery. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Youth provided multiwave and multisource data for a sample of 4,536 (1,533 leaders; 3,003 nonleaders). Both school quality and personal mastery mediated the effects of family poverty status on later leadership role occupancy. Although gender did not moderate the effects of poverty on leadership role occupancy, the indirect effects of early exposure to poverty on leadership role occupancy through personal mastery were moderated by gender. Conceptual and practical implications of these findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27599090

  5. The effects of school poverty on adolescents’ sexual health knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Atkins, Robert; Sulik, Michael J.; Hart, Daniel; Ayres, Cynthia; Read, Nichole

    2012-01-01

    Using National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health data, hierarchical linear modeling was conducted to estimate the association of school poverty concentration to the sexual health knowledge of 6,718 adolescents. Controlling for individual socio-economic status, school poverty had modest negative effects on sexual health knowledge. Although not directly associated with sexual health knowledge, after controlling for demographic characteristics, school poverty interactions showed that sexual health knowledge was associated with higher grade point average (GPA) and age. The combination of low GPA and high-levels of school poverty was especially detrimental for students’ sexual health knowledge. There are differences in the sexual health knowledge of adolescents attending low poverty and high poverty schools that can be attributed to the school environment. PMID:22431188

  6. Needs Assessment to Development of Biology Textbook for High School Class X-Based the Local Wisdom of Timor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ardan, Andam S.; Ardi, M.; Hala, Yusminah; Supu, Amiruddin; Dirawan, Gufran D.

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to analyze the needs of the development of the X grade Biology textbook of Senior High School based on the local wisdom of Timor. The subject is a Senior High School Biology curriculum. Classes are taught at Senior High School X SMA in Kupang Regency in the academic years 2012/2013. Object of research includes: (1) core…

  7. A Transnational Community of Pakistani Muslim Women: Narratives of Rights, Honor, and Wisdom in a Women's Education Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khurshid, Ayesha

    2012-01-01

    Using ethnographic data, this article explores how Muslim women teachers from low-income Pakistani communities employ the notion of "wisdom" to construct and perform their educated subjectivity in a transnational women's education project. Through Butler's performativity framework, I demonstrate how local and global discourses overlap to shape…

  8. Creativity, Spirituality, and Transcendence: Paths to Integrity and Wisdom in the Mature Self. Publications in Creativity Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Melvin E., Ed.; Cook-Greuter, Susanne R., Ed.

    This book contains 11 papers on creativity, spirituality, and transcendence as paths to integrity and wisdom in the mature self. The book begins with the paper "Introduction--Creativity in Adulthood: Personal Maturity and Openness to Extraordinary Sources of Inspiration" (Susanne R. Cook-Greuter, Melvin E. Miller). The next four papers, which…

  9. Imagine a Place Where Teaching and Learning Are Inspirational: A Decade of Collected Wisdom from the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musser, P. Maureen; Caskey, Micki M.; Samek, Linda L.; Kim, Younghee M.; Greene, William L.; Carpenter, Jan M.; Casbon, Jay

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to share wisdom collected from the field and offer a view of meaningful learning, explore the tensions that exist in educators' work, and invite conversation about the future of educational practice. The anecdotes and data come from a series of research studies conducted from 2001 to 2011 by a cadre of middle…

  10. A Heart of Wisdom: Life Writing as Empathetic Inquiry. Complicated Conversation: A Book Series of Curriculum Studies. Volume 39

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Cynthia M., Ed.; Hasebe-Ludt, Erika, Ed.; Leggo, Carl, Ed.; Sinner, Anita, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This anthology explores life writing as a mode of educational inquiry, one where students and teachers may get a "heart of wisdom" as they struggle with the tensions and complexities of learning and teaching in challenging contemporary circumstances. Contributors write first-person creative non-fiction in a variety of life-writing genres, such as…

  11. Investigating Best Practice and Effectiveness of Leadership Wisdom among Principals of Excellent Secondary School Malaysia: Perceptions of Senior Assistants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad, Abdul Razaq; Salleh, Mohamad Johdi; Awang, Mohd Mahzan; Mohamad, Nazifah Alwani

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the current study is to investigate the practices and effectiveness of leadership wisdom among the principals of excellent secondary schools as perceived by the Senior Assistants. This research employed survey approach by using a validated questionnaire. The respondents were 417 Senior Assistants, who were randomly selected from the…

  12. Poverty in the United States: 2002. Current Population Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proctor, Bernadette D.; Dalaker, Joseph

    This report illustrates how official poverty rates vary by age, race and Hispanic origin, nativity, family composition, work experience, and geography. The official poverty rate rose from 11.7 to 12.1 percent between 2001-2002. In 2002, people below the official poverty thresholds numbered 34.6 million, 1.7 million higher than in 2001. At 16.7…

  13. Convention Problems - 1787.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Deroy L.

    Designed to motivate eighth-grade civics students in the study of the United States Constitution, this game is intended to simulate the basic problems faced by the delegates to the Philadelphia Convention of 1787. The four parts of the game introduce the governmental concepts of the bicameral legislature, the executive branch, the judicial branch,…

  14. Preliminary Results of Simulations and Field Investigations of the Performance of the WISDOM GPR of the ExoMars Rover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciarletti, V.; Corbel, C.; Cais, P.; Pltettemeier, D.; Hamran, S. E.; Oyan, M.; Clifford, S.; Reineix, A.

    2009-04-01

    WISDOM (Water Ice and Subsurface Deposit Observations on Mars) is a ground penetrat-ing radar (GPR) that was selected as one of three survey instruments on the ExoMars Rover Pasteur Payload. Its purpose is to characterize the nature of the shallow subsurface (including geological structure, electromagnetic properties, and potential hydrological state) and identify the most promising locations for investigation and sampling by the Rover's onboard drill - providing information down to a depth of 2 or 3 meters with a vertical resolution of a few centimeters (performance characteristics that will vary, depending on the local permittivity and conductivity of the subsurface). WISDOM is a polarimetric, step-frequency GPR operating over the frequency range of 0.5 - 3 GHz. The polarimetric capability of WISDOM is particularly useful for identifying and characterizing oriented structures like faults, fractures and stratigraphic interface roughness. To achieve this objective, special care has been dedicated to the design of the antenna system, which consists of a pair of Vivaldi antenna to conduct both co- and cross-polar measurements. WISDOM will perform its scientific investigations at each of the sites visited by the Rover and during the intervening traverses. During a traverse between two successive experiment cycles of the mission (drilling and sample analysis), WISDOM soundings will be performed to provide a coarse survey of the structure and nature of the underground and its large-scale variations. This information is required to understand the overall geological context and the properties of the subsurface. When a particular location has been selected for potential investigation by the drill, WISDOM will obtain subsurface profiles on a 2D grid, in order to synthesize a 3D map of subsurface soil characteristics and spatial variabil-ity. Full polarimetric soundings will be performed at 10 cm intervals along each parallel grid line, which will have a line-to-line spacing

  15. Poverty and Child Health in the United States.

    PubMed

    2016-04-01

    Almost half of young children in the United States live in poverty or near poverty. The American Academy of Pediatrics is committed to reducing and ultimately eliminating child poverty in the United States. Poverty and related social determinants of health can lead to adverse health outcomes in childhood and across the life course, negatively affecting physical health, socioemotional development, and educational achievement. The American Academy of Pediatrics advocates for programs and policies that have been shown to improve the quality of life and health outcomes for children and families living in poverty. With an awareness and understanding of the effects of poverty on children, pediatricians and other pediatric health practitioners in a family-centered medical home can assess the financial stability of families, link families to resources, and coordinate care with community partners. Further research, advocacy, and continuing education will improve the ability of pediatricians to address the social determinants of health when caring for children who live in poverty. Accompanying this policy statement is a technical report that describes current knowledge on child poverty and the mechanisms by which poverty influences the health and well-being of children. PMID:26962238

  16. Ending child poverty in the good times and the bad.

    PubMed

    Dornan, Paul

    2009-01-01

    It is now 10 years since the present Government pledged to eradicate child poverty by the year 2020. Some progress has been made, for example through increases in child benefit and the tax credit system, increased parental employment rates, and children's centres. However, the charity Child Poverty Action Group (CPAG) argues that progress has been disappointingly slow and that some aspects of policy development have undermined this progress. This article discusses the implications of the current economic recession on child poverty and includes the key points from the CPAG's manifesto, published in 2009 to mark the 10th anniversary of the pledge to end child poverty. PMID:19645151

  17. Does social policy matter? Poverty cycles in OECD countries.

    PubMed

    Kangas, O; Palme, J

    2000-01-01

    Traditionally, poverty was linked to an individual's family phase. This article examines to what extent poverty cycles are still apparent in OECD countries. By combining data on social policy programs and data on income distribution, the authors compare trends between nations. The main question is, how successful have various sociopolitical solutions been in eliminating poverty? Here the focus is on family policy and pensions. Improvements in social policies have impacts on poverty cycles in all countries. In most countries poverty among the elderly has declined, and the young have replaced the old as the lowest income group. In many countries the poverty cycles have flattened out, and life phase is no longer as important as it used to be. Some differences between nations remain, however. High poverty rates among families continue to be an Anglo-American problem, and improvements in this area have been only marginal. Social policy provisions are important for explaining both cross-national variation in poverty and changes over time. The impact is clearest among pensioners. Family-related poverty is lowest in countries that have combined cash benefits with public child-care services that facilitate parents' participation in the labor market. PMID:10862379

  18. Poverty Children and Reading Curriculum Reform: A Broad Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Carl L.

    1970-01-01

    Discusses the inability of the educational system to deal effectively with minority children from poverty backgrounds. Includes suggestions for reading curriculum reform. Appended are 37 references. (AA)

  19. Childhood poverty and recruitment of adult emotion regulatory neurocircuitry.

    PubMed

    Liberzon, Israel; Ma, Sean T; Okada, Go; Ho, S Shaun; Swain, James E; Evans, Gary W

    2015-11-01

    One in five American children grows up in poverty. Childhood poverty has far-reaching adverse impacts on cognitive, social and emotional development. Altered development of neurocircuits, subserving emotion regulation, is one possible pathway for childhood poverty's ill effects. Children exposed to poverty were followed into young adulthood and then studied using functional brain imaging with an implicit emotion regulation task focused. Implicit emotion regulation involved attention shifting and appraisal components. Early poverty reduced left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex recruitment in the context of emotional regulation. Furthermore, this emotion regulation associated brain activation mediated the effects of poverty on adult task performance. Moreover, childhood poverty also predicted enhanced insula and reduced hippocampal activation, following exposure to acute stress. These results demonstrate that childhood poverty can alter adult emotion regulation neurocircuitry, revealing specific brain mechanisms that may underlie long-term effects of social inequalities on health. The role of poverty-related emotion regulatory neurocircuitry appears to be particularly salient during stressful conditions. PMID:25939653

  20. Mindfulness-based hypnosis: blending science, beliefs, and wisdoms to catalyze healing.

    PubMed

    Alladin, Assen

    2014-01-01

    We live in a global village, comprised of people with diverse cultural and religious orientations. How do we integrate these different beliefs and values into our clinical practice? Mindfulness-based psychotherapy (MBP), an evidence-based psychological intervention, provides a secular template for assimilating various cultural beliefs and wisdoms in therapies. MBP represents a cross-fertilization between Western psychological practice and Eastern meditative disciplines. Guided by MBP, this article describes how intention, mindfulness, acceptance, gratitude, and the "heart" can be combined with cognitive hypnotherapy to catalyze healing of emotional disorders-particularly depression. This integrated approach is referred to as mindfulness-based cognitive hypnotherapy (MBCH) as it assimilates cognitive hypnotherapy with mindfulness strategies. MBCH represents an attempt to broaden the comprehensiveness of hypnotherapy as an integrated form of psychotherapy. Additionally, based on new understanding of the heart as a complex information center, an innovative hypnotherapeutic strategy for generating psychophysiological coherence and psychological well-being is described. PMID:24693836

  1. Investigation of an alpine ice cave in Austria with the EXOMARS WISDOM GPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciarletti, Valerie; Clifford, Stephen; Plettemeier, Dirk; Dorizon, Sophie; Statz, Christoph; Lustrement, Benjamin; Humeau, Olivier; Hassen-Khodja, Rafik; Galic, Alexandre; Cais, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    The WISDOM (Water Ice Subsurface Deposit Observations on Mars) Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is among the instruments selected as part of ESA's 2018 ExoMars Rover mission, whose scientific objectives are to search for signs of past and present life and to investigate the planet's subsurface. Combined with the rover, the GPR will provide high resolution observations of the structure of the shallow subsurface and assist in the identification and location of sedimentary layers or massive ice deposits, where organic molecules are the most likely to be found and well-preserved. The resulting data sets will also be a valuable tool for determining the nature, location and extent of potential targets for drilling. WISDOM prototypes, representative of the final flight model, are currently being field tested in various Mars analogue and cold-climate environments. In April 2012, members of the WISDOM team brought two development prototypes to an Alpine ice cave in Dachstein, Austria, to field test the instrument and participate in the Mars Simulation organized by the Austrian Space Forum. The GPRs were tested on 3 different platforms including the radio-controlled "Magma White" Rover from ABM Space Education in Poland. Radar investigations were conducted in four different cave environments, measuring ice thickness, stratigraphy, fracture geometry, and basal topography. Data sets processed and analyzed prove to be in agreement with the shallow environment characteristics determined by direct observation and previously obtained with commercial GPRs. From a geoelectrical point of view, massive ice containing a small amount of impurities can be approximate as a rather homogeneous medium. A massive ice unit will appear on a radargram as an area with no noticeable signal return, due to the little backscattered signal. Ice is also a low conductivity medium which leads to a deep penetration of the electromagnetic waves. The radargrams obtained from WISDOM data are consistent with

  2. Disasters, Scientists and Society: The Quest for Wisdom (Sergey Soloviev Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okal, Emile A.

    2013-04-01

    The horror which accompanied the significant natural disasters of the past decade (major earthquakes, tsunamis, hurricanes...), many of which exposing inadequate preparation and/or response, has revived our quest for improved mitigation, or in simple words, enhanced wisdom, to confront natural hazards, both in scientific and societal terms. The Sumatra and Tohoku megathrust earthquakes have led to the abandonment of the once-popular concept of a "maximum" earthquake predictable on the basis of simple tectonic parameters and the latter has dealt a serious blow to seismic scaling laws which had been the cornerstone of probabilistic hazard estimations. Similarly, large hurricanes such as Katrina and Sandy have featured a significant diversity poorly captured by the single concept of "category". On the other hand, substantial theoretical progress has been made with the development of real-time tsunami warning algorithms based on the seismic W phase. An examination of mitigation aspects and operational procedures during the recent disasters exposes very significant shortcomings in the relationship between Scientists and decision-makers. We will review fields as diverse as the proper evaluation of historical databases, the correct real-time assessment of major earthquakes, the adequate timing of an all-clear, and the role, rights and duties of hazard scientists in their interaction with Society. As the ultimate goal of mitigation, warning and evacuation from many disasters remains the saving of human lives, many recent stories having emphasized the value of education, which casts a substantial ray of hope and enlightenment in the never-ending pursuit of wisdom in the face of future disasters, a noble endeavor to which Sergei Leonidovich Solov'ev had dedicated his life.

  3. Perceptions of Trainers Regarding Their Own Understanding of Children Living in Poverty Arising from Providing Professional Development in "A Framework for Understanding Poverty" to Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Silva, John T.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore through in-depth analysis of interviews of perceptual change and what trainers of "A Framework for Understanding Poverty" to educators have learned about themselves, about poverty in the United States, about children of poverty, and about those who work with students of poverty. A…

  4. U.S. Pediatricians to Add Poverty to Well-Visit Checklist

    MedlinePlus

    ... 157694.html U.S. Pediatricians to Add Poverty to Well-Visit Checklist One simple question might help families ... milestones. Soon, they'll add poverty to the well-visit checklist. Poverty can significantly harm a child's ...

  5. Real Income, Poverty, Resources. Rural Development, Poverty, and Natural Resources Working Paper Series, Part III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoch, Irving; And Others

    This paper reports progress on the development of improved measures of income and poverty by accounting for differences in living costs between regions, and on the tracing of relationships between natural resources and income; a reviewer's comments conclude the contents of this workshop collection. The overview describes how a measure of income…

  6. Poverty and Payne: Supporting Teachers to Work with Children of Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sato, Mistilina; Lensmire, Timothy J.

    2009-01-01

    If we are going to make progress in helping teachers develop awareness and pedagogies that are sensitive to children who live in poverty, we need to challenge the widespread misinformation that is being disseminated in this area and then set a new course. The work of Ruby Payne merely furthers negative stereotypes of the poor.

  7. Natural Resources and Rural Poverty: An Overview. Rural Development, Poverty, and Natural Resources Workshop Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elo, Irma T.; Beale, Calvin L.

    Natural resource and poverty relationships are regionally specific and are associated with particular segments of the nation's population, but have no overall direct causal tie. Although employment in natural-resource-based industries in rural areas accounts for only 16% of all rural employment nationally, these industries continue to make…

  8. The Maldistribution Thesis of Poverty: How Much of Rural Southern Poverty Can It Explain?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, George

    The Maldistribution Thesis (whether a maldistribution in skilled manpower, accumulated wealth, and their implied production of income, goods, and services is demonstrable and the extent to which the thesis explains poverty) is at least in part testable by the amount that redressing old imbalances contributes to the increased income, improved life…

  9. Education Outcomes and Poverty: A Reassessment. Education, Poverty and International Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colclough, Christopher, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    What do we know about the outcomes of education in developing countries? Where are the gaps in our knowledge, and why are they important to fill? What are the policy challenges that underlie these knowledge gaps, and how can education best contribute to eliminating the problem of widespread poverty in the developing world? This book arises out of…

  10. Stakeholder perceptions of mental health stigma and poverty in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background World wide, there is plentiful evidence regarding the role of stigma in mental illness, as well as the association between poverty and mental illness. The experiences of stigma catalyzed by poverty revolve around experiences of devaluation, exclusion, and disadvantage. Although the relationship between poverty, stigma and mental illness has been documented in high income countries, little has been written on this relationship in low and middle income countries. The paper describes the opinions of a range of mental health stakeholders regarding poverty, stigma, mental illness and their relationship in the Ugandan context, as part of a wider study, aimed at exploring policy interventions required to address the vicious cycle of mental ill-health and poverty. Methods Semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted with purposefully selected mental health stakeholders from various sectors. The interviews and FGDs were audio-recorded, and transcriptions were coded on the basis of a pre-determined coding frame. Thematic analysis of the data was conducted using NVivo7, adopting a framework analysis approach. Results Most participants identified a reciprocal relationship between poverty and mental illness. The stigma attached to mental illness was perceived as a common phenomenon, mostly associated with local belief systems regarding the causes of mental illness. Stigma associated with both poverty and mental illness serves to reinforce the vicious cycle of poverty and mental ill-health. Most participants emphasized a relationship between poverty and internalized stigma among people with mental illness in Uganda. Conclusion According to a range of mental health stakeholders in Uganda, there is a strong interrelationship between poverty, stigma and mental illness. These findings re-affirm the need to recognize material resources as a central element in the fight against stigma of mental illness, and the importance of stigma reduction

  11. Report details poverty-population-environment link.

    PubMed

    1994-01-01

    This summary reports on the state of environmental conditions in 1993 and is a reprint from an ICPD publication. This summary refers to a Roundtable Meeting held in November 1993, preliminary to the 1994 UN Conference on the Environment and Development, and an environmental report by Mary Berberis. The report identifies five regions with serious environmental degradation and resource depletion (the Bay of Bengal; the former forested uplands of Indonesia, Nepal, the Philippines, and Thailand; the forests of Central America; the arid regions of sub-Saharan Africa; and the small South Pacific island states). These regions are not just beset with environmental problems, but those problems are exacerbated by problems with land supply and use, poverty, waste, and lack of technology. The report emphasizes that a focus solely on population growth issues obscures the urgent demand for dealing with poverty alleviation, land reform, waste reduction, and improved technologies. Environmental degradation is also caused to a great extent by unsustainable patterns of consumption by affluent groups and by the processes of urban expansion, deforestation, and cultivation of marginal lands in both developed and developing countries. Mary Barberis in her summary of the literature on the causes of environmental conditions considers that the most serious environmental damage is generated by conditions of poverty and population pressure. Environmentally unsound practices are supported by inappropriate farming and soil management techniques, unequal access to resources, and government policies. The example of Bangladesh illustrates that urban population growth has occurred mostly in poor areas, and the problems of water supply, drainage, solid waste disposal, and sanitation are compounded by population growth. Rivers and marine fisheries is contaminated by urban discharges, untreated industrial waste, and fertilizers. Increased salinization degrades the land. Harvesting of wood depletes

  12. Subjective wellbeing: a primer for poverty analysts

    PubMed Central

    Venkatapuram, Sridhar

    2013-01-01

    The article reviews the current theory and measurement of subjective wellbeing (SWB). The first two sections discuss growing efforts in many countries to measure and monitor national wellbeing, particularly in the United Kingdom. The third and fourth sections discuss the novelty and controversies about SWB research. It concludes that a critical approach is essential in evaluating SWB research but dismissing it offhand or framing it as antithetical to objective wellbeing is misconceived. The pressing issue for poverty research and public policy is to determine which insights about SWB are worth using, and how much space within conceptions of wellbeing used in public policy should be given to SWB. PMID:24382984

  13. Poverty, child undernutrition and morbidity: new evidence from India.

    PubMed Central

    Nandy, Shailen; Irving, Michelle; Gordon, David; Subramanian, S. V.; Smith, George Davey

    2005-01-01

    Undernutrition continues to be a primary cause of ill-health and premature mortality among children in developing countries. This paper examines how the prevalence of undernutrition in children is measured and argues that the standard indices of stunting, wasting and underweight may each be underestimating the scale of the problem. This has important implications for policy-makers, planners and organizations seeking to meet international development targets. Using anthropometric data on 24 396 children in India, we constructed an alternative composite index of anthropometric failure (CIAF) and compared it with conventional indices. The CIAF examines the relationship between distinct subgroups of anthropometric failure, poverty and morbidity, showing that children with multiple anthropometric failures are at a greater risk of morbidity and are more likely to come from poorer households. While recognizing that stunting, wasting and underweight reflect distinct biological processes of clear importance, the CIAF is the only measure that provides a single, aggregated figure of the number of undernourished children in a population. PMID:15798845

  14. Multidimensional Poverty in China: Findings Based on the CHNS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Jiantuo

    2013-01-01

    This paper estimates multidimensional poverty in China by applying the Alkire-Foster methodology to the China Health and Nutrition Survey 2000-2009 data. Five dimensions are included: income, living standard, education, health and social security. Results suggest that rapid economic growth has resulted not only in a reduction in income poverty but…

  15. Poverty and the American Family: A Decade in Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edin, Kathryn; Kissane, Rebecca Joyce

    2010-01-01

    Because of dramatic levels of economic volatility and massive changes in welfare policies, scholars in this decade worried anew about whether our official poverty measure, adopted in the 1960s, is adequate. Poverty's causes continued to be debated, with demographic factors often pitted against policy and maternal employment changes. Some scholars…

  16. Teacher Performance Trajectories in High- and Lower-Poverty Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Zeyu; Özek, Umut; Hansen, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This study explores whether teacher performance trajectory over time differs by school-poverty settings. Focusing on elementary school mathematics teachers in North Carolina and Florida, we find no systematic relationship between school student poverty rates and teacher performance trajectories. In both high- (=60% free/reduced-price lunch [FRPL])…

  17. 77 FR 4034 - Annual Update of the HHS Poverty Guidelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Annual Update of the HHS Poverty Guidelines AGENCY: Department of... Health and Human Services (HHS) poverty guidelines to account for last calendar year's increase in prices... Federal, state, or local office that is responsible for that program. For information about...

  18. Poverty and Disability: Addressing the Challenge of Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    Living in poverty increases the likelihood that students with disabilities will experience poor postschool outcomes, including unemployment, underemployment, and limited postsecondary education. The effects of the intersection of poverty and disability persist into adulthood where the employment rate for adults with disabilities is only one fourth…

  19. Income and beyond: Multidimensional Poverty in Six Latin American Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battiston, Diego; Cruces, Guillermo; Lopez-Calva, Luis Felipe; Lugo, Maria Ana; Santos, Maria Emma

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies multidimensional poverty for Argentina, Brazil, Chile, El Salvador, Mexico and Uruguay for the period 1992-2006. The approach overcomes the limitations of the two traditional methods of poverty analysis in Latin America (income-based and unmet basic needs) by combining income with five other dimensions: school attendance for…

  20. 78 FR 5182 - Annual Update of the HHS Poverty Guidelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Annual Update of the HHS Poverty Guidelines AGENCY: Department of... Health and Human Services (HHS) poverty guidelines to account for last calendar year's increase in prices... Federal, state, or local office that is responsible for that program. For information about...

  1. Counseling Families in Poverty: Moving from Paralyzing to Revitalizing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cholewa, Blaire; Smith-Adcock, Sondra

    2013-01-01

    Counseling families in poverty can be a daunting process if one only focuses on what is lacking. Taking such a deficit approach is limiting not only to the counselor but also can serve to disempower the clients. This paper presents a strengths-based approach for counseling families living in poverty that emphasizes relational processes and the…

  2. Poverty Simulations: Building Relationships among Extension, Schools, and the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franck, Karen L.; Barnes, Shelly; Harrison, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Poverty simulations can be effective experiential learning tools for educating community members about the impact of poverty on families. The project described here includes survey results from three simulations with community leaders and teachers. This project illustrated how such workshops can help Extension professionals extend their reach and…

  3. Attitudes to Chronic Poverty in the "Global Village"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrientos, Armando; Neff, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The paper explores attitudes to chronic poverty in a cross-section of developed and developing countries contributing data to the World Values Survey Wave Three (1994-1998). The analysis finds a consistent belief among a majority of respondents that poverty is persistent. The paper also explores the factors influencing public attitudes to chronic…

  4. Poverty of Primary Education in Nigeria: The Way Forward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ige, Akindele Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Inspite of the fact that primary education forms the foundation on which education at the secondary and tertiary levels rests, the issue of poverty is undermining its roles in Nigeria. In this paper, this issue of poverty of primary education was examined, from the perspectives of its history, scope, indicators, in terms of inadequacy of resource…

  5. Reducing the Child Poverty Rate. KIDS COUNT Indicator Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Rima; Shore, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    In 2007, nearly one in five or 18 percent of children in the U.S. lived in poverty (KIDS COUNT Data Center, 2009). Many of these children come from minority backgrounds. African American (35 percent), American Indian (33 percent) and Latino (27 percent) children are more likely to live in poverty than their white (11 percent) and Asian (12…

  6. Escape from Poverty: What Makes a Difference for Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay, Ed.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne, Ed.

    Children's poverty rate in the United States, over 20%, exceeds that of all industrialized nations except Australia. This interdisciplinary book examines the impact of changing public policies on children. Section 1 gives a current and historical overview of children in poverty. Sections 2 through 5 address arenas of possible change from policy…

  7. Common Elements of High Performing, High Poverty Middle Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trimble, Susan

    2002-01-01

    Examined over 3 years high-achieving high-poverty middle schools to determine school practices and policies associated with higher student achievement. Found that high-poverty middle schools that are high performing acquire grants and manage money well, use a variety of teaming configurations, and use data-based goals to improve student…

  8. Working Together for a Change: Creating Pathways from Poverty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summers, Gene F., Ed.

    In this report, the Rural Sociological Society Task Force on Persistent Rural Poverty presents 11 Pathways from Poverty (PfP) state-team efforts and accomplishments. Education and training are themes that appear here and there throughout the strategies described. Many PfP state teams have formed alliances with state rural development councils that…

  9. Children in Jeopardy. Can We Break the Cycle of Poverty?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Irving B.

    The consequences of poverty are enormous, and they begin with the birth of children to unprepared mothers. High risk leads to more high risk, and the cycle of poverty continues. Trying to change the attitudes or behaviors of adolescents is difficult. Successful interventions must begin before the birth of the child, concentrating on teenage girls…

  10. Establishing Pathways from Poverty in a Block Grant Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community Development: Research Briefs & Case Studies, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Federal block grants and consolidated programs related to poverty reduction may compel states to streamline administrative structures and approaches that have deterred collaboration in the past. This report considers the block grant environment in making key policy recommendations for reducing poverty in rural areas, formulated during a Pathways…

  11. Middle School Practices Improve Student Achievement in High Poverty Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertens, Steven B.; Flowers, Nancy

    2003-01-01

    Examined how interdisciplinary team practices and classroom instructional practices affected student achievement in high poverty middle schools in Arkansas, Louisiana, and Mississippi. Found that when the combined effects of family poverty level, teaming and common planning time, and duration of teaming were considered, there was a relationship…

  12. Oh Canada! Too Many Children in Poverty for Too Long

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Laurel

    2007-01-01

    Canada faces steep, yet surmountable challenges in its efforts to significantly reduce child and family poverty. Most recent data indicate that more than one million Canadian children and their families live in low-income households. Although the House of Commons unanimously resolved to "seek to achieve the goal of eliminating poverty among…

  13. The development and history of the poverty thresholds.

    PubMed

    Fisher, G M

    1992-01-01

    In recent years there has been renewed interest in the United States in the definition and measurement of poverty. In early 1992, the Committee on National Statistics of the National Academy of Sciences began a 30-month study requested by Congress that includes an examination of statistical issues involved in measuring and understanding poverty. Some 2 years earlier, in January 1990, the Administration had approved an initiative on improving the quality of economic statistics. The current poverty measure was one of several dozen statistical series examined as part of that initiative. In April 1990, Urban Institute economist Patricia Ruggles published a book that urged the revision of the poverty line to reflect changes in consumption patterns and changing concepts of what constitutes a minimally adequate standard of living. In July 1990, two private organizations concerned with the poor and the elderly issued a report reviewing current poverty measurement procedures and describing a Gallup poll in which a nationally representative sample of Americans set an average dollar figure for the poverty line that was higher than the current official poverty line. In view of these and other examples, it may be useful to reexamine the development and subsequent history of the current official poverty thresholds. PMID:1300640

  14. School Sector, School Poverty, and the Catholic School Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallinan, Maureen T.; Kubitschek, Warren N.

    2010-01-01

    Equality of educational opportunity is threatened by long-standing gaps in student achievement by race, gender, and student poverty, as well as by school sector and school poverty. The true magnitude of these gaps cannot be understood, however, unless these factors are considered simultaneously. While accounting for the effects of demographic…

  15. Ethnicizing Poverty through Social Security Provision in Rural Hungary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarcz, Gyongyi

    2012-01-01

    Rural poverty has become an increasingly ethnicised category for the majority society in contemporary Hungary. The article aims to explore the process and practice of social exclusion and ethnicisation in relation to mutual effects of post-socialist welfare restructuring and changing discourse on poverty in the post-socialist rural reality. The…

  16. Measures for Studying Poverty in Family and Child Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roosa, Mark W.; Deng, Shiying; Nair, Rajni L.; Lockhart Burrell, Ginger

    2005-01-01

    Most family scholars take the concept of poverty for granted. The variety of ways people have chosen to define and measure this concept, however, often makes it difficult to interpret or compare research results. We review and critique the ways that poverty has been measured in the family and child literatures as well as the measures that have…

  17. Trends in Financial Satisfaction: Does Poverty Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Chang-Ming

    2002-01-01

    Gerontological studies on financial satisfaction have been limited by the dearth of longitudinal research and the lack of research that includes the concept of poverty. In order to bridge these gaps, this longitudinal study examines and compares the intracohort and intercohort effects on financial satisfaction trends by poverty status among…

  18. Educational Consequences of Orphanhood and Poverty in Western Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyambedha, Erick Otieno; Aagaard-Hansen, Jens

    2010-01-01

    During the past decades, many developing countries have been severely hit by a combination of poverty and the HIV pandemic. However, there has been a debate about the relative contribution of these two factors. This study showed that poverty and orphanhood were two separate but interrelated factors contributing to poor schooling. There were no…

  19. Global Inequality and Poverty in Perspectives of Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altmann, Michael; Eisenreich, Sophie; Lehner, Daniela; Moser, Stefanie; Neidl, Tobias; Ruscher, Valentina; Vogeler, Thilo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: On the educational level, this paper aims to show a practical case of dialogic web-based learning. It has provided a consensus during a web-based negotiation game between four different parties on poverty and inequality. On a multicultural level, this paper seeks to offer diverse cultures of argumentation on global poverty.…

  20. Relationships between Poverty and Psychopathology. Data Trends #97

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research and Training Center on Family Support and Children's Mental Health, 2004

    2004-01-01

    "Data Trends" reports present summaries of research on mental health services for children and adolescents and their families. The article summarized in this "Data Trends" asks: Does the stress and adversity associated with poverty cause mental illness or is poverty the result of downward social mobility of persons with mental illness? This is the…